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Sample records for cape south africa

  1. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); Spearman, C.W. (C Wendy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Childr

  2. Cape Town, South Africa, Anaglyph, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear on the left (west) of this anaglyph view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located between Table Bay (upper left) and Table Mountain (just to the south), a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark. Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there (visible in this anaglyph when viewed at full resolution). Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen well inland (upper right) at the Theewaterskloof Dam. False Bay is the large bay to the southeast (lower right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (lower right) of this scene. This anaglyph was created by draping a Landsat visible light image over an SRTM elevation model, and then generating two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the anaglyph is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and cover the right eye with a blue filter. Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle

  3. Evaluating private land conservation in the Cape Lowlands, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Von Hase, Amrei; Rouget, Mathieu; Cowling, Richard M

    2010-10-01

    Evaluation is important for judiciously allocating limited conservation resources and for improving conservation success through learning and strategy adjustment. We evaluated the application of systematic conservation planning goals and conservation gains from incentive-based stewardship interventions on private land in the Cape Lowlands and Cape Floristic Region, South Africa. We collected spatial and nonspatial data (2003-2007) to determine the number of hectares of vegetation protected through voluntary contractual and legally nonbinding (informal) agreements with landowners; resources spent on these interventions; contribution of the agreements to 5- and 20-year conservation goals for representation and persistence in the Cape Lowlands of species and ecosystems; and time and staff required to meet these goals. Conservation gains on private lands across the Cape Floristic Region were relatively high. In 5 years, 22,078 ha (27,800 ha of land) and 46,526 ha (90,000 ha of land) of native vegetation were protected through contracts and informal agreements, respectively. Informal agreements often were opportunity driven and cheaper and faster to execute than contracts. All contractual agreements in the Cape Lowlands were within areas of high conservation priority (identified through systematic conservation planning), which demonstrated the conservation plan's practical application and a high level of overlap between resource investment (approximately R1.14 million/year in the lowlands) and priority conservation areas. Nevertheless, conservation agreements met only 11% of 5-year and 9% of 20-year conservation goals for Cape Lowlands and have made only a moderate contribution to regional persistence of flora to date. Meeting the plan's conservation goals will take three to five times longer and many more staff members to maintain agreements than initially envisaged.

  4. Characteristics of Students Receiving Counselling Services at the University of Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisher, Alan J.; De Beer, Jeremy P.; Bokhorst, Frank

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the study was to document the correlates of receiving counseling services at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. Results reveal that non-English speakers, humanities students, undergraduates, first-year students, students who were eligible to receive financial assistance, and students from outside Cape Town were significantly…

  5. A Principal's Perspective of School Integration: The First School To Integrate in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    2001-01-01

    Presents the historical context of Cape Town, South Africa, and its struggles against apartheid and apartheid education. It offers a case study of Allen Powell, a white teacher and administrator who worked to integrate Plumstead High School, an act that defied South African commonplace and the views of most white South Africans. Analyzes Powell's…

  6. Popular Education in Three Organisations in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endresen, Kristin

    2013-01-01

    In the past, non-formal education in South Africa was committed to supporting the Mass Democratic Movement (MDM) in opposition to apartheid. Such non-formal political education was concerned with education for democracy. Post 1994, South African adult education policy has exclusively concentrated on vocational training, shifting the focus away…

  7. The Effects of Community Violence on Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to community violence (neighborhood, school, police, and gang violence) and psychological distress in a sample of children living in the Cape Town, South Africa area. Another objective was to identify variables that moderate and mediate the…

  8. Education, Ethnic Homogenization and Cultural Hybridization (Brussels, Belgium, and Cape Town, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leman, Johan, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    The eight chapters of this theme issue examine the ways in which autochthonous communities regard the supply side of education. The supply side is segregational in nature, and immigrants themselves move toward ethnic homogenization. The focus is on urban minorities in Brussels (Belgium). Compares the situation in Cape Town (South Africa). (SLD)

  9. Disrespecting Teacher: The Decline in Social Standing of Teachers in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the declining levels of respect for teachers in two communities in Cape Town, South Africa. Education has been identified as a key area of reform and redress, but a critical skills shortage and under-resourced schools are hindering progress. Data from current and former teachers illustrate how the social and institutional…

  10. Child Abuse Services at a Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argent, Andrew C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    All child abuse-related patients (n=503) seen at 1 Cape Town (South Africa) hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. Abuse was confirmed in 389 cases (160 physical abuse and 229 sexual abuse). Most (81 percent) of the young children were seen by residents with minimal pediatric training. Lack of staff speaking Xhosa (spoken by 134 of the…

  11. Report of the 7th African Rotavirus Symposium, Cape Town, South Africa, 8th November 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seheri, L M; Mwenda, J M; Page, N

    2014-11-12

    The 7th African Rotavirus Symposium was held in Cape Town, South Africa, on the 8th November 2012 as a Satellite Symposium at the First International African Vaccinology Conference. Over 150 delegates participated in this symposium including scientists, clinicians, health officials, policymakers and vaccine manufacturers from across Africa. Key topics discussed included rotavirus surveillance, rotavirus vaccine introduction, post rotavirus vaccine impact analysis and intussusception data and surveillance in Africa. The symposium provided early rotavirus vaccine adopter countries in Africa (South Africa, Ghana and Botswana) an opportunity to share up-to-date information on vaccine introduction, and allowed colleagues to share experiences in establishing routine rotavirus surveillance (Tanzania, Niger and Rwanda). Overall, the symposium highlighted the high burden of rotavirus in Africa, and the need to continue to strengthen efforts in preventing rotavirus diarrhoea in Africa.

  12. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  13. Intimate partner violence among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Marcia; Cupp, Pamela K; Jewkes, Rachel K; Gevers, Anik; Mathews, Catherine; LeFleur-Bellerose, Chantel; Small, Jeon

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to describe potentially preventable factors in intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization among South African 8th grade students. Data were collected during a pilot evaluation of a classroom 8th grade curriculum on gender-based violence prevention in nine public schools in Cape Town through self-completed interviews with 549 8th grade students, 238 boys and 311 girls. Structural equation models (SEM) predicting IPV were constructed with variables a priori hypothesized to be associated. The majority of students (78.5 %) had had a partner in the past 3 months, and they reported high rates of IPV during that period (e.g., over 10 % of boys reported forcing a partner to have sex, and 39 % of girls reported physical IPV victimization). A trimmed version of the hypothesized SEM (CFI = .966; RMSEA = .051) indicated that disagreement with the ideology of male superiority and violence predicted lower risk of IPV (p violence; encourage use of positive conflict resolution styles; and discourage heavy alcohol use among both boys and girls.

  14. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...

  15. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  16. Substance Use and Psychosocial Predictors of High School Dropout in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flisher, Alan J.; Townsend, Loraine; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Lombard, Carl F.; King, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine whether use of tobacco, alcohol, and illicit drugs predicts dropout among secondary school students in Cape Town, South Africa. A self-report instrument was administered to 1,470 Grade 8 students. The proportion of students that dropped out of school between the onset of the study and 4 years later was 54.9%.…

  17. Changing tune in Woodstock: Creative industries and local urban development in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Since the beginning of the new millennium, a plethora of works has been published on the making of the ‘creative city’ and the urban impact of the creative economy. So far, however, limited recognition has been given to how the development of cultural industries and the creative economy as a whole influences urban transformation in the rapidly urbanising Global South, especially in Africa. In Cape Town, a steadily growing number of creative industries and ‘culturepreneurs’ (Lange 2005) are ca...

  18. Unpacking the geography of tourism innovation in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booyens Irma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the geography of tourism innovation in the Western Cape, South Africa. In particular, innovations by tourism firms are mapped and local tourism innovation networks are analysed. Networking behaviour is examined since it is regarded as indispensable for accessing knowledge and learning for innovation purposes. The analysis draws on a broader investigation of tourism innovation and networking within the Western Cape province. It is revealed that the main tourist regions in the Western Cape are also the most innovative. Whilst external networking relations are observed to be highly significant for tourism innovation, local embeddedness remains critical for stimulating path creation and exploiting local core competencies for the competitiveness and survival of tourism firms and destinations.

  19. The influence of older classmates on adolescent sexual behavior in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, David; Marteleto, Letícia J; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2013-06-01

    This study examines the influence of exposure to older within-grade peers on sexual behavior among students in urban South Africa. Data are drawn from the Cape Area Panel Study, a longitudinal survey of young people conducted in metropolitan Cape Town from 2002 to 2006. The combination of early sexual debut, high rates of school enrollment into the late teens, and grade repetition create an environment in which young people who progress through school ahead of many in their cohort interact with classmates who may be several years older. We construct a measure of cumulative exposure to classmates who are at least two years older and show that such exposure is statistically significantly associated with early sexual initiation among adolescent girls. This exposure also increases the age difference between these girls and their first sexual partner, and helps explain a significant proportion of the earlier sexual debut of African girls, compared with colored and white girls in Cape Town.

  20. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots.

  1. Epidemiology of Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia at a tertiary children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Reené Naidoo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important pathogen in paediatric patients with bloodstream infections. The epidemiology of S. aureus bacteraemia, however, has not been well documented in children in South Africa. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted at a children's hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, to investigate the epidemiology of S. aureus bacteraemia from 2007-2011. The incidence, clinical presentation, risk factors, management and outcomes of methicillin sensitive S. aureus (MSSA and methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA bacteraemia were compared. RESULTS: Over the five year study period, 365 episodes of S. aureus bacteraemia were identified. The annual incidence was 3.28 cases per 1000 hospital admissions. MRSA was responsible for 26% of S. aureus bacteraemia and 72% of nosocomial infections. Only six possible cases of community-acquired MRSA infections were described. MSSA bacteraemia was more likely to present as pulmonary and bone or joint infections, while bacteraemia without a source was the most common presentation with MRSA.  Infants, children with malnutrition, and residents of long-term care facilities were at highest risk for MRSA bacteraemia. The overall case fatality rate for S. aureus bacteraemia was 8.8% over five years, with MRSA being the only significant risk factor for mortality. CONCLUSION: The incidence of S. aureus bacteraemia and MRSA bacteraemia in children has remained stable over the past five years. MRSA is a predominantly nosocomial pathogen in children with S. aureus bacteraemia in Cape Town, South Africa.

  2. Flora of the Kap River Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    E. C. Cloete

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A detailed analysis ot the flora of the newly proclaimed Kap River Reserve (600 ha is given. The reserve is adjacent to the Fish River and some 5 km from the Fish River Mouth It consists of a coastal plateau up to 100 m a.s.I. which is steeply dissected by the two rivers that partially form the boundary of the reserve. The flora of the reserve was sampled over a period o f three years and plants were collected in all the vegetation types of grassland, thicket and forest. 488 species were collected with a species to family ratio of 4:4. The majority of the taxa recorded represent the major phytochoria of the region. Nineteen species are endemic to the Eastern Cape, two are classed as vulnerable, five are rare, six are protected and a further seventeen are of uncertain status. The flora of the Kap River has closest affinities to that of the Alexandria Forest.

  3. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2015-04-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of disadvantage of being born to a teen mother, with children born to teen mothers continuing to have significantly worse child health outcomes, especially among coloured children. In particular, children born to teens are more likely to be underweight at birth and to be stunted with the disadvantage for coloured children four times the size for African children.

  4. Attitudes toward couples-based HIV counseling and testing among MSM in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Sullivan, Patrick; McAdams-Mahmoud, Ayesha; Jobson, Geoff; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

    2013-05-01

    Couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) allows couples to receive their HIV test results together and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing HIV transmission, increasing and sustaining condom use, and reducing sexual risk-taking among at-risk heterosexual couples. However, the acceptability of CVCT among MSM has yet to be evaluated in an African setting. The results from seven focus group discussions and 29 in-depth interviews conducted in Cape Town, South Africa exhibit overwhelmingly high acceptance of CVCT. Participants were attracted to the counseling components of the service, stating that these would allow for the couple to increase their commitment and to explore methods of how to effectively reduce their risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV in the presence of a trained counselor. These results suggest CVCT would be highly welcomed and could work to fill the significant lack of services available and accessible to MSM couples in Cape Town.

  5. Cape Town, South Africa, Perspective View, Landsat Image over SRTM Elevation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Cape Town and the Cape of Good Hope, South Africa, appear in the foreground of this perspective view generated from a Landsat satellite image and elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The city center is located at Table Bay (at the lower left), adjacent to Table Mountain, a 1,086-meter (3,563-foot) tall sandstone and granite natural landmark. Cape Town enjoys a Mediterranean climate but must deal with the limited water supply characteristic of that climate. Until the 1890s the city relied upon streams and springs along the base of Table Mountain, then built a small reservoir atop Table Mountain to capture and store rainfall there. Now the needs of a much larger population are met in part by much larger reservoirs such as seen here far inland (mid-distance left) at the Theewaterskloof Dam. False Bay is the large bay to the south (right) of Cape Town, just around the Cape of Good Hope. It is one of the largest bays along the entire South African coast, but nearby Cape Town has its harbor at Table Bay. False Bay got its name because mariners approaching Cape Town from the east would see the prominent bay and falsely assume it to be the entrance to Cape Town harbor. Similarly, people often mistake the Cape of Good Hope as the southernmost point of Africa. But the southernmost point is actually Cape Agulhas, located just to the southeast (upper right) of this scene. This Landsat and SRTM perspective view uses a 2-times vertical exaggeration to enhance topographic expression. The back edges of the data sets form a false horizon and a false sky was added. Colors of the scene were enhanced by image processing but are the natural color band combination from the Landsat satellite. Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture

  6. Changing tune in Woodstock: Creative industries and local urban development in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wenz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, a plethora of works has been published on the making of the ‘creative city’ and the urban impact of the creative economy. So far, however, limited recognition has been given to how the development of cultural industries and the creative economy as a whole influences urban transformation in the rapidly urbanising Global South, especially in Africa. In Cape Town, a steadily growing number of creative industries and ‘culturepreneurs’ (Lange 2005 are carving out new spaces from the city’s highly contested urban setting. Over the past five years, the mixed-use, inner-city fringe area of Woodstock has seen the incessant arrival of creatives from various sectors. Travelling alongside is a property sector geared towards catering specifically for the creative industries’ spatial demands by turning old industrial structures – the remains of Woodstock’s former capacity as national hub for clothing, food processing and other light manufacturing – into creative centres hosting international film studios, leading galleries and designer ‘theatre retail spaces’. After setting the stage through a comprehensive introduction to the rise of the creative economy in South Africa and Cape Town, this article tunes into the current local development of Woodstock, based on extensive field research in the area. It traces ways and forms of conflict but also new social interfaces between the new creative tenants and the old established community, on the one hand pointing to problematic issues like lingering gentrification, sociospatial polarisation and lopsided cultural representation while also trying to flesh out some of the opportunities for finding the right frequency of engagement between creative industries and spaces of vernacular creativity within Cape Town’s post-apartheid urban realm. Keywords: Creative economy, creative city, Global South, urban regeneration, gentrification, vernacular

  7. Health risk behaviours of stroke patients in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    D. Biggs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major cause of disability globally. Individuals with physical disabilities, including thosewho have suffered a stroke are at risk of secondary complications due to the impact of their disability, which may be exacerbated by their lifestylechoices. The aim of the present study was to determine the health riskbehaviours and factors that influence these behaviours of stroke patients inthe Metropole Region of the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross – sectionalsurvey, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on a convenient sampleof 417 stroke patients, was used to collect data. A sub-sample of 10 parti-cipants was purposively selected for in-depth, face-to-face interviews.Approximately forty percent (40.3% of the participants did not engage in physical exercise. While 30.2% smoked only9% abused alcohol. A significant association was found between age and smoking (p<0.002. Information gathered in the in-depth interviews revealed factors that influenced the behaviours of the participants. These factors includedlack of financial resources and lack of access to information. As participants were found to be at risk of secondarycomplications because of poor lifestyle choices, there is a clear need to implement health promotion programmes topromote well-ness enhancing behaviours in order to enhance the quality of health of patients who have suffered astroke in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  8. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives?

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    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M

    1995-01-01

    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  9. Questioning the Pace and Pathway of E-Government Development in Africa: A Case Study of South Africa's Cape Gateway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maumbe, Blessing Mukabeta; Owei, Vesper; Alexander, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines e-government development in Africa. This study is based on the Cape Gateway project in South Africa, a leading e-government initiative on the continent. We observe that African countries have jumped on the e-government band wagon by looking mostly at the benefits without a clear risk assessment. We argue that African countries…

  10. Dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Boafo, Isaac M; Dagbanu, Emmanuel A; Asante, Kwaku Oppong

    2014-06-01

    In South Africa, dating violence is known to be widespread among adolescents, and is therefore a major public health issue because of its association with sexual risk behaviours. The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between dating violence and self-efficacy for delayed sex among school-going adolescents in Cape Town, South Africa. The study is based on analyses of data from a school-based health education programme targeting sexual and reproductive health issues.The study involved 3,655 school-going adolescents aged between 12 and 17 in Cape Town, South Africa. The data was collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire composed of 153 items on sexual and reproductive health, dating violence as well as sociodemographic characteristics. The results indicated that males showed a higher percentage of both dating violence victimization and perpetration, as compared to females. It was also found that adolescents from lower socio-economic backgrounds were more likely to be the victims of dating violence as compared to those from a higher socio-economic background. Female learners showed higher levels of self-efficacy for delayed sex than their male counterparts. Although the result revealed that there was a significant association between self-efficacy for delayed sex and socio-economic status, this link decreased with age. It is concluded that educational programmes aimed solely at improving self-efficacy for delayed sex is insufficient. Such programmes must also aim at preventing dating violence and equipping adolescents with the skills to negotiate their way out of dating violence.

  11. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  12. Mediators of interpersonal violence and drug addiction severity among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobkirk, Andréa L; Watt, Melissa H; Green, Kimberly T; Beckham, Jean C; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2015-03-01

    South Africa has high rates of interpersonal violence and a rapidly growing methamphetamine epidemic. Previous research has linked experiences of interpersonal violence to higher rates of substance use, and identified mental health constructs as potential mediators of this association. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal violence and addiction severity among active methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa, and to explore symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use coping as mediators of this relationship. A community sample of 360 methamphetamine users was recruited through respondent driven sampling and surveyed on their experiences of violence, mental health, coping, and drug use and severity. A series of one-way ANOVAs were conducted to examine the relationship of self-reported interpersonal violence with drug addiction severity, and multiple mediation analyses were used to determine if PTSD symptoms and substance use coping mediated this relationship. The majority (87%) of the sample reported experiencing at least one instance of interpersonal violence in their lifetime, and the number of violent experiences was associated with increased drug addiction severity. PTSD and substance use coping were significant mediators of this association. Only the indirect effect of substance use coping remained significant for the female sample when the mediation model was conducted separately for men and women. The findings point to the need for integrated treatments that address drug use and PTSD for methamphetamine users in South Africa and highlight the importance of coping interventions for women.

  13. Poverty and psychological health among AIDS-orphaned children in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2009-06-01

    This study examined associations between AIDS-orphanhood status, poverty indicators, and psychological problems (depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress, peer problems, delinquency, conduct problems) among children and adolescents in townships surrounding Cape Town, South Africa. One thousand and twenty-five children and adolescents completed standardized and culturally sensitive cross-sectional surveys. Children orphaned by AIDS had more psychological problems including depression, peer problems, post-traumatic stress, and conduct problems. Specific poverty indicators including food security, access to social welfare grants, employment in the household and access to school were associated with better psychological health. Poverty indicators mediated associations of AIDS-orphanhood with psychological problems. Food security showed the most consistent association with reduced psychological problems. Poverty alleviation measures have the potential to improve psychological health for AIDS-orphaned children in South African townships.

  14. Healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Riley

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the health needs and experiences of South African lesbian and bisexual women is imperative for implementing effective and inclusive public health strategies. Such understanding, however, is limited due to the exclusion of these women from most existing research on healthcare access in the region. This paper bridges that gap by investigating the healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town. Data were gathered from 22 interviews with self-identified lesbian and bisexual community members and university students in the Cape Town area. Interviews explored obstacles women face in accessing affirming services, different experiences with public and private healthcare, fear of stigma/discrimination, availability of relevant sexual health information and suggestions to improve existing programmes. Findings suggest that South African lesbians and bisexual women may have a range of both positive and negative experiences in public and private health services, that they use protective strategies when 'coming out' and that they find that sexual health information pertinent to them is largely unavailable. These discussions contribute to a more inclusive understanding of the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women accessing healthcare and other services and help to inform providers, thereby enabling them to deliver more meaningful care to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in South Africa.

  15. From Digital Divide to Digital Equity: Learners' ICT Competence in Four Primary Schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors influencing the digital divide in four schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Three of the schools are for disadvantaged learners whereas the fourth was previously for whites only. All the schools use ICT in their curriculum delivery and thereby support the emphasis of provincial educational authorities on ICT access for…

  16. A Comparison of the Effects of Witnessing Community Violence and Direct Victimization among Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of children from the Cape Town area in South Africa. The study compares the effects of witnessing school or neighborhood violence compared with being victimized in each context on psychological distress. The findings suggest that in the context of the school, victimization has a somewhat stronger effect on distress…

  17. Brief Report: Social and Neighbourhood Correlates of Adolescent Drunkenness--A Pilot Study in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Morojele, Neo K.; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional, community study. Participants: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender.…

  18. "Learning Service" in International Contexts: Partnership-Based Service-Learning and Research in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Janice; Stanton, Timothy K.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we explore an approach to developing and implementing service-learning and community-based research in a study-abroad program in Cape Town, South Africa. Drawing on a notion of partnerships reflecting the values of accompaniment and transparency, and influenced by the importance of learning service, we outline an intentional, engaged…

  19. Diversity and Contested Social Identities in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Peck, Amiena

    2016-01-01

    We draw on Rampton's "Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents" (2014. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge) notion of "crossing" to explore contestations in ethnolinguistic, cultural and racial affiliations at the University of the Western Cape (UWC), a university built for "Coloureds" in apartheid South Africa, but…

  20. Phylogeography of the Cape velvet worm (Onychophora: Peripatopsis capensis) reveals the impact of Pliocene/Pleistocene climatic oscillations on Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, D E; Daniels, S R

    2012-05-01

    Habitat specialists such as soft-bodied invertebrates characterized by low dispersal capability and sensitivity to dehydration can be employed to examine biome histories. In this study, the Cape velvet worm (Peripatopsis capensis) was used to examine the impacts of climatic oscillations on historical Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa. Divergence time estimates suggest that the P. capensis species complex diverged during the Pliocene epoch. This period was characterized by dramatic climatic and topographical change. Subsequently, forest expansion and contraction cycles led to diversification within P. capensis. Increased levels of genetic differentiation were observed along a west-to-south-easterly trajectory because the south-eastern parts of the Cape Fold Mountain chain harbour larger, more stable fragments of forest patches, have more pronounced habitat heterogeneity and have historically received higher levels of rainfall. These results suggest the presence of three putative species within P. capensis, which are geographically discreet and genetically distinct.

  1. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  2. Health research in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Lessons and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie London

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health research can play a critical role in strengthening health systems.However, little monitoring of health research is conducted in African countries to identify whether research contributes to addressing local health priorities.Aim/Setting: To review the profile of research on the health service platform in the Western Cape province of South Africa which was approved by the health authorities over the period January 2011 to December 2012.Methods: Databases held by both the Provincial and City of Cape Town health departments were reviewed. Descriptions of research institution, location of research, topic and funding size and source were analysed.Results: Of the health research approved in the province, 56% of projects were located on the District Health Services platform and 70% were based in the Cape Metropolitan area. For projects reporting budgetary information, the total funding was US $29.2 million. The primary focus of research was on HIV and tuberculosis (TB, whilst relatively few studies addressed nutrition, mental health or injury and there was little health systems research. Research funding was dominated by very large grants from foreign funders for HIV and/or TB research. South African government sources comprised less than 8% of all health research funding.Conclusion: There is a partial mismatch of donor funding to local health priorities. Greater focus on neglected areas such as mental health, trauma, nutrition and non-communicable disease, as well as greater investment in health systems research, is needed. Unless governments increase funding for research and a culture of research translation is achieved, health research will have limited impact on both local and national priorities.

  3. Correlates of lifetime trauma exposure among pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Bronwyn; Jones, Hendrée E; Doherty, Irene A; Kline, Tracy L; Key, Mary E; Johnson, Kim; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-06-01

    A cross-sectional survey of 298 pregnant women from Cape Town, South Africa was conducted to examine socio-demographic, reproductive health, mental health, and relationship correlates of lifetime trauma exposure and whether these correlates vary as a function of age. Overall, 19.8% of participants reported trauma exposure. We found similarities and differences in correlates of trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood and older women. Prior termination of pregnancy was associated with trauma exposure in both age groups. Difficulties in resolving arguments, lifetime substance use, and a prior sexually transmitted infection were associated with trauma exposure among women in emerging adulthood. In contrast, depression and awareness of substance abuse treatment programmes were associated with trauma exposure among older women. These findings highlight the need for interventions that prevent and treat trauma exposure among vulnerable women. Such interventions should be tailored to address the correlates of trauma exposure in each age group.

  4. Erosion-land use change-climate change nexus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many parts of the world where land recovery has been realised as a response to less dependence on land for a livelihood, soil erosion - mainly on abandoned cultivated and overgrazed communal lands in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - has intensified. Land abandonment is attributed by most elderly land users to drought that hit the area in the 1960s. The interaction among land-degradation drivers - ranging from soil properties, topography, land-use changes and vegetation to local climate - has given rise to a self-amplifying land degradation feedback loop that has perpetuated severe forms of soil erosion. This has rendered the degraded areas particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts on water. The perpetual degradation calls for developing a dedicated policy on the management and rehabilitation of eroded lands. Restoration approaches should entail promoting disconnectivity on eroded hillslopes. Communal farmers also have to be sensitised and empowered to take ownership of the land-restoration process.

  5. Two new water beetles from the Hantamsberg, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, David T

    2014-11-26

    Mesoceration hantam sp. nov. and Parhydraena faeni sp. nov., are described from the Hantamsberg plateau, an inselberg in the Northern Cape of South Africa. The new species are so far known only from temporary waters on the Hantamsberg summit, where they were both abundant. Sampling in these mountains also revealed an interesting accompanying water beetle fauna, including the northernmost known record of Hydropeplus montanus Omer-Cooper, a species characteristic of mountain fynbos further south in the region.

  6. The Influence of Load Shedding on the Productivity of Hotel Staff in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henriëtte STEENKAMP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, ESCOM is the country’s main electricity supplier. Since 2008, Eskom has implemented load shedding on an ongoing basis as a result of insufficient electricity supply to meet the demands of all its customers. Owing to the fact that many organisations across South Africa are depended on electricity in order to function, previous research studies show that the wide-spread impact of load shedding has had an adverse on the sustainability of many of these organisations. Among these organisations are those based in the hospitality industry – imperative in relation to the stimulation of the national economy; directly related to tourism. Albeit the aforementioned, the sustainability of organisations in the hospitality industry is also heavily dependent on the productivity of their employees. For this research study the influence of load shedding on the productivity of the staff in the hospitality industry was investigated within one particular hotel (Hotel X based in Cape Town. Empirical research was deployed, making use of a mixed methods approach to obtain both quantitative data and qualitative data from respondents. Stemming from the findings it was found that load shedding did have an adverse influence on the productivity of staff in Hotel X, despite the fact that affordable measures were put in place to mitigate the disruptions caused by load shedding. Moreover, the latter dispensation was found to have an inadvertently adverse influence on the overall sustainability of Hotel X on the long run.

  7. HIV Risk Behavior Among Methamphetamine Users Entering Substance Abuse Treatment in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Christina S; Lion, Ryan R; Cordero, Daniella M; Watt, Melissa H; Joska, John A; Gouse, Hetta; Burnhams, Warren

    2016-10-01

    South Africa is experiencing a growing methamphetamine problem, and there is concern that methamphetamine use may accelerate HIV transmission. There has been little research on the HIV prevention needs of methamphetamine users receiving substance abuse treatment in South Africa. This study assessed the prevalence and correlates of HIV risk behaviors among 269 methamphetamine users entering substance abuse treatment in two clinics in Cape Town. The prevalence of sexual risk behaviors was high among sexually active participants: 34 % multiple partners, 26 % unprotected intercourse with a casual partner, and 24 % sex trading for money/methamphetamine. The strongest predictor of all sexual risk behaviors was concurrent other drug use. Over half had not been HIV tested in the past year, and 25 % had never been tested, although attitudes toward HIV testing were overwhelmingly positive. This population of primarily heterosexual, non-injecting methamphetamine users is a high-risk group in need of targeted HIV prevention interventions. Substance abuse treatment is an ideal setting in which to reach methamphetamine users for HIV services.

  8. HIV prevalence and risk behaviours among foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Loraine; Giorgio, Maggie; Zembe, Yanga; Cheyip, Mireille; Mathews, Catherine

    2014-10-01

    HIV prevalence and risk behaviour among foreign migrants in South Africa has not been explored. This paper describes the effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit foreign migrant women residing in Cape Town, reports HIV prevalence, and describes key characteristics among them. We conducted a biological and behavioural surveillance survey using RDS. After written informed consent, participants completed an audio computer assisted self-interview and provided a dried blood sample for HIV analysis. HIV prevalence was estimated to be 7 % (CI 4.9-9.5) among 935 women. HIV sero-positivity was associated with older age (p = 0.001), country of origin (p South Africa for 3-5 years (p = 0.023), sexual debut at ≥15 years (p = 0.047), and having used a condom at last sex with a main partner (p = 0.007). Few women reported early sexual debut, or multiple sexual partners. RDS was successful in recruiting foreign migrant women.

  9. New constraints on historical dipole field decay: Four centuries of archaeointensity from Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hare, V. J.; Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.

    2015-12-01

    Current global geomagnetic field models suffer from strong bias towards Northern Hemisphere data. Absolute intensity measurements from the Southern Hemisphere are key to understanding the evolution of the field over the historical era, especially recent strengthening of non-dipole contributions, and the appearance of the South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly (SAMA). I present the first archaeointensity data for locally-fired historical bricks from several well-dated sites (1660-2009 AD) in Cape Town, South Africa. These data constitute the first archaeomagnetic intensity variation curve for southern Africa for the past few centuries. The ages of the sites are tightly constrained by historical and archaeological considerations. Archaeointensity data obtained by the Thellier and Thellier method (modified by Coe), are corrected for both TRM anisotropy and cooling rate dependence of TRM acquisition. Analysis of magnetic mineralogy was performed to aid selection of fragments. Reliable archaeointensity determinations were obtained for 48 of 80 specimens, and 45 were retained in the final analysis. Intensity results vary from 24.3 ± 0.6 μT (modern brick) to 40.7 ± 0.8 μT (1660 AD), corresponding to Virtual Axial Dipole Moments (VADMs) between 6.1 ± 0.2 and 10.2 ± 0.2 נ1022 Am2. Results are generally not in agreement with current field models, but are coherent with other archaeomagnetic datasets from the Southern Hemisphere. The possible reasons for this are discussed, as well as implications for the historical evolution of the field.

  10. Investigating 19th and early 20th century Earthquakes in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paola; Strasser, Fleur O.; Flint, Nicolette S.

    2014-05-01

    The seismicity for the years between 1820 and 1936 of Grahamstown, a settlement located in the heart of the current Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, is investigated with recourse to contemporaneous documentary sources. This investigation led to the development of a seismic history incorporating consideration of the broader geo-political context of the Eastern Cape colonial territory at that time. Individual studies of five regional events, ranging from Mw 6 to 4, that were felt in Grahamstown during that period are presented. An additional earthquake that was not felt at Grahamstown was included to present the exhaustive approach adopted in the study of the seismicity of the area. Each earthquake study includes the development of a full set of intensity data points (IDPs), which are used to determine reappraised epicentral locations and magnitudes, some of which differ significantly from previously listed parameters. The results thus obtained highlight the value of seeking out additional contemporary sources from a variety of sources in different languages when revisiting the source parameters of earthquakes for which no or only very limited instrumental information is available.

  11. Experiences of violence and association with decreased drug abstinence among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Myers, Bronwyn; Novak, Scott P; Browne, Felicia A; Wechsberg, Wendee M

    2015-01-01

    Drug abuse is a contributing factor in women's HIV risk in low-income communities in Cape Town, South Africa. This study assessed whether experiencing violence is associated with reduced drug abstinence among adult women (n = 603) participating in a randomized field trial for an HIV prevention study in Cape Town. In relation to drug abstinence at 12-month follow-up, multivariable regression models were used to assess (1) baseline partner and non-partner victimization, and (2) victimization at 12-month follow-up among participants reporting baseline victimization. Baseline partner (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) and non-partner victimization (AOR = 0.6; 95 % CI 0.4-0.9) were associated with a reduced likelihood of drug abstinence at follow-up. Among participants who reported victimization at baseline, those no longer reporting victimization at follow-up did not differ significantly in drug abstinence compared with those who reported victimization at follow-up. The study findings highlight the lasting impact of victimization on women's drug use outcomes, persisting regardless of whether violence was no longer reported at follow-up. Overall, the findings support the need for the primary prevention of violence to address the cycle of violence, drug use, and HIV among women in this setting.

  12. Trend and seasonal variation of atmospheric mercury concentrations at the Cape Point GAW observatory, South Africa

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    Brunke E.-G.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM has been measured at the WMO Global Atmospheric Watch station at Cape Point, South Africa since September 1995. Two techniques were used: a low resolution manual technique till the end of 2004 and a high resolution automated technique since March 2007. The GEM measurements at Cape Point constitute only one component of the GAW monitoring program consisting of continuous measurements of CO, CH4, CO2, O3, N2O, and since March 1999 also of 222Rn. The seasonality and trend of GEM concentrations from the low resolution data was analyzed by Slemr et al. (2008 and the trend of the combined low and high resolution data until the end of 2009 by Slemr et al. (2011. In this paper we will present an updated analysis of the trend and seasonality of GEM data until the end of 2011 and compare these to measurements made at Troll, a Norwegian research station in Antarctica (Pfaffhuber et al., 2012.

  13. New insights on the Karoo shale gas potential from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stuart A.; Götz, Annette E.; Montenari, Michael

    2016-04-01

    A study on world shale reserves conducted by the Energy Information Agency (EIA) in 2013 concluded that there could be as much as 390 Tcf recoverable reserves of shale gas in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin. This would make it the 8th-largest shale gas resource in the world. However, the true extent and commercial viability is still unknown, due to the lack of exploration drilling and modern 3D seismic. Within the framework of the Karoo Research Initiative (KARIN), two deep boreholes were drilled in the Eastern and Western Cape provinces of South Africa. Here we report on new core material from borehole KZF-1 (Western Cape) which intersected the Permian black shales of the Ecca Group, the Whitehill Formation being the main target formation for future shale gas production. To determine the original source potential for shale gas we investigated the sedimentary environments in which the potential source rocks formed, addressing the research question of how much sedimentary organic matter the shales contained when they originally formed. Palynofacies indicates marginal marine conditions of a stratified basin setting with low marine phytoplankton percentages (acritarchs, prasinophytes), good AOM preservation, high terrestrial input, and a high spores:bisaccates ratio (kerogen type III). Stratigraphically, a deepening-upward trend is observed. Laterally, the basin configuration seems to be much more complex than previously assumed. Furthermore, palynological data confirms the correlation of marine black shales of the Prince Albert and Whitehill formations in the southern and south-western parts of the Karoo Basin with the terrestrial coals of the Vryheid Formation in the north-eastern part of the basin. TOC values (1-6%) classify the Karoo black shales as promising shale gas resources, especially with regard to the high thermal maturity (Ro >3). The recently drilled deep boreholes in the southern and south-western Karoo Basin, the first since the

  14. Perceived vulnerability and HIV testing among youth in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y

    2016-06-01

    The importance of perceived vulnerability to risk-reducing behaviors, including HIV testing, is fairly established, especially among youth in sub-Saharan Africa. Yet, the majority of studies that examined this important relationship used cross-sectional data that inherently assume that perceived vulnerability does not change. While these studies have been useful, the assumption of perceived vulnerability as time invariant is a major flaw and has largely limited the practical usefulness of this variable in AIDS prevention and programing. Using longitudinal data and applying random-effects logit models, this study makes a major contribution to scholarship by examining if changes in perceived vulnerability associate with a change to test for HIV among 857 young people in Cape Town, South Africa. Results show that female youth who changed their risk perceptions were more likely to also change to test for HIV, but the effects were completely attenuated after controlling for theoretically relevant variables. No significant relationships were observed for males. Also, females who were virgins at wave 2 but had sex between waves were significantly more likely to have changed to test for HIV. Of most importance was that sexual behavior eliminated the effects of change in risk perceptions suggesting that a change in perception may have occurred as a result of changes in sexual behavior. AIDS prevention programs must pay particular attention to helping youth become aware of their vulnerability to HIV risks, especially as these have implications for risk-reducing behaviors, especially for females who are burdened.

  15. Collaboration or renunciation? The role of traditional medicine in mental health care in Rwanda and Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schierenbeck, Isabell; Johansson, Peter; Andersson, Lena M; Krantz, Gunilla; Ntaganira, Joseph

    2016-10-07

    Traditional medicine (TM) and biomedicine represent parallel health systems in many developing countries; the latter dominating in public policies, while the former still retain considerable influence among the general public. This study investigates how mental health care professionals responsible for mental health care implementation comprehend and relate to the intersection between TM and biomedicine in the cases of Rwanda and the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The material is based on semi-structured interviews with mental health care stakeholders in Eastern Cape, South Africa and Rwanda. The findings confirm an impact of TM in the treatment of mental health issues in Rwanda and South Africa due to TM being more accessible than biomedical medicine, widespread traditional perceptions of mental illness in society, and the lack of knowledge of biomedical treatments. Furthermore, the respondents identified three strategies to manage the impact of TM; improved accessibility of biomedical facilities, outreach education about mental illness, and, in the Eastern Cape case, collaboration between traditional healers and biomedicine. The study points to the necessity to take TM into consideration as an important component of health systems and policies in the Global south.

  16. Seasonal availability of edible underground and aboveground carbohydrate resources to human foragers on the Cape south coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vynck, Jan C; Cowling, Richard M; Potts, Alastair J; Marean, Curtis W

    2016-01-01

    The coastal environments of South Africa's Cape Floristic Region (CFR) provide some of the earliest and most abundant evidence for the emergence of cognitively modern humans. In particular, the south coast of the CFR provided a uniquely diverse resource base for hunter-gatherers, which included marine shellfish, game, and carbohydrate-bearing plants, especially those with Underground Storage Organs (USOs). It has been hypothesized that these resources underpinned the continuity of human occupation in the region since the Middle Pleistocene. Very little research has been conducted on the foraging potential of carbohydrate resources in the CFR. This study focuses on the seasonal availability of plants with edible carbohydrates at six-weekly intervals over a two-year period in four vegetation types on South Africa's Cape south coast. Different plant species were considered available to foragers if the edible carbohydrate was directly (i.e. above-ground edible portions) or indirectly (above-ground indications to below-ground edible portions) visible to an expert botanist familiar with this landscape. A total of 52 edible plant species were recorded across all vegetation types. Of these, 33 species were geophytes with edible USOs and 21 species had aboveground edible carbohydrates. Limestone Fynbos had the richest flora, followed by Strandveld, Renosterveld and lastly, Sand Fynbos. The availability of plant species differed across vegetation types and between survey years. The number of available USO species was highest for a six-month period from winter to early summer (Jul-Dec) across all vegetation types. Months of lowest species' availability were in mid-summer to early autumn (Jan-Apr); the early winter (May-Jun) values were variable, being highest in Limestone Fynbos. However, even during the late summer carbohydrate "crunch," 25 carbohydrate bearing species were visible across the four vegetation types. To establish a robust resource landscape will require

  17. The symptom experience of people living with HIV and AIDS in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Phaswana-Mafuya Nancy

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Symptom management for persons living with HIV (PLHIV or AIDS is an important part of care management. Limited information about symptom prevalence exists about HIV infected persons in South Africa, in particular in the context of antiretroviral treatment (ART. The aim of this study was to assess HIV symptoms and demographic, social and disease variables of people living with HIV in South Africa. Methods In 2007 607 PLHIV, sampled by all districts in the Eastern Cape Province and recruited through convenience sampling, were interviewed by PLHIV at health facilities, key informants in the community and support groups. Results Two-thirds of the PLHIV (66% classified themselves with being given an AIDS (advanced stage of HIV diagnosis, 48% were currently on ART, 35% were currently on a disability grant for HIV/AIDS and for 13% the disability grant had been stopped. Participants reported that on the day of the interview, they were experiencing an average of 26.1 symptoms out of a possible 64. In a regression model with demographic and social variables, higher HIV symptom levels were associated with lower educational levels, higher age, urban residence and not on a disability grant, lack of enough food and having a health insurance, and in a regression model with demographic, social and disease variables only being on ART, lack of enough food and having a health insurance were associated with HIV symptoms. Conclusion Symptom assessment provides information that may be valuable in evaluating AIDS treatment regimens and defining strategies to improve quality of life. Because of the high levels of symptoms reported, the results imply an urgent need for effective health care, home- and community-based as well as self-care symptom management to help patients and their families manage and control AIDS symptoms.

  18. Farmers’ Perceptions and Knowledge of Cattle Adaptation to Heat Stress and Tick Resistance in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Katiyatiya, C. L. F.; Muchenje, V.; Mushunje, A.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4...

  19. 222Rn calibrated mercury fluxes from terrestrial surface of southern Africa derived from observations at Cape Point, South Africa

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    F. Slemr

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM and 222Rn, a radioactive gas of primarily terrestrial origin with a half-life of 3.8 days, have been measured simultaneously at Cape Point, South Africa, since March 2007. Between March 2007 and December 2011 altogether 191 events with high 222Rn concentrations were identified. GEM correlated with 222Rn in 94 of the events and was constant during almost all the remaining events without significant correlation. The average GEM/222Rn emission ratio of all events including the non-significant ones was −0.0001 ± 0.0030 pg mBq−1, with 0.0030 pg mBq−1 being the standard error of the average. With an emission rate of 1.1 222Rn atoms cm−2 s−1 and a correction for the transport duration, this emission ratio corresponds to a radon calibrated flux of about −0.01 ng GEM m−2 h−1 with a standard error of ±0.34 ng GEM m−2 h−1 (n = 191. With wet deposition, which is not included in this estimate, the terrestrial surface of southern Africa seems to be a net mercury sink of about −1.01 ng m−2 h−1.

  20. HIV Prevalence and Risk Factors Among Male Foreign Migrants in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgio, Margaret; Townsend, Loraine; Zembe, Yanga; Cheyip, Mireille; Guttmacher, Sally; Carter, Rebecca; Mathews, Cathy

    2017-03-01

    While migration has been shown to be a risk factor for HIV, variation in HIV prevalence by subgroups of migrants needs further exploration. This paper documents the HIV prevalence and key characteristics among male foreign migrants in Cape Town, South Africa and the effectiveness of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to recruit this population. Participants in this cross-sectional study completed a behavioral risk-factor questionnaire and provided a dried blood sample for HIV analysis. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated to be 8.7 % (CI 5.4-11.8) but varied dramatically by country of origin. After adjusting for country of origin, HIV sero-positivity was positively associated with older age (p = 0.001), completing high school (p = 0.025), not having enough money for food (p = 0.036), alcohol use (p = 0.049), and engaging in transactional sex (p = 0.022). RDS was successful in recruiting foreign migrant men. A better understanding of the timing of HIV acquisition is needed to design targeted interventions for migrant men.

  1. Characterizing Degradation Gradients through Land Cover Change Analysis in Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Zahn Münch

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land cover change analysis was performed for three catchments in the rural Eastern Cape, South Africa, for two time steps (2000 and 2014, to characterize landscape conversion trajectories for sustained landscape health. Land cover maps were derived: (1 from existing data (2000; and (2 through object-based image analysis (2014 of Landsat 8 imagery. Land cover change analysis was facilitated using land cover labels developed to identify landscape change trajectories. Land cover labels assigned to each intersection of the land cover maps at the two time steps provide a thematic representation of the spatial distribution of change. While land use patterns are characterized by high persistence (77%, the expansion of urban areas and agriculture has occurred predominantly at the expense of grassland. The persistence and intensification of natural or invaded wooded areas were identified as a degradation gradient within the landscape, which amounted to almost 10% of the study area. The challenge remains to determine significant signals in the landscape that are not artefacts of error in the underlying input data or scale of analysis. Systematic change analysis and accurate uncertainty reporting can potentially address these issues to produce authentic output for further modelling.

  2. Trends in soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjoro, Munyaradzi; Kakembo, Vincent; Rowntree, Kate M

    2012-03-01

    Woody shrub encroachment severely impacts on the hydrological and erosion response of rangelands and abandoned cultivated lands. These processes have been widely investigated at various spatial scales, using mostly field experimentation. The present study used remote sensing to investigate spatial and temporal patterns of soil erosion and encroachment by a woody shrub species, Pteronia incana, in a catchment in Ngqushwa district, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa between 1998 and 2008. The extreme categories of soil erosion and shrub encroachment were mapped with higher accuracy than the intermediate ones, particularly where lower spatial resolution data were used. The results showed that soil erosion in the worst category increased simultaneously with dense woody shrub encroachment on the hill slopes. This trend is related to the spatial patterning of woody shrub vegetation that increases bare soil patches--leading to runoff connectivity and concentration of overland flow. The major changes in soil erosion and shrub encroachment analysed during the 10-year period took place in the 5-9° slope category and on the concave slope form. Multi-temporal analyses, based on remote sensing, can extend our understanding of the dynamics of soil erosion and woody shrub encroachment. They may help benchmark the processes and assist in upscaling field studies.

  3. Two new species of Asteraceae from Northern and Western Cape, South Africa and a new synonym

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    J. C. Manning

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We recognize two new species of Asteraceae from the winter rainfall belt of South Africa and reduce a third to synonomy.  Senecio speciosissimus sp. nov. has been confused with  S. coleophyllus Turcz. in the past but is distinguished by its taller stature, larger and more finely serrated leaves, and congested synflorescences containing (6-l 5-40 flowerheads. The two species are also geographically separated:  S. speciosissimus occurs in the Hottentots Holland and Franschhoek Mountains of the southwestern Cape, whereas S.  coleophyllus is endemic to the Riviersonderend Mountains.  Chrysocoma hantamensis sp. nov. is a distinctive new species endemic to the Bokkeveld and Roggeveld Plateaus. It is distinguished by its resprouting habit. 3-5-fid leaves and large capitula, 12-15 mm in diameter, with lanceolate. 3-veined involucral bracts, the largest 9 - 1 0 x 2 mm. Investigation of the variation in leaf morphology of the two radiate species of Oncosiphon, O. africanum (PJ.Bergius Kallersjo and  O. glabratum (Thunb. Kallersjo. reveals that only one species can be maintained, and O. glabratum is accordingly reduced to synonomy in O. africanum.

  4. The psychological well-being of children orphaned by AIDS in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Cluver Lucie

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An estimated 2 million children are parentally bereaved by AIDS in South Africa. Little is known about mental health outcomes for this group. Methods This study aimed to investigate mental health outcomes for urban children living in deprived settlements in Cape Town. 30 orphaned children and 30 matched controls were compared using standardised questionnaires (SDQ on emotional and behavioural problems, peer and attention difficulties, and prosocial behaviour. The orphan group completed a modified version of a standardised questionnaire (IES-8, measuring Post-Traumatic Stress symptoms. Group differences were tested using t-tests and Pearson's chi-square. Results Both groups scored highly for peer problems, emotional problems and total scores. However, orphans were more likely to view themselves as having no good friends (p = .002, to have marked concentration difficulties (p = .03, and to report frequent somatic symptoms (p = .05, but were less likely to display anger through loss of temper (p = .03. Orphans were more likely to have constant nightmares (p = .01, and 73% scored above the cut-off for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. Conclusion Findings suggest important areas for larger-scale research for parentally-bereaved children.

  5. Shale Gas characteristics of Permian black shales (Ecca group, Eastern Cape, South Africa)

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    Geel, Claire; Booth, Peter; Schulz, Hans-Martin; Horsfield, Brian; de Wit, Maarten

    2013-04-01

    This study involves a comprehensive and detailed lithological, sedimentalogical, structural and geochemical description of the lower Ecca Group in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. The Ecca group hosts a ~ 245 million year old organic-rich black shale, which has recently been the focus of interest of petroleum companies worldwide. The shale was deposited under anoxic conditions in a setting which formed as a consequence of retro-arc foreland basin development related to the Cape Fold Belt. This sedimentary/tectonic environment provided the conditions for deeply buried black shales to reach maturity levels for development in the gas window. The investigation site is called the Greystone Area and is situated north of Wolwefontein en route to Jansenville. The area has outcrops of the Dwyka, the Ecca and the lower Beaufort Groups. The outcrops were mapped extensively and the data was used in conjunction with GIS software to produce a detailed geological map. North-south cross sections were drawn to give indication of bed thicknesses and formation depths. Using the field work, data two boreholes were accurately sited on the northern limb of a shallow easterly plunging syncline. The first borehole reached 100m and the second was drilled to 292m depth (100m percussion and 192m core). The second borehole was drilled 200m south of the first, to penetrate the formations at a greater depth and to avoid surface weathering. Fresh core from the upper Dwyka Group, the Prince Albert Formation, the Whitehill Formation, Collingham Formation and part of the Ripon Formation were successfully extracted and a detailed stratigraphic log has been drawn up. The core was sampled during extraction and the samples were immediately sent to the GFZ in Potsdam, Germany, for geochemical analyses. As suspected the black shales of the the Whitehill Formation are high in organic carbon and have an average TOC value of 4.5%, whereas the Prince Albert and Collingham Formation are below 1%. Tmax values

  6. Tick communities at the expanding wildlife / cattle interface in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : implications for Corridor disease

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    E.R. Smith

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Corridor disease, transmitted by the brown ear tick (Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, is one of Africa's most pathogenic tick-borne diseases for cattle. With a focus on this species, we investigated the community parameters (richness, diversity and abundance of ticks in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, and how this may be linked to the increasing wildlife / cattle interface in the region. There were significantly more ticks of a greater diversity and richness at sites positioned at the wildlife / cattle interface ('treatment sites' compared to sites where wildlife was absent (controls. Significantly, R. appendiculatus was only found at the treatment sites. Therefore, it is believed that the wildlife / cattle interface may be playing a crucial role in increasing the occurrence, abundance and distribution of R. appendiculatus in the Eastern Cape. The implications of a Corridor disease outbreak in the region are discussed.

  7. Nematode parasites of some reptiles (Sauria: Testudines: Ophidia) from the northern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Chris T; Bursey, Charles R; Freed, Paul S

    2010-10-01

    One hundred and seven reptiles (11 families, 32 species) from the Northern and Western Cape Provinces of South Africa were examined for helminths. Twenty-three (22%) individual reptiles were found to harbor at least 1 species of nematode; 3 (7%) reptiles harbored multiple infections of 2 nematode species. Eight species within 5 families of Nematoda were found in the reptiles surveyed including 1 atractid, 1 diaphanocephalid, 1 heterakid, 3 pharyngodonids, and 2 physalopterans. Ten new host records are reported. A summary of the nematode parasites identified from South African reptiles is provided.

