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Sample records for cape canaveral air

  1. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 2, Baseline detail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlstrom, R.R.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; King, D.A.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1993-12-01

    The US Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), in support of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to assess energy use at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). The information obtained from this assessment will be used in identifying energy resource opportunities to reduce overall energy consumption by the station. The primary focus of this report is to assess the current baseline energy consumption at Cape Canaveral AFS. It is A companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This assessment requires that information be obtained and characterized for buildings, utilities, energy sources, energy uses, and load profiles to be used to improve the current energy system on the station. The characteristics of electricity, diesel fuel, No. 2 fuel oil, and motor vehicle gasoline (MOGAS) are analyzed for on-base facilities. The assessment examines basic regional information used to determine energy-use intensity (EUI) values for Cape Canaveral AFS facilities by building, fuel type, and energy end use. It also provides a summary of electricity consumption from Florida Power and Light Company (FPL) metered data for 1985--1991. Load profile information obtained from FPL data is presented for the North, South, and Titan Substations for the four seasons of the year, including weekdays and weekends.

  2. Cape Canaveral Air Force Station integrated resource assessment. Volume 3, Resource assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Eichman, C.J.; King, D.A.; McMordie, K.L.; Parker, S.A.; Shankle, S.A.; Wahlstrom, R.R.

    1994-03-01

    The U.S. Air Force (USAF) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in support of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (AFS). Projects considered can be either in the form of energy management or energy conservation. The overall efforts of this task are based on a model program PNL is designing to support energy-use decisions in the federal sector. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at Cape Canaveral AFS, which is located approximately 10 miles north of Cocoa Beach, Florida. It is a companion report to Volume 1: Executive Summary and Volume 2: Baseline Detail. The results of the analyses of EROs are presented in 11 common energy end-use categories (e.g., boilers and furnaces, service hot water, and building lighting). A narrative description of each ERO is provided, including information on the installed cost, energy and dollar savings, impacts on operations and maintenance (O&M), and, when applicable, a discussion of energy supply and demand, energy security, and environmental issues. Descriptions of the evaluation methodologies and technical and cost assumptions are also provided for each ERO. Summary tables present the cost- effectiveness of energy end-use equipment before and after the implementation of each ERO and present the results of the life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis, indicating the net present value (NPV) and savings-to-investment ratio (SIR) of each ERO.

  3. A Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    This conference abstract describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violatioas.The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean end peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  4. Forecasting Cool Season Daily Peak Winds at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe, III; Short, David; Roeder, William

    2008-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by the 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) for planning operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The morning outlook for peak speeds also begins the warning decision process for gusts ^ 35 kt, ^ 50 kt, and ^ 60 kt from the surface to 300 ft. The 45 WS forecasters have indicated that peak wind speeds are a challenging parameter to forecast during the cool season (October-April). The 45 WS requested that the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) develop a tool to help them forecast the speed and timing of the daily peak and average wind, from the surface to 300 ft on KSC/CCAFS during the cool season. The tool must only use data available by 1200 UTC to support the issue time of the Planning Forecasts. Based on observations from the KSC/CCAFS wind tower network, surface observations from the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF), and CCAFS upper-air soundings from the cool season months of October 2002 to February 2007, the AMU created multiple linear regression equations to predict the timing and speed of the daily peak wind speed, as well as the background average wind speed. Several possible predictors were evaluated, including persistence, the temperature inversion depth, strength, and wind speed at the top of the inversion, wind gust factor (ratio of peak wind speed to average wind speed), synoptic weather pattern, occurrence of precipitation at the SLF, and strongest wind in the lowest 3000 ft, 4000 ft, or 5000 ft. Six synoptic patterns were identified: 1) surface high near or over FL, 2) surface high north or east of FL, 3) surface high south or west of FL, 4) surface front approaching FL, 5) surface front across central FL, and 6) surface front across south FL. The following six predictors were selected: 1) inversion depth, 2) inversion strength, 3) wind gust factor, 4) synoptic weather pattern, 5) occurrence of

  5. Update to the Lightning Probability Forecast Equations at Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Winifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the improvement of a set of lightning probability forecast equations that are used by the 45th Weather Squadron forecasters for their daily 1100 UTC (0700 EDT) weather briefing during the warm season months of May- September. This information is used for general scheduling of operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center. Forecasters at the Spaceflight Meteorology Group also make thunderstorm forecasts during Shuttle flight operations. Five modifications were made by the Applied Meteorology Unit: increased the period of record from 15 to 17 years, changed the method of calculating the flow regime of the day, calculated a new optimal layer relative humidity, used a new smoothing technique for the daily climatology, and used a new valid area. The test results indicated that the modified equations showed and increase in skill over the current equations, good reliability, and an ability to distinguish between lightning and non-lightning days.

  6. Developing Empirical Lightning Cessation Forecast Guidance for the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stano, Geoffrey T.; Fuelberg, Henry E.; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    This research addresses the 45th Weather Squadron's (45WS) need for improved guidance regarding lightning cessation at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and Kennedy Space Center (KSC). KSC's Lightning Detection and Ranging (LDAR) network was the primary observational tool to investigate both cloud-to-ground and intracloud lightning. Five statistical and empirical schemes were created from LDAR, sounding, and radar parameters derived from 116 storms. Four of the five schemes were unsuitable for operational use since lightning advisories would be canceled prematurely, leading to safety risks to personnel. These include a correlation and regression tree analysis, three variants of multiple linear regression, event time trending, and the time delay between the greatest height of the maximum dBZ value to the last flash. These schemes failed to adequately forecast the maximum interval, the greatest time between any two flashes in the storm. The majority of storms had a maximum interval less than 10 min, which biased the schemes toward small values. Success was achieved with the percentile method (PM) by separating the maximum interval into percentiles for the 100 dependent storms.

  7. Developing a Peak Wind Probability Forecast Tool for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, WInifred; Roeder, William

    2007-01-01

    This conference presentation describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) in east-central Florida. The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool will include climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  8. 2010 Cape Canaveral, Florida Single-beam Bathymetry Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Single-beam bathymetric surveys were conducted on July 27-29, 2010 along 37 cross-shore transects offshore from Cape Canaveral, Fla. The transects were spaced 500...

  9. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    The expected peak wind speed for the day is an important element in the daily morning forecast for ground and space launch operations at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) must issue forecast advisories for KSC/CCAFS when they expect peak gusts for >= 25, >= 35, and >= 50 kt thresholds at any level from the surface to 300 ft. In Phase I of this task, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a cool-season (October - April) tool to help forecast the non-convective peak wind from the surface to 300 ft at KSC/CCAFS. During the warm season, these wind speeds are rarely exceeded except during convective winds or under the influence of tropical cyclones, for which other techniques are already in use. The tool used single and multiple linear regression equations to predict the peak wind from the morning sounding. The forecaster manually entered several observed sounding parameters into a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI), and then the tool displayed the forecast peak wind speed, average wind speed at the time of the peak wind, the timing of the peak wind and the probability the peak wind will meet or exceed 35, 50 and 60 kt. The 45 WS customers later dropped the requirement for >= 60 kt wind warnings. During Phase II of this task, the AMU expanded the period of record (POR) by six years to increase the number of observations used to create the forecast equations. A large number of possible predictors were evaluated from archived soundings, including inversion depth and strength, low-level wind shear, mixing height, temperature lapse rate and winds from the surface to 3000 ft. Each day in the POR was stratified in a number of ways, such as by low-level wind direction, synoptic weather pattern, precipitation and Bulk Richardson number. The most accurate Phase II equations were then selected for an independent verification. The Phase I and II forecast methods were

  10. Analysis of bathymetric surveys to identify coastal vulnerabilities at Cape Canaveral, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, David M.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Hansen, Mark E.

    2015-10-07

    Cape Canaveral, Florida, is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline. The region includes Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, NASA’s Kennedy Space Center, and a large portion of Canaveral National Seashore. The actual promontory of the modern Cape falls within the jurisdictional boundaries of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. Erosion hazards result from winter and tropical storms, changes in sand resources, sediment budgets, and sea-level rise. Previous work by the USGS has focused on the vulnerability of the dunes to storms, where updated bathymetry and topography have been used for modeling efforts. Existing research indicates that submerged shoals, ridges, and sandbars affect patterns of wave refraction and height, coastal currents, and control sediment transport. These seabed anomalies indicate the availability and movement of sand within the nearshore environment, which may be directly related to the stability of the Cape Canaveral shoreline. Understanding the complex dynamics of the offshore bathymetry and associated sediment pathways can help identify current and future erosion vulnerabilities due to short-term (for example, hurricane and other extreme storms) and long-term (for example, sea-level rise) hazards.

  11. Statistical Short-Range Guidance for Peak Wind Forecasts on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2010-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds are an important forecast element for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to develop a short-range peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations.The tool includes climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds by month, hour, and direction, and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  12. Peak Wind Forecasts for the Launch-Critical Wind Towers on Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred

    2011-01-01

    This final report describes the development of a peak wind forecast tool to assist forecasters in determining the probability of violating launch commit criteria (LCC) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS). The peak winds arc an important forecast clement for both the Space Shuttle and Expendable Launch Vehicle (ELV) programs. The LCC define specific peak wind thresholds for each launch operation that cannot be exceeded in order to ensure the safety of the vehicle. The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) has found that peak winds are a challenging parameter to forecast, particularly in the cool season months of October through April. Based on the importance of forecasting peak winds, the 45 WS tasked the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) to update the statistics in the current peak-wind forecast tool to assist in forecasting LCC violations. The tool includes onshore and offshore flow climatologies of the 5-minute mean and peak winds and probability distributions of the peak winds as a function of the 5-minute mean wind speeds.

  13. Archive of bathymetry data collected at Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Mark E.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Thompson, David M.; Troche, Rodolfo J.; Kranenburg, Christine J.; Klipp, Emily S.

    2015-10-07

    Remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of the sea floor, acquired by boat- and aircraft-based survey systems, were produced by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, Florida, for the area at Cape Canaveral.

  14. Workstation-Based Real-Time Mesoscale Modeling Designed for Weather Support to Operations at the Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobianco, John; Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes the capabilities and operational utility of a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS) that has been developed to support operational weather forecasting at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS). The implementation of local, mesoscale modeling systems at KSC/CCAS is designed to provide detailed short-range (challenge for daily operations, and manned and unmanned launches since KSC/CCAS is located in central Florida where the weather during the warm season is dominated by mesoscale circulations like the sea breeze.For this application, MASS has been modified to run on a Stardent 3000 workstation. Workstation-based, real-time numerical modeling requires a compromise between the requirement to run the system fast enough so that the output can be used before expiration balanced against the desire to improve the simulations by increasing resolution and using more detailed physical parameterizations. It is now feasible to run high-resolution mesoscale models such as MASS on local workstations to provide timely forecasts at a fraction of the cost required to run these models on mainframe supercomputers.MASS has been running in the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) at KSC/CCAS since January 1994 for the purpose of system evaluation. In March 1995, the AMU began sending real-time MASS output to the forecasters and meteorologists at CCAS, Spaceflight Meteorology Group (Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas), and the National Weather Service (Melbourne, Florida). However, MASS is not yet an operational system. The final decision whether to transition MASS for operational use will depend on a combination of forecaster feedback, the AMU's final evaluation results, and the life-cycle costs of the operational system.

  15. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  16. Color coded bathmetry map of Cape Canaveral, Florida, derived from boat based sounding data (2014)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  17. Lidar Bathymetry Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  18. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) gridded in ESRI ASCII GRID format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  19. Single-Beam Bathymetry Sounding Data of Cape Canaveral, Florida, (2014) in XYZ ASCII text file format

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Cape Canaveral Coastal System (CCCS) is a prominent feature along the Southeast U.S. coastline, and is the only large cape south of Cape Fear, North Carolina....

  20. 33 CFR 80.727 - Cape Canaveral, FL to Miami Beach, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Canaveral, FL to Miami Beach, FL. 80.727 Section 80.727 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND..., FL to Miami Beach, FL. (a) A line drawn across the seaward extremity of the Port Canaveral...

  1. 33 CFR 80.723 - Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amelia Island, FL to Cape... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Seventh District § 80.723 Amelia Island, FL to Cape Canaveral, FL. (a) A line drawn from the southernmost extremity of Amelia Island to...

  2. Report from ILEWG and Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    We shall report on the ILEWG charter, goals and activities, on ICEUM "lunar declarations" and follow-up activities, with focus on societal questions, and the Cape Canaveral Lunar Declaration 2008. ILEWG charter: ILEWG , the International Lunar Exploration Working Group is a public forum created in 1994, sponsored by the world's space agencies to support "international cooperation towards a world strategy for the exploration and utilization of the Moon - our natural satellite". The charter of ILEWG is: - To develop an international strategy for the exploration of the Moon - To establish a forum and mechanisms for the communication and coordination of activities - To implement international coordination and cooperation - In order to facilitate communication among all interested parties ILEWG agrees to establish an electronic communication network for exchange of science, technology and programmatic information related to lunar activities ILEWG meets regularly, at least, once a year, and leads the organization of an International Conference in order to discuss the state of lunar exploration. Formal reports are given at COSPAR meetings and to space agencies. ILEWG is sponsored by the world's space agencies and is intended to serve three relevant groups: - actual members of the ILEWG, ie delegates and repre-sentatives of the participating Space Agencies and organizations - allowing them to discuss and possibly harmonize their draft concepts and plans - team members of the relevant space projects - allowing them to coordinate their internal work according to the guidelines provided by the Charter of the ILEWG - members of the general public and of the Lunar Explorer's Society who are interested and wish to be informed on the progress of the Moon projects and possibly contribute their own ideas ILEWG activities and working groups: ILEWG task groups include science, technology, human aspects, socio-economics, young explorers and outreach, programmatics, roadmaps and

  3. Future Expansion of the Lightning Surveillance System at the Kennedy Space Center and the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, C. T.; Wilson, J. G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and the Air Force Eastern Range (ER) use data from two cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning detection networks, the Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) and the U.S. National Lightning Detection Network (NLDN), and a volumetric mapping array, the lightning detection and ranging II (LDAR II) system: These systems are used to monitor and characterize lightning that is potentially hazardous to launch or ground operations and hardware. These systems are not perfect and both have documented missed lightning events when compared to the existing lightning surveillance system at Launch Complex 39B (LC39B). Because of this finding it is NASA's plan to install a lightning surveillance system around each of the active launch pads sharing site locations and triggering capabilities when possible. This paper shows how the existing lightning surveillance system at LC39B has performed in 2011 as well as the plan for the expansion around all active pads.

  4. 33 CFR 165.775 - Safety Zone; Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville; Offshore Cape Canaveral, Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety Zone; Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville; Offshore Cape Canaveral, Florida. 165.775 Section 165.775 Navigation and Navigable... Seventh Coast Guard District § 165.775 Safety Zone; Captain of the Port Zone Jacksonville; Offshore...

  5. Survey Data Report: Cape Canaveral, March-July, 1988 Volume 1

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, James T.

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of a bathymetric surveying program carried out on the beach and nearshore region about 1 km to the north of the Port Canaveral inlet. The survey data covers a period between March 16 and July 21, 1988. The data was collected in support of a field study on directional wave measurement and Bragg reflection from artificial, shore-parallel bars, performed during June-July, 1988. The topography at the experiment site was generally monotonic in the...

  6. Investigating the Geomorphic Behavior of the Cape Canaveral Coast Through High-Resolution Beach Monitoring, Sediment Analysis, Oceanographic Observations, and Numerical Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, P. N.; Jaeger, J. M.; MacKenzie, R. A.; Kline, S. W.; Maibauer, B. J.; Plant, N. G.; Gravens, M. B.; Pierro, T. P.; Shaffer, J.

    2011-12-01

    The salient of Cape Canaveral interrupts a relatively straight, sandy, passive margin coastline that extends nearly 400 km from the St. Johns River mouth to the St. Lucie Inlet along the Florida Atlantic coast. OSL dating indicates that the modern cape has been prograding rapidly since the LGM and subtle topographic features, inland from the modern cape, suggest that this salient has persisted over several sea level cycles since the early Pleistocene. Dynamic shoreline change over the past decade at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is threatening critical NASA infrastructure and has prompted officials to develop a mitigation strategy through a partnership among researchers from the U.S. Geological Survey, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, private coastal engineering firms, and the University of Florida. Since May 2009, the research team has assembled data on decadal to event-scale shoreline change (dGPS), beach and nearshore morphodynamics (dGPS and Argus), beach sedimentary character (grain size analysis), wave climate and transformation (ADCP), and inner shelf bathymetry (Echo Sounding) in an effort to assess dune vulnerability and flooding risk. In addition, SWAN numerical modeling simulations offer insight into the influence of irregular bathymetry (cape-associated shoals) on the alteration of spatial patterns of wave energy flux during a decadal shift in deep-water wave climate. Beach-fx, modeling of cross-shore profile evolution is being applied to evaluate the performance of alternative protective measures, estimate project costs, and examine ecological influences of the proposed alternative protective measures. By combining contemporaneous data of coastal geomorphic and sedimentary response to wave forcing with numerical model results that explore a range of climate scenarios, we aim to develop a useful understanding of the coastal geomorphic behavior at KSC that can be used to make a mitigation recommendation.

  7. Objective Lightning Probability Forecasting for Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Phase III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Winifred C.

    2010-01-01

    The AMU created new logistic regression equations in an effort to increase the skill of the Objective Lightning Forecast Tool developed in Phase II (Lambert 2007). One equation was created for each of five sub-seasons based on the daily lightning climatology instead of by month as was done in Phase II. The assumption was that these equations would capture the physical attributes that contribute to thunderstorm formation more so than monthly equations. However, the SS values in Section 5.3.2 showed that the Phase III equations had worse skill than the Phase II equations and, therefore, will not be transitioned into operations. The current Objective Lightning Forecast Tool developed in Phase II will continue to be used operationally in MIDDS. Three warm seasons were added to the Phase II dataset to increase the POR from 17 to 20 years (1989-2008), and data for October were included since the daily climatology showed lightning occurrence extending into that month. None of the three methods tested to determine the start of the subseason in each individual year were able to discern the start dates with consistent accuracy. Therefore, the start dates were determined by the daily climatology shown in Figure 10 and were the same in every year. The procedures used to create the predictors and develop the equations were identical to those in Phase II. The equations were made up of one to three predictors. TI and the flow regime probabilities were the top predictors followed by 1-day persistence, then VT and Ll. Each equation outperformed four other forecast methods by 7-57% using the verification dataset, but the new equations were outperformed by the Phase II equations in every sub-season. The reason for the degradation may be due to the fact that the same sub-season start dates were used in every year. It is likely there was overlap of sub-season days at the beginning and end of each defined sub-season in each individual year, which could very well affect equation performance.

  8. Delta XTE Spacecraft Solar Panel Deployment, Hangar AO at Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The footage shows technicians in the clean room checking and adjusting the deployment mechanism of the solar panel for XTE spacecraft. Other scenes show several technicians making adjustments to software for deployment of the solar panels.

  9. 33 CFR 334.590 - Atlantic Ocean off Cape Canaveral, Fla.; Air Force missile testing area, Patrick Air Force Base...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    .... These signals will be in the form of a large red ball and a red flashing high intensity beacon. One... of the danger zone. An amber rotating beacon and warning sign will be erected on the north side...

  10. Tool for Forecasting Cool-Season Peak Winds Across Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Joe H., III; Roeder, William P.

    2010-01-01

    Peak wind speed is important element in 24-Hour and Weekly Planning Forecasts issued by 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS). Forecasts issued for planning operations at KSC/CCAFS. 45 WS wind advisories issued for wind gusts greater than or equal to 25 kt. 35 kt and 50 kt from surface to 300 ft. AMU developed cool-season (Oct - Apr) tool to help 45 WS forecast: daily peak wind speed, 5-minute average speed at time of peak wind, and probability peak speed greater than or equal to 25 kt, 35 kt, 50 kt. AMU tool also forecasts daily average wind speed from 30 ft to 60 ft. Phase I and II tools delivered as a Microsoft Excel graphical user interface (GUI). Phase II tool also delivered as Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS) GUI. Phase I and II forecast methods were compared to climatology, 45 WS wind advisories and North American Mesoscale model (MesoNAM) forecasts in a verification data set.

  11. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Sensitivity Analysis Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Meemong; Bowman, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Geostationary Coastal and Air pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) is a NASA decadal survey mission to be designed to provide surface reflectance at high spectral, spatial, and temporal resolutions from a geostationary orbit necessary for studying regional-scale air quality issues and their impact on global atmospheric composition processes. GEO-CAPE's Atmospheric Science Questions explore the influence of both gases and particles on air quality, atmospheric composition, and climate. The objective of the GEO-CAPE Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is to analyze the sensitivity of ozone to the global and regional NOx emissions and improve the science impact of GEO-CAPE with respect to the global air quality. The GEO-CAPE OSSE team at Jet propulsion Laboratory has developed a comprehensive OSSE framework that can perform adjoint-sensitivity analysis for a wide range of observation scenarios and measurement qualities. This report discusses the OSSE framework and presents the sensitivity analysis results obtained from the GEO-CAPE OSSE framework for seven observation scenarios and three instrument systems.

  12. Depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup operations at Cape Arza

    OpenAIRE

    PERKO VUKOTIC; MILOJKO KOVACEVIC; TOMISLAV ANDJELIC; MIRJANA RADENKOVIC

    2004-01-01

    Cape Arza was contaminated with depleted uranium (DU) in the air strikes of NATO aeroplanes on May 30, 1999. The cleanup and decontamination of the site started in 2001. Here the results of air monitoring performed during the cleanup operations in Spring 2002. are presented. The collected air samples were analyzed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry. The obtained concentrations of airborne uranium are about ten times higher than the average value usually reported for air. The ratio of the 2...

  13. Depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup operations at Cape Arza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PERKO VUKOTIC

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Cape Arza was contaminated with depleted uranium (DU in the air strikes of NATO aeroplanes on May 30, 1999. The cleanup and decontamination of the site started in 2001. Here the results of air monitoring performed during the cleanup operations in Spring 2002. are presented. The collected air samples were analyzed by high-resolution alpha spectrometry. The obtained concentrations of airborne uranium are about ten times higher than the average value usually reported for air. The ratio of the 234U/238U activities indicates the presence of depleted uranium in the air during the cleanup action, due to resuspension and soil disturbance in the contaminated teritory.