  8. Coital frequency and condom use in monogamous and concurrent sexual relationships in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Wim Delva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A decreased frequency of unprotected sex during episodes of concurrent relationships may dramatically reduce the role of concurrency in accelerating the spread of HIV. Such a decrease could be the result of coital dilution – the reduction in per-partner coital frequency from additional partners – and/or increased condom use during concurrency. To study the effect of concurrency on the frequency of unprotected sex, we examined sexual behaviour data from three communities with high HIV prevalence around Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey from June 2011 to February 2012 using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing to reconstruct one-year sexual histories, with a focus on coital frequency and condom use. Participants were randomly sampled from a previous TB and HIV prevalence survey. Mixed effects logistic and Poisson regression models were fitted to data from 527 sexually active adults reporting on 1210 relationship episodes to evaluate the effect of concurrency status on consistent condom use and coital frequency. Results: The median of the per-partner weekly average coital frequency was 2 (IQR: 1–3, and consistent condom use was reported for 36% of the relationship episodes. Neither per-partner coital frequency nor consistent condom use changed significantly during episodes of concurrency (aIRR=1.05; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.99–1.24 and aOR=1.01; 95% CI: 0.38–2.68, respectively. Being male, coloured, having a tertiary education, and having a relationship between 2 weeks and 9 months were associated with higher coital frequencies. Being coloured, and having a relationship lasting for more than 9 months, was associated with inconsistent condom use. Conclusions: We found no evidence for coital dilution or for increased condom use during concurrent relationship episodes in three communities around Cape Town with high HIV prevalence. Given the low levels of self-reported consistent

  9. Nitrogen deposition in a southern hemisphere biodiversity hotspot within and surrounding Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, J. L.; Hall, S.; February, E.; West, A. G.; Allsopp, N.; Bond, W.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) emissions have increased dramatically since the agricultural and industrial revolutions leading to N deposition in the northern hemisphere that is estimated to be an order of magnitude greater than preindustrial fluxes. N deposition rates of 5-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1 in Europe and N. America decrease plant species diversity, increase invasive species, and lead to eutrophication of surface waters. The southern hemisphere is home to over 50% of the world's biodiversity hotspots, including the 90,000 km2 Cape Floristic Region which houses 9,030 vascular plant species, 69% of which are endemic. However, to date, N deposition rates in the southern hemisphere are highly uncertain, with global models of N deposition based upon sparse datasets at best. Many terrestrial systems, such as fynbos shrublands, are adapted to low N availability and exhibit high species diversity and endemism, rendering them susceptible to ecological changes from N deposition. In this research, we quantified the spatial and temporal distribution of wet and dry N deposition across 30 protected fynbos ecosystems within the urban airshed of Cape Town, South Africa. We predicted that 1) total inorganic N deposition varies predictably along the urban-rural gradient (highest near the city centre), 2) N deposition varies seasonally, with higher fluxes in the winter months when atmospheric stability causes a build-up of N gases in and around the city, and 3) total inorganic N deposition will exceed the critical load of 10-15 kg N ha-1 yr-1 for Mediterranean shrublands, past which negative ecosystem effects have been shown to occur. Estimates of N deposition based on NO2 concentrations within the city suggest that total N deposition ranges from 8-13 kg N ha-1 yr-1 . However, we show that N deposition measured by ion-exchange resin collectors is far less than expected, averaging less than 2 kg N ha-1 yr-1 (range 0.5 - 5.5 kg N ha-1 yr-1 ), and is is dominated by NO3-, suggesting

  10. Ixodid ticks on domestic dogs in the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia : short communication

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    S. Matthee

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the species composition of ixodid ticks infesting domestic dogs in the northwestern region of the Northern Cape Province of South Africa and in Namibia. Ticks were collected from February 2008 to January 2009 from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at a veterinary clinic in the Northern Cape Province and at 3 clinics in Namibia. The ticks collected at each place were pooled separately for each month at each locality. Eleven ixodid tick species were collected from dogs in the Northern Cape Province and new locality records for Haemaphysalis colesbergensis and Ixodes rubicundus, new locality and host records for Hyalomma glabrum, and a new host record for Rhipicephalus neumanni are reported. Six tick species were collected from dogs at the 3 clinics in Namibia. The most numerous species on dogs in both countries was R. sanguineus. The present results increase the total number of ixodid tick species collected from dogs in South Africa from 25 to 28.

  11. Fish communities of the Wilderness Lakes System in the southern Cape, South Africa

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    Alexis A. Olds

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wilderness Lakes System, a temporarily open and closed estuary with three associated lakes situated in the southern Cape region of South Africa, was sampled using a range of sampling gears to assess the fish community. A total of 25 species were sampled throughout the system, with the highest diversity in the Touw Estuary (23 species and the lowest in Langvlei (11 species. Estuary-associated marine species (13 species dominated species richness with smaller proportions of estuarine resident (7 species, freshwater (3 species and catadromous species (2 species. Estuarine resident species dominated the catch numerically. The size–class distribution of euryhaline marine species indicated that upon entering the Touw Estuary as juveniles, the fish move up the system towards Rondevlei where they appear to remain. Three freshwater species were recorded in the system, all of which are alien to the Wilderness Lakes System. Decreasing salinity in the upper lakes appears to be a driving factor in the distribution and increasing abundance of the freshwater fishes. Sampling followed a drought, with the system experiencing substantially increased levels of mouth closure compared to a similar study conducted in the 1980s. The timing of mouth opening and the degree of connectivity between the lakes influence the nursery function of the system as a whole. Management actions need to focus on improving ecological functioning of this system, in particular how mouth opening is managed, to facilitate nursery function and limit the establishment of invasive species.Conservation implications: Key management actions are required to improve fish recruitment potential into and within the system. These include maintenance of adequate marine inflow through adherence to artificial mouth breaching protocols and improving connectivity between the lakes through sediment removal from localised deposition points within the connecting channels.

  12. Climatic controls on ecosystem resilience: Postfire regeneration in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Adam M.; Latimer, Andrew M.; Silander, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of biodiversity and natural resources in a changing climate requires understanding what controls ecosystem resilience to disturbance. This understanding is especially important in the fire-prone Mediterranean systems of the world. The fire frequency in these systems is sensitive to climate, and recent climate change has resulted in more frequent fires over the last few decades. However, the sensitivity of postfire recovery and biomass/fuel load accumulation to climate is less well understood than fire frequency despite its importance in driving the fire regime. In this study, we develop a hierarchical statistical framework to model postfire ecosystem recovery using satellite-derived observations of vegetation as a function of stand age, topography, and climate. In the Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa, a fire-prone biodiversity hotspot, we found strong postfire recovery gradients associated with climate resulting in faster recovery in regions with higher soil fertility, minimum July (winter) temperature, and mean January (summer) precipitation. Projections using an ensemble of 11 downscaled Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) general circulation models (GCMs) suggest that warmer winter temperatures in 2080–2100 will encourage faster postfire recovery across the region, which could further increase fire frequency due to faster fuel accumulation. However, some models project decreasing precipitation in the western CFR, which would slow recovery rates there, likely reducing fire frequency through lack of fuel and potentially driving local biome shifts from fynbos shrubland to nonburning semidesert vegetation. This simple yet powerful approach to making inferences from large, remotely sensed datasets has potential for wide application to modeling ecosystem resilience in disturbance-prone ecosystems globally. PMID:26150521

  13. Prevalence of lung lesions in slaughtered cattle in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Ishmael F. Jaja

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Information obtained from abattoirs on the causes of lung condemnation is important in preventing the spread of zoonotic diseases and for promoting food security. In this study, we assessed the causes of lung condemnation in cattle at three abattoirs represented as ANA, QTA and EBA to evaluate the financial losses associated with lung condemnation. A retrospective study (n = 51 302 involving the use of abattoir slaughter records of 2010–2012 and an active abattoir survey (n = 1374 was conducted from July to December 2013. The retrospective study revealed the main causes of lung condemnation as pneumonia (1.09%, 2.21% and 0.77%, emphysema (1.12%, 1.14% and 1.1.6% and abscessation (0.71%, 1.06% and 0.77%, from ANA, QTA and EBA, respectively. The combined monetary loss because of lung condemnation during the period 2010 to 2012 was estimated as ZAR 85 158 (USD 7939 for the abattoirs surveyed. Conversely, during the active abattoir survey, agonal emphysema (15%, 15% and 23% and improper eviscerations with faecal contamination (10%, 38% and 42% were the major factors that led to lung condemnation at ANA, QTA and EBA, respectively. Other causes of lung condemnations were haemorrhage (10% for QTA and pleurisy (12% for EBA. The weight loss of lungs during the active abattoir survey was 6450 kg, while the associated monetary loss was estimated as ZAR 29 025 (USD 2706. This study identified major causes of lung condemnation as pleuritis, improper evisceration, pneumonia, abscesses, haemorrhages and lung worms and their associated monetary losses. The results of this study may be useful as baseline data for future comparison in similar surveys, for tracking of some zoonotic diseases affecting lungs and for further research in the Eastern Cape Province or other provinces of South Africa.

  14. Virgilia divaricata may facilitate forest expansion in the afrotemperate forests of the southern Cape, South Africa

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    Corli Coetsee

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Virgilia divaricata is a fast-growing nitrogen-fixing tree species often found on the margins of forest in the southern Cape of South Africa and is particularly abundant after fire. However, V. divaricatamay invade fynbos even in the absence of fire and it has been described as a forest precursor. We investigated whether V. divaricata enriches soil fertility after its invasion into fynbos areas adjacent to forests. We measured soil organic carbon and soil nutrients at four sites. At each site, three vegetation types (forest, V. divaricata and fynbos were examined on the same soil type and at the same elevation. Our results showed that, on average, soils taken from V. divaricata stands had higher nitrogen and phosphorus values than the adjacent fynbos soils, with either lower or similar values to the adjacent forest soils. Higher soil fertility under V. divaricata, together with their shading effect, may create conditions favourable for shade-loving forest species dependent on an efficient nutrient cycle in the topsoil layers, and less favourable for shade-hating fynbos species, which are generally adapted to low soil fertility. We suggest that the restoration of the nutrient cycle found in association with forest may be accelerated under V. divaricata compared with other forest precursor species, which has important consequences for the use of V. divaricata in ecosystem restoration.Conservation implications: Alien plantations in the Outeniqua Mountains are being phased out and the areas are being incorporated into the Garden Route National Park. Fynbos areas are increasingly being invaded by forest and thicket species owing to fire suppression in lower-lying areas. An improved understanding of the fynbos–forest boundary dynamics will aid in efficient management and restoration of these ecosystems.

  15. Risk Factors of Porcine Cysticercosis in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecek, Rosina Claudia; Mohammed, Hamish; Michael, Lynne Margaret; Schantz, Peter Mullineaux; Ntanjana, Lulama; Morey, Liesl; Werre, Stephen Rakem; Willingham, Arve Lee

    2012-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of Taenia solium taeniosis/cysticercosis in humans and pigs in the Eastern Cape Province (ECP) of South Africa. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors of porcine cysticercosis in select districts of the ECP. Data were collected in 2003 by interviewing 217 pig producers from the area. Blood samples were collected from 261 of their pigs, which were tested using two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) for the presence of antibodies to cysticercosis. Frequencies of both owner- and pig-level characteristics were determined. For pig-level analysis, all bivariable and multivariable associations were determined using the surveylogistic procedure of the SAS/STAT® software to accommodate for the intraclass correlation that exists for clusters of pigs within one owner and for clusters of owners within a district. All tests for significance were performed at the α = 0.05 level, and adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined. Among the respondents, 48% of their households lacked a latrine, 98% slaughtered pigs at home, and 99% indicated that meat inspection services were not available. On bivariable analysis, there was a significant association between porcine infection and district (p = 0.003), breed (p = 0.041) and the absence of a latrine (p = 0.006). On multivariable analysis, the absence of a latrine was the only variable significantly associated with porcine infection (aOR = 1.89; 95% CI = 1.07, 3.35) (p = 0.028). The increased odds of porcine infection with households lacking a latrine contributes to our understanding of the transmission of this parasite in the ECP. Determining and addressing the risk factors for T. solium infection can potentially lower the very high prevalence in humans and pigs in this endemic area. PMID:22655065

  16. Knowledge, beliefs and attitudes of community health workers about hypertension in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

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    M.J. Sengwana

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the perceptions and attitudes of community health workers (CHWs about hypertension. The level of knowledge of hypertension, as well as their personal attitude towards this is crucial in the style and quality of their interventions. CHWs, whose role in health promotion is being increasingly recognised, can help contain or reduce the prevalence of hypertension by influencing the community to adopt healthy lifestyles. Forty-three CHWs employed by Zanempilo in two study areas, Sites B and C in Khayelitsha in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, were included in the study. Firstly, focus group discussions were conducted with 17 purposively selected CHWs to explore attitudes, beliefs and perceptions of hypertension. Secondly, interviews were conducted to assess their basic knowledge about causes, prevention and control of hypertension. The focus group discussions revealed that CHWs were uncertain about the causes of hypertension. They also found it difficult to grasp the fact that people without risk factors, such as overweight or a family history of hypertension, could be hypertensive. Many CHWs believe in traditional medicines and home-brewed beer as the best treatment for hypertension. They believe that people who take medical treatment become sicker and that their health deteriorates rapidly. Risk factors of hypertension mentioned during the structured interviews include inheritance, lack of physical activity, consuming lots of salty and fatty food. Conclusions drawn from the findings of the CHWs’ responses highlighted their insufficient knowledge about hypertension as a chronic disease of lifestyle. Meanwhile they are expected to play a role in stimulating community residents’ interest in the broad principle of preventive health maintenance and follow-up. Data obtained from this research can be used for the planning of health-promotion programmes. These should include preventing hypertension and improving primary management

  17. Afriflu2--second international workshop on influenza vaccination in the African continent--8 November 2012, Cape Town (South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoub, Barry D; Gessner, Bradford D; Ampofo, William; Cohen, Adam L; Steffen, Christoph A

    2013-08-02

    The second meeting of the Afriflu conferences took place in Cape Town, South Africa, with over 60 participants from 15 countries in Africa and also outside the continent. Significant progress in surveillance has been made in better understanding the illness burden of influenza on the continent, which limited evidence suggests is greater than that in the developed world. In southern Africa HIV and TB coinfections play a major role in increasing hospitalisation and mortality, while elsewhere in Africa other cofactors still need to be determined. There is currently no indigenous vaccine production in sub-Saharan Africa and only one facility, based in South Africa, capable of filling imported bulk. Innovative vaccine strategies will need to be explored, such as maternal immunisation, and also the possibility of other influenza vaccine options, such as live attenuated influenza vaccine for young children. Sustained indigenous vaccine production is essential for the continent to have vaccine security in the event of a pandemic even though establishing local production faces considerable challenges especially ensuring adequate markets on the continent. There is an urgent need to develop effective communication messages for decision makers as well as healthcare workers addressing the importance of influenza even in the face of the major competing health burdens of the continent.

  18. Dust and smoke transport from Africa to South America: Lidar profiling over Cape Verde and the Amazon rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansmann, Albert; Baars, Holger; Tesche, Matthias; Müller, Detlef; Althausen, Dietrich; Engelmann, Ronny; Pauliquevis, Theotonio; Artaxo, Paulo

    2009-06-01

    Quasi-simultaneous vertically resolved multiwavelength aerosol Raman lidar observations were conducted in the near field (Praia, Cape Verde, 15°N, 23.5°W) and in the far field (Manaus, Amazon basin, Brazil, 2.5°S, 60°W) of the long-range transport regime between West Africa and South America. Based on a unique data set (case study) of spectrally resolved backscatter and extinction coefficients, and of the depolarization ratio a detailed characterization of aerosol properties, vertical stratification, mixing, and aging behavior during the long-distance travel in February 2008 (dry season in western Africa, wet season in the Amazon basin) is presented. While highly stratified aerosol layers of dust and smoke up to 5.5 km height were found close to Africa, the aerosol over Manaus was almost well-mixed, reached up to 3.5 km, and mainly consisted of aged biomass burning smoke.

  19. Two new species of Erica (Ericaceae; one from Western Cape and one from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Erica L. from South Africa are described. E. jananthus E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M .Oliv. is confined to a single peak in the eastern Groot Swartberg Range in Western Cape and usually forms a small, gnarled, woody, shrublet growing in rock crevices with sticky white flowers and black subexserted anthers that have obtrullate decurrent appendages.E. psittacina E.G.H.Oliv. & I.M.Oliv. is from KwaZulu-Natal. It forms large woodv shrubs with numerous bright pinkflowers and occurs as a single population on a mountain near Creighton. Both descriptions are accompanied by line drawings and distribution maps

  20. Container terminal spatial planning - A 2041 paradigm for the Western Cape Province in South Africa

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    Jan Havenga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the suitable location for an intermodal inland container terminal (IICT in the city of Cape Town. A container market segmentation approach is used to project growth for container volumes over a 30-year period for all origin and destination pairings on a geographical district level in an identified catchment area. The segmentation guides the decision on what type of facility is necessary to fulfil capacity requirements in the catchment area and will be used to determine the maximum space requirements for a future IICT. Alternative sites are ranked from most suitable to least suitable using multi-criteria analysis, and preferred locations are identified. Currently, South Africa’s freight movement is dominated by the road sector. Heavy road congestion is thus prevalent at the Cape Town Container Terminal (CTCT. The paper proposes three possible alternative sites for an IICT that will focus on a hub-and-spoke system of transporting freight.

  1. Towards measuring the transaction costs of co-management in Mkambati Nature Reserve, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blore, M L; Cundill, G; Mkhulisi, M

    2013-11-15

    During the last three decades, there has been an increased pursuit of participatory approaches to managing natural resources. In South Africa, this has been evident in the management of protected areas. In particular, land claims, which affect much of the conservation estate in South Africa, frequently result in co-management of protected areas by claimant communities and conservation agencies. This is occurring against a backdrop of declining state subsidies and growing expectations that South African conservation agencies will finance themselves while simultaneously stimulating local economic opportunities. In this context, it is important for co-management partners to understand and monitor the cost-effectiveness of management processes in achieving both the socio-economic and ecological targets of conservation management. Transaction costs are useful in gauging the cost-effectiveness of policies and institutions; however there is little methodological guidance for measuring transaction costs empirically. This study develops and tests a transaction costs model for a co-managed nature reserve in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. Transaction costs were quantified by taking into account the total time spent in meetings annually, the daily opportunity cost of participants' time and the travel costs associated with attending such meetings. A key limitation in the development of this model was a lack of record keeping by the conservation agency. The model developed in this study offers a practical means for co-management partners in similar contexts to monitor how transaction costs change over time.

  2. Interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and synoptic type association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Christien J.; Landman, Willem A.

    2016-07-01

    The link between interannual variability of seasonal rainfall over the Cape south coast of South Africa and different synoptic types as well as selected teleconnections is explored. Synoptic circulation over the region is classified into different synoptic types by employing a clustering technique, the self-organizing map (SOM), on daily circulation data for the 33-year period from 1979 to 2011. Daily rainfall data are used to investigate interannual variability of seasonal rainfall within the context of the identified synoptic types. The anomalous frequency of occurrence of the different synoptic types for wet and for dry seasons differs significantly within the SOM space, except for austral spring. The main rainfall-producing synoptic types are to a large extent consistent for wet and dry seasons. The main rainfall-producing synoptic types have a notable larger contribution to seasonal rainfall totals during wet seasons than during dry seasons, consistent with a higher frequency of occurrence of the main rainfall-producing synoptic types during wet seasons compared to dry seasons. Dry seasons are characterized by a smaller contribution to seasonal rainfall totals by all the different synoptic types, but with the largest negative anomalies associated with low frequencies of the main rainfall-producing synoptic types. The frequencies of occurrence of specific configurations of ridging high pressure systems, cut-off lows and tropical-temperate troughs associated with rainfall are positively linked to interannual variability of seasonal rainfall. It is also shown that the distribution of synoptic types within the SOM space is linked to the Southern Annular Mode and El Niño Southern Oscillation, implying some predictability of intraseasonal variability at the seasonal time scale.

  3. Historical nitrogen content of bryophyte tissue as an indicator of increased nitrogen deposition in the Cape Metropolitan Area, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Stock, W.D. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa); Centre for Ecosystem Management, School of Natural Sciences, Edith Cowan University, 100 Joondalup Drive, Joondalup, Perth, WA 6027 (Australia)], E-mail: w.stock@ecu.edu.au; Hedderson, T. [Botany Department, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2009-03-15

    Information on changes in precipitation chemistry in the rapidly expanding Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of South Africa is scarce. To obtain a long-term record of N deposition we investigated changes in moss foliar N, C:N ratios and nitrogen isotope values that might reflect precipitation chemistry. Tissue from 9 species was obtained from herbarium specimens collected between 1875 and 2000 while field samples were collected in 2001/2002. There is a strong trend of increasing foliar N content in all mosses collected over the past century (1.32-1.69 %N). Differences exist between ectohydric mosses which have higher foliar N than the mixohydric group. C:N ratios declined while foliar {delta}{sup 15}N values showed no distinct pattern. From relationships between moss tissue N and N deposition rates we estimated an increase of 6-13 kg N ha{sup -1} a{sup -1} since 1950. Enhanced N deposition rates of this magnitude could lead to biodiversity losses in native ecosystems. - This study of bryophyte tissue nutrient contents shows a historical increase in N deposition rates to the low nutrient adapted plant biodiversity hotspot in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  4. Awareness and Interest in Intrauterine Contraceptive Device Use among HIV-Positive Women in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine S. Todd

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess awareness of and interest in intrauterine contraceptive device (IUCD use among HIV-positive women in Cape Town, South Africa. Design. Cross-sectional survey. Methods. HIV-positive women aged 18 through 45 years presenting for care at a primary health care clinic in Cape Town, South Africa participated in this study. Consented participants completed a staff-administered questionnaire in a private setting. Descriptive statistics were generated. Comparisons between demographic and reproductive health-related variables and IUCD awareness and interest were performed with multiple logistic regression. Analyses for IUCD interest excluded women with prior surgical sterilization. Results. Of 277 HIV-positive women, 37% were aware of the IUCD; awareness was independently associated with greater age (adjusted odds ratio (AOR = 1.15, 95%; confidence interval (CI: 1.10–1.20 and not switching contraceptive methods in the last year (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI: 1.03–5.83. Following an IUCD information session, 86% of women (=206/240 were interested in IUCD use. IUCD interest was inversely associated with age (AOR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.86–0.97 and marginally positively associated with current menstrual bleeding pattern complaints (AOR = 2.14, 95% CI: 0.98–4.68. Conclusions. Despite low levels of method awareness, HIV-positive women in this setting are frequently interested in IUCD use, indicating need for programming to expand method access.

  5. Men (and women) as "sellers" of sex in alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Watt, Melissa H; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Pieterse, Desiree; Cain, Demetria

    2014-06-01

    The relationship between transactional sex, HIV risk, and partner violence has been well documented in South Africa, but research has focused primarily on women and has not been conducted in high-risk social contexts. The aim of this study was to examine associations between transactional sex and HIV risk among women and men in alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa. We surveyed 1,989 women and 2,468 men attending alcohol-serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa to assess transactional sex behavior (i.e., receiving money or goods in exchange for sex), alcohol and drug use, history of childhood abuse, current relationship violence, and sexual risk behaviors. Among both women and men, trading sex was related to higher alcohol use, greater likelihood of drug use, substance use in sexual contexts, and a greater likelihood of experiencing physical and sexual violence. Compared to other women, women who traded sex reported a greater proportion of condom-unprotected sex; this relationship was not found for men. Analyses showed that men were almost twice as more likely to report trading sex for items, including money or alcohol, than women (9.7 vs. 5.8 %). Overall, men who traded sex were similar to their female counterparts. Similar associations between trading sex and different risk behaviors were found among women and men with limited economic means and substance use problems. Future research should more closely study transactional sex in high-risk venues as it relates to violence and should examine men who trade sex as a potential bridge population between heterosexual women and men who have sex with men.

  6. Poverty and Disability in Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Mitchell; Eide, Arne H.; Jelsma, Jennifer; Toni, Mzolisi ka; Maart, Soraya

    2008-01-01

    The impact of disability on the living conditions of people living in specifically resource-poor areas in South Africa has not previously been addressed. This paper presents a comparison of people with a disability and their non-disabled peers with respect to some key poverty indicators among a sample of Xhosa speaking individuals in resource-poor…

  7. Genotypic characterisation of Staphylococcus aureus isolates causing bacteraemia at Tygerberg hospital, western cape province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orth, H.; Salaam-Dreyer, Z.; Makgotlho, E.; Sinha, B.; Wasserman, E.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: There is a paucity of studies on the genotypic characterisation of invasive S. aureus strains and the incidence of communityacquired methicillin resistant S. aureus (CA-MRSA) infections in South Africa. In this study we characterized S. aureus isolates from bacteraemia episodes using mol

  8. Imagint Excusations: Missionary English in the Nineteenth Century Cape Colony, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesthrie, Rajend

    1996-01-01

    Presents a case study of the English of early missionaries operating in South Africa. The study characterizes the interlanguages of some German and Dutch missionaries, points out the disparity between the usage patterns found in missionary letters and modern linguists' characterizations of their abilities, and suggests missionary English as an…

  9. Gender-based violence, alcohol use, and sexual risk among female patrons of drinking venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitpitan, Eileen V; Kalichman, Seth C; Eaton, Lisa A; Cain, Demetria; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Skinner, Donald; Watt, Melissa H; Pieterse, Desiree

    2013-06-01

    Gender-based violence is a well-recognized risk factor for HIV infection among women. Alcohol use is associated with both gender-based violence and sexual risk behavior, but has not been examined as a correlate of both in a context of both high HIV risk and hazardous drinking. The purpose of this paper is to examine the association between recent abuse by a sex partner with alcohol and sexual risk behavior among female patrons of alcohol serving venues in South Africa. Specifically, the aim of this study is to determine whether sexual risk behaviors are associated with gender-based violence after controlling for levels of alcohol use. We surveyed 1,388 women attending informal drinking establishments in Cape Town, South Africa to assess recent history of gender-based violence, drinking, and sexual risk behaviors. Gender-based violence was associated with both drinking and sexual risk behaviors after controlling for demographics among the women. A hierarchical logistic regression analysis showed that after controlling for alcohol use sexual risk behavior remained significantly associated with gender-based violence, particularly with meeting a new sex partner at the bar, recent STI diagnosis, and engaging in transactional sex, but not protected intercourse or number of partners. In South Africa where heavy drinking is prevalent women may be at particular risk of physical abuse from intimate partners as well as higher sexual risk. Interventions that aim to reduce gender-based violence and sexual risk behaviors must directly work to reduce drinking behavior.

  10. Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels and Sexual Development among Boys in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Mao

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Data on growth and sexual maturation among boys from the rural Western Cape in South Africa is limited. A cross-sectional study of 269 school boys was conducted testing for serum luteinizing hormone (LH, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG and estradiol (E2; height, weight and body mass index (BMI; sexual maturity (using Tanner Stages and a questionnaire (demographic and medical history. The median age at pubertal onset (Tanner Stage 2 and Tanner Stage 5 was 11.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. The median testicular volume was 5.5 mL at Tanner Stage 2 increasing from 2.5 mL at Tanner Stage 1 to 14.7 mL at Tanner Stage 5. Height and weight measurements were <25th & 50th percentile references at Tanner Stages 1–3. Controlling for confounders, serum FSH and LH increased (p < 0.05 from Tanner Stage 1 to 4 (by 4.1 and 3 mL respectively, and serum testosterone and estradiol increased after Tanner Stage 2 (by 12.7 nmol/L and 59.5 pmol/L respectively. These results indicate some delays in pubertal development of boys in the rural Western Cape when compared to boys from other settings possibly due to nutritional, socio-economic and environmental exposures. Changes in serum hormone levels were consistent with other populations. Initiatives to improve nutrition amongst Western Cape rural communities are recommended.

  11. The bus rapid transit system: A service quality dimension of commuter uptake in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince D. Ugo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated commuter uptake of the bus rapid transit (BRT system in Cape Town,South Africa. As a stated preference survey was not carried out prior to the launch of the new BRT system in the City of Cape Town, it became difficult to assess commuters’ preferences,which would have provided City policymakers and planners with an understanding of customer satisfaction of the proposed bus service. The commuting trend of the BRT system in the City indicates that tickets sales and utilisation by commuters is gradually picking up, but one would have expected high commuter engagement in terms of the modernity profile of the BRT system. This study investigated commuters’ (n = 260 satisfaction levels with 30 service quality variables on a self-rated questionnaire, using quantitative research methodology.The study result showed that passengers were not satisfied with the transport fare and the availability or accessibility of ticket sales outlets. In the context of this study, this result implies that the ‘responsiveness and affordability’ variable of the service quality dimensions should be an area of interest and review to City of Cape Town policymakers and planners. Service quality trends in public transport were also highlighted.

  12. Anthropometric Measurements, Serum Reproductive Hormonal Levels and Sexual Development among Boys in the Rural Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jun; Dalvie, Mohamed Aqiel

    2016-11-29

    Data on growth and sexual maturation among boys from the rural Western Cape in South Africa is limited. A cross-sectional study of 269 school boys was conducted testing for serum luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and estradiol (E2); height, weight and body mass index (BMI); sexual maturity (using Tanner Stages) and a questionnaire (demographic and medical history). The median age at pubertal onset (Tanner Stage 2) and Tanner Stage 5 was 11.6 and 14.7 years, respectively. The median testicular volume was 5.5 mL at Tanner Stage 2 increasing from 2.5 mL at Tanner Stage 1 to 14.7 mL at Tanner Stage 5. Height and weight measurements were development of boys in the rural Western Cape when compared to boys from other settings possibly due to nutritional, socio-economic and environmental exposures. Changes in serum hormone levels were consistent with other populations. Initiatives to improve nutrition amongst Western Cape rural communities are recommended.

  13. Poverty and human immunodeficiency virus in children: a view from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Barend Jacobus; Esser, Monika; Godwin, Sarah; Rabie, Helena; Cotton, Mark Fredric

    2008-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the region affected worst by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), with the most southern countries, including Botswana, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, and South Africa, carrying the highest disease burden. This geographic distribution represents a complex interaction among virological, political, social, cultural, and economic forces. In South Africa the HIV epidemic is seemingly unchecked, with 18% of the adult population infected. Although South Africa is a mid-developed country, there is a large chasm between the wealthy and the poor, with many living in moderate to extreme poverty. Poverty creates conditions that fuel the HIV epidemic while HIV exacerbates the multiple interlinking causes of poverty. Children are the most vulnerable members of society, severely affected by all components of the poverty cycle. Although improved health education and access to care will alleviate many problems, sustainable poverty alleviation should form an essential component of the response to AIDS. The formulation of the United Nations Millennium Developmental Goals is an important step in the right direction, but global and local political commitment is essential for success.

  14. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  15. Complainants With Learning Disabilities In Sexual Abuse Cases: A 10-Year Review Of A Psycho-Legal Project In Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Beverley Jo; Roux, Amanda Jane

    2005-01-01

    We describe a project established in 1990 to assist complainants with learning disabilities in sexual assault cases in Cape Town, South Africa. Complainants are prepared for court and psychologists advise investigating officers and prosecutors, and provide expert testimony. There has been an enormous increase in the utilization of the project by…

  16. Notes on Ceramiaceae (Rhodophyta) from the eastern Cape Province, South Africa. II. Zonariophila semiendophytica nov. gen., nov. spec., a minute epi/endophyte of Zonaria subarticulata (Lamour.) Papenf

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegenga, H.; Kemperman, Th.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    Zonariophila semiendophytica is described as a new genus and species from the coast of the East Cape, South Africa. It is characterized by a single large elongate basal cell immersed in the thallus of Zonaria subarticulata (Lamour.) Papenf.; this laterally compressed cell gives rise, on both edges,

  17. Infinity in Logic and Computation: International Conference, ILC 2007, Cape Town, South Africa, November 3-5, 2007: Revised selected papers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Archibald; V. Brattka; V. Goranko; B. Löwe

    2009-01-01

    Edited in collaboration with FoLLI, the Association of Logic, Language and Information, this volume constitutes a selection of papers presented at the Internatonal Conference on Infinity in Logic and Computation, ILC 2007, held in Cape Town, South Africa, in November 2007. The 7 revised papers prese

  18. The Impact of Computer and Mathematics Software Usage on Performance of School Leavers in the Western Cape Province of South Africa: A Comparative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garth Spencer; Hardman, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In this study the impact of computer immersion on performance of school leavers Senior Certificate mathematics scores was investigated across 31 schools in the EMDC East education district of Cape Town, South Africa by comparing performance between two groups: a control and an experimental group. The experimental group (14 high schools) had access…

  19. Description of four new species of Gulella Pfeiffer, 1856 from Eastern Cape, South Africa, with additional notes on two poorly known species (Mollusca: Eupulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cole, M.L.; Herbert, D.G.

    2009-01-01

    Gulella bruggeni spec. nov., G. bomvana spec. nov., G. tietzae spec. nov. and G. ndibo spec. nov. are described from the Transkei region of Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. All are minute, smooth-shelled species with complex apertural dentition. Due to their limited ranges and continuing decline

  20. Condom negotiation, HIV testing, and HIV risks among women from alcohol serving venues in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen V Pitpitan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Women in South Africa are at particularly high-risk for HIV infection and are dependent on their male partners' use of condoms for sexual risk reduction. However, many women are afraid to discuss condoms with male partners, placing them at higher risk of HIV infection. PURPOSE: To examine the association between fear of condom negotiation with HIV testing and transmission risk behaviors, including alcohol use and sexual risks among South African women. METHOD: Women (N = 1333 residing in a primarily Xhosa-speaking African township in Cape Town and attending informal alcohol-serving venues (shebeens completed anonymous surveys. Logistic regression was used to test the hypothesis that fear of condom negotiation would be associated with increased risk for HIV. RESULTS: Compared to women who did not fear condom negotiation, those who did were significantly less likely to have been tested for HIV, were more likely to have experienced relationship abuse, and to report more alcohol use and more unprotected sex. CONCLUSIONS: For women in South Africa, fear of condom negotiation is related to higher risk of HIV. HIV prevention efforts, including targeted HIV counseling and testing, must directly address gender issues.

  1. The Institution of a Standardized Investigation Protocol for Sudden Infant Death in the Eastern Metropole, Cape Town, South Africa(,)().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempers, Johan J; Coldrey, Jean; Burger, Elsie H; Thompson, Vonita; Wadee, Shabbir A; Odendaal, Hein J; Sens, Mary Ann; Randall, Brad B; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Kinney, Hannah C

    2016-11-01

    The rate for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Cape Town, South Africa, is estimated to be among the highest in the world (3.41/1000 live births). In several of these areas, including those of extreme poverty, only sporadic, nonstandardized infant autopsy, and death scene investigation (DSI) occurred. In this report, we detail a feasibility project comprising 18 autopsied infants with sudden and unexpected death whose causes of death were adjudicated according to the 1991 NICHD definitions (SIDS, n = 7; known cause of death, n = 7; and unclassified, n = 4). We instituted a standardized autopsy and infant DSI through a collaborative effort of local forensic pathology officers and clinical providers. The high standard of forensic investigation met international standards, identified preventable disease, and allowed for incorporation of research. We conclude that an effective infant autopsy and DSI protocol can be established in areas with both high sudden unexpected infant death, and elsewhere. (SUID)/SIDS risk and infrastructure challenges.

  2. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  3. Initial review and analysis of the direct environmental impacts of CSP in the northern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Justine; Gauché, Paul; Esler, Karen J.

    2016-05-01

    The Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) of 2010 and the IRP Update provide the most recent guidance to the electricity generation future of South Africa (SA) and both plans include an increased proportion of renewable energy generation capacity. Given that SA has abundant renewable energy resource potential, this inclusion is welcome. Only 600 MW of the capacity allocated to concentrating solar power (CSP) has been committed to projects in the Northern Cape and represents roughly a fifth of the capacity that has been included in the IRP. Although CSP is particularly new in the electricity generation system of the country, the abundant solar resources of the region with annual DNI values of above 2900 kWh/m2 across the arid Savannah and Nama-Karoo biomes offer a promising future for the development of CSP in South Africa. These areas have largely been left untouched by technological development activities and thus renewable energy projects present a variety of possible direct and indirect environmental, social and economic impacts. Environmental Impact Assessments do focus on local impacts, but given that ecological processes often extend to regional- and landscape scales, understanding this scaled context is important to the alignment of development- and conservation priorities. Given the capacities allocated to CSP for the future of SA's electricity generation system, impacts on land, air, water and biodiversity which are associated with CSP are expected to increase in distribution and the understanding thereof deems valuable already from this early point in CSP's future in SA. We provide a review of direct impacts of CSP on the natural environment and an overview of the anticipated specific significance thereof in the Northern Cape.

  4. A Critical Appraisal of Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability V Government of the Republic of South Africa

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    Petronell Kruger.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 the Western Cape Forum for Intellectual Disability v Government of The Republic of South Africa case flagged a lot of issues faced by persons with disabilities relating to access to education in South Africa. The case tackled certain perceptions about the ineducability of persons with profound and severe disability and the remaining charity-oriented perception by the South African Department of Basic Education. While the court made several important points in advancing universal access to education, the author argues that certain holes in the judgment hinders the existence of judicial finding truly infused with concerns of substantive equality. An example of this short-coming is the court's consideration of reasonableness when the right to basic education is an immediately realisable right. The author also argues that the South African developments in education policy for persons with disability, while positive, is insufficient to truly give effect to substantive equality – the claim to equality being made in the new constitutional dispensation. There is still an attitude that is too permissive of separating students based on abilism. The social model of thinking about requires a complete transformation of the education system that would not require a classification of learners by abilities but have a different constitution so as to accommodate all students and not unduly enable one group over another. The author considers the approaches from Canada and India to explore its responses to education for students with varying levels of ability. Canada's similar conception of equality and India's influence on South African constitutionalism and shared experience with massive equality gaps make these jurisdictions instructive.

  5. Stochastic decadal climate simulations for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas, Western Cape province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Arthur M.; Hellmuth, Molly; Lumsden, Trevor

    2012-06-01

    A method is described for the generation of multivariate stochastic climate sequences for the Berg and Breede Water Management Areas in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The sequences, based on joint modeling of precipitation and minimum and maximum daily temperatures, are conditioned on annualized data, the aim being to simulate realistic variability on annual to decadal time scales. A vector autoregressive (VAR) model is utilized for this purpose and reproduces well those statistical attributes, including intervariable correlation and serial autocorrelation in individual variables, most relevant for the regional climate in this setting. The sequences incorporate nonlinear climate change trends, inferred using an ensemble of global climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). Subannual variability is simulated using a block resampling scheme based on the k-nearest-neighbor approach, preserving both temporal patterns and spatial correlations. Downscaling to a network of quinary-level catchments enables distributed runoff, streamflow, and crop simulations and the assessment and integration of impacts. Final output takes the form of daily sequences, structured for driving the ACRU agrohydrological model of the University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

  6. Ambient Air Pollution Exposure and Respiratory, Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Mortality in Cape Town, South Africa: 2001–2006

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    Kuku Voyi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Little evidence is available on the strength of the association between ambient air pollution exposure and health effects in developing countries such as South Africa. The association between the 24-h average ambient PM10, SO2 and NO2 levels and daily respiratory (RD, cardiovascular (CVD and cerebrovascular (CBD mortality in Cape Town (2001–2006 was investigated with a case-crossover design. For models that included entire year data, an inter-quartile range (IQR increase in PM10 (12 mg/m3 and NO2 (12 mg/m3 significantly increased CBD mortality by 4% and 8%, respectively. A significant increase of 3% in CVD mortality was observed per IQR increase in NO2 and SO2 (8 mg/m3. In the warm period, PM10 was significantly associated with RD and CVD mortality. NO2 had significant associations with CBD, RD and CVD mortality, whilst SO2 was associated with CVD mortality. None of the pollutants were associated with any of the three outcomes in the cold period. Susceptible groups depended on the cause-specific mortality and air pollutant. There is significant RD, CVD and CBD mortality risk associated with ambient air pollution exposure in South Africa, higher than reported in developed countries.

  7. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  8. Community perceptions of risk factors for interpersonal violence in townships in Cape Town, South Africa: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen

    2015-12-27

    Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.

  9. "Nothing Is Free": A Qualitative Study of Sex Trading Among Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Kimani, Stephen M; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2016-05-01

    South Africa is facing an established epidemic of methamphetamine, known locally as "tik." Globally, methamphetamine has been linked to high rates of sexual risk behaviors, including sex trading. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine the experiences of sex trading among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (17 men and 13 women) recruited from the community. Interviews were conducted in local languages using a semi-structured guide that included questions on sex trading experiences and perceptions of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using analytic memos and coding with constant comparison techniques. The data revealed that in a setting of high levels of addiction and poverty, sex was an important commodity for acquiring methamphetamine. Women were more likely to use sex to acquire methamphetamine, but men reported opportunistic cases of trading sex for methamphetamine. Four models of sex trading emerged: negotiated exchange, implicit exchange, relationships based on resources, and facilitating sex exchange for others. The expectation of sex trading created a context in which sexual violence against female methamphetamine users was common. Multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use in acts of sex trading put methamphetamine users at high risk of HIV. Interventions in this setting should address addiction, which is the primary driver of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Harm reduction interventions may include education about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, availability of condoms and HIV testing, and sexual violence prevention.

  10. Ecology and distribution of large branchiopods (Crustacea, Branchiopoda, Anostraca, Notostraca, Laevicaudata, Spinicaudata) of the Eastern Cape Karoo, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabidi, Annah; Bird, Matthew S.; Perissinotto, Renzo; Rogers, D. Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A survey of the large branchiopod fauna of the Eastern Cape Karoo region of South Africa was undertaken to provide baseline biodiversity information in light of impending shale gas development activities in the region. Twenty-two waterbodies, including nine dams and thirteen natural depression wetlands, were sampled during November 2014 and April 2015. A total of 13 species belonging to four orders were collected, comprising five anostracans, one notostracan, six spinicaudatans and one laevicaudatan. Cyzicus australis was most common, occurring in 46% of the waterbodies. Species co-occurred in 87% of the waterbodies, with a maximum number of six species recorded from the same waterbody. Our new distribution records for Lynceus truncatus, Streptocephalus spinicaudatus and Streptocephalus indistinctus represent substantial expansions of the previously known ranges for these species. Tarkastad is now the westernmost record for Streptocephalus spinicaudatus, while Jansenville now constitutes the southernmost record for Streptocephalus indistinctus. Large branchiopod distribution data from previous Eastern Cape records were combined with our current data, demonstrating that a total of 23 large branchiopod species have been recorded from the region to date. As the Karoo is one of the few major shale basins in the world where the natural baseline is still largely intact, this survey forms a basis for future reference and surface water quality monitoring during the process of shale gas exploration/extraction. PMID:27853398

  11. Concurrent partnerships in Cape Town, South Africa: race and sex differences in prevalence and duration of overlap

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    Roxanne Beauclair

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Concurrent partnerships (CPs have been suggested as a risk factor for transmitting HIV, but their impact on the epidemic depends upon how prevalent they are in populations, the average number of CPs an individual has and the length of time they overlap. However, estimates of prevalence of CPs in Southern Africa vary widely, and the duration of overlap in these relationships is poorly documented. We aim to characterize concurrency in a more accurate and complete manner, using data from three disadvantaged communities of Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: We conducted a sexual behaviour survey (n=878 from June 2011 to February 2012 in Cape Town, using Audio Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing to collect sexual relationship histories on partners in the past year. Using the beginning and end dates for the partnerships, we calculated the point prevalence, the cumulative prevalence and the incidence rate of CPs, as well as the duration of overlap for relationships begun in the previous year. Linear and binomial regression models were used to quantify race (black vs. coloured and sex differences in the duration of overlap and relative risk of having CPs in the past year. Results: The overall point prevalence of CPs six months before the survey was 8.4%: 13.4% for black men, 1.9% for coloured men, 7.8% black women and 5.6% for coloured women. The median duration of overlap in CPs was 7.5 weeks. Women had less risk of CPs in the previous year than men (RR 0.43; 95% CI: 0.32–0.57 and black participants were more at risk than coloured participants (RR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.17–2.97. Conclusions: Our results indicate that in this population the prevalence of CPs is relatively high and is characterized by overlaps of long duration, implying there may be opportunities for HIV to be transmitted to concurrent partners.

  12. Pricing landfill externalities: emissions and disamenity costs in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Nahman, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The external (environmental and social) costs of landfilling (e.g. emissions to air, soil and water; and 'disamenities' such as odours and pests) are difficult to quantify in monetary terms, and are therefore not generally reflected in waste disposal charges or taken into account in decision making regarding waste management options. This results in a bias against alternatives such as recycling, which may be more expensive than landfilling from a purely financial perspective, but preferable from an environmental and social perspective. There is therefore a need to quantify external costs in monetary terms, so that different disposal options can be compared on the basis of their overall costs to society (financial plus external costs). This study attempts to estimate the external costs of landfilling in the City of Cape Town for different scenarios, using the benefits transfer method (for emissions) and the hedonic pricing method (for disamenities). Both methods (in particular the process of transferring and adjusting estimates from one study site to another) are described in detail, allowing the procedures to be replicated elsewhere. The results show that external costs are currently R111 (in South African Rands, or approximately US$16) per tonne of waste, although these could decline under a scenario in which energy is recovered, or in which the existing urban landfills are replaced with a new regional landfill.

  13. Developing a Strategic Approach to Social Responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

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    Favish, Judith; McMillan, Janice; Ngcelwane, Sonwabo V.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative community-engaged scholarship has roots in many parts of the world, and engaged practitioners and researchers are increasingly finding each other and sharing resources globally. This article focuses on a "social responsiveness" initiative at the University of Cape Town. Its story, told here by three University of Cape Town…

  14. Development of a Compendium of Local, Wild-Harvested Species Used in the Informal Economy Trade, Cape Town, South Africa

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    L. M. Petersen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Wild harvesting has taken place over millennia in Africa. However urbanization and cash economies have effectively altered harvesting from being cultural, traditional, and subsistence activities that are part of a rural norm, to being a subculture of commonly illicit activities located primarily within the urban, cash-based, informal economy. This paper focuses on Cape Town, South Africa where high levels of poverty and extensive population growth have led to a rapidly growing informal industry based on the cultural, subsistence, and entrepreneurial harvesting and consumption of products obtained from the local natural environment. Through a process of literature reviews, database analysis, and key informant interviews, a compendium of harvested species was developed, illustrating the breadth of illicit harvesting of products from nature reserves, public open space, and other commonage within the City. The compendium records 448 locally occurring species (198 animals and 250 plants that are extracted for medicinal, energy, ornamental, sustenance, nursery, and other uses. The sustainability of harvesting is questionable; nearly 70% of all harvested flora and 100% of all collected fauna are either killed or reproductively harmed through the harvesting processes. Furthermore, for the 183 indigenous flora species currently recorded on the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Red List, 28% (51 hold assessments ranging from Declining through to Critically Endangered. With respect to the more poorly assessed fauna (46 spp., approximately 24% (11 have Declining or Threatened status.

  15. Tourist Profile and Destination Brand Perception: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

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    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourists pay for destination brands. This study checked for the relationships between tourists’ profile and how they perceived the destination brand of Cape Town. A questionnaire survey of 220 tourists visiting Cape Town was done. This study found that repeat visit, age of tourist, length of stay, and tourist origin, have significant influences on how tourists visiting Cape Town perceived the destination. The top three destination attributes of Cape Town (cognitive images, which enhance visitor experience satisfaction are (1 the overall level of service quality at facilities in Cape Town, (2 the city being one of the best places the tourists have visited, and (3 the destination’s good value for money. The top three emotional valuations of destination attributes (affective images which enhance visitor experience satisfaction in Cape Town include (1 memorable visit, (2 valuable visit, and (3 friendly and hospitable population. It is therefore recommended that tourism businesses in Cape Town develop relationship marketing tools to attract and retain its tourists segments of loyal, advanced in age, long-staying and domestic tourists. Results from this research could be compared with related findings in the international arena and have related implications, especially for developing economies

  16. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

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    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  17. Three new species of Tritoniopsis (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the Cape Region of South Africa

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    J. C. Manning

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the largely Western Cape genus Tritoniopsis L.Bolus are described, bringing the number of species in the genus to 24.  Tritoniopsis bicolor and  T. flava are newly discovered, narrow endemics of the Bredasdorp Mountains and the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve, respectively, in the southwestern Cape. Both of these are areas of high local endemism.  T. toximontana, known since at least 1465 but misunderstood, is restricted to the Gifberg-Matsikamma Mountain complex of northern Western Cape. Notes on the pollination biology of the species are provided.

  18. Supernumerary registrar experience at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

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    S Peer

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Despite supernumerary registrars (SNRs being hosted in South African (SA training programmes, there are no reports of their experience. Objectives. To evaluate the experience of SNRs at the University of Cape Town, SA, and the experience of SNRs from the perspective of SA registrars (SARs. Methods. SNRs and SARs completed an online survey in 2012. Results. Seventy-three registrars responded; 42 were SARs and 31 were SNRs. Of the SNRs 47.8% were self-funded, 17.4% were funded through private organisations, and 34.8% were funded by governments. Average annual income was ZAR102 349 (range ZAR680 - 460 000. Funding was considered insufficient by 61.0%. Eighty-seven percent intended to return to their home countries. Personal sacrifices were deemed worthwhile from academic (81.8% and social (54.5% perspectives, but not financially (33.3%. Only a small majority were satisfied with the orientation provided and with assimilation into their departments. Almost half experienced challenges relating to cultural and social integration. Almost all SARs supported having SNRs. SNRs reported xenophobia from patients (23.8% and colleagues (47.8%, and felt disadvantaged in terms of learning opportunities, academic support and on-call allocations. Conclusions. SNRs are fee-paying students and should enjoy academic and teaching support equal to that received by SARs. Both the university and the teaching hospitals must take steps to improve the integration of SNRs and ensure that they receive equal access to academic support and clinical teaching, and also need to take an interest in their financial wellbeing. Of particular concern are perceptions of xenophobia from SA medical colleagues.

  19. Child pedestrian safety knowledge, behaviour and road injury in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Koekemoer, Karin; Van Gesselleen, Megan; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2017-02-01

    Pedestrian injuries are a leading cause of death among South African children, and young children residing in low-income communities are more at risk, due to various factors such as inadequate road infrastructure, exposure to traffic due to reliance on walking as a means of transport, and lack of supervision. This study used a cross-sectional, non-randomized self-report survey to assess pedestrian safety knowledge, road-crossing behaviour and pedestrian injuries of primary school children in selected low-income settings in Cape Town. The survey focused on three primary schools that had joined the Safe Kids Worldwide Model School Zone Project and was administered to 536 children aged 6-15 years, in their home language of isiXhosa. Descriptive and bivariate analyses as well as multivariate regression analyses were conducted to investigate potential predictor variables for pedestrian collision severity and unsafe road-crossing behaviour. Walking was the sole form of travel for 81% of the children, with a large proportion regularly walking unsupervised. Children who walk to or from school alone were younger and reported riskier road-crossing behaviour, although children who walk accompanied tended to have higher pedestrian collision severity. "Negligent Behaviour" related to road-crossing was significantly associated with higher pedestrian collision severity, with predictors of "Negligent Behaviour" including the lack of pedestrian safety knowledge and greater exposure to traffic in terms of time spent walking. More than half of the reported pedestrian collisions involved a bicycle, and older boys (10-15 years) were most at risk of experiencing a severe pedestrian injury. The findings substantiate emerging evidence that children in low-income settings are at greater risk for child pedestrian injury, and emphasise the need for evidence-based safety promotion and injury prevention interventions in these settings.

  20. Attitudes, knowledge and treatment of low back pain amongst nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Liezel Cilliers

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the high-risk professions for the development of musculoskeletal problems is nursing. Studies have reported that there is a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP amongst South African nurses, but very little is known regarding the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP in this group.Objectives: The objective of this study is to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about the prevention and self-treatment principles for LBP amongst nursing staff in Cecilia Makiwane Hospital, Eastern Cape.Methods: The study population consisted of all qualified nurses employed at the hospital. A cross-sectional survey with a purposive convenience sampling method was used. A questionnaire was designed using literature from established sources. The questionnaire was distributed manually and data obtained were analysed using EPI-INFO4.Results: The study found that the majority of the participants experienced LBP on a regular basis. The participants could identify the most important physical risk factors associated with the development of LBP, but neglected the psychological risk factors. Action taken after the development of LBP included professional consultations as well as medication and bed rest.The participants identified the different components of a preventative exercise programme but only focused on the physical and not psychological components associated with LBP.Conclusions: LBP is a serious problem amongst the nurses at the hospital, but no proactiveapproach is taken in order to address this problem. Policy guidelines and a comprehensive prevention and treatment programme need to be designed and implemented to address this issue.

  1. Alien plant species list and distribution for Camdeboo National Park, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Mmoto L. Masubelele

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected areas globally are threatened by the potential negative impacts that invasive alien plants pose, and Camdeboo National Park (CNP, South Africa, is no exception. Alien plants have been recorded in the CNP since 1981, before it was proclaimed a national park by South African National Parks in 2005. This is the first publication of a list of alien plants in and around the CNP. Distribution maps of some of the first recorded alien plant species are also presented and discussed. To date, 39 species of alien plants have been recorded, of which 13 are invasive and one is a transformer weed. The majority of alien plant species in the park are herbaceous (39% and succulent (24% species. The most widespread alien plant species in the CNP are Atriplex inflata (= A. lindleyi subsp. inflata, Salsola tragus (= S. australis and cacti species, especially Opuntia ficus-indica. Eradication and control measures that have been used for specific problematic alien plant species are described. Conservation implications: This article represents the first step in managing invasive alien plants and includes the collation of a species list and basic information on their distribution in and around the protected area. This is important for enabling effective monitoring of both new introductions and the distribution of species already present. We present the first species list and distribution information for Camdeboo National Park.

  2. Demographic and circumstantial accounts of burn mortality in Cape Town, South Africa, 2001-2004: An observational register based study

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    Laflamme L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burns are a persisting public health problem in low- and middle-income countries; however, epidemiologic data for these settings is scarce. South Africa is no exception although there is an emerging knowledge base, especially for paediatric burns. The current study describes the epidemiology of burn mortality across the lifespan in Cape Town (2.9 million inhabitants in 2001, one of the six South African metropolitan centres. Methods The distribution of burn mortality across socio-demographic groups and also their circumstances of occurrence were investigated using four year (2001 to 2004 surveillance data from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (n = 1024 cases. Results Burn mortality occurred at a rate of 7.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 7.3-8.3. Males sustained fatal rates 2.2 times more than that for females (p Conclusion Besides paediatric burns, the high prevalence and circumstances of occurrence of burns among middle age men are a source of concern. There are reasons to believe that this over-representation is a reflection of detrimental living conditions, life-style and poor socio-economic status. It is recommended that there be greater prioritisation of prevention activities that involve the control or management of kerosene heat sources, the provision of alternatives to flammable housing materials, and the implementation of strategies to reduce harmful drinking practices.

  3. The GAW-PFR aerosol optical depth network: The 2008-2013 time series at Cape Point Station, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyeki, S.; Wehrli, C.; Gröbner, J.; Kouremeti, N.; Wacker, S.; Labuschagne, C.; Mbatha, N.; Brunke, E.-G.

    2015-05-01

    A ground-based aerosol optical depth (AOD) climatology is presented for Cape Point (CPT) station, South Africa, for the 2008-2013 period. CPT is part of the Global Atmosphere Watch-Precision Filter Radiometer network which conducts long-term AOD measurements at remote background sites. AOD (λ = 500 nm) and Ångström exponent (368 to 862 nm; α368-862) averages for the entire period were 0.059 and 0.68, displaying only a weak seasonality. Based on an established method for air mass classification using the in situ wind direction and 222Rn concentration, the following four air mass types were used to further investigate AOD: background marine, marine, mixed, and continental. AOD was similar for all types, but α368-862 was distinctly lower (0.43) for background marine and higher (1.07) for continental air masses, illustrating the presence of coarse mode and anthropogenic aerosols, respectively. Trajectory cluster analysis of 5 day back trajectories confirmed/augmented this classification. AOD for background marine and marine air mass types were consistent with ship-based (Maritime Aerosol Network) and island (AErosol RObotic NETwork) measurements, suggesting that CPT is a suitable site to monitor pristine conditions in the South Atlantic and Southern Oceans when 222Rn concentrations are < 100 mBq m-3.

  4. Linkage to HIV care and antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Katharina Kranzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART has been scaled-up rapidly in Africa. Programme reports typically focus on loss to follow-up and mortality among patients receiving ART. However, little is known about linkage and retention in care of individuals prior to starting ART. METHODOLOGY: Data on adult residents from a periurban community in Cape Town were collected at a primary care clinic and hospital. HIV testing registers, CD4 count results provided by the National Health Laboratory System and ART registers were linked. A random sample (n = 885 was drawn from adults testing HIV positive through antenatal care, sexual transmitted disease and voluntary testing and counseling services between January 2004 and March 2009. All adults (n = 103 testing HIV positive through TB services during the same time period were also included in the study. Linkage to HIV care was defined as attending for a CD4 count measurement within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. Linkage to ART care was defined as initiating ART within 6 months of HIV diagnosis in individuals with a CD4 count ≤200 cells/µl taken within 6 months of HIV diagnosis. FINDINGS: Only 62.6% of individuals attended for a CD4 count measurement within 6 months of testing HIV positive. Individuals testing through sexually transmitted infection services had the best (84.1% and individuals testing on their own initiative (53.5% the worst linkage to HIV care. One third of individuals with timely CD4 counts were eligible for ART and 66.7% of those were successfully linked to ART care. Linkage to ART care was highest among antenatal care clients. Among individuals not yet eligible for ART only 46.3% had a repeat CD4 count. Linkage to HIV care improved in patients tested in more recent calendar period. CONCLUSION: Linkage to HIV and ART care was low in this poor peri-urban community despite free services available within close proximity. More efforts are needed to link VCT scale-up to subsequent care.

  5. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design

    2010-07-01

    sustainable cooling in residential buildings of Western Cape, South Africa are discussed.

  6. Contamination of rural surface and ground water by endosulfan in farming areas of the Western Cape, South Africa

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    London Leslie

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa there is little data on environmental pollution of rural water sources by agrochemicals. Methods This study investigated pesticide contamination of ground and surface water in three intensive agricultural areas in the Western Cape: the Hex River Valley, Grabouw and Piketberg. Monitoring for endosulfan and chlorpyrifos at low levels was conducted as well as screening for other pesticides. Results The quantification limit for endosulfan was 0.1 μg/L. Endosulfan was found to be widespread in ground water, surface water and drinking water. The contamination was mostly at low levels, but regularly exceeded the European Drinking Water Standard of 0.1 μg/L. The two most contaminated sites were a sub-surface drain in the Hex River Valley and a dam in Grabouw, with 0.83 ± 1.0 μg/L (n = 21 and 3.16 ± 3.5 μg/L (n = 13 average endosulfan levels respectively. Other pesticides including chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, fenarimol, iprodione, deltamethrin, penconazole and prothiofos were detected. Endosulfan was most frequently detected in Grabouw (69% followed by Hex River (46% and Piketberg (39%. Detections were more frequent in surface water (47% than in groundwater (32% and coincided with irrigation, and to a lesser extent, to spraying and trigger rains. Total dietary endosulfan intake calculated from levels found in drinking water did not exceed the Joint WHO/FAO Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR criteria. Conclusion The study has shown the need for monitoring of pesticide contamination in surface and groundwater, and the development of drinking water quality standards for specific pesticides in South Africa.

  7. Accuracy of serological testing for the diagnosis of prevalent neurocysticercosis in outpatients with epilepsy, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Humberto Foyaca-Sibat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Few studies have estimated prevalence of neurocysticercosis (NCC among persons with epilepsy in sub-Saharan Africa. While the limitations of serological testing in identification of NCC are well known, the characteristics of persons who are misdiagnosed based on serology have not been explored. The first objective of this pilot study was to estimate the prevalence of NCC in epilepsy outpatients from an area of South Africa endemic for cysticercosis. The second objective was to estimate the accuracy of serological testing in detecting NCC in these outpatients and characterize sources of disagreement between serology and neuroimaging. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: All out-patients aged 5 or older attending the epilepsy clinic of St. Elizabeth's Hospital in Lusikisiki, Eastern Cape Province, between July 2004 and April 2005 were invited to participate. Epidemiological data were collected by local study staff using a standardized questionnaire. Blood samples were tested by ELISA for antibody and antigen for Taenia solium. Four randomly chosen, consenting participants were transported each week to Mthatha for brain CT scan. The proportion of persons with epilepsy attending St. Elizabeth clinic with CT-confirmed NCC was 37% (95% CI: 27%-48%. Using CT as the gold standard, the sensitivity and specificity of antibody testing for identifying NCC were 54.5% (36.4%-71.9% and 69.2% (52.4%-83.0%, respectively. Sensitivity improved to 78.6% (49.2%-95.3% for those with active lesions. Sensitivity and specificity of antigen testing were considerably poorer. Compared to false negatives, true positives more often had active lesions. False positives were more likely to keep pigs and to have seizure onset within the past year than were true negatives. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The prevalence of NCC in South African outpatients with epilepsy is similar to that observed in other countries where cysticercosis is prevalent. Errors in classification of NCC

  8. Detection of transgenes in local maize varieties of small-scale farmers in eastern cape, South Africa.

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    Marianne Iversen

    Full Text Available Small-scale subsistence farmers in South Africa have been introduced to genetically modified (GM crops for more than a decade. Little is known about i the extent of transgene introgression into locally recycled seed, ii what short and long-term ecological and socioeconomic impacts such mixing of seeds might have, iii how the farmers perceive GM crops, and iv to what degree approval conditions are followed and controlled. This study conducted in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, aims primarily at addressing the first of these issues. We analysed for transgenes in 796 individual maize plants (leaves and 20 seed batches collected in a village where GM insect resistant maize was previously promoted and grown as part of an governmental agricultural development program over a seven year period (2001-2008. Additionally, we surveyed the varieties of maize grown and the farmers' practices of recycling and sharing of seed in the same community (26 farmers were interviewed. Recycling and sharing of seeds were common in the community and may contribute to spread and persistence of transgenes in maize on a local or regional level. By analysing DNA we found that the commonly used transgene promoter p35s occurred in one of the 796 leaf samples (0.0013% and in five of the 20 seed samples (25%. Three of the 20 seed samples (15% included herbicide tolerant maize (NK603 intentionally grown by the farmers from seed bought from local seed retailers or acquired through a currently running agricultural development program. The two remaining positive seed samples (10% included genes for insect resistance (from MON810. In both cases the farmers were unaware of the transgenes present. In conclusion, we demonstrate that transgenes are mixed into seed storages of small-scale farming communities where recycling and sharing of seeds are common, i.e. spread beyond the control of the formal seed system.

  9. Linkage to HIV, TB and non-communicable disease care from a mobile testing unit in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Darshini Govindasamy

    Full Text Available HIV counseling and testing may serve as an entry point for non-communicable disease screening.To determine the yield of newly-diagnosed HIV, tuberculosis (TB symptoms, diabetes and hypertension, and to assess CD4 count testing, linkage to care as well as correlates of linkage and barriers to care from a mobile testing unit.A mobile unit provided screening for HIV, TB symptoms, diabetes and hypertension in Cape Town, South Africa between March 2010 and September 2011. The yield of newly-diagnosed cases of these conditions was measured and clients were followed-up between January and November 2011 to assess linkage. Linkage to care was defined as accessing care within one, three or six months post-HIV diagnosis (dependent on CD4 count and one month post-diagnosis for other conditions. Clinical and socio-demographic correlates of linkage to care were evaluated using Poisson regression and barriers to care were determined.Of 9,806 clients screened, the yield of new diagnoses was: HIV (5.5%, TB suspects (10.1%, diabetes (0.8% and hypertension (58.1%. Linkage to care for HIV-infected clients, TB suspects, diabetics and hypertensives was: 51.3%, 56.7%, 74.1% and 50.0%. Only disclosure of HIV-positive status to family members or partners (RR=2.6, 95% CI: 1.04-6.3, p=0.04 was independently associated with linkage to HIV care. The main barrier to care reported by all groups was lack of time to access a clinic.Screening for HIV, TB symptoms and hypertension at mobile units in South Africa has a high yield but inadequate linkage. After-hours and weekend clinics may overcome a major barrier to accessing care.

  10. The association between childhood environmental exposures and the subsequent development of Crohn's disease in the Western Cape, South Africa.

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    Abigail Basson

    Full Text Available Environmental factors during childhood are thought to play a role in the aetiolgy of Crohn's Disease (CD. However the association between age at time of exposure and the subsequent development of CD in South Africa is unknown.A case control study of all consecutive CD patients seen at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease (IBD referral centers in the Western Cape, South Africa between September 2011 and January 2013 was performed. Numerous environmental exposures during 3 age intervals; 0-5, 6-10 and 11-18 years were extracted using an investigator administered questionnaire. An agreement analysis was performed to determine the reliability of questionnaire data for all the relevant variables.This study included 194 CD patients and 213 controls. On multiple logistic regression analysis, a number of childhood environmental exposures during the 3 age interval were significantly associated with the risk of developing CD. During the age interval 6-10 years, never having had consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 5.84; 95% CI, 2.73-13.53 and never having a donkey, horse, sheep or cow on the property (OR = 2.48; 95% CI, 1.09-5.98 significantly increased the risk of developing future CD. During the age interval 11-18 years, an independent risk-association was identified for; never having consumed unpasteurized milk (OR = 2.60; 95% CI, 1.17-6.10 and second-hand cigarette smoke exposure (OR = 1.93; 95% CI, 1.13-3.35.This study demonstrates that both limited microbial exposures and exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is associated with future development of CD.

  11. Single-centre experience of allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant in paediatric patients in Cape Town, South Africa

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    A van Eyssen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allogeneic haemopoietic stem cell transplant (Allo-HSCT is a specialised and costly intervention, associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It is used to treat a broad range of paediatric conditions. South Africa (SA is an upper middle-income country with limitations on healthcare spending. The role of paediatric Allo-HSCT in this setting is reviewed. Objectives. To review paediatric patients who underwent Allo-HSCT at the Groote Schuur Hospital/University of Cape Town Private Academic Hospital transplant unit in Cape Town, South Africa, and received post-transplant care at Red Cross War Memorial Children’s Hospital, over the period January 2006 - December 2014 in respect of indications for the transplant, donor sources, conditioning regimens, treatment-related morbidity and overall survival (OS. Methods. A retrospective analysis of patient records was performed and a database was created in Microsoft Access. Descriptive analyses of relevant demographic, clinical and laboratory data were performed. Summary statistics of demographic and clinical parameters were derived with Excel. OS was calculated from the date of transplant to the date of an event (death or last follow-up using the Kaplan-Meier method in Statistica. Results. A total of 48 children received Allo-HSCT: 24 for haematological malignancies, 20 for non-oncological haematological conditions, 3 for immune disorders and 1 for adrenoleukodystrophy. There were 28 boys (median age 7.5 years and 20 girls (8.5 years. There were 31 sibling matched peripheral-blood stem cell (PBSC transplants and 1 maternal haploidentical PBSC transplant. Stem cells were mobilised from bone marrow into peripheral blood by administering granulocyte-colony stimulating factor to donors. PBSCs were harvested by apheresis. Eight patients received 10/10 HLA-matched grafts from unrelated donors. Six were PBSC grafts and 2 were bone marrow grafts. Three of the unrelated PBSC grafts were from

  12. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  13. The relationship between wellbeing indicators and teacher psychological stress in Eastern Cape public schools in South Africa

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    Malik L.M. Vazi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Positive psychological and subjective wellbeing indicators have proven to be protective against certain physical illnesses but have been rarely assessed in teacher stress.Research purpose: The main objective of this study was to assess the relationship between indicators of wellbeing and stress and to further assess the relative importance of these wellbeing indicators in explaining stress variance in a large sample of Eastern Cape primary and high school teachers in South Africa.Motivation for the study: The majority of teacher stress studies focus on the misfit between the individual’s resources and the environmental demands. There is a scarcity of studies reporting on protective factors in teaching and we know little about their possible role as possible protective factors against stress. This is important in developing stress prevention strategies.Research design, approach and method: A cross-sectional survey was used targeting public school teachers in the Eastern Cape. The sample size was 562 randomly selected teachers from both public primary and high schools.Main findings: The results revealed that stress is prevalent amongst teachers. Subjective and psychological wellbeing factors added significantly to the explained stress variance. Also, both negative affect and role problems had significant positive correlations with stress, whilst psychological wellbeing had a strong inverse relationship with stress.Practical/managerial implications: The results implied that interventions focusing on improving psychological wellbeing and reduction of negative affect can contribute to stress prevention.Contribution/value-add: The results contributed towards a better understanding of the relative importance of wellbeing constructs as protective factors against teacher stress.

  14. Burden, genotype and phenotype profiles of adult patients with sickle cell disease in Cape Town, South Africa

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    G D Pule

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. An exponential increase in the number of sickle cell disease (SCD patients in paediatric services in Cape Town, South Africa, has been reported. The trend in adult/adolescent services has not been investigated. Objectives. To evaluate epidemiological trends of SCD and the profile of patients affected by SCD attending the Haematology Clinic at Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH, Cape Town. Methods. (i A retrospective review of the number of SCD patients over the past 20 years; (ii a cross-sectional analysis of clinical and haematological characteristics of SCD patients; and (iii molecular analysis of the haemoglobin S mutation, the haplotype in the β-globin-like genes cluster, the 3.7 kb α-thalassaemia gene deletion and 19 selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs associated with fetal haemoglobin (HbF levels. Results. From 1995 to 2016, 81 adolescent/adult patients with SCD were registered, mostly originating from other African countries (n=61, 75.3%. There was an increase of over 200% in new cases (n=47 during the last quarter of the two decades investigated. Data from 34 of 58 regular attendees (58.6% were analysed. The mean age of the patients was 26.1 years (standard deviation (SD 9.8, and 70.6% were male. With the exception of four patients with sickle/β-thalassaemia, all the patients had SCD (haemoglobin SS. The co-inheritance of a single 3.7 kb α-globin deletion was found in 42.3% of cases (n=11. The Bantu haplotype was the most observed (65.4% of chromosomes. Most HbF-promoting SNPs were not associated with variable levels of haematological indices. Conclusions. There is an increasing burden of adult SCD patients at GSH. National health and academic institutions need to adapt policies and healthcare professional training accordingly.

  15. Seismicity and neotectonic uplift in the Augrabies Falls National Park, Namaqualand, Northern Cape, South Africa

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    Madi, Kakaba

    2016-10-01

    Gneissic rocks in the Augrabies Falls National Park are part of the Proterozoic Namaqua-Natal mobile belt. Finding neotectonic evidence in old terranes is always not an easy task. In South Africa, the mid-Miocene is believed to be the beginning of neotectonics. This study investigated the occurrence and recurrence of earthquake activity, occurrence of faulting, jointing, uplift, and potholes in the gneisses cropping out around the Augrabies Falls area that may account for neotectonics. A historic seismic event obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS), and seismic epicenters downloaded in October 2015 from IRIS earthquake browser and overlaid on a satellite image with digitised faults and lineaments, indicates that the area is seismically active and is a zone of seismic risk. Potholes occurring today on a dry surface at approximately 613 m above sea level are a direct consequence of the Griqualand-Transvaal neotectonic uplift, which generated a major fault along which water flows continuously. It is concluded that the Augrabies Falls National Park area is a zone of neotectonics. This zone should not be considered for the storage of nuclear wastes.

  16. Barriers to adherence to antiretroviral treatment in a regional hospital in Vredenburg, Western Cape, South Africa

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    Ivo N. Azia

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa currently runs the largest public antiretroviral treatment (ART programme in the world, with over 80% of people living with HIV and/or AIDS on ART. However, in order to appreciate the benefits of using ART, patients are subject to uncompromising and long-term commitments of taking at least 95% of their treatment as prescribed. Evidence shows that this level of adherence is seldom achieved because of a multilevel and sometimes interwoven myriad of factors.Objective: We described the challenges faced by patients on ART in Vredenburg with regard to ART adherence.Methods: A descriptive qualitative research design was used. Eighteen non-adhering patients on ART in the Vredenburg regional hospital were purposefully selected. Using a semistructured interview guide, we conducted in-depth interviews with the study participants in their mother tongue (Afrikaans. The interviews were audio-taped, transcribed verbatim and translated into English. The data were analysed manually using the thematic content analysis method.Results: Stigma, disclosure, unemployment, lack of transport, insufficient feeding, disability grants and alternative forms of therapy were identified as major barriers to adherence, whereas inadequate follow-ups and lack of patient confidentiality came under major criticisms from the patients.Conclusion: Interventions to address poverty, stigma, discrimination and disclosure should be integrated with group-based ART adherence models in Vredenburg while further quantitative investigations should be carried out to quantify the extent to which these factors impede adherence in the community.

  17. Multidrug-Resistant Salmonella Isolates from Swine in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Basson, Albertus Kotze; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-07-01

    The exposure of farm animals to antimicrobials for treatment, prophylaxis, or growth promotion can select for resistant bacteria that can be transmitted to humans, and Salmonella as an important zoonotic pathogen can act as a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance determinants. We assessed the antibiogram profiles of Salmonella species isolated from pig herds in two commercial farms in South Africa. Two hundred fifty-eight presumptive Salmonella isolates were recovered from the fecal samples of 500 adult pigs. Specific primers targeting Salmonella serogroups A, B, C1, C2, and D were used to determine the prevalence of different serogroups. Only serogroup A (n = 48) was detected, while others were not. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the confirmed Salmonella serogroup A isolates was performed by using the disk diffusion method against a panel of 18 antibiotics. All the 48 isolates were resistant to tetracycline and oxytetracycline, while 75% were resistant to ampicillin, sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim, nalidixic acid, and streptomycin. All the isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, with the predominant phenotype being against 11 antibiotics, and multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged between 0.3 and 0.6. The incidence of genes encoding resistance against ampicillin (ampC), tetracycline (tetA), and streptomycin (strA) were 54, 61, and 44%, respectively. We conclude that healthy pigs are potential reservoirs of multidrug-resistant Salmonella that could be transmitted to humans through the food chain and, hence, a significant public health threat.

  18. HIV risk and prevention among men who have sex with men (MSM) in peri-urban townships in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Jobson, Geoffrey; de Swardt, Glenn; Rebe, Kevin; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

    2013-05-01

    Current guidelines on HIV prevention for MSM emphasise the need for 'combination prevention' based on context-specific understandings of HIV risk. MSM in South Africa are a population with a high risk of HIV infection, however there is little research available on the drivers of this risk. In the context of a focus on combination prevention, this paper argues that effective HIV prevention for MSM in South Africa requires an understanding of the factors at multiple 'distances' from individuals that contribute to HIV risk. Based on qualitative research with MSM in Cape Town, South Africa, we situate HIV risk using a socio-ecological framework and identify factors at distal, proximal, and personal, levels that contribute to MSM's high risk of HIV infection. By understanding the interactions and linkages between risk environments and the risk situations in which HIV is transmitted, HIV prevention programmes will be more effectively able to address the multiple drivers of HIV risk in this population.

  19. Facilitating access to English for Xhosa-speaking pupils in black township primary schools around Cape Town, South Africa

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    Liesel Hibbert

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper results from a research project completed by the author in 1994 on the quality of language-learning environments in the Cape Town area . . Xhosa is now constitutionally enshrined as one of the eleven official languages of South Africa, and is the dominant language in Western Cape black townships. This paper questions the fruitfUlness of primary schools in black townships attempting to use English as the sole medium of instruction. The paper shows that in actual classroom situations the Ll (Xhosa is used as an aid to L2 (English medium instruction in the schools of Khayelitsha and Lagunya townships around Cape Town. The paper argues for the recognition and forther extension of such bilingual practices in primary schools to work towards more successfUl use of the L2 as the medium of instruction. It assesses the implications of such bilingual policy for classroom interaction and materials development. Hierdie artikel spruit voort uit 'n navorsingsprojek wat in 1994 deur die skrywer onderneem is in groter Kaapstad oor die kwaliteit van die omgewings waarbinne taal aange/eer word. Xhosa is volgens die konstitusie een van die elf amptelike tale in Suid-Afrika en is die oorheersende taal in die swart woonbuurte van die Wes-Kaap. In hierdie artikel word die waarde bevraagteken van die poging wat in die primere skole in die swart woonbuurte aangewend word om Engels as enigste medium van onderrig te gebruik. In die artikel word ook daarop gewys dat skole in Khayelitsha en Lagunya, twee swart woonbuurte naby Kaapstad, Xhosa (Tl gebruik as hulpmiddel by die onderrig deur medium van Engels (T2. Daar word aangevoer dat hierdie gebruik van tweetalige onderrig in primere skole erkenning behoort te kry en verder uitgebrei behoort te word sodat daar gestrewe kan word na 'n meer suksesvol/e gebruik van die tweede taal as onderrigmedium. 'n Waardebepaling van die implikasies van so 'ntweetalige beleid vir k/askamerinteraksie en die ontwikkeling van

  20. Methamphetamine Use and Sexual Risk Behavior among High School Students in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Pluddemann, Andreas; Flisher, Alan J.; McKetin, Rebecca; Parry, Charles D.; Lombard, Carl J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether methamphetamine use is associated with sexual risk behavior among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 1,561 male and female high school students in Cape Town (mean age 14.9 years) was conducted using items from the Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teenagers (POSIT) HIV Risk Scale. Results:…

  1. The MobiSan approach: informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naranjo, A.; Castellano, D.; Kraaijvanger, H.; Meulman, B.; Mels, A.R.; Zeeman, G.

    2010-01-01

    Pook se Bos informal settlement and the Cape Town Water & Sanitation Services Department are partnering on an urban sanitation project with a Dutch Consortium consisting of Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF), Landustrie Sneek and Vitens-Evides International. The aim of the project is to impro

  2. A survey of the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa for the presence of cyst nematodes (Nematoda: Heteroderidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoetze, Rinus; Swart, Antoinette

    2014-12-09

    A survey was performed to detect the presence of cyst nematodes in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa. Soil was collected in the rhizosphere of the dominant plant species within blocks of indigenous vegetation and cysts were extracted from them. A total of 81 blocks of indigenous vegetation were sampled as described. Cysts were detected in 7 of these samples, representing 6 different vegetation types. One set of primers was used to amplify the ITS regions from these cysts, including the 5.8S ribosomal gene, as well as short parts of the 18S and 28S ribosomal genes. ITS-rDNA sequences from the indigenous isolates were aligned with selected sequences of other species from the Heteroderidae. Phylogenetic analyses to resolve the relationships between indigenous isolates and selected representatives of the Heteroderidae were conducted using the Maximum Parsimony method. The consensus tree resulting from alignment of the circumfenestrate cysts revealed that isolates SK18, WK1 and WK26 are included in a clade of Globodera species that parasitise non-solanaceous plants, forming a monophyletic group with G. millefolii, G. artemisiae, and an unidentified Globodera sp. from Portugal. In a tree resulting from the alignment of the Heterodera spp., isolates OK14 and WK2 are included in the Afenestrata group, forming a monophyletic group with H. orientalis.This survey unearthed at least four potentially new species of cyst nematodes, which may prove invaluable for the study of the evolution and biogeography of the group.

  3. Measuring evapotranspiration using an eddy covariance system over the Albany Thicket of the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwate, O.; Mantel, Sukhmani K.; Palmer, Anthony R.; Gibson, Lesley A.

    2016-10-01

    Determining water and carbon fluxes over a vegetated surface is important in a context of global environmental changes and the fluxes help in understanding ecosystem functioning. Pursuant to this, the study measured evapotranspiration (ET) using an eddy covariance (EC) system installed over an intact example of the Albany Thicket (AT) vegetation in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Environmental constraints to ET were also assessed by examining the response of ET to biotic and abiotic factors. The EC system comprised of an open path Infrared Gas Analyser and Sonic anemometer and an attendant weather station to measure bi-meteorological variables. Post processing of eddy covariance data was conducted using EddyPro software. Quality assessment of fluxes was also performed and rejected and missing data were filled using the method of mean diurnal variations (MDV). Much of the variation in ET was accounted for by the leaf area index (LAI, p < 0.001, 41%) and soil moisture content (SWC, p < 0.001, 32%). Total measured ET during the experiment was greater than total rainfall received owing to the high water storage capacity of the vegetation and the possibility of vegetation accessing ground water. Most of the net radiation was consumed by sensible heat flux and this means that ET in the area is essentially water limited since abundant energy was available to drive turbulent transfers of energy. Understanding the environmental constraints to ET is crucial in predicting the ecosystem response to environmental forces such as climate change.

  4. Farmers' perceptions and knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance in the eastern cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyatiya, C L F; Muchenje, V; Mushunje, A

    2014-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the perceptions and knowledge of farmers of heat stress and tick resistance in cattle. A cross-sectional survey was conducted and 110 farmers in four villages in the sour and sweet velds of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa were interviewed. The associations among area (municipality), gender, age, level of education, employment and religion were computed using Chi-square tests. The majority of the respondents had on average 4 bulls, 4 cows, 4 heifers, 4 calves, and 4 oxen. Milk was considered as the major (28.3%) reason for keeping cattle. Most farmers owned non-descript (72.6%), and Nguni (45.3%) cattle because of their heat tolerance (54.7%), tick resistance (54.7%), and milking ability (28.2%) traits. Excessive panting (56.6%) and disease transmission (76%) were regarded as the major effects of heat stress and tick infestation in cattle, respectively. About 50% of the respondents agreed that hair length influences tick resistance and 47.17% considered coat colour when acquiring cattle. In the sampled areas, ticks were prevalent in the summer season (93%), and 77.36% of the respondents use acaricides every fortnight. Gall sickness was reported to be a major problem in the cattle herds by 36.79% of the respondents. Our results showed that farmers in the two municipalities had knowledge of cattle adaptation to heat stress and tick resistance.

  5. Functional Traits in Parallel Evolutionary Radiations and Trait-Environment Associations in the Cape Floristic Region of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nora; Moore, Timothy E; Mollmann, Hayley Kilroy; Carlson, Jane E; Mocko, Kerri; Martinez-Cabrera, Hugo; Adams, Christopher; Silander, John A; Jones, Cynthia S; Schlichting, Carl D; Holsinger, Kent E

    2015-04-01

    Evolutionary radiations with extreme levels of diversity present a unique opportunity to study the role of the environment in plant evolution. If environmental adaptation played an important role in such radiations, we expect to find associations between functional traits and key climatic variables. Similar trait-environment associations across clades may reflect common responses, while contradictory associations may suggest lineage-specific adaptations. Here, we explore trait-environment relationships in two evolutionary radiations in the fynbos biome of the highly biodiverse Cape Floristic Region (CFR) of South Africa. Protea and Pelargonium are morphologically and evolutionarily diverse genera that typify the CFR yet are substantially different in growth form and morphology. Our analytical approach employs a Bayesian multiple-response generalized linear mixed-effects model, taking into account covariation among traits and controlling for phylogenetic relationships. Of the pairwise trait-environment associations tested, 6 out of 24 were in the same direction and 2 out of 24 were in opposite directions, with the latter apparently reflecting alternative life-history strategies. These findings demonstrate that trait diversity within two plant lineages may reflect both parallel and idiosyncratic responses to the environment, rather than all taxa conforming to a global-scale pattern. Such insights are essential for understanding how trait-environment associations arise and how they influence species diversification.

  6. Simulation of land use impacts on sediment and nutrient transfer in coastal areas of Western Cape, South Africa

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    Gebel Micha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge for water resource management in Western Cape, South Africa, is the reduction of the growing sediment and nutrient loads in coastal areas, which belong to the areas most affected by land use change. We used the WebGIS based software STOFFBILANZ to simulate runoff, soil loss, sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen input in the surface water and groundwater of study area (ca. 6,450 km². The simulated runoff shows a large regional variability caused by the heterogeneous distribution of rainfall. For the reference catchment Klein River simulated total daily runoff fit the observed values of the reference year 2012. The calculation of potential input of sediment, phosphorus, and nitrogen into waters is based on aggregated or generalized information on climate data, land use types, crop and fruit types, yields, mineral fertilizers, farm manure, nitrogen fixing by leguminous plants, atmospheric nitrogen deposition, and soil denitrification. Critical source areas for potential sediment input, particulate P input and diffuse N input are mainly agricultural areas. Additionally, point sources of high relevance for N and P are found in urban areas. Based on the potential input of sediment and nutrients the impacts of current land use change on water resources were estimated. We used the web-based information system WebLand for the simulation aiming at the provision of stakeholders with information for decision making in water resource management.

  7. 'Secrets' that kill: crisis, custodianship and responsibility in ritual male circumcision in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepe, Thembela

    2010-03-01

    This paper analyses a tension between traditional leaders and the post-apartheid government in South Africa, concerning the crisis in ritual male circumcision. Over the last two decades, following ritual male circumcision, thousands of youth have been admitted to hospitals, hundreds have undergone penile amputations and hundreds have died. Following the government's intervention through legislation and other health measures, traditional leaders allege that this is a violation of cultural rights enshrined in the Constitution. Drawing on newspaper and journal articles, books, policy documents, and legislation, as well as informal interviews with initiates and their parents and field observations in the Eastern Cape Province (2002-2009), this paper explores the validity of the traditional leaders' challenge, arguing that the crisis in the ritual should be seen in a broader context than the tension between traditional leaders and the state. Finally, the paper argues the tension between traditional leaders and government, and the sensational reporting of this by the media, unfortunately takes away focus from the health crisis in the ritual.

  8. The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape, South Africa

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    Johan Tempelhoff

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available The December 2004-January 2005 floods in the Garden Route region of the Southern Cape in South Africa have had a significant impact on local development and economic activities, tourism products andlocal institutions. This article aims to capture the dynamism between a number of related fields within the context of transdisciplinary research. Qualitative research methods were used to target a representative sample of the affected population. This article considers the history of the flooding events of December 2004/January 2005 along the Garden Route, as well as the manner in which emergency/disaster management personnel responded to the crisis. The effect of the floods on the tourism sector along the Garden Route was researched in general and the effects of the floods on tourists, local residents, and particularly communities in disadvantaged areas were specifically determined. The research reflects on the disaster risk management strategies that were in place at the time of the floods to determine what local authorities could have done to cope with the potential conditions of crisis. The research found that although some tourism products were severely affected, the 2004/2005 floods did not have a significant impact on the number of tourists frequenting the area. In terms of disaster risk management, concerns remain regarding the lack of the following factors: capacity, adequate early warning systems, proper infrastructure maintenance, local institutions, and an in-depth understanding of the disaster risk profile of the area.

  9. A prospective study of methamphetamine use as a predictor of high school non-attendance in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Parry Charles D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This prospective study investigated the association between life-long methamphetamine and other drug use and high school non-attendance, in a sample of high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A random sample of 1535 high school students completed a baseline questionnaire in 2006, and were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The questionnaire included questions on substance use, including tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis use, demographic factors, and questions relating to school attendance and performance. Results Forty-three percent of the students surveyed at baseline did not complete a follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. Compared with students who were not using selected substances, an adjusted logistic regression model showed that life-time methamphetamine use in addition to other substances was significantly associated with non-attendance (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24 - 5.36 when other non-substance use factors (repeating a year at school and being older than the norm for current grade were taken into account. Conclusions Early identification of students with methamphetamine and other substance use problems, and a supportive rather than punitive school policy, may be valuable in improving high school completion and student retention rates.

  10. The 13 world congress on medical and health informatics, Cape Town, South Africa: Partnerships for effective e-Health solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, Andrew

    2011-01-24

    The 13(th) World Congress on Medical and Health Informatics (Medinfo) was held in 2010 between 12 and 15 September in Cape Town, South Africa. This triennial international gathering is the official conference of the International Medical Informatics Association (IMIA) and brings together leading health informatics leaders, scientists, clinicians, researchers, vendors, developers and government and health care planners from around the globe. The conference attracted 905 submissions and resulted in a program that included 260 oral presentations, 349 posters presentations and 21 scientific demonstrations representing contributions from 58 countries. The Medinfo program covered all aspects of health informatics from traditional areas, such as hospital information systems, patient registries, nursing informatics, data integration, standards, interoperability issues and decision support, to innovative topics, such as translational bioinformatics, text mining, intelligent data analysis, emerging technologies, quality, social networking, workflow and organizational issues. The outgoing President of the IMIA, Professor Reinhold Haux, presented on health informatics challenges into the future, reinforcing that today and in the future, health care has to be considered as part of a continuous and coordinated life-time journey and not just as episodes of disease. Medical informatics has a key role to play in this paradigm shift. The new IMIA President, Professor Antoine Geissbuhler, was announced at the closing ceremony. The next Medinfo congress will take place in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2013.

  11. Evaluation of a safer male circumcision training programme for traditional surgeons and nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltzer, Karl; Nqeketo, Ayanda; Petros, George; Kanta, Xola

    2008-06-18

    Training designed to improve circumcision knowledge, attitude and practice was delivered over 5 days to 34 traditional surgeons and 49 traditional nurses in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Training included the following topics: initiation rites; statutory regulation of traditional male circumcision and initiation into Manhood (TCIM); structure and function of the male sex organs; procedure of safe circumcision, infection control; sexually transmitted infections (STIs); HIV/AIDS; infection control measures; aftercare of the initiate including after care of the circumcision wound and initiate as a whole; detection and early management of common complications of circumcision; nutrition and fluid management; code of conduct and ethics; and sexual health education. The evaluation of the training consisted of a prospective assessment of knowledge and attitude immediately prior to and after training. Significant improvement in knowledge and/or attitudes was observed in legal aspects, STI, HIV and environmental aspects, attitudes in terms of improved collaboration with biomedical health care providers, normal and abnormal anatomy and physiology, sexually transmitted infections and including HIV, circumcision practice and aftercare of initiates. We concluded that safer circumcision training can be successfully delivered to traditional surgeons and nurses.

  12. Thirty years of change in the fynbos vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve, South Africa

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    S. D. J. Privett

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This study used permanently marked 50 m: sites, surveyed at a 30 year interval, to provide a descriptive account of the temporal change in the fynbos vegetation of the Cape of Good Hope Nature Reserve. South Africa. Management records were used to examine the role of post-fire age. fire frequency and intensity, as well as biotic interactions (competition from overstorey proteoids and alien plants in influencing vegetation composition over this time period. The mean similarity in species composition of sites between surveys was 62%, indicating an average of nearly 40% turnover in species over the 30 year period. The main causes of this change included differences resulting from different stages in the post-fire succession as well as the impact of differential fire regimes (especially frequency effects. Competition from serotinous Proteaceae. which proved highly mobile after fire, as well as invasive Australian acacias also impacted on the composition of the vegetation over time. The study demonstrated that fynbos communities are temporally dynamic and that the changes over time in species composition are caused by a variety of processes. The study also provided evidence for the role of temporal diversity in contributing to the high species diversity in fynbos systems.

  13. Characterisation of Clostridium difficile strains isolated from Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullin, B; Brock, T; Rajabally, N; Anwar, F; Vedantam, G; Reid, S; Abratt, V

    2016-10-01

    The C. difficile infection rate in South Africa is concerning. Many strains previously isolated from diarrhetic patients at Groote Schuur Hospital were ribotype 017. This study further characterised these strains with respect to their clonal relationships, antibiotic susceptibility, toxin production and various attributes impacting on pathogen colonisation. Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) was used to characterise all C. difficile isolates. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by E-test and PCR-based analysis of the ermB, gyrA and gyrB genes. Auto-aggregation of cells was measured in broth, and biofilm formation observed in 24-well plates. Toxins were measured using the Wampole C DIFF TOX A/B II kit. Most isolates belonged to the ribotype 017 group. Identical MLVA types occurred in different wards over time, and several patients were infected with identical strains. All isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and metronidazole, but some ribotype 017 isolates showed reduced metronidazole susceptibility (≥2 mg l(-1)). Sixty-nine percent of ribotype 017 isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin, and 94 % to erythromycin, compared to 0 % and 17 % resistance, respectively, in non-ribotype 017 isolates. The ermB gene and mutations in the gyrA and/or gyrB genes were linked to erythromycin and moxifloxacin resistance, respectively. Ribotype 017 isolates auto-aggregated more strongly than other isolates and produced lower levels of the TcdB toxin than a reference strain. Certain strains produced strong biofilms. Patient-to-patient transfer and unique infection events could cause the predominance of ribotype 017 strains in the cohort. Multi-drug resistant strains are a potential reservoir for future infections.

  14. Lived experiences of male intimate partners of female rape victims in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Evalina van Wijk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence in South Africa is a major public health and social problem. Sexual assault or rape is a traumatic event which disrupts not only the life of the female rape victim, but also that of her male intimate partner (MIP, irrespective of whether he witnessed or was informed of the incident.Objectives: The study aimed to explore the lived experiences of MIPs of female rape victims and the meaning of these experiences in the six months following the partner’s rape.Method: We conducted a longitudinal hermeneutic phenomenological study. Nine purposively sampled adult MIPs were interviewed over a period of six months. The participants were in an intimate relationship with a female rape victim prior to and immediately after the rape; their partners had been treated at a specialised centre for victims of rape and sexual assault. Four interviews were conducted with each of the nine intimate partners of female rape victims: (1 within 14 days of, (2 a month after, (3 three months after, and (4 six months after the rape.Results: Two major themes emerged: being-in-the-world as a secondary victim of rape, and living in multiple worlds, those of their female partners, family, friends, society, employers or colleagues, professionals and the justice system. The participant’s familiar world became strange and even threatening, and his relationship with his partner became uncertain.Conclusion: Early supportive intervention for intimate partners of female rape victims is required to prevent on-going emotional trauma and alleviate the effects of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder and suffering at intra- and interpersonal levels.

  15. An evaluation of University of Cape Town medical students’ community placements in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Claudia S. Naidu; Virginia Zweigenthal; James Irlam; Leslie London; Johannah Keikelame

    2012-01-01

    Background: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Cape Town (UCT) work closely with stakeholders in community teaching sites to conduct community-based research projects and follow-up health promotion interventions during their Public Health training.Objectives: This study evaluated the placements as a learning experience from the perspectives of past students and community stakeholders.Methods: A total of 32 projects were randomly selected out of 232 projects undertaken during 20...

  16. Management of cryptococcal meningitis in adults at Mthatha Hospital Complex, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Olufunso Oladipupo Sogbanmu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cryptoccocal meningitis (CM remains prevalent in HIV-infected individuals across South Africa (SA. Early diagnosis and management, aided by the existing Southern African HIV Clinicians Society (SAHIVSoc 2007 guidelines on management of CM, could reduce the mortality associated with this condition. Objective. To review the management of adult patients with CM and adherence to the SAHIVSoc 2007 guidelines in a district hospital.Methods. A retrospective chart review of patients admitted with CM from December 2011 to May 2012 was performed. The following key recommendations of the guidelines were evaluated: measurement of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF opening pressure at the first lumbar puncture (LP, prescription of amphotericin B (AMB/fluconazole therapy, intravenous prehydration preceding administration of AMB, monitoring of renal function and performance of serial LPs to manage raised intracranial pressure (ICP.Results. A total of 57 patient charts were reviewed, of which 40 (70% were of females. The mean age (range of the cohort was 36 (21 - 60 years. Fifty-two (91% patients presented with headache. Confusion was recorded in 30 (53% and vomiting in 26 (46%. The major signs observed were fever (n=29 (51% and neck stiffness (n=34 (60%. Fifty-five (96% patients were HIV-infected at presentation, with a median (range CD4+ count of 77 (13 - 90 cells/µl. None of the patients had a CSF opening pressure measured at first LP. AMB was used as an induction agent in 51 (89% patients, of whom 47 (92% completed 2 weeks of AMB. Of these 51, only 20 (40% were prehydrated and 10 (18% had two repeat LPs performed 1 week apart. Renal function was monitored in only 27 (53% of the patients receiving AMB. This was done at baseline and twice weekly, and was consistent with the guidelines. No abnormality in renal function was recorded in these cases during the study. The mortality rate was 30% in the first 10 days of admission.Conclusion. This chart review

  17. Women's experiences with cervical cancer screening in a colposcopy referral clinic in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momberg, Mariette; Botha, Matthys H; Van der Merwe, Frederick H; Moodley, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore and understand women's experience with cervical cancer screening and with the referral pathways for abnormal Papanicolau (Pap) smears. Design and setting Focus group discussions were conducted with first time colposcopy clinic attendees at a tertiary hospital colposcopy clinic in Cape Town, South Africa during November 2014. A thematic analysis was conducted to identify key themes. Initial coding categories were drawn from the interview guide. Participants 27 women participated in 4 focus group discussions. Results Participants mean age was 34 years, most did not complete secondary level education and were unemployed. Negative community opinions relating to Pap smears and colposcopy referral might deter women from seeking treatment. Having a gynaecological symptom was the most commonly cited reason for having a Pap smear. Fear of having a HIV test performed at the same time as Pap smear and low encouragement from peers, were factors identified as potential access barriers. Participants commented on insufficient or lack of information from primary providers on referral to the colposcopy clinic and concerns and apprehension during waiting periods between receiving results and the colposcopy appointment were discussed. Conclusions There is a strong and urgent need to improve current knowledge about cervical cancer and Pap smears and the necessity and benefits of timely access to screening programmes, results and treatment. Strategies such as community health education programmes and mass media interventions could be employed to disseminate cervical cancer information and address negative community perceptions. Better training and support mechanisms to equip healthcare providers with the skills to convey cervical cancer information to women are needed. The use of short message service (SMS) to deliver Pap smear results and provide patients with more information should be considered to improve waiting times for results

  18. Assessment of the impact of family physicians in the district health system of the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Meyer Swanepoel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, South Africa made family medicine a new speciality. Family physicians that have trained for this new speciality have been employed in the district health system since 2011. The aim of the present study was to explore the perceptions of district managers on the impact of family physicians on clinical processes, health system performance and health outcomes in the district health system (DHS of the Western Cape.Methods: Nine in-depth interviews were performed: seven with district managers and two with the chief directors of the metropolitan and rural DHS. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using the ATLAS-ti and the framework method.Results: There was a positive impact on clinical processes for HIV/AIDS, TB, trauma, noncommunicable chronic diseases, mental health, maternal and child health. Health system performance was positively impacted in terms of access, coordination, comprehensiveness and efficiency. An impact on health outcomes was anticipated. The impact was not uniform throughout the province due to different numbers of family physicians and different abilities to function optimally. There was also a perception that the positive impact attributed to family physicians was in the early stages of development. Unanticipated effects included concerns with their roles in management and training of students, as well as tensions with career medical officers.Conclusion: Early feedback from district managers suggests that where family physicians are employed and able to function optimally, they are making a significant impact on health system performance and the quality of clinical processes. In the longer term, this is likely to impact on health outcomes.

  19. Learning that circumcision is protective against HIV: risk compensation among men and women in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Brendan Maughan-Brown

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We examined whether knowledge of the HIV-protective benefits of male circumcision (MC led to risk compensating behavior in a traditionally circumcising population in South Africa. We extend the current literature by examining risk compensation among women, which has hitherto been unexplored. METHODS: We used data on Xhosa men and women from the 2009 Cape Area Panel Study. Respondents were asked if they had heard that MC reduces a man's risk of contracting HIV, about their perceived risk of contracting HIV, and condom use. For each gender group we assessed whether risk perception and condom use differed by knowledge of the protective benefits of MC using bivariate and then multivariate models controlling for demographic characteristics, HIV knowledge/beliefs, and previous sexual behaviors. In a further check for confounding, we used data from the 2005 wave to assess whether individuals who would eventually become informed about the protective benefits of circumcision were already different in terms of HIV risk perception and condom use. RESULTS: 34% of men (n=453 and 27% of women (n=690 had heard that circumcision reduces a man's risk of HIV infection. Informed men perceived slightly higher risk of contracting HIV and were more likely to use condoms at last sex (p<0.10. Informed women perceived lower HIV risk (p<0.05, were less likely to use condoms both at last sex (p<0.10 and more generally (p<0.01, and more likely to forego condoms with partners of positive or unknown serostatus (p<0.01. The results were robust to covariate adjustment, excluding people living with HIV, and accounting for risk perceptions and condom use in 2005. CONCLUSIONS: We find evidence consistent with risk compensation among women but not men. Further attention should be paid to the role of new information regarding MC, and drivers of HIV risk more broadly, in modulating sexual behavior among women.

  20. Caregivers' Experiences of Pathways to Care for Seriously Ill Children in Cape Town, South Africa: A Qualitative Investigation.

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    Caroline H D Jones

    Full Text Available Understanding caregivers' experiences of care can identify barriers to timely and good quality care, and support the improvement of services. We aimed to explore caregivers' experiences and perceptions of pathways to care, from first access through various levels of health service, for seriously ill and injured children in Cape Town, South Africa, in order to identify areas for improvement.Semi-structured, qualitative interviews were conducted with primary caregivers of children who were admitted to paediatric intensive care or died in the health system prior to intensive care admission. Interviews explored caregivers' experiences from when their child first became ill, through each level of health care to paediatric intensive care or death. A maximum variation sample of transcripts was purposively sampled from a larger cohort study based on demographic characteristics, child diagnosis, and outcome at 30 days; and analysed using the method of constant comparison.Of the 282 caregivers who were interviewed in the larger cohort study, 45 interviews were included in this qualitative analysis. Some caregivers employed 'tactics' to gain quicker access to care, including bypassing lower levels of care, and negotiating or demanding to see a healthcare professional ahead of other patients. It was sometimes unclear how to access emergency care within facilities; and non-medical personnel informally judged illness severity and helped or hindered quicker access. Caregivers commonly misconceived ambulances to be slow to arrive, and were concerned when ambulance transfers were seemingly not prioritised by illness severity. Communication was often good, but some caregivers experienced language difficulties and/or criticism.Interventions to improve child health care could be based on: reorganising the reception of seriously ill children and making the emergency route within healthcare facilities clear; promoting caregivers' use of ambulances and prioritising

  1. Early adolescent pregnancy increases risk of incident HIV infection in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: a longitudinal study

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    Nicola J Christofides

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adolescents having unprotected heterosexual intercourse are at risk of HIV infection and unwanted pregnancy. However, there is little evidence to indicate whether pregnancy in early adolescence increases the risk of subsequent HIV infection. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that adolescent pregnancy (aged 15 or younger increases the risk of incident HIV infection in young South African women. Methods: We assessed 1099 HIV-negative women, aged 15–26 years, who were volunteer participants in a cluster-randomized, controlled HIV prevention trial in the predominantly rural Eastern Cape province of South Africa. All of these young women had at least one additional HIV test over two years of follow-up. Outcomes were HIV incidence rates per 100 person years and HIV incidence rate ratios (IRRs estimated by Poisson multivariate models. Three pregnancy categories were created for the Poisson model: early adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 15 years or younger; later adolescent pregnancy (a first pregnancy at age 16 to 19 years; and women who did not report an adolescent pregnancy. Models were adjusted for study design, age, education, time since first sexual experience, socio-economic status, childhood trauma and herpes simplex virus type 2 infection. Results: HIV incidence rates were 6.0 per 100 person years over two years of follow-up. The adjusted IRR was 3.02 (95% CI 1.50–6.09 for a pregnancy occurring at age 15 or younger. Women with pregnancies occurring between 16 and 19 years of age did not have a higher incidence of HIV (IRR 1.08; 95% CI 0.64–1.84. Early adolescent pregnancies were associated with higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners. Conclusions: Early adolescent pregnancies increase the incidence of HIV among South African women. The higher risk is associated with sexual risk behaviours such as higher partner numbers and a greater age difference with partners rather than a

  2. Patient satisfaction with a pilot chronic pain management programme in Cape Town, South Africa

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    R. Parker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goals of a chronic pain management clinic includeincreasing patient knowledge about pain, developing pain management skillsand increasing patients’ confidence in their pain management abilities.A  Chronic Pain Management Programme (CPMP based on evidence basedguidelines was developed at a chronic pain management clinic to facilitatepatient discharge to a primary healthcare level. Aim: The aim of this study was to explore patient satisfaction with, acceptability of and the perceived success which could be due to the CPMP developed at the Chronic Pain Management Clinic of Groote Schuur Hospital,Cape Town.Methods: Patients (n=14 were referred to the pilot study from the Chronic Pain Management Clinic. A s a pilot, four courses were run over a period ofone year. In order to reach the research aim, an eleven-question, structuredopen-ended interview was conducted with all participants. Results: Fourteen patients enrolled in the CPMP. Responses were favourable with participants emphasising the roleof increased knowledge about pain, the role of exercise and of stress management techniques. Participants also recog-nised a positive change in behaviours and attitudes following participation in the CPMP.Conclusions: Findings suggest that participants found the format of the course acceptable as regards course content,structure and delivery. Participant responses suggest that the course was acceptable and perceived as useful. However,future courses would benefit from refresher courses or structured support groups.