  14. Applied Meteorology Unit - Operational Contributions to Spaceport Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Roeder, William P.; Lafosse, Richard A.; Sharp, David W.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development, evaluation and transition services to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the National Space Program. It is established under a Memorandum of Understanding among NASA, the Air Force and the National .Weather Service (NWS). The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by ENSCO, Inc. through a competitively awarded NASA contract. The primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL; the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX; and the NWS office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB). This paper will briefly review the AMU's history and describe the three processes through which its work is assigned. Since its inception in 1991 the AMU has completed 72 projects, all of which are listed at the end of this paper. At least one project that highlights each of the three tasking processes will be briefly reviewed. Some of the projects that have been especially beneficial to the space program will also be discussed in more detail, as will projects that developed significant new techniques or science in applied meteorology.

  15. Forecast skill of a high-resolution real-time mesoscale model designed for weather support of operations at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Gregory E.; Zack, John W.; Manobianco, John

    1994-01-01

    NASA funded Mesoscale Environmental Simulations and Operations (MESO), Inc. to develop a version of the Mesoscale Atmospheric Simulation System (MASS). The model has been modified specifically for short-range forecasting in the vicinity of KSC/CCAS. To accomplish this, the model domain has been limited to increase the number of horizontal grid points (and therefore grid resolution) and the model' s treatment of precipitation, radiation, and surface hydrology physics has been enhanced to predict convection forced by local variations in surface heat, moisture fluxes, and cloud shading. The objective of this paper is to (1) provide an overview of MASS including the real-time initialization and configuration for running the data pre-processor and model, and (2) to summarize the preliminary evaluation of the model's forecasts of temperature, moisture, and wind at selected rawinsonde station locations during February 1994 and July 1994. MASS is a hydrostatic, three-dimensional modeling system which includes schemes to represent planetary boundary layer processes, surface energy and moisture budgets, free atmospheric long and short wave radiation, cloud microphysics, and sub-grid scale moist convection.

  16. 33 CFR 334.540 - Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... navigable waters of the United States, as defined at 33 CFR part 329, within the Banana River contiguous to... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Banana River at the Eastern Range... AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.540 Banana River at the Eastern Range, 45th Space Wing,...

  17. The Implementation and Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) at Cape Canaveral Air Station/Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Tremback, Craig J.; Lyons, Walter A.

    1996-01-01

    The Emergency Response Dose Assessment System (ERDAS) is a system which combines the mesoscale meteorological prediction model RAMS with the diffusion models REEDM and HYPACT. Operators use a graphical user interface to run the models for emergency response and toxic hazard planning at CCAS/KCS. The Applied Meteorology Unit has been evaluating the ERDAS meteorological and diffusion models and obtained the following results: (1) RAMS adequately predicts the occurrence of the daily sea breeze during non-cloudy conditions for several cases. (2) RAMS shows a tendency to predict the sea breeze to occur slightly earlier and to move it further inland than observed. The sea breeze predictions could most likely be improved by better parameterizing the soil moisture and/or sea surface temperatures. (3) The HYPACT/REEDM/RAMS models accurately predict launch plume locations when RAMS winds are accurate and when the correct plume layer is modeled. (4) HYPACT does not adequately handle plume buoyancy for heated plumes since all plumes are presently treated as passive tracers. Enhancements should be incorporated into the ERDAS as it moves toward being a fully operational system and as computer workstations continue to increase in power and decrease in cost. These enhancements include the following: activate RAMS moisture physics; use finer RAMS grid resolution; add RAMS input parameters (e.g. soil moisture, radar, and/or satellite data); automate data quality control; implement four-dimensional data assimilation; modify HYPACT plume rise and deposition physics; and add cumulative dosage calculations in HYPACT.

  18. EAARL Coastal Topography-Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2009: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements...

  19. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2009: First Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Plant, Nathaniel; Wright, C.W.; Nagle, D.B.; Serafin, K.S.; Klipp, E.S.

    2011-01-01

    These remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation measurements of lidar-derived first-surface (FS) topography datasets were produced collaboratively by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center, St. Petersburg, FL, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Kennedy Space Center, FL. This project provides highly detailed and accurate datasets of a portion of the eastern Florida coastline beachface, acquired on May 28, 2009. The datasets are made available for use as a management tool to research scientists and natural-resource managers. An innovative airborne lidar instrument originally developed at the NASA Wallops Flight Facility, and known as the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar (EAARL), was used during data acquisition. The EAARL system is a raster-scanning, waveform-resolving, green-wavelength (532-nanometer) lidar designed to map near-shore bathymetry, topography, and vegetation structure simultaneously. The EAARL sensor suite includes the raster-scanning, water-penetrating full-waveform adaptive lidar, a down-looking red-green-blue (RGB) digital camera, a high-resolution multispectral color-infrared (CIR) camera, two precision dual-frequency kinematic carrier-phase GPS receivers, and an integrated miniature digital inertial measurement unit, which provide for sub-meter georeferencing of each laser sample. The nominal EAARL platform is a twin-engine aircraft, but the instrument was deployed on a Pilatus PC-6. A single pilot, a lidar operator, and a data analyst constitute the crew for most survey operations. This sensor has the potential to make significant contributions in measuring sub-aerial and submarine coastal topography within cross-environmental surveys. Elevation measurements were collected over the survey area using the EAARL system, and the resulting data were then processed using the Airborne Lidar Processing System (ALPS), a custom-built processing system developed in a NASA-USGS collaboration. ALPS supports the exploration and processing of lidar data in an interactive or batch mode. Modules for presurvey flight-line definition, flight-path plotting, lidar raster and waveform investigation, and digital camera image playback have been developed. Processing algorithms have been developed to extract the range to the first and last significant return within each waveform. ALPS is used routinely to create maps that represent submerged or sub-aerial topography. Specialized filtering algorithms have been implemented to determine the "bare earth" under vegetation from a point cloud of last return elevations.

  20. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of air-dried cape gooseberry (physalis peruviana l.) at different ripeness stages

    OpenAIRE

    Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos Eduardo; Mateus-Gómez, Ángela; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Because the use of drying at high temperatures might negatively affect the functional properties of fruits, the effect of air-drying at 60°C on the total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant capacity (AOC) of cape gooseberry fruit was evaluated at three ripeness stages. The AOC was evaluated with 2,2’-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and β-carotene-linoleate assays. The TPC and AOC incre...

  1. Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) for the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. Concept Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janz, Scott; Smith, James C.; Mannino, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the concepts of the Geostationary Coastal Ecosystem Dynamics Imager (GEO CEDI) which will be used on the GEO Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Mission. The primary science requirements require scans of the U.S. Coastal waters 3 times per day during the daylight hours. Included in the overview are presentations about the systems, the optics, the detectors, the mechanical systems, the electromechanical systems, the electrical design, the flight software, the thermal systems, and the contamination prevention requirements.

  2. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, S. J.; Keywood, M. D.; Galbally, I. E.; Gras, J. L.; Cainey, J. M.; Cope, M. E.; Krummel, P. B.; Fraser, P. J.; Steele, L. P.; Bentley, S. T.; Meyer, C. P.; Ristovski, Z.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning (BB) plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non-methane organic compounds (NMOCs) (PTR-MS), particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN) > 3 nm, black carbon (BC) concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number, ozone (O3), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen (H2), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1), a 4 h enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb), BC (~ 1400 ng m-3) and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm-3) with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. A wind direction change lead to a dramatic reduction in BB tracers and a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm. The dominant mode increased in size to 80 nm over 5 h in calm sunny conditions, accompanied by an increase in ozone. Due to an enhancement in BC but not CO during particle growth, the presence of BB emissions during this period could not be confirmed. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80) to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 ± 8 %), higher during the particle growth period (77 ± 4 %) and higher still (104 ± 3 %) in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000 and 5000 CCN cm-3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6-34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2) CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed

  3. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO CAPE) Instrument Performance Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannino, Antonio; Hartman, Kathy R.

    2014-01-01

    The Ultimate objective of the GEO-CAPE 2014 study: Quantify the cost impact of very specific changes in instrument performance! The customer has defined 4 instrument types they are notionally interested in:! FR: Filter Radiometer! WAS: Wide Angle Spectrometer! MSS: Multi Slit Spectrometer! SSS: Single Slit Spectrometer.

  4. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) Filter Radiometer (FR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Carl; Chu, Martha; Wilson, Mark; Clark, Mike; Nanan, Bobby; Matson, Liz; McBirney, Dick; Smith, Jay; Earle, Paul; Choi, Mike; Stoneking, Eric; Luu, Kequan; Swinski, J. P.; Secunda, Mark; Brall, Aron; Verma, Sanjay; Hartman, Kathy R.

    2014-01-01

    The GeoCAPE Filter Radiometer (FR) Study is a different instrument type than all of the previous IDL GeoCape studies. The customer primary goals are to keep mass, volume and cost to a minimum while meeting the science objectives and maximizing flight opportunities by fitting on the largest number of GEO accommodations possible. Minimize total mission costs by riding on a commercial GEO satellite. For this instrument type, the coverage rate, km 2 min, was significantly increased while reducing the nadir ground sample size to 250m. This was accomplished by analyzing a large 2d area for each integration period. The field of view will be imaged on a 4k x 4k detector array of 15 micrometer pixels. Each ground pixel is spread over 2 x 2 detector pixels so the instantaneous field of view (IFOV) is 2048 X 2048 ground pixels. The baseline is, for each field of view 50 sequential snapshot images are taken, each with a different filter, before indexing the scan mirror to the next IFOV. A delta would be to add additional filters.

  5. Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) Wide Angle Spectrometer (WAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotecki, Carl; Chu, Martha; Mannino, Antonio; Marx, Catherine Trout; Bowers, Gregory A.; Bolognese, Jeffrey A.; Matson, Elizabeth A.; McBirney, Thomas R.; Earle, Cleland P.; Choi, Michael K.; Stoneking, Eric; Luu, Kequan; Monosmith, William B.; Secunda, Mark S.; Brall, Aron; Samuels, Cabin

    2014-01-01

    The GeoCAPE Wide Angle Spectrometer (WAS) Study was a revisit of the COEDI Study from 2012. The customer primary goals were to keep mass, volume and cost to a minimum while meeting the science objectives and maximizing flight opportunities by fitting on the largest number of GEO accommodations possible. Riding on a commercial GEO satellite minimizes total mission costs. For this study, it is desired to increase the coverage rate,km2min, while maintaining ground sample size, 375m, and spectral resolution, 0.4-0.5nm native resolution. To be able to do this, the IFOV was significantly increased, hence the wide angle moniker. The field of view for COEDI was +0.6 degrees or (2048) 375m ground pixels. The WAS Threshold (the IDL study baseline design) is +2.4 degrees IDL study baseline design) is +2.4 degrees.

  6. The United States' Next Generation of Atmospheric Composition and Coastal Ecosystem Measurements: NASA's Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, J.; Iraci, Laura T.; Al-Saddi, J.; Chance, K.; Chavez, F.; Chin, M.; Coble, P.; Davis, C.; DiGiacomo, P. M.; Edwards, D.; Eldering, A.; Goes, J.; Herman, J.; Hu, C.; Jacob, D. J.; Jordan, C.; Kawa, S. R.; Key, R.; Liu, X.; Lohrenz, S.; Mannino, A.; Natraj, V.; Neil, D.; Neu, J.; Newchurch, M.; Pickering, K.; Salisbury, J.; Sosik, H.; Subramaniam, A.; Tzortziou, M; Wang, J.; Wang, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GEO-CAPE) mission was recommended by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Earth Science Decadal Survey to measure tropospheric trace gases and aerosols and coastal ocean phytoplankton, water quality, and biogeochemistry from geostationary orbit, providing continuous observations within the field of view. To fulfill the mandate and address the challenge put forth by the NRC, two GEO-CAPE Science Working Groups (SWGs), representing the atmospheric composition and ocean color disciplines, have developed realistic science objectives using input drawn from several community workshops. The GEO-CAPE mission will take advantage of this revolutionary advance in temporal frequency for both of these disciplines. Multiple observations per day are required to explore the physical, chemical, and dynamical processes that determine tropospheric composition and air quality over spatial scales ranging from urban to continental, and over temporal scales ranging from diurnal to seasonal. Likewise, high-frequency satellite observations are critical to studying and quantifying biological, chemical, and physical processes within the coastal ocean. These observations are to be achieved from a vantage point near 95deg-100degW, providing a complete view of North America as well as the adjacent oceans. The SWGs have also endorsed the concept of phased implementation using commercial satellites to reduce mission risk and cost. GEO-CAPE will join the global constellation of geostationary atmospheric chemistry and coastal ocean color sensors planned to be in orbit in the 2020 time frame.

  7. Persistent organic contaminants in Saharan dust air masses in West Africa, Cape Verde and the eastern Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, V H; Majewski, M S; Foreman, W T; Genualdi, S A; Mohammed, A; Massey Simonich, S L

    2014-01-15

    Anthropogenic semivolatile organic compounds (SOCs) that persist in the environment, bioaccumulate, are toxic at low concentrations, and undergo long-range atmospheric transport (LRT) were identified and quantified in the atmosphere of a Saharan dust source region (Mali) and during Saharan dust incursions at downwind sites in the eastern Caribbean (U.S. Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago) and Cape Verde. More organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPPs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were detected in the Saharan dust region than at downwind sites. Seven of the 13 OCPPs detected occurred at all sites: chlordanes, chlorpyrifos, dacthal, dieldrin, endosulfans, hexachlorobenzene (HCB), and trifluralin. Total SOCs ranged from 1.9-126 ng/m(3) (mean = 25 ± 34) at source and 0.05-0.71 ng/m(3) (mean = 0.24 ± 0.18) at downwind sites during dust conditions. Most SOC concentrations were 1-3 orders of magnitude higher in source than downwind sites. A Saharan source was confirmed for sampled air masses at downwind sites based on dust particle elemental composition and rare earth ratios, atmospheric back trajectory models, and field observations. SOC concentrations were considerably below existing occupational and/or regulatory limits; however, few regulatory limits exist for these persistent organic compounds. Long-term effects of chronic exposure to low concentrations of SOCs are unknown, as are possible additive or synergistic effects of mixtures of SOCs, biologically active trace metals, and mineral dust particles transported together in Saharan dust air masses. PMID:24055669

  8. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution mediate socioeconomic differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes in Cape Coast, Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeladza K Amegah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epidemiological evidence linking socioeconomic deprivation with adverse pregnancy outcomes has been conflicting mainly due to poor measurement of socioeconomic status (SES. Studies have also failed to evaluate the plausible pathways through which socioeconomic disadvantage impacts on pregnancy outcomes. We investigated the importance of maternal SES as determinant of birth weight and gestational duration in an urban area and evaluated main causal pathways for the influence of SES. METHODS: A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 559 mothers accessing postnatal services at the four main health facilities in Cape Coast, Ghana in 2011. Information on socioeconomic characteristics of the mothers was collected in a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: In multivariate linear regression adjusting for maternal age, parity and gender of newborn, low SES resulted in 292 g (95% CI: 440-145 reduction in birth weight. Important SES-related determinants were neighborhood poverty (221 g; 95% CI: 355-87, low education (187 g; 95% CI: 355-20, studentship during pregnancy (291 g; 95% CI: 506-76 and low income (147 g; 95% CI: 277-17. In causal pathway analysis, malaria infection (6-20%, poor nutrition (2-51% and indoor air pollution (10-62% mediated substantial proportions of the observed effects of socioeconomic deprivation on birth weight. Generalized linear models adjusting for confounders indicated a 218% (RR: 3.18; 95% CI: 1.41-7.21 risk increase of LBW and 83% (RR: 1.83; 95% CI: 1.31-2.56 of PTB among low income mothers. Low and middle SES was associated with 357% (RR: 4.57; 95% CI: 1.67-12.49 and 278% (RR: 3.78; 95% CI: 1.39-10.27 increased risk of LBW respectively. Malaria infection, poor nutrition and indoor air pollution respectively mediated 10-21%, 16-44% and 31-52% of the observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on LBW risk. CONCLUSION: We provide evidence of the effects of socioeconomic deprivation

  9. Biomass burning emissions of trace gases and particles in marine air at Cape Grim, Tasmania, 41° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Lawson

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biomass burning (BB plumes were measured at the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station during the 2006 Precursors to Particles campaign, when emissions from a fire on nearby Robbins Island impacted the station. Measurements made included non methane organic compounds (NMOCs (PTR-MS, particle number size distribution, condensation nuclei (CN > 3 nm, black carbon (BC concentration, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN number, ozone (O3, methane (CH4, carbon monixide (CO, hydrogen (H2, carbon dioxide (CO2, nitrous oxide (N2O, halocarbons and meteorology. During the first plume strike event (BB1, a four hour enhancement of CO (max ~ 2100 ppb, BC (~ 1400 ng m−3 and particles > 3 nm (~ 13 000 cm−3 with dominant particle mode of 120 nm were observed overnight. Dilution of the plume resulted in a drop in the dominant particle mode to 50 nm, and then growth to 80 nm over 5 h. This was accompanied by an increase in O3, suggesting that photochemical processing of air and condensation of low volatility oxidation products may be driving particle growth. The ability of particles > 80 nm (CN80 to act as CCN at 0.5 % supersaturation was investigated. The ΔCCN / ΔCN80 ratio was lowest during the fresh BB plume (56 %, higher during the particle growth event (77 % and higher still (104 % in background marine air. Particle size distributions indicate that changes to particle chemical composition, rather than particle size, are driving these changes. Hourly average CCN during both BB events were between 2000–5000 CCN cm−3, which were enhanced above typical background levels by a factor of 6–34, highlighting the dramatic impact BB plumes can have on CCN number in clean marine regions. During the 29 h of the second plume strike event (BB2 CO, BC and a range of NMOCs including acetonitrile and hydrogen cyanide (HCN were clearly enhanced and some enhancements in O3 were observed (ΔO3 / ΔCO 0.001–0.074. A shortlived increase in NMOCs by a factor of 10

  10. Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Pancam 'super resolution' mosaic of the approximately 6 m (20 foot) high cliff face of the Cape Verde promontory was taken by the rover from inside Victoria Crater, during the rover's descent into Duck Bay. Super-resolution is an imaging technique which utilizes information from multiple pictures of the same target in order to generate an image with a higher resolution than any of the individual images. Cape Verde is a geologically rich outcrop and is teaching scientists about how rocks at Victoria crater were modified since they were deposited long ago. This image complements super resolution mosaics obtained at Cape St. Mary and Cape St. Vincent and is consistent with the hypothesis that Victoria crater is located in the middle of what used to be an ancient sand dune field. Many rover team scientists are hoping to be able to eventually drive the rover closer to these layered rocks in the hopes of measuring their chemistry and mineralogy. This is a Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity Panoramic Camera image mosaic acquired on sols 1342 and 1356 (November 2 and 17, 2007), and was constructed from a mathematical combination of 64 different blue filter (480 nm) images.

  11. No evidence for change of the atmospheric helium isotope composition since 1978 from re-analysis of the Cape Grim Air Archive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabry, Jennifer C.; Lan, Tefang; Boucher, Christine; Burnard, Peter G.; Brennwald, Matthias S.; Langenfelds, Ray; Marty, Bernard

    2015-10-01

    The helium isotope composition of air might have changed since the industrial revolution due to the release of 4He-rich crustal helium during exploitation of fossil fuels. Thereby, variation of the atmospheric helium isotope ratio (3He/4He) has been proposed as a possible new atmospheric tracer of industrial activity. However, the magnitude of such change is debated, with possible values ranging from 0 to about 2 ‰ /yr (Sano et al., 1989; Hoffman and Nier, 1993; Pierson-Wickmann et al., 2001; Brennwald et al., 2013; Lupton and Evans, 2013). A new analytical facility for high precision (2‰, 2σ) analysis of the 3He/4He ratio of air has been developed at CRPG Nancy (France) capable of investigating permil level variations. Previously, Brennwald et al. (2013) analyzed a selection of air samples archived since 1978 at Cape Grim, Tasmania, by the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). They reported a mean temporal decrease of the 3He/4He ratio of 0.23-0.30‰/yr. Re-analysis of aliquots of the same samples using the new high-precision instrument showed no significant temporal decrease of the 3He/4He ratio (0.0095 ± 0.033‰ /yr, 2σ) in the time interval 1978-2011. These new data constrain the mean He content of globally produced natural gas to about 0.034% or less, which is about 3× lower than commonly quoted.

  12. H11532: NOS Hydrographic Survey , Approaches to Cape Canaveral, Florida, 2006-06-12

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has the statutory mandate to collect hydrographic data in support of nautical chart compilation for safe...

  13. National Space Transportation System telemetry distribution and processing, NASA-JFK Space Center/Cape Canaveral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, George

    Prelaunch, launch, mission, and landing distribution of RF and hardline uplink/downlink information between Space Shuttle Orbiter/cargo elements, tracking antennas, and control centers at JSC, KSC, MSFC, GSFC, ESMC/RCC, and Sunnyvale are presented as functional block diagrams. Typical mismatch problems encountered during spacecraft-to-project control center telemetry transmissions are listed along with new items for future support enhancement.

  14. Radar Scan Strategies for the Patrick Air Force Base Weather Surveillance Radar, Model-74C, Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, David

    2008-01-01

    The 45th Weather Squadron (45 WS) is replacing the Weather Surveillance Radar, Model 74C (WSR-74C) at Patrick Air Force Base (PAFB), with a Doppler, dual polarization radar, the Radtec 43/250. A new scan strategy is needed for the Radtec 43/250, to provide high vertical resolution data over the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) launch pads, while taking advantage of the new radar's advanced capabilities for detecting severe weather phenomena associated with convection within the 45 WS area of responsibility. The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) developed several scan strategies customized for the operational needs of the 45 WS. The AMU also developed a plan for evaluating the scan strategies in the period prior to operational acceptance, currently scheduled for November 2008.

  15. 76 FR 51395 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... National Park Service Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP... Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the General Management Plan (DEIS/GMP), Canaveral National... 1969 the NPS announces the availability of a DEIS/GMP for Canaveral National Seashore, Florida....