  3. Complications of traditional circumcision amongst young Xhosa males seen at St Lucy’s Hospital, Tsolo, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Ugochukwu Anike

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional circumcision of males is common amongst many societies in sub-Saharan Africa. Circumcision amongst the Xhosa people of South Africa represents a rite of passage to manhood. Traditional male circumcision has an increased risk for complications that include sepsis, genitalmutilation, gangrenous penis, excessive bleeding, dehydration, renal failure and death. The aim of this study was to describe the complications of traditional circumcisions amongst Xhosa men as seen at St. Lucy’s Hospital in the Eastern Cape Province.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive quantitative study was conducted in 2008. Records of 105 malesadmitted to St. Lucy’s Hospital with complications following traditional circumcision were reviewed. Data collected included age, education level, race, reasons for circumcision, complications, the period of circumcision, duration of hospital stay and the outcomes. Descriptive data analysis was performed using statistical software SPSS 17.0.Results: The ages ranged from 15–35 years with 68 (64.8% between 15–19 years. 83 (79% had a secondarylevel of education, 16 (15.2% primary, 5 (4.8% tertiary and 1% had no education. 60 (57% werecircumcised as initiation to manhood, 21 (20.0% due to peer pressure, 20 (19.0% for cultural reasons, and 1(1.0% was forced. The complications were sepsis (59 [56.2%], genital mutilation (28 [26.7%], dehydration(12 [11.4%] and amputation of genitalia (6 [5.7%].Fifty-nine (56.2% patients were circumcised in winter.79 (75.2% were circumcised in the forest, and 25 (23.8% in initiation centres. Fifty-eight (55.2% werecircumcised by traditionalists, and 47 (44.8% by tribal elders (initiators. Hospital stays ranged from 8 to28 days. 66% were healed and discharged, and 29 (27.6% were referred to higher centres of care.Conclusion: Genital sepsis was the most common complication of traditional male circumcision.Complications were related to the circumciser, advanced age of the patient

  4. Towards Multilingual Higher Education in South Africa: The University of Cape Town's Experience

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    Madiba, Mbulungeni

    2010-01-01

    South African universities are required by the Language Policy for Higher Education adopted by the government on 6 November 2002 to implement multilingualism in their learning and teaching programmes. Multilingualism is recommended in this policy as a means to ensure equity of access and success in higher education, in contrast to past colonial…

  5. The Prevalence of Motor Delay among HIV Infected Children Living in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Children living with HIV often display delayed motor performance owing to HIV infection of the central nervous system, the effects of opportunistic infections and, indirectly, owing to their social environments. Although these problems have been well documented, the impact of the virus on the development of South African children is less well…

  6. Patients’ perceptions of the triage system in a primary healthcare facility, Cape Town, South Africa

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    Adeloye A. Adeniji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In public healthcare facilities, where the patient numbers and the available resources are often disproportionate, triage is used to prioritise when patients are seen. Patients may not understand the triage process and have strong views on how to improve their experience.Aim: This study explored the views of patients who had undergone triage in the emergency centre of a primary care facility. Setting: Gugulethu Community Health Centre, Cape Town.Methods: A purposive sample consisted of five women (one coded green, three orange, one yellow and four men (one coded green and three yellow. A semi-structured qualitative interview was conducted in either Xhosa or English and the transcripts analysed using the framework method.Results: All of the respondents complained of a lack of information and poor understanding of the triage process. Those coded green experienced the process as biased and unfair and reported that the triage nurse was rude and unprofessional. By contrast, those coded yellow or orange found the triage nurse to be helpful and professional. Most patients turned to support staff (e.g. security staff or cleaners for assistance in dealing with the triage system. Most patients waited longer than the guidelines recommend and the green-coded patients complained about this issue.Conclusion: Patients did not have a good experience of the triage system. Managers of the triage system need to design better strategies to improve patient acceptance and share information. The important role of support staff needs to be recognised and strengthened.Keywords: emergency care; primary care; triage; patient satisfaction

  7. An evaluation of University of Cape Town medical students’ community placements in South Africa

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    Claudia S. Naidu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Cape Town (UCT work closely with stakeholders in community teaching sites to conduct community-based research projects and follow-up health promotion interventions during their Public Health training.Objectives: This study evaluated the placements as a learning experience from the perspectives of past students and community stakeholders.Methods: A total of 32 projects were randomly selected out of 232 projects undertaken during 2006, 2008 and 2009. Two students and a stakeholder involved with each project were sampled. A standardised survey was emailed to students and in-depth interviews were held with stakeholders.Results: Fifty two per cent of 64 students and 57% of 25 stakeholders responded. Most students felt that the placements enhanced their academic experience and confidence in research skills, and were an effective form of learning. Perceived challenges included time constraints and, for a minority, inadequately prepared settings and stakeholders. Stakeholders felt that the placements empowered the communities and prepared students for the realities of working as a medical professional. They viewed students as a valuable resource and believed that student projects addressed important community myths and health problems. Recommendations from students and stakeholders included more time for the Public Health block, followup interventions for greater continuity, and better alignment of projects with stakeholder programmes.Conclusion: The evaluation reveals both the importance and challenges of community placements and identifies areas of improvement. Despite the limited duration of the placements, they offered valuable community-based learning experiences for the students and worthwhile benefits for the communities.

  8. An evaluation of University of Cape Town medical students’ community placements in South Africa

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    Claudia S. Naidu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fourth-year medical students at the University of Cape Town (UCT work closely with stakeholders in community teaching sites to conduct community-based research projects and follow-up health promotion interventions during their Public Health training.Objectives: This study evaluated the placements as a learning experience from the perspectives of past students and community stakeholders.Methods: A total of 32 projects were randomly selected out of 232 projects undertaken during 2006, 2008 and 2009. Two students and a stakeholder involved with each project were sampled. A standardised survey was emailed to students and in-depth interviews were held with stakeholders.Results: Fifty two per cent of 64 students and 57% of 25 stakeholders responded. Most students felt that the placements enhanced their academic experience and confidence in research skills, and were an effective form of learning. Perceived challenges included time constraints and, for a minority, inadequately prepared settings and stakeholders. Stakeholders felt that the placements empowered the communities and prepared students for the realities of working as a medical professional. They viewed students as a valuable resource and believed that student projects addressed important community myths and health problems. Recommendations from students and stakeholders included more time for the Public Health block, followup interventions for greater continuity, and better alignment of projects with stakeholder programmes.Conclusion: The evaluation reveals both the importance and challenges of community placements and identifies areas of improvement. Despite the limited duration of the placements, they offered valuable community-based learning experiences for the students and worthwhile benefits for the communities.

  9. Body weight, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst university nursing students, Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Violet L. van den Berg

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care workers need to be equipped to deal with the increasing obesity and obesity-related morbidity occurring in developing countries.Objectives: To assess weight status, eating practices and nutritional knowledge amongst nursing students at the University of Fort Hare, Eastern Cape.Method: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted on 161 undergraduate (51 male and 110 female students of the Department of Nursing Sciences at the University of Fort Hare. Body mass index, waist and hip circumferences and waist hip ratio were determined. Nutritional knowledge and eating practices were investigated by structured intervieweradministered questionnaires.Results: Statically, 49.7% were overweight or obese (58.2% of the females; 31.4% of the males and 65.2% had waist circumferences putting them at risk for non-communicable diseases. Most did not meet the recommendations for intakes from the vegetable group (97.5% ate <3 servings per day, the fruit group (42.2% ate <2 servings per day, and the dairy group (92.6% ate <2 servings per day; whilst 78.3% ate ≥4 serving per day of sugar or sweets. Most consumed margarine, oil or fat (68.3%, sugar (59.0% and bread (55.9% daily, but few reported daily intakes of vegetables (12.4%, fruit (23.6%, fruit juice (21.2% and milk (15.6%. Fewer than 50% knew the recommended intakes for vegetables, fruit, dairy, starchy foods and meat or meat alternatives.Conclusions: These nursing students had a high prevalence of overweight and obesity, poor eating habits and inadequate knowledge on key nutrition issues, which may impact negatively on their efficacy as future health ambassadors to the public.

  10. Small-scale Fisheries Governance and Understanding the Snoek (Thyrsites atun Supply Chain in the Ocean View Fishing Community, Western Cape, South Africa

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    Moenieba Isaacs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Postapartheid fisheries reform in South Africa, through the Marine Living Resources Act (MLRA 18 of 1998, used individual transferable quotas (ITQs to broaden resource access through allocating quotas to new entrants, even though the system has been created to reduce capacity through a reduction in the number of active fishers. The formal action space created through fisheries reform in South Africa left many artisanal fishers to operate in the informal action spaces, selling Thyrsites atun (snoek to poor communities to sustain their livelihoods. Artisanal fishers were not recognized by MLRA of 1998 and through class action case brought against the ITQ system, and in out of court settlement with the claimants in 2007, 1000 interim relief permits will be allocated to artisanal fishes and the development of a new small-scale fisheries policy for South Africa. In this case study of a fishing community in Ocean View, Cape Town I examine a snoek fishery that operates differently, through a community supply chain and informal markets, than that of the high value ITQ regulated species, yet plays a significant role in the livelihoods of artisanal fishers and in the food security of poor households. The findings of this case study show the failures of existing policy frameworks and the implications for the implementation of the new small-scale fisheries policy in South Africa.

  11. Health-related quality of life of patients six months poststroke living in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Anthea J. Rhoda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of individuals report a decline in health-related quality of life following a stroke. Quality of life and factors predicting quality of life could differ in individuals from lower income countries. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the quality of life and factors influencing quality of life of community-dwelling stroke patients living in low-income, peri-urban areas in the Western Cape, South Africa.Method: An observational, longitudinal study was used to collect data from a conveniently selected sample of first-ever stroke patients. The Rivermead Motor Assessment Scale and the Barthel Index were used to determine functional outcome and the EQ-5D was used to collect information relating to quality of life at two months and six months poststroke. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyse the data.Results: The total sample of 100 participants consisted of 50% men and 50% women with a mean age of 61 and a standard deviation of 10.55 years. Six-month quality of life datawas analysed for 73 of the 100 participants. Of the 27 who were lost to follow-up, nine participants died, four withdrew from the study after baseline data was collected and eleven could not be followed up as they had either moved or no follow-up telephone numbers were available. A further three participants were excluded from the analysis of the EQ-5D as they were aphasic. Of these, approximately 35% had problems with mobility and self-care, whilst 42% had severe problems with everyday activities and 37.8% expressed having anxiety and depression. Quality of life at two months (p = 0.010 and urinary incontinence (p = 0.002 were significant predictors of quality of life at six months.Conclusion: Health-related quality of life was decreased in the South African stroke sample. Functional ability and urinary incontinence were the factors affecting quality of life in the sample. These factors should be considered in the

  12. Investigating a green economy transition of the electricity sector in the Western Cape province of South Africa: a system dynamics approach

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    Oosthuizen, Juan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Western Cape Government in South Africa has identified the concept of a green economy as a way to transform the Province’s economy to one that is more sustainable from an economic, social, and environmental perspective. System dynamics modelling was used to develop a better understanding of the implications of different green economy policies and investments in the electricity sector of the Western Cape Province. The results suggest that continuing on the current policy path would increase the gap between demand and supply, increase the carbon footprint of the electricity sector, and not provide growth in employment in the sector. Strategic green economy investments are therefore expected to impact positively on a number of indicators across a number of sectors.

  13. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  14. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs, especially in the Western Cape Province of South Africa, are currently facing various financial and other obstacles, which may threaten their survival. Globalisation, the lowering of trade barriers and the reduction of import tariffs have resulted in increased international competition. Businesses are thus forced to undertake continuous improvements and innovation in order to survive, to keep abreast of change and to excel.Objectives: Effective knowledge sharing and consequent knowledge management (KM have been identified as definite approaches to enhancing competitive advantage. The research therefore aimed to establish to what extent small enterprises embrace their knowledge sharing activities and whether their knowledge sharing activities are managed at all. Furthermore, it examined how their knowledge sharing can contribute to their competitive advantage.Method: A case study approach was followed for this research. Selected SMEs from the engineering sector were the subject of the case study and SME owners, directors and managers of consulting civil engineering firms were interviewed to determine whether there are mechanisms in place to ensure better knowledge sharing within SMEs.Results: In general, respondents had stated that they possessed special factors that set them above their competitors:• The company strategy and good reputation of completing projects within the required timeframe. In other words, they were well known for their track record in terms of service delivery. • Their specialty in terms of different focus areas, namely structural and civil engineering, water supply and storm water design, transportation, sewer design and storm water traffic. • The fact that they operated in silos. This means that the specialists in their specific fields operated independently in groups, separately from everyone else in the company. • Their good relationship with local authorities

  15. Comparison and validation of full-scale data from wind measurements in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Andries C.; Goliger, Adam M.; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the wind climate of Cape Town and its surroundings can be shown by the measurements of specific wind phenomena by weather stations around Table Mountain. It is shown that there are substantial differences between wind speed characteristics affecting various parts of the city....... These differences between the wind at the different locations are further complicated by the main strong wind mechanisms prevailing in the region, i.e. north-westerly winds from passing extratropical cyclones, mainly in the austral winter, and south-easterlies from ridging high-pressure systems, mainly...... in the summer months. This initial investigation is the precursor of a broader study involving wind tunnel modelling, wind measurements and climate modelling, to provide a comprehensive analysis of the spatial variability of strong winds in the Cape Peninsula....

  16. Occurrence of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in two commercial swine farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Iwu, Chinwe Juliana; Iweriebor, Benson Chuks; Obi, Larry Chikwelu; Okoh, Anthony Ifeanyi

    2016-02-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is one of the most significant causes of food-borne infections capable of causing serious health complications in humans. Even though ruminants are known to be the major reservoirs of STEC, other non-ruminant food producing animals may also harbour pathogenic E. coli strains. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of E. coli serogroups O26, O111, O121, O145, and O157 and their associated virulence genes (stx1, stx2, eae, and ehxA) in swine faecal samples obtained from the two major commercial farms located in the Nkonkobe Municipality, Eastern Cape, South Africa. The proportions of serogroups detected were O26; 35 (7%), O145; 14 (2.8%), and O157:H7; 43 (8.6%) of the total animals sampled. Out of the 500 animals sampled, 22 isolates of E. coli (1.4%) tested positive for the stx2 gene, and 7 of these isolates belonged to E. coli O26 serogroup, while the remaining 15 most likely belonged to serogroups untargeted in this study. Other virulence genes (stx1, eae, and ehxA) that we screened for were not detected. These findings reveal that pigs within the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa can harbour Shiga toxin-producing E. coli.

  17. South Africa

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    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  18. Overcoming SMEs Challenges through Critical Success Factors: A Case of SMEs in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    Takalani Ramukumba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs comprise over 90% of African business operations and contribute to over 50% of African employment and Growth Domestic Product (GDP. SMEs sector has shown positive signs in South Africa, Mauritius and North Africa. In South Africa, SMEs constitute 55% of all jobs. Research of Bowler, Dawood and Page (2007 reveal that 40% of new business ventures fail in their first year, 60% in their second year, and 90% in their first 10 years of existence. It seems that a number of challenges have been identified as contributing to the failure of SMEs in South Africa and worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the critical success factors for the SMEs to improve their performance in order to overcome the challenges they are faced within the competitive market environment. The research problem of this study emanates from the current high business failure rate. The research investigates what are the critical success factors that can help these SMEs to be sustainable and have positive growth so to limit the high business failure rate in South Africa. The research established that attracting repeat customers and the performance of the product are the critical success factors that can lead to the sustenance of these SMEs. The study concluded that the resource-constraint SMEs need to focus on critical success factors to build competitive advantage to stay competitive amidst the challenges from globalisation and liberalisation. This study will make further contribution on understanding these critical success factors as they are central to business success, especially in South Africa where it is estimated that the failure rate of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMEs is between 70% and 80% (Brink and Cant, 2009.

  19. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Reed E

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Reed,1 Andrea N Emanuel,2 Bronwyn Myers,3,4 Kim Johnson,3 Wendee M Wechsberg2,5–7 1George Washington University School of Public Health, Department of Prevention and Community Health, Washington, DC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Gillings Global School of Public Health, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 6Psychology in the Public Interest, North Carolina State University, NC, USA; 7Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, Duke University School of Medicine, NC, USA Objectives: To examine qualitatively how women's social context and community mobilization (eg, mobilizing women to take social action and engaging their community in social change influence substance use abstinence and victimization among women participating in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV intervention in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods: Thirty women who had participated in a randomized controlled trial of a group-delivered intervention to address substance use, gender-based violence, and associated risk for HIV (The Women's Health CoOp were selected to participate in semi-structured interviews about their perceived impact of the intervention on their substance use and exposure to victimization. The Women's CoOp intervention involved creating a new positive social environment for women within a group setting that also fostered women's social action (eg, educating peers or family members in the community. Interviews were analyzed using content analysis and coded to examine women's descriptions of social contexts and social action, and the influence of these on women's substance use abstinence and exposure to victimization. Results: Social support (eg, via program staff and other participants and social action (eg, engaging others in the

  20. Cranes and Crops: Investigating Farmer Tolerances toward Crop Damage by Threatened Blue Cranes ( Anthropoides paradiseus) in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    van Velden, Julia L.; Smith, Tanya; Ryan, Peter G.

    2016-12-01

    The Western Cape population of Blue Cranes ( Anthropoides paradiseus) in South Africa is of great importance as the largest population throughout its range. However, Blue Cranes are strongly associated with agricultural lands in the Western Cape, and therefore may come into conflict with farmers who perceive them as damaging to crops. We investigated the viability of this population by exploring farmer attitudes toward crane damage in two regions of the Western Cape, the Swartland and Overberg, using semi-structured interviews. Perceptions of cranes differed widely between regions: farmers in the Swartland perceived crane flocks to be particularly damaging to the feed crop sweet lupin (65 % of farmers reported some level of damage by cranes), and 40 % of these farmers perceived cranes as more problematic than other common bird pests. Farmers in the Overberg did not perceive cranes as highly damaging, although there was concern about cranes eating feed at sheep troughs. Farmers who had experienced large flocks on their farms and farmers who ranked cranes as more problematic than other bird pests more often perceived cranes to be damaging to their livelihoods. Biographical variables and crop profiles could not be related to the perception of damage, indicating the complexity of this human-wildlife conflict. Farmers' need for management alternatives was related to the perceived severity of damage. These results highlight the need for location-specific management solutions to crop damage by cranes, and contribute to the management of this vulnerable species.

  1. HIV-1 subtypes B and C unique recombinant forms (URFs and transmitted drug resistance identified in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.

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    Graeme Brendon Jacobs

    Full Text Available South Africa has the largest worldwide HIV/AIDS population with 5.6 million people infected and at least 2 million people on antiretroviral therapy. The majority of these infections are caused by HIV-1 subtype C. Using genotyping methods we characterized HIV-1 subtypes of the gag p24 and pol PR and RT fragments, from a cohort of female participants in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. These participants were recruited as part of a study to assess the combined brain and behavioural effects of HIV and early childhood trauma. The partial HIV-1 gag and pol fragments of 84 participants were amplified by PCR and sequenced. Different online tools and manual phylogenetic analysis were used for HIV-1 subtyping. Online tools included: REGA HIV Subtyping tool version 3; Recombinant Identification Program (RIP; Context-based Modeling for Expeditious Typing (COMET; jumping profile Hidden Markov Models (jpHMM webserver; and subtype classification using evolutionary algorithms (SCUEAL. HIV-1 subtype C predominates within the cohort with a prevalence of 93.8%. We also show, for the first time, the presence of circulating BC strains in at least 4.6% of our study cohort. In addition, we detected transmitted resistance associated mutations in 4.6% of analysed sequences. With tourism and migration rates to South Africa currently very high, we are detecting more and more HIV-1 URFs within our study populations. It is still unclear what role these unique strains will play in terms of long term antiretroviral treatment and what challenges they will pose to vaccine development. Nevertheless, it remains vitally important to monitor the HIV-1 diversity in South Africa and worldwide as the face of the epidemic is continually changing.

  2. A multi-level analysis of risk perception, poverty and sexual risk-taking among young people in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Rajulton, Fernando

    2011-03-01

    Various studies have underscored the relevance of community-level factors to sexual behavior and HIV/AIDS prevention efforts in Africa. However, there is a paucity of research and theorizing in this area compared to the preponderance of prevention models that focus solely on individual-level factors. Using data from the Cape Area Panel Survey and hierarchical linear models, this study examines the effects of a combination of individual-level factors and community-level poverty on sexual behaviors. Male and female respondents who perceived themselves to be at great risk of HIV infection were less likely to indulge in risky sexual behaviors. For females, race and community-level poverty were confounded such that race mediated the effects of community-level poverty. Results from this study indicate that multiple rationalities affect sexual behaviors in Cape Town, South Africa and that there is a need to consider both the social embeddedness of sexual behaviors and the rational components of decision making when designing HIV/AIDS prevention programs.

  3. The prevalence and distribution of Argas walkerae (Acari: Argasidae in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa : research communications

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    N. Nyangiwe

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence and geographic distribution of the fowl tampan, Argas walkerae Kaiser & Hoogstraal, 1969 was determined in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa by inspecting two fowl houses in the vicinity of each of 72 randomly selected communal cattle dip-tanks. Tampans were collected from 102 (70.8 % of the 144 fowl houses in the neighbourhood of 57 (79.2 % of the 72 selected dip-tanks, and the localities of the collections were mapped. Argas walkerae was present in fowl houses from the warm coastal regions of the Indian Ocean in the south to the cold and mountainous Drakensberg in the north-east of the Province. Taking into account the probable sensitivity of the sampling method, it is estimated that A. walkerae is likely to be present in fowl houses belonging to between 74 and 84 % of communities making use of cattle dip-tanks in the eastern region of the Eastern Cape Province, and that when it is present, between 64 and 75 % of fowl houses will be infested. The geographic distribution of A. walkerae seemed to be more strongly associated with the presence of fowls and fowl houses containing raw or processed wood in their structure than with climate.

  4. Exploring repeat HIV testing among men who have sex with men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

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    Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; de Voux, Alex; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Baral, Stefan D; Winskell, Kate; Kose, Zamakayise; Wirtz, Andrea L; Brown, Ben; Stephenson, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men (MSM) - and the general adult population - in South Africa, there is little data regarding the extent to which MSM seek repeat testing for HIV. This study explores reported histories of HIV testing, and the rationales for test seeking, among a purposive sample of 34 MSM in two urban areas of South Africa. MSM participated in activity-based in-depth interviews that included a timeline element to facilitate discussion. Repeat HIV testing was limited among participants, with three-quarters having two or fewer lifetime HIV tests, and over one-third of the sample having one or fewer lifetime tests. For most repeat testers, the time gap between their HIV tests was greater than the one-year interval recommended by national guidelines. Analysis of the reasons for seeking HIV testing revealed several types of rationale. The reasons for a first HIV test were frequently one-time occurrences, such as a requirement prior to circumcision, or motivations likely satisfied by a single HIV test. For MSM who reported repeat testing at more timely intervals, the most common rationale was seeking test results with a sex partner. Results indicate a need to shift HIV test promotion messaging and programming for MSM in South Africa away from a one-off model to one that frames HIV testing as a repeated, routine health maintenance behavior.

  5. Impact of Sexual Trauma on HIV Care Engagement: Perspectives of Female Patients with Trauma Histories in Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Watt, Melissa H; Dennis, Alexis C; Choi, Karmel W; Ciya, Nonceba; Joska, John A; Robertson, Corne; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2016-11-19

    South African women have disproportionately high rates of both sexual trauma and HIV. To understand how sexual trauma impacts HIV care engagement, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with 15 HIV-infected women with sexual trauma histories, recruited from a public clinic in Cape Town. Interviews explored trauma narratives, coping behaviors and care engagement, and transcripts were analyzed using a constant comparison method. Participants reported multiple and complex traumas across their lifetimes. Sexual trauma hindered HIV care engagement, especially immediately following HIV diagnosis, and there were indications that sexual trauma may interfere with future care engagement, via traumatic stress symptoms including avoidance. Disclosure of sexual trauma was limited; no women had disclosed to an HIV provider. Routine screening for sexual trauma in HIV care settings may help to identify individuals at risk of poor care engagement. Efficacious treatments are needed to address the psychological and behavioral sequelae of trauma.

  6. The use of visual methods to explore how children construct and assign meaning to the “self” within two urban communities in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Elizabeth Benninger

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to explore how children construct and assign meaning to the “self” within two urban communities of Cape Town in South Africa. Using a child participation methodological framework data were collected using Photovoice and community maps with 54 participants between the ages of 9 and 12. Feelings of safety, social connectedness, and children's spaces were found to be central to the ways in which the participants constructed and assigned meaning to the “self.” The study provides implications for intervention programmes aimed at improving children's well-being to be inclusive of activities aimed at improving children's self-concept, including the construction of safe spaces for children to play, learn, and form meaningful relationships.

  7. Rumen ciliates in the African (Cape) buffalo (Syncerus caffer caffer) living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park, South Africa.

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    Booyse, Dirk G; Dehority, Burk A; Reininghaus, Björn

    2014-07-31

    Samples of rumen contents were obtained from 10 African (Cape) buffalo living in the vicinity of the Orpen Gate entrance into Kruger National Park in South Africa. Total number of ciliate protozoa per animal ranged from 3.15 to 23.25 x 103. Forty three different species and forms were observed, of which 35 are a new host record. The total number of species and forms per animal varied from 10 to 17. Eudiplodinium maggii occurred in all 10 animals, followed by Dasytricha ruminantium in nine animals. Diplodinium posterovesiculatum, Eudiplodinium magnodentatum and Ostracodinium mammosum were present in seven animals with all other species and forms occurring in five or less animals. 

  8. The perceived benefit of the disability grant for persons living with HIV in an informal settlement community in the Western Cape, South Africa.

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    Woolgar, Helen Louise; Mayers, Pat M

    2014-01-01

    For persons living with HIV (PLWH) in limited socioeconomic circumstances in South Africa, social grants for disability have contributed significantly to alleviate poverty, yet there is a risk that recipients may lose these grants once they are clinically stable on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our qualitative research explored perceptions and experiences of PLWH on ART concerning the social grant for disability and its contribution to health. Three focus groups were conducted with 15 purposively selected participants who attended a primary care clinic in the Western Cape. A thematic data analysis approach revealed two themes: (a) disability grants as a means of survival and (b) disability grants and ART adherence. The disability grant was considered an essential source of income and, for some, the sole means of survival. Participants valued their health more than the income, however, and, despite the risk of losing the grant, remained adherent to ART.

  9. High prevalence of tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

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    Mareli Claassens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. AIMS: To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. METHODS: In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. RESULTS: In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25-41/1000 and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5-13/1000. In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17-32/1000 and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6-15/1000. In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19-30%. DISCUSSION: In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.

  10. A social network typology and sexual risk-taking among men who have sex with men in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Voux, Alex; Baral, Stefan D; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Beyrer, Chris; Phaswana-Mafuya, Nancy; Siegler, Aaron J; Sullivan, Patrick S; Winskell, Kate; Stephenson, Rob

    2016-01-01

    Despite the high prevalence of HIV among men who have sex with men in South Africa, very little is known about their lived realities, including their social and sexual networks. Given the influence of social network structure on sexual risk behaviours, a better understanding of the social contexts of men who have sex with men is essential for informing the design of HIV programming and messaging. This study explored social network connectivity, an understudied network attribute, examining self-reported connectivity between friends, family and sex partners. Data were collected in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa, from 78 men who have sex with men who participated in in-depth interviews that included a social network mapping component. Five social network types emerged from the content analysis of these social network maps based on the level of connectivity between family, friends and sex partners, and ranged from disconnected to densely connected networks. The ways in which participants reported sexual risk-taking differed across the five network types, revealing diversity in social network profiles. HIV programming and messaging for this population can greatly benefit from recognising the diversity in lived realities and social connections between men who have sex with men.

  11. The clinical and molecular spectrum of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town region of South Africa

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    Brown Ruth

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to document the clinical, laboratory and genetic features of galactosemia in patients from the Cape Town metropolitan region. Methods Diagnoses were based on thin layer chromatography for galactosuria/galactosemia and assays of erythrocyte galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT and galactokinase activities. Patients were screened for the common S135L and Q188R transferase gene mutations, using PCR-based assays. Screening for the S135L mutation in black newborns was used to estimate the carrier rate for galactosemia in black South Africans. Results A positive diagnosis of galactosemia was made in 17 patients between the years 1980 to 2001. All had very low or absent galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT activity, and normal galactokinase levels. The mean age at diagnosis was 5.1 months (range 4 days to 6.5 months. A review of 9 patients showed that hepatomegaly (9/9, and splenomegaly, failure to thrive, developmental delay, bilateral cataracts (6/9 were the most frequent features at diagnosis. Six had conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Four experienced invasive E. coli infection before diagnosis. Ten patients were submitted to DNA analysis. All 4 black patients and 2 of mixed extraction were homozygous for the S135L allele, while all 3 white patients were homozygous for the Q188R allele. The remaining patient of mixed extraction was heterozygous for the Q188R allele. The estimated carrier frequency of the S135L mutation in 725 healthy black newborns was 1/60. Conclusions In the absence of newborn screening the delay in diagnosis is most often unacceptably long. Also, carrier frequency data predict a galactosemia incidence of approximately 1/14 400 for black newborns in the Cape Metropole, which is much higher than the current detection rate. It is thus likely that many patients go undetected.

  12. Monkey Management: Using Spatial Ecology to Understand the Extent and Severity of Human-Baboon Conflict in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

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    Tali S. Hoffman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Conflict with humans poses one of the greatest threats to the persistence and survival of all wildlife. In the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, human-baboon conflict levels remain high despite substantial investment by conservation authorities in a variety of mitigation measures. Here we explore how spatial ecology can inform wildlife managers on the extent and severity of both current and projected human-baboon conflict. We apply conservative and generous densities - 2.3 and 5.9 baboons/km2 - to hypothetical landscape management scenarios to estimate whether the chacma baboon (Papio ursinus population in the Cape Peninsula is currently overabundant. We correlate conflict indices with spatial variables to explain intertroop differences in conflict levels. We investigate how an understanding of key elements of baboon ecology, including sleeping-site characteristics and intertroop territoriality, can direct management efforts and mitigate conflict. Our findings suggest that the current population of 475 baboons is below even the most conservative density estimate and that the area could potentially sustain up to 799 baboons. Conflict levels correlated positively with the loss of access to low-lying land through habitat transformation (Pearson r = 0.77, p = 0.015, n = 9 troops, and negatively with the distance of sleeping sites from the urban edge (Pearson r = 0.81, p = 0.001, n = 9 troops. Despite the availability of suitable sleeping sites elsewhere, more than half of all troops slept

  13. The impact of political violence on health and health services in Cape Town, South Africa, 1986: methodological problems and preliminary results.

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    Yach, D

    1988-07-01

    Cape Town, South Africa experienced an upsurge in the level of political violence from May to July of 1986. To determine the impact of the political violence on health and health services, selected routinely available information was analyzed, a community survey was conducted of 1,540 randomly selected households in high, medium, and low impact areas (defined using police and community reports), and a survey of 162 nurses (75 per cent response rate) working in clinic and maternity services in Cape Town's townships was undertaken. Methodological problems were encountered in relation to sampling, interviewer allocation to areas, and access to routinely available information. Nevertheless, a consistent picture emerged from the studies that: demonstrated the impact of political violence on attendance at routine health service facilities (for hypertension, tuberculosis, immunizations, antenatal and postnatal services); highlighted the disruptions caused to basic services in high impact areas (water, street lighting, sanitation and transport); documented the problems experienced by nurses in performing their usual services and by patients obtaining access to their services; showed that high impact areas had three times higher rates of gunshot wounds than low impact areas during the period.

  14. Outsourcing vaccine logistics to the private sector: The evidence and lessons learned from the Western Cape Province in South-Africa.

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    Lydon, Patrick; Raubenheimer, Ticky; Arnot-Krüger, Michelle; Zaffran, Michel

    2015-06-26

    With few exceptions, immunization supply chains in developing countries continue to face chronic difficulties in providing uninterrupted availability of potent vaccines up to service delivery levels, and in the most efficient manner possible. As these countries struggle to keep pace with an ever growing number of vaccines, more and more Ministries of Health are considering options of engaging the private sector to manage vaccine storage, handling and distribution on their behalf. Despite this emerging trend, there is limited evidence on the benefits or challenges of this option to improve public supply chain performance for national immunization programmes. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study aims to shed light on the value proposition of outsourcing by documenting the specific experience of the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The methodology for this review rested on conducting two key supply chain assessments which allowed juxtaposing the performance of the government managed segments of the vaccine supply chain against those managed by the private sector. In particular, measures of effective vaccine management best practice and temperature control in the cold chain were analysed. In addition, the costs of engaging the private sector were analysed to get a better understanding of the economics underpinning outsourcing vaccine logistics. The results from this analysis confirmed some of the theoretical benefits of outsourcing to the private sector. Yet, if the experience in the Western Cape can be deemed a successful one, there are several policy and practice implications that developing countries should be mindful of when considering engaging the private sector. While outsourcing can help improve the performance of the vaccine supply chain, it has the potential to do the reverse if done incorrectly. The findings and lessons learnt from the Western Cape experience can serve as a step towards understanding the role of the private sector in immunization

  15. Job Satisfaction among Pharmaceutical Sales force in South Africa – A Case with Special Reference to Cape Town

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    Vinod Kumar SINGH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is an attitude that employees have about their work and is based on numerous factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the individual. Job satisfaction is important from the perspective of maintaining and retaining the appropriate employees within the organization, it is about fitting the right person to the right job in the right culture and keeping them satisfied. Job satisfaction at salesforce level has become a topic of growing concern since significant proportion of marketing budgets, especially in harmaceutical industry of South Africa, is spent on them to achieve the assigned targets in the circular market. Although a large number of studies have been conducted to investigate job satisfaction in diverse range of the cultures, subjects and occupations yet none has attempted to explore the impact of job content and context factors on the job satisfaction among pharmaceutical salespersons in South Africa. Thus, the current study intends to determine the variance in salespersons’ overall job satisfaction through job content and context factors as a whole. This study also extends the total repercussion on the sales persons and their satisfaction level that cement the good will of the company and personal upliftment.

  16. Depression, alcohol use, and stigma in younger versus older HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marcia; Myer, Landon; Zerbe, Allison; Phillips, Tamsin; Petro, Greg; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Shiau, Stephanie; Brittain, Kirsty; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-02-01

    HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for depression and alcohol abuse. Young women may be more vulnerable, but little is known about the psychosocial functioning of this population. We compared younger (18-24 years old) and older (≥25 years old) HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cape Town, South Africa. Women were assessed on a range of psychosocial measures, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among 625 women initiating ART, 16 % reported risky alcohol use and 21 % alcohol-related harm; these percentages were similar across age groups. When younger women were stratified by age, 37 % of 18-21 years old versus 20 % of 22-24 years old reported alcohol-related harm (p = 0.02). Overall, 11 % of women had EPDS scores suggesting probable depression, and 6 % reported self-harming thoughts. Younger women reported more depressive symptoms. Report of self-harming thoughts was 11 % in younger and 4 % in older women (p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, age remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms and report of self-harming thoughts. Level of HIV-related stigma and report of intimate partner violence modified the association between age and depressive symptoms. Young HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa were more likely to report depressive symptoms and self-harming thoughts compared to older women, and the youngest women reported the highest levels of alcohol-related harm. HIV-related stigma and intimate partner violence may be moderating factors. These findings have implications for maternal and infant health, underscoring the urgent need for effective targeted interventions in this vulnerable population.

  17. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  18. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  19. Comanagement at the Fringes: Examining Stakeholder Perspectives at Macassar Dunes, Cape Town, South Africa--at the Intersection of High Biodiversity, Urban Poverty, and Inequality

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    M. Graham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, co-management provides a fruitful way to engage local residents in efforts to conserve and manage particular spaces of ecological value. However, natural resource management, and biodiversity conservation in particular, are faced with novel sets of complexities in the rapidly urbanizing areas of Cape Town, South Africa, and in the nexus between an apartheid past, informal settlements, remnant biodiversity patches, and urban poverty. Departing from such a dynamic social and ecological context, this article first provides an historical account of the decade-long comanagement process at Macassar Dunes, and then considers, through stakeholder perceptions, what are the successes and failures of the contested process. We find that comanagement at Macassar Dunes faces serious legitimacy, trust, and commitment issues, but also that stakeholders find common ground on education and awareness-raising activities. In conclusion we argue that the knowledge generated from case studies like this is useful in challenging and rethinking natural resource management theory generally, but specifically it is useful for the growing cities of the Global South. More case studies and a deeper engagement are needed with geographical theories on the “urban fringe” as “possibility space”, to help build a firm empirical base for theorizing comanagement “at the fringes”, i.e., at the intersection of poverty, socioeconomic inequality, and high biodiversity and ecological values.

  20. Feasibility and Acceptability of Screening and Brief Interventions to Address Alcohol and Other Drug Use among Patients Presenting for Emergency Services in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Bronwyn Myers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite evidence from high income countries, it is not known whether screening and brief interventions (SBI for alcohol and other drug (AOD use are feasible to implement in low and middle income countries. This paper describes the feasibility and acceptability of a peer-led SBI for AOD-using patients presenting with injuries at emergency services in Cape Town, South Africa. Data were extracted from program records on the number of eligible patients screened and the number of program refusals. A questionnaire examined preliminary responses to the intervention for 30 patients who had completed the program and 10 emergency personnel. Peer counselors were also interviewed to identify barriers to implementation. Of the 1458 patients screened, 21% (305 met inclusion criteria, of which 74% (225 were enrolled in the intervention. Of the 30 patients interviewed, most (83% found the program useful. Emergency personnel were supportive of the program but felt that visibility and reach could improve. Peer counselors identified the need for better integration of the program into emergency services and for additional training and support. In conclusion, with limited additional resources, peer-led SBIs for AOD use are feasible to conduct in South African emergency services and are acceptable to patients and emergency personnel.

  1. The non-clonality of drug resistance in Beijing-genotype isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Western Cape of South Africa

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    Van Helden Paul D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Beijing genotype of M. tuberculosis is a virulent strain that is disseminating worldwide and has a strong association with drug resistance. In the Western Cape of South Africa, epidemiological studies have identified the R220 cluster of the Beijing genotype as a major contributor to a recent outbreak of drug-resistant tuberculosis. Although the outbreak is considered to be due to clonal transmission, the relationship among drug resistant isolates has not yet been established. Results To better understand the evolution of drug resistance among these strains, 14 drug-resistant clinical isolates of the Beijing genotype were sequenced by whole-genome sequencing, including eight from R220 and six from a more ancestral Beijing cluster, R86, for comparison. While each cluster shares a distinct resistance mutation for isoniazid, mapping of other drug-resistance mutations onto a phylogenetic tree constructed from single nucleotide polymorphisms shows that resistance mutations to many drugs have arisen multiple times independently within each cluster of isolates. Thus, drug resistance among these isolates appears to be acquired, not clonally derived. This observation suggests that, although the Beijing genotype as a whole might have selective advantages enabling its rapid dissemination, the XDR isolates are relatively less fit and do not propagate well. Although it has been hypothesized that the increased frequency of drug resistance in some Beijing lineages might be caused by a mutator phenotype, no significant shift in synonymous substitution patterns is observed in the genomes. Conclusion While MDR-TB is spreading by transmission in the Western Cape, our data suggests that further drug resistance (i.e. XDR-TB at this stage is acquired.

  2. Towards an empowerment approach in tuberculosis treatment in Cape Town, South Africa: a qualitative analysis of programmatic change

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    Salla Atkins

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis rates in the world remain high, especially in low- and middle-income countries. International tuberculosis (TB policy generally recommends the use of directly observed therapy (DOT to ensure treatment adherence. Objective: This article examines a change in TB treatment support that occurred in 2005 in South Africa, from DOT to the enhanced TB adherence programme (ETA. Design: Seven key individuals representing academics, policy makers and service providers involved in the development of the ETA programme or knowledgeable about the issue were purposively sampled and interviewed, and participant observation was conducted at ETA programme steering group meetings. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the data, drawing on the Kingdon model of agenda setting. This model suggests that three independent streams – problem, policy and politics – come together at a certain point, often facilitated by policy entrepreneurs, to provide an opportunity for an issue to enter the policy agenda. Results: The results suggest the empowerment-oriented programme emerged through the presence of policy entrepreneurs with access to resources. Policy entrepreneurs were influenced by a number of simultaneously occurring challenges including problems within the existing programme; a perceived mismatch between patient needs and the existing TB treatment model; and the TB-HIV co-epidemic. Policy entrepreneurs saw the ART approach as a possible solution to these challenges. Conclusions: The Kingdon model contributed to describing the process of policy change. Research evidence seemed to influence this change diffusely, through the interaction of policy entrepreneurs and academics.

  3. Communication training for centre-based carers of children with severe or profound disabilities in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha Geiger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide a preliminary, qualitative review of an approach to training centre-based carers in supporting basic communication development and providing communication opportunities for the children with severe and profound disabilities in their care. In South Africa, these children are often the most neglected in terms of planning and providing appropriate interventions. For those with severe communication disabilities, an additional lack is in the area of the basic human right to meaningful interactions and communication. Sustainable strategies to provide opportunities for basic communication development of these children are urgently sought. Several effective international and local parent training programmes have been developed, but the urgent need remains to train centre-based carers who are taking care of groups of diversely disabled children in severely under-resourced settings. Non-profit organisations (NPOs have been exploring practical centre-based approaches to skills sharing in physical rehabilitation, activities for daily living, feeding and support for basic communication development. As a freelance speech therapist contracted by four NPOs to implement hands-on training in basic communication for centre-based carers of non-verbal children, the author describes a training approach that evolved over three years, in collaboration with the carers and centre managements. Implications for training (for speech therapists and for community-based rehabilitation workers and for further research are identified.

  4. The "Affective Place-Making" Practices of Girls at a High School in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinquest, Elzahn; Fataar, Aslam

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on the "affective place-making" practices of girls at a private high school on the outskirts of Cape Town. The article responds to the question: How do high school girls' affects and social bodies contribute to their place-making practices and to the type of place they make of their school? Our focus is on…

  5. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South Afr...... macro-economic balance and avoid unsustainable public sector deficits....

  6. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  7. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  8. Child road traffic crash injuries at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa in 1992, 2002 and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Kihurani N; Van Niekerk, Ashley; Van As, Arjan Bastiaan

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic crashes are a significant cause of the disease burden among children, with the highest mortality in low- and middle-income countries. This observational study explores such injuries in Cape Town, South Africa through an analysis of data for cases in 1992, 2002 and 2012 at the Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, a referral paediatric hospital for children younger than 13 years. Descriptive and time trend analysis of demographic data as well as of the causes, severity and place of injury was conducted. Logistic regression and generalised linear models described factors influencing hospital admission. In the years 1992, 2002 and 2012, a total of 4690 patients presented with injuries sustained as a result of a road traffic crash. Nearly 50% (n = 2201) of them were between five and nine years of age, with 1.7 males for every female. Three-quarters of those who got injured were pedestrians while the second most commonly injured ones were unrestrained passengers. The majority had minor injuries (58%), but with notably higher proportions with moderate to severe injuries in the years 2002 and 2012. Forty per cent were admitted for inpatient treatment, with the highest proportion (50%) in 2002. Admission was related to mechanism and severity. The epidemiological factors assessed remain largely unchanged over the assessment points calling into question the impact of local safety strategies.

  9. An Approach to Developing a Prediction Model of Fertility Intent Among HIV-Positive Women and Men in Cape Town, South Africa: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dan; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Mantell, Joanne E; Exner, Theresa M; Cooper, Diane; Hoffman, Susie; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Myer, Landon; Constant, Debbie; Moodley, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    As a 'case-study' to demonstrate an approach to establishing a fertility-intent prediction model, we used data collected from recently diagnosed HIV-positive women (N = 69) and men (N = 55) who reported inconsistent condom use and were enrolled in a sexual and reproductive health intervention in public sector HIV care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Three theoretically-driven prediction models showed reasonable sensitivity (0.70-1.00), specificity (0.66-0.94), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.79-0.89) for predicting fertility intent at the 6-month visit. A k-fold cross-validation approach was employed to reduce bias due to over-fitting of data in estimating sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve. We discuss how the methods presented might be used in future studies to develop a clinical screening tool to identify HIV-positive individuals likely to have future fertility intent and who could therefore benefit from sexual and reproductive health counseling around fertility options.

  10. Serum Oxidized LDL Levels in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Retinopathy in Mthatha Region of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Ganjifrockwala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL is a powerful natural prooxidant derived from native LDL by cell-mediated oxidation. Such oxidation occurs more easily in glycated LDL as observed in diabetes mellitus. We evaluated and compared selected biomarkers of oxidative stress and total antioxidant (TAO levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM patients with and without retinopathy in the Mthatha region of the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. The participants totaled to 140 and this number comprised 98 diabetic patients on treatment, stratified by diabetes (54 and diabetes with retinopathy (44. Forty-two nondiabetic healthy controls made up the 140. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, lipid profile, serum ox-LDL, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, and TAO levels were measured. A statistically significant increase in FPG, HbA1c, TBARS, and ox-LDL and a significant decrease in TAO levels were seen in T2DM patients with retinopathy as compared to controls. A significant negative correlation was observed between TAO and ox-LDL levels in the diabetic group. In multiple linear regression analyses, duration of diabetes, triglyceride, TAO, and LDL cholesterol were found to be significantly associated with ox-LDL. In multiple logistic regression analyses, ox-LDL [OR 1.02 (1.01–1.03, P=0.005] was the only risk factor and was significantly associated with the presence of retinopathy.

  11. A new long-tubed subspecies of Pelargonium dipetalum (section Hoarea (Geraniaceae from the Albertinia-Swellendam area in Western Cape Province, South Africa

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    M. Marianne le Roux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Field studies confirmed that unusually long-tubed populations of Pelargonium dipetalum from between Swellendam and Albertinia, Western Cape Province, South Africa, are a distinct ecotype adapted to pollination by the long-proboscid fly, Prosoeca longipennis. The geographical and morphological isolation of these populations suggests that they are reproductively isolated from short-tubed populations, which are pollinated by bees.Objectives: To determine and describe the floral variation in P. dipetalum, with a view to recognising the long-tubed populations at some taxonomic level.Method: All available collections were measured and compared.Results: Populations of P. dipetalum were segregated into a short-tubed form with hypanthium 3 mm – 24 mm long and mostly pink petals that occurs from Betty’s Bay to Knysna, and a long-tubed form with the hypanthium 34 mm – 54 mm long and consistently white petals that is restricted to a small area east of Swellendam between Suurbraak and Albertinia. We described the long-tubed form as the new subspecies P. dipetalum subsp. stenosiphon.Conclusion: The new subspecies increases our understanding of the diversity in P. dipetalum and represents a new taxon of conservation concern.

  12. Supporting Teacher Professional Development to Use Tablets in Resource Constrained Schools: A Case Study of Cofimvaba Schools, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Botha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of three years, 360 teachers at 26 resource constrained schools in Cofimvaba, which lies in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, have received training on how to integrate mobile tablets in their classrooms to support teaching and learning. The training modules combined the use of teaching strategies and fun with practical hands-on exercises which can be used in any type of subject for any grade when training teachers. Teachers embarked on a learning path attached to badges to reward their efforts and evidence of how they have applied their training in their classrooms. The purpose of this paper is to share this novel approach to teacher training in a unique context where schools are deprived of resources but still managed to successfully integrate mobile tablets in their classroom practices. These practices have changed the way teachers teach from standing with a textbook and chalk in front of a class sitting in rows, to standing with a tablet and learners are engaged in group work and using the tablets as a resource in a disconnected environment. The success of these training modules lies in the application of an approach of teach with and not to, earn as you learn and not just give technology, respect and humility, flexibility, innovation, creativity and co-creation.

  13. Site formation processes at Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (Mossel Bay, Western Cape Province, South Africa): resolving stratigraphic and depositional complexities with micromorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkanas, Panagiotis; Goldberg, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Site PP13B is a cave located on the steep cliffs of Pinnacle Point near Mossel Bay in Western Cape Province, South Africa. The depositional sequence of the cave, predating Marine Isotopic Stage 11 (MIS 11) and continuing to present, is in the form of isolated sediment exposures with different depositional facies and vertical and lateral variations. Micromorphological analysis demonstrated that a suite of natural sedimentation processes operated during the development of the sequence ranging from water action to aeolian activity, and from speleothem formations to plant colonization and root encrustation. At the same time, anthropogenic sediments that are mainly in the form of burnt remains from combustion features (e.g., wood ash, charcoal, and burnt bone) were accumulating. Several erosional episodes have resulted in a complicated stratigraphy, as discerned from different depositional and post-depositional features. The cave is associated with a fluctuating coastal environment, frequent changes in sea level and climate controlled patterns of sedimentation, and the presence or absence of humans.

  14. Is younger really safer? A qualitative study of perceived risks and benefits of age-disparate relationships among women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Beauclair

    Full Text Available Young women in age-asymmetric relationships may be at an elevated risk for acquisition of HIV, since relationships with older men are also correlated with other risk behaviors like less condom use. Qualitative studies have shown that women are motivated to participate in these relationships for money and emotional support. However, there is a paucity of research on women's perceived risks of these relationships, particularly in South Africa. To this end, we conducted in-depth interviews with 23 women recruited from three urban communities in Cape Town. A thematic question guide was used to direct the interviews. Thematic content analysis was used to explore women's perceived risks of age-disparate and non-age-disparate relationships, the benefits of dating older men, and risk perceptions that influence decisions around beginning or ending a relationship. A plurality of women thought that dating an older man does not bring any adverse consequences, although some thought that older men do not use condoms and may be involved in concurrent partnerships. Many women were less inclined to date same-age or younger men, because they were viewed as being disrespectful and abusive. This study points to the need for more awareness raising about the risks of age-disparate relationships. In addition to these initiatives, there is an urgent need to implement holistic approaches to relationship health, in order to curb intimate partner violence, improve gender equity and make non-age-disparate relationships more attractive.

  15. Taphonomic analysis of the Middle Stone Age faunal assemblage from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jessica C

    2010-01-01

    A detailed taphonomic analysis is provided for the mammalian and tortoise faunal assemblages from Pinnacle Point Cave 13B (PP13B). It is the first of several reports on the fauna from this site, and must necessarily precede analyses focused on higher level interpretations of Middle Stone Age (MSA) butchery, transport, and hunting behavior. The taphonomic work shows that the faunal assemblage is well preserved and there are discernable differences in the taphonomic pathways to which the fauna was subjected at PP13B between the Middle and Late Pleistocene, between the front and back of the cave, and between body size classes. The largest mammals (size classes 2-5, body weight >24 kg) were mainly accumulated by MSA hominins. Size class 1 ungulates also exhibit a degree of hominin modification consistent with some hominin accumulation of fresh carcasses, but this is more variable through time and includes an observable degree of independent carnivore contribution. Basic taxonomic comparisons reveal a low representation of small mammals, tortoises, and marine mammals at PP13B relative to larger (>4.5 kg) terrestrial mammals. This is a different pattern from other MSA sites along the southwestern coast of South Africa, where small mammals and tortoises are abundant. A microscopic study of the bone surfaces confirms that MSA hominins exploited these small faunal components opportunistically, while focusing most heavily on large terrestrial ungulates. All faunal components show evidence of carnivore scavenging of hominin food debris and a high degree of density mediated destruction. Raptors are at no point implicated as major accumulators of any fauna. The study demonstrates that the full spectrum of MSA faunal exploitation can only be understood when the large mammal, small mammal, and tortoise components of fossil assemblages have all been subjected to comprehensive taphonomic analyses.

  16. Luminescence- and Infrared-Radiofluorescence dating of the Acheulean- to Middle Stone Age sedimentary sequence at Montagu Cave, Western Cape Provence, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Tobias; Archer, Will; Sumner, Alexandra

    2016-04-01

    Montagu Cave is an archaeological site located on the edge of the Langeberg mountain range, about 160 km NE of Cape Town, in South Africa. The archaeological and sedimentary units at Montagu Cave comprise two Acheulean sequences which are separated from one another by a substantial archaeological hiatus. There is an additional Middle Stone Age sequence which overlies the Acheulean horizons, and contains layers attributed to the Howiesons Poort, as well as multiple other Middle Stone Age sub-stages. Hence, Montagu Cave provides a unique opportunity to investigate quite complex population level questions concerning the behavioral differences between modern and pre-modern populations in southern Africa. However, thus far, the chronological context of the sediment-layers at the site remains unclear. It is therefore critical to provide a resilient chronological framework for the timing of human activity at the site. This study concerns the potential of luminescence dating for the sedimentary sequence preserved at Montagu cave. The collected samples are tested on their quartz- and feldspar luminescence signal properties. Various optical dating techniques (quartz OSL; pIRIR290) will be applied, and the results of each compared in order to obtain information on the suitability of the material for luminescence dating, and to establish a chronological framework for this important archaeological site. Furthermore, the infrared-radiofluorescence (IR-RF) signal behavior will be tested on potassium feldspars, as IR-RF is a method being able to date back up to > 600 ka. IR-RF therefore has the potential to cover the expected time-frame of the sediments at Montagu-cave.

  17. An Africanised Study of Astronomical History in the Northern Cape South Africa, for Purposes of Secondary and Higher Education Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beer, K. J.; Hoffman, M. J.

    2007-07-01

    Dr M.J. Hoffman, Head of the Department Physics, University of the Free State (UFS), presented a paper at the Duineveld Secondary School in Upington, to enhance the idea of a natural observatory centre in the Northern Cape. Quite aptly, the National Institute for Higher Education: Northern Cape (NIHE) also invited a renowned African astronomer, Dr T Medupe, to address their graduation ceremony in 2005. However, Dr Albert Strydom, Programme Head of Tourism Management at the Central University for Technology, Free State (CUT), is very much aware of the delicate nature of this type of high scientific profile in Tourism Management. It is foreseen by Dr Kallie de Beer, Director of Distance Education, that teaching and learning in this field will predominantly be conducted via Open and Distance e-Learning (ODeL). Consequently, it is also important to understand the philosophy of ODeL within global and Africanized perspectives. Astronomy, in this case, offers excellent examples of Africanised science in practice to add scientific value to tourist packages in the Northern Cape. (www.saao.ac.za/assa/aahs).

  18. An Economic Valuation Of The Water Footprint: A Case Study Of The Citrus Sector In The Lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, S. A.; Fraser, G. C. G.; Snowball, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    With the implementation of the South African National Water Act (NWA) currently underway, water intensive sectors, such as the irrigated agriculture sector, can expect reduced water allocations and an increase in water prices. Water footprints (WFs) are increasingly being recognised as a meaningful way by which to represent human appropriation of water resources. This study examines the green and blue WFs of a variety of citrus cultivars in the lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa. WFs were calculated across dry, humid and long-term average climates and comparisons were made to available global average benchmark WFs. An number of indicators were also explored including; water productivity (ton/m3), economic land productivity (R/ha) and economic water productivity (R/m3) across all three climatic years. Most applications of WF sustainability assessments have focused on examining physical water scarcity as a measure for determining environmental hotspots. This study, therefore, also calculates the marginal product value for the irrigation water using a non-parametric linear programming approach. Marginal product value of irrigation water is not only useful in assisting with water-allocation decision making, but also useful in demonstrating the effects of resource depletion and degradation, and is therefore a useful measure for determining economic water scarcity. The study highlights that both farmers and governments could reduce blue WF's through adopting measures to increase water efficiency and considering economic water and land productivity. It also demonstrates the importance of including both environmental and economic scarcity indicators into water management and planning strategies, and the importance of conducting WF assessments using more accurate, site specific data.