  16. Transport of atmospheric NOx and HNO3 over Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. J. Abiodun

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town, the most popular tourist city in Africa, usually experiences air pollution with unpleasant odour in winter. Previous studies have associated the pollution with local emission of pollutants within the city. The present study examines the transport of atmospheric pollutants (NOx and HNO3 over South Africa and shows how the transport of pollutants from the Mpumalanga Highveld may contribute to the pollution in Cape Town. The study analysed observation data (2001–2008 from Cape Town air quality network and simulation data (2001–2004 from regional climate model (RegCM4 over southern Africa. The simulation accounts for the influence of complex topography, atmospheric condition, and atmospheric chemistry on emission and transport of pollutants over southern Africa. Flux budget analysis was used to examine whether Cape Town is a source or sink for NOx and HNO3 during the extreme pollution events. The results show that extreme pollution events over Cape Town are associated with the low-level (surface–850 hPa transport of NOx from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town, and with a tongue of high concentration of HNO3 that extends from the Mpumalanga Highveld to Cape Town along the south coast of South Africa. The prevailing atmospheric conditions during the extreme pollution events feature an upper-level (700 hPa anticyclonic flow over South Africa and a low-level col over Cape Town. The anticyclonic flow induces a strong subsidence motion, which prevents vertical mixing of the pollutants and caps high concentration of pollutants close to the surface as they are transported from the Mpumalanga Highveld toward Cape Town, while the col accumulates the pollutants over the city. This study shows that Cape Town can be a sink for the NOx and HNO3 during extreme pollution events and suggests that the accumulation of pollutants transported from other areas (e.g. Mpumalanga Highveld may contribute substantially to the air pollution in Cape Town.

  17. ENZO CAPE DIAMOND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    ENZO CAPE DIAMOND debuted at Shanghai Jiu Guang Department Store on December 18. Models from South Africa and Brazil displayed ENZO CAPE DIAMOND at the releasing ceremony for invited clients and special guest, Leon Jay Williams, a Singapore-born movie star.

  18. Panorama from 'Cape Verde'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006). The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers. The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast. This approximately true-color view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  19. GEO-CAPE Aerosol Working Group Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Mian; Jethva, Hiren; Joiner, Joanna; Lyapustin, Alexei; Mattoo, Shana; Torres, Omar; Vasilkov, Alexander; Kondragunta, Shobha; Ciren, Pubu; Remer, Lorraine; Wang, Jun

    2013-01-01

    GEO-CAPE will measure a suite of short-lived species that are relevant to both air quality and climate. The document was presented at the 2013 AEROCENTER Annual Meeting held at the GSFC Visitors Center, May 31, 2013. The Organizers of the meeting are posting the talks to the public Aerocentr website, after the meeting.

  20. Partial Report of Findings: No. 1 Cape Newenham Military Cleanup, Togiak National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Data analyzed to date indicate that high PCB concentrations have been detected at the U.S. Air Force's Cape Newenham Air Force Station and pose a threat to Refuge...

  1. The Cape Mendocino tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, F.I.; Bernard, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    The Cape Mendocino earthquake of April 25, 1992, generated a tsunami recorded by NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) sea level gauges in California, Oregon, and Hawaii. The accompanying figure shows the tsunami waveforms acquired at twelve of these stations. the table that follows identifies these stations and gives preliminary estimates of the tsunami travel time from the source region to selected West Coast stations. 

  2. Cape Verde Frontal Zone

    OpenAIRE

    Zenk, Walter; Klein, Birgit; Schröder, Michael

    1991-01-01

    The term Cape Verde Frontal Zone is introduced to characterize the southeastern corner of the subtropical gyre circulation in the North Atlantic Ocean far west of the upwelling area off the Mauretanean shelf. Two water mass fronts, one overlying the other, are identified with a quasi-synoptic set of CTD-OZ and nutrient data from November 1986. In the warm water sphere we encounter North and South Atlantic Central Water (NACWISACW) superimposed on extensions of Mediterranean outflow and Antarc...

  3. Concentrations of Semivolatile Organic Compounds Associated with African Dust Air Masses in Mali, Cape Verde, Trinidad and Tobago, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Virginia H.; Foreman, William T.; Genualdi, Susan A.; Majewski, Michael S.; Mohammed, Azad; Simonich, Staci Massey

    2011-01-01

    Every year, billions of tons of fine particles are eroded from the surface of the Sahara Desert and the Sahel of West Africa, lifted into the atmosphere by convective storms, and transported thousands of kilometers downwind. Most of the dust is carried west to the Americas and the Caribbean in the Saharan Air Layer (SAL). Dust air masses predominately impact northern South America during the Northern Hemisphere winter and the Caribbean and Southeastern United States in summer. Dust concentrations vary considerably temporally and spatially. In a dust source region (Mali), concentrations range from background levels of 575 micrograms per cubic meter (mu/u g per m3) to 13,000 mu/u g per m3 when visibility degrades to a few meters (Gillies and others, 1996). In the Caribbean, concentrations of 200 to 600 mu/u g per m3 in the mid-Atlantic and Barbados (Prospero and others, 1981; Talbot and others, 1986), 3 to 20 mu/u g per m3 in the Caribbean (Prospero and Nees, 1986; Perry and others, 1997); and >100 mu/u g per m3 in the Virgin Islands (this dataset) have been reported during African dust conditions. Mean dust particle size decreases as the SAL traverses from West Africa to the Caribbean and Americas as a result of gravitational settling. Mean particle size reaching the Caribbean is <1 micrometer (mu/u m) (Perry and others, 1997), and even finer particles are carried into Central America, the Southeastern United States, and maritime Canada. Particles less than 2.5 mu/u m diameter (termed PM2.5) can be inhaled deeply into human lungs. A large body of literature has shown that increased PM2.5 concentrations are linked to increased cardiovascular/respiratory morbidity and mortality (for example, Dockery and others, 1993; Penn and others, 2005).

  4. Properties and CAPE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; O'Connell, J.P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of properties in the solution of Computer Aided Process Engineering (CAPE) problems is described in terms of current trend, future challenges and important issues. Three distinct roles of properties in CAFE have been identified - a service role, a service plus advice role and a service......, advice plus solve role. The CAFE problems solved under each of these roles are described together with simple illustrative examples. Finally, the paper describes how some of the future problems related to integration of synthesis, design and control might be dealt with efficiently and reliably through co...

  5. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    OpenAIRE

    Bisset, W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun') most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The batter...

  6. View of 'Cape St. Mary' from 'Cape Verde' (Altered Contrast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape St. Mary' from the from the vantage point of 'Cape Verde,' the next promontory counterclockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape St. Mary combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into an approximately true-color mosaic with contrast adjusted to improve the visibility of details in shaded areas. The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact. Near the base of the Cape St. Mary cliff are layers with a pattern called 'crossbedding,' intersecting with each other at angles, rather than parallel to each other. Large-scale crossbedding can result from material being deposited as wind-blown dunes. The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 970th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Oct. 16, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  7. View of 'Cape St. Mary' from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape St. Mary' from the from the vantage point of 'Cape Verde,' the next promontory counterclockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape St. Mary combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into a false-color mosaic. Contrast has been adjusted to improve the visibility of details in shaded areas. The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact. Near the base of the Cape St. Mary cliff are layers with a pattern called 'crossbedding,' intersecting with each other at angles, rather than parallel to each other. Large-scale crossbedding can result from material being deposited as wind-blown dunes. The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 970th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Oct. 16, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The false color enhances subtle color differences among materials in the rocks and soils of the scene.

  8. View of 'Cape St. Mary' from 'Cape Verde'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    As part of its investigation of 'Victoria Crater,' NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity examined a promontory called 'Cape St. Mary' from the from the vantage point of 'Cape Verde,' the next promontory counterclockwise around the crater's deeply scalloped rim. This view of Cape St. Mary combines several exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera into an approximately true-color mosaic. The upper portion of the crater wall contains a jumble of material tossed outward by the impact that excavated the crater. This vertical cross-section through the blanket of ejected material surrounding the crater was exposed by erosion that expanded the crater outward from its original diameter, according to scientists' interpretation of the observations. Below the jumbled material in the upper part of the wall are layers that survive relatively intact from before the crater-causing impact. Near the base of the Cape St. Mary cliff are layers with a pattern called 'crossbedding,' intersecting with each other at angles, rather than parallel to each other. Large-scale crossbedding can result from material being deposited as wind-blown dunes. The images combined into this mosaic were taken during the 970th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's Mars-surface mission (Oct. 16, 2006). The panoramic camera took them through the camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters.

  9. Source Apportionment of Particulate Matter Sampled in Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marta Almeida, Susana; Almeida-Silva, Marina; Pio, Casimiro; Nunes, Teresa; Cardoso, João; Cerqueira, Mário; Reis, Miguel; Chaves, Paula Cristina; Taborda, Ana

    2013-04-01

    Due to its geographical position, Cape Verde is highly affected by the transport of dust from the Sahara desert. Consequently, very high concentrations of particles are registered in this archipelago, being essential to elucidate the role that Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Cape Verde air quality, human health, wellbeing, visibility, tourism and economy. The objective of this study was to identify the main sources and origins of particles sampled in Cape Verde. PM10 was sampled during 2011 and chemical characterization of particles was performed by Neutron Activation Analysis and Particle Induced X-ray Emission for elemental measurements, by Ion Chromatography for the determination of water soluble ions and by a Thermal-optical system for the measurement of carbonaceous aerosol. Source apportionment was performed by integrating Positive Matrix Factorization and Backward Trajectory Analysis. Results showed that in average 68% of the PM10 mass in Cape Verde had a natural origin, being 48% associated with the soil and 20% associated with the sea. During the transport of dust from the Sahara desert the contribution of mineral aerosol increased significantly (69% during periods affected by trajectories provided from Sahara desert versus 13% during periods affected by local sources).

  10. 1992 Cape Mendocino, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992 at 11:06 am local time (April 25 at 18:06 GMT), a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes,...

  11. CAPE TOWN'S TIME-GUNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although a great many articles have been written on the subject of Cape Town's noon gun (the. official terminology is 'time-gun' most of the writers have not had access to the Lion Battery Fort Record Book and the existance of more than one Cape Town time-gun has only recently been recorded. By 1807 a noon gun was fired regularly from the Imhoff Battery on the seaward side of the Castle.1 On 4 August 1902 the noon gun was fired from Lion Battery on Signal Hill for the first time.2 The battery was built because of fears of war with Russia and had been armed with two 9- inch Rifled Muzzle Loading guns by 1891. Lion Battery was remodelled in 1911.

  12. A Cape for Staying Connected

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Jay P.

    2005-01-01

    Some think a good superintendent these days shares a lot in common with a superhero. Larry Hill is one superintendent who really does don a cape. It is a flowing black one, complemented by a sparkly white bow tie and red top hat. And better yet, he wears it on his job as the top administrator of the North Iowa Community Schools in Buffalo Center,…

  13. The social and institutional aspects of urban agriculture in the Cape Flats, Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Meadows, Kate

    2000-01-01

    This report is concerned with the status of urban agriculture in the Cape Metropolitan Area (CMA) of the Western Cape, South Africa. It focuses specifically on the nature of urban agriculture in the Cape Flats area and explores the conditions that influence the extent of urban agriculture in low-income township areas situated on the Cape Flats. A primary focus of this research is the socio- political and institutional context that affects the practice of urban and peri-urban farming, specific...

  14. EFFECT OF GROUND-WATER REMEDIATION ACTIVITIES ON INDIGENOUS MICROFLORA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), working with the Interagency DNAPL Consortium, completed an independent evaluation of microbial responses to ground-water remediation technology demonstrations at Launch Pad 34 at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Brevard Count...

  15. Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... house) Industrial emissions (like smoke and chemicals from factories) Household cleaners (spray cleaners, air fresheners) Car emissions (like carbon monoxide) *All of these things make up “particle pollution.” They mostly come from cars, trucks, buses, and ...

  16. Cape Canaveral, Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 616 Narrative 2001 - Videotape and Visual Observations from Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These are data from one of fourteen 2001 submersible "Clelia" dives. Narratives including habitat descriptions and estimates of megafaunal species abundance were...

  17. Cape Canaveral Oculina Banks Clelia Dive 616 2001 Digital Imagery - Captured from Videotapes taken during Submersible Dives to the Oculina Banks Deep Sea Coral Reefs (NODC Accession 0047190)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitial imagery, mpegs and jpegs, captured from mini-DV magnetic videotapes collected with an underwater 3-chip CCD color video camera, deployed from the research...

  18. Air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years several regulations and standards for air quality and limits for air pollution were issued or are in preparation by the European Union, which have severe influence on the environmental monitoring and legislation in Austria. This chapter of the environmental control report of Austria gives an overview about the legal situation of air pollution control in the European Union and in specific the legal situation in Austria. It gives a comprehensive inventory of air pollution measurements for the whole area of Austria of total suspended particulates, ozone, volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide, carbon monoxide, heavy metals, benzene, dioxin, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and eutrophication. For each of these pollutants the measured emission values throughout Austria are given in tables and geographical charts, the environmental impact is discussed, statistical data and time series of the emission sources are given and legal regulations and measures for an effective environmental pollution control are discussed. In particular the impact of fossil-fuel power plants on the air pollution is analyzed. (a.n.)

  19. Ozone and radon at Cape Grim: A study of their interdependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion of the ozone and radon variations at Cape Grim, Tasmania, and their interdependence is presented. The use of radon concentration as a criterion for baseline conditions (-3) results in a baseline data set that has a smaller range of concentrations within each month than that obtained using wind speed and direction as baseline criteria. The passage of cold fronts at Cape Grim is associated with a change in air flow from the continent to the Southern Ocean. Comparison of radon, wind direction and ozone during these events indicates that continental air continues arriving at Cape Grim for several hours after passage of the front and the establishment of the air flow from the baseline sector. This confirms that use of the speed and direction is not necessarily a good method of defining baseline conditions for ozone. When air comes to Cape Grim form over the Tasmanian land surface during those times of the year when (due to solar radiation and temperature) the probability of ozone production is low, the ozone and radon concentrations observed are negatively correlated. A simple model of ozone destruction at the Earth's surface and radon emission from the surface quantitatively describes these observations. (author). 1 tab., 5 figs., 6 refs

  20. Tecer sobe no ranking da Capes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Aparecido

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Surpresa ainda maior foi verificar que prosseguimos no rumo da consolidação, crescendo no ranking – chegando a B3 em alguns campos, como pode ser visto no portal de buscas do Qualis Capes http://qualis.capes.gov.br/webqualis/principal.seamhttp://qualis.capes.gov, que apresenta nossa classificação abaixo:   B3 ADMINISTRAÇÃO, CIÊNCIAS CONTÁBEIS E TURISMO B4 CIÊNCIAS SOCIAIS APLICADAS I B4 EDUCAÇÃO B4 INTERDISCIPLINAR B5 DIREITO B5 HISTÓRIA C CIÊNCIA DA COMPUTAÇÃO

  1. Cape Verde in False Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this false-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days. This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  2. EAARL Topography-Cape Cod National Seashore

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Elevation maps (also known as Digital Elevation Models or DEMs) of Cape Cod National Seashore were produced from remotely-sensed, geographically-referenced...

  3. The Cape San Blas Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Margaret M Lamont; Percival, H. Franklin; Pearlstine, Leonard G.; Colwell, Sheila V.; Kitchens, Wiley M.; Carthy, Raymond R.

    1997-01-01

    Eglin AFB on Cape San Blas consists of approximately 250 acres located about 180 miles east of the main Eglin reservation. This area lies on the S1. Joseph peninsula, part of a dynamic barrier island chain that extends across the northern Gulf of Mexico. Due to the natural forces that formed Cape San Blas and those that maintain this area, St. Joseph Peninsula has experienced severe land form change over time (see GIS land form change maps). These changes allow for fluctuations...

  4. 'Cape capture': Geologic data and modeling results suggest the holocene loss of a Carolina Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieler, E.R.; Ashton, A.D.

    2011-01-01

    For more than a century, the origin and evolution of the set of cuspate forelands known as the Carolina Capes-Hatteras, Lookout, Fear, and Romain-off the eastern coast of the United States have been discussed and debated. The consensus conceptual model is not only that these capes existed through much or all of the Holocene transgression, but also that their number has not changed. Here we describe bathymetric, lithologic, seismic, and chronologic data that suggest another cape may have existed between Capes Hatteras and Lookout during the early to middle Holocene. This cape likely formed at the distal end of the Neuse-Tar-Pamlico fiuvial system during the early Holocene transgression, when this portion of the shelf was fiooded ca. 9 cal (calibrated) kyr B.P., and was probably abandoned by ca. 4 cal kyr B.P., when the shoreline attained its present general configuration. Previously proposed mechanisms for cape formation suggest that the large-scale, rhythmic pattern of the Carolina Capes arose from a hydrodynamic template or the preexisting geologic framework. Numerical modeling, however, suggests that the number and spacing of capes can be dynamic, and that a coast can self-organize in response to a high-angle-wave instability in shoreline shape. In shoreline evolution model simulations, smaller cuspate forelands are subsumed by larger neighbors over millennial time scales through a process of 'cape capture.' The suggested former cape in Raleigh Bay represents the first interpreted geological evidence of dynamic abandonment suggested by the self-organization hypothesis. Cape capture may be a widespread process in coastal environments with large-scale rhythmic shoreline features; its preservation in the sedimentary record will vary according to geologic setting, physical processes, and sea-level history. ?? 2011 Geological Society of America.

  5. Comments on "MSE minus CAPE is the True Conserved Variable for an Adiabatically Lifted Parcel"

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    In a recent paper, Romps (JAS, vol.72, p.3639-3646, 2015, hereafter R15) argues that the moist-air static energy (MSE) is only approximately conserved for an adiabatically lifted parcel, and that the quantity "MSE - CAPE" could be used as a true conserved variable, where CAPE is the convective available energy. However, the thermodynamic equations are written in R15 by making several assumptions, not all of which are explicitly mentioned. This comment aims to clarify the hypotheses made in R15. It will show that these assumptions call into question the validity of the moist-air internal energy, enthalpy and entropy functions in R15, meaning that several of the conclusions in the paper should be revisited. It also demonstrates that it is possible to obtain more precise and general formulations for moist-air energy, enthalpy and entropy functions, in particular by using the third law of thermodynamics.

  6. Panorama from 'Cape Verde' (False Color)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this vista of 'Victoria Crater' from the viewpoint of 'Cape Verde,' one of the promontories that are part of the scalloped rim of the crater. Opportunity drove onto Cape Verde shortly after arriving at the rim of Victoria in September 2006. The view combines hundreds of exposures taken by the rover's panoramic camera (Pancam). The camera began taking the component images during Opportunity's 970th Martian day, or sol, on Mars (Oct. 16, 2006). Work on the panorama continued through the solar conjunction period, when Mars was nearly behind the sun from Earth's perspective and communications were minimized. Acquisition of images for this panorama was completed on Opportunity's 991st sol (Nov. 7, 2006). The top of Cape Verde is in the immediate foreground at the center of the image. To the left and right are two of the more gradually sloped bays that alternate with the cliff-faced capes or promontories around the rim of the crater. 'Duck Bay,' where Opportunity first reached the rim, is to the right. Beyond Duck Bay counterclockwise around the rim, the next promontory is 'Cabo Frio,' about 150 meters (500 feet) from the rover. On the left side of the panorama is 'Cape St. Mary,' the next promontory clockwise from Cape Verde and about 40 meters (130 feet) from the rover. The vantage point atop Cape Verde offered a good view of the rock layers in the cliff face of Cape St. Mary, which is about 15 meters or 50 feet tall. By about two weeks after the Pancam finished collecting the images for this panorama, Opportunity had driven to Cape St. Mary and was photographing Cape Verde's rock layers. The far side of the crater lies about 800 meters (half a mile) away, toward the southeast. This view combines images taken through three of the Pancam's filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet). It is presented in false color to emphasize

  7. FOGO-2014: Monitoring the Fogo 2014 Eruption, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Rui; Faria, Bruno

    2015-04-01

    Fogo volcano, located in the Cape Verde Archipelago offshore Western Africa, is a complete stratovolcano system that was created by the Cape Verde hotspot, forming the island of Fogo. The top (Pico do Fogo) reaches ~2830m above sea level, and raises ~1100m above Chã das Caldeiras, an almost flat circular area with approximately 10 kilometres in the north-south direction and 7 kilometres in the east-west direction. Chã das Caldeiras, surrounded towards the West by the ~1000m high Bordeira rampart, has been inhabited since the early 20th Century, because it is one of the most productive agricultural areas in this semi-arid country. Fogo volcano erupted on November 23, 2014 (~10:00UTC) on a subsidiary vent of the main cone, after 19 years of inactivity. C4G (Collaboratory for Geosciences), a distributed research infrastructure created in 2014 in the framework of the Portuguese Roadmap for Strategic Research Infrastructures, immediately offered support to the Cape Verdean authorities, with the goal of complementing the permanent geophysical monitoring network operated in Fogo island by INMG, the Cape Verdean Meteorological and Geophysical Institute. This permanent network is composed of seven seismographic stations and three tiltmeter stations, and the data is transmitted in real time to the INMG geophysical laboratory in São Vicente Island, where it is analysed on a routine basis. Pre-eruptive activity started to be detected by the permanent monitoring network on October 2014, with earthquakes occurring at depths larger than 15 km. These events led to a first volcanic warning to the Cape Verdean Civil Protection Agency. On November 22 several volcano-tectonic earthquakes were recorded at shallow depths, indicating shallow fracturing. On the basis of this activity, INMG issued a formal alert of an impending eruption to the Civil Protection Agency, ~24 hours before the onset of the eruption. Volcanic tremor and clear tiltmeter signals were recorded about one hour

  8. The Cape element in the Afrotemperate flora: from Cape to Cairo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galley, Chloe; Bytebier, Benny; Bellstedt, Dirk U; Linder, H Peter

    2007-02-22

    The build-up of biodiversity is the result of immigration and in situ speciation. We investigate these two processes for four lineages (Disa, Irideae p.p., the Pentaschistis clade and Restionaceae) that are widespread in the Afrotemperate flora. These four lineages may be representative of the numerous clades which are species rich in the Cape and also occur in the highlands of tropical Africa. It is as yet unclear in which direction the lineages spread. Three hypotheses have been proposed: (i) a tropical origin with a southward migration towards the Cape, (ii) a Cape origin with a northward migration into tropical Africa, and (iii) vicariance. None of these hypotheses has been thoroughly tested. We reconstruct the historical biogeography of the four lineages using likelihood optimization onto molecular phylogenies. We find that tropical taxa are nested within a predominantly Cape clade. There is unidirectional migration from the Cape into the Drakensberg and from there northwards into tropical Africa. The amount of in situ diversification differs between areas and clades. Dating estimates show that the migration into tropical East Africa has occurred in the last 17 Myr, consistent with the Mio-Pliocene formation of the mountains in this area.

  9. Hacia una contextualización de las migraciones de caboverdeanos en el Gran Buenos Aires a partir de sus diferencias generacionales

    OpenAIRE

    María Cecilia Martino

    2015-01-01

    Towards a Contextualization of Cape Verdeans Migration in the Greater Buenos Aires from their Generational Differences Abstract This article aims to analyze the relations between Cape Verdeans immigrants and descendants in the Greater Buenos Aires from the analysis of generational categories in use that define positions and identifications over time. Three periods are proposed to tackle this process of change and continuity. From the incorporation of Cape Verdean society language ...

  10. Staging Queer Temporalities: A Look at Miss Gay Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Bronson, Olivia Fairbanks

    2013-01-01

    Miss Gay Western Cape is a beauty pageant that takes place once a year in Cape Town. Though the event began during apartheid, it is only recently that it has gained visibility and emerged as the largest (recognized) gay pageant in South Africa. This project considers the ways in which different queer communities in Cape Town strive to be seen in spaces that remain governed by the logics of racialized segregation. As evidenced with this event, queer communities in Cape Town bare the wounds of ...

  11. Opportunistic infection of Aspergillus and bacteria in captive Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Stephen Chege; Judith Howlett; Majid Al Qassimi; Arshad Toosy; Joerg Kinne; Vincent Obanda

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To describe clinical signs, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Cape vultures in which Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) and mixed species of bacteria were isolated. Methods: Six Cape vultures sourced from South Africa for exhibition at Al Ain Zoo developed illness manifesting as anorexia, dyspnea, polyuria and lethargy. Three vultures died manifesting‘‘pneumonia-like syndrome’’. These three vultures were necropsied and gross lesions recorded, while organ tissues were collected for histopathology. Internal organs were swabbed for bacteriology and mycology. From live vultures, blood was collected for hematology and biochemistry, oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs were collected for mycology and bacteriology. Results: A. fumigatus was isolated from the three dead vultures and two live ones that eventually survived. One of the dead vulture and two live vultures were co-infected with A. fumigatus and mixed species of bacteria that included Clostridium perfringens, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, Escherichia, Proteus, Enterococcus and Enterbacter. One of the Cape vulture and a Lappet-faced vulture, however, were free of Aspergillus or bacterial infections. At necropsy, intestinal hemorrhages were observed and the lungs were overtly congested with granulomas present on caudal air sac. Histopathological examinations demonstrated granulomatous lesions that were infiltrated by mononuclear cells and giant cells. Conclusions: Aspergillosis is a persistent threat to captive birds and we recommend routine health assessments so that early diagnosis may prompt early treatment. It is likely that prompt prophylaxis by broad spectrum antibiotics and antifungals medication contributed to the survival of some of the vultures.

  12. Gaseous elemental mercury depletion events observed at Cape Point during 2007–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.-G. Brunke

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Gaseous mercury in the marine boundary layer has been measured with a 15 min temporal resolution at the Global Atmosphere Watch station Cape Point since March 2007. The most prominent features of the data until July 2008 are the frequent occurrences of pollution (PEs and depletion events (DEs. Both types of events originate mostly within a short transport distance (up to about 100 km, which are embedded in air masses ranging from marine background to continental. The Hg/CO emission ratios observed during the PEs are within the range reported for biomass burning and industrial/urban emissions. The depletion of gaseous mercury during the DEs is in many cases almost complete and suggests an atmospheric residence time of elemental mercury as short as a few dozens of hours, which is in contrast to the commonly used estimate of approximately 1 year. The DEs observed at Cape Point are not accompanied by simultaneous depletion of ozone which distinguishes them from the halogen driven atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs observed in Polar Regions. Nonetheless, DEs similar to those observed at Cape Point have also been observed at other places in the marine boundary layer. Additional measurements of mercury speciation and of possible mercury oxidants are hence called for to reveal the chemical mechanism of the newly observed DEs and to assess its importance on larger scales.

  13. Characterization of the aeolian aerosol from Cape Verde by k0-INAA and PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to its location on West Coast of Africa, Cape Verde is highly influenced by Sahara Desert dust events being an optimum place to observe and study the African aeolian aerosol. During 2011, particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter lower than 10 μm (PM10) was sampled in Santiago Island and its chemical composition was evaluated by k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) and particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This study showed the existence of a seasonal intrusion of dust from Africa (that occurred from October to March) characterized by significant increases of PM10, mineral elements and anthropogenic particles concentrations. In 2011, the PM10 health-based air quality guidelines defined by WHO, EU and USEPA were exceeded. Cape Verde PM10 composition was characterized essentially by high concentrations of elements originating from the soil (Ca, Ce, Co, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Rb, S, Sc, Si, Sm, and Ti) and sea (Br, Cl, and Na); and low concentrations of anthropogenic elements (As, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn). k0-INAA and PIXE were fundamental tools for the determination of airborne chemical elements in Cape Verde. Their multi-elemental capabilities in association with low detection limits made it possible to determine the majority of the element concentrations of environmental interest. (author)

  14. Dengue in Cape Verde: vector control and vaccination

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F M

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, for the first time in Cape Verde, an outbreak of dengue was reported and over twenty thousand people were infected. Only a few prophylactic measures were taken. The effects of vector control on disease spreading, such as insecticide (larvicide and adulticide) and mechanical control, as well as an hypothetical vaccine, are estimated through simulations with the Cape Verde data.

  15. Influence of drying temperature on dietary fibre, rehydration properties, texture and microstructure of Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zura-Bravo, Liliana; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Martinez-Monzó, Javier; Quispe-Fuentes, Issis; Puente, Luis; Di Scala, Karina

    2015-04-01

    The effects of air drying temperature on dietary fibre, texture and microstructure of the Cape gooseberry fruits during convective dehydration in the range of 50-90 ºC were investigated. The ratio of insoluble dietary fibre to soluble dietary fibre was higher than 7:1 for all dehydrated samples. At 50 ºC tissue structure damage was evidenced leading to the maximum water holding capacity (47.4 ± 2.8 g retained water/100 g water) and the lowest rehydration ratio (1.15 ± 0.06 g absorbed water/g d.m.). Texture analysis showed effects of drying temperatures on TPA parameters. Changes in microstructure tissue were also observed at the studied drying temperatures. Hot air drying technology leads not only to fruit preservation but also increases and adds value to Cape gooseberry, an asset to develop new functional products. PMID:25829613

  16. Cape Fear: an outdoor hillslope laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauro, Flavia; Petroselli, Andrea; Fiori, Aldo; Romano, Nunzio; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Porfiri, Maurizio; Palladino, Mario; Grimaldi, Salvatore

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological processes occurring at the hillslope scale highly influence the response of natural catchments. However, modelling hillslope dynamics is often extremely challenging, and conceptualizations may be inadequate to simulate such complex processes. Towards this aim, field experiments on natural and artificial catchments have proved highly beneficial. In this work, we present Cape Fear, an ad hoc designed experimental plot whereby traditional and new measurement systems are integrated for improved comprehension of hillslope processes. This outdoor hillslope laboratory hosts diverse sensing apparatuses, spanning from a system of rainfall simulators, a v-notch weir for input and output fluxes analysis, sophisticated instrumentation for continuous measurements of surface and subsurface water and soil transport, to innovative image-based setups to remotely sense surface waters. We demonstrate the potential of such a versatile and thoroughly instrumented outdoor laboratory through a proof-of-concept experiment conducted during a natural rainfall event. The response of the plot to the storm is reconstructed based on continuous monitoring of input and output fluxes. Further, an innovative tracer-based approach involving the use of fluorescent particles is utilized to remotely investigate the onset of overland flow from captured images. Insight from experimental observations is utilized to identify the physical phenomena governing the response of the hillslope to the precipitation event. Cape Fear is a powerful resource for the hydrological community and this small scale experimental observatory is expected to provide diverse and innovative observations to advance current knowledge on hydrological processes at the hillslope scale.

  17. The Nainital-Cape Survey-IV

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Santosh; Chowdhury, Sowgata; Chakradhari, N K; Joshi, Y C; van Heerden, P; Medupe, T; Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Kuhn, R B

    2016-01-01

    The Nainital-Cape survey is a dedicated ongoing survey programme to search for and study pulsational variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars to understand their internal structure and evolution. The main aims of this survey are to find new pulsating Ap and Am stars in the northern and southern hemisphere and to perform asteroseismic studies of these new pulsators. The survey is conducted using high-speed photometry. The candidate stars were selected on the basis of having Stromgren photometric indices similar to those of known pulsating CP stars. Over the last decade a total of 337 candidate pulsating CP stars were observed for the Nainital-Cape survey, making it one of the longest ground-based surveys for pulsation in CP stars in terms of time span and sample size. The previous papers of this series presented seven new pulsating variables and 229 null results. In this paper we present the light curves, frequency spectra and the various astrophysical parameters of the 108 additional CP stars observed si...

  18. Dust mobilization and aerosol transport from West Africa to Cape Verde - a meteorological overview of SAMUM-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knippertz, Peter; Heinold, Bernd (School of Earth and Environment, Univ. of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)), e-mail: p.knippertz@leeds.ac.uk; Tesche, Matthias (Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research, Leipzig (Germany)); Kandler, Konrad (Institute for Applied Geosciences, Technical Univ. Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)); Toledano, Carlos (Group of Atmospheric Optics, Valladolid Univ., Valladolid (Spain)); Esselborn, Michael (European Southern Observatory, Garching (Germany))

    2011-09-15

    The second field campaign of the SAharan Mineral dUst experiMent (SAMUM-2) was performed between 15 January and 14 February 2008 at the airport of Praia, Cape Verde, and provided valuable information to study the westward transport of Saharan dust and the mixing with biomass-burning smoke and sea-salt aerosol. Here lidar, meteorological, and particle measurements at Praia, together with operational analyses, trajectories, and satellite and synoptic station data are used to give an overview of the meteorological conditions and to place other SAMUM-2 measurements into a large-scale context. It is demonstrated that wintertime dust conditions at Cape Verde are closely related to the movement and intensification of mid-latitude high-pressure systems and the associated pressure gradients at their southern flanks. These cause dust emission over Mauritania, Mali, and Niger, and subsequent westward transport to Cape Verde within about 1-5 d. Dust emissions often peak around midday, suggesting a relation to daytime mixing of momentum from nocturnal low-level jets to the surface. The dust layer over Cape Verde is usually restricted to the lowest 1.5 km of the atmosphere. During periods with near-surface wind speeds about 5.5 ms-1, a maritime aerosol layer develops which often mixes with dust from above. On most days, the middle levels up to about 5 km additionally contain smoke that can be traced back to sources in southern West Africa. Above this layer, clean air masses are transported to Cape Verde with the westerly flow at the southern side of the subtropical jet. The penetration of extra-tropical disturbances to low latitudes can bring troposphere-deep westerly flow and unusually clean conditions to the region

  19. 40 meter ESRI binary grid of swath bathymetry of inner continental shelf south of Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (shatt, UTM Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Cape May National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cape May NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  1. Evolutionary Stages of Submarine Volcanism in the Cape Verdean Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Kwasnitschka, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The thesis has 3 topics: 1. Disussion of 10 Cape Verdean Seamounts based on Bathymetry 2. Introduction of a close range deep sea photogrammetry workflow 3. Application of the workflow to deep sea explosive volcanoes

  2. Cape Romain Wilderness Character Monitoring Back-end Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Back-end data file for the Cape Romain Wilderness Character Monitoring Application. User interface and lookup databases are required for use.The Wilderness Act of...

  3. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge : Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Cape May NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  4. Water Resources Inventory and Assessment: Cape May National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Water Resource Inventory and Assessment report for Cape May National Wildlife Refuge describes current hydrologic information, provides an assessment of water...

  5. Seabird abundance and behavior on Cape Peirce, Alaska, 1985

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the seabird abundance and behavior on Cape Peirce on Togiak National Wildlife Refuge. Methods and results are discussed. Species covered include...

  6. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    OpenAIRE

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, un-characterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy ...

  7. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Perko; Anđelić Tomislav; Zekić Ranko; Kovačević Milojko S.; Vasić Vladimir; Savić Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  8. Radiation survey and decontamination of cape Arza from depleted uranium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Perko

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In the action of NATO A-10 airplanes in 1999, the cape Arza, Serbia and Montenegro was contaminated by depleted uranium. The clean-up operations were undertaken at the site, and 242 uranium projectiles and their 49 larger fragments were removed from the cape. That is about 85% of the total number of projectiles by which Arza was contaminated. Here are described details of the applied procedures and results of the soil radioactivity measurements after decontamination.

  9. Parental Loss and Schooling: Evidence from Metropolitan Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Cally Ardington; Murray Leibbrandt

    2009-01-01

    This paper makes use of the Cape Area Panel study (CAPS), a longitudinal study of youth and their families in metropolitan Cape Town in order to broaden the empirical body of evidence of the causal impact of parental death on children’s schooling in South Africa in two dimensions. First, analysis of CAPS allows us to examine the extent to which results may generalize across geographically and socioeconomically distinct areas. Second, CAPS allows for an explicit exploration of whether the caus...

  10. Multibeam collection for RB1009: Multibeam data collected aboard Ronald Brown from 2010-12-03 to 2010-12-16, departing from Cape Canaveral, FL and returning to Charleston, SC

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  11. Multibeam collection for RB1008: Multibeam data collected aboard Ronald Brown from 2010-11-13 to 2010-11-22, departing from Pensacola, FL and returning to Cape Canaveral, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  12. Multibeam collection for NF-14-06: Multibeam data collected aboard Nancy Foster from 2014-09-03 to 2014-09-11, departing from Fort Pierce, FL and returning to Cape Canaveral, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is part of a larger set of data called the Multibeam Bathymetry Database (MBBDB) where other similar data can be found at...

  13. Opportunity's Second Martian Birthday at Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A promontory nicknamed 'Cape Verde' can be seen jutting out from the walls of Victoria Crater in this approximate true-color picture taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover took this picture on martian day, or sol, 1329 (Oct. 20, 2007), more than a month after it began descending down the crater walls -- and just 9 sols shy of its second Martian birthday on sol 1338 (Oct. 29, 2007). Opportunity landed on the Red Planet on Jan. 25, 2004. That's nearly four years ago on Earth, but only two on Mars because Mars takes longer to travel around the sun than Earth. One Martian year equals 687 Earth days. The overall soft quality of the image, and the 'haze' seen in the lower right portion, are the result of scattered light from dust on the front sapphire window of the rover's camera. This view was taken using three panoramic-camera filters, admitting light with wavelengths centered at 750 nanometers (near infrared), 530 nanometers (green) and 430 nanometers (violet).

  14. Conopeptides from Cape Verde Conus crotchii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agostinho Antunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine Cone snails of the genus Conus contain complex peptide toxins in their venom. Living in tropical habitats, they usually use the powerful venom for self-defense and prey capture. Here, we study Conus crotchii venom duct using a peptide mass-matching approach. The C. crotchii was collected on the Cape Verde archipelago in the Boa Vista Island. The venom was analyzed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. About 488 molecular masses between 700 Da and 3000 Da were searched bymatching with known peptide sequences from UniProtKB protein sequence database. Through this method we were able to identify 12 conopeptides. For validation we considered the error between the experimental molecular mass (monoisotopic and the calculated mass of less than 0.5 Da. All conopeptides detected belong to the A-, O1-, O2-, O3-, T- and D-superfamilies, which can block Ca2+ channels, inhibit K+ channels and act on nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs. Only a few of the detected peptides have a 100% UniProtKB database similarity, suggesting that several of them could be newly discovered marine drugs.

  15. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9 were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mobile transmitters. Minimum convex polygons (MCPs,and 99% and 50% kernel density estimates (KDEs were calculated for the breeding and non breeding seasons of the Cape Vulture. Land use maps were constructed for each 99% KDE and vulture locations were overlaid. During the non-breeding season, ranges were slightly larger(mean [± SE] MCP = 16 887 km2 ± 366 km2 than the breeding season (MCP = 14 707 km2 ± 2155 km2. Breeding and non-breeding season MCPs overlapped by a total of 92%. Kernel density estimates showed seasonal variability. During the breeding season, Cape Vultures used subsistence farmland, natural woodland and protected areas more than expected. In the non-breeding season, vultures used natural woodland and subsistence farmland more than expected, and protected areas less than expected. In both seasons, human-altered landscapes were used less, except for subsistence farmland.Conservation implications: These results highlight the importance of subsistence farm land to the survival of the Cape Vulture. Efforts should be made to minimise potential threats to vultures in the core areas outlined, through outreach programmes and mitigation measures.The conservation buffer of 40 km around Cape Vulture breeding colonies should be increased to 50 km.

  16. Report of findings: Contaminant study of the environment surrounding the Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cape Romanzof Long Range Radar Site (Cape Romanzof) contains many petroleum-related spills and hazardous substances. Therefore, in 1987 and 1988 a field study...

  17. Composition and origin of PM10 in Cape Verde: Characterization of long-range transport episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvador, P.; Almeida, S. M.; Cardoso, J.; Almeida-Silva, M.; Nunes, T.; Cerqueira, M.; Alves, C.; Reis, M. A.; Chaves, P. C.; Artíñano, B.; Pio, C.

    2016-02-01

    A receptor modelling study was performed to identify source categories and their contributions to the PM10 total mass at the Cape Verde archipelago. Trajectory statistical methods were also used to characterize the main atmospheric circulation patterns causing the transport of air masses and to geographically identify the main potential source areas of each PM10 source category. Our findings point out that the variability of the PM10 levels at Cape Verde was prompted by the advections of African mineral dust. The mineral dust load was mainly composed by clay-silicates mineral derived elements (22% of the PM10 total mass on average) with lower amounts of carbonates (9%). A clear northward gradient was observed in carbonates concentration that illustrates the differences in the composition according to the source regions of mineral dust. Mineral dust was frequently linked to industrial emissions from crude oil refineries, fertilizer industries as well as oil and coal power plants, located in the northern and north-western coast of the African continent (29%). Sea salt was also registered in the PM10 mass during most part of the sampling period, with a lower impact in the PM10 levels than the mineral dust one (26%). Combustion aerosols (6%) reached the highest mean values in summer as a consequence of the emissions from local-regional sources. Biomass burning aerosols produced from October to November in sub-sahelian latitudes, had a clear influence in the content of elemental carbon (EC) recorded at Cape Verde but a small impact in the PM10 total mass levels. A minor contribution to the PM10 mass has been associated to secondary inorganic compounds-SIC. Namely, ammonium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 1-5%) and calcium sulfate and nitrate (SIC 2-3%). The main origin of SIC 1 was attributed to emissions of SO2 and NOx from industrial sources located in the northern and north-western African coast and from wildfires produced in the continent. SIC 2 had a clear regional origin

  18. Religious and secular Cape Malay Afrikaans: Literary varieties used by Shaykh Hanif Edwards (1906-1958)

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Luffin; Gerald Stell; Muttaqin Rakiep

    2008-01-01

    In the context of the White and Christian-dominated Afrikaans language movements, followed by apartheid, little attention has been paid to an Afrikaans literary variety used among Muslim Cape Coloureds, a group often referred to as ‘Cape Malays’. Descending mainly from Asian slaves brought by the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC, Dutch East India Company), and bearing the marks of cohabitation with non-Asian populations at the Cape, the Cape Malays at an early stage developed a distinct...

  19. STRATEGIC MILITARY COLONISATION: THE CAPE EASTERN FRONTIER 1806–1872

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Oranje

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Eastern Frontier of South Africa offers a fascinating insight into British military strategy as well as colonial development. The Eastern Frontier was for over 100 years a very turbulent frontier. It was the area where the four main population groups (the Dutch, the British, the Xhosa and the Khoikhoi met, and in many respects, key decisions taken on this frontier were seminal in the shaping of South Africa. This article seeks to analyse this frontier in a spatial manner, to analyse how British settlement patterns on the ground were influenced by strategy and policy. The time frame of the study reflects the truly imperial colonial era, from the second British occupation of the Cape colony in 1806 until representative self-governance of the Cape colony in 1872.

  20. Long Street: A Map of Post-Apartheid Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Spissu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available No map fully coincides with the territory it represents. If the map and territory do not coincide, what can the map capture of the territory? According to Bateson, the answer is its differences. Drawing from Gregory Bateson’s ideas, we can envision an ethnographic representation of the city through which we can represent the urban territory through the different ways its inhabitants perceive it. In this article, I describe the process that led me to build a map of post-apartheid Cape Town from Long Street. I took inspiration from Bateson’s book Naven and compared it with the District Six Museum map in Cape Town with the objective of representing post-apartheid Cape Town through its differences.

  1. 75 FR 69700 - Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-15

    ... National Park Service Final Environmental Impact Statement and Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road... Environmental Impact Statement for the Cape Hatteras National Seashore Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan. SUMMARY... Cape Hatteras National Seashore (Seashore) Off-Road Vehicle Management Plan (Plan/ FEIS). The...

  2. 75 FR 23798 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... Minerals Management Service Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in... Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cape Wind Energy Project. The FEIS assessed the physical, biological, and...Energy/CapeWind.htm . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: James F. Bennett, Chief, Environmental...

  3. EZVI Injection Field Test Leads to Pilot-Scale Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testing and monitoring of emulsified zero-valent ironTM (EZVI) injections was conducted at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station’s Launch Complex 34, FL, in 2002 to 2005 to evaluate the technology’s efficacy in enhancing in situ dehalogenation of dense nonaqueous-phase liquid (DNAPL) ...

  4. KSC Weather and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Launa; Huddleston, Lisa; Smith, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This briefing outlines the history of Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Weather organization, past research sponsored or performed, current organization, responsibilities, and activities, the evolution of weather support, future technologies, and an update on the status of the buoys located offshore of Cape Canaveral Air Force Station and KSC.