  19. 76 FR 14920 - Trade Mission to South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to South Africa AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Africa September 19-23, 2011, to help U.S. firms find business partners and help export equipment and services in Johannesburg and Cape Town, South Africa. Targeted sectors are: Sustainable and...

  20. Toxin A-negative toxin B-positive ribotype 017 Clostridium difficile is the dominant strain type in patients with diarrhoea attending tuberculosis hospitals in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullin, B; Wojno, J; Abratt, V; Reid, S J

    2017-01-01

    The molecular epidemiology of C. difficile strains causing disease in South Africa is currently unknown. Previously, multidrug resistant ribotype (RT)017 strains were those most commonly isolated from patients with diarrhoea attending Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. This larger study aimed to investigate the molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of C. difficile strains in the greater Cape Town and regional areas. C. difficile strains were isolated from patients with diarrhoea attending hospitals in the Western Cape region of South Africa that tested positive using the GeneXpert CDiff diagnostic test. Ribotyping and multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) were used to type isolates, and their susceptibilities to several antibiotics were determined by gradient diffusion test strips. A total of 269 non-repeat C. difficile isolates were obtained. A large proportion of isolates (64.3 %) belonged to the RT017 group, many of which were clonally related when investigated by MLVA. RT017 strains were particularly prevalent in patients attending specialist tuberculosis (TB) hospitals. The majority of RT017 isolates were co-resistant to moxifloxacin and rifampicin, two antibiotics which are used intensively during anti-TB therapy. Non-RT017 strains were generally susceptible to both antibiotics. Resistance to erythromycin was observed for both groups of strains. RT017 C. difficile strains are the most commonly isolated strains from patients attending healthcare facilities in the greater Cape Town and regional areas. The presence of multidrug resistant RT017 strains in patients with diarrhoea attending local TB hospitals reflects a potential reservoir for future infections.

  1. Plant nematodes in South Africa. 12. Checklist of plant nematodes of the protected areas of the Eastern Cape Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Marais

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-inhabiting nematodes, including plant-parasitic nematodes, are considered to be the most abundant multicellular organisms in the soil, and of particular interest since they are an integral part of the interlocking chain of nutrient conversions. Because of their abundance and relative susceptibility to both physical and chemical changes, these organisms are used as indicator organisms. The National Collection of Nematodes (NCN consists of a core collection, the Meloidogyne Collection and the Juan Heyns Collection, which are housed at the Plant Protection Research Institute of the Agricultural Research Council in Pretoria. Vast amounts of biodiversity data are contained in NCN, and the digitising of the collection from 2007 to 2014 yielded unpublished locality information, especially datasets of plant nematodes reported from protected areas of the Eastern Cape. Two hundred and thirty plant nematode species belonging to 36 genera were reported from the Eastern Cape. Of these, only 80 were from protected areas, whilst 163 were from uncultivated areas (outside protected areas and 148 from cultivated areas. Ten species were described from protected areas, namely Criconemoides silvicola, Meloinema silvicola, Ogma tuberculatum, Paralongidorus cebensis, Paralongidorus hanliae, Scutellonema tsitsikamense, Trichodorus vandenbergae, Xiphinema erriae, Xiphinema ornatizulu and Xiphinema simplex. Only M. silvicola, O. tuberculatum, P. cebensis and S. tsitsikamense were not reported from other provinces, suggesting endemism.Conservation implications: The diversity of nematode fauna is not adequately protected as most nematode biodiversity in the Eastern Cape lies outside protected areas, with only 80 of the 230 plant-feeding nematode species in the province being reported from protected areas.

  2. Studies in the Ericoideae (Ericaceae. XVI. Six new species of Erica from the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. G. H. Oliver

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Six new species of Erica L. from the mountains of the Western Cape are described:  E. alnea E.G.H. Oliv.,  E. hexensis E.G.H. Oliv., E. hispiduloides E.G.H. Oliv. and E. tarantulae E.G.H. Oliv. from the inland areas centred on the Hex River Mountains;  E. hottentotica E.G.H. Oliv. and  E. magistrati E.G.H. Oliv. from the Hottentots Holland Mountains between Stellenbosch and Somerset West.

  3. Associations between depressive symptoms, sexual behaviour and relationship characteristics: a prospective cohort study of young women and men in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nduna Mzikazi

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychological factors are often neglected in HIV research, although psychological distress is common in low- to middle-income countries, such as South Africa. There is a need to deepen our understanding of the role of mental health factors in the HIV epidemic. We set out to investigate whether baseline depressive symptomatology was associated with risky sexual behaviour and relationship characteristics of men and women at baseline, as well as those found 12 months later. Methods We used prospective cohort data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of an HIV prevention intervention in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. Our subjects were 1002 female and 976 male volunteers aged 15 to 26. Logistic regression was used to model the cross-sectional and prospective associations between baseline depressive symptomatology, risky sexual behaviors and relationship characteristics. The analysis adjusted for the clustering effect, study design, intervention and several confounding variables. Results Prevalence of depressive symptoms was 21.1% among women and 13.6% among men. At baseline, women with depressed symptoms were more likely to report lifetime intimate partner violence (AOR = 2.56, 95% CI 1.89-3.46 and have dated an older partner (AOR = 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.83. A year later, baseline depressive symptomatology was associated with transactional sex (AOR = 2.60, 95% CI 1.37, 4.92 and intimate partner violence (AOR = 1.67, 95% CI 1.18-2.36 in the previous 12 months. Men with depressive symptoms were more likely to report ever having had transactional sex (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI 1.01-2.17, intimate partner violence perpetration (AOR = 1.50, 95% CI 0.98-2.28 and perpetration of rape (AOR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.14-2.87. They were less likely to report correct condom use at last sex (AOR = 0.50, 95% CI 0.32-0.78. A year later, baseline depressive symptomatology was associated with failure to use a condom at last sex among men (AOR = 0

  4. Pathology and immunohistochemistry of papillomavirus-associated cutaneous lesions in Cape mountain zebra, giraffe, sable antelope and African buffalo in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Williams

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Skin lesions associated with papillomaviruses have been reported in many animal species and man. Bovine papillomavirus (BVP affects mainly the epidermis, but also the dermis in several species including bovine, the best-known example being equine sarcoid, which is associated with BVP types 1 and 2. This publication describes and illustrates the macroscopic and histological appearance of BPV-associated papillomatous, fibropapillomatous or sarcoid-like lesions in Cape mountain zebra (Equus zebra zebra from the Gariep Dam Nature Reserve, 2 giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis from the Kruger National Park, and a sable antelope (Hippotragus niger from the Kimberley area of South Africa. An African buffalo (Syncerus caffer cow from Kruger National Park also had papillomatous lesions but molecular characterisation of lesional virus was not done. Immunohistochemical staining using polyclonal rabbit antiserum to chemically disrupted BPV-1, which cross-reacts with the L1 capsid of most known papillomaviruses, was positive in cells of the stratum granulosum of lesions in Giraffe 1, the sable and the buffalo and negative in those of the zebra and Giraffe 2. Fibropapillomatous and sarcoid-like lesions from an adult bovine were used as positive control for the immunohistochemistry and are described and the immunohistochemistry illustrated for comparison. Macroscopically, both adult female giraffe had severely thickened multifocal to coalescing nodular and occasionally ulcerated lesions of the head, neck and trunk with local poorly-circumscribed invasion into the subcutis. Necropsy performed on the 2nd giraffe revealed neither internal metastases nor serious underlying disease. Giraffe 1 had scattered, and Giraffe 2 numerous, large, anaplastic, at times indistinctly multinucleated dermal fibroblasts with bizarre nuclei within the sarcoid-like lesions, which were BPV-1 positive in Giraffe 1 and BPV-1 and -2 positive in Giraffe 2 by RT-PCR. The sable antelope

  5. Combining floristic and growth form composition in a gradient- directed vegetation survey of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. G. Lechmere-Oertel

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The floristically complex vegetation of Matjiesrivier Nature Reserve (MNR. which spans the ecotone between the Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes in the eastern Cederberg Mountains, Western Cape, was surveyed using a gradient-directed transect (gradsect. The gradsect was aligned with a topo-ciimatic aridity gradient across MNR. The vegetation was classified using TWINSPAN. based on a combination of floristic and growth form characteristics, and an understanding of the main ecological gradients controlling vegetation distribution. The final classification described seven robust and eco­logically meaningful communities that represented a trade-off between statistical rigour and practicality for management. The seven communities were mapped using a geographical information system (GIS.

  6. ICT applications as e-health solutions in rural healthcare in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruxwana, Nkqubela L; Herselman, Marlien E; Conradie, D Pieter

    2010-01-01

    Information and Communication Technology (ICT) solutions (e.g. e-health, telemedicine, e-education) are often viewed as vehicles to bridge the digital divide between rural and urban healthcare centres and to resolve shortcomings in the rural health sector. This study focused on factors perceived to influence the uptake and use of ICTs as e-health solutions in selected rural Eastern Cape healthcare centres, and on structural variables relating to these facilities and processes. Attention was also given to two psychological variables that may underlie an individual&s acceptance and use of ICTs: usefulness and ease of use. Recommendations are made with regard to how ICTs can be used more effectively to improve health systems at fi ve rural healthcare centres where questionnaire and interview data were collected: St. Lucy&s Hospital, Nessie Knight Hospital, the Tsilitwa Clinic, the Madzikane Ka-Zulu Memorial Hospital and the Nelson Mandela General Hospital.

  7. The fish community of a moderately exposed beach on the southwestern Cape coast of South Africa and an assessment of this habitat as a nursery for juvenile fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, B. A.

    1989-03-01

    The ichthyofauna of a moderately exposed surf-zone habitat on the southwestern Cape coast of South Africa was sampled by seine netting monthly for 13 months. Twenty species of fish, 40 306 individuals weighing a total of 211 kg were captured. The number of species and standing crop varied seasonally with higher values occurring during the summer (January-March). The average summer standing stock of 38·6 g m -2 was considerably higher than any previously recorded from a surf-zone habitat and the annual average (10·1 g m -2 was comparable with that in estuaries. Eighteen of the species sampled occurred almost exclusively as juveniles and only two as adults. Four species were present throughout the year, 11 of them seasonally and the remaining five sporadically. Small juveniles (20-35 mm) typically appeared in the surf-zone 2-4 months after they were spawned. These 0+ juveniles remained there for between three months and one year depending on species, before vacating the surf-zone for their adult habitats. A comparison of the abundance of juveniles in the surf-zone with other inshore marine habitats suggested that five species ( Amblyrhynchotes honckenii, Cheilodonichthys capensis, Diplodus sargus, Lithognathus mormyrus and Pomadasys olivaceum) may be entirely, and three species ( Lichia amia, Liza richardsoni and Rhabdosargus globiceps) largely, dependent on the surf-zone as a nursery area. It was concluded that the surf-zone of sandy beaches may be as important as estuaries as a nursery habitat for juvenile fish.

  8. Suicidal ideation and behaviour among persons seeking HIV testing in peri-urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa: a lost opportunity for suicide prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Saal, Wylene

    2016-12-28

    Suicidal ideation and behaviour (SIB) are among the psychiatric sequela of HIV/AIDS. Few studies have however examined the prevalence and correlates of SIB among persons seeking HIV testing. We set out to document the prevalence and correlates of SIB among people seeking HIV testing in peri-urban areas of Cape Town, South Africa (SA). A cross-sectional research design was used to recruit a sample (n = 500) of individuals seeking HIV testing. Self-report measures were used to assess two-week prevalence of SIB as well as life-time prevalence of suicide attempt. A structured clinical interview was used to assess common mental disorders (CMDs). Regression analysis was used to determine if CMD and socio-demographic variables predicted suicidal ideation. The mean age of the sample was 36 years, 51.6% were female and 46.6% were unemployed. The two-week prevalence of suicidal ideation was 24.27% while the two-week prevalence of suicide attempt and suicide plans was 2.8%. Suicidal ideation was not associated with age, gender, employment status, family income or household food insecurity. CMDs were significantly associated with suicidal ideation; individuals with depressive disorders were approximately 5.5 times more likely to report suicidal ideation, while those with generalised anxiety disorder, trauma-related disorders and alcohol use disorder were approximately 7, 4.7 and 2.8 times more likely to report suicidal ideation, respectively. Results suggest that persons seeking HIV testing may be a well-delineated group of persons at risk of suicide in this region of SA. Contact with the health care system during HIV testing provides an opportunity for targeted suicide prevention interventions in what appears to be a high risk group.

  9. A questionnaire survey on diseases and problems affecting sheep and goats in communal farming regions of the Eastern Cape province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bath, Gareth F; Penrith, Mary-Louise; Leask, Rhoda

    2016-08-31

    A questionnaire of 15 questions was completed by four categories of respondents with the aim of establishing the experience and opinions of these groups on the constraints including animal health problems for communal, small-scale sheep and goat farming in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The questionnaires were completed independently and categories were representative of the areas investigated. Analysis of responses was done by means, ranges, votes and clusters of responses. Comparisons between the responses of the four categories were made to identify similarities or contrasts. The results revealed that of non-veterinary concerns, stock theft was the major problem for these farms. Nutrition was a further major constraint. A third area of significant concern was the provision or availability of facilities like fences, water troughs, dips and sheds. Lack of marketing and business skills were also seen as important deficiencies to be rectified so as to promote profitable farming. Of the most important veterinary problems identified, the provision, availability, cost and care of drugs and vaccines were seen as major stumbling blocks to effective disease control, as well as lack of access to veterinary services. The most important diseases that constrain small-ruminant livestock farming in the farming systems investigated were sheep scab and other ectoparasites, heart water, enterotoxaemia, internal parasites and bluetongue. A lack of knowledge in key areas of small-stock farming was revealed and should be rectified by an effective training and support programme to improve the contribution of small-ruminant farming to livelihoods in these communities.

  10. Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds: (acenaphthene and fluorene) in water using indigenous bacterial species isolated from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers, Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegbeleye, Oluwadara Oluwaseun; Opeolu, Beatrice Olutoyin; Jackson, Vanessa

    2016-11-24

    This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of PAH degrading microorganisms in two river systems in the Western Cape, South Africa and their ability to degrade two PAH compounds: acenaphthene and fluorene. A total of 19 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers among which four were identified as acenaphthene and fluorene degrading isolates. In simulated batch scale experiments, the optimum temperature for efficient degradation of both compounds was determined in a shaking incubator after 14 days, testing at 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 37°C, 38°C, 40°C and 45°C followed by experiments in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor using optimum temperature profiles from the batch experiment results. All experiments were run without the addition of supplements, bulking agents, biosurfactants or any other form of biostimulants. Results showed that Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila efficiently degraded both compounds at 37°C, 37°C, 30°C and 35°C respectively. The degradation of fluorene was more efficient and rapid compared to that of acenaphthene and degradation at Stirred Tank Bioreactor scale was more efficient for all treatments. Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila degraded a mean total of 98.60%, 95.70%, 90.20% and 99.90% acenaphthene, respectively and 99.90%, 97.90%, 98.40% and 99.50% fluorene, respectively. The PAH degrading microorganisms isolated during this study significantly reduced the concentrations of acenaphthene and fluorene and may be used on a larger, commercial scale to bioremediate PAH contaminated river systems.

  11. Outcome of patients with primary immune-complex type mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN in Cape Town South Africa.

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    Ikechi G Okpechi

    Full Text Available Mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis (MCGN is a common cause of chronic kidney disease in developing countries. Data on the renal outcome of patients with idiopathic MCGN is limited. The aim of this study is to investigate the outcome of patients with idiopathic MCGN presenting to the Groote Schuur Hospital (GSH Renal Unit in Cape Town.A retrospective study of patients with idiopathic MCGN followed up at our clinic. Seventy-nine patients with no identifiable cause of MCGN were included for analysis. A composite renal outcome of persistent doubling of serum creatinine or end stage renal disease (ESRD was used. Kaplan Meier survival and Cox regression analysis were used to assess survival and identify factors predicting the outcome.The mean age at biopsy was 33.9±13.6 years and 41.8% were black. Mean duration of follow up was 13.5±18.8 months. Twenty-three patients (34.2% reached the composite endpoint. Overall, median renal survival was 38.7±11.7 months (95% CI 15.7-61.8 with 2-year and 5-year renal survival of 61% and 40.3% respectively. No significant difference was found for renal survival between males and females, treatment or non-treatment with immunosuppression, presence or absence of crescents or histological type of MCGN (p>0.05. On univariate Cox-regression analysis, factors found to be associated with the outcome were the estimated glomerular filtration rate at biopsy (OR 0.97 [95%CI: 0.95-0.99], p<0.0001, black race (OR 3.03 [95%CI: 1.27-7.21], p = 0.012 and presence of interstitial fibrosis in the biopsy (OR 2.64 [95%CI: 1.07-6.48], p = 0.034. Age, systolic blood pressure and attaining complete or partial remission approached significant values with the endpoint.The outcome of idiopathic MCGN in Cape Town is poor and requires further prospective studies to improve our understanding of this common disease.

  12. New species of Drimia (Hyacinthaceae: Urgineoideae allied to Drimia marginata from Western and Northern Cape, South Africa

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    J. C. Manning

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants until now identified as Drimia marginata (Thunb. Jessop on account of their leathery, oblong to elliptical leaves with thickened, cartilaginous margins and capitate inflorescences of campanulate flowers, are shown to comprise three sets of populations separable on leaf morphology, ecology and distribution. Typical D. marginata produces 1 (2 oblong, apiculate leaves with retrorsely-scabridulous margins and occurs in fine-grained clay soils on the Hantam and Roggeveld Plateaus. Plants from Namaqualand and the Richtersveld. described here as Drimia pulchromarginata J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. occur in sandy or gravelly soils and produce 2 -4 , elliptical to suborbicular, apiculate leaves with an ornate, duplex margin: the dorsal surface bears a submarginal band of dense, velvety trichomes fringing the thickened, colliculate margin. A third series of populations from seasonally moist sandstones at higher altitude on the interior mountains of the West Coast produces2 or 3(4 narrowly oblong, obtuse leaves with a simple, papillate or colliculate margin and are recognized as D. ligulata J.C.Manning & Goldblatt. A fourth taxon with a similar capitate inflorescence of campanulate flowers produces a solitary, subterete or subclavate leaf, elliptical in section. Recorded from scattered localities in the Northern and Western Cape', it is here described as D. vermiformis J.C.Manning & Goldblatt.

  13. Trends in vegetation degradation in relation to land tenure, rainfall, and population changes in Peddie district, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, V

    2001-07-01

    Spatial and temporal variations in vegetation are examined in relation to land tenure, population increase, and rainfall variation in a part of Peddie district, Eastern Cape. Sequential aerial photographs between 1938 and 1988 are analyzed to determine trends in vegetation and population change in three different land-tenure units. The areal extent at each date of four distinct vegetation categories is determined using PC ARC/INFO GIS. Long-term annual rainfall trends for the area are analyzed and juxtaposed with vegetation changes. Extensive ground-truthing exercises are carried out to verify the present condition of vegetation condition in terms of cover and species composition. Differences in land-tenure systems are discerned as the dominant factor controlling variations in vegetation degradation. The study also reveals that neither population changes nor rainfall variations can explain the observed trends in vegetation degradation. Earlier injudicious land-use practices, sustained since the turn of the last century, may provide plausible explanations for the trends and present status of vegetation degradation in the area.

  14. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kootker, Lisette M; Mbeki, Linda; Morris, Alan G; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world.

  15. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisette M Kootker

    Full Text Available The Dutch East India Company (VOC intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5% of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world.

  16. Dynamics of Indian Ocean Slavery Revealed through Isotopic Data from the Colonial Era Cobern Street Burial Site, Cape Town, South Africa (1750-1827)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Alan G.; Kars, Henk; Davies, Gareth R.

    2016-01-01

    The Dutch East India Company (VOC) intended the Cape of Good Hope to be a refreshment stop for ships travelling between the Netherlands and its eastern colonies. The indigenous Khoisan, however, did not constitute an adequate workforce, therefore the VOC imported slaves from East Africa, Madagascar and Asia to expand the workforce. Cape Town became a cosmopolitan settlement with different categories of people, amongst them a non-European underclass that consisted of slaves, exiles, convicts and free-blacks. This study integrated new strontium isotope data with carbon and nitrogen isotope results from an 18th-19th century burial ground at Cobern Street, Cape Town, to identify non-European forced migrants to the Cape. The aim of the study was to elucidate individual mobility patterns, the age at which the forced migration took place and, if possible, geographical provenance. Using three proxies, 87Sr/86Sr, δ13Cdentine and the presence of dental modifications, a majority (54.5%) of the individuals were found to be born non-locally. In addition, the 87Sr/86Sr data suggested that the non-locally born men came from more diverse geographic origins than the migrant women. Possible provenances were suggested for two individuals. These results contribute to an improved understanding of the dynamics of slave trading in the Indian Ocean world. PMID:27309532

  17. Antibiotic Susceptibilities of Enterococcus Species Isolated from Hospital and Domestic Wastewater Effluents in Alice, Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

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    Benson Chuks Iweriebor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antimicrobial resistance in microorganisms are on the increase worldwide and are responsible for substantial cases of therapeutic failures. Resistance of species of Enterococcus to antibiotics is linked to their ability to acquire and disseminate antimicrobial resistance determinants in nature, and wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs are considered to be one of the main reservoirs of such antibiotic resistant bacteria. We therefore determined the antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiles of some common Enterococcus spp that are known to be associated with human infections that were recovered from hospital wastewater and final effluent of the receiving wastewater treatment plant in Alice, Eastern Cape. Methods: Wastewater samples were simultaneously collected from two sites (Victoria hospital and final effluents of a municipal WWTP in Alice at about one to two weeks interval during the months of July and August 2014. Samples were screened for the isolation of enterococci using standard microbiological methods. The isolates were profiled molecularly after targeted generic identification and speciation for the presence of virulence and antibiotic resistance genes. Results: Out of 66 presumptive isolates, 62 were confirmed to belong to the Enterococcus genusof which 30 were identified to be E. faecalis and 15 E. durans. The remaining isolates were not identified by the primers used in the screening procedure. Out of the six virulence genes that were targeted only three of them; ace, efaA, and gelE were detected. There was a very high phenotypic multiple resistance among the isolates and these were confirmed by genetic analyses. Conclusions: Analyses of the results obtained indicated that hospital wastewater may be one of the sources of antibiotic resistant bacteria to the receiving WWTP. Also, findings revealed that the final effluent discharged into the environment was contaminated with multi-resistant enterococci species thus

  18. Age-disparity, sexual connectedness and HIV infection in disadvantaged communities around Cape Town, South Africa: a study protocol

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    Aerts Marc

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Crucial connections between sexual network structure and the distribution of HIV remain inadequately understood, especially in regard to the role of concurrency and age disparity in relationships, and how these network characteristics correlate with each other and other risk factors. Social desirability bias and inaccurate recall are obstacles to obtaining valid, detailed information about sexual behaviour and relationship histories. Therefore, this study aims to use novel research methods in order to determine whether HIV status is associated with age-disparity and sexual connectedness as well as establish the primary behavioural and socio-demographic predictors of the egocentric and community sexual network structures. Method/Design We will conduct a cross-sectional survey that uses a questionnaire exploring one-year sexual histories, with a focus on timing and age disparity of relationships, as well as other risk factors such as unprotected intercourse and the use of alcohol and recreational drugs. The questionnaire will be administered in a safe and confidential mobile interview space, using audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI technology on touch screen computers. The ACASI features a choice of languages and visual feedback of temporal information. The survey will be administered in three peri-urban disadvantaged communities in the greater Cape Town area with a high burden of HIV. The study communities participated in a previous TB/HIV study, from which HIV test results will be anonymously linked to the survey dataset. Statistical analyses of the data will include descriptive statistics, linear mixed-effects models for the inter- and intra-subject variability in the age difference between sexual partners, survival analysis for correlated event times to model concurrency patterns, and logistic regression for association of HIV status with age disparity and sexual connectedness. Discussion This study design is

  19. Religious research as kingpin in the fight against poverty and AIDS in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Johannes C. Erasmus

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the researchers’ efforts to apply the principles of Participatory Action Research (PAR, specifically participation, through the direct involvement of church members in the research. It includes involving them in the design of questionnaires, training and utilizing them as fieldworkers, and finally disseminating the results of the research via workshops aimed at strategizing for change. The research is based on two hypotheses, the first being that, churches and their members are intensely involved in serving both the needs of their own members, as well as the needs of the larger community; and secondly, that churches do not work alone, but are part of networks with other agencies to accomplish their goals. At the outset the article outlines the challenges and points of departure, followed by a chronological account of how this approach was applied in Paarl, a South African community. Finally, an overview of the results of the project is provided.

  20. Sexual risk behavior, alcohol use, and social media use among secondary school students in informal settlements in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Z A; Braunschweig, E N; Feeney, J; Dringus, S; Weiss, H; Delany-Moretlwe, S; Ross, D A

    2014-09-01

    South Africa's HIV prevalence among young people remains among the highest in the world. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2012 to estimate prevalences of sexual risk behavior and hazardous alcohol use (HAU) (via the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) as well as to investigate potential associations between these outcomes and social media use. In all, 4485 students (mean age 15.66 years, SD 1.39) at 46 secondary schools in informal settlements in Cape Town and Port Elizabeth completed mobile-phone-assisted, self-administered baseline questionnaires within a cluster-randomized trial. In all, 312 females (12.5 %) and 468 males (23.5 %) screened positive for HAU (AOR = 1.98, 95 % CI 1.69-2.34). 730 males (39.9 %) and 268 females (11.8 %) reported having had two or more partners in the last year (AOR = 3.46, 95 % CI 2.87-4.16). Among females, having a Facebook account was associated with reported multiple partnerships in the last year (AOR = 1.81, 95 % CI 1.19-2.74), age-disparate sex in the last year (AOR = 1.96, 95 % CI 1.16-3.32) and HAU (AOR = 1.97, 95 % CI 1.41-2.74). Using Mxit-a popular mobile instant messaging application-was associated with higher odds of reported multiple partnerships in the last year among both males (AOR = 1.70, 95 % CI 1.35-2.14) and females (AOR = 1.45, 95 % CI 1.07-1.96) and with HAU among both males (AOR = 1.47, 95 % CI 1.14-1.90) and females (AOR = 1.50, 95 % CI 1.18-1.90). Further longitudinal and qualitative research should explore in more depth the observed links between social media and risk behavior.

  1. Feasibility, yield, and cost of active tuberculosis case finding linked to a mobile HIV service in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

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    Katharina Kranzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization is currently developing guidelines on screening for tuberculosis disease to inform national screening strategies. This process is complicated by significant gaps in knowledge regarding mass screening. This study aimed to assess feasibility, uptake, yield, treatment outcomes, and costs of adding an active tuberculosis case-finding program to an existing mobile HIV testing service. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was conducted at a mobile HIV testing service operating in deprived communities in Cape Town, South Africa. All HIV-negative individuals with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, and all HIV-positive individuals regardless of symptoms were eligible for participation and referred for sputum induction. Samples were examined by microscopy and culture. Active tuberculosis case finding was conducted on 181 days at 58 different sites. Of the 6,309 adults who accessed the mobile clinic, 1,385 were eligible and 1,130 (81.6% were enrolled. The prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis was 2.2% (95% CI 1.1-4.0, 3.3% (95% CI 1.4-6.4, and 0.4% (95% CI 1.4 015-6.4 in HIV-negative individuals, individuals newly diagnosed with HIV, and known HIV, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 5.3% (95% CI 3.5-7.7, 7.4% (95% CI 4.5-11.5, 4.3% (95% CI 2.3-7.4, respectively. Of the 56 new tuberculosis cases detected, 42 started tuberculosis treatment and 34 (81.0% completed treatment. The cost of the intervention was US$1,117 per tuberculosis case detected and US$2,458 per tuberculosis case cured. The generalisability of the study is limited to similar settings with comparable levels of deprivation and TB and HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Mobile active tuberculosis case finding in deprived populations with a high burden of HIV and tuberculosis is feasible, has a high uptake, yield, and treatment success. Further work is now required to examine cost-effectiveness and affordability and

  2. “HealthKick”: Formative assessment of the health environment in low-resource primary schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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    de Villiers Anniza

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study evaluated the primary school environment in terms of being conducive to good nutrition practices, sufficient physical activity and prevention of nicotine use, with the view of planning a school-based health intervention. Methods A sample of 100 urban and rural disadvantaged schools was randomly selected from two education districts of the Western Cape Education Department, South Africa. A situation analysis, which comprised an interview with the school principal and completion of an observation schedule of the school environment, was done at all schools. Results Schools, on average, had 560 learners and 16 educators. Principals perceived the top health priorities for learners to be an unhealthy diet (50% and to far lesser degree, lack of physical activity (24% and underweight (16%. They cited lack of physical activity (33% and non-communicable diseases (NCDs; 24% as the main health priorities for educators, while substance abuse (66% and tobacco use (31% were prioritised for parents. Main barriers to health promotion programmes included lack of financial resources and too little time in the time table. The most common items sold at the school tuck shops were crisps (100%, and then sweets (96%, while vendors mainly sold sweets (92%, crisps (89%, and ice lollies (38%. Very few schools (8% had policies governing the type of food items sold at school. Twenty-six of the 100 schools that were visited had vegetable gardens. All schools reported having physical activity and physical education in their time tables, however, not all of them offered this activity outside the class room. Extramural sport offered at schools mainly included athletics, netball, and rugby, with cricket and soccer being offered less frequently. Conclusion The formative findings of this study contribute to the knowledge of key environmental and policy determinants that may play a role in the health behaviour of learners, their parents and their

  3. Efficacy of SISTA South Africa on sexual behavior, HIV stigma and relationship control among isiXhosa women in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingood, Gina M.; Reddy, Priscilla; Lang, Delia L.; Saleh-Onoya, Dorina; Braxton, Nikia; Sifunda, Sibusiso; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic has a devastating impact among South-African women. The current study evaluated the efficacy of SISTA South Africa, a culturally congruent HIV intervention for isiXhosa women in South Africa that was adapted from SISTA, an HIV intervention for African American women. Methods A randomized controlled trial recruited 342 isiXhosa women 18 – 35 years of age. Participants were randomized to the general health comparison or the SISTA South Africa intervention. Xhosa speaking peer health educators tailored the SISTA South Africa curriculum, while maintaining the core elements of the original SiSTA intervention. Participants completed assessments at baseline and 6 months follow-up. Results Relative to participants in the comparison, participants in the HIV intervention reduced the frequency of unprotected vaginal intercourse acts (adjusted mean difference = 1.06; p = .02), were more likely to report not desiring dry sex (AOR = .229; 95% CI = .10, .47; p = .0001) and, were more likely to perceive that their main sexual partner did not desire dry sex (AOR = .24; 95% CI = .11, .52; p = .0001). Additionally, women randomized to the intervention also reported an increase in HIV knowledge, greater relationship control and had more accepting attitudes towards HIV stigma. The HIV intervention did not reduce STI incidence. Conclusions This trial demonstrates that an HIV intervention which is adapted to enhance its gender and cultural relevance for rural isiXhosa women can reduce self-reported sexual risk behaviors and enhance mediators of HIV among this vulnerable population. PMID:23673889

  4. Heat effects of ambient apparent temperature on all-cause mortality in Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg, South Africa: 2006-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Janine

    2017-06-01

    Due to climate change, an increase of 3-4°C in ambient temperature is projected along the South African coast and 6-7°C inland during the next 80years. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between daily ambient apparent temperature (Tapp) and daily all-cause non-accidental mortality (hereafter mortality) in Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg during a 5-year study period (2006-2010). Susceptibility by sex and age groups (Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg. A 3.3%, 2.6% and 2.8% increase in mortality per IQR increase in Tapp (lag0-1) was observed in Cape Town, Durban and Johannesburg, respectively above the city-specific thresholds. The elderly were more at risk in Cape Town and Johannesburg. No difference in risk was observed for males and females in the three cities. In the meta-analysis an overall significant increase of 0.9% in mortality per 1°C increase in Tapp (lag0-1) was observed for all age groups combined in the three cities. For the ≥65year group a significant increase of 2.1% in mortality was observed. In conclusion, the risks for all age groups combined and the elderly are similar to those reported in studies from developed and developing countries. The results can be used in present-day early warning systems and in risk assessments to estimate the impact of increased Tapp in the country due to climate change. Future research should investigate the association between Tapp and cause-specific mortality and also morbidity.

  5. Strontium isotope investigation of ungulate movement patterns on the Pleistocene Paleo-Agulhas Plain of the Greater Cape Floristic Region, South Africa

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    Copeland, Sandi R.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Fisher, Erich C.; Lee-Thorp, Julia A.; Cowling, Richard M.; le Roux, Petrus J.; Hodgkins, Jamie; Marean, Curtis W.

    2016-06-01

    Middle Stone Age sites located within the Greater Cape Floristic Region on the South African southern coast have material culture with early evidence for key modern human behaviors such as projectile weaponry, large animal hunting, and symbolic behavior. In order to interpret how and why these changes evolved, it is necessary to understand their ecological context as it has direct relevance to foraging behavior. During periods of lowered sea level, a largely flat and vast expanse of land existed south of the modern coastline, but it is now submerged by higher sea levels. This exposed area, the Paleo-Agulhas Plain, likely created an ecological context unlike anything in the region today, as evidenced by fossil assemblages dominated by migratory ungulates. One hypothesis is that the Paleo-Agulhas Plain supported a migration ecosystem of large grazers driven by summer rainfall, producing palatable forage during summer in the east, and winter rainfall, producing palatable forage during winter in the west. Alternatively, ungulates may have been moving from the coastal plain in the south to the interior north of the Cape Fold Mountains, as observed for elephants in historic times. In this study, we assess ungulate movement patterns with inter- and intra-tooth enamel samples for strontium isotopes in fossil fauna from Pinnacle Point sites PP13B and PP30. To accomplish our goals we created a bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr isoscape for the region by collecting plants at 171 sampling sites and developing a geospatial model. The strontium isotope results indicate that ungulates spent most of their time on the Paleo-Agulhas Plain and avoided dissected plain, foothill, and mountain habitats located more than about 15 km north of the modern coastline. The results clearly exclude a north-south (coastal-interior) movement or migration pattern, and cannot falsify the east-west movements hypothesized in the south coast migration ecosystem hypothesis.

  6. Phylogeny, morphological evolution, and speciation of endemic brassicaceae genera in the cape flora of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mummenhoff, K.; Al-Shehbaz, I.A.; Bakker, F.T.; Linder, H.P.; Mühlhausen, A.

    2005-01-01

    Heliophila (ca. 73 spp.), the ditypic Cycloptychis and Thlaspeocarpa, and the monotypic Schlechteria, Silicularia, Brachycarpaea, and Chamira are endemic to the Cape region of South Africa, where they are the dominant genera of Brassicaceae. They may be regarded as the most diversified Brassicaceae

  7. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

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    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  8. The identity of Albuca bifolia (Hyacinthaceae), and the description of two related new species, A. anisocrispa and A. pseudobifolia, from Eastern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Azorín, Manuel; Crespo Villalba, Manuel Benito; Dold, Anthony P.; Barker, Nigel P.

    2012-01-01

    Until now, Albuca bifolia Baker was poorly known. Plants fitting the original description of A. bifolia were found at the type locality near Grahamstown, South Africa, during extensive field work for a revision of the genus Albuca L. Here we provide new data and a detailed morphological description for this species. Furthermore two new species, Albuca anisocrispa sp. nov. and A. pseudobifolia sp. nov., both closely related to A. bifolia, are described here on the basis of floral, vegetative, ...

  9. Design Thinking: A Methodology towards Sustainable Problem Solving in Higher Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyai, Keneilwe

    2016-01-01

    This short paper explores the potential contribution of design thinking methodology to the education and training system in South Africa. Design thinking is slowly gaining traction in South Africa. Design Thinking is gaining traction in South Africa. There is offered by the Hasso Plattner Institute of Design Thinking at the University of Cape Town…

  10. Techno-Cultural Characterization of the MIS 5 (c. 105 - 90 Ka) Lithic Industries at Blombos Cave, Southern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douze, Katja; Wurz, Sarah; Henshilwood, Christopher Stuart

    2015-01-01

    Blombos Cave is well known as an important site for understanding the evolution of symbolically mediated behaviours among Homo sapiens during the Middle Stone Age, and during the Still Bay in particular. The lower part of the archaeological sequence (M3 phase) contains 12 layers dating to MIS 5 with ages ranging from 105 to 90 ka ago (MIS 5c to 5b) that provide new perspectives on the technological behaviour of these early humans. The new data obtained from our extensive technological analysis of the lithic material enriches our currently limited knowledge of this time period in the Cape region. By comparing our results with previously described lithic assemblages from sites south of the Orange River, we draw new insights on the extent of the techno-cultural ties between these sites and the M3 phase at Blombos Cave and highlight the importance of this phase within the Middle Stone Age cultural stratigraphy.

  11. Developing a community owned wind farm, with social and economic benefits for a low-income community, at St Helena Bay, Western Cape, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin, J. [Seeland Development Trust (South Africa); Chown, D. [Genesis Eco-Energy, Cape Town (South Africa); Townsend, N. [Oxfam (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    This paper described the development of a wind farm at St. Helena Bay in South Africa that involved the collaboration of the Seeland Development Trust, Genesis Eco-Energy and Oxfam. Some of the challenges that have emerged were presented along with the solutions that have been found to those problems, many of which are applicable to other communities attempting to undertake a similar project. The primary objective of this project was to develop a substantially community owned, renewable energy power project, from which revenues will be used to contribute to a range of social and economic development projects. The project, which is in the early stages of development, will have additional benefits, such as job creation, reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, development of alternative financial models for the development of renewable energy and the demonstration of renewable energy as an economically viable opportunity in South Africa. The project site was acquired by the Seeland Development Trust under the South African Government's land restitution process, and is to be used to address issues of poverty, economic development and job creation. This paper described the unique partnership of a local community, a private sector company and a global charity, and presented the business and ownership models that have been developed to achieve the overall objective of the wind energy project.

  12. Anti-retroviral Therapy Based HIV Prevention Among a Sample of Men Who Have Sex with Men in Cape Town, South Africa: Use of Post-exposure Prophylaxis and Knowledge on Pre-exposure Prophylaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, J M; Stall, R D; Rebe, K; Egan, J E; De Swardt, G; Struthers, H; McIntyre, J A

    2016-12-01

    Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) have been affected disproportionately by the global HIV pandemic. Rates of consistent condom-use are low and there is a need for further biomedical prevention interventions to prevent new HIV infections. Post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) can reduce the risk of HIV, but uptake among MSM is low. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), an innovative anti-retroviral-based HIV prevention tool might be an appropriate intervention for MSM who have recently accessed PEP that involves HIV negative individuals taking daily tenofovir+emtricitabine for HIV prevention. 44 MSM, attending a primary health-care level MSM-focused sexual health clinic in Cape Town, South Africa, who had initiated PEP were enrolled in this study. Participants were followed up after 2, 4 and 12 weeks. Self-administered electronic surveys were completed at the initial, 4 and 12 week visit. Barriers and facilitators to accessing PEP and remaining adherent were examined, as was knowledge about PrEP. Thirty-two participants (80 %) were South Africa. Adherence was high and demonstrates that adherence support is feasible from a state health clinic. Reported risk behaviors in some high-risk participants did not change over time, demonstrating the need for additional longer-term HIV preventions such as PrEP. PEP users could conceivably be transitioned from PEP to PrEP.

  13. Factors influencing the utilisation of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT services by pregnant women in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thabang Mosala

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to identify factors influencing the utilisation of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT in a resource poor setting in South Africa. Opsomming Die doel van die studie was om faktore te identifiseer wat die benutting van die Voorkoming van Moeder-tot-Kind Oordrag (VMTKO beïnvloed in ‘n omgewing in Suid-Afrika wat arm is aan hulpbronne. *Please note: This is a reduced version of the abstract. Please refer to PDF for full text.

  14. Springtail diversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  15. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  16. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  17. Cardiovascular risk and endothelial function in people living with HIV/AIDS: design of the multi-site, longitudinal EndoAfrica study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Strijdom, Hans; De Boever, Patrick; Walzl, Gerhard; Essop, M. Faadiel; Nawrot, Tim S.; Webster, Ingrid; Westcott, Corli; Mashele, Nyiko; Everson, Frans; Malherbe, Stephanus T.; Stanley, Kim; Kessler, Harald H.; Stelzl, Evelyn; Goswami, Nandu

    2017-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) bein...

  18. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbinosa Etinosa O

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate the antibiogram and antibiotic resistance genes of some Vibrio strains isolated from wastewater final effluents in a rural community of South Africa. V. vulnificus (18, V. metschnikovii (3, V. fluvialis (19 and V. parahaemolyticus (12 strains were isolated from final effluents of a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP located in a rural community of South Africa. The disk diffusion method was used for the characterization of the antibiogram of the isolates. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was employed to evaluate the presence of established antibiotic resistance genes using specific primer sets. Results The Vibrio strains showed the typical multidrug-resistance phenotype of an SXT element. They were resistant to sulfamethoxazole (Sul, trimethoprim (Tmp, cotrimoxazole (Cot, chloramphenicol (Chl, streptomycin (Str, ampicillin (Amp, tetracycline (Tet nalidixic acid (Nal, and gentamicin (Gen. The antibiotic resistance genes detected includes dfr18 and dfrA1 for trimethoprim; floR, tetA, strB, sul2 for chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Some of these genes were only recently described from clinical isolates, demonstrating genetic exchange between clinical and environmental Vibrio species. Conclusions These results demonstrate that final effluents from wastewater treatment plants are potential reservoirs of various antibiotics resistance genes. Moreover, detection of resistance genes in Vibrio strains obtained from the wastewater final effluents suggests that these resistance determinants might be further disseminated in habitats downstream of the sewage plant, thus constituting a serious health risk to the communities reliant on the receiving waterbodies.

  19. Environmental change at the southern Cape coast of South Africa as inferred from a high-resolution Holocene sediment record from Eilandvlei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündsch, Michael; Haberzettl, Torsten; Meadows, Michael E.; Kirsten, Kelly L.; Meschner, Stephanie; Frenzel, Peter; Baade, Jussi; Daut, Gerhard; Mäusbacher, Roland; Kasper, Thomas; Quick, Lynne J.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Zabel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    The RAIN project (Regional Archives for Integrated iNvestigations), funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), focuses on closely integrated investigations of terrestrial and marine geoarchives from southern Africa in order to assess environmental changes during the late Quaternary. For this purpose, various marine and terrestrial sediment records from the three major rainfall zones of South Africa (winter-, summer- and year-round rainfall zone) were recovered and analysed applying a wide range of methods (e.g., sedimentology, seismic stratigraphy, geochronology, organic and inorganic geochemistry, mineralogy, stable isotopes, micropalaeontology, palynology). In this contribution, we present results and interpretations obtained from a 30.5 m sediment core retrieved from the coastal lake Eilandvlei located within the year-round rainfall zone. Geochemical investigations (Ca, Sr, total inorganic carbon) indicate major changes in the sediment carbonate contents which were linked to variations in the marine influence received at the site throughout the covered period. The interpretation of carbonates reflecting a varying marine influence is corroborated by micropalaeontological analyses (viz. ostracod and diatom assemblages) which reveal strong similarities with the geochemical data. In order to establish a reliable radiocarbon (14C) chronology for this record, it is of particular importance to consider the impact of 14C-depleted ("old") marine carbon contained in the measured samples causing reservoir effects. Therefore, two marine molluscan shells collected alive before AD 1950 ("pre-bomb") were analysed to determine the regional marine reservoir offset (ΔR). The obtained ΔR values of 134 ± 38 and 161 ± 38 14C yrs represent the first data available for the south coast of South Africa. However, the application of the resulting average ΔR = 148 ± 54 14C yrs for the calibration of the entire Eilandvlei record underestimates the

  20. The process of enchancing a geriatric module in undergraduate physiotherapy education in South Africa - perceived attituteds towards ageing among community-dwelling elderly persons in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. Amosun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The framwork of Bloom's taxonomy was utilised in reviewing the educational outcomes of the geriatric module in undergraduate physiotherapy edication at the University of Cape Town.

  1. Age and origin of cold climate landforms from the Eastern Cape Drakensberg, southern Africa: palaeoclimatic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Stephanie C.; Barrows, Timothy T.; Fifield, L. Keith

    2014-05-01

    Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Journal of Quaternary Science 16, 365-374.

  2. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  3. Preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line-fish species of the Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A. Venter

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary assessment of surf-zone and estuarine line fish was carried out in the DwesaCwebe Marine Protected Area (MPA, on the Wild Coast, South Africa. The purpose was to provide baseline data on inshore line-fish stocks in the MPA. A total of 28 species was recorded, of which 53% have a conservation status reflecting some concern and 43% are endemic to southern Africa. This highlights the value of the MPA for protection of important line-fish species. Within the MPA, localised differences were detected in species diversity, size frequency and catch per unit effort between unexploited and illegally exploited areas. These differences were more prominent in slow growing, long-lived species. It thus appears that illegal exploitation is negatively affecting fish populations within the MPA, which counteract and potentially could eliminate the benefits of fish protection typically associated with no-take MPAs. These results highlight the need for improved law enforcement and better communication with neighbouring communities to increase awareness. It is further recommended that the current no-take status of the MPA should be maintained. In addition, baseline fisheries information was collected on certain fish species that could be used to inform future conservation management of the MPA.Conservation implications: The Dwesa-Cwebe Marine Protected Area is unique and important for the conservation of key surf zone and estuarine fish species. However there is a significant risk to the fish populations due to illegal exploitation. Key interventions should include enhanced law enforcement but, more important, the creation of alternative livelihoods and long term sustainable benefits to local communities.

  4. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  5. Secondary Teaching Strategies on South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    1987-01-01

    Offers learning activities on South Africa, which help students gain background information on South Africa's culture, history, and geography; examine United States foreign policy toward South Africa; conduct community research on United States involvement with South Africa; confront different life styles of individuals living in South Africa; and…

  6. Improving the counselling skills of lay counsellors in antiretroviral adherence settings: a cluster randomised controlled trial in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewing, Sarah; Mathews, Cathy; Schaay, Nikki; Cloete, Allanise; Simbayi, Leickness; Louw, Johann

    2015-01-01

    Little research has investigated interventions to improve the delivery of counselling in health care settings. We determined the impact of training and supervision delivered as part of the Options: Western Cape project on lay antiretroviral adherence counsellors' practice. Four NGOs employing 39 adherence counsellors in the Western Cape were randomly allocated to receive 53 h of training and supervision in Options for Health, an intervention based on the approach of Motivational Interviewing. Five NGOs employing 52 adherence counsellors were randomly allocated to the standard care control condition. Counselling observations were analysed for 23 intervention and 32 control counsellors. Intervention counsellors' practice was more consistent with a client-centred approach than control counsellors', and significantly more intervention counsellors engaged in problem-solving barriers to adherence (91 vs. 41 %). The Options: Western Cape training and supervision package enabled lay counsellors to deliver counselling for behaviour change in a manner consistent with evidence-based approaches.

  7. Foodborne pathogens recovered from ready-to-eat foods from roadside cafeterias and retail outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: public health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyenje, Mirriam E; Odjadjare, Collins E; Tanih, Nicoline F; Green, Ezekiel; Ndip, Roland N

    2012-08-01

    This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24). Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%), Enterobacter spp. (18%), Aeromonas hydrophila (12%), Klebsiella oxytoca (8%), Proteus mirabilis (6.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (3.2%) and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%). Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections.

  8. Preference for dry sex, condom use and risk of STI among HIV-negative black women in the Western Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Ruiter

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The practice of dry sex is reportedly common among young black women in South Africa. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship of women’s preference for dry sex with condom use and the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT, Neisseria gonorrhoea (NG and Trichomonas vaginalis (TV infections. Between January 2006 and December 2007, 446 women completed a behavioural survey in isiXhosa which assessed demographic information, sexual behaviours, condom use behaviour and other potential correlates. In total, 159 (36.72% women indicated preferring dry sex. A multivariate logistic regression model indicated that participants who preferred dry sex were more likely to report past STI episodes and to have a partner who also preferred dry sex. The findings indicate that dry sex behaviour was not directly associated with condom use and STI (CT, NG, and TV prevalence but may have been associated with relationships in which sexual preferences of the male partner were dominant.

  9. Water services, lived citizenship, and notions of the state in marginalised urban spaces: The case of Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Rodina

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we argue that in South Africa the state is understood and narrated in multiple ways, notably differentiated by interactions with service provision infrastructure and the ongoing housing formalisation process. We trace various contested narratives of the state and of citizenship that emerge from interactions with urban water service infrastructures. In effect, the housing formalisation process rolls out through specific physical infrastructures, including, but not limited to, water services (pipes, taps, water meters. These infrastructures bring with them particular logics and expectations that contribute to a sense of enfranchisement and associated benefits to some residents, while others continue to experience inadequate services, and linked exclusions. More specifically, we learn that residents who have received newly built homes replacing shack dwellings in the process of formalisation more often narrate the state as legitimate, stemming from the government role as service provider. Somewhat surprisingly, these residents at times also suggest compliance with obligations and expectations for payment for water and responsible water consumption. In contrast, shack dwellers more often characterise the state as uncooperative and neglectful, accenting state failure to incorporate alternative views of what constitutes appropriate services. With an interest in political ecologies of the state and water services infrastructures, this paper traces the dynamic processes through which states and citizenship are mutually and relationally understood, and dynamically evolving. As such, the analysis offers insights for ongoing state-society negotiations in relation to changing infrastructure access in a transitioning democracy.

  10. Entrepreneurial Knowledge and Aspirations of Dentistry Students in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijlal, Pradeep; Brijlal, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    An investigation of the intentions and knowledge of entrepreneurship of final-year university dentistry students is reported, with particular regard to the factors of gender and race. A questionnaire survey was used with final-year dentistry students, over two years, at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The findings show that…

  11. Staff Attitudes and Services Provided by Community-Based Organizations for Alcohol and Other Drug Users in Cape Town, South Africa: Implications for Training and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Sonja; Myers, Bronwyn; Louw, Johann

    2008-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this study were: (i) to describe the nature of and the extent to which community-based organizations (CBOs) in Cape Town provide services to people who have alcohol and other drug (AOD) problems; (ii) to examine the relationship between CBOs' attitudes towards individuals with AOD problems and the types of services provided; and…

  12. Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae: Heterocotylinae) from the gills of a captive onefin electric ray, Narke capensis (Narkidae) at Two Oceans Aquarium, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, David B; Chisholm, Leslie A; Hansen, Haakon

    2016-09-01

    Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenea: Monocotylidae) is described from the gills of a captive female onefin electric ray, Narke capensis, collected for exhibition at Two Oceans Aquarium in Cape Town, South Africa. Electrocotyle n. gen. is most similar to the heterocotyline genera Heterocotyle and Potamotrygonocotyle but could not be accommodated easily in either of these groups. The new genus is characterised by a haptor with one central and eight peripheral loculi, four unsclerotised structures on the dorsal surface of the haptor, a single unsclerotised non-sinous ridge on the ventral surface of the haptoral septa, large hamuli with a long handle and reduced guard, a vagina with sclerotised walls, and tetrahedral eggs. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on 28S sequences strongly support the separate genus status of Electrocotyle n. gen and thus support our morphological conclusion. The Heterocotylinae is amended to accommodate the new genus, and the new species is fully described and illustrated herein. This is the first record of a monocotylid from the Narkidae. Electrocotyle whittingtoni n. gen. n. sp. is considered potentially pathogenic given its negative impact on the health of its captive host kept in the quarantine facility at Two Oceans Aquarium.

  13. Narrative methods and socio-cultural linguistic approaches in facilitating in depth understanding of HIV disclosure in a cohort of women and men in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane eCooper

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African National Department of Health has rapidly extended free public sector antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV from 2007. Approximately 6 million people are living with HIV in South Africa, with 3.1 million currently on treatment. HIV disclosure stigma has been reduced in high prevalence, generalized epidemic settings, but some remains, including in research interviews.This paper documents the unexpected reactions of people living with HIV to interviewers, It highlights shifts over time from discussing daily events with researchers to later expressing distress and then relief at having an uninvolved, sympathetic person with whom to discuss HIV disclosure. While there are commonalities, women and men had gendered responses to interviewers. These are apparent in men’s uncharacteristic emotional responses and women’s shyness in revealing gendered aspects of HIV acquisition. Both women and men expressed stress at not being allowed or able to fulfill dominant expected masculine or feminine roles. The findings underline the role of research interviewers in study participants confiding and fully expressing their feelings. This greater confidence occurred in follow up interviews with researchers in busy health facilities where time of health care providers is limited. It underlines the methodological value of narrative inquiries with research cohorts. These allowed richer data than cross-sectional interviews. They shaped the questions asked and the process of interview. They revealed participants’ increasing level of agency in expressing feelings that they find important. This research contributes to highlighting pivotal, relational aspects in research between empathetic, experienced researchers and study participants and how participant-researcher relationships progress over time. It highlights ethical dilemmas in roles of researchers as opposed to counselors, raising questions of possible blurring of lines between

  14. Narrative Methods and Sociocultural Linguistic Approaches in Facilitating In-depth Understanding of HIV Disclosure in a Cohort of Women and Men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Diane; Mantell, Joanne E; Nywagi, Ntobeko; Cishe, Nomazizi; Austin-Evelyn, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    The South African National Department of Health has rapidly extended free public-sector antiretroviral treatment for people living with HIV from 2007. Approximately 6 million people are living with HIV in South Africa, with 3.1 million currently on treatment. HIV disclosure stigma has been reduced in high prevalence, generalized epidemic settings, but some remains, including in research interviews. This paper documents the unexpected reactions of people living with HIV to interviewers. It highlights shifts over time from discussing daily events with researchers to later expressing distress and then relief at having an uninvolved, sympathetic person with whom to discuss HIV disclosure. While there are commonalities, women and men had gendered responses to interviewers. These are apparent in men's uncharacteristic emotional responses and women's shyness in revealing gendered aspects of HIV acquisition. Both women and men expressed stress at not being allowed or able to fulfill dominant expected masculine or feminine roles. The findings underline the role of research interviewers in study participants confiding and fully expressing their feelings. This greater confidence occurred in follow-up interviews with researchers in busy health facilities, where time of health-care providers is limited. It underlines the methodological value of narrative inquiries with research cohorts. These allowed richer data than cross-sectional interviews. They shaped the questions asked and the process of interview. They revealed participants' increasing level of agency in expressing feelings that they find important. This research contributes to highlighting pivotal, relational aspects in research between empathetic, experienced researchers and study participants and how participant-researcher relationships progress over time. It highlights ethical dilemmas in roles of researchers as opposed to counselors, raising questions of possible blurring of lines between research and service roles

  15. Foodborne Pathogens Recovered from Ready-to-Eat Foods from Roadside Cafeterias and Retail Outlets in Alice, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa: Public Health Implications

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    Roland N. Ndip

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the microbiological quality of various ready-to-eat foods sold in Alice, South Africa. Microbiological analysis was conducted on 252 samples which included vegetables, potatoes, rice, pies, beef and chicken stew. The isolates were identified using biochemical tests and the API 20E, API 20NE and API Listeria kits; results were analyzed using the one-way-ANOVA test. Bacterial growth was present in all the food types tested; high levels of total aerobic count were observed in vegetables, 6.8 ± 0.07 followed by rice, 6.7 ± 1.7 while pies had the lowest count (2.58 ± 0.24. Organisms isolated included: Listeria spp. (22%, Enterobacter spp. (18%, Aeromonas hydrophila (12%, Klebsiella oxytoca (8%, Proteus mirabilis (6.3%, Staphylococcus aureus (3.2% and Pseudomonas luteola (2.4%. Interestingly, Salmonella spp. and Escherichia coli were not isolated in any of the samples. There was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05 in the prevalence of foodborne pathogens from hygienic and unhygienic cafeterias. The results indicated that most of the ready-to-eat food samples examined in this study did not meet bacteriological quality standards, therefore posing potential risks to consumers. This should draw the attention of the relevant authorities to ensure that hygienic standards are improved to curtain foodborne infections.

  16. A prospective, cross-sectional study of anaemia and peripheral iron status in antiretroviral naïve, HIV-1 infected children in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Hussey Gregory D

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia is a common manifestation of paediatric HIV infection. Although there are many causes, anaemia of chronic diseases is the most frequent type. In poor countries iron deficiency is widespread. It is probable that many HIV-infected children in these countries are also iron deficient. This study describes the relationship between paediatric HIV infection and anaemia, and documents the peripheral iron status of antiretroviral naive, HIV-infected children. Methods Sixty children were evaluated prospectively. Investigations included CD4+ count, haemoglobin concentration (Hb, red blood cell (RBC morphology, and iron studies. Results Anaemia was present in 73% of children. Compared to mild HIV infection, median Hb was lower in children with moderate clinical infection (104 g/L v 112 g/L, p = 0.04 and severe clinical infection (96 g/L v 112 g/L, p = 0.006, and more children with severe infection were anaemic (92% v 58%, 0.04. There was a significant relationship between immunological status and Hb. 68% had abnormal RBC morphology. Significantly more children with moderate and severe disease, and severe immunosuppression had abnormal RBC morphology. 52% were iron-depleted, 20% had iron-deficient erythropoiesis and 18% iron deficiency anaemia (IDA. 16% (7/44 of anaemic children had microcytosis and hypochromia. Median soluble transferrin receptor concentration was significantly higher in those with microcytic hypochromic anaemia (42.0 nmol/L v 30.0 nmol/L, p = 0.008. Conclusions Both the proportion of anaemic children and the median Hb were associated with disease status. Iron depletion and IDA are major problems in HIV-infected children in South Africa.

  17. The impact of health service variables on healthcare access in a low resourced urban setting in the Western Cape, South Africa

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    Elsje Scheffler

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health care access is complex and multi-faceted and, as a basic right, equitable access and services should be available to all user groups.Objectives: The aim of this article is to explore how service delivery impacts on access to healthcare for vulnerable groups in an urban primary health care setting in South Africa.Methods: A descriptive qualitative study design was used. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with purposively sampled participants and analysed through thematic content analysis.Results: Service delivery factors are presented against five dimensions of access according to the ACCESS Framework. From a supplier perspective, the organisation of care in the study setting resulted in available, accessible, affordable and adequate services as measured against the DistrictHealth System policies and guidelines. However, service providers experienced significant barriers in provision of services, which impacted on the quality of care, resulting in poor client and provider satisfaction and ultimately compromising acceptability of service delivery. Although users found services to be accessible, the organisation of services presented them with challenges in the domains of availability, affordability and adequacy, resulting in unmet needs, low levels of satisfaction and loss of trust. These challenges fuelled perceptions of unacceptable services.Conclusion: Well developed systems and organisation of services can create accessible, affordable and available primary healthcare services, but do not automatically translate into adequate and acceptable services. Focussing attention on how services are delivered might restore the balance between supply (services and demand (user needs and promote universal and equitable access.

  18. A survey of the prevalence of blowfly strike and the control measures used in the Rûens area of the Western Cape Province of South Africa

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    A. J. Scholtz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Blowfly strike and the methods used to combat blowfly strike were recorded on 33 properties in the Rûens area of South Africa during 2003/2004. Data were recorded on Merino and Dohne Merino hoggets (n = 4951 with at least 3 months’ wool growth. The following data were captured: presence or absence of strike, site of the strike (body or breech, presence or absence of dermatophilosis as well as subjective scores for wool quality and wool colour. Control measures recorded include: chemical treatment (preventative and spot treatment, crutching, mulesing and the use of the Lucitrap® system. Blowfly strike was not significantly influenced by gender or breed. Hoggets suffering from dermatophilosis were more likely to be struck, compared with contemporaries not suffering from the skin disorder (0.057 vs 0.027; P < 0.05. Merino hoggets generally had higher scores than their Dohne Merino contemporaries for wool quality (32.6 vs 27.4; P<0.05 and wool colour (29.0 vs 27.2; P<0.05. There was an indication that the Lucitrap® system may have reduced flystrike, but the effect was not statistically significant (P = 0.19 for overall strikes and P = 0.12 for body strike. The Mules operation benefited overall flystrike (0.013 vs 0.110; P < 0.05; mainly through an effect on breech strike (0.010 vs 0.109; P < 0.05. The proportion of fly strikes increased with wool length, and declined with an increase in farm size in wool colour score. None of the ethically acceptable control measures assessed could substantially reduce blowfly strike on their own, and an integrated pest management programme was proposed.

  19. Magnetic and Electromagnetic Signatures around Polile Tshisa Hot Spring in the Northern Neotectonic Belt in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Madi Kakaba; Nyabeze Peter K.; Gwavava Oswald; Sekiba Matome; Zhao Baojin

    2016-01-01

    Finding productive boreholes in the Karoo fractured aquifers has never been an easy task. Fractured Karoo aquifers in the neotectonic zones in the Eastern Cape Province can be targeted for groundwater exploration. The Polile Tshisa hot spring is located in a seismo-tectonic region beset by neotectonics. Hot springs are indicative of circulation of groundwater at great depths along fault zones, and accordingly of neotectonics. The characterisation of hot springs by means of magnetic and electr...

  20. Phylogenetic relatedness limits co-occurrence at fine spatial scales: evidence from the schoenoid sedges (Cyperaceae: Schoeneae) of the Cape Floristic Region, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingsby, Jasper A; Verboom, G Anthony

    2006-07-01

    Species co-occurrence at fine spatial scales is expected to be nonrandom with respect to phylogeny because of the joint effects of evolutionary (trait convergence and conservatism) and ecological (competitive exclusion and habitat filtering) processes. We use data from 11 existing vegetation surveys to test whether co-occurrence in schoenoid sedge assemblages in the Cape Floristic Region shows significant phylogenetic structuring and to examine whether this changes with the phylogenetic scale of the analysis. We provide evidence for phylogenetic overdispersion in an alliance of closely related species (the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade) using both quantile regression analysis and a comparison between the mean observed and expected phylogenetic distances between co-occurring species. Similar patterns are not evident when the analyses are performed at a broader phylogenetic scale. Examination of six functional traits suggests a general pattern of trait conservatism within the reticulate-sheathed Tetraria clade, suggesting a potential role for interspecific competition in structuring co-occurrence within this group. We suggest that phylogenetic overdispersion of communities may be common throughout many of the Cape lineages, since interspecific interactions are likely intensified in lineages with large numbers of species restricted to a small geographic area, and we discuss the potential implications for patterns of diversity in the Cape.

  1. Female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa

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    Arendse Najuwa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic

  2. The Influence of Second-Hand Cigarette Smoke Exposure during Childhood and Active Cigarette Smoking on Crohn's Disease Phenotype Defined by the Montreal Classification Scheme in a Western Cape Population, South Africa.

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    Tawanda Chivese

    Full Text Available Smoking may worsen the disease outcomes in patients with Crohn's disease (CD, however the effect of exposure to second-hand cigarette smoke during childhood is unclear. In South Africa, no such literature exists. The aim of this study was to investigate whether disease phenotype, at time of diagnosis of CD, was associated with exposure to second-hand cigarette during childhood and active cigarette smoking habits.A cross sectional examination of all consecutive CD patients seen during the period September 2011-January 2013 at 2 large inflammatory bowel disease centers in the Western Cape, South Africa was performed. Data were collected via review of patient case notes, interviewer-administered questionnaire and clinical examination by the attending gastroenterologist. Disease phenotype (behavior and location was evaluated at time of diagnosis, according to the Montreal Classification scheme. In addition, disease behavior was stratified as 'complicated' or 'uncomplicated', using predefined definitions. Passive cigarette smoke exposure was evaluated during 3 age intervals: 0-5, 6-10, and 11-18 years.One hundred and ninety four CD patients were identified. Cigarette smoking during the 6 months prior to, or at time of diagnosis was significantly associated with ileo-colonic (L3 disease (RRR = 3.63; 95% CI, 1.32-9.98, p = 0.012 and ileal (L1 disease (RRR = 3.54; 95% CI, 1.06-11.83, p = 0.040 compared with colonic disease. In smokers, childhood passive cigarette smoke exposure during the 0-5 years age interval was significantly associated with ileo-colonic CD location (RRR = 21.3; 95% CI, 1.16-391.55, p = 0.040. No significant association between smoking habits and disease behavior at diagnosis, whether defined by the Montreal scheme, or stratified as 'complicated' vs 'uncomplicated', was observed.Smoking habits were associated with ileo-colonic (L3 and ileal (L1 disease at time of diagnosis in a South African cohort.

  3. South Africa, the Arts and Youth in Conflict with the Law

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    Woodward, Sheila C.; Sloth-Nielsen, Julia; Mathiti, Vuyisile

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Diversion into Music Education (DIME) youth intervention programme that originated in South Africa in 2001. DIME offers instruction in African marimba and djembe ensemble performance to juvenile offenders. Conceived as community collaboration among organizations in the cities of Cape Town, South Africa and Tampa, United…

  4. Effectiveness of patient adherence groups as a model of care for stable patients on antiretroviral therapy in Khayelitsha, Cape Town, South Africa.

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    Miguel Angel Luque-Fernandez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Innovative models of care are required to cope with the ever-increasing number of patients on antiretroviral therapy in the most affected countries. This study, in Khayelitsha, South Africa, evaluates the effectiveness of a group-based model of care run predominantly by non-clinical staff in retaining patients in care and maintaining adherence. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Participation in "adherence clubs" was offered to adults who had been on ART for at least 18 months, had a current CD4 count >200 cells/ml and were virologically suppressed. Embedded in an ongoing cohort study, we compared loss to care and virologic rebound in patients receiving the intervention with patients attending routine nurse-led care from November 2007 to February 2011. We used inverse probability weighting to estimate the intention-to-treat effect of adherence club participation, adjusted for measured baseline and time-varying confounders. The principal outcome was the combination of death or loss to follow-up. The secondary outcome was virologic rebound in patients who were virologically suppressed at study entry. Of 2829 patients on ART for >18 months with a CD4 count above 200 cells/µl, 502 accepted club participation. At the end of the study, 97% of club patients remained in care compared with 85% of other patients. In adjusted analyses club participation reduced loss-to-care by 57% (hazard ratio [HR] 0.43, 95% CI = 0.21-0.91 and virologic rebound in patients who were initially suppressed by 67% (HR 0.33, 95% CI = 0.16-0.67. DISCUSSION: Patient adherence groups were found to be an effective model for improving retention and documented virologic suppression for stable patients in long term ART care. Out-of-clinic group-based models facilitated by non-clinical staff are a promising approach to assist in the long-term management of people on ART in high burden low or middle-income settings.

  5. Spatio-temporal variation of organotin compounds in seawater and sediments from Cape Town harbour, South Africa using gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD

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    Hussein K. Okoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variation of two organotin compounds (OTCs of tributyltin and triphenyltin in the seawater and sediment of Cape Town harbour was investigated. The organotin compounds were determined by GC-FPD following prior extraction with 0.02% tropolone. The concentration of OTCs varies for locations in Cape Town harbour. The concentration of OTCs in seawater ranges from 0.067 ± 0.01 to 111.290 ± 32.20 × 10−3 μg/l for TBT while that of TPT ranges between between ND ± SD and 23008.0 ± 0.03 × 10−3 μg/l respectively between locations. Relatively higher concentrations were measured for TBT and TPT during summer than in winter and spring seasons (p ⩽ 0.05. Apparently, the observed high or low values recorded for TBT in Cape Town harbour could be the result of an increase or decrease in the traffic of ships and boats. TBT was detected in all the sediment samples analysed except for location 9 (entrance to harbour, the two control sites (which are located far away from the inner harbour where boating activities are taking place, and location 12 (Robinson dry dock 2 where the samples were not at all found. For the control sites, antifouling compounds TBT and TPT were not detected throughout except for TBT that was found in control A during summer. The seasonal variation of OTC abundance in sediment was also investigated. The results indicated that TBT is present throughout the seasons but is predominantly present in this order summer > winter > spring.

  6. Beak and feather disease virus: correlation between viral load and clinical signs in wild Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

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    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Psittacine beak and feather disease (PBFD), the most prevalent viral disease affecting psittacines, is caused by beak and feather disease virus (BFDV). This study assessed viral load using qPCR in a wild Cape parrot population affected by PBFD and compared it to overall physical condition based on clinical signs attributable to PBFD. A significant inverse correlation between viral load and overall physical condition was found, which confirmed that clinical signs may confidently be used to diagnose the relative severity of BFDV infections in wild populations. This is the first assessment of BFDV viral load in a wild psittacine population.

  7. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

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    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  8. Factors impacting knowledge and use of long acting and permanent contraceptive methods by postpartum HIV positive and negative women in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study

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    Credé Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevention of unintended pregnancies among HIV positive women is a neglected strategy in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Women who want to avoid unintended pregnancies can do this by using a modern contraceptive method. Contraceptive choice, in particular the use of long acting and permanent methods (LAPMs, is poorly understood among HIV-positive women. This study aimed to compare factors that influence women's choice in contraception and women's knowledge and attitudes towards the IUD and female sterilization by HIV-status in a high HIV prevalence setting, Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A quantitative cross-sectional survey was conducted using an interviewer-administered questionnaire amongst 265 HIV positive and 273 HIV-negative postpartum women in Cape Town. Contraceptive use, reproductive history and the future fertility intentions of postpartum women were compared using chi-squared tests, Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher's exact tests where appropriate. Women's knowledge and attitudes towards long acting and permanent methods as well as factors that influence women's choice in contraception were examined. Results The majority of women reported that their most recent pregnancy was unplanned (61.6% HIV positive and 63.2% HIV negative. Current use of contraception was high with no difference by HIV status (89.8% HIV positive and 89% HIV negative. Most women were using short acting methods, primarily the 3-monthly injectable (Depo Provera. Method convenience and health care provider recommendations were found to most commonly influence method choice. A small percentage of women (6.44% were using long acting and permanent methods, all of whom were using sterilization; however, it was found that poor knowledge regarding LAPMs is likely to be contributing to the poor uptake of these methods. Conclusions Improving contraceptive counselling to include LAPM and strengthening services for these methods are warranted in this setting

  9. Outcomes of a community-based HIV-prevention pilot programme for township men who have sex with men in Cape Town, South Africa

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    Elizabeth Batist

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Men who have sex with men (MSM in Cape Town's townships remain in need of targeted HIV-prevention services. In 2012, a pilot community-based HIV-prevention programme was implemented that aimed to reach MSM in five Cape Town townships, disseminate HIV-prevention information and supplies, and promote the use of condoms and HIV services. Methods: Convenience sampling was used to recruit self-identified MSM who were 18 years old or older in five Cape Town townships. The six-month pilot programme trained five community leaders who, along with staff, provided HIV-prevention information and supplies to MSM through small-group meetings, community-based social activities and inter-community events. After the completion of the pilot programme, in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with a subset of conveniently sampled participants and with each of the community leaders. Qualitative data were then analyzed thematically. Results: Overall, 98 mostly gay-identified black MSM consented to participate, 57 community-based activities were facilitated and 9 inter-community events were conducted. Following their enrolment, 60% (59/98 of participants attended at least one pilot activity. Of those participants, 47% (28/59 attended at least half of the scheduled activities. A total of 36 participants took part in FGDs, and five in-depth interviews were completed with community leaders. Participants reported gaining access to MSM-specific HIV-prevention information, condoms and water-based lubricant through the small-group meetings. Some participants described how their feelings of loneliness, social isolation, self-esteem and self-efficacy were improved after taking part. Conclusions: The social activities and group meetings were viable strategies for disseminating HIV-prevention information, condoms and water-based lubricant to MSM in this setting. Many MSM were also able to receive social support, reduce social isolation

  10. Magnetic and Electromagnetic Signatures around Polile Tshisa Hot Spring in the Northern Neotectonic Belt in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    Madi Kakaba

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Finding productive boreholes in the Karoo fractured aquifers has never been an easy task. Fractured Karoo aquifers in the neotectonic zones in the Eastern Cape Province can be targeted for groundwater exploration. The Polile Tshisa hot spring is located in a seismo-tectonic region beset by neotectonics. Hot springs are indicative of circulation of groundwater at great depths along fault zones, and accordingly of neotectonics. The characterisation of hot springs by means of magnetic and electromagnetic methods can help infer the occurrence of structures which are favourable for groundwater potential. The Polile Tshisa hot spring is characterised by faults, fractures, and dolerite dykes. All these structures make the hot spring a good case study for groundwater exploration.

  11. Magnetic and Electromagnetic Signatures around Polile Tshisa Hot Spring in the Northern Neotectonic Belt in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madi, Kakaba; Nyabeze, Peter K.; Gwavava, Oswald; Sekiba, Matome; Zhao, Baojin

    2016-08-01

    Finding productive boreholes in the Karoo fractured aquifers has never been an easy task. Fractured Karoo aquifers in the neotectonic zones in the Eastern Cape Province can be targeted for groundwater exploration. The Polile Tshisa hot spring is located in a seismo-tectonic region beset by neotectonics. Hot springs are indicative of circulation of groundwater at great depths along fault zones, and accordingly of neotectonics. The characterisation of hot springs by means of magnetic and electromagnetic methods can help infer the occurrence of structures which are favourable for groundwater potential. The Polile Tshisa hot spring is characterised by faults, fractures, and dolerite dykes. All these structures make the hot spring a good case study for groundwater exploration.

  12. Phylogenetic Exploration of Nosocomial Transmission Chains of 2009 Influenza A/H1N1 among Children Admitted at Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley-Omar, Ziyaad; Nindo, Fredrick; Mudau, Maanda; Hsiao, Marvin; Martin, Darren Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Traditional modes of investigating influenza nosocomial transmission have entailed a combination of confirmatory molecular diagnostic testing and epidemiological investigation. Common hospital-acquired infections like influenza require a discerning ability to distinguish between viral isolates to accurately identify patient transmission chains. We assessed whether influenza hemagglutinin sequence phylogenies can be used to enrich epidemiological data when investigating the extent of nosocomial transmission over a four-month period within a paediatric Hospital in Cape Town South Africa. Possible transmission chains/channels were initially determined through basic patient admission data combined with Maximum likelihood and time-scaled Bayesian phylogenetic analyses. These analyses suggested that most instances of potential hospital-acquired infections resulted from multiple introductions of Influenza A into the hospital, which included instances where virus hemagglutinin sequences were identical between different patients. Furthermore, a general inability to establish epidemiological transmission linkage of patients/viral isolates implied that identified isolates could have originated from asymptomatic hospital patients, visitors or hospital staff. In contrast, a traditional epidemiological investigation that used no viral phylogenetic analyses, based on patient co-admission into specific wards during a particular time-frame, suggested that multiple hospital acquired infection instances may have stemmed from a limited number of identifiable index viral isolates/patients. This traditional epidemiological analysis by itself could incorrectly suggest linkage between unrelated cases, underestimate the number of unique infections and may overlook the possible diffuse nature of hospital transmission, which was suggested by sequencing data to be caused by multiple unique introductions of influenza A isolates into individual hospital wards. We have demonstrated a functional

  13. South Africa and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS...... to acquire this clout continue to dominate academia and the global discourse. Although the alliance is still in its nascent stage, scholarly attention is increasingly looking at its internal dynamics. The inclusion of South Africa being the smallest economy in the BRICS was indeed an effort to consolidate...... its image and unleash the developmental potential for the rest of the African continent. Comparably, South Africa is probably the least influential member of the BRICS, and this raises the following questions. First, how does South Africa´s affiliation impact on the development and benefits regarding...

  14. South Africa in the BRICS

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    Philip Harrison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.

  15. Racial differences in seroprevalence of HAV and HEV in blood donors in the Western Cape, South Africa: a clue to the predominant HEV genotype?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, T; Cable, R; Pistorius, C; Maponga, T; Ijaz, S; Preiser, W; Tedder, R; Andersson, M I

    2017-03-30

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a major cause of acute hepatitis worldwide. This infection causes major water-borne outbreaks in low- and middle-income countries, whilst in industrialised countries this infection is zoonotic. These differences in epidemiology are related to different HEV genotypes. HEV genotype 3 is a zoonotic infection, whilst genotype 2 causes large outbreaks. This study determined the seroprevalence of HEV in blood donors from the Western Cape. Anti-hepatitis A virus (anti-HAV) antibody was detected in 184/300 (61%) donors. Antibody to HEV (anti-HEV) was detected in 78 of 300 donors (26%). It was highest in mixed race donors (62/100), followed by white donors (23/100) and lowest in black donors (19/100) P = 0.019. Since it is thought that genotypes 1 and 2 predominate both viruses would be acquired by the oro-faecal route, it is surprising that HEV seroprevalence does not mirror that of HAV. We postulate that this may reflect differences in socio-economic status and consumption of dietary meat. So the marked divergence between HEV and HAV seroprevalence may be the result of different routes of transmission. Further data are needed to explore the risk factors associated with HEV infection.

  16. Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of babesiosis and anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

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    P.J. Masika

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceived causes, diagnosis and treatment of redwater (babesiosis and gallsickness (anaplasmosis in cattle by livestock farmers in communal areas of the central Eastern Cape Province were investigated by means of participatory methods, semi-structured interviews and a questionnaire survey. Most livestock owners relate the causes of these diseases to excessive grazing of lush green grass, which is thought to bring about an accumulation of bile in the body. The majority of livestock owners diagnose gallsickness and redwater on the basis of presenting signs and post mortem findings. Eighty nine percent of a total of 343 livestock owners participating in the study claimed to administer herbal remedies to treat the 2 tick-borne diseases; 75 % of these combine herbal remedies with conventional medicines and 25 % use herbal remedies only. Application of herbal remedies was reportedly aimed mainly at the removal of excess bile. However, some plant species used to prepare herbal remedies are reported to possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, anti-pyretic and purgative, and may be effective in the treatment of gallsickness and redwater. A lack of understanding of the causes and transmission of gallsickness and redwater, leading to ill-directed treatment, and widespread deviation from the directions of use when administering conventional medicines, were identified as problems that could be addressed by farmer training and the supply of appropriate information.

  17. 'When you visit a man you should prepare yourself': male community care worker approaches to working with men living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gittings, Lesley

    2016-08-01

    Caring is typically constructed as a feminised practice, resulting in women shouldering the burden of care-related work. Health-seeking behaviours are also constructed as feminine and men have poorer health outcomes globally. Employing men as carers may not only improve the health of the men they assist but also be transformative with regards to gendered constructions of caring. Using semi-structured interviews and observational home visits, this study explored the techniques that community care workers employ when working with male clients. The empirical analysis draws on the perspectives of eight care workers and three of their male clients from the Cape Town area. Interviews reveal how care workers and clients perform and negotiate masculinities as they navigate hegemonic masculine norms that require men to act tough, suppress emotions and deny weakness and sickness. Both parties bump up against ideals of what it means to be a man as they strive to provide care and receive support. Community care workers avoid rupturing client performances of hegemonic masculinities which inhibit confession and support. To do this, they use techniques of indirectly broaching sensitive subjects, acting in a friendly way and being clear about the intention of their work.

  18. Emtonjeni-A Structural Intervention to Integrate Sexual and Reproductive Health into Public Sector HIV Care in Cape Town, South Africa: Results of a Phase II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantell, J E; Cooper, D; Exner, T M; Moodley, J; Hoffman, S; Myer, L; Leu, C-S; Bai, D; Kelvin, E A; Jennings, K; Stein, Z A; Constant, D; Zweigenthal, V; Cishe, N; Nywagi, N

    2017-03-01

    Integration of sexual and reproductive health within HIV care services is a promising strategy for increasing access to family planning and STI services and reducing unwanted pregnancies, perinatal HIV transmission and maternal and infant mortality among people living with HIV and their partners. We conducted a Phase II randomized futility trial of a multi-level intervention to increase adherence to safer sex guidelines among those wishing to avoid pregnancy and adherence to safer conception guidelines among those seeking conception in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive persons in four public-sector HIV clinics in Cape Town. Clinics were pair-matched and the two clinics within each pair were randomized to either a three-session provider-delivered enhanced intervention (EI) (onsite contraceptive services and brief milieu intervention for staff) or standard-of-care (SOC) provider-delivered intervention. The futility analysis showed that we cannot rule out the possibility that the EI intervention has a 10 % point or greater success rate in improving adherence to safer sex/safer conception guidelines than does SOC (p = 0.573), indicating that the intervention holds merit, and a larger-scale confirmatory study showing whether the EI is superior to SOC has merit.

  19. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIII. Ixodid ticks of domestic dogs and cats in the Western Cape Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, I G; Matthee, Sonja

    2003-09-01

    Ticks were collected at monthly intervals for 16 consecutive months from individual dogs by their owners in or close to the town of Stellenbosch, Western Cape Province. They were also collected for 27 consecutive months from dogs presented for a variety of reasons at three veterinary clinics in Stellenbosch, and from dogs upon admission to an animal welfare shelter. At one of the veterinary clinics ticks were also collected from cats. Dog owners collected six ixodid species from their pets and the most numerous of these were Haemaphysalis leachi and Rhipicephalus gertrudae. Twelve ixodid tick species and the argasid tick, Otobius megnini were collected from dogs at veterinary clinics and the animal shelter, and H. leachi, R. gertrudae and Rhipicephalus sanguineus were the most numerous. A total of nine dogs were infested with the Karoo paralysis tick, Ixodes rubicundus. No clear pattern of seasonality was evident for H. leachi, which was present throughout the year. The largest numbers of adult R. gertrudae were generally present from August to October, while adult R. sanguineus were collected during October 2000, February and March 2001, from January to April 2002 and during October 2002. Five ixodid tick species, of which H. leachi was the most numerous and prevalent, were collected from cats.

  20. Using Remote Sensing and GIS Techniques to Detect Changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet Conservation Area in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, P.; Lewarne, M.

    2016-06-01

    Understanding and identifying the spatial-temporal changes in the natural environment is crucial for monitoring and evaluating conservation efforts, as well as understanding the impact of human activities on natural resources, informing responsible land management, and promoting better decision-making. Conservation areas are often under pressure from expanding farming and related industry, invasive alien vegetation, and an ever-increasing human settlement footprint. This study focuses on detecting changes to the Prince Alfred Hamlet commonage, near Ceres in the Cape Floral Kingdom. It was chosen for its high conservation value and significance as a critical water source area. The study area includes a fast-growing human settlement footprint in a highly productive farming landscape. There are conflicting development needs as well as risks to agricultural production, and both of these threaten the integrity of the ecosystems which supply underlying services to both demands on the land. Using a multi-disciplinary approach and high-resolution satellite imagery, land use and land cover changes can be detected and classified, and the results used to support the conservation of biodiversity and wildlife, and protect our natural resources. The aim of this research is to study the efficacy of using remote sensing and GIS techniques to detect changes to critical conservation areas where disturbances can be understood, and therefore better managed and mitigated before these areas are degraded beyond repair.

  1. Ethnoveterinary uses of medicinal plants: a survey of plants used in the ethnoveterinary control of gastro-intestinal parasites of goats in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maphosa, Viola; Masika, Patrick Julius

    2010-06-01

    Conventional drugs have become expensive and therefore unaffordable to resource-limited farmers, causing farmers to seek low cost alternatives, such as use of medicinal plants. In this study, a survey was conducted in order to document information on medicinal plants used by farmers in the control of internal parasites in goats in the Eastern Cape Province. Structured questionnaires and general conversation were used to collect the information from farmers and herbalists. The survey revealed 28 plant species from 20 families that are commonly used in the treatment of gastro-intestinal parasites in goats. The plant family Asphodelaceae was frequent in usage, comprising 21.4% of the plants, and the Aloe was the most utilized species (50%). Leaves were the most frequently used plant parts (45.9%), and decoctions constituted the majority of medicinal preparations (70%). Medicinal plants are generally used in combination with other plants, and/or non-plant substances, but a few plants are used on their own. These medicinal plant remedies are administered orally, mainly by use of bottles and this is done twice in summer at intervals of one month, only once in winter and when need arises thereafter. Some of the mentioned plants have been reported in literature to possess anthelmintic properties, while others possess activities ranging from anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antimicrobial, purgative, anti-edema to immuno-regulation. If their safety and efficacy could be confirmed, these plants could form an alternative cost effective strategy in managing helminthiasis in the province.

  2. Evaluation of selected aspects of the Nutrition Therapeutic Programme offered to HIV-positive women of child-bearing age in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine T. Hansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Nutrition Therapeutic Programme (NTP involves the provision of food supplements at primary health clinics (PHCs to correct nutritional deficiencies in vulnerable groups. Although previous studies have identified problems with implementing the programme at PHCs, assessments of its efficiency have been scarce.Objective: To evaluate implementation of the NTP at PHCs that provide antiretroviral therapy.Methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted at 17 PHCs located within 3 districts of Western Cape Province. Two target groups were chosen: 32 staff members working at the sites and 21 women of child-bearing age enrolled in the NTP. Questionnaires were used to obtain data.Results: Only 2 women (10% lived in food-secure households; the rest were either at risk of hunger (29% or classified as hungry (61%. Most of the women knew they had to take the supplements to improve their nutritional status, but the majority only recalled receiving basic nutritional advice, and the information was mainly given verbally. Ten of the women had shared their supplements with others, mostly with their children. The study identified lack of clearly defined NTP responsibilities at the PHCs, causing confusion amongst the staff. Although many staff members expressed problems with the NTP, only 38% of them reported having routine evaluations regarding the programme.Conclusion: Several aspects compromised the effectiveness of the NTP, including socio- economic factors leading to clients’ non-compliance. The strategic organisation and implementation of the NTP varied between different PHCs offering antiretroviral therapy, and staff experienced difficulties with the logistics of the programme.

  3. Reflections on clinical practice whilst developing a portfolio of evidence: Perceptions of undergraduate nursing students in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoire Ticha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: In order to develop clinical judgement, nurses should be encouraged to become analytical and critical thinkers. Development of a portfolio of evidence (PoE of reflection on clinical experiences is one of the strategies that can be used to enhance analytical and critical thinking amongst nursing students. Students’ perceptions of the process are important in order to encourage their reflective practice. PoE compilation at a school of nursing at a university in the Western Cape includes evidence of students’ clinical learning which they present in a portfolio. The students are expected to reflect on their clinical learning experiences and include these reflections in their portfolios.Objective: To describe the perceptions of fourth-year nursing students regarding reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs.Method: A qualitative design was used to explore the perceptions of registered fourth-year nursing students with regard to their reflective practice whilst compiling their PoEs. Purposive sampling was used for selection of participants. Three focus group discussions were held, each consisting of six to eight participants. Data saturation was reached during the third meeting. Tesch’s method of data analysis was used.Results: Findings revealed that reflection enabled the learners to gain experience and identify challenges related to the expected events and tasks carried out at the hospitals and in the classroom whilst developing their PoE.Conclusion: The compilation of a PoE was a good teaching and learning strategy, and the skills, experience and knowledge that the participants in this study acquired boosted their self-esteem, confidence and critical thinking. Reflection also assisted in self-directed learning.

  4. Health promotion services for patients having non-comminicable diseases: Feedback from patients and health care providers in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Whadi-ah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Due to a paucity of data regarding the availability and efficacy of equipment, health promotion methods and materials currently used by health professionals for the management of patients with non-communicable diseases (NCDs at primary health care (PHC facilities in Cape Town, an audit was undertaken. Methods A multi-centre cross-sectional study was undertaken to interview patients (n = 580 with NCDs at 30 PHC facilities. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on preferences for health promotion methods for lifestyle modification. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with selected health professionals (n = 14 and captured using a digital recorder. Data were transferred to the Atlas ti software programme and analysed using a thematic content analysis approach. Results Blood pressure measurement (97.6% was the most common diagnostic test used, followed by weight measurement (88.3%, urine (85.7% and blood glucose testing (80.9%. Individual lifestyle modification counselling was the preferred health education method of choice for the majority of patients. Of the 64% of patients that selected chronic clubs/support groups as a method of choice, only a third rated this as their first choice. Pamphlets, posters and workshops/group counselling sessions were the least preferred methods with only 9%, 13% and 11% of patients choosing these as their first choice, respectively. In an individual counselling setting 44.7% of patients reported that they would prefer to be counselled by a doctor, followed by a nurse (16.9%, health educator (8.8% and nutrition advisor (4.8%. Health professionals identified numerous barriers to education and counselling. These can be summarised as a lack of resources, including time, space and equipment; staff-related barriers such as staff shortage and staff turnover; and patient-related barriers such as patient load and patient non-compliance. Conclusion The majority of patients

  5. A Cross Sectional Analysis of Gonococcal and Chlamydial Infections among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Rebe

    Full Text Available Men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM are at high risk of HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI transmission. Asymptomatic STIs are common in MSM and remain undiagnosed and untreated where syndromic management is advocated. Untreated STIs could be contributing to high HIV rates. This study investigated symptomatic (SSTI and asymptomatic STIs (ASTIs in MSM in Cape Town.MSM, 18 years and above, were enrolled into this study. Participants underwent clinical and microbiological screening for STIs. Urine, oro-pharyngeal and anal swab specimens were collected for STI analysis, and blood for HIV and syphilis screening. A psychosocial and sexual questionnaire was completed. STI specimens were analysed for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT infection.200 MSM were recruited with a median age of 32 years (IQR 26-39.5. Their median number of sex partners within the last year was 5 (IQR 2-20. 155/200 (78% reported only male sex partners while 45/200 (23% reported sex with men and women. 77/200 (39% reported transactional sex. At enrolment, 88/200 (44% were HIV positive and 8/112 (7% initially HIV-negative participants seroconverted during the study. Overall, 47/200 (24% screened positive for either NG or CT. There were 32 MSM (16% infected with NG and 7 (3.5% of these men had NG infections at two anatomical sites (39 NG positive results in total. Likewise, there were 23 MSM (12% infected with CT and all these men had infections at only one site. Eight of the 47 men (17% were infected with both NG and CT. ASTI was more common than SSTI irrespective of anatomical site, 38 /200 (19% versus 9/200 (5% respectively (p<0.001. The anus was most commonly affected, followed by the oro-pharynx and then urethra. Asymptomatic infection was associated with transgender identity (OR 4.09 CI 1.60-5.62, ≥5 male sex partners in the last year (OR 2.50 CI 1.16-5.62 and transactional sex (OR 2.33 CI 1.13-4.79 but not with HIV infection.Asymptomatic STI was

  6. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  7. Sustainable freight transport in South Africa:Domestic intermodal solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Havenga

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the rapid deregulation of freight transport in South Africa two decades ago, and low historical investment in rail (with resultant poor service delivery, an integrated alternative to road and rail competition was never developed. High national freight logistics costs, significant road infrastructure challenges and environmental impact concerns of a road-dominated freight transport market have, however, fuelled renewed interest in intermodal transport solutions. In this article, a high-level business case for domestic intermodal solutions in South Africa is presented. The results demonstrate that building three intermodal terminals to connect the three major industrial hubs (i.e. Gauteng, Durban and Cape Town through an intermodal solution could reduce transport costs (including externalities for the identified 11.5 million tons of intermodalfriendly freight flows on the Cape and Natal corridors by 42% (including externalities.

  8. Lithostratigraphy, Sedimentology, and Provenance of the Balfour Formation (Beaufort Group) in the Fort Beaufort-Alice Area, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David KATEMAUNZANGA; Cornelis Janse GUNTER

    2009-01-01

    The Balfour Formation has a pronounced lithological variation that is characterized by alternating sandstone- and mudstone-dominated members. The sandstone-dominated Oudeberg and Barberskrans Members are composed of lithofacies that range from intraformational conglomerates to fine-grained sediments, whereas the mudstone-dominated members (Daggaboersnek, Elandsberg, and Palingkloof) are dominated by the facies Fm and Fi. Petrography, geochemistry, and a paleocurrent analysis indicated that the source rock of the Balfour Formation was to south east and the rocks had a transitional/dissected magmatic arc signature. The sandstones-rich members were deposited by seasonal and ephemeral high-energy, low-sinuous streams, and the fine-grained-rich members were formed by ephemeral meandering streams. The paleoclimates have been equated to present temperate climates; they were semiarid becoming arid towards the top of the Balfour Formation. This has been determined by reconstructing the paleolatitude of the Karoo Basin, geochemistry, paleontology, sedimentary structures, and other rock properties, like color.

  9. Sexual Behavior, Pregnancy, and Schooling among Young People in Urban South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Marteleto, Letícia; Lam, David; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2008-01-01

    This study examines transitions in schooling, sexual activity, and pregnancy for adolescents and young adults in urban South Africa. The study analyzes data from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), a recently collected longitudinal survey of young adults and their families in metropolitan Cape Town. South African youth have high school enrollment rates through their teenage years, combined with relatively early sexual initiation, with most young people becoming sexually active while they are en...

  10. Growth and weight status in treatment-naïve 12-16 year old adolescents with Alcohol Use Disorders in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laubscher Ria

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heavy alcohol consumption during adolescence has many known harmful health and social consequences and is strongly associated with numerous health risk behaviours. The consequences of heavy alcohol use during adolescence on nutritional status, specifically growth and weight status are largely unknown at this time. Methods Substance use, anthropometric indices of growth and weight, dietary energy intake and physical activity in heavy drinking adolescents (meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol use disorders and matched light/non-drinking control adolescents were assessed. Results Lifetime alcohol dose, measured in standard drinks of alcohol, was orders of magnitude higher in adolescents with alcohol use disorders (AUDs compared to controls. The AUDs group was selected to represent relatively 'pure' AUDs, with minimal other drug use and no psychiatric diagnoses. The growth and weight status of adolescents with AUDs were generally comparable to that of controls, and is in line with the growth and weight status of the South African adolescent population. A greater proportion of overweight/obese females was found in both groups, with this percentage tending to be greater, although not significantly so, in the AUDs group. Adolescent females with AUDs had increased odds of being overweight/obese compared to controls, after adjustment for smoking, physical activity and energy intake. Conclusion Anthropometric indices of growth and weight status of participants in the Control and AUD groups were generally comparable. Female adolescents with AUDs may have an increased risk of being overweight/obese compared to adolescent females without AUDs. The presence of an AUD in our adolescent sample was associated with higher energy intake. Longitudinal studies are needed to elucidate the effects of heavy alcohol use on energy balance, growth and weight status in adolescents as they age. Nonetheless, the current study contributes to our

  11. Human cystic echinococcosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Mogoye

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cystic echinococcosis (CE is caused by the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworms resides in the small intestines of canids and the lifecycle involves both intermediate and definitive hosts. Humans are accidental intermediate hosts. Cystic echinococcosis is an economically important infection constituting a threat to public health, and is considered an emerging disease around the world. There are at least 10 Echinococcus strain types (G1 – G10, each exhibiting diversity of morphology, development and host range. The epidemiology of CE is poorly understood in South Africa. A retrospective data analysis of the National Health Laboratory Service (NHLS laboratory information system on echinococcosis serology, microscopy and histopathology results in eight provinces (excluding KwaZula-Natal showed an overall positivity rate in submitted diagnostic samples of 17.0% (1056/6211, with the Eastern Cape (30.4%, North West (19.0% and Northern Cape (18.0% provinces showing highest rates. The data showed considerable variability between provinces. The review also showed that most proven cases were negative on serology, implying that the actual number of patients could be underestimated. To our knowledge, no data exist about the prevalent strains of E. granulosus and this prospective study will attempt to fill that gap. The aim is to genotype strains causing the disease in South Africa. Two different polymerase chain reaction (PCR methods will be used to respectively target the 12S rRNA and nad 1 genes. To date, three samples have been genotyped as G1, G5 and G6; suggesting diversity of strains prevalent in the country, but more data is needed for a clearer picture.

  12. Socio-economic impact of astronomy in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govender, K.

    2008-06-01

    In South Africa, a country where almost half the population lives in poverty, we have built the multi-million dollar Southern African Large Telescope, we have begun on the even more expensive Karoo Array Telescope, and we are one of the two finalists bidding to host the multi-billion dollar Square Kilometre Array! In trying to communicate astronomy to the public, how do we justify such spending to a family in a rural area living in poverty? This presentation will expand on efforts in South Africa, specifically the SALT Collateral Benefits Programme, which are trying to answer these seemingly difficult questions. The socio-economic impact of astronomy on societies, especiallythose in the vicinity of these large telescope projects, will be investigated, with examples and experiences being shared, especially from the sparsely populated Northern Cape Province of South Africa.

  13. China-South Africa Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 24, the founding ceremony of the China-South Africa Friendship Association (CSAFA) was held in Beijing on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa.

  14. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  15. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  16. The Social Uses of Literacy: Theory and Practice in Contemporary South Africa. Studies in Written Language and Literacy, Volume 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Mastin, Ed.; Breier, Mignonne, Ed.

    Essays on literacy patterns and practices in South Africa include: "Literacy, Voter Education and Constructions of Citizenship in the Western Cape During the First Democratic National Elections in South Africa" (Mastin Prinsloo, Steven Robins); "Literacy, Knowledge, Gender, and Power in the Workplace on Three Farms in the Western…

  17. South Africa makes some decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  18. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  19. Conservation Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  20. Toward the "New South Africa."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Examines, in the light of political reforms in South Africa, the prime concerns of geographers. Discusses the future of the Bantustans; questions of land redistribution, tenure systems, production levels, and support systems; spatial economic policies; land and housing; and regional relations. Argues that, to realize its potential, southern Africa…

  1. South Africa PIMS

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — PIMS (SOL-674-12-000037) collects and provides information on activities, results, partners, and staff supported through PEPFAR funding in each sub-district of South...

  2. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  3. Golden South Africa,Great Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa in 2008,China is celebrating"South Africa Week"to com memorate.H.E.Dr.Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma,the minister of South Africa,and the delegation attended the series of activities in China."South Africa Week"got great success and more and more Chinese people focus on the beautiful and attractive country-South Africa.Dr.Ayanda Ntsaluba,the Director General in Foreign Affairs of South Africa shared his view on the bilateral relations and cooperation,and the development of South Africa with the iournalist of China's Foreign Trade magazine.

  4. CPAFFC Delegation Visits South Africa And Namibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang; Ruimin

    2015-01-01

    At the invitation of the South Africa-Chin a Friendship Association(SACFA)and the Erongo Region of Namibia,aCPAFFC delegation led by Vice President Feng Zuoku paid a visit last November.South Africa,known as the"Rainbow Nation",is the second largest economy in Africa.China is its largest trade partner,while South Africa is China’s largest regional trading partner.

  5. South Africa: The 2014 National and Provincial Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulf Engel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On 7 May 2014, South Africa held its fifth national and provincial elections since the end of apartheid in 1994. Despite a degree of discontent, the ANC remained firmly in power, receiving 62.15 per cent of the vote. Frustration about non-delivery of services, autocratic tendencies within the ruling party and widespread corrupt practices did not translate into substantially more votes for opposition parties, except in the Western Cape and Gauteng regions (and a swing vote from COPE to DA in Northern Cape. However, voter mobilisation seems to be stagnating and ANC breakaway parties are not faring particularly well. Twenty years after the end of apartheid, popular discontent with the ANC government has expressed itself in voting apathy, particularly among the “born-free” generation. Just as in 2004 and 2009, non-voters remain the largest group in the South African electorate, outnumbering even the ANC.

  6. Coaltrans South Africa. Conference documentation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: South Africa's place in the world market for coal; Asia's coal markets; Europe's coal markets; coal in the new South Africa; growing demand for South African coal?; South Africa's export infrastructure; the role for coal in the future of electricity generation; and producing the goods. Some of the papers consist of a printout of the overheads/viewgraphs only.

  7. PPP insights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals.

  8. South Africa: defiance campaign continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) has continued its "defiance campaign against patent abuse and AIDS profiteering." In partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), and with the support of Oxfam and the Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), on 28 January 2002 three TAC members returned to South Africa from Brazil carrying generic versions of the antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP). Some of the imported capsules contain a combination of AZT and 3TC.

  9. New species and new records of Pterosthetops: eumadicolous water beetles of the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, David T

    2014-06-05

    Pterosthetops is one of a number of hydraenid genera endemic to the Cape of South Africa, whose minute moss beetle fauna is amongst the most diverse on earth. Here seven species are described as new: Pterosthetops baini sp. nov., Pterosthetops coriaceus sp. nov., Pterosthetops indwei sp. nov., Ptersothetops pulcherrimus sp. nov., Pterosthetops swartbergensis sp. nov., Pterosthetops tuberculatus sp. nov. and Pterosthetops uitkyki sp. nov., all from mountains in the Western Cape region. New collection records are also provided for all five previously described members of the genus, together with a revised key. Pterosthetops appear to be specialist inhabitants of seepages over rock faces (hygropetric/madicolous habitats), rarely being found outside such situations.

  10. New species of Anthostomella on fynbos, with a key to the genus in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seonju; Crous, Pedro W

    2003-03-01

    A study of saprobic fungi occurring on the fynbos of the Western Cape Province of South Africa yielded four unknown Anthostomella species. A. proteae from Protea nitida, A. cynaroides from P. cynaroides, A. leucospermi from Leucospermum oleifolium, and A. brabeji from Brabejum stellatifolium are described as new. New records for South Africa include A. conorum from Leucadendron sp., Protea magnifica and P. neriifolia, and A. clypeata from Ischyrolepis subverticellata, Cannomois virgata, Restio egregius, and R. cfr confusus. A dichotomous key to the Anthostomella species in South Africa is also provided.

  11. Survey of canine babesiosis in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G. Collett

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A questionnaire, designed to obtain qualitative information on a number of variables concerning canine babesiosis (biliary fever in South Africa, was sent to 510 veterinary practices in late 1993. Of the 157 practices that responded, all were presented with cases of babesiosis and most were situated in Gauteng, the Western Cape and KwaZulu-Natal. Apart from the Western Cape, a winter-rainfall region, the prevalence of babesiosis cases in dogs was highest in summer. Most of the respondent practices treated between 1000 and 5000 sick dogs that included 100 to 500 babesiosis cases each year. Respondents identified cerebral babesiosis, enterorrhagia, 'red' or haemoconcentrated babesiosis, acute renal failure and pulmonary babesiosis or 'shock lung', amongst others, as the most prevalent forms of complicated ('atypical' babesiosis. Diminazene, imidocarb and trypan blue were the most popular antibabesials. Trypan blue was most often used in shocked patients, whereas diminazene and imidocarb were preferred when there was a high parasitaemia in the absence of shock. At least 19 antibabesial treatment regimens were used in practices. These comprised the use of single doses of antibabesial drugs; split doses with repeat injections, and combined drug variations, some of which are undesirable due to possible sterilisation of Babesia infection or potential toxicity. Side-effects were most commonly associated with imidocarb use. Ninety-six percent of respondents used supportive treatment (e.g. corticosteroids, vitamins and 'liver support' in all cases of babesiosis. The use of blood transfusion as supportive treatment varied according to practice and severity of the case. Most practices never cross-matched blood to be transfused, and transfusion reactions were rare. Diminazene was most frequently incriminated in cases where drug 'resistance' or relapses occurred. Cerebral and 'red' cases resulted in high mortality. Treatment of babesiosis costs the dog

  12. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  13. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd, Daniel W

    2012-11-13

    In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS) in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892), the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT) was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV) was demonstrated in 1900 by M'Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV) in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production.

  14. History of Orbivirus research in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. Verwoerd

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the early colonial history of South Africa, horses played an important role, both in general transportation and in military operations. Frequent epidemics of African horsesickness (AHS in the 18th century therefore severely affected the economy. The first scientific research on the disease was carried out by Alexander Edington (1892, the first government bacteriologist of the Cape Colony, who resolved the existing confusion that reigned and established its identity as a separate disease. Bluetongue (BT was described for the first time by Duncan Hutcheon in 1880, although it was probably always endemic in wild ruminants and only became a problem when highly susceptible Merino sheep were introduced to the Cape in the late 18th century. The filterability of the AHS virus (AHSV was demonstrated in 1900 by M’Fadyean in London, and that of the BT virus (BTV in 1905 by Theiler at Onderstepoort, thus proving the viral nature of both agents. Theiler developed the first vaccines for both diseases at Onderstepoort. Both vaccines consisted of infective blood followed by hyper-immune serum, and were used for many years. Subsequent breakthroughs include the adaptation to propagation and attenuation in embryonated eggs in the case of BTV and in mouse brains for AHSV. This was followed by the discovery of multiple serotypes of both viruses, the transmission of both by Culicoides midges and their eventual replication in cell cultures. Molecular studies led to the discovery of the segmented double-stranded RNA genomes, thus proving their genetic relationship and leading to their classification in a genus called Orbivirus. Further work included the molecular cloning of the genes of all the serotypes of both viruses and clarification of their relationship to the viral proteins, which led to much improved diagnostic techniques and eventually to the development of a recombinant vaccine, which unfortunately has so far been unsuitable for mass production.

  15. Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa A Monograph by MAJOR Timothy M. Bairstow United States Marine Corps School of...SUBTITLE Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...ABSTRACT Amnesty, reconciliation, and reintegration (AR2) are typically regarded as a post-conflict processes. In South Africa AR2 occurred before

  16. Why do families still not receive the child support grant in South Africa? A longitudinal analysis of a cohort of families across South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zembe-Mkabile Wanga; Doherty Tanya; Sanders David; Jackson Debra; Chopra Mickey; Swanevelder Sonja; Lombard Carl; Surender Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Child cash transfers are increasingly recognised for their potential to reduce poverty and improve health outcomes. South Africa‘s child support grant (CSG) constitutes the largest cash transfer in the continent. No studies have been conducted to look at factors associated with successful receipt of the CSG. This paper reports findings on factors associated with CSG receipt in three settings in South Africa (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in Kw...