  5. Strategic Analysis for the MER Cape Verde Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Daniel; Belluta, Paolo; Herman, Jennifer; Hwang, Pauline; Mukai, Ryan; Porter, Dan; Jones, Byron; Wood, Eric; Grotzinger, John; Edgar, Lauren; Hayes, Alex; Hare, Trent; Squyres, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe.

  6. Profiling participants of the Cape Argus Cycle Tour / Helga Streicher

    OpenAIRE

    Streicher, Helga

    2009-01-01

    Sport tourism, as a segment of tourism, is one of the fastest growing industries. Sport events have grown enormously over the last two decades and, as a part of sport tourism, they are a very powerful tool that is used to market a country. Sport tourism also creates an internationally recognised image and attracts tourists from all over the world. One of the internationally recognised sport events held annually in Cape Town is the Pick In Pay Cape Argus Cycle Tour (ACT). Originally starte...

  7. Strategic analysis for the MER Cape Verde approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, D.; Belluta, P.; Herman, J.; Hwang, P.; Mukai, R.; Porter, D.; Jones, B.; Wood, E.; Grotzinger, J.; Edgar, L.; Hayes, A.; Hare, T.; Squyres, S.

    2009-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has recently completed a two year campaign studying Victoria Crater. The campaign culminated in a close approach of Cape Verde in order to acquire high resolution imagery of the exposed stratigraphy in the cliff face. The close approach to Cape Verde provided significant challenges for every subsystem of the rover as the rover needed to traverse difficult, uncharacterised terrain and approach a cliff face with the potential of blocking out solar energy and communications with Earth. In this paper we describe the strategic analyses performed by the science and engineering teams so that we could successfully achieve the science objectives while keeping the rover safe. ??2009 IEEE.

  8. Notes on the Vegetation of the Cape Flats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Taylor

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Though the Cape Flats, adjoining Cape Town, were among the first explored parts o f South Africa, their vegetation, rapidly being altered by encroachment o f alien plants, has not been described before. In these notes, five inland and four coastal plant communities, delineated by habitat, are described; their relationships with one another and with coast-flats vegetation elsewhere are suggested. Observations on means of regeneration after fire show that the woody, tropical-derived element regenerates rapidly from coppice, while the “fynbos” or temperate sclerophyll element contains many seed-regenerating species. Succession in the fynbos is thus more complex and prolonged.

  9. Cape Verdean Notions of Migrant Remittances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Åkesson

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The transfer of money from migrants to their non-migrant relatives is a key, symbol of the quality and meaning of transnational kinship relations. This article analyses how people in Cape Verde view migrant family members’ economic obligations and it examines the concomitant moral discourse. Through a detailed ethnographic study the article explores how gender and kinship positions interplay with the moral obligation to send remittances, and it also inquires into the differences between rural and urban people’s attitudes towards monetary gifts. Moreover, the importance of the receiver’s status in the local society is discussed and the role of the personal relation between the sender and the receiver. Thus the analysis goes beyond an instrumental and rationalistic approach to remittances, which is common in much research, and explores the significance of this money for emotions and social relations.Para os seus parentes não emigrantes as remessas dos emigrantes são um símbolo chave da qualidade e do significado das relações de parentesco transnacionais. Este artigo analisa como as pessoas em Cabo Verde encaram as obrigações económicas dos emigrantes membros de família e examina o discurso moral concomitante. Através de um estudo etnográfico detalhado o artigo explora como posições de género e parentesco interagem com a obrigação moral de enviar remessas e também investiga as diferenças entre as atitudes das pessoas rurais e urbanas relativamente às ofertas monetárias. Além disso, discute-se a importância do estatuto do receptor na sociedade local e o papel da relação pessoal entre remetente e receptor. Assim, a análise vai além de uma abordagem instrumental e racionalista das remessas, o que é habitual em muitas pesquisas, explorando o significado deste dinheiro em termos de emoções e relações sociais.

  10. Foraging range and habitat use by Cape Vulture Gyps coprotheres from the Msikaba colony, Eastern Cape province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan B. Pfeiffer; Venter, Jan A; Colleen T Downs

    2015-01-01

    Despite the extent of subsistence farmland in Africa, little is known about endangered species that persist within them. The Cape Vulture (Gyps coprotheres) is regionally endangered in southern Africa and at least 20% of the population breeds in the subsistence farmland area previously known as the Transkei in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. To understand their movement ecology, adult Cape Vultures (n = 9) were captured and fitted with global positioning system/global system for mo...

  11. Mercury in the atmosphere and in rainwater at Cape Point, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunke, Ernst-Günther; Walters, Chavon; Mkololo, Thumeka; Martin, Lynwill; Labuschagne, Casper; Silwana, Bongiwe; Slemr, Franz; Weigelt, Andreas; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-01-01

    Mercury measurements were concurrently made in air (Gaseous Elemental Mercury, i.e. GEM) as well as in precipitation samples (Total mercury, i.e. TotHg) over a seven year period (2007-2013) at Cape Point, South Africa, during the rainy seasons (May-October). Eighty-five rain events, almost exclusively associated with cold fronts, have been identified of which 75% reached the Cape Point observatory directly across the Atlantic Ocean from the south, while 19% moved in to the measuring site via the Cape Town metropolitan region. In statistic terms the GEM, TotHg, CO and 222Rn levels within the urban-marine events do not differ from those seen in the marine rain episodes. Over the 2007-2013 period, the May till Oct averages for GEM ranged from 0.913 ng m-3 to 1.108 ng m-3, while TotHg concentrations ranged from 0.03 to 52.5 ng L-1 (overall average: 9.91 ng L-1). A positive correlation (R2 = 0.49, n = 7) has been found between the average annual (May till October) GEM concentrations in air and TotHg concentration in rainwater suggesting a close relationship between the two species. The wetter years are normally associated with higher GEM and TotHg levels. Both GEM and TotHg annual means correlate positively with total annual (May till October) rain depths. If one or two outlier years are removed from the data set, the R2 values increase from 0.23 to 0.10 for GEM and TotHg to 0.97 (n = 5) and 0.89 (n = 5), respectively. The relationship between annual mean GEM and annual precipitation depth also holds for the period 1996-2004 (R2 = 0.6, n = 8) when GEM was measured manually (low resolution data). A positive correlation was also seen between annual average GEM concentrations and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) Index (SOI), for the 1996-2004 period (R2 = 0.7, n = 8). For the 2007-2013 periods this relationship was also positive but less pronounced. The relationship between annual precipitation depth and annual SOI suggests that the inter-annual variations of GEM

  12. A Posteriori Integration of University CAPE Software Developments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tolksdorf, Gregor; Fillinger, Sandra; Wozny, Guenter;

    2015-01-01

    This contribution deals with the mutual integration of existing CAPE software products developed at different universities in Germany, Denmark, and Italy. After the motivation MOSAIC is presented as the bridge building the connection between the modelling tool ICAS-MoT and the numerical processing...

  13. The Politics of an Emancipatory Literacy in Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macedo, Donaldo P.

    1983-01-01

    Examines the literacy program in Cape Verde against theories of cultural production and reproduction. Argues that the use of Portuguese rather than the Capeverdean dialect reproduces a colonial, elitist mentality, and that functional literacy in Portuguese fails to provide Capeverdeans with opportunities for critical reflection and social…

  14. Health-promoting compounds in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, Mary Luz; Dekker, Matthijs; Verkerk, Ruud; Boekel, van Tiny

    2016-01-01

    Background

    The fruit of Physalis peruviana L., known as Cape Gooseberry (CG) is a source of a variety of compounds with potential health benefits. Therefore, CG has been subject of scientific and commercial interest.

    Scope and approach

    This review paper evaluates changes o

  15. Cape Mendocino, CA Earthquakes, April 25 & 26, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — On April 25, 1992, a magnitude 7.1 earthquake occurred in the Cape Mendocino area. Two additional earthquakes, magnitudes 6.6 and 6.7 occurred the next morning. The...

  16. A FURTHER LATIN INSCRIPTION AND AN AMPHORA IN CAPE TOWN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.B. Saddington

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In a former volume of this journal I described a Latin inscription in the Cape Town Museum (Akroterion XLVI [2001] 99f..
    On a subsequent visit to the city, I went to the Wine Museum on the Groot Constantia estate.2 I was interested to find two Roman objects there, an inscription and an amphora.

  17. Training Corporate Outsiders: Doing It the Cape Breton Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolls, Judith A.

    This report provides culture-specific information about Cape Breton Island in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada, and describes a communication skills training model that complements its cultural foundation. Data in the report are based on the researcher's experience, on interviews with several trainers and directors of training, and on the…

  18. ADMIRAL ELPHINSTONE AND THE CONQUEST AND DEFENCE OF THE CAPE OF GOOD HOPE, 1795-96

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thean Potgieter

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Vice Admiral of the Blue the Honourable Sir George Keith Elphinstone(1746-1823 was appointed as commander of the British force dispatched to capturethe Cape of Good Hope in 1795. As an experienced naval officer and a capablecommander acquainted with the Cape and the Far East, he was the correct choice tocommand the expedition. Due to the strategic location of the Cape of Good Hope –literally halfway on the sea route to the East – it was vital for maritimecommunications, and Britain had to ensure that the Cape did not fall into Frenchhands. To secure a safe base on the sea route to the East, a British expeditionary forcewas sent to the Cape. The British task force arrived in False Bay on 11 June 1795 andwhen negotiations with the Dutch authorities at the Cape failed, a military campaigncommenced that resulted in the capitulation of the Cape on 16 September 1795. InAugust 1796, when a Dutch squadron under the command of Rear Admiral E. Lucasanchored in Saldanha Bay, Elphinstone speedily neutralised the threat, forcing Lucasto surrender. After a very successful service period at the Cape, Elphinstone returnedto Britain on 7 October 1796. He conducted the defence of the Cape with vigour andactively sought out his enemy, confirming British control of the Cape and the virtualimpossibility of taking back the Cape with force of arms.

  19. IN and CCN Measurements on RV Polarstern and Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welti, André; Herenz, Paul; Henning, Silvia; Stratmann, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Two field campaigns, one situated on RV Polarstern (Oct. - Dec. 2015) and one on the Cape Verde islands (Jan. - Feb. 2016) measuring ice nuclei (IN) and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations as a function of supersaturation and temperature are presented. The Polarstern cruise from Bremerhaven to Cape Town yields a cross section of IN and CCN concentrations from 54°N to 35°S and passes the Cape Verde Islands at 15°N. Measurements were conducted using the commercial CCNC and SPIN instruments from DMT. During both campaigns, a comprehensive set of aerosol characterization data including size distribution, optical properties and chemical information were measured in parallel. The ship based measurements provide a measure of variability in IN/CCN concentration with geographic position. As an example a clear influence on IN and CCN number concentration of the Saharan desert dust outflow between the Canary Islands and Cape Verde or the continental aerosol from Europe and South Africa was observed. The measurements on Cape Verde provide information on the temporal variability at a fixed position varying between clean marine and dust influenced conditions. Both datasets are related to auxiliary data of aerosol size distribution and chemical composition. The datasets are used to distinguish the influence of local sources and background concentration of IN/CCN. By combining of the geographically fix measurements with the geographical cross section, typical ranges of IN and CCN concentration are derived. The datasets will be part of the BACCHUS database thereby providing valuable input for future climate modeling activities.

  20. Cape Verde and Its People: A Short History, Part I [And] Folk Tales of the Cape Verdean People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Raymond A.; Nyhan, Patricia

    Two booklets provide an overview of the history and folklore of Cape Verde, a group of islands lying 370 miles off the west coast of Africa. One booklet describes the history of the islands which were probably settled initially by Africans from the west coast of Africa. By the 15th century the islands were colonized by Portuguese and other…

  1. Statistical exploration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM measured at Cape Point from 2007 to 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Venter

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The authors evaluated continuous high resolution gaseous elemental mercury (GEM data from the Cape Point Global Atmosphere Watch (CPT GAW station with different statistical analysis techniques. GEM data was evaluated by cluster analysis and the results indicated that two clusters, separated at 0.904 ng m−3, existed. The air mass history for the two-cluster solution was investigated by means of back-trajectory analysis. The air mass back-trajectory net result showed lower GEM concentrations originating from the sparsely populated semi-arid interior of SA and the marine environment, whereas higher GEM concentrations originated predominately along the coast of SA that most likely coincide with trade routes and industrial activities in urban areas along the coast. Considering the net result from the air mass back-trajectories, it is evident that not all low GEM concentrations are from marine origin, and similarly, not all high GEM concentrations have a terrestrial origin. Equations were developed by means of multi-linear regression (MLR analysis that allowed for the estimation/prediction of atmospheric GEM concentrations from other atmospheric parameters measured at the CPT GAW station. These equations also provided some insight into the relation and interaction of GEM with other atmospheric parameters. Both measured and MLR calculated data confirm a decline in GEM concentrations at CPT GAW over the period evaluated.

  2. Dusk Lighting of Layered Textures in 'Cape Verde'

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Full-shade lighting in the late Martian afternoon helps make details visible in this view of the layered cliff face of the 'Cape Verde' promontory making up part of the rim of Victoria Crater in the Meridiani Planum region of equatorial Mars. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used its panoramic camera (Pancam) to shoot the dozens of individual images that have been combined into this mosaic. Opportunity was inside Victoria Crater and near the base of the cliff when it took these images on the 1,579th and 1,580th Martian days, or sols, of the mission (July 2 and 3, 2008). Photographing the promontory from this position in Victoria Crater presented challenges for the rover team. The geometry was such that Cape Verde was between the rover and the sun, which could cause a range of negative effects, from glinting off Pancam's dusty lenses to shadowing on the cliff face. The team's solution was to take the images for this mosaic just after the sun disappeared behind the crater rim, at about 5:30 p.m. local solar time. The atmosphere was still lit, but no direct sunlight was illuminating the wall of Cape Verde. The result is a high-resolution view of Cape Verde in relatively uniform diffuse sky lighting across the scene. Pancam used a clear filter for taking the images for this mosaic. Capturing images in low-light situations was one of the main motivations for including the clear filter among the camera's assortment of filters available for use. The face of Cape Verde is about 6 meters (20 feet) tall. Victoria Crater, at about 800 meters (one-half mile) wide, is the largest and deepest crater that Opportunity has visited. It sits more than 5 kilometers (almost 4 miles) away from Opportunity's Eagle Crater landing site. Researchers sent Opportunity into Victoria Crater to study the rock layers exposed inside. The textures seen in the rock layers of Cape Verde suggest that the exposed layers were originally deposited by wind.

  3. Multi-disciplinary Monitoring of the 2014 Eruption of Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, R. M. S.; Faria, B. V. E.

    2015-12-01

    The Fogo volcano, located in the Cape Verde Archipelago (offshore Western Africa), is a complete stratovolcano system. It is the most recent expression of the Cape Verde hotspot, that has formed the archipelago. The summit reaches ~2830m above sea level, and raises 1100m above Chã das Caldeiras, an almost flat circular area. The last eruption of Fogo started on November 23, 2014 (~10:00UTC), after 19 years of inactivity. C4G, a distributed research infrastructure created in 2014 in the framework of the Portuguese Roadmap for Strategic Research Infrastructures, collaborated immediately with INMG, the Cape Verdean Meteorological and Geophysical Institut with the goal of complementing the permanent geophysical monitoring network in operation on Fogo island. The INMG permanent network is composed of seven seismographic stations and three tiltmeter stations, with real-time data transmitted. On the basis of increased pre-event activity (which started in October 2014), INMG issued a formal alert of an impending eruption to the Civil Protection Agency, about 24 hours before the onset of the eruption. Although the eruption caused no casualties or personal injuries due to the warnings issued, the lava expelled by the eruption (which last until the end of January) destroyed the two main villages in the caldera (~1000 inhabitants) and covered vast areas of agricultural land, causing very large economic losses and an uncertain future of the local populations. The C4G team installed a network of seven GNSS receivers and nine seismometers, distributed by the entire island. The data collection started on 28th November 2014, and continued until the end of January 2015. The mission also included a new detailed gravimetric survey of the island, the acquisition of geological samples, and the analysis of the air quality during the eruption. We present here a detailed description of the monitoring efforts carried out during the eruption as well as initial results of the analysis of the

  4. COMPARED AESTHETICS FLASHES: READING CAPE-VERDEAN IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Caputo Gomes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The essay presents, according to the theoretical line of Comparative Aesthetics, a gallery of Cape Verdean's paintings and texts to be read throughout  the relationship between literature and painting, in order to demonstrate how the male and female points of view perceive the images of women and their daily lives. Writers Fátima Bettencourt, Manuel Lopes, Maria Margarida Mascarenhas, Oswaldo Osório, Vasco Martins, Vera Duarte will dialogue among themselves and with the painters of Armando do Rosário, Kiki Lima, Misá, Sandro Brito, Tchalê Figueira and Tony Barbosa, from diverse visions of social situation of the social context of women in Cape Verde, under the inspiration or challenge to the canonical Botticelli Venus.

  5. Host minerals for uranium and thorium in the Cape granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The uranium and thorium in Cape granite reside chiefly in trace minerals. The principle host minerals differ much from pluton to pluton. The large composite Khubus pluton in the Richterveld is composed of a central body of syenite surrounded by various types of granite. The granites are usually very low in dark minerals. According to autoradiographic results, the bulk of the uranium and thorium in the Khubus pluton is situated in the zircon, rather than in the sphene, apatite and fluorite. In many intrusives of the Cape granite suite most of the uranium is situated in a single host mineral such a zircon, xenotime, sphene or even uraninte. The most important thorium host mineral is monazite. The radio-element host mineral spectrum is unique for each different intrusive

  6. Mourning Mandela: sacred drama and digital visuality in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Uimonen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    The world united in unprecedented ways in mourning the global icon Nelson Mandela, an emotionally charged historical event in which digital visuality played an influential role. The memorial service for Nelson Mandela on Tuesday, 10 December 2013, gathered dignitaries and celebrities from around the world at the First National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg, to mourn the passing of Madiba and to celebrate his life work. At the Grand Parade in Cape Town, the event was broadcast on large public s...

  7. Glycosidically bound flavor compounds of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, H; Knapp, H; Winterhalter, P; Duque, C

    2001-04-01

    The bound volatile fraction of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit harvested in Colombia has been examined by HRGC and HRGC-MS after enzymatic hydrolysis using a nonselective pectinase (Rohapect D5L). Forty bound volatiles could be identified, with 21 of them being reported for the first time in cape gooseberry. After preparative isolation of the glycosidic precursors on XAD-2 resin, purification by multilayer coil countercurrent chromatography and HPLC of the peracetylated glycosides were carried out. Structure elucidation by NMR, ESI-MS/MS, and optical rotation enabled the identification of (1S,2S)-1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol 2-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol 1-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside (2). Both glycosides have been identified for the first time in nature. They could be considered as immediate precursors of 1-phenylpropane-1,2-diol and p-menth-4(8)-ene-1,2-diol, typical volatiles found in the fruit of cape gooseberry. PMID:11308344

  8. Religious and secular Cape Malay Afrikaans: Literary varieties used by Shaykh Hanif Edwards (1906-1958

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Luffin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the White and Christian-dominated Afrikaans language movements, followed by apartheid, little attention has been paid to an Afrikaans literary variety used among Muslim Cape Coloureds, a group often referred to as ‘Cape Malays’. Descending mainly from Asian slaves brought by the Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC, Dutch East India Company, and bearing the marks of cohabitation with non-Asian populations at the Cape, the Cape Malays at an early stage developed a distinct religious culture through their adherence to Islam, as well as a distinct Cape Dutch linguistic identity through their connections with the Dutch East Indies and the Islamic world. These cultural idiosyncrasies found expression in a local literature, religious and (more rarely secular, using as a medium a variety of Cape Dutch/Afrikaans written either in the Arabic alphabet or in the Roman alphabet.

  9. Can Cape Town's unique biodiversity be saved? Balancing conservation imperatives and development needs

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Wood; Rebelo, Anthony G; Clifford Dorse; Patricia M. Holmes

    2012-01-01

    Cape Town is an urban hotspot within the Cape Floristic Region global biodiversity hotspot. This city of 2,460 km² encompasses four local centers of fynbos plant endemism, 19 national terrestrial vegetation types (six endemic to the city), wetland and coastal ecosystems, and 190 endemic plant species. Biodiversity in the lowlands is under threat of extinction as a result of habitat loss to agriculture, urban development, mining, and degradation by invasive alien plants. Cape Town's popul...

  10. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf with stretched histogram, from Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (composite_shatt_str.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  11. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf from Cape Hatteras, NC to Cape Lookout, NC (composite_shatt.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  12. 77 FR 65446 - Iowa Pacific Holdings, LLC and Permian Basin Railways-Control Exemption-Cape Rail, Inc. and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-26

    ... interest in Cape, the parent company of Mass Coastal, from the two existing Cape shareholders, Podgurski... operates a network of about 100 miles of track and trackage rights in southeastern Massachusetts and...

  13. Particle chemical properties in the vertical column based on aircraft observations in the vicinity of Cape Verde Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieke, K.; Kandler, K. (Institut fur Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany)), e-mail: kirstenlieke@gmx.de; Scheuvens, D. (Institut fur Angewandte Geowissenschaften, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Institut fur Physik der Atmosphaere, Johannes-Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Mainz (Germany)) (and others)

    2011-09-15

    During the second Saharan Mineral Dust Experiment (SAMUM-2) field campaign, particles with geometric diameters (d) between approx0.1 and 25 mum were collected on board of the Deutsches Zentrum fur Luft- und Raumfahrt (German Aerospace Center, DLR) Falcon aircraft. Size, chemical composition and mixing state of aerosols sampled (spatially and vertically resolved) along the West African coastline and in the Cape Verde Islands region were determined by electron microscopy. A pronounced layer structure of biomass-burning aerosol and desert dust was present for all days during the sampling period from 23 January to 6 February. The aerosol composition of the small particles (d < 0.5 mum) was highly variable and in cases of biomass burning strongly dominated by soot with up to 90% relative number abundance. Internal mixtures of soot particles with mineral dust were not detected. Soot was only observed to mix with secondary sulphate. The coarse particles (d > 0.5 mum) were dominated by silicates. In the Cape Verde Islands region mineral dust is well mixed. The determination of source regions by elemental or mineralogical composition was generally not possible, except for air masses which were transported over the Gulf of Guinea. The real part of the refractive index showed little variation. In contrast, the imaginary part strongly depended on the abundance of soot (biomass-burning aerosol) and haematite (mineral dust)

  14. Hydroxyester disaccharides from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga, Humberto; Duque, Carmenza; Knapp, Holger; Winterhalter, Peter

    2002-02-01

    The 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and the diastereomeric 3-O-alpha-L-arabinopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranosides of (3R) and (3S)-butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, respectively, were isolated by chromatographic methods from fruits of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) harvested in Colombia. Their structures were identified by ESI-MS/MS and NMR spectroscopy. The three glycoconjugates can be considered as immediate precursors of ethyl 3-hydroxyoctanoate and butyl 3-hydroxybutanoate, which are important aroma volatiles found in the fruit. PMID:11830164

  15. Decontamination of Cape Arza (Montenegro) from depleted Uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On May 30, 1999, NATO A-10 aircrafts attacked Cape Arza, a very attractive touring area on peninsula Lustica, at the entrance of Boka Kotorska Bay, in Montenegro. They fired anti-armour rounds with penetrators made of depleted uranium. Such an armour-penetrating round has a length of 173 mm and a diameter of 30 mm. The bullet has an aluminium case (jacket) and inside it a conical DU penetrator. The length of the penetrator itself is 95 mm, and the diameter of its base is 16 mm. The penetrator weight is 292 g. According to the data reported by NATO (NATO, 2001), the total number of rounds fired against Cape Arza was 480. As to the data on combat mix of the A-10 aircraft gun, 300 (UNEP, 2001) or 400 (UNEP, 2001; FAS) of these rounds where with DU penetrators, and the rest with a classical charge. This means that Cape Arza was contaminated with 90 or 120 kg of DU, or with a radioactivity of (3.5 - 4.7) · 109 Bq. Depleted uranium is a waste product of the process of uranium enrichment in 235U isotope, for use in nuclear reactors or in nuclear weapons. The isotopic composition of depleted uranium is (Harley et al., 1999): (99.7 - 99.8) % of 238U, (0.2 - 0.3) % of 235U, 0.001 % of 234U, and only traces of 234Th, 234Pa and 231Th. If traces of the isotopes 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu are also present, as it is the case with DU from Cape Arza (UNEP, 2002), the depleted uranium is obtained by reprocessing of spent nuclear reactor fuel. The activity concentration of depleted uranium is 39.42 · 106 Bq/kg. Most of it comes from 238U and its decay products 234Th and 234Pa which are in radioactive equilibrium (12.27 · 106 Bq/kg per each of them), and the less part from 235U and 231Th (0.16 · 106 Bq/kg per each) (UNEP, 1999), while the activity concentration of 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu is below 100 Bq/kg (UNEP, 2001)

  16. Incidence, severity and management of cancer chemotherapy related oral mucositis in Eastern Cape and Western Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna E. Maree

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the incidence, duration and severity of oral mucositis in patients receiving chemotherapy in the Eastern and Western Cape, how this symptom was managed and whether the patients considered the management to be effective. An exploratory, contextual, quantitative survey was conducted. The sampling method was convenience. One hundred and sixty patients were recruited, with 106, (66.3% participating. Data were collected by means of self-reports, using a self-administered questionnaire. Oral mucositis was a common problem, with 71.7% (n = 76 reporting to have had mucositis. Pain was not effectively managed, as 69.8% (n = 53 of respondents experienced pain whilst only 17.1% (n = 13 reported to have used analgesics. More than half of the respondents used prescribed mouth and throat preparations, whilst 28.9% (n = 22 used non-prescribed self-care measures including potentially harmful products. A significant difference was found between using non-prescribed self-care measures and the duration of oral mucositis (χ² = 0.81; p = 0.01. The reported grade of mucositis did not influence the use of non-prescribed self-care measures, whilst the more pain patients experienced the less inclined they were to use these measures. The management of oral mucositis remains a challenge. Failure to palliate this distressing symptom can lead to the use of potentially harmful self-care measures. Die studie het die insidensie, tydsduur en intensiteit van orale mukositis in Oos en Wes Kaapse pasiënte wat kankerchemoterapie ontvang verken asook hoe hierdie simptoom hanteer is en die sukses hiervan volgens die pasiënte. ‘n Kwantitatiewe, ekploratiewe, kontekstuele opname is onderneem. ‘n Gerieflikheidsteekproef is gebruik om die deelnemers te verkry. Een hondered en sestig persone is genader en 66.3% (n = 106 het aan die studie deelgeneem. Die datainsamelingsmetode was self-rapportering met behulp van ’n vraelys en beskrywende statistiek is gebruik

  17. Strategies for Post-Primary Education in Small Island Developing States (SIDS): Lessons from Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atchoarena, David; Da Graca, Patricia Dias; Marquez, Jose Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This article addresses the context and challenges of small island developing states, focusing particularly on Cape Verde. After a general discussion of the characteristics of small island developing states, several development challenges such as poverty, unemployment and migratory issues specific to Cape Verde are evoked. Despite a period of…

  18. Cape Verde. A Country Guide Series Report from the AACRAO-AID Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevigny, Joseph A.

    This report provides information on the education system of Cape Verde, and is designed to assist college admissions officers and registrars in the United States with the admission and placement of students from that country. The report contains general information on the geography, history, and people of Cape Verde, as well as more specific…

  19. Promoting Distance Education in Higher Education in Cape Verde and Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Fernando; Taju, Gulamo; Canuto, Louisette

    2011-01-01

    Over the past six years, the authors have been project leaders for three distance education initiatives in Cape Verde and Mozambique: (1) a blended learning master's degree in multimedia in education for faculty in Cape Verdean public higher education institutions (2005-2008); (2) a teacher training programme for 1375 elementary teachers provided…

  20. Misaligned Preferences And Perceptions On Quality Attributes Of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L) Supply Chain Actors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olivares-Tenorio, M.L.; Linnemann, A.R.; Pascucci, S.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) is the second most exported fruit in Colombia. The market has grown in the last years due to the interest of consumers in this exotic, good appearance and nutritious fruit. Although, Cape Gooseberry is promising in various aspects, the supply chain still fa

  1. 76 FR 56735 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... sea floor. Cape Wind Associates also plans to conduct a geotechnical survey that is not expected to..., the geotechnical survey would include the acquisition of soil borings and/or cone penetrometer tests... Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution Survey in Nantucket Sound, MA AGENCY: National...

  2. 33 CFR 80.120 - Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cape Ann, MA to Marblehead Neck, MA. 80.120 Section 80.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Atlantic Coast § 80.120 Cape Ann, MA...

  3. 46 CFR 7.10 - Eastport, ME to Cape Ann, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eastport, ME to Cape Ann, MA. 7.10 Section 7.10 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO THE PUBLIC BOUNDARY LINES Atlantic Coast § 7.10 Eastport, ME to Cape Ann, MA. (a) A line drawn from the easternmost extremity of...

  4. 75 FR 10500 - Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in Nantucket Sound, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ... Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Cape Wind Energy Project. The FEIS assessed the physical... Minerals Management Service Environmental Assessment Prepared for Proposed Cape Wind Energy Project in... of an Environmental Assessment (EA) and Draft Finding of No New Significant Impact (FONNSI)...

  5. 77 FR 61835 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-11

    ... 2010d, p. 5). Rockland Hammock Rockland hammock is a species-rich tropical hardwood forest on upland... and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable Thoroughwort, Florida... Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Endangered Species Status for Cape Sable Thoroughwort,...

  6. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Davis, A.J.; Lavaleye, M.M.S.; Rosso, S.W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M.J.N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T.C.E.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off thecoast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmostcold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau inthe NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookoutare occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterisedby oligotrophic

  7. Developing a Strategic Approach to Social Responsiveness at the University of Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favish, Judith; McMillan, Janice; Ngcelwane, Sonwabo V.

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative community-engaged scholarship has roots in many parts of the world, and engaged practitioners and researchers are increasingly finding each other and sharing resources globally. This article focuses on a "social responsiveness" initiative at the University of Cape Town. Its story, told here by three University of Cape Town…

  8. 78 FR 31573 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... National Park Service Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape Lookout National Seashore AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice and request...: None. This is a new collection. Title: Social Values of Ecosystem Services at Cape Lookout...

  9. Survival of children in cape town known to be vertically infected with HIV-1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussey, GD; Reijnhart, RM; Sebens, AM; Burgess, J; Schaaf, S; Potgieter, S

    1998-01-01

    Objective. To determine the survival patterns of children in Cape Town known to be vertically infected with HIV. Design. Retrospective record review of children diagnosed with symptomatic HIV infection during the period 1 December 1990 - 31 May 1995. Setting. Hospitals in the Cape Town metropolitan

  10. 76 FR 49726 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-11

    ... Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile. Based on this analysis, we... fresh Cape gooseberry fruit from Chile. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public...

  11. Spiders are Mammals: Direct Instruction in Cape York

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Dow

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, SRA Direct Instructioni was introduced across the curriculum in two remote Cape York schools, as a key aspect of social and welfare reform. There is national political interest in these reforms, which link welfare policy to State primary school education conceived as basic skills training. Reflecting the political interest, national newspapers ran the story that Direct Instruction had provided almost miraculous results after 17 weeks (Devine 2010a. Alternative approaches to literacy development in Indigenous education did not get the same sort of media attention. Noel Pearson provides the intellectual basis for Cape York social reforms, through his writing, political advocacy and leadership of organisations involved in the reforms. His ultimate goal is successful mainstream education leading to economic integration, where young people are „completely fluent in their own culture and the wider culture‟ (Pearson 2009:57. The question posed by this vision is „What kind of education can produce these flexible, bicultural, working people who keep their traditions alive?‟

  12. Geotourism, Medical Geology and local development: Cape Verde case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, F.; Ferreira da Silva, E.

    2014-11-01

    Geotourism and Geoparks in particular are real opportunities to rural developments promoting the rate decline of unemployment and emigration through engaging the local communities in geopark activities and tourism marketing in the form of adventure tourism, ecotourism, rural tourism and health geotourism. Geotourism is closely linked with Medical Geology. The intake of minerals and chemical elements for food, water, soil (through geophagy) or dust can be accomplished by ingestion, inhalation or dermal absorption. Pelotherapy or “Mudtherapy” is the use of mud/clay for therapeutic applications, internal or external. Cape Verde archipelago is located in Atlantic ocean, 400 km westwards of Senegal coast. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo island huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine. A cooperative program established between Cape Verde University (UCV) and Aveiro University (UA, Portugal) is under way, aiming, on a first stage, to identify Geotouristic potentialities and, on a second stage, to develop products. Geotourism is being developed, mainly focused on the development of a geopark in Fogo isl. huge caldera, but also trying to take advantage of their potentialities for Geomedecine.

  13. An Examination of Library Anxiety at Cape Breton University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenard J. Lawless

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective – Library anxiety as a phenomenon has been discussed for decades. While it is generally recognized, seeing its effects within a specific institution can often be difficult. This study examined the presence and degree of library anxiety among students at Cape Breton University in Canada. Methods – A modified version of the Library Anxiety Scale (LAS was provided to the students via an online survey. Invitations to take the survey were sent to students by email and via the Student Union’s social networking site.Results – The average score on the LAS showed only mild anxiety levels among all the respondents. When categorizing the results by either program of study or program year, the results vary from no to mild anxiety. Little variation was seen between the sexes, with both males and females scoring close to the overall average of mild anxiety.Conclusions – With no segments of the student body scoring in the moderate to severe levels, the overall LAS scores for Cape Breton University’s students appear to be in a range that could be considered “normal.”

  14. Facilities at ARIES for the Nainital–Cape Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ram Sagar; David L. Mary

    2005-06-01

    A collaborative programme searching for mmag pulsations in chemically peculiar stars in the northern hemisphere was initiated in 1997 between Nainital, India, and Cape Town, South Africa. It was therefore named as the Nainital–Cape Survey programme. The detection limits imposed by the observing conditions (including atmospheric noise and telescope size) at both Manora Peak and Devasthal sites are described. The scintillation noise on the best photometric nights is ≈ 0.1 to 0.2 mmag for these sites. Both places allow one to detect few mmag variation in bright stars ( ≤ 12 mag), and are therefore particularly well-suited for carrying out the proposed surveywork. The main characteristics of the three-channel photometer developed at ARIES for carrying out the observations are also presented. This excellent instrument has been used extensively since 1999 at the f/13 Cassegrain focus of ARIES’ 104 cm telescope. In particular, it allowed the survey to result in the discovery of Scuti like pulsations in four Am stars, in one rapidly oscillating Ap star, and in a number of probable variables so far. The future prospects are then presented, which regard the acquisition of a high speed time series CCD photometer, a project to build a 3-metre class telescope at Devasthal, and collaborative observations with Indian and foreign astronomical sites.

  15. Mourning Mandela: sacred drama and digital visuality in Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Uimonen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The world united in unprecedented ways in mourning the global icon Nelson Mandela, an emotionally charged historical event in which digital visuality played an influential role. The memorial service for Nelson Mandela on Tuesday, 10 December 2013, gathered dignitaries and celebrities from around the world at the First National Bank Stadium in Johannesburg, to mourn the passing of Madiba and to celebrate his life work. At the Grand Parade in Cape Town, the event was broadcast on large public screens, followed by live music performances and narrowcast interaction with the audience. Building on recent research on public screens during global media events, this article addresses the mediated mourning rituals at the Grand Parade in terms of a sacred drama. Focusing on social relationality, the article discusses how digital visuality mediated a sense of global communitas, thus momentarily overcoming historical frictions between the global north and the global south, while expanding the fame of Madiba. Paying attention to the public display of visual memory objects and the emotional agency of images, it argues that digital visuality mediated social frictions between the living and the dead, while recasting a historical subject as a historical object. The article further discusses how digital visuality mediated cultural frictions of apartheid and xenophobia, through the positioning of Mandela in the pantheon of Pan-African icons, thus underlining the African origin of this global icon. The analysis is based on ethnographic observations and experiences in Cape Town.

  16. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air pollution is a mixture of solid particles and gases in the air. Car emissions, chemicals from factories, dust, pollen and ... Ozone, a gas, is a major part of air pollution in cities. When ozone forms air pollution, ...

  17. Radiation sensitization by CAPE on human HeLa cells of cervical cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the radiosensitizing effect of caffic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on human cervical cancer HeLa cells. Methods: MTT assay was used to measure the relation between the inhibition effect and CAPE concentrations by CAPE with different concentrations on HeLa cells for 24 hours. HeLa cells were divided into the control and experimental groups, both of which were given 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy of 60Co γ-irradiation, respectively. The cell clones were counted. Meanwhile HeLa cells were divided into the control, CAPE, irradiation and combination groups. Flow cytometric analysis was adopted to detect the changes of cell cycle distribution induced by CAPE. Results: The inhibition rate of CAPE acting on Hela cells increased with concentrations (F=126. 49 ∼ 3654.88, P0) (1.45 and 1.82 Gy) and the quasi-threshold dose (Dq) (1.89 and 3.21 Gy) of HeLa cells in experimental group decreased comparing with control group, SER was 1.26. Compared with the sole irradiation group, cells in G2/M phase of the CAPE group and the sole irradiation group increased (P2/M arrest and may be related to the inhibition of the sub-lethal damage repair. (authors)

  18. THE HERSCHEL OBELISK, CLASSICS, AND EGYPTOMANIA AT THE CAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L. Hilton

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Immediately prior to his departure from Cape Town to England in 1838, Sir John Herschel sold the estate, ‘Feldhausen’,1 on which he had erected his telescope and had conducted his astronomical observations, to Mr. R. J. Jones, an auctioneer. The property was sold with a servitude: a circular patch of ground 63 feet in diameter bounded by newly planted fir trees was to be kept in Sir John’s possession in perpetuity.2 This area marked the spot on which the telescope had actually stood. At the centre of the circle Herschel placed a small cylindrical column of granite engraved ‘I. H. 1838’ representing his initials in Latin (for Ioannes Herschelius and the year in which he had completed his work and was leaving the colony.3 Subsequently, the members of the South African Literary and Scientific Institution, of which Herschel had been President,4 decided to commemorate his scientific achievements and his contributions to education in the Cape. At first they had the idea of devising a series of six gold medallions inscribed with the details of his scientific achievements.5 These had been paid for by a voluntary subscription and were designed by Herschel’s assistant, Charles Piazzi Smyth, whose father Rear-Admiral William Henry Smyth had recently (1834 published a catalogue of Roman Imperial medals.6 However, more had been collected than was expended and so the members decided to widen the scope of the exercise and to erect a more suitable memorial on the ground on which the telescope had stood. A meeting of the subscribers chaired by the Governor, Sir George Napier, was held in November 1838 to decide on the form the memorial should take. The resolutions taken at the gathering stated that it was to be ‘a permanent memorial’ and, although no further information about its exact architectural form was given is given in the resolutions, it must be assumed from subsequent references that it was to be an obelisk.7 The committee requested

  19. Sensitivity of MJO to the CAPE lapse time in the NCAR CAM3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LIU, P.; Wang, B.; Meehl, Gerald, A.

    2007-09-05

    Weak and irregular boreal winter MJO in the NCAR CAM3 corresponds to very low CAPE background, which is caused by easy-to-occur and over-dominant deep convection indicating the deep convective scheme uses either too low CAPE threshold as triggering function or too large consumption rate of CAPE to close the scheme. Raising the CAPE threshold from default 70 J/kg to ten times large only enhances the CAPE background while fails to noticeably improve the wind mean state and the MJO. However, lengthening the CAPE lapse time from one to eight hours significantly improved the background in CAPE and winds, and salient features of the MJO. Variances, dominant periods and zonal wave numbers, power spectra and coherent propagating structure in winds and convection associated with MJO are ameliorated and comparable to the observations. Lengthening the CAPE lapse time to eight hours reduces dramatically the cloud base mass flux, which prevents effectively the deep convection from occurring prematurely. In this case, partitioning of deep to shallow convection in MJO active area is about 5:4.5 compared to over 9:0.5 in the control run. Latent heat is significantly enhanced below 600 hPa over the central Indian Ocean and the western Pacific. Such partitioning of deep and shallow convection is argued necessary for simulating realistic MJO features. Although the universal eight hours lies in the upper limit of that required by the quasi-equilibrium theory, a local CAPE lapse time for the parameterized cumulus convection will be more realistic.

  20. Seasonal variations of biogenic secondary organic aerosol tracers in Cape Hedo, Okinawa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chunmao; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Fu, Pingqing

    2016-04-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) substantially contributes to particulate organic matter affecting the regional and global air quality and the climate. Total suspended particle (TSP) samples were collected in October 2009 to February 2012 on a weekly basis at Cape Hedo, Okinawa, Japan in the western North Pacific Rim, an outflow region of Asian aerosols and precursors. The TSP samples were analyzed for SOA tracers derived from biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs). Total isoprene-SOA tracers showed a maximum in summer (2.12 ± 2.02 ng m-3) and minimum in winter (1.16 ± 0.92 ng m-3). This seasonality is mainly controlled by isoprene emission from the local subtropical forest, followed by regional scale emission of isoprene from the surrounding seas and long-range transported air masses. Total monoterpene-SOA tracers peaked in March (3.38 ± 2.03 ng m-3) followed by October (2.95 ± 1.62 ng m-3). In contrast, sesquiterpene-SOA tracer, β-caryophyllinic acid, showed winter maximum (1.63 ± 1.18 ng m-3) and summer minimum (0.20 ± 0.46 ng m-3). The variations of the monoterpene- and sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are likely related to the continental outflow of oxidation products of BVOC. Using a tracer-based method, we estimated the total biogenic SOC of 0.25-157 ng m-3 (mean 35.8 ng m-3) that accounts for 0.01-9.8% (mean 2.7%) of aerosol organic carbon. Our study suggests that SOA formation in the western North Pacific Rim is involved with not only local but also regional emissions followed by long-range atmospheric transport.

  1. Three new species of Tritoniopsis (Iridaceae: Crocoideae from the Cape Region of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Three new species of the largely Western Cape genus Tritoniopsis L.Bolus are described, bringing the number of species in the genus to 24.  Tritoniopsis bicolor and  T. flava are newly discovered, narrow endemics of the Bredasdorp Mountains and the Kogelberg Biosphere Reserve, respectively, in the southwestern Cape. Both of these are areas of high local endemism.  T. toximontana, known since at least 1465 but misunderstood, is restricted to the Gifberg-Matsikamma Mountain complex of northern Western Cape. Notes on the pollination biology of the species are provided.

  2. New species of mayflies (Ephemeroptera) from Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soldán, Tomáš; Bojková, Jindřiška

    2015-01-01

    To date, no mayflies have been described from Cape Verde, an archipelago of volcanic islands in the Atlantic Ocean. Based on the material collected on two islands, Santo Antão and Santiago, two species of the genus Cloeon Leach, 1815 (Ephemeroptera: Baetidae) are described based on larvae and imagines. Cloeon morna sp. n., collected in Santo Antão, and C. sidadi sp. n., collected in Santiago, have 3-segmented maxillary palps and tapered labial palps of larvae. The new species can be distinguished from each other and from other West-African species of the genus mainly according to details of the lateral spines on larval abdominal segments and characteristic colourations of vitta and terga in female imagines and colours of male turbinate eyes. Affinities to the West African species of the genus are discussed. PMID:25781802

  3. HD 12098 and Other Results from Nainital–Cape Survey

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V. Girish

    2005-06-01

    Nainital;Cape Survey was started with an aim to search for new rapidly oscillating Ap stars in the northern hemisphere.We discovered one new mono-periodic roAp star HD 12098. The frequency separation of HD 12098 suggests a rotation period of 5.5 days for the star. We summarize here the observations of HD 12098 and briefly discuss the results of the multi-site observation campaign organized to resolve the ambiguity in the determination of the rotation period of HD 12098. Other interesting results like non-oscillating Ap stars discovered and two candidate stars in which roAp periodicity is seen but not confirmed are also discussed.

  4. Control of dengue disease: a case study in Cape Verde

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Torres, Delfim F M; Zinober, Alan

    2010-01-01

    A model for the transmission of dengue disease is presented. It consists of eight mutually-exclusive compartments representing the human and vector dynamics. It also includes a control parameter (adulticide spray) in order to combat the mosquito. The model presents three possible equilibria: two disease-free equilibria (DFE) --- where humans, with or without mosquitoes, live without the disease --- and another endemic equilibrium (EE). In the literature it has been proved that a DFE is locally asymptotically stable, whenever a certain epidemiological threshold, known as the basic reproduction number, is less than one. We show that if a minimum level of insecticide is applied, then it is possible to maintain the basic reproduction number below unity. A case study, using data of the outbreak that occured in 2009 in Cape Verde, is presented.

  5. Cape plants: corrections and additions to the flora. 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Goldblatt

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Comprising an area of ± 90 000 km:, less than 5% of the land surface of the southern African subcontinent, the Cape Floristic Region (CFR is one of the world’s richest areas for plant species diversity. A recent synoptic flora for the Region has established a new base line for an accurate assessment of the flora. Here we document corrections and additions to the flora at family, genus and species ranks. As treated in Cape plants, which was completed in 1999. the flora comprised 173 families (five endemic, 988 genera (160 endemic: 16.2%, and 9 004 species (6 192 endemic: 68.8%. Just four years later, a revised count resulting from changes in the circumscriptions of families and genera, and the discovery of new species or range extensions of species, yields an estimate of 172 families (four endemic, 992 genera (162 endemic: 16.3% and 9 086 species (6 226: 68.5% endemic. Of these, 948 genera and 8 971 species are seed plants. The number of species packed into so small an area is remarkable for the temperate zone and compares favourably with species richness for areas of compa­rable size in the wet tropics. The degree of endemism is also remarkable for a continental area. An unusual family compo­sition includes, in descending order of size, based on species number. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. Iridaceae. Ericaceae. Aizoaceae, Scrophulariaceae. Proteaceae. Restionaceae, Rutaceae. and Orchidaceae. Disproportionate radiation has resulted in 59.1% of the species falling in the 10 largest families and 74.6% in the largest 20 families. Thirteen genera have more than 100 species and the 20 largest genera contribute some 31.5% of the total species number.

  6. An Oscillating Jet in the Cape Cod Bay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulin, F. J.; Flierl, G. R.

    2004-05-01

    During the spring months, the Cape Cod Bay is a roaming ground for the North Atlantic right whale, perhaps the most endangered whale species in the world. The whales are observed to travel along the topographic steps that run parallel to the shore, eating plankton patches that form in the coastal water. In this region, off the coast of Provincetown, there is an oscillatory current with the same period as that of the ambient tides. The location of the current and its periodicity suggest that the topography and tides play fundamental roles in generating the jet. This current, depending on its velocity profile, may become unstable and generate vortices. It is likely that the local surface convergences and divergences in the tidal flows and vortices are related to the aggregation of the copepods (Calanus Finmarchicus), which are the right whale's primary food source. Understanding the dynamics of this jet is essential to predicting the spatial and temporal patterns of the codepods, which will in turn help us understand the likely locations and feeding history of the whales. In this talk we discuss results of the first phase of this study, that of the oscillatory jet in the Cape Cod Bay. This jet is rather complicated since it involves complex topography and coastlines, bottom and lateral friction, stratification and numerous other effects. Rather than study this system in fine detail, we investigate an idealized model that captures the essential features. In the context of this model, we first compute possible profiles for the oscillating jet. We then solve the linear stability problem to determine how the growth rates depend on the various parameters. Finally, and most importantly, we study the nonlinear problem to observe the time evolution of the instability process along with its equilibration. This provides some insight into how the instabilities are related to fluid transport across the shelf.

  7. 77 FR 9852 - Special Regulations; Areas of the National Park System, Cape Cod National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    .... DATES: This rule is effective March 22, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Craig Thatcher, Acting... primary authors of this regulation were Craig Thatcher, Acting Chief Ranger, Cape Cod National...

  8. New species of Rissoidae from the Cape Verde Islands (Mollusca: Gastropoda) Part 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moolenbeek, R.G.; Rolán, E.

    1988-01-01

    Sediment samples collected at the Cape Verde Islands contained many interesting micromolluscs. Amongst them, four new species of the family Rissoidae ( Alvania peli, A. nicolauensis, A. stocki and A. planciusi).

  9. The role of eclogite in the mantle heterogeneity at Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail Katrine; Holm, Paul Martin; Troll, Valentin R.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape Verde hotspot, like many other Ocean Island Basalt provinces, demonstrates isotopic heterogeneity on a 100–200 km scale. The heterogeneity is represented by the appearance of an EM1-like component at several of the southern islands and with a HIMU-like component present throughout...... have been limited. We apply the minor elements in olivine approach (Sobolev et al. in Nature 434:590–597, 2005; Science, doi:10.1126/science.1138113, 2007), to determine and quantify the contributions of peridotite, pyroxenite and eclogite melts to the mantle heterogeneity observed at Cape Verde. Cores...... of olivine phenocrysts of the Cape Verde volcanics have low Mn/FeO and low Ni*FeO/MgO that deviate from the negative trend of the global array. The global array is defined by mixing between peridotite and pyroxenite, whereas the Cape Verde volcanics indicate contribution of an additional eclogite source...

  10. Retroflection of part of the east Greenland current at Cape Farewell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, N. Penny; Meyer, Amélie; Bacon, Sheldon; Alderson, Steven G.; de Cuevas, Beverly

    2007-04-01

    The east Greenland current (EGC) and the smaller east Greenland coastal current (EGCC) provide the major conduit for cold fresh polar water to enter the lower latitudes of the North Atlantic. They flow equatorward through the western Irminger Basin and around Cape Farewell into the Labrador Sea. The surface circulation and transport of the Cape Farewell boundary current region in summer 2005 is described. The EGCC merges with Arctic waters of the EGC to the south of Cape Farewell, forming the west Greenland current. The EGC transport decreases from 15.5 Sv south of Cape Farewell to 11.7 Sv in the eastern Labrador Sea (where the water becomes known as Irminger Sea Water). The decrease in EGC transport is balanced by the retroflection of a substantial proportion of the boundary current (5.1 Sv) into the central Irminger Basin; a new pathway for fresh water into the interior of the subpolar gyre.

  11. Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge : Annual Narrative Report : Calendar Year 1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge summarizes Refuge activities during the 1996 calendar year. The report begins with a summary...

  12. Application of the Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM 6) to Cape May NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Sea-Level Affecting Marshes Model (SLAMM) report presents a model for projecting the effects of sea-level rise on coastal marshes and related habitats on Cape...

  13. Groundwater contributing areas for Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver Regions of Massachusetts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data layer contains groundwater contributing areas for streams, ponds and estuaries in the Cape Cod and the Plymouth-Carver region. Contributing areas were...

  14. 76 FR 4725 - Apria Healthcare Customer Service Department; Fourteen Locations in Missouri Cameron, Cape...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration Apria Healthcare Customer Service Department; Fourteen Locations in... St. Peters, Missouri. The notice was published in the Federal Register on September 3, 2010 (75 FR... Healthcare, Customer Service Department, Thirteen Locations in Missouri: Cameron, Cape Girardeau,...

  15. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  16. Trimmed Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  17. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  18. Processed Continuous Resistivity Point Data from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  19. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected from Cape Cod National Seashore, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  20. Two new water beetles from the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, David T

    2016-01-01

    Pterosthetops nitidus sp. nov. and Oomtelecopon namaqum sp. nov. are described from the Western and Northern Cape Provinces of South Africa respectively. Diagnostic notes are provided for each species, together with details of occupied microhabitats. PMID:27470748

  1. Modeling of Atmospheric Flow Around a Coastal Cape: Lee Side Story

    CERN Document Server

    Perlin, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The current research focuses on mesoscale dynamics of the atmospheric circulation around an idealized coastal cape representing typical summertime circulation along the northwest coast of the U.S., studied using a mesoscale coupled ocean-atmosphere modeling system. The orographic wind maximum features a strong NW flow extending a few hundred kilometers downstream and seaward of the cape, which closely follows mesoscale orographic low pressure developed in the lee of the cape. Both wind maximum and the lee trough experience a pronounced diurnal cycle, marked by maximum northwest flow and minimum pressure in the local evening hours (its opposite phase during morning hours), and confirmed by observations from limited buoy and coastal stations. Vertical structure of the atmospheric boundary layer over the coastal ocean on the lee side of the cape indicated the downward propagation of potential temperature and wind features during the course of the day, as opposed to the traditional surface-driven development of t...

  2. Bedrock Data from Western Cape Cod, Massachusetts (WELLSITE shapefile, Geographic, NAD27)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Cores collected from recent drilling in western Cape Cod, Massachusetts provide insight into the topography and petrology of the underlying bedrock. Cores from 64...

  3. Results of the 1986 seabird monitoring program at Cape Lisburne, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the results of the 1986 seabird monitoring program at Cape Lisburne, Alaska. Objectives of this reports includes determining reproductive...

  4. Hydrogeomorphic Evaluation of Ecosystem Restoration and Management Options for Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report provides a hydrogeomorphic (HGM) evaluationof ecosystem restoration and management options for CapeRomain National Wildlife Refuge (CRNWR) including...

  5. Evaluation of contaminants in sediments and forage organisms, Cape May National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Sediment, mummichogs (Fundulus heteroclitus), and fiddler crabs (Uca pugnax) were collected from 25 locations in and adjacent to Cape May National Wildlife Refuge...

  6. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) dataset for Cape Hatteras National Seashore (caha_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Hatteras National Seashore in North...

  7. Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI) for Cape Cod National Seashore (caco_shore)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Cod National Seashore in...

  8. Recolonization of walrus: A study conducted at Cape Peirce, Alaska, Togiak National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From 1 June 1985 to 1 October 1985 the social behavior and population fluctuation of the walrus herd utilizing the Cape Peirce hauling grounds was observed and...

  9. Coastal landforms and processes at the Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts—A primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giese, Graham S.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Adams, Mark

    2015-12-17

    Anyone who spends more than a few days on Cape Cod (the Cape) quickly becomes a coastal geologist, quickly learning the rhythms of daily tides and the seasonal cycles of beaches growing and being swept away by storms; swimmers and surfers track how the breakers appear, and dog-walkers notice the hard-packed sand blanketed overnight by an airy layer that leaves deep labored tracks.

  10. Confinement of small hive beetles (Aethina tumida) by Cape honeybees (Apis mellifera capensis)

    OpenAIRE

    James D. Ellis Jr.,; Hepburn, Randall; Elzen, Patti

    2004-01-01

    International audience In this study we quantify small hive beetle (Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybee (A.m. capensis Esch., an African subspecies) behaviours that are associated with beetle confinement in an effort to understand why Cape bees can withstand large beetle infestations. Four observation hives were each inoculated with 25 beetles and were observed for 11-17 days. Data collected included guard bee (worker bees who guard beetle confinement sites) and confined beetle behavi...

  11. Health outcomes for children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa1

    OpenAIRE

    Branson, Nicola; Ardington, Cally; Leibbrandt, Murray

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes whether children born to teen mothers in Cape Town, South Africa are disadvantaged in terms of their health outcomes because their mother is a teen. Exploiting the longitudinal nature of the Cape Area Panel Study, we assess whether observable differences between teen mothers and slightly older mothers can explain why first-born children of teen mothers appear disadvantaged. Our balanced regressions indicate that observed characteristics cannot explain the full extent of di...

  12. Genetic analysis indicate superiority of perfomance of cape goosberry (Physalis peruviana L.) hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva-Brondo, Miguel; Prohens Tomás, Jaime; Nuez Viñals, Fernando

    2001-01-01

    The use of hybrids as a new type of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) cultivars could improve yield in this crop, but little or no information is available on hybrid perfomance. We studied several vegetative characters, yield, fruit weight and fruit shape, soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA) and ascorbic acid content (AAC) in three hybrids of cape gooseberry and their parents grown outdoors and in a glasshouse. The highest yields were obtained with hy...

  13. Misaligned Preferences And Perceptions On Quality Attributes Of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L) Supply Chain Actors

    OpenAIRE

    Olivares-Tenorio, M.L.; Linnemann, A.R.; Pascucci, S.; Verkerk, R.; Boekel, van, R.J.H.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L) is the second most exported fruit in Colombia. The market has grown in the last years due to the interest of consumers in this exotic, good appearance and nutritious fruit. Although, Cape Gooseberry is promising in various aspects, the supply chain still faces some barriers due to, among other factors, the misalignment of preferences and perception of consumers and buyers. The market context in terms of quality attributes of the fruit and their impor...

  14. SOURCE SPECIFIC QUANTIFICATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF SOLID WASTE ALONG A SANDY BEACH IN CAPE COAST, GHANA

    OpenAIRE

    Isaac M. Bryant; Frederick A. Armah; Pappoe, Alex N. M.

    2010-01-01

    Ghana is dealing with extensive urban periphery settlements due to the massive migration of rural inhabitants to the cities, especially to the political and economic capital, Accra and other regional capitals including Cape Coast. This phenomenon has culminated in indiscriminate solid waste disposal. With no effective municipal solid waste collection system in place, heaps of refuse have become ubiquitous in Cape Coast especially along the beaches. The quantity and composition of solid waste ...

  15. What is known about cookiecutter shark (Isistius spp.) interactions with cetaceans in Cape Verde seas?

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzel, Frederick W.; López Suárez, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    In the North Atlantic, the waters surrounding the Cape Verde Islands are a "potential hot spot" for cookiecutter shark Isistius spp. interactions with cetaceans. These occurrences were recently identified by the improved efforts of researchers to document cetacean strandings in the Cape Verde archipelago, as well as by the photo identification efforts of live whales and dolphins. The documentation of individual and mass stranding events confirmed that cookiecutter shark interactions with ceta...

  16. The biomes of the eastern Cape with emphasis on their conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Lubke

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available The four major phytochoria of southern Africa, the Cape. Tongoland-Pondoland. Karoo-Namib and Afromontane regions, converge in the complex transition zone of the eastern Cape. The area is rich in species and communities with a complex vegetation in which are represented all the major vegetation formations of southern Africa — Cape Fynbos. Cape Transitional Shrublands, Subtropical Thicket. Karoo, Savanna, Afromontane Forest, Grasslands and Littoral Strand Vegetation. Our results support previous findings that, although species-rich and of great diversity, the flora has fewer endemics (205 or 5,6% than the Cape (73% or Karoo-Namib (35%.  The communities with the largest proportion of endemics (30%, and threatened plants (18% are those of the Subtropical Thicket. On the basis of these data and an index of conserv ation status, the Subtropical Thicket was determined to be highest on the priority list for conservation in the eastern Cape. Subtropical Thicket is being cleared at an increasing rate and is most vulnerable due to changing farming practice.

  17. Clausius-Clapeyron Scaling of Convective Available Potential Energy (CAPE) in Cloud-Resolving Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, J.; Romps, D. M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent work by Singh and O'Gorman has produced a theory for convective available potential energy (CAPE) in radiative-convective equilibrium. In this model, the atmosphere deviates from a moist adiabat—and, therefore, has positive CAPE—because entrainment causes evaporative cooling in cloud updrafts, thereby steepening their lapse rate. This has led to the proposal that CAPE increases with global warming because the strength of evaporative cooling scales according to the Clausius-Clapeyron (CC) relation. However, CAPE could also change due to changes in cloud buoyancy and changes in the entrainment rate, both of which could vary with global warming. To test the relative importance of changes in CAPE due to CC scaling of evaporative cooling, changes in cloud buoyancy, and changes in the entrainment rate, we subject a cloud-resolving model to a suite of natural (and unnatural) forcings. We find that CAPE changes are primarily driven by changes in the strength of evaporative cooling; the effect of changes in the entrainment rate and cloud buoyancy are comparatively small. This builds support for CC scaling of CAPE.

  18. Air Abrasion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... delivered directly to your desktop! more... What Is Air Abrasion? Article Chapters What Is Air Abrasion? What Happens? The Pros and Cons Will I Feel Anything? Is Air Abrasion for Everyone? print full article print this ...

  19. Initial review and analysis of the direct environmental impacts of CSP in the northern Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudman, Justine; Gauché, Paul; Esler, Karen J.

    2016-05-01

    The Integrated Resource Plan (IRP) of 2010 and the IRP Update provide the most recent guidance to the electricity generation future of South Africa (SA) and both plans include an increased proportion of renewable energy generation capacity. Given that SA has abundant renewable energy resource potential, this inclusion is welcome. Only 600 MW of the capacity allocated to concentrating solar power (CSP) has been committed to projects in the Northern Cape and represents roughly a fifth of the capacity that has been included in the IRP. Although CSP is particularly new in the electricity generation system of the country, the abundant solar resources of the region with annual DNI values of above 2900 kWh/m2 across the arid Savannah and Nama-Karoo biomes offer a promising future for the development of CSP in South Africa. These areas have largely been left untouched by technological development activities and thus renewable energy projects present a variety of possible direct and indirect environmental, social and economic impacts. Environmental Impact Assessments do focus on local impacts, but given that ecological processes often extend to regional- and landscape scales, understanding this scaled context is important to the alignment of development- and conservation priorities. Given the capacities allocated to CSP for the future of SA's electricity generation system, impacts on land, air, water and biodiversity which are associated with CSP are expected to increase in distribution and the understanding thereof deems valuable already from this early point in CSP's future in SA. We provide a review of direct impacts of CSP on the natural environment and an overview of the anticipated specific significance thereof in the Northern Cape.

  20. Optimizing dispersal corridors for the Cape Proteaceae using network flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Steven J; Williams, Paul; Midgley, Guy; Archer, Aaron

    2008-07-01

    We introduce a new way of measuring and optimizing connectivity in conservation landscapes through time, accounting for both the biological needs of multiple species and the social and financial constraint of minimizing land area requiring additional protection. Our method is based on the concept of network flow; we demonstrate its use by optimizing protected areas in the Western Cape of South Africa to facilitate autogenic species shifts in geographic range under climate change for a family of endemic plants, the Cape Proteaceae. In 2005, P. Williams and colleagues introduced a novel framework for this protected area design task. To ensure population viability, they assumed each species should have a range size of at least 100 km2 of predicted suitable conditions contained in protected areas at all times between 2000 and 2050. The goal was to design multiple dispersal corridors for each species, connecting suitable conditions between time periods, subject to each species' limited dispersal ability, and minimizing the total area requiring additional protection. We show that both minimum range size and limited dispersal abilities can be naturally modeled using the concept of network flow. This allows us to apply well-established tools from operations research and computer science for solving network flow problems. Using the same data and this novel modeling approach, we reduce the area requiring additional protection by a third compared to previous methods, from 4593 km2 to 3062 km , while still achieving the same conservation planning goals. We prove that this is the best solution mathematically possible: the given planning goals cannot be achieved with a smaller area, given our modeling assumptions and data. Our method allows for flexibility and refinement of the underlying climate-change, species-habitat-suitability, and dispersal models. In particular, we propose an alternate formalization of a minimum range size moving through time and use network flow to

  1. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Regina F. R.; Vidal, Carla B.; de Lima, Ari C. A.; Melo, Diego Q.; Allan N. S. Dantas; Lopes, Gisele S.; Ronaldo F. do Nascimento; Gomes, Clerton L.; Maria Nataniela da Silva

    2012-01-01

    Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of...

  2. Vegetative and Productive Behaviors of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.), Grown by Direct Sowing Outside Under Conditions of Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    PANAYOTOV, Nikolay; POPOVA, Ani

    2014-01-01

    Cape gooseberry is a new crop for Bulgaria. Therefore, the establishment of appropriate technology is important. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different date of direct sowing outside under Bulgarian condition on the morphological development and on the productivity of cape gooseberry. The experiments were carried out with two varieties cape gooseberry - first Bulgarian variety Plovdiv and Columbian ecotype Obrazec 1 in region of Plovdiv, Bulgaria. Three dates of dir...

  3. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum)

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Knapp; Maria Vorontsova

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum , a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums ( Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum ) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provi...

  4. KSC-05PD-1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. At Astrotech Space Operations in Titusville, Fla., workers make adjustments to the fairing being installed around the GOES-N spacecraft. The fairing protects the spacecraft during launch. Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) are sponsored by NASAs Goddard Space Flight Center and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. GOES-N is targeted to launch June 23 from Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

  5. KSC-03PD-1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Jim Lloyd, with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) program, points to the place on MER-1 where he will place a computer chip with about 35,000 laser-engraved signatures of visitors to the rovers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The signatures include those of senators, artists, and John Glenn. The identical Mars rovers are scheduled to launch June 5 and June 25 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

  6. Extension of the ACE solar panels is tested in SAEF-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Extension of the solar panels is tested on the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) spacecraft in KSC's Spacecraft Assembly and Encapsulation Facility-II (SAEF-II). Scheduled for launch on a Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Station on Aug. 25, ACE will study low-energy particles of solar origin and high-energy galactic particles. The collecting power of instruments aboard ACE is 10 to 1,000 times greater than anything previously flown to collect similar data by NASA.

  7. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  8. QnAs with John P. Grotzinger. Interview by Prashant Nair.

    OpenAIRE

    Grotzinger, John P.; Nair, Prashant

    2011-01-01

    In late November 2011, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) plans to launch its robotic explorer to scour Mars for signs of the planet’s ability to support life. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft is scheduled to lift off from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, shuttling Curiosity, an SUV-sized rover with a hefty scientific payload, to the red planet’s surface. John Grotzinger, a member of the National Academy of Sciences and professor ...