  17. The 'medical humanities' in health sciences education in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, S

    2014-02-01

    A new masters-level course, 'Medicine and the Arts" will be offered in 2014 at the University of Cape Town, setting a precedent for interdisciplinary education in the field of medical humanities in South Africa. The humanities and social sciences have always been an implicit part of undergraduate and postgraduate education in the health sciences, but increasingly they are becoming an explicit and essential component of the curriculum, as the importance of graduate attributes and outcomes in the workplace is acknowledged. Traditionally, the medical humanities have included medical ethics, history, literature and anthropology. Less prominent in the literature has been the engagement with medicine of the disciplines of sociology, politics, philosophy, linguistics, education, and law, as well as the creative and expressive arts. The development of the medical humanities in education and research in South Africa is set to expand over the next few years, and it looks as if it will be an exciting inter-disciplinary journey.

  18. School Language Profiles: Valorizing Linguistic Resources in Heteroglossic Situations in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Brigitta

    2010-01-01

    Although South Africa is committed to a policy of linguistic diversity, the language-in-education policy is still plagued by the racialization of language issues under apartheid and, more recently, by new challenges posed by internal African migration. Drawing on the experience of a school in the Western Cape Province, this paper explores the role…

  19. Diversity of saprobic hyphomycetes on Proteaceae and Restionaceae from South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, S.; Mel'nik, V.; Taylor, J.E.; Crous, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    To assess the diversity of saprobic microfungi occurring on the Proteaceae and Restionaceae of the Western Cape province of South Africa, samples of leaf, stem, flowerhead and culm litter were collected from the year 2000 until the end of 2002. About 1 000 fungal collections were made, 117 of which

  20. First Report of Lasiodiplodia crassispora as a pathogen of grapevine trunks in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niekerk, van J.M.; Bester, W.; Halleen, F.; Crous, P.W.; Fourie, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    In 2003 and 2004, a survey of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) trunk pathogens was conducted in 30 vineyards in the Western and Northern Cape and Limpopo provinces of South Africa. In each vineyard, 20 visually healthy plants were sampled randomly by removing the distal part of one cordon arm. Isolatio

  1. Wind Atlas for South Africa (WASA). Report on Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mabille, Eugéne; Prinsloo, Eric; Mortensen, Niels Gylling;

    software, like WAsP, to predict the resource potential, i.e. the expected Wh production from a specified turbine or wind farm in the vicinity of the mast. The sole objective of WP2 was to provide high quality wind measurements for a period of three years for the purpose of verifying the meso...... all aspects related to the measurement of wind at the ten measurement masts. This report also provides details on where the data is located on the web (links).......The key to any good and accurate wind atlas is good quality data. To this end the 1st Verified Numerical Wind Atlas South Africa, for parts of the Northern and Eastern Capes as well as the Western Cape makes use of meteorological data from ten sites, distributed throughout the modelling domain...

  2. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  3. The Flynn effect in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; Murphy, R.; van Eeden, R.

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa.

  4. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  5. Researching Postgraduate Educational Research in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…

  6. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  7. South Africa:the Wonder Lies Waiting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "South Africa is truly a remarkable country and a wonderful holiday destination.It is a land that is synonymous with a rich historical heritage,magnificent natrural beauty,abundant wildlife and a unique spirit and energy that exudes from a multi-cultural nation of people who pride themselves in calling South Africa 'home'".

  8. WiN-Global 2007 Country Report for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naidoo, Kameshni [South African National Nuclear Regulator, 17 Atlantic Road, Duynefontein, 07441 Cape Town (South Africa)

    2008-07-01

    South African nuclear landscape: - Koeberg Nuclear Power Station: Koeberg has been generating electricity for the past 19 years. Work began shortly after the contract with the French consortium was signed in 1976. In 1984 Koeberg started their commercial operation. Koeberg is located 30 km north of Cape Town. Comprises of two 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactors. Produces 6.5% of South Africa's electricity needs. The reactor at Koeberg is cooled by cold water from the Atlantic Ocean. Low and intermediate level waste from Koeberg is transported by road in steel and concrete containers to a rural disposal site at Vaalputs, 600 km away in the Kalahari Desert. - PBMR company: The PBMR team is currently preparing for the building of a commercial scale power reactor project at Koeberg near Cape Town, where Africa's only nuclear power station is based, and a fuel plant at Pelindaba near Pretoria, where the pebble fuel will be manufactured. PBMR is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with a closed cycle, gas turbine power conversion system. Although it is not the only HTR currently being developed in the world, the South African project is on schedule to be the first commercial scale HTR in the power generation field. A steel pressure vessel holds the enriched uranium dioxide fuel encapsulated in graphite spheres. The system is cooled with helium and heat is converted into electricity through a turbine. - iThemba Labs: The iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences is a group of multi-disciplinary research laboratories administered by the National Research Foundation. Based at two sites in Western Cape and Gauteng, these provide facilities for: Basic and applied research using particle beams, Particle radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. The supply of accelerator-produced radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine and research. iThemba Labs focuses on providing scientifically and medically useful radiation through the acceleration of charged particles using

  9. FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. De Agrela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As a history teacher to Forms 4 and 5 (Standard 9 and 10, John Pampallis found that "a pressing need for a general textbook to cover the South African section of our syllabus" existed. Pampallis set out to document the history of South Africa and the fruits of his labour emerged in the form of his book Foundations of the New South Africa which is written from refreshingly different perspective.

  10. South Africa faces coke shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Iscor Vanderbijlpark in South Africa may need to import substantial tonnages of coking coal as a result of increasing quality demands on coke at Vanderbiljpark (to support the recently installed PCI process) as well as the Newcastle works. Availability of coke is not only a problem for the South African steel industry but is a global problem as the production of coke in Western countries has declined over the past three years. A massive expansion in coke-making capacity is happening in China but the Chinese beehive ovens create serious pollution problems. A world shortage of coke of 30 million t/y by 2005 is estimated, rising to over 60 million t/y by 2010 of no new capacity is created. Steelmakers have succeeded in reducing their consumption of coke, by pulverised coal injection by better distribution of components in the furnace shaft and by decline in use of the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route, but the industry is still facing serious shortages of coke.

  11. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Cape Verde Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tutu, Osei Agyeman

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Cape Verde has made significant strides in the implementation of ICTs in education. The drawback o...

  12. Natural products research in South Africa: 1890–2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegfried E. Drewes

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Having spent some 50 years as an organic chemist with an interest in medicinal plant chemistry in South Africa it was relevant now to ask three questions, (1 when were natural products first utilised, (2 who were the people involved, and (3 what is the status quo? Based on older literature published in the South African Journal of Chemistry, information gleaned from attendance at innumerable chemistry conferences, and relevant literature in university archives, a great deal of information was gathered to answer the first two questions. For example, that the first veterinarian to treat cattle diseases caused by poisonous plants in the Eastern Cape was Dr Jotella Soga in the 1890s. Contributions from other prominent scientists such as Marais, Rindl, Rimington and Warren followed. From about 1940 to the 1990s, researchers concentrated mainly on the isolation of new compounds from local plants for which some indigenous knowledge was recorded. Foreign chemists also arrived and did a fair amount of ‘exploitation’ of natural products. Thus, the anti-cancer compound combretastatin was first isolated from the indigenous tree Combretum caffrum. Plant chemistry in South Africa has blossomed in the last decade, with many students from previously disadvantaged backgrounds, but with a keen interest in muti or medicinal chemistry, entering the field. Recent findings have rekindled the belief that a major development in natural products would at last emerge from Africa.

  13. China & South Africa in Full Swing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China and South Africa will soon celebrate the 10th anniversary of their formal diplomatic relations establishment. On this special occasion, China's Foreign Trade conducted an interview with Mr. Alex Khumalo, the General Manager of Asia Pacific South Africa Chamber of Commerce (APSACC) Secretariat. Both countries have witnessed the growing friendship of two sides in the past decade, and more fruits are expected in the coming future.

  14. SOUTH AFRICA AT WAR, 1912-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Second Anglo-Boer War also put an end to the commando system that had been the core of military strength in South Africa. With the formation of the Union in 1910 it was realized that South Africa will have to provide its own defence. It was to be no easy task; seeing that the English and Afrikaans-speaking sections of the population had just concluded a bitter war which had left deep scars.

  15. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  16. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  17. Exploring ubuntu discourse in South Africa: Loss, liminality and hope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L.B. Eliastam

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the current state of the social value of ubuntu. The notion of ubuntu seems to offer possibilities for nation building and social cohesion in post-Apartheid South Africa.However, this is contested by scholars who argue that the concept is vague and open to abuse.Interviews reveal that, whilst core elements remain, the meaning of ubuntu has been eroded,and is subject to distortion and even abuse. Ubuntu exists tightly interwoven with un-ubuntu. The notion of liminality is introduced to understand the current state of both ubuntu and South African society in transition. A liminal space offers possibilities for the creative re-imaginingand recovery of ubuntu as a social value that can drive social transformation in South Africa.The lens of discursive leadership offers insight into the ways in which leaders can stimulate and shape ubuntu discourse and facilitate the construction of new meaning in society.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: The article forms part of broader research into perceptions of difference and threat, and prejudice on the part of South Africans towards foreigners. Ubuntu is a social value that should challenge prejudice and xenophobia and shape social relationships. Research in a rural and urban context in the Eastern Cape suggests that ubuntu discourse has been eroded and is in need of reinvigoration.

  18. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  19. Seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Abu Samraa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Serum samples from 600 sheep were collected from 5 different provinces randomly chosen in South Africa. Two sheep abattoirs (representing formal slaughter of sheep and 1 rural location (representing informal slaughter of sheep per province were also selected randomly. The serum samples were tested for anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies using 2 different serological tests : an indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA test and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA test available as a commercial kit. This study provides the first published data on seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis in sheep in South Africa, although positive titres have been found previously in wild felids, ferrets, chinchillas and a dog. Data on seroprevalence in sheep is considered important because consumption of mutton is universally considered to be a source of zoonotic transfer to humans. Seroprevalence in humans in South Africa was previously found to be 20% and it is postulated that this may be linked to the informal slaughter and consumption of mutton. During this study, the overall national seroprevalence per province in sheep was found to be 5.6 % (IFA and 4.3 % (ELISA, respectively. This is lower than in other countries, possibly because South Africa has an arid climate. Differences in seroprevalence in different areas studied suggested an association with the climate and a significant correlation (P > 0.05 was detected between the prevalence of T. gondii and the minimum average temperature. The seroprevalence was found to be significantly higher (P < 0.01 in sheep originating from commercial farms (7.9 % than in rural sheep in the informal sector (3.4 %. Also, sheep managed extensively had a seroprevalence of 1.8 %, which was significantly lower (P < 0.05 than the seroprevalence in sheep under semi-intensive or intensive management systems (5.3 %. An incidental finding of interest was the considerable movement of sheep to abattoirs and mutton after slaughter. The

  20. 2008 USGS South New Jersey County Project Lidar: Cape May County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South New Jersey County Lidar project is to provide LiDAR data for the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJ-DEP) for Cape May, Cumberland, and...

  1. Mosibudi Mangena, South Africa's Minister for Science and Technology, was welcomed by CERN's Chief Scientific Officer, Jos Engelen

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    Pictures 5 to 11 : He spent time at the ALICE experiment, in which physicists from the University of Cape Town participate. The ALICE spokesperson, Jürgen Schukraft accompanies the minister and Glaudine Mtshali, ambassador for South Africa to the UN in Geneva.

  2. HIV Prevalence and Incidence among Sexually Active Females in Two Districts of South Africa to Determine Microbicide Trial Feasibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nel, A.; Louw, C.; Hellstrom, E.; Braunstein, S.L.; Treadwell, I.; Marais, M.; de Villiers, M.; Hugo, J.; Paschke, I.; Andersen, C.; van de Wijgert, J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The suitability of populations of sexually active women in Madibeng (North-West Province) and Mbekweni (Western Cape), South Africa, for a Phase III vaginal microbicide trial was evaluated. Methods: Sexually active women 18-35 years not known to be HIV-positive or pregnant were tested cr

  3. Educating and Training out of Poverty? Adult Provision and the Informal Sector in Fishing Communities, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Carolyn

    2007-01-01

    This paper looks at access to adult education and vocational education and training (VET) provision in fishing communities in the Western Cape, South Africa. Fishing communities are being disadvantaged due to geographical and socio-political marginalisation, and the predominance of informal sector employment in the context of worldwide marine…

  4. Do low-cost ceramic water filters improve water security in rural South Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Lange, Jens; Materne, Tineke; Grüner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the performance of a low-cost ceramic candle filter system (CCFS) for point of use (POU) drinking water treatment in the village of Hobeni, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. A stepwise laboratory test documented the negative effects of repeated loading and ambient field temperatures. Moreover, CCFS were distributed in Hobeni and a survey was carried out among their users. The performance of 51 CCFS was evaluated by dip slides and related to human factors. Already after ...

  5. Techno economic viability of desalination processes in South Africa / Laubscher, L.J.

    OpenAIRE

    Laubscher, Louis Jacobus

    2011-01-01

    The provision of fresh water to sustain current economic development and the ever increasing population is one of the world?s greatest challenges and will become increasingly acute in the immediate future. South Africa is currently utilizing 98% of its available fresh water and with the current growth in population and economy fresh water will rapidly become a limited resource. Cape Town, Port Elizabeth and Durban have been identified by the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry as coastal...

  6. South Africa - record exports defy market misery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.

    1999-03-01

    Dry cargo continues to form the backbone of South Africa`s commodities trades, comprising more than 70% of overall import and export activity. Despite economic stagnation in many global markets and poor prospects for any significant recovery in prices, most of South Africa`s dry bulk ports have experienced sustained tonnage levels in 1998, and are focusing on facility improvements to meet future growth expectation. Coal exports in 1998 increased by 2.8 mt to a record 66.7 mt. The main rise in exports was achieved by Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) but Durban`s BMA terminal and Portnet`s Dry Bulk Terminal or Richards Bay, and the upgraded Maputo Terminals at Mozambique also handled more trade. Expansion projects at RBCT are also mentioned. 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 photos.

  7. The Military of the New South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in the South African government’s foreign policy drive in Africa. However, the new foreign policy role prerequisite that the state uses it military tool, the SANDF, in accordance with internal law and dominant norms. The role of the defence force stand in stark contrast to the role played by the old South......Preface Today, you, South Africans, are for the world, for Africa, for France, a model. A model for harmony between communities with such different roots. A model for good governance. A model for cultural diversity…. (Dominique De Villepin, 2003) This book attempts to demonstrate that the South...... African National Defence Force (SANDF) has played a critical and until now relatively unnoticed role in South Africa’s transition from international isolation as a “pariah” state and a source of instability to “peacemaker”. This will be explored by means of a comparative qualitative case-based analysis...

  8. Royden McIntosh Muir and His Anesthetic Links Between South Africa, London, and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Peter Crichton

    2016-07-01

    New Zealand born, Dr. Royden McIntosh Muir, MBChB(Edin), DA(RCS&RCP), emigrated to Cape Town in 1921 having specialized in anesthesia in London after World War 1 and became one of South Africa's earliest and leading anesthesiologists. He was appointed honorary anesthetist and clinical teacher by the University of Cape Town at South Africa's first medical school in 1922, and lecturer in 1927. Aware of Cape Town's isolation at the southern tip of Africa, he undertook extensive tours studying anesthetic practice at major hospitals in London, the United States and Canada in 1933 and 1938. He became a lifelong friend of Ralph Waters in Madison, who coached him in the use of cyclopropane, and he subsequently introduced cyclopropane into England and South Africa. In the United States, he met Richard von Foregger, founder of the New York based Foregger Company, from whom he later commissioned a purpose-built anesthetic machine marketed by Foregger as "The Muir Midget." Muir was a founder member of the South African Society of Anaesthetists in 1943 and was elected as its second president the following year. Based on what he had seen in academic hospitals in the United States and England, he fought until his retirement for the improved recognition of the specialty in South Africa and the establishment of adequately staffed departments of anesthesia at teaching hospitals in that country.

  9. Family Instability and Pathways to Adulthood in Urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Rachel E

    2013-06-01

    Social, political, epidemiological, and economic forces have produced family instability during childhood for many young people transitioning to adulthood in South Africa. This study identifies pathways to adulthood for youth in Cape Town that capture the timing and sequencing of role transitions across the life domains of school, work, and family formation. It then uses these pathways to investigate the relationship between childhood family instability and the way young people's lives unfold during the transition to adulthood. Results indicate that changes in co-residence with parents are associated with following less advantageous pathways into adulthood, independent of particular family structure or orphan status. Overall, the findings suggest that family instability influences not only single transitions for youth, but also combinations of transitions. They also indicate the value of a multi-dimensional conceptualization of the transition to adulthood in empirical work.

  10. The Genus Pithomyces in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. O. Marasas

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given of South African isolates of  Pithomyces sacchari (Speg. M. B. Ellis, Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt. M. B. Ellis and  Pithomyces karoo  Marasas & Schumann, sp. nov.  P. sacchari and P. chartarum were isolated from Medicago sativa L. seed.  P. chartarum was also isolated from dead leaves of Lolium perenne L. and  Sporobolus capensis (Willd. Kunth. plants from artificial pastures in the eastern Cape Province.  P. karoo was isolated from stems of Gnidia polycephala (C.A. Mey. Gilg and  Rhigozum trichotomum Burch, from the Karoo, Cape Province and from Avena sativa L. stubble collected in the Orange Free State.

  11. Voice-Message–Based mHealth Intervention to Reduce Postoperative Penetrative Sex in Recipients of Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision in the Western Cape, South Africa: Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Donald; Toefy, Yoesrie; Esterhuizen, Tonya; McCaul, Michael; Petzold, Max; Diwan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Background There is an increased risk of transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in the postoperative period after receiving voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC). In South Africa, over 4 million men are being targeted with VMMC services but the health system is not able to offer quality counseling. More innovative strategies for communicating with and altering behavior in men and their partners in the postoperative period after VMMC are needed. Objective This paper presents a study protocol to test the effectiveness of an mHealth intervention designed to task-shift behavior change communication from health care personnel to an automated phone message system, encouraging self-care. Methods A single-blind, randomized controlled trial will be used. A total of 1188 participants will be recruited by nurses or clinicians at clinics in the study districts that have a high turnover of VMMC clients. The population will consist of men aged 18 years and older who indicate at the precounseling session that they possess a mobile phone and consent to participating in the study. Consenting participants will be randomized into either the control or intervention arm before undergoing VMMC. The control arm will receive the standard of care (pre- and postcounseling). The intervention arm will received standard of care and will be sent 38 messages over the 6-week recovery period. Patients will be followed up after 42 days. The primary outcome is self-reported sexual intercourse during the recovery period. Secondary outcomes include nonpenetrative sexual activity, STI symptoms, and perceived risk of acquiring HIV. Analysis will be by intention-to-treat. Results Enrollment is completed. Follow-up is ongoing. Loss to follow-up is under 10%. No interim analyses have been conducted. Conclusions The intervention has the potential of reducing risky sexual behavior after VMMC. The platform itself can be used for many other areas of health that require task

  12. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  13. Factors that influence the use of the Internet for job-seeking purposes amongst a sample of final-year students in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliet R. Chiwara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Organisations are turning to the Internet in search for talent. A constituency often targeted are those students nearing the end of their tenure of study who are making a transition into the working world. Given this, it is important to understand not only those factors that influence the use of the Internet within the Human Resources (HR talent search process, but also how such factors relate to actual intent to apply for jobs.Research purpose: Drawing on the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT model, the study investigates factors that influence the adoption of the Internet for purposes of job seeking.Motivation for the study: Calls have been made for research that investigates factors that influence the intention to use the Internet to apply for jobs in developing countries such as South Africa.Research approach, design and method: The study used the quantitative approach (relying on a survey to test the hypotheses into factors that influence the use of Internet for the purpose of job seeking amongst a sample of 346 prospective job seekers in their final year of study at a South African university.Main findings: Through correlation and regression analysis, findings reveal a positive relationship to exist between (1 performance expectancy with intention to use the Internet to apply for jobs, (2 effort expectancy with intention to use the Internet to apply for jobs, (3 individual effort expectancy and performance expectancy and (4 individual trust and the intention to use the Internet for job seeking. However, no relationship was found to exist between facilitating conditions and intention to use the Internet for job seeking.Practical/managerial implications: The findings magnify the role of salient factors in the intention to use the Internet for job-seeking purposes. Efforts from applicants, universities, recruitment agencies and organisations, potentially, have an effect on the intention to use the Internet

  14. Adding South Africa to The BRICS Mix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    South Africa’s membership in the BRICS club may bring more opportunities to the whole of Africa At their third summit,leaders from Brazil,Russia,India and China,known as the BRIC group of major emerging economies,welcomed a new member,South African President Jacob Zuma.Zuma led a high-level delegation,including South Africa’s international relations and cooperation minister,economic development minister and trade and industry minister,to attend the summit on April14in Sanya,south China’s Hainan Province

  15. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  16. South Africa: poised for economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuma, J. (African National Congress (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    South Africa is now emerging from the period of Apartheid. Elections will be held soon, but the economic damage caused by Apartheid has to be rectified. Partly this will be through an industrial strategy, and the minerals industry will play its part. The coal mining industry provides a large proportion of South Africa's exports and 90% of electricity. It is also the basis of a synfuels industry. The coal industry will continue to be an important source of exports, either directly, or as the provider of power to energy intensive industries such as aluminium production.

  17. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

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    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  18. Organochlorine insecticide and polychlorinated biphenyl residues in eggs of coastal birds from the eastern Cape, South Africa. [Spheniscus demersus; Sula capensis; Phalacrocorax capensis; P. carbo; Haematopus moquini; Sterna dougalli; Larus dominicanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Kock, A.C.; Randall, R.M.

    1984-01-01

    The concentrations of organochlorine insecticide and PCB residues were determined in eggs of jackass penguins Spheniscus demersus, Cape gannets Sula capensis, Cape cormorants Phalacrocorax capensis, white-breasted cormorants P. carbo, African black oystercatchers Haematopus moquini, roseate terns Sterna dougallii, kelp gulls Larus dominicanus, and grey-headed gulls Larus cirrocephalus. These species were selected as representatives of exclusively marine, mixed marine-estuarine-freshwater, intertidal-marine, scavenging-marine-estuarine-intertidal and scavenging-estuarine-freshwater habitats. All the eggs were positive for DDE with residue levels highest in the mixed scavenging species and lowest in the marine species. Similar trends were noted for dieldrin, but the levels were low or absent in most marine species. The eggs of most species exhibited residue levels of PCBs and the trends in terms of feeding habitats were similar to those noted with DDE. Based on a comparison with studies elsewhere, none of the organochlorine pesticide or PCB residue levels appear high enough to cause reproductive impairment or egg shell thinning.

  19. South Africa: productivity increases have a price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.

  20. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Okoh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  1. South Africa, 2004: Power, Passion, Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Although the education system in post-apartheid South Africa has its share of serious challenges, the accompanying reforms carried out are inspiring as the ASCD Board of Directors and staff discovered when they visited the country in October 2004. The visit was organized around the theme of the 2005 ASCD Annual Conference: "Voices of Education:…

  2. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  3. Tele-education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice eMars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programmes. The aims of this study were i to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa ii describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N in South Africa and iii review the development of these programmes with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation.Method: a literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made.Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health. Despite initial attempts by the National Department of Health there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 hours of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education.Conclusions: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource

  4. A changing distribution of seabirds in South Africa – the possible impact of climate and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert James Minchin Crawford

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the southern Benguela ecosystem off South Africa, there were recent shifts to the south and east in the distributions of three forage resources (anchovy, sardine, rock lobster, which probably were influenced by environmental change although fishing too may have played a part. In this study, we review information on trends in distributions and numbers of eight seabirds breeding in South Africa. For five species that feed predominantly on anchovy, sardine or rock lobster, their populations off northwest South Africa decreased markedly. For three of these species, which exhibit behavioural inertia and have restricted foraging ranges when breeding (African penguin, Cape cormorant, bank cormorant, there were large decreases in their overall populations in South Africa. Conversely, for two showing more plasticity and able to range over wide areas or move between breeding localities (Cape gannet, swift tern there were increases. It is thought that movement of forage resources away from the northern islands led to a mismatch in the distributions of breeding localities and prey of dependent seabirds off western South Africa and to attempts by several species to establish colonies on the southern mainland closer to food resources. There also were shifts to the south and east in the distributions of three seabirds that do not compete with fisheries for prey (crowned cormorant, white-breasted cormorant, kelp gull, suggesting some environmental forcing, but decreases of these species off northwest South Africa were less severe and populations in South Africa remained stable or increased in the long term. It is likely, because many fishing plants are located in the northwest, that there was increased competition between seabirds and fisheries for prey as forage resources moved south and east. Potential interventions to mitigate the adverse impacts of distributional changes for seabirds include allocations of allowable catches of shared forage resources at

  5. Studies in the liverwort genus Fossombronia (Metzgenales from southern Africa. 2. An amendment to three species from Western Cape, described by S.W.Amell

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    S. M. Perold

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Subsequent to his visit to South Africa in 1951, S. W. Amell (1952, described three new Fossombronia species from Western Cape, namely F. capensis, F. densilamellata and F. montaguensis. Unfortunately, however, they were not described in detail, nor were they fully illustrated. An attempt is hereby made to augment Amell’s descriptions and to illustrate his species more completely, with the aid of drawings and SEM micrographs. A distribution map is also provided. Scott & Pike (1988, after examining many Fossombronia specimens of world-wide origin, concluded that the above three species were good species, aconclusion I support.

  6. Apartheid and South Africa's Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmore, Eric

    The policy of apartheid, until recently one of the dominant aspects of South African society, has caused grievous harm to that nation's non-white population, especially black women and children. Most black children have not grown up in stable, two-parent families due to migrant labor policies and low wages. Housing, health care, nutrition, and…

  7. Alcohol Use, Working Conditions, Job Benefits, and the Legacy of the “Dop” System among Farm Workers in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Hope Despite High Levels of Risky Drinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Phillip Gossage

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This study describes alcohol consumption in five Western Cape Province communities. Cross-sectional data from a community household sample (n = 591 describe the alcohol use patterns of adult males and females, and farm workers vs. others. Data reveal that men were more likely to be current drinkers than women, 75.1% vs. 65.8% (p = 0.033; farm laborers were more likely to be current drinkers than individuals in other occupations 83.1% vs. 66.8% (p = 0.004. Group, binge drinking on weekends was the norm; men were more likely to be binge drinkers in the past week than women 59.8% vs. 48.8% (p = 0.086; farm workers were more likely to binge than others 75.0% vs. 47.5% (p < 0.001. The legacy of “Dop” contributes to current risky drinking behaviors. Farm owners or managers were interviewed on 11 farms, they described working conditions on their farms and how the legacy of “Dop” is reflected in the current use of alcohol by their workers. “Dop” was given to farm workers in the past on six of the 11 farms, but was discontinued for different reasons. There is zero tolerance for coming to work intoxicated; farm owners encourage responsible use of alcohol and assist farm workers in getting help for alcohol problems when necessary. The farm owners report some positive initiatives, were ahead of the movement to provide meaningful wages, and provide other important amenities. Further research is needed to assess whether progressive practices on some farms will reduce harmful alcohol use.

  8. South Africa's "Developmental State" Distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bond

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea that the South African ruling elite has the political will to establish a “developmental state” project early in the 21st century is popular, but is not borne out by evidence thus far. Patrick Bond reviews new information about the neoliberal project’s failures, which range from macroeconomics to microdevelopment to pro-corporate megaprojects, and which are accompanied by a tokenistic welfare policy not designed to provide sufficient sustenance or entitlements to the society. The critique by the independent left might be revised in the event that the trade unions and communist influences within the ruling Alliance strengthen, but there is a greater likelihood that the world capitalist crisis will have the opposite impact. Nevertheless, widespread grassroots protests and impressive campaigning by civil society keep alive the hope for a post-capitalist, post-nationalist politics, as bandaiding South African capitalism runs into trouble.

  9. Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise

    2016-01-01

    Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol.

  10. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  11. Pfizer donates drug to South Africa's poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports on Pfizer's AIDS drug donation to South Africa. The donated drug, Diflucan, treats cryptococcal meningitis, a lethal brain infection that occurs in one out of 10 HIV patients. Its daily dose in South Africa costs about US$15, far more than poor people can afford. The HIV and AIDS Treatment Action Campaign, an advocacy group, had lobbied New York-based Pfizer for a year to reduce the drug's price. The donation offered hope among activists that other pharmaceutical companies would follow suit and offer HIV- and AIDS-related drugs at a discount or for free. After the announcement of the donation, the group is now lobbying Glaxo Wellcome, maker of Zidovudine. The group is asking to make the drug available for free to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Glaxo Wellcome, however, has no plans of offering Zidovudine for free, although the drug was offered 75% cheaper in developing nations.

  12. Aims of education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  13. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Louise; de Pina-Araujo I, Isabel; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution. PMID:27653363

  14. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  15. As desigualdades escolares na África do Sul: força das coisas" e política educativa (o exemplo da Província do Cabo Educational inequalities in South Africa: the "force of things" and educational policy (the example of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude Carpentier

    2008-12-01

    considered the capacity of policies to bend under the "force of things", that is, the weight of economic and social determiners or what is presented as such. The political change that took place in South Africa in 1994 is at the origin of a debate in the country on whether the decisions made aiming at eliminating the discriminations inherited from the past in terms of access to education adopted 10 years later or in effect. We attempt to analyze "the force of things" through the official data available for the Western Cape Province. Our study had three main concerns: firstly, determining the amplitude of racial segregation at school after the apartheid period, find out the weight of the underlying social determiners and their racial differences, the persistence of strong social inequalities in the access to education, and finally question the capacity of the political machine to control and to what extent this "force of things", which probably expresses both the heritage and the workings of the South African society currently under the effects of globalization and the perpetuated by the associated social-economic inequalities.

  16. Surgical and medical second trimester abortion in South Africa: A cross-sectional study

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    Lince Naomi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high percentage of abortions performed in South Africa are in the second trimester. However, little research focuses on women's experiences seeking second trimester abortion or the efficacy and safety of these services. The objectives are to document clinical and acceptability outcomes of second trimester medical and surgical abortion as performed at public hospitals in the Western Cape Province. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of women undergoing abortion at 12.1-20.9 weeks at five hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa in 2008. Two hundred and twenty women underwent D&E with misoprostol cervical priming, and 84 underwent induction with misoprostol alone. Information was obtained about the procedure and immediate complications, and women were interviewed after recovery. Results Median gestational age at abortion was earlier for D&E clients compared to induction (16.0 weeks vs. 18.1 weeks, p Conclusions As currently performed in South Africa, second trimester abortions by D&E were more effective than induction procedures, required shorter hospital stay, had fewer major immediate complications and were associated with shorter delays accessing care. Both services can be improved by implementing evidence-based protocols.

  17. Late Quaternary dietary shifts of the Cape grysbok ( Raphicerus melanotis) in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith, J. Tyler

    2011-01-01

    The Cape grysbok is endemic to southern Africa's Cape Floral Region where it selectively browses various species of dicotyledonous vegetation. Fossil evidence indicates that the grysbok persisted under glacial and interglacial conditions throughout the late Quaternary and inhabited a range of environments. This study employs mesowear analysis to reconstruct grysbok diets over time and in response to changing environments at Nelson Bay Cave, Die Kelders Cave 1, Klasies River Mouth, and Swartklip 1. Results indicate that the amount of grasses (monocots) versus leafy vegetation (dicots) included in the diet fluctuated over time and largely in agreement with changes in faunal community structure. The case for dietary flexibility is particularly clear at Nelson Bay Cave, where there is a significant trend from mixed feeding towards increased browsing from the late Pleistocene (~ 18,500 14C yr BP) through the Holocene. Dietary shifts at Nelson Bay Cave are consistent with the hypothesis that declining grassland productivity is responsible for the terminal Pleistocene extinction of several large ungulates in southern Africa. Furthermore, the short-term dietary shifts demonstrated here (100s to 1000s of years) provide an important caution against relying on taxonomic uniformitarianism when reconstructing the dietary preferences of fossil ungulates, both extant and extinct.

  18. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…

  19. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  20. Costs involved in using a cochlear implant in South Africa

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    Gillian Robyn Kerr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation is an expensive but effective lifelong intervention for individuals with a severe-to-profound hearing loss. The primary aim of this study was to survey the short- and long-term costs of cochlear implantation. Individuals (N=154 using cochlear implants obtained from the University of Stellenbosch-Tygerberg Hospital Cochlear Implant Unit in Cape Town, South Africa were surveyed using a questionnaire and patient record review. The questionnaire used a combination of closed and open-ended questions to gather both quantitative and qualitative information. Costs were categorised as short- and long-term costs. All costs were converted to constant rands (June 2010 using the Consumer Price Index to allow for comparison in real terms over time. In the first 10 years of implantation the average estimated costs incurred by adults totalled R379 626, and by children R455 225. The initial purchase of the implant system was the most substantial cost, followed by upgrading of the processor. Travel and accommodation costs peaked in the first 2 years. On average the participants spent R2 550 per year on batteries and spares. Rehabilitation for children cost an average of R7 200. Insurance costs averaged R4 040 per year, and processor repairs R3 000 each. In addition to the upfront expense of obtaining the cochlear implant system, individuals using a cochlear implant in South Africa should be prepared for the long-term costs of maintenance, accessing the unit, support services and additional costs associated with use. Knowledge of these costs is important to ensure that individuals are successful users of their cochlear implants in the long term.

  1. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    1~7JJ!i 5a. DATE: 6a. DATE: 7a. DATE: 8. TITLE: Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 9. CONTRACT NUMBER: 10...00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...600 Raleigh, NC 27605 Contract Number: HDTRA2-11-D-0001 Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 4

  2. Contemporary ethical challenges in industrial psychological testing in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Phil. (Industrial Psychology) Psychometric testing in South Africa faces many challenges at present. Among these challenges is the fact that many individuals utilising psychometric tests are not professionally registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The key objective of this qualitative study was to gain a better understanding of the contemporary ethical challenges in psychometric testing in South Africa. A total of ten industrial psychologists participated in the...

  3. Assessment of completion of early medical abortion using a text questionnaire on mobile phones compared to a self-administered paper questionnaire among women attending four clinics, Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constant, Deborah; de Tolly, Katherine; Harries, Jane; Myer, Landon

    2015-02-01

    In-clinic follow-up to assess completion of medical abortion is no longer a requirement according to World Health Organization guidance, provided adequate counselling is given. However, timely recognition of ongoing pregnancy, complications or incomplete abortion, which require treatment, is important. As part of a larger trial, this study aimed to establish whether women having a medical abortion could self-assess whether their abortion was complete using an automated, interactive questionnaire on their mobile phones. All 469 participants received standard abortion care and all returnees filled in a self-assessment on paper at clinic follow-up 2-3 weeks later. The 234 women allocated to receive the phone messages were also asked to do a mobile phone assessment at home ten days post-misoprostol. Completion of the mobile assessment was tracked by computer and all completed assessments, paper and mobile, were compared to providers' assessments at clinic follow-up. Of the 226 women able to access the mobile phone assessment, 176 (78%) completed it; 161 of them (93%) reported it was easy to do so. Neither mobile nor paper self-assessments predicted all cases needing additional treatment at follow-up. Prediction of complete procedures was good; 71% of mobile assessments and 91% of paper assessments were accurate. We conclude that an interactive questionnaire assessing completion of medical abortion on mobile phones is feasible in the South African setting; however, it should be done later than day 10 and combined with an appropriate pregnancy test to accurately detect incomplete procedures.

  4. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  5. Silene dewinteri, a new species of the Caryopliyllaceae from the south-western Cape

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    Gilbert Bocquet

    1977-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Silene,  S. dewinteri Bocquet, is described from the sand-dunes of the coastal region of the south-western Cape. The species is closely related to S. crassifolia L. and S. clandestina Jacq.  

  6. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

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    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leopards (Panthera pardus show genetically determined colour variation. Erythristic (strawberry morphs, where individuals are paler and black pigment in the coat is replaced by a red-brown colour, are exceptionally rare in the wild. Historically, few records exist, with only five putative records known from India.Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations.Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population.Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  7. Islamic marriages in South Africa: Quo vadimus?

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    C. Rautenbach

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to their potentially polygamous nature, Islamic marriages are not recognised in terms of South African law. The consequences of this non-recognition have been particularly unfair to Muslim women. Until 2000 a Muslim woman had no claim for loss of support if her husband was unlawfully killed. Even today she cannot claim maintenance from her husband after a divorce; she is not an intestate beneficiary after the death of her husband; can be compelled to give evidence against her husband in criminal proceedings and can not claim financial support during the course of her marriage. Since early times there have been calls for the recognition of Islamic marriages. The 1996 Constitution of South Africa protects, among other rights, cultural and religious rights and makes provision for the recognition of cultural and religious marriages by means of legislation. This article gives a brief historical overview regarding the position of Islamic marriages in South Africa. Thereafter the current position of Islamic marriages will be discussed, and finally a few comments regarding the future of Islamic marriages will be given.

  8. Does China and Africa South-South cooperation lead to economic development in Africa?

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    Nonfodji, P.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Since a few decades now Chinese enterprises’ investments abroad have seen a continuous and steady ascension. At first cautious and just across the Chinese national borders, these investments, slowly but surely, spread like a sheet of water that seeps into the heart of each continent on the globe. This global infiltration of Chinese companies coincides with the popularity in the use of the expression “South-South Cooperation” to characterize a type of relations between countries categorized as being “developing”. Accordingly this paper seeks to examine the role of the use of this concept as a “channel to achieve common development” in the context of Chinese enterprises’ outward direct investments in Africa adopting insights from international business production theories combined with an historical analysis of the notion of South-South Cooperation. Drawing on primary data gathered during my fieldwork in China in the period stretching from December 2011 to February 2012 and secondary data sources, it is argued that these Chinese investments supported by the Chinese government rhetoric on South-South cooperation, cannot lead to significant economic development in Africa like it has happened in China in the eighties. Rather and at most Chinese investments in Africa show some “trickle-down” effects characterised by very limited economic development in scattered localities throughout the African continent.

  9. Vulnerability of children to gunshot trauma in violence-prone environment: The case of South Africa

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    Naidoo Sudeshni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a high level of violence, as more people are killed by gunfire each year than in motor vehicle accidents, and the numbers are increasing. Regrettably, children are affected most by this epidemic. During 1997, a total of 142 children aged less than 14 years died from gunshot injuries while many more were injured. Here we present the case of an 11-year-old male street child who sustained a gunshot to the face, and illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The escalating epidemic of firearm-related injuries and deaths among children and adolescents in Cape Town, like in many other parts of the world, calls for concern. Further research is needed to understand firearm-related injuries among children and adolescents in South Africa, and to develop policies and programmes for effective prevention of situations such as this.

  10. Empowering Adult Education in Namibia and South Africa during and after Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopfer, Christiane

    1997-01-01

    After more than 40 years of education for Apartheid, the development of empowering adult education with the formerly disadvantaged population groups is one of the major challenges for the democratically elected governments in South Africa and Namibia. One of the strongest forces that sustained Apartheid in Namibia until 1990, and in South Africa until 1994, was an education system with different schools and resources for the different population groups. Despite the strict implementation of the Bantu Education System by the white government, some groups of people could still organise alternative education projects aiming at participants' gaining more control over their own lifes. Groups of women in the Western Cape initiated autonomous pre-school projects and took part in in-service training for pre-school teachers in the 1980s. A similar process took place with adult literacy learners in the National Literacy Programme in Namibia.

  11. Transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, B. J.; Ojumu, A. M.; Jenner, S.; Ojumu, T. V.

    2013-05-01

    Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3) over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001-2008) from Cape Town air quality network and simulation data (2001-2004) from regional climate model (RegCM4) over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric condition, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events. The results show that extreme pollution events over Cape Town are associated with the low-level (surface-850 hPa) transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa) anticyclonic flow over South Africa and a low-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclonic flow induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town, while the col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. Mpumalanga Highveld) may contribute substantially to the air pollution in Cape Town.

  12. Using the Maslach Burnout Inventory to assess educators' burnout at a university in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pretorius, T B

    1994-10-01

    Use of the Maslach Burnout Inventory with 94 faculty members at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa is described. Analysis indicated that the inventory can be considered a reliable measure of burnout in this educational setting. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the factorial structure of the scale was similar to those previously reported for educational groups in North America. Multiple regression analysis also indicated the significant predictors of the components of burnout in the present study (role conflict, role ambiguity, participation in decision-making, and number of students) are similar to those previously identified.

  13. Amateur Optical Tracking in South Africa During 1957-2014. Part 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Greg

    2014-08-01

    This article covers the activities of the Cape Town MOONWATCH team that was situated in the grounds of the then Royal Observatory at the Cape (later the South African Astronomical Observatory) and operated from 1957 to about 1968.

  14. Microseismic Observations in the Karoo: Leeu-Gamka, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fynn, Melody; Kahle, Beth; Kahle, Richard; Hartnady, Chris

    2016-04-01

    We report on a micro-earthquake study in the interior of South Africa, in a tectonically stable intraplate setting centered on the town of Leeu Gamka, Western Cape province. The International Seismological Centre (ISC) catalogue reports localised anomalous seismicity in the region between 2007 and 2012 with local magnitudes up to 4.5. The apparent duration and time history of this anomalous seismicity is likely, in part at least, a reporting artefact. We deployed an array of 23 geophones for three months (March-June) in 2015, covering an area of 60 × 65 km centred on the zone of anomalous seismicity. The array recorded a total of 113 earthquakes over this period, with almost all events clustering in a surprisingly small area (78% of the epicentres fall within a one square kilometre block). Double difference relocation resolves the hypocentres onto a structure with an apparent NW-SE orientation, consistent with large-scale fabric that can be recognised in satellite imagery. Although the hypocentre depths are not very well constrained, their apparent range of 5-7 km puts them at the base of the Karoo basin.

  15. Vulture rescue and rehabilitation in South Africa: An urban perspective

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    V. Naidoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available SouthAfrica is home to 9 vulture species, of which 7 are endangered. While the cause of the population declines remains largely speculative, a vast amount of effort has been dedicated towards the protection of populations by ensuring sustainable and safe food sources for the various colonies. Limited focus was placed in the past on efforts related to the rescue and/or rehabilitation (R&R of injured birds and the release of these birds back into the wild. This paper provides an overview of the causes, the impact and success of 3 organisations involved in R&R efforts of vultures in the Magaliesberg mountain range and surrounding areas over a period of 10 years. Study material included 162 Cape griffon (CGV and 38 African white-backed (AWBV vultures. Datasets include the number, sex and age of birds received, the reason the vultures were brought in for R&R, surgical interventions performed and outcomes of rescue efforts. The CGV dominated the rehabilitation attempts. Results further show that a large number of apparently healthy birds were presented for veterinary treatment. The R&R data clearly indicate that the major cause of injuries was birds colliding with overhead pylons, as a high number of soft tissue and skeletal injuries were observed. The study also shows that successful releases of rescued birds are possible. It is concluded that urbanisation has had a major negative impact on vultures around the Magaliesberg mountain range.

  16. Health rights pamphlets: critical literacy and inclusive citizenship, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Morgan; Stuttaford, Maria; London, Leslie

    2014-06-01

    The Ottawa Charter recognizes the importance of strengthening community action for health and developing personal skills. At the same time, a rights-based approach to health includes the right to information, participation and accountability. The Learning Network for Health and Human Rights is a research and learning collaboration between Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) and universities in the Western Cape, South Africa. For the purposes of this article, a CSO is understood to be any organization that is outside of the state and private market sector. As part of a wider programme of action research, the learning network developed six pamphlets aimed at enhancing individual and collective skills to support action related to the implementation of the right to health. The research reported here analyses how the pamphlets, coupled with directed training, strengthened skills, promoted critical literacy and supported inclusive citizenship. Eighteen semi-structured interviews and eight focus groups were conducted with 59 participants from eight CSOs, their members, beneficiaries and communities. The success of the pamphlets was found to be attributed to the role they played in a wider training programme, requested by the CSOs and developed jointly by CSOs and university-based researchers. Community action on the right to health is contingent on personal as well as collective skills development. Understanding of the right to health and skills for participation and accountability were extended in breadth and depth, which enabled inclusive citizenship.

  17. Human foot bones from Klasies River main site, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, G Philip; Deacon, H J; Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The caves at Klasies River contain abundant archaeological evidence relating to human evolution in the late Pleistocene of southern Africa. Along with Middle Stone Age artifacts, animal bones, and other food waste, there are hominin cranial fragments, mandibles with teeth, and a few postcranial remains. Three foot bones can now be added to this inventory. An adult first metatarsal is similar in size and discrete anatomical features to those from Holocene burials in the Cape Province. A complete and well-preserved second metatarsal is especially long and heavy at midshaft in comparison to all Holocene and more recent South African homologues. A large fifth metatarsal is highly distinctive in its morphology. In overall size, these pedal elements resemble specimens from late Pleistocene sites in western Asia, but there are some differences in proportions. The fossils support earlier suggestions concerning a relatively high level of sexual dimorphism in the African Middle Stone Age population. Squatting facets on the two lateral metatarsals appear to indicate a high frequency of kneeling among members of this group. The new postcranial material also underlines the fact that the morphology of particular skeletal elements of some of the 100,000-year-old Klasies River individuals falls outside the range of modern variation.

  18. A brief history of equine private practice in South Africa

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    C.H.B. Marlow

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Horse breeding in South Africa started in 1652, shortly after the 1st European settlement in the Cape. African horsesickness posed a serious problem and after a devastating outbreak of the disease in 1719, horses were largely replaced by oxen for agricultural and transport purposes but remained important from a sporting and military point of view. Examples of the latter are the export of horses for military use to India in the mid-19th century and for use in the Crimean War in 1854, reaching a zenith in the Anglo-Boer war in which an estimated 450 000 horses succumbed. Research and disease control and initially also health services were the responsibility of state veterinary authorities. Private equine practice was pioneered by Jack Boswell in the late 1930s, mainly involving race horses and Thoroughbred studs as part of a general practice. Specialised equine private practices were only initiated 10 years later and developed further during the 2nd half of the 20th century. These developments are described in some detail, including resumés of the veterinarians involved, clinical challenges encountered, scientific advances as well as developments in the equine industry with the emphasis on Thoroughbreds and the racing community. The regulatory environment, especially regarding the import and export of horses, and the role of various organisations and associations are also briefly discussed.

  19. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  20. The transport of atmospheric sulfur over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenner, Samantha L.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.

    2013-11-01

    Cape Town, renowned for its natural beauty, is troubled by an unpleasant brown haze pollution, in which atmospheric sulfur plays a major role. This study investigates whether Cape Town is a net producer or recipient of anthropogenic sulfur pollution. In the study, two atmospheric chemistry-transport models (RegCM and WRF) are used to simulate atmospheric flow and chemistry transport over South Africa for two years (2001 and 2002). Both models reproduce the observed seasonal variability in the atmospheric flow and SO2 concentration over Cape Town. The models simulations agree on the seasonal pattern of SO2 over South Africa but disagree on that of SO4. The simulations show that ambient sulfur in Cape Town may be linked with pollutant emissions from the Mpumalanga Highveld, South Africa's most industrialized region. While part of atmospheric SO2 from the Highveld is transported at 700 hPa level toward the Indian Ocean (confirming previous studies), part is transported at low level from the Highveld toward Cape Town. In April, a band of high concentration SO2 extends between the Highveld and Cape Town, following the south coast. Extreme sulfur pollution events in Cape Town are associated with weak flow convergence or stagnant conditions over the city, both of which encourage the accumulation of pollution. However the study suggests that atmospheric sulfur is being advected from Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town and this may contribute to atmospheric pollution problems in Cape Town.

  1. Ubuntu and the law in South Africa

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    Y Mokgoro

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not free of scepticism. Many a time when crime and criminal activity are rife, sceptics would lament the absence of ubuntu in society and attribute this absence to what they view as the permissiveness which is said to have been brought about by the Constitution with its entrenched Bill of Rights.Firstly, I would like to take this opportunity and (attempt to demonstrate the irony that the absence of the values of ubuntu in society that people often lament about and attribute to the existence of the Constitution with its demands for respect for human rights when crime becomes rife, are the very same values that the Constitution in general and the Bill of Rights in particular aim to inculcate in our society.Secondly, against the background of the call for an African renaissance that has now become topical globally, I would like to demonstrate the potential that traditional African values of ubuntu have for influencing the development of a new South African law and jurisprudence.The concept ubuntu, like many African concepts, is not easily definable. In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a world-view of African societies and a determining factor in the formation of perceptions which influence social conduct. It has also been described as a philosophy of life.Much as South Africa is a multicultural society, indigenous law has not featured in the mainstream of South African jurisprudence. Without a doubt, some aspects or values of ubuntu are universally inherent to South Africa’s multi cultures.The values of ubuntu are therefore an integral part of that value system which had been established by the Interim Constitution.The founding values of the democracy established by this new Constitution arguably coincide with some key values of ubuntu(ism.Ubuntu(-ism, which is central to age-old African custom and tradition however, abounds

  2. "Blame it on the weeds": politics, poverty, and ecology in the new South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, Abigail H

    2010-01-01

    In January of 2000, spectacular fires burned in the natural veld of Cape Town, South Africa. As the fire-fighting effort finished, a theory emerged: invasive alien species, trees from other countries, such as Australia and the United States, were to blame for the fires. While the invasive alien hypothesis captured the attention of media and policy makers alike, there was little ecological evidence to support it. This article places the fires of 2000 in a longer history of post-apartheid policy and science surrounding invasive alien floral species, arguing that the fires allowed for a synergy between concerns over poverty relief, nature conservation, and scientific research. The most visible example of this synergy was an increased commitment to the Working for Water programme on the Cape Peninsula, a large-scale employment programme utilising unskilled labour to clear invasive alien species in order to conserve South African water resources. In addition to providing employment for South Africa's poorest citizens, Working for Water provided funding for ecological research about invasive alien species. The studies that resulted from this funding focused on gathering information to make practical suggestions for invasive species control. Although the focus of these studies was on management, the science used was itself as rigorous as it had ever been. In the post-apartheid era, as poverty relief and nature conservation came together, scientists ensured that they would continue to play a role in nature conservation by making their research relevant to both invasive species control and to poverty relief.

  3. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

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    Eleanor Cornelius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the concept ‘plain language’ has been hugely problematic since the origins of the so-called Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of ‘plain language’ abound, yet James (2008: 6 warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can’t yet call ourselves a coherent field, let alone a profession, while we offer such varying definitions of what we do”. Contemporary international definitions of ‘plain language’ are of three types: numerical (or formula-based, elements-focused, or outcomes-focused (Cheek 2010. In South Africa, protective legislation gave rise to a local definition of ‘plain language’ which was widely acclaimed for its comprehensiveness and practicality. From a textlinguistic angle, this article ruminates on the nature of the definition of ‘plain language’ in the National Credit Act (2005 and the Consumer Protection Act (2008, and critically appraises the value of the definition as a sharp and reliable conceptual tool for use by plain language practitioners – as applied linguists – in the absence of norms, standards or guidelines for the use of plain language in the consumer industry in contemporary South Africa.

  4. The late Pliocene Equidae of Langebaanweg, Cape Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1976-01-01

    Introduction................... 3 The Hipparion skull from Έ'Quarry............ 6 The upper dentition from Έ' Quarry............ 12 The mandibles from Έ' Quarry.............. 19 The lower dentition from Έ' Quarry............ 20 Lower premolars from a site between Έ' and 'C' Quarries...... 26 Metapod

  5. Worker Education in South Africa: Lessons and Contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, Salim; Bofelo, Mphutlane Wa; Treat, John

    2013-01-01

    Worker education played a crucial role in the development of the trade union movement in South Africa and in the broader struggle for social transformation. This article reviews key moments and dynamics in the trajectory of worker education in South Africa. We argue that international developments, the rise of neoliberalism, and the negotiated…

  6. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine nutri

  7. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  8. Rand volatility and inflation in South Africa

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    Azwifaneli Innocentia (Mulaudzi Nemushu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The floating exchange rate regime, coupled with a more open trade policy and the growth in imports, leaves South Africa vulnerable to the effects of exchange rate behaviour on import, producer and consumer prices, which all contribute to inflation. Given the central role that inflation targeting occupies in South Africa’s monetary policy, this paper examines the effect of exchange rate shocks on consumer prices using monthly data covering the period January 1994 to December 2013. Consistent with developing countries story, results show a modest exchange rate pass-through to inflation, although inflation is mainly driven by own shocks. The variance decompositions also reveal that foreign exchange rate shocks (REER contribute relatively more to inflation than money supply shocks (M3. This suggests that South African inflation process is not basically influenced by money supply changes. The practical implication is that that the volatility of the rand is not a serious threat to inflation. The SARB should therefore focus on price stability and not be unduly worried about the volatility of the rand.