  9. Alternative reproductive tactics in male Cape ground squirrels Xerus inauris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scantlebury, M; Waterman, J M; Bennett, N C

    2008-06-01

    In some animal societies, males vary in the strategies and tactics that they use for reproduction. Explanations for the evolution of alternative tactics have usually focussed on extrinsic factors such as social status, the environment or population density and have rarely examined proximate differences between individuals. Anecdotal evidence suggests that two alternative reproductive tactics occur in cooperatively breeding male Cape ground squirrels. Here we show that there is strong empirical support for physiological and behavioural differences to uphold this claim. 'Dispersed' males have higher resting metabolic rates and a heightened pituitary activity, compared with philopatric 'natal' males that have higher circulating cortisol levels. Dispersed males also spend more time moving and less time feeding than natal males. Additionally, lone males spend a greater proportion of their time vigilant and less of their time foraging than those that were in groups. The choice of whether to stay natal or become a disperser may depend on a number of factors such as age, natal group kin structure and reproductive suppression, and the likelihood of successful reproduction whilst remaining natal. Measuring proximate factors, such as behavioural and endocrine function, may provide valuable insights into mechanisms that underlie the evolution of alternative reproductive tactics. PMID:18325548

  10. Modeling the tides of Massachusetts and Cape Cod bays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenter, H.L.; Signell, R.P.; Blumberg, A.F.; ,

    1993-01-01

    A time-dependent, three-dimensional numerical modeling study of the tides of Massachusetts and Cape Code Bays, motivated by construction of a new sewage treatment plant and ocean outfall for the city of Boston, has been undertaken by the authors. The numerical model being used is a hybrid version of the Blumberg and Mellor ECOM3D model, modified to include a semi-implicit time-stepping scheme and transport of a non-reactive dissolved constituent. Tides in the bays are dominated by the semi-diurnal frequencies, in particular by the M2 tide, due to the resonance of these frequencies in the Gulf of Maine. The numerical model reproduces, well, measured tidal ellipses in unstratified wintertime conditions. Stratified conditions present more of a problem because tidal-frequency internal wave generation and propagation significantly complicates the structure of the resulting tidal field. Nonetheless, the numerical model reproduces qualitative aspects of the stratified tidal flow that are consistent with observations in the bays.

  11. Watershed management program on Santiago Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Vicente L.; Meyer, John

    1993-01-01

    The Watershed Management Program (WMP) was put into operation in early 1985 on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, with the stated purpose, “to develop and protect the soil and water resources of the Program-designated watersheds … to stabilize the natural environment and increase agricultural production potential in the Program area.” The approach to soil and water conservation in the program has been to build erosion and flood control structures (engineering approach) and plant trees (biological approach) to decrease rill and gully erosion, trap sediment behind control structures, provide flood protection, increase infiltration, increase fuelwood and fodder production, and increase water supplies for irrigation. There have been many successes resulting from specific management activities, but flawed approach or implementation in a few key areas has acted to impede the program's complete success, including lack of a scientific basis for evaluating its impact on soil and water conservation; poor design, placement, and maintenance of some major hydraulic structures; inadequate intervention in stabilizing farmlands or education of farmers and landowners in the need for and benefits of agroforestry; and incomplete integration of engineering and biological approaches.

  12. Lexical borrowing by Khoekhoegowab from Cape Dutch and Afrikaans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilfrid Haacke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The present article instantiates types of lexical borrowing from Afrikaans and Dutch in Namibian Khoekhoegowab (also known as “Nama”/“Damara”, but occasionally also refers to borrowings in the opposite direction. Where evidence allows, loans are traced back beyond Afrikaans to the era of Cape Dutch and contemporary interethnic contacts. Various categories ranging from adoptions to phonologically integrated loans, hybrids and calques are presented and, where possible, historical inferences are offered. The high degree of translational equivalence between Khoekhoe serial verbs and Afrikaans compound verbs leads to the consideration of some grammatical aspects including replication and relexification. Finally, reference is made to a parallel between Afrikaans and “Khoekhoe Afrikaans” syntax pointed out by den Besten (2013: Afrikaans circumlocutions like ek / sy wat Anna is (Khoekhoe: Anna.ta / Anna.s are literal equivalents of the underlying phrasal structures of Khoekhoe surface nouns #stem.pgn# in first, second or third person, as accounted for by the “desentential hypothesis” (Haacke 2006.  

  13. Final 2014 Remedial Action Report Project Chariot, Cape Thompson, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    This report was prepared to document remedial action (RA) work performed at the former Project Chariot site located near Cape Thompson, Alaska during 2014. The work was managed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Alaska District for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management (LM). Due to the short field season and the tight barge schedule, all field work was conducted at the site July 6 through September 12, 2014. Excavation activities occurred between July 16 and August 26, 2014. A temporary field camp was constructed at the site prior to excavation activities to accommodate the workers at the remote, uninhabited location. A total of 785.6 tons of petroleum, oil, and lubricants (POL)-contaminated soil was excavated from four former drill sites associated with test holes installed circa 1960. Diesel was used in the drilling process during test hole installations and resulted in impacts to surface and subsurface soils at four of the five sites (no contamination was identified at Test Hole Able). Historic information is not definitive as to the usage for Test Hole X-1; it may have actually been a dump site and not a drill site. In addition to the contaminated soil, the steel test hole casings were decommissioned and associated debris was removed as part of the remedial effort.

  14. Poles in the Dutch Cape Colony 1652-1814

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kowalski Mariusz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of Poles to the colonisation and development of the Dutch Cape Colony is not commonly known. Yet, Poles have been appearing in this colony since its very inception (1652. During the entire period considered here the presence of Poles was the result of the strong economic ties between Poland and the Netherlands. At the end of this period there was an increase in their share, in connection with the presence of numerous alien military units on the territory of the Colony, because of Poles having served in these units. Numerous newcomers from Poland settled in South Africa for good, established families, and their progeny made up part of the local society. The evidence of this phenomenon is provided by the present-day Afrikaner families of, for instance, Drotsky, Kitshoff, Kolesky, Latsky, Masuriek, Troskie, Zowitsky, and others. A quite superficial estimation implies that the settlers coming from Poland could make up a bit over 1% of the ancestors of the present-day Afrikaners. Poles would also participate in the pioneering undertakings within the far-off fringes of the Colony, including the robbery-and-trade expedition of 1702.

  15. Anurans in a Subarctic Tundra Landscape Near Cape Churchill, Manitoba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, M.E.; Boal, C.W.; Andersen, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    Distribution, abundance, and habitat relationships of anurans inhabiting subarctic regions are poorly understood, and anuran monitoring protocols developed for temperate regions may not be applicable across large roadless areas of northern landscapes. In addition, arctic and subarctic regions of North America are predicted to experience changes in climate and, in some areas, are experiencing habitat alteration due to high rates of herbivory by breeding and migrating waterfowl. To better understand subarctic anuran abundance, distribution, and habitat associations, we conducted anuran calling surveys in the Cape Churchill region of Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada, in 2004 and 2005. We conducted surveys along ~l-km transects distributed across three landscape types (coastal tundra, interior sedge meadow-tundra, and boreal forest-tundra interface) to estimate densities and probabilities of detection of Boreal Chorus Frogs (Pseudacris maculata) and Wood Frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus). We detected a Wood Frog or Boreal Chorus Frog on 22 (87%) of 26 transects surveyed, but probability of detection varied between years and species and among landscape types. Estimated densities of both species increased from the coastal zone inland toward the boreal forest edge. Our results suggest anurans occur across all three landscape types in our study area, but that species-specific spatial patterns exist in their abundances. Considerations for both spatial and temporal variation in abundance and detection probability need to be incorporated into surveys and monitoring programs for subarctic anurans.

  16. Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Mooney

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The biocultural conservation and research initiative of Omora Ethnobotanical Park and the UNESCO Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve was born in a remote part of South America and has rapidly expanded to attain regional, national, and international relevance. The park and the biosphere reserve, led by Ricardo Rozzi and his team, have made significant progress in demonstrating the way academic research supports local cultures, social processes, decision making, and conservation. It is a dynamic hive of investigators, artists, writers, students, volunteers, and friends, all exploring ways to better integrate academia and society. The initiative involves an informal consortium of institutions and organizations; in Chile, these include the University of Magallanes, the Omora Foundation, and the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity, and in the United States, the University of North Texas, the Omora Sub-Antarctic Research Alliance, and the Center for Environmental Philosophy at the University of North Texas. The consortium intends to function as a hub through which other institutions and organizations can be involved in research, education, and biocultural conservation. The park constitutes one of three long-term socio-ecological research sites in Chile of the Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity.

  17. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design

    2010-07-01

    The energy demand in building sectors for summer air-conditioning is growing exponentially due to thermal loads, increased living standards and occupant comfort demands throughout the last decades. This increasing consumption of primary energy is contributing significantly to emission of greenhouse gases and therefore to global warming. Moreover, fossil fuels, current main sources of energy used for electricity generation, are being depleted at an alarming rate despite continued warning. In addition, most air-conditioning equipment still utilise CFCs, promoting further destruction of our planet's protective ozone layer. Concerns over these environmental changes, have begun shifting the emphasis from current cooling methods, to 'sustainable strategies' of achieving equally comfortable conditions in building interiors. Study of ancient strategies applied by vernacular architecture shows how the indigenously clean energies to satisfy the cooling need were used. One of the most important influences on vernacular architecture is the macro-climate of the area in which the building is constructed. Mediterranean vernacular architecture, as well as that of much of the Middle East, often includes a courtyard with a fountain or pond; air cooled by water mist and evaporation is drawn through the building by the natural ventilation set up by the building form, and in many cases also includes wind-catchers to draw air through the internal spaces. Similarly, Northern African vernacular designs often have very high thermal mass and small windows to keep the occupants cool. Not only vernacular structure but also the recent development in solar and geothermal cooling technologies could be used to the needs for environmental control. Intelligent coupling of these methods as alternative design strategies could help developing countries such as South Africa toward sustainable development in airconditioning of building. In this paper, the possible strategies for

  18. Providing local color?: "cape coloreds," "cockneys," and Cape Town's identity from the late nineteenth century to the 1970s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickford-Smith, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    Jim Dyos, founding-father of British urban history, argued that cities have commonly acknowledged “individual characteristics” that distinguish them. Such distinctive characteristics, though usually based on material realities, are promoted through literary and visual representations. This article argues that those who seek to convey a city’s distinctiveness will do so not only through describing its particular topography, architecture, history or functions but also by describing its “local colour”: the supposedly unique customs, manner of speech, dress, or other special features of its inhabitants. In colonial cities this process involved white racial stereotyping of “others”. In Cape Town, depictions of “Coloured” inhabitants as unique “city types” became part of the city’s “destination branding”. The article analyses change and continuity in such representations. To this end it draws on the insights of Gareth Stedman Jones into changing depictions of London’s “Cockneys” and the insights of Stephen Ward into historical “place-selling”. PMID:22329070

  19. Diffuse CO2 degassing and volcanic activity at Cape Verde islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dionis, Samara M.; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys; Rodríguez, Fátima; Padrón, Eleazar; Sumino, Hirochika; Barrrancos, Jose; Padilla, Germán D.; Fernandes, Paulo; Bandomo, Zuleyka; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, Jose M.; Semedo, Hélio; Cabral, Jeremias

    2015-04-01

    Diffuse CO2 emission surveys were carried out at São Vicente, Brava, and Fogo islands, Cape Verde, archipelago to investigate the relationship between diffuse CO2 degassing and volcanic activity. Total amounts of diffuse CO2 discharged through the surface environment of the islands of São Vicente, Brava, and Fogo were estimated in 226, 50, and 828 t d-1, respectively. The highest CO2 efflux values of the three volcanic islands systems were observed at the summit crater of Pico do Fogo (up to 15.7 kg m-2 d-1). Statistical graphical analysis of the data suggests two geochemical populations for the diffuse CO2 emission surveys. The geometric mean of the peak population, expressed as a multiple of the geometric mean of the background population, seems to be the best diffuse CO2 emission geochemical parameter to correlate with the volcanic activity (age of the volcanism) for these three island volcanic systems at Cape Verde. This observation is also supported by helium isotopic signature observed in the Cape Verde's fluids, fumaroles, and ground waters. This study provides useful information about the relationship between diffuse CO2 degassing and volcanic activity at Cape Verde enhancing the use of diffuse CO2 emission as a good geochemical tool, for volcanic monitoring at Cape Verde as well as other similar volcanic systems.

  20. Exploring recruitment and selection trends in the Eastern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit J. Louw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The recruitment, selection and development of suitable candidates are crucial strategic functions to ensure the competitiveness of corporate and public sector organisations. Research purpose: The purpose of the study was to determine whether targeted organisations have a clear recruitment and selection policy by means of a preliminary exploratory study. In addition to this, the objective was the need to establish the various techniques or methods in use to recruit and select candidates for vacant posts. Motivation for the study: To develop a better understanding of the trends in the application of recruitment and selection methods within the Eastern Cape. Research design, approach and method: This study has a non-experimental design. Methodological processes followed a qualitative and quantitative mixed approach. Structured interviews were used to collect data followed by a descriptive statistical analysis, summary and interpretation of results. Main findings: Whereas newspaper advertising and recruitment agencies are the most popular recruitment methods, the application blank and interviews were mostly preferred for selection purposes. Although assessment centres and psychological assessments were also regarded as popular selection methods, assessment centres were; however, the most prominent selection method to follow of the above two mentioned selection methods. Practical/managerial implications: The research findings could provide corporate leaders and their human resource functionaries with a theoretical pointer relative to recruitment and selection trends within the Province which could guide more effective skills attraction and selection decisions. Contribution/value-add: The study provided valuable strategic information to improve on organisational competiveness via effective recruitment and selection processes. In addition, training and educational programmes could eventually fill the needs and gaps identified in

  1. High-resolution shoreline change measurements (1997-2005) from Corolla to Cape Hatteras, NC (swash_shorelines.shp, geographic, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  2. Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Paul Basin, Island of Santo Antao, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  3. Groundwater Resources of Mosteiros Basin, Island of Fogo, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, L. Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  4. Groundwater Resources of Ribeira Faja Basin, Island of Sao Nicolau, Cape Verde, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Plummer, L. Niel; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater resources in Cape Verde provide water for agriculture, industry, and human consumption. These resources are limited and susceptible to contamination. Additional groundwater resources are needed for continued agricultural development, particularly during times of drought, but increased use and (or) climatic change may have adverse effects on the quantity and quality of freshwater available. In volcanic island aquifers such as those of Cape Verde, a lens of fresh groundwater typically ?floats? upon a layer of brackish water at the freshwater/saltwater boundary, and increased pumping may cause salt water intrusion or other contamination. A recent U.S. Geological Survey study assessed baseline groundwater conditions in watersheds on three islands of Cape Verde to provide the scientific basis for sustainably developing water resources and minimizing future groundwater depletion and contamination.

  5. Activity Budgets of Captive Cape Fur Seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) Under a Training Regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierucka, Kaja; Siemianowska, Sonia; Woźniak, Marta; Jasnosz, Katarzyna; Kieliszczyk, Magdalena; Kozak, Paulina; Sergiel, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Ethograms and time budgets are crucial for the behavioral assessment of nonhuman animals in zoos, and they serve as references for welfare research. This study was conducted to obtain detailed time budgets of trained Cape fur seals (Arctocephalus pusillus) in captivity, to evaluate variations of these patterns, and to determine whether abnormal behaviors had been displayed. Behavioral data for 3 Cape fur seals in the Wroclaw Zoo were collected, and more than 300 observation hours (during a 12-month period) per individual were analyzed. The studied animals exhibited a diversified repertoire of natural behaviors with apparent seasonal and daily patterns, and they did not present stereotypic behaviors. Significant differences of interaction rates between individuals suggest more frequent affiliative interactions among related animals. The absence of stereotypic behaviors, good health of individuals, and the presence of diversified natural behaviors indicated relatively good welfare of Cape fur seals kept in the Wroclaw Zoo. PMID:26709628

  6. Environmental Restoration of Diesel-Range Organics from Project Chariot, Cape Thompson, Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsky, Mark [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Legacy Management; Hutton, Rick [Navarro Research & Engineering; Miller, Judy [Navarro Research & Engineering

    2016-03-06

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the US Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than 40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site (Figure 1) was cancelled because of strong public opposition [1]. No nuclear explosions were ever conducted at the site.

  7. Unpacking the geography of tourism innovation in Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Booyens Irma

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper interrogates the geography of tourism innovation in the Western Cape, South Africa. In particular, innovations by tourism firms are mapped and local tourism innovation networks are analysed. Networking behaviour is examined since it is regarded as indispensable for accessing knowledge and learning for innovation purposes. The analysis draws on a broader investigation of tourism innovation and networking within the Western Cape province. It is revealed that the main tourist regions in the Western Cape are also the most innovative. Whilst external networking relations are observed to be highly significant for tourism innovation, local embeddedness remains critical for stimulating path creation and exploiting local core competencies for the competitiveness and survival of tourism firms and destinations.

  8. Cape Cod Aquifer Management Project (CCAMP): demonstration of a geographic information system for ground water protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steppacher, L.

    1988-09-01

    This publication summarizes the application of GIS Technology to the project. Geographic Information systems (GIS) technology has the capability of overlaying various mapped data layers, determining distances from fixed points, automatic changing of map scales, and preparing maps from tabular point data to better understand the complex issues involved in decision making. GIS was used for a series of pilot analyses for Cape Cod. The work concentrated on the development of a digital data base and assessment at three different geographic levels of analysis: (1) the zone of contribution to nine public water-supply wells in a highly urbanized area; (2) a rural, seasonally populated, summer tourist town; and (3) the Cape Cod peninsula. The project was designed to raise issues and answer the types of ground water management questions being asked on Cape Cod, but also those faced by ground water managers in other areas of the country as well.

  9. Wind-driven upwelling in the vicinity of Cape Finisterre, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclain, C. R.; Chao, S.-Y.; Atkinson, L. P.; Blanton, J. O.; De Castillejo, F.

    1986-01-01

    Observations and numerical simulations of the evolution of upswelling and the resultant coastal circulation in response to two wind events occurring along the Galician coast of Spain during the April 18-26, 1982 period are presented. In situ measurements include shipboard determinations of hydrographic and biological parameters, and wind stress estimates obtained from the ship winds and from surface pressure charts. Sea surface temperature information was derived from NOAA 7 satellite images, and pigment concentration information was acquired from the Nimbus 7 coastal zone color scanner. The indication from the simulations that the greatest upswelling will occur either at Cape Finisterre or along the northern coast was confirmed by observations, and it is suggested that wave disturbances propagate northward along the coast at a speed of 120-160 km/day, and that organic material formed north of Cape Finisterre is advected out to sea northwest of the cape.

  10. An Inquiry into the nature, causes and distribution of wealth in the Cape Colony, 1652-1795

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.

    2012-01-01

    Three important questions about the Dutch Cape Colony are investigated in this dissertation: 1) how affluent were Cape settlers, 2) what were the causes of such wealth, and 3) how was the wealth distributed? Using a variety of statistical sources, most notably the detailed probate inventories and au

  11. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots.

  12. A colostrum trypsin inhibitor gene expressed in the Cape fur seal mammary gland during lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharo, Elizabeth A; Cane, Kylie N; McCoey, Julia; Buckle, Ashley M; Oosthuizen, W H; Guinet, Christophe; Arnould, John P Y

    2016-03-01

    The colostrum trypsin inhibitor (CTI) gene and transcript were cloned from the Cape fur seal mammary gland and CTI identified by in silico analysis of the Pacific walrus and polar bear genomes (Order Carnivora), and in marine and terrestrial mammals of the Orders Cetartiodactyla (yak, whales, camel) and Perissodactyla (white rhinoceros). Unexpectedly, Weddell seal CTI was predicted to be a pseudogene. Cape fur seal CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of a pregnant multiparous seal, but not in a seal in its first pregnancy. While bovine CTI is expressed for 24-48 h postpartum (pp) and secreted in colostrum only, Cape fur seal CTI was detected for at least 2-3 months pp while the mother was suckling its young on-shore. Furthermore, CTI was expressed in the mammary gland of only one of the lactating seals that was foraging at-sea. The expression of β-casein (CSN2) and β-lactoglobulin II (LGB2), but not CTI in the second lactating seal foraging at-sea suggested that CTI may be intermittently expressed during lactation. Cape fur seal and walrus CTI encode putative small, secreted, N-glycosylated proteins with a single Kunitz/bovine pancreatic trypsin inhibitor (BPTI) domain indicative of serine protease inhibition. Mature Cape fur seal CTI shares 92% sequence identity with Pacific walrus CTI, but only 35% identity with BPTI. Structural homology modelling of Cape fur seal CTI and Pacific walrus trypsin based on the model of the second Kunitz domain of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and porcine trypsin (Protein Data Bank: 1TFX) confirmed that CTI inhibits trypsin in a canonical fashion. Therefore, pinniped CTI may be critical for preventing the proteolytic degradation of immunoglobulins that are passively transferred from mother to young via colostrum and milk.

  13. Beak and feather disease viruses circulating in Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus) in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnard, Guy L; Boyes, Rutledge S; Martin, Rowan O; Hitzeroth, Inga I; Rybicki, Edward P

    2015-01-01

    Captive and wild psittacines are vulnerable to the highly contagious psittacine beak and feather disease. The causative agent, beak and feather disease virus (BFDV), was recently detected in the largest remaining population of endangered Cape parrots (Poicepahlus robustus), which are endemic to South Africa. Full-length genomes were isolated and sequenced from 26 blood samples collected from wild and captive Cape parrots to determine possible origins of infection. All sequences had characteristic BFDV sequence motifs and were similar in length to those described in the literature. However, BFDV coat protein (CP) sequences from this study did not contain a previously identified bipartite nuclear localisation signal (NLS) within residues 39-56, which indicates that an alternate NLS is involved in shuttling the CP into the nucleus. Sequences from the wild population shared a high degree of similarity, irrespective of year or location, suggesting that the disease outbreak occurred close to the time when the samples were collected. Phylogenetic analysis of full-length genomes showed that the captive Cape parrot sequences cluster with those isolated from captive-bred budgerigars in KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Exposure to captive-bred Cape parrots from a breeding facility in KwaZulu-Natal is suggested as a possible source for the virus infection. Phylogenetic analysis of BFDV isolates from wild and captive Cape parrots indicated two separate infection events in different populations, which highlights the potential risk of introducing new strains of the virus into the wild population. The present study represents the first systematic investigation of BFDV virus diversity in the southern-most population of Cape parrots. PMID:25209153

  14. The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Hymenoptera, Apidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Straka

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The apid cuckoo bees of the Cape Verde Islands (Republic of Cape Verde are reviewed and five species recognized, representing two genera. The ammobatine genus Chiasmognathus Engel (Nomadinae: Ammobatini, a specialized lineage of cleptoparasites of nomioidine bees is recorded for the first time. Chiasmognathus batelkai sp. n. is distinguished from mainland African and Asian species. The genus Thyreus Panzer (Apinae: Melectini is represented by four species – Thyreus denolii sp. n., T. batelkai sp. n., T. schwarzi sp. n., and T. aistleitneri sp. n. Previous records of Thyreus scutellaris (Fabricius from the islands were based on misidentifications.

  15. Predation on bat-eared foxes Otocyon