  9. Logistics outsourcing by manufacturers in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beverley Waugh

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available As organisations find themselves in an increasingly dynamic and competitive world they are seeking new strategies to ensure their competitive advantage and profitability. Logistics presents an area in which these organisations can improve customer service and reduce costs, and strategies in support thereof such as the outsourcing of logistics activities, should be considered. However, it is critical that logistics outsourcing is done diligently to avoid potential problems for the organisation and to achieve the best possible benefits. In South Africa little research has been done regarding current outsourcing practices of local manufacturers. In this article literature on international logistics outsourcing as well as research on some of the logistics outsourcing practices of South African manufacturers is discussed. The findings of a questionnaire survey of South African manufacturers provided information on their logistics outsourcing practices and problems. Prominent issues seem to include inadequate managerial involvement in the logistics outsourcing process, as well as insufficient time spent on many of the important aspects of the outsourcing agreement, the transitioning of resources and ongoing management of the outsourced relationship. It is concluded that a thorough outsourcing process should be followed in order to achieve the benefits of logistics outsourcing.

  10. Intra-Africa agricultural trade: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Daya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and provide an overview of the magnitude of current agricultural trade patterns between South Africa and the five leading regional economic communities (REC's in Africa. This paper also seeks to examine some of the constraints limiting greater intra-African agricultural trade. This is done in order to better understand the role South Africa currently plays and could potentially play in promoting intra-Africa trade. Design/Methodology/Approach: Trade flows between South Africa and the leading REC's are outlined and explained. Trade data and tariff data is sourced from available databases. Non-tariff barriers and other impediments to greater intra-African trade are examined with reference to available literature and discussions the authors have had with trade experts and policy makers.Findings: South Africa is the most active country in intra-Africa agricultural trade. However, it is a relationship defined predominantly on exports to Africa with a low level of imports. South Africa exports a diverse range of value added products whilst imports remain concentrated in commodities. Significant imbalances in agricultural trade between South Africa and the respective REC's continue to persist. Regional trade arrangements have fostered greater trade but significant obstacles to greater trade remain.Implications: African countries that do not invest in infrastructure and create a trade-enabling environment and diversify their production, limit their potential to the supply of one or two commodities thereby perpetuating the trend of huge trade imbalances in favour of South Africa.Originality/Value: This work provides a platform for assessing trade relationships and examining impediments to greater trade. It is also relevant in guiding future research on priority markets in Africa as export destinations and import suppliers in light of increasing regional integration initiatives and governments commitment to

  11. Delays in seeking an abortion until the second trimester: a qualitative study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mosotho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite changes to the South African abortion legislation in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortions still exist. Second trimester abortions, an inherently more risky procedure, continue to be 20% of all abortions. Understanding the reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester is important for informing interventions to reduce the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Twenty-seven in-depth interviews were conducted in 2006 with women seeking a second trimester abortion at one public sector tertiary hospital and two NGO health care facilities in the greater Cape Town area, South Africa. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Almost all women described multiple and interrelated factors that influenced the timing of seeking an abortion. Reasons why women delayed seeking an abortion were complex and were linked to changes in personal circumstances often leading to indecision, delays in detecting a pregnancy and health service related barriers that hindered access to abortion services. Conclusion Understanding the complex reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester can inform health care interventions aimed at reducing the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa.

  12. Edinburgh, the Scottish pioneers of anatomy and their lasting influence in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, J C; Wessels, Q; Vorster, W

    2013-11-01

    The history of the origin of anatomy education in South Africa is the history of an arduous journey through time. The lasting influence of Edinburgh came in the form of Robert Black Thomson. He was a student and assistant of Sir William Turner who gave rise to the first chair of anatomy and the establishment of a department at the South African College, known today as University of Cape Town. Thomson was later succeeded by Matthew Drennan, a keen anthropologist, who was revered by his students. This Scottish link prevailed over time with the appointment of Edward Philip Stibbe as the chair of anatomy at the South African School of Mines and Technology, which later became the University of the Witwatersrand. Stibbe's successor, Raymond Arthur Dart, a graduate of the University of Sydney, was trained in an anatomy department sculpted on that of Edinburgh by Professor James Thomas Wilson. Wilson's influence at the University of Sydney can be traced back to Edinburgh and William Turner through Thomas Anderson Stuart. Both Dart and Robert Broom, another Scot, were considered as Africa's wild men by the late Professor Tobias. Here, the authors explore the Scottish link and origins of anatomy pedagogy in South Africa.

  13. Nigerian tourists to South Africa: Challenges, expectations and demands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Identification of tourists’ needs and finding ways of satisfying them is crucial to any tourism destination.Research purpose: This paper investigated the challenges, demands and expectations of Nigerian tourists to South Africa.Motivation for the study: Nigeria, along with other African nations, has been identified as one of the core regional source markets with air links to South Africa. Increasing revenue generated from regional tourism is important to South African Tourism.Research design, approach and method: Descriptive statistics and Chi-square tests were used to analyse the data collected using a questionnaire survey of 320 Nigerian tourists to South Africa.Main findings: Results showed that Nigerian tourists visit South Africa mostly for the purposes of business, holiday, visiting friends and relatives, education and medical care. Challenges perceived by these Nigerian tourists visiting South Africa include long waiting time for the visa process in Nigeria, expensive cost of living in South Africa, safety and security problems, not so many airlines to choose from and expensive flight costs. Nigerian tourists mostly expect South Africans to be friendlier and have expectations of linking up with new business partners or performing transactions. They also have a strong demand for shopping, leisure and quality education.Practical/managerial implications: This study recommends a bilateral tourism relationship agreement between the Nigerian and South African governments to ameliorate the visa process; targeted marketing communications by South African Tourism toward Nigerian tourists based on study results; strong police presence and proper policing in South Africa; air transport liberalisation and low-cost carriers implementation for shared economic growth within the African region.Contribution/value-add: No former research has specifically identified Nigerian tourists’ challenges, expectations and demands whilst visiting

  14. Free Tropospheric Aerosols Over South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elina, Giannakaki; Pfüller, Anne; Korhonen, Kimmo; Mielonen, Tero; Laakso, Lauri; Vakkari, Ville; Baars, Holger; Engelmann, Ronny; Beukes, Johan P.; Van Zyl, Pieter G.; Josipovic, Miroslav; Tiitta, Petri; Chiloane, Kgaugelo; Piketh, Stuart; Lihavainen, Heikki; Lehtinen, Kari

    2016-06-01

    Raman lidar data of one year was been analyzed to obtain information relating aerosol layers in the free troposphere over South Africa, Elandsfontein. In total, 375 layers were observed above the boundary layer during the period 30th January 2010 - 31st January 2011. The seasonal behavior of aerosol layer geometrical characteristics as well as intensive and extensive optical properties were studied. In general, layers were observed at higher altitudes during spring (2520 ± 970 m) while the geometrical layer depth did not show any significant seasonal dependence. The variations of most of the intensive and extensive optical properties analyzed were high during all seasons. Layers were observed at mean altitude of 2100 m ± 1000 m with lidar ratio at 355 nm of 67 ± 25 and extinction-related Ångström exponent between 355 and 532 nm of 1.9 ± 0.8.

  15. Free Tropospheric Aerosols Over South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elina Giannakaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Raman lidar data of one year was been analyzed to obtain information relating aerosol layers in the free troposphere over South Africa, Elandsfontein. In total, 375 layers were observed above the boundary layer during the period 30th January 2010 – 31st January 2011. The seasonal behavior of aerosol layer geometrical characteristics as well as intensive and extensive optical properties were studied. In general, layers were observed at higher altitudes during spring (2520 ± 970 m while the geometrical layer depth did not show any significant seasonal dependence. The variations of most of the intensive and extensive optical properties analyzed were high during all seasons. Layers were observed at mean altitude of 2100 m ± 1000 m with lidar ratio at 355 nm of 67 ± 25 and extinction-related Ångström exponent between 355 and 532 nm of 1.9 ± 0.8.

  16. South Africa: the new world of disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzer, Pieter

    2008-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, unique business imperatives in South Africa have led to innovative risk product design, some of which are still unfamiliar to the rest of the world. The main drivers are: the unique mix of first- and third-world societies in our country, and an energetic marketing force operating in an already highly saturated insurance market. As a result, new product design has become one of the most effective ways to grow new business volumes in this competitive environment. This article reviews some of the unique products available and their advantages, target markets and disadvantages. The products that are discussed include lump sum total and permanent disability benefits, extended critical illness products, cover for impairment of function as well as risk products for people living with HIV/AIDS.

  17. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  18. Capsular Myrtaceae 10. The Metrosideros Complex: M. angustifolia (South Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dawson, J.W.

    1975-01-01

    As is the case with Tepualia stipularis for South America, Metrosideros angustifolia Sm., Trans. Linn. Soc. 3 (1797) 270, is the sole representative of the capsular Myrtaceae in Africa. It occurs as a shrub or small tree at lower elevations, often along river banks, in the south-west corner of South

  19. Career Psychology in South Africa: Addressing and Redressing Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the definition of social justice in career psychology and how this might be understood in the South African context. In particular, macro-contextual factors that define social justice issues in South African career psychology are described. The extent to which the discipline of career psychology in South Africa has addressed…

  20. ACHIEVING "DECENT WORK" IN SOUTH AFRICA?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Cohen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental goal of the International Labour Organisation is the achievement of decent and productive work for both women and men in conditions of freedom, equity, security and human dignity. The South African government has pledged its commitment to the attainment of decent work and sustainable livelihoods for all workers and has undertaken to mainstream decent work imperatives into national development strategies. The four strategic objectives of decent work as identified by the ILO are: i the promotion of standards and rights at work, to ensure that worker's constitutionally protected rights to dignity, equality and fair labour practices, amongst others, are safeguarded by appropriate legal frameworks; (ii the promotion of employment creation and income opportunities, with the goal being not just the creation of jobs but the creation of jobs of acceptable quality; (iii the provision and improvement of social protection and social security, which are regarded as fundamental to the alleviation of poverty, inequality and the burden of care responsibilities; and (iv the promotion of social dialogue and tripartism. This article considers the progress made towards the attainment of these decent work objectives in South Africa, using five statistical indicators to measure such progress namely: (i employment opportunities; (ii adequate earnings and productive work; (iii stability and security of work; (iv social protection; and (v social dialogue and workplace relations. It concludes that high levels of unemployment and a weakened economy in South Africa have given rise to a growing informal sector and an increase in unacceptable working conditions and exploitation. The rights of workers in the formal sector have not filtered down to those in the informal sector, who remains vulnerable and unrepresented. Job creation initiatives have been undermined by the global recession and infrastructural shortcomings and ambitious governmental targets appear

  1. GPS Application for Groundwater Resource Assessment, Hermanus, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnady, C.; Mlisa, A.; Wonnacott, R.; Calais, E.

    2009-04-01

    TrigNet (http://www.trignet.co.za/footprint/home.jsp) is a network of permanent continuously operating GPS (cGPS) base stations distributed throughout South Africa at approximately 200 - 300 km spacing. Data from 21 of the stations is continuously streamed to the TrigNet control centre in the offices of the Chief Directorate: Surveys and Mapping, from where it is made available within 30 minutes after each hour for 24 hours a day. All stations record 1-second epoch data on both GPS frequencies (L1 and L2) through geodetic-standard choke ring antennas. The real-time Trignet station HERM is situated in the grounds of the Hermanus Magnetic Observatory (HMO), in a coastal town about 100 km SW of the City of Cape Town. The Overstrand Municipality of the Greater Hermanus Area has embarked on a major groundwater development to augment the water supply. As a foundation for sustainable management of the groundwater resource, a detailed monitoring programme was developed for a better understanding of the hydraulic system, and of the interconnections between surface water, the shallow primary aquifer and the remarkable, deep, fractured-rock (FR) aquifer of the Table Mountain Group (TMG), which underlies a large part of the Western Cape province in South Africa. A thick, extensive FR aquifer system like the ~1 km thick Peninsula Aquifer in the TMG provides an opportunity for fundamental advances in understanding interactions between fluid flow and mechanical deformation, through analysis of the "hydro-mechanical" coupling in FR permeability, fluid transport and deep storage in FR porosity. Present knowledge of skeletal-framework compressibility, the main factor in specific storage, is based on published data from similar rocks elsewhere. Up-scaling from dry-sample laboratory measurements of elastic properties of borehole-core samples at ~10-cm scale to saturated rock volumes on 100- to 1000-m scale, is methodologically problematic. Measuring directly the compaction of, and

  2. Tips for a Healthy and Safe Trip to South Africa

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-11

    This podcast provides health and safety recommendations for travelers to South Africa.  Created: 8/11/2010 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/11/2010.

  3. Gastroenterology training in private hospitals:India vs South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chris; Jacob; Johan; Mulder; Amarender; Singh; Puri; Duvvur; Nageshwar; Reddy

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa,nurses and doctors are emigrating in significant numbers. Job satisfaction,safety and ensuring career progression are important in retaining doctors to make a career in Republic of South Africa (RSA). Due to budgetary constraints many hospitals have not been upgraded. Coming home after overseas training seems difficult. In RSA it takes a minimum of 13 years for a young specialist to become registered and 15 years for subspecialists. Career progression,creating more specialist trainees in pub...

  4. Push and pull factors of national parks in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Slabbert, E.; Viviers, P.

    2012-01-01

    South Africa's national parks are one of South Africa's major attractions. Since visitors are among the most important role players in the sustainability of these parks, and in-depth research is needed to understand them, this article analyses the push and pull factors that bring them to the parks. The study used a structured questionnaire to collect data on these factors and the socio-demographic profile of the visitors. Surveys conducted at nine National Parks produced 1300 questionnaires. ...

  5. The status and challenges of Industrial Engineering in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schutte, Cornelius S. L.; Kennon, Denzil; Bam, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    The industrial engineering discipline in South Africa is examined by introducing the context of the discipline and by revisiting its history. The drivers influencing the context and future of industrial engineering in South Africa are also considered, and the discipline is analysed in terms of the following aspects: university qualifications, employment in industry sectors, race and gender profiles, use and competence in industry, and income profiles. The analysis is based on a recent survey ...

  6. The transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiodun, B. J.; Ojumu, A. M.; Jenner, S.; Ojumu, T. V.

    2014-01-01

    Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3) over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld, a major South African industrial area, may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001-2008) from the Cape Town air-quality network and simulation data (2001-2004) from a regional climate model (RegCM) over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric conditions, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events. The results show that extreme pollution events in Cape Town are associated with the lower level (surface - 850 hPa) transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa) anticyclone over South Africa and a lower-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclone induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town. The col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. the Mpumalanga Highveld) may contribute to the air pollution in Cape Town.

  7. Marine biodiversity in South Africa: an evaluation of current states of knowledge.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles L Griffiths

    Full Text Available Continental South Africa has a coastline of some 3,650 km and an Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ of just over 1 million km(2. Waters in the EEZ extend to a depth of 5,700 m, with more than 65% deeper than 2,000 m. Despite its status as a developing nation, South Africa has a relatively strong history of marine taxonomic research and maintains comprehensive and well-curated museum collections totaling over 291,000 records. Over 3 million locality records from more than 23,000 species have been lodged in the regional AfrOBIS (African Ocean Biogeographic Information System data center (which stores data from a wider African region. A large number of regional guides to the marine fauna and flora are also available and are listed. The currently recorded marine biota of South Africa numbers at least 12,914 species, although many taxa, particularly those of small body size, remain poorly documented. The coastal zone is relatively well sampled with some 2,500 samples of benthic invertebrate communities have been taken by grab, dredge, or trawl. Almost none of these samples, however, were collected after 1980, and over 99% of existing samples are from depths shallower than 1,000 m--indeed 83% are from less than 100 m. The abyssal zone thus remains almost completely unexplored. South Africa has a fairly large industrial fishing industry, of which the largest fisheries are the pelagic (pilchard and anchovy and demersal (hake sectors, both focused on the west and south coasts. The east coast has fewer, smaller commercial fisheries, but a high coastal population density, resulting in intense exploitation of inshore resources by recreational and subsistence fishers, and this has resulted in the overexploitation of many coastal fish and invertebrate stocks. South Africa has a small aquaculture industry rearing mussels, oysters, prawns, and abalone-the latter two in land-based facilities. Compared with many other developing countries, South Africa has a well

  8. Laser propulsion experiments in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelis, Max M.; Moorgawa, Ashokabose; Forbes, Andrew; Klopper, Wouter; McKenzie, Edric; Boutchiama, David; Bencherif, Hassan

    2002-09-01

    Two sets of experiments indicate a renewal of interest in South Africa in the topic of laser propulsion. Both sets were conducted under the auspices of the new National Laser Center. In the first set, a 1 kW, CO2 laser (1 kHz, 1 J, 100 ns) was used to propel small (ca 1 gram) targets through a vertical tube-launcher and the momentum-coupling coefficient for a variety of conditions was estimated. The somewhat disappointing results were accounted for in terms of the poor beam quality from a single oscillator and premature break-down of the exhaust vapor in the tube. These experiments were conducted with one module of the now dismantled 'MLIS' uranium isotope separation system. The second set of experiments being conducted in Durban with a small but more energetic 'marking' laser (CO2 20 Hz., 4 J, 100 ns). The chief purpose of this, was to better understand the discrepancies between the recent vertical propulsion experiment at Pelindaba and earlier propulsion attempts with the original MLIS chain. Preliminary pendulum experiments were carried out. Burning targets exhibited enhanced coupling for single pulses.

  9. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J. Masango

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that frustration yields anger that leads to violent acts. The root cause of violence is frustration, which finally (if not attended to produces anger, anxiety, conflict and the eruption of violence. Suicide bombers in Palestine and other parts of the world demonstrate this type of aggression, anger and violence. Anger, on the one hand, is a good defense mechanism. It helps people cope with frustration. Violence, on the other hand, is used as a means of dominance, especially against women and children. In a political situation it is used as a means of changing social structures.

  10. Tourist guides’ perceptions of cultural heritage tourism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merwe Clinton David van der

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Heritage tourism is a fast growing niche of cultural tourism worldwide. In Africa, several countries, including South Africa, place great emphasis on the growth of heritage tourism because of its potential for local economic development. Cultural and heritage tourism are being advocated as an important niche within the South African economy. This paper explores the perceptions of cultural heritage tourist guides in South Africa towards heritage tourism, it is argued that the country’s National Department of Tourism must improve the poor governance and poor management of South African heritage assets, and enhance the preservation, transformation and segmented marketing of South Africa’s cultural assets (at all levels of government in order to sustain and grow cultural tourism in the future.

  11. A recent increase of swift terns Thalasseus bergii off South Africa - The possible influence of an altered abundance and distribution of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robert J. M.

    2009-12-01

    In the 2000s, there were large increases in the numbers of swift terns Thalasseus bergii breeding in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, which are most plausibly attributed to good recruitment and to an increase in the proportion of mature birds breeding. Numbers increased coincidentally with a greatly increased abundance of two of the main prey species of swift terns, sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, and remained high as these resources decreased. After 2005, numbers of swift terns breeding in the north and central portions of the Western Cape decreased, whereas numbers breeding farther south in that province increased. This followed displacements to the south and east of sardine and anchovy. In southern Africa, swift terns show low fidelity to breeding localities, which enables a rapid adjustment of the location of breeding to an altered availability of prey. For two seabirds that feed mainly on sardine and anchovy, but once breeding show high fidelity to colonies, African penguin Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannet Morus capensis, proportions breeding in the south and east also increased, but there were substantial decreases in overall numbers breeding in the Western Cape.

  12. Changes in the Russian Wheat Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) Biotype Complex in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankielsohn, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) has spread from its native area in central Asia to all the major wheat-producing countries in the world to become an international wheat pest. Because the Russian wheat aphid is a serious threat to the wheat industry in South Africa, it is important to investigate the key factors involved in the distribution of Russian wheat aphid biotypes and in the changes of the Russian wheat aphid biotype complex in South Africa. There are currently four known Russian wheat aphid biotypes occurring in South Africa. Russian wheat aphid samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 during the wheat-growing season in spring and summer and these samples were screened to determine the biotype status. RWASA1 occurred predominantly in the Western Cape, while RWASA2 and RWASA3 occurred predominantly in the Eastern Free State. Following the first record of RWASA4 in 2011, this biotype was restricted to the Eastern Free State. The surveys suggest that the Russian wheat aphid bioype complex was more diverse in the Eastern Free State than in the other wheat production areas. There was also a shift in Russian wheat aphid biotype composition over time. The Russian wheat aphid biotype complex is dynamic, influenced by environmental factors such as host plants, altitude, and climate, and it can change and diversify over time causing fluctuation in populations over sites and years. This dynamic nature of the Russian wheat aphid will continue to challenge the development of Russian wheat aphid-resistant wheat cultivars in South Africa, and the continued monitoring of the biotypic and genetic structure, to determine genetic relatedness and variation in different biotypes, of Russian wheat aphid populations is important for protecting wheat.

  13. Legacy in Major Sport Events: Empirical Insights from the 2010 FIFA World Cup in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bason Tom

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The awarding of the 2010 FIFA World Cup to South Africa was an historic moment for all of Africa as football’s biggest event travelled to the continent for the first time. This study, set five years on, seeks to identify the legacies left by the construction of two new stadiums in Durban and Cape Town. As part of the EU-funded CARNiVAL project, which seeks to investigate the legacies and impacts of hosting such events, interviews were conducted with key stakeholders involved in the planning of legacies in the two cities. Using Chappelet and Junod’s (2006 framework to analyse the legacies, this study found that Durban and Cape Town have used different strategies to leverage the legacies with differing results. Yet, both stadiums have suffered from the same issue; a seeming lack of need for two stadiums with capacities over 54,000, for domestic sport leagues which average fewer than 10,000 spectators.

  14. The spatial distribution of renewable energy infrastructure in three particular provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lombard Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewed interest is being shown in South Africa in the promotion of infrastructure for renewable energy (RE to supplement the country’s current energy- generation capacity and to break loose from its dependency on an unsustainable fossil-fuel-based energy-provision system. The latter system not only has unfavourable consequences for the environment, but is managed by a state-owned institution which since 2008 has been incapable of providing reliable electricity. RE infrastructure - especially for the generation of solar and wind energy - is a relatively new feature in the South African landscape. This paper examines the spatial distribution of the newly commissioned infrastructures for wind and solar energy (operational and under construction and the role they can play in the diversification of the rural economies of parts of the country’s Northern Cape, Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces. First, literature on evolutionary economic geography, path dependence and new path creation is reviewed. Second, the role of a single energy provider - embedded in a monopolistic energy policy -in inhibiting the transition from a mainly fossil-fuel-based energy-provision system to a multi-source (multi-owner provision system is discussed. Third, the reasoning behind the siting of the infrastructures for solar and wind energy in three particular provinces is explained. Fourth, the possible roles these new infrastructures can play in the diversification of the rural economies where they occur are advanced. The paper concludes that solar- and wind-energy projects have the ability to transform the South African energy context and that these projects present some positive socio-economic impacts for rural economies in the three particular provinces. The paper also recommends that future research efforts should be aimed at the evolution of this socio-economic transformation by taking into account the pre-development context of the areas under study.

  15. Coping, stress and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services in the Eastern Cape / René Meyer

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, René

    2002-01-01

    The suicide rate in the South African Police Services is relatively high compared with other suicide statistics. The objective of this study was to investigate relationships between coping, stress and suicide ideation within the SAPS in the Eastern Cape. A cross-sectional survey design was used. The study population consisted of 307 uniformed police members from the job level of constable to that of senior superintendent in the Eastern Cape. The COPE Questionnaire, Police Stres...

  16. Emergence of rabies in the Gauteng Province, South Africa: 2010–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claude T. Sabeta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Canine rabies is enzootic throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, including the Republic of South Africa. Historically, in South Africa the coastal provinces of KwaZulu-Natal and Eastern Cape were most affected. Alarmingly, outbreaks of canine rabies have been increasingly reported in the past decade from sites where it has previously been under control. From January 2010 to December 2011, 53 animal rabies cases were confirmed; these were mostly in domestic dogs from southern Johannesburg, which was previously considered to be rabies free. In addition, one case was confirmed in a 26-month old girl who had been scratched by a pet puppy during this period. The introduction of rabies into Gauteng Province was investigated through genetic analysis of rabies positive samples confirmed during the outbreak period. In addition, the nucleotide sequences of incidental cases reported in the province for the past ten years were also included in the analysis. It was found that the recent canine rabies outbreak in the Gauteng Province came from the introduction of the rabies virus from KwaZulu-Natal, with subsequent local spread in the susceptible domestic dog population of southern Johannesburg. The vulnerability of the province was also highlighted through multiple, dead-end introductions in the past ten years. This is the first report of a rabies outbreak in the greater Johannesburg area with evidence of local transmission in the domestic dog population.

  17. Early hearing detection and intervention in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Störbeck, Claudine; Friedland, Peter

    2009-06-01

    Early hearing detection and intervention programs have become the standard of care to ensure optimal outcomes for infants with hearing loss, their families and society at large. The overwhelming majority of infants with congenital or early-onset permanent bilateral hearing loss are however born in developing countries like South Africa where services are scarce and awareness poor. Despite its comparatively well-developed economic and reasonably developed health care infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa, limited information on infant hearing loss and the status of early hearing detection and intervention has been available for South Africa. Recently however, an increasing number of initiatives and reports have highlighted the extent of infant hearing loss and the status of identification and intervention services offered in the country. This report provides a review of the available evidence on infant hearing loss and the status of current early hearing detection and intervention services in South Africa.

  18. Opportunities for the power industry in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, R.W.; Pinkney, C.; Feld, L.; Kreil, E.; Lockwood, A.W. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    South Africa is a country in the midst of transformation. Political changes within the country, and the ensuing empowerment of the black majority, have created a situation where dramatic improvements are needed in the country`s infrastructure in order to enable it to meet the needs of all its people over the coming decades. Largely as a result of the international embargo placed on South Africa during the apartheid era, the South African government became heavily involved in the country`s energy sector. This involvement included development of a synfuels program, price controls in the oil sector, monopolies in both upstream and downstream oil sectors, and a strong centralized electric power company. In 1994, South Africa became the eleventh member of the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an organization which was established in 1980 to synchronize development plans for its member countries. SADC is presently working to formulate a regional energy development plan, and coordinate technical information exchanges and joint research needs. Each of the SADC nations have also begun to develop their regional electricity grids and other parts of their energy infrastructure to plan for the growing needs of the 500 million people who live in sub-Saharan Africa. South Africa, in particular, must make significant changes in each of its energy sectors in the near future, to keep up with its growing energy requirements. These changes translate to opportunity for the US Power Industry.

  19. BioEnergy Feasibility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2015-04-01

    The BioEnergy Atlas for South Africa is the result of a project funded by the South African Department of Science and Technology, and executed by SAEON/ NRF with the assistance of a number of collaborators in academia, research institutions, and government. Now nearing completion, the Atlas provides an important input to policy and decision support in the country, significantly strengthens the availability of information resources on the topic, and provides a platform whereby current and future contributions on the subject can be managed, preserved, and disseminated. Bioenergy assessments have been characterized in the past by poor availability and quality of data, an over-emphasis on potentials and availability studies instead of feasibility assessment, and lack of comprehensive evaluation in competition with alternatives - both in respect of competing bioenergy resources and other renewable and non-renewable options. The BioEnergy Atlas in its current edition addresses some of these deficiencies, and identifies specific areas of interest where future research and effort can be directed. One can qualify the potentials and feasible options for BioEnergy exploitation in South Africa as follows: (1) Availability is not a fixed quantum. Availability of biomass and resulting energy products are sensitive to both the exclusionary measures one applies (food security, environmental, social and economic impacts) and the price at which final products will be competitive. (2) Availability is low. Even without allowing for feasibility and final product costs, the availability of biomass is low: biomass productivity in South Africa is not high by global standards due to rainfall constraints, and most arable land is used productively for food and agribusiness-related activities. This constrains the feasibility of purposely cultivated bioenergy crops. (3) Waste streams are important. There are significant waste streams from domestic solid waste and sewage, some agricultural

  20. Language-Based Social Preferences among Children in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzler, Katherine D.; Shutts, Kristin; Spelke, Elizabeth S.

    2012-01-01

    Monolingual English-speaking children in the United States express social preferences for speakers of their native language with a native accent. Here we explore the nature of children's language-based social preferences through research with children in South Africa, a multilingual nation. Like children in the United States, Xhosa South African…

  1. Computer attitudes of primary and secondary students in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovee, Chantal; Voogt, Joke; Meelissen, Martina

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated computer attitudes of 240 students from eight primary and secondary schools in South Africa. The student population of six of the eight schools that participated in the study can be characterised as middle or upper class. Two schools were from South African townships. All eig

  2. South Africa:Fast Growth Lies in Efforts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Yan; Liu Yun; Liu Yun

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ten years ago, under the leadership of Nelson Mandela, South Africa got freedom by smashing the inhuman system of apartheid after a long and arduous struggle and embarked on a new path to democracy. Ten years after the establishment of Democracy, the South African people have achieved outstanding and widely-acclaimed progress in the course of social transformation and national development.

  3. An Overview of Education Management in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moloi, Kholeka; Bush, Tony

    2006-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine three main issues, which are directly linked to school management developments in South Africa since 1994: (1) school leadership and management; (2) professionalization of principalship through the South African Standard for Principalship (SASP); and (3) leading and managing the learning school. In exploring these…

  4. Report on Portfolio Companies with Operations in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA.

    The activities of portfolio companies in South Africa are reviewed in this report from the Advisory Committee on Shareholder Responsibility of Harvard University. A brief review of recent South African political and economic events includes a discussion of the nation's leadership, long-term social and political projections, labor policies, and the…

  5. BRIC welcome South Africa as its newest member

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has recently been accepted by BRIC as a full member of the group,which currently comprises Brazil,Russia,India and China.Song Guoyou,Associate Professor with the Center for American Studies at Fudan University,shared his opinion on the significance of South Africa’s accession to this emerging economies’ club. Edited excerpts follow:

  6. Advantages and pitfalls of South Africa-Angola strategic alliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Vogel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Owing to a shortage of South African research focusing on international strategic alliances, this study aimed to determine whether the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances referred to in international business publications are also applicable to South African international strategic alliances. Design/Methodology/Approach: This was a formal, empirical study that targeted the 163 South African enterprises which were members of the South African-Angolan Chamber of Commerce in 2005 and 2006. Findings: The results identified joint ventures as the most prominent mode of entry when expanding into developing countries and, with few exceptions, the findings support the advantages and pitfalls of international strategic alliances identified in other international publications. Value of the research: A great deal of international management research over the years has been focused on the importance of strategic alliances as a mode of entry, as well as on the pitfalls experienced by alliance partners, particularly in developed countries. However, the lack of such research in Africa in general and South Africa in particular means that South African enterprises must base their entry mode selection on non-South African research findings, and although this sample size was small, the lack of other Africa-specific research makes this research significant. Implications: With South Africa being the largest source of FDI into the rest of Africa, the findings of this paper show that South African enterprises can attain the advantages associated with international strategic alliances when using this mode of entry into Africa. In terms of pitfalls, the findings highlight the need for multinational enterprises to pay specific attention to the role of governments when forming strategic alliances.

  7. Stable isotope ratios in Cape gannets around the southern coasts of Africa reveal penetration of biogeographic patterns in oceanic signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquemet, Sébastien; McQuaid, Christopher

    2008-11-01

    The southern coasts of Africa are influenced by two major oceanic currents, leading to biogeographic patterns in inshore and offshore species assemblages, and in the stable isotope signatures of suspended particulate matter and filter-feeding mussels. We used the stable isotope ratios of carbon ( 13C/ 12C) and nitrogen ( 15N/ 14N) from the blood and feathers of adult and chick Cape gannets ( Morus capensis) to investigate whether the geographic differences observed at the lower levels in the marine communities are deep penetrating effects that reach top predators. Additionally, we evaluated whether trophic segregation occurs between adult and reared chick gannets, and whether a shift to wintering habitat occurs in adults. The study was conducted during the 2006 breeding season on Bird Island in the Agulhas system, and on Malgas and Ichaboe Islands, in the south and north Benguela respectively. Our results showed significant differences in the isotope ratios of members of different colonies, but no intra-colony differences between tissues or age groups. These results indicate that there is neither age-related nor temporal segregation in the diet of members of the same colony. Feather isotopic values suggest that adults remain all year round in the same habitats, and do not undertake long migration after reproduction. Since all gannets tend to target similar prey, we attributed among-colony differences in isotope signatures mostly to the oceanic conditions experienced by the main prey of birds rather than substantial differences in diet composition. Overall, isotopic signatures segregate the two current systems, with depleted carbon values in the Agulhas and enriched nitrogen values in the upwelled waters of the Benguela. Within the Benguela birds from Ichaboe in the north had higher δ 15N values than those from Malgas in the south, which we attributed to differences in the functioning of the upwelling cells in the vicinity of the two colonies. Finally, slight

  8. Opportunities and challenges for statistics education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temesgen Zewotir

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The South African educational system is in a state of transformation as the Government embarks on a process of grappling with legacies of the past, whilst balancing risks and opportunities for the future. Accordingly, a new school curriculum with outcomes-based education as the fundamental building block was introduced along a sliding scale, starting in 1997. This curriculum, with a vast statistics content, has the potential to change the face of statistics education in South Africa, as statistics had previously been virtually absent from the school syllabus. This article highlights the challenges to and opportunities for optimising the teaching of statistics across all education levels in South Africa.

  9. Calculation of freight externality costs for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaan Swarts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to quantify the marginal external costs associated with freight transport in South Africa. Six cost elements are included as externality cost items, namely, costs related to accidents, emissions, roadway land availability, policing, noise and congestion. Inputs in the calculations were a gravity-oriented freight flow model, a road transport cost model, actual transport costs for other modes, a warehousing cost survey, an inventory delay calculation and various national sources of information such as accident statistics and government budgets. Estimation techniques resulted in advances for externality cost measurement in South Africa. The quantification of the cost elements will be used to update the South African Freight Demand Model. The results show that the cost of transportation would have been 20% more if external factors were taken into account. The marginal rates of externalities can be used to develop scenarios based on alternative choices for South Africa's freight transport infrastructure configuration.

  10. Sexual behavior, pregnancy, and schooling among young people in urban South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteleto, Letícia; Lam, David; Ranchhod, Vimal

    2008-12-01

    This study examines transitions in schooling, sexual activity, and pregnancy among adolescents and young adults in urban South Africa. Data are analyzed from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS), a recently collected longitudinal survey of young adults and their families in metropolitan Cape Town. We find that teen pregnancy is not entirely inconsistent with continued schooling, especially for African (black) women. More than 50 percent of African women who were pregnant at age 16 or 17 were enrolled in school the following year. We estimate probit regressions to identify the impact of individual and household characteristics on sexual debut, pregnancy, and school dropout between 2002 and 2005. We find that male and female students who performed well on a literacy and numeracy exam administered in 2002 were less likely than those who performed more poorly to become sexually active and less likely to drop out of school by 2005. Surprisingly, 14-16-year-olds who had completed more grades in school in 2002, conditional on their age, were more likely than those who had completed fewer grades to have become sexually active by 2005, a potential indicator of peer effects resulting from the wide dispersion in age per grade in South African schools. Overall, this study shows the importance of accounting for a measure that reflects the knowledge and skills of young people in an examination of their transitions to adulthood.

  11. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tandi E. Matsha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA. Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97% and 124 (43.20%, respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.

  12. Evaluation of global solar radiation using multiple weather parameters as predictors for South Africa provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeala Adeyemi A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Models for estimating monthly average daily global solar radiation were developed for South African provinces. These models, in addition to the traditional sunshine hours used in existing models incorporates ambient temperature, relative humidity and wind speed as variable parameters for predicting global solar radiation, making it different from most of the existing models that use only sunshine hours as variable. Meteorological data obtained for nine locations in South Africa were employed in the model formulation. The accuracy of the models were verified by comparing estimated values with measured values in terms of the following statistical error tests: mean bias error (MBE, mean absolute bias error (MABE, mean absolute percentage error (MAPE, root mean square error (RMSE, and the regression coefficient (R2.The values of R2 for the formulated models are between the ranges of 90% - 99%. It was also observed that for an accurate estimation of global solar radiation in Eastern Cape Province, all weather elements are needed. This implies that the models give an excellent prediction for global solar radiation for their corresponding locations. Also, different errors calculated for the formulated models are close to zero especially MAPE. The result shows that the formulated models are good enough to be used to predict monthly average daily radiation for South Africa and also, the inclusion of some other elements in some of the models improved the accuracy of the predictions made by the models.

  13. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor H Paiva

    Full Text Available Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers and trophic (stable isotope analysis ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models, existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing. During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird

  14. The Foraging Ecology of the Endangered Cape Verde Shearwater, a Sentinel Species for Marine Conservation off West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Vitor H; Geraldes, Pedro; Rodrigues, Isabel; Melo, Tommy; Melo, José; Ramos, Jaime A

    2015-01-01

    Large Marine Ecosystems such as the Canary Current system off West Africa sustains high abundance of small pelagic prey, which attracts marine predators. Seabirds are top predators often used as biodiversity surrogates and sentinel species of the marine ecosystem health, thus frequently informing marine conservation planning. This study presents the first data on the spatial (GPS-loggers) and trophic (stable isotope analysis) ecology of a tropical seabird-the endangered Cape Verde shearwater Calonectris edwardsii-during both the incubation and the chick-rearing periods of two consecutive years. This information was related with marine environmental predictors (species distribution models), existent areas of conservation concern for seabirds (i.e. marine Important Bird Areas; marine IBAs) and threats to the marine environment in the West African areas heavily used by the shearwaters. There was an apparent inter-annual consistency on the spatial, foraging and trophic ecology of Cape Verde shearwater, but a strong alteration on the foraging strategies of adult breeders among breeding phases (i.e. from incubation to chick-rearing). During incubation, birds mostly targeted a discrete region off West Africa, known by its enhanced productivity profile and thus also highly exploited by international industrial fishery fleets. When chick-rearing, adults exploited the comparatively less productive tropical environment within the islands of Cape Verde, at relatively close distance from their breeding colony. The species enlarged its trophic niche and increased the trophic level of their prey from incubation to chick-rearing, likely to provision their chicks with a more diversified and better quality diet. There was a high overlap between the Cape Verde shearwaters foraging areas with those of European shearwater species that overwinter in this area and known areas of megafauna bycatch off West Africa, but very little overlap with existing Marine Important Bird Areas. Further

  15. A sustainable marketing strategy for Dutch tourists to South Africa / by M.C. Uys

    OpenAIRE

    Uys, Maria Catharina

    2003-01-01

    The Netherlands is South Africa's fifth most important market and therefore South Africa has to maintain this market potential. If South Africa can maintain a steady growth rate of between 3- 5% it would be a very sustainable growth rate for South Africa's economy. This leads to the main aim of the study, namely to develop a sustainable marketing strategy for Dutch tourists to South Africa. Only 0.64% of a Dutch population of 15 million visited South Africa in 2002 which is an ...

  16. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Desiré L; Linden, Birthe; Wimberger, Kirsten; Nupen, Lisa Jane; Tordiffe, Adrian S W; Taylor, Peter John; Madisha, M Thabang; Kotze, Antoinette

    2015-01-01

    The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  17. New insights into samango monkey speciation in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiré L Dalton

    Full Text Available The samango monkey is South Africa's only exclusively forest dwelling primate and represents the southernmost extent of the range of arboreal guenons in Africa. The main threats to South Africa's forests and thus to the samango are linked to increasing land-use pressure and increasing demands for forest resources, resulting in deforestation, degradation and further fragmentation of irreplaceable habitats. The species belongs to the highly polytypic Cercopithecus nictitans group which is sometimes divided into two species C. mitis and C. albogularis. The number of subspecies of C. albogularis is also under debate and is based only on differences in pelage colouration and thus far no genetic research has been undertaken on South African samango monkey populations. In this study we aim to further clarify the number of samango monkey subspecies, as well as their respective distributions in South Africa by combining molecular, morphometric and pelage data. Overall, our study provides the most comprehensive view to date into the taxonomic description of samango monkeys in South Africa. Our data supports the identification of three distinct genetic entities namely; C. a. labiatus, C. a. erythrarchus and C. a. schwarzi and argues for separate conservation management of the distinct genetic entities defined by this study.

  18. Novel relapsing fever Borrelia detected in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) admitted to two rehabilitation centers in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabsley, Michael J; Parsons, Nola J; Horne, Elizabeth C; Shock, Barbara C; Purdee, Michaelle

    2012-03-01

    The African penguin, Spheniscus demersus, the only penguin species that breeds in Africa, is endangered, and several diseases including avian malaria, babesiosis, and aspergillosis are common in some populations. From 2002 to 2010, spirochetes morphologically consistent with Borrelia were observed on thin blood smears from 115 of 8,343 (1.4%) African penguins admitted to rehabilitation centers in the Western Cape and Eastern Cape provinces of South Africa. Prevalence rates were significantly higher among chicks and juveniles compared with adults and for birds sampled during the summer months of October to February compared with winter months. The majority of infected birds were ultimately released, despite lack of antibiotic treatment; however, at least one bird is believed to have died of borreliosis based on characteristic gross and microscopic lesions. Analysis of partial flaB gene sequences indicated this was a relapsing fever Borrelia most similar to a Borrelia sp. detected in soft ticks from a seabird colony in Japan. This represents the fourth report of a relapsing fever Borrelia sp. in an avian species and highlights the need for additional studies of potentially pathogenic organisms infecting the African penguin in South Africa.

  19. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research.

  20. Creating and developing a non-profit community-outreach healthcare clinic in the developing world: lessons learnt in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favara, D M

    2014-05-01

    Chesed Children's Clinic is a non-profit, non-governmental, volunteer-run primary care paediatric-outreach clinic servicing the severely under-resourced informal settlement of Mzamomhle within South Africa's impoverished Eastern Cape Province. Founded in May 2011 by a group of junior medical professionals and volunteers, the clinic has been successfully operating a weekend clinic on alternate Sundays since September 2011. This paper discusses 10 points of essential consideration for individuals and organisations intent on pursuing similar projects.

  1. Challenges to disaster risk reduction: A study of stakeholders’ perspectives in Imizamo Yethu, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Roth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a complex and dynamic society, with overwhelming and increasing problems with disaster risk in the vulnerable urban communities in and around its rapidly growing metropolitan centres. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the challenges for disaster risk reduction in such communities. It focuses on the case of Imizamo Yethu, in the Western Cape, in order to build theory that is grounded in the empirical realities of stakeholders involved in disaster risk reduction there. The result points towards five interrelated key challenges, which must be concurrently addressed through large-scale development efforts. Without such investments, it is unlikely that disaster risks can be reduced to tolerable levels.

  2. South Africa's salt reduction strategy: Are we on track, and what lies ahead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, J; Crickmore, C; Charlton, K; Steyn, K; Wentzel-Viljoen, E; Naidoo, P

    2016-12-21

    On 2 September 2016, 25 local and international participants from various sectors met in Cape Town to take stock of South Africa (SA)'s progress in salt reduction and develop a roadmap for action. SA is centre stage on salt reduction globally, being the first country to mandate salt reduction across a wide range of processed foods. Excessive salt intake contributed by processed foods and discretionary sources motivated SA to implement a public awareness campaign in parallel with legislation to reduce salt intake to the World Health Organization target of 5 g per day. Five priority areas were identified for continued action on salt reduction, including obtaining research funds for continued monitoring and compliance of salt reduction targets. Determining the contribution of foods eaten out of home to total salt intake and implementing strategies to address this sector were also highlighted as key actions. Lastly, implementing the next stage of the Salt Watch awareness campaign to change.

  3. Fish species substitution and misnaming in South Africa: An economic, safety and sustainability conundrum revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthorn, Donna-Mareè; Duncan, John; Kastern, Chris; Francis, Junaid; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2015-10-15

    While fish species mislabelling has emerged as a global problem, the tracking of improvements or deteriorations in seafood trading practices is challenging without a consistent basis for monitoring. The aim of this study was to develop a robust, repeatable species authentication protocol that could be used to benchmark the current and future incidences of fish mislabelling in South Africa. Using this approach, 149 fish samples collected from restaurants and retailers in three provinces (KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape and Gauteng) were identified using DNA barcoding, supplemented in certain cases with mitochondrial control region sequencing. Overall, 18% of samples were incorrectly described in terms of species, with similar misrepresentation rates in restaurants (18%) and retail outlets (19%). While there appears to be some improvement in the transparency of local seafood marketing compared to previous studies, the results remain of concern and signal the need for enhanced seafood labelling regulations, monitoring and law enforcement.

  4. Technical Research for Dedicated Isotope Production Reactor of South Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU; Yao; LIU; Xing-min; CHEN; Hui-qiang; SUN; Zhen; WU; Yuan-yuan

    2012-01-01

    <正>Research reactor plays an important part in nuclear science and technology, application and power development. Currently, many countries in Middle East and Africa are ready to develop their own nuclear industry. South Africa sent its User Requirements Specification (URS) for a dedicated isotope production reactor to several institutes or companies, among of which Department of Reactor Engineering Research and Design (DRERD) in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE) is a competitive candidate.

  5. Institute enriching students in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).

  6. Why do families still not receive the child support grant in South Africa? A longitudinal analysis of a cohort of families across South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zembe-Mkabile Wanga

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child cash transfers are increasingly recognised for their potential to reduce poverty and improve health outcomes. South Africa‘s child support grant (CSG constitutes the largest cash transfer in the continent. No studies have been conducted to look at factors associated with successful receipt of the CSG. This paper reports findings on factors associated with CSG receipt in three settings in South Africa (Paarl in the Western Cape Province, and Umlazi and Rietvlei in KwaZulu-Natal. Methods This study used longitudinal data from a community-based cluster-randomized trial (PROMISE EBF promoting exclusive breastfeeding by peer-counsellors in South Africa (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00397150. 1148 mother-infant pairs were enrolled in the study and data on the CSG were collected at infant age 6, 12, 24 weeks and 18–24 months. A stratified cox proportional hazards regression model was fitted to the data to investigate factors associated with CSG receipt. Results Uptake of the CSG amongst eligible children at a median age of 22 months was 62% in Paarl, 64% in Rietvlei and 60% in Umlazi. Possessing a birth certificate was found to be the strongest predictor of CSG receipt (HR 3.1, 95% CI: 2.4 -4.1. Other factors also found to be independently associated with CSG receipt were an HIV-positive mother (HR 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4 and a household income below R1100 (HR1.7, 95% CI: 1.1 -2.6. Conclusion Receipt of the CSG was sub optimal amongst eligible children showing administrative requirements such as possessing a birth certificate to be a serious barrier to access. In the spirit of promoting and protecting children’s rights, more efforts are needed to improve and ease access to this cash transfer program.

  7. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  8. Sexual harassment of the physiotherapist in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bütow-Dûtoit

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available No study  has been conducted on sexual harassment of physiotherapists in South Africa and it is therefore not known whether harassment occurs and if it does, to what extent. To this purpose, a questionnaire on  sexual harassment and other sexual-related issues in the physiotherapy work environment in South Africa, was sent to a random selection of  982 physiotherapists registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The response rate was 32%. This paper presents the results of the first half of the questionnaire, which was devoted to sexual harassment of the physiotherapist.  Approximately 60% had experienced sexual harassment, of which 83.98% had been perpetrated by patients. Only 5.82% of the respondents had received some form of information in this regard. The most common form of harassment was requests for a hug or kiss.

  9. Estimating the magnitude of food waste generated in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oelofse, Suzan Hh; Nahman, Anton

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the developed world, food is treated as a disposable commodity. Between a third and half of all food produced for human consumption globally is estimated to be wasted. However, attempts to quantify the actual magnitude of food wasted globally are constrained by limited data, particularly from developing countries. This article attempts to quantify total food waste generation (including both pre-consumer food losses, as well as post-consumer food waste) in South Africa. The estimates are based on available food supply data for South Africa and on estimates of average food waste generation at each step of the food supply chain for sub-Saharan Africa. The preliminary estimate of the magnitude of food waste generation in South Africa is in the order of 9.04 million tonnes per annum. On a per capita basis, overall food waste in South Africa in 2007 is estimated at 177 kg/capita/annum and consumption waste at 7 kg/capita/annum. However, these preliminary figures should be used with caution and are subject to verification through ongoing research.

  10. Financial Globalisation and Sectoral Reallocation of Capital in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ziv Chinzara; Radhika Lahiri; En Te chen

    2012-01-01

    The study examines the impact of financial globalisation on intra-sector and inter-sector firm level reallocation of capital in South Africa using panel data for the period 1991-2008. The measure of efficient reallocation of capital is based on the variation of firm's marginal returns to capital around the optimal level, while the measure of financial globalisation is constructed by tracing the financial reforms/restrictions that took place in South Africa since the 1970s. We find that financ...

  11. Subpolitics and the Campaign against Barclays' Involvement in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    In this article I examine the context for the British bank Barclays’ decision to disinvest from South Africa in 1986, with special attention to the impact of the Anti-Apartheid Movement’s campaign against the bank. The 18-year long campaign against Barclays – the largest bank in South Africa...... by multinational corporations may have unintended political consequences and, furthermore, that the awareness of this phenomenon has contributed to the development of corporate social responsibility. Finally, I suggest that the campaign against Barclays generated public attentiveness towards the social...

  12. Confirmation of the occurrence of Mus neavei in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.H. Newbery

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Neave’s mouse, Mus neavei (Thomas, 1910, occurs in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Zambia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa (Petter 1981; Musser & Carleton 1993, with the latter record based on material from owl pellets taken at Makapansgat (Pocock 1974. Pocock’s record was disputed by Swanepoel et al. (1980, and in the absence of complete voucher specimens, the occurrence of this species in South Africa was regarded as doubtful. However, it was supported by Meester et al. (1986 and accepted by Musser & Carleton (1993.

  13. Bangkok 2004. Sex workers and law reform in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnott, Jayne

    2004-12-01

    The Sisonke movement in South Africa aims to galvanize sex workers to fight for equal rights and for improvements in their living and working conditions. This article, based on Jayne Arnott's presentation to a plenary session at the XV International AIDS Conference in Bangkok on 14 July 2004, outlines the legislation that governs the sex trade in South Africa; reviews related legal and policy developments since the end of apartheid in 1994; describes the present environment; and outlines the contribution that sex workers themselves are making to the fight for reform.

  14. Lifelong Learning Within Higher Education in South Africa: Emancipatory Potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Shirley

    1999-11-01

    In South Africa under apartheid higher education was inaccessible to the majority. This article argues that in the new South Africa there is an opportunity to redress this situation and promote equity though lifelong learning. This would involve greatly widening access and providing programmes to develop broadly applicable abilities such as computer literacy and problem-solving skills, which would increase the economic competitiveness and personal empowerment of learners. At the same time, the author argues, new educational approaches are needed to promote active citizenship.

  15. Education leadership, management and governance in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book contains chapters on education leadership, management and governance in relation to schools in South Africa supplemented with a chapter on gender issues in Zimbabwe. It has been fifteen years since a new Constitution dawned, which promised a society based on the people of South Africa, ...... with diverse cultural, social and ethnic roots, who share a common belief in the development of a just and equal society, and who share a specific interest in developing schools as a fundamental element in developing this equal and just society....

  16. Investment in South Africa: A Challenge to Schools of Social Work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunson, Paul M.

    1980-01-01

    Points out the rift between the non-discrimination ethic of social workers and the apartheid policy in South Africa. University corporate investments in South Africa are questioned, especially those from universities with graduate schools of social work. (LAB)

  17. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa.

  18. Human resource management as a profession in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huma van Rensburg

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Various countries recognise human resource (HR management as a bona fide profession. Research purpose: The objective of this study was to establish whether one could regard HR management, as practised in South Africa, as a profession.Motivation for the study: Many countries are reviewing the professionalisation of HR management. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the professional standing of HR management in South Africa.Research design, approach and method: The researchers used a purposive sampling strategy involving 95 participants. The researchers achieved triangulation by analysing original documents of the regulating bodies of the medical, legal, engineering and accounting professions internationally and locally as well as the regulating bodies of HR management in the United Kingdom (UK, the United States of America (USA and Canada. Seventy- eight HR professionals registered with the South African Board for People Practices (SABPP completed a questionnaire. The researchers analysed the data using content analysis and Lawshe’s Content Validity Ratio (CVR.Main findings: The results confirm that HR management in South Africa adheres to the four main pillars of professionalism and is a bona fide profession.Practical/managerial implications: The article highlights the need to regulate and formalise HR management in South Africa.Contribution/value-add: This study identifies a number of aspects that determine professionalism and isolates the most important elements that one needs to consider when regulating the HR profession.

  19. Web-based Teaching Radio Interferometer for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carignan, Claude; Libert, Yannick

    2016-10-01

    This presentation describes the web-based Teaching Radio Interferometer being built on the campus of the University of Cape Town, in South Africa, to train the future users of the African VLBI (Very Long Baseline Interferometry) Network (AVN).

  20. 75 FR 61699 - Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and Taiwan: Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... International Trade Administration Stainless Steel Plate in Coils From Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea... orders on stainless steel plate in coils (SSPC) from Belgium, Italy, South Africa, South Korea, and... from Allegheny Ludlum Corporation, North American Stainless and the United Steel, Paper and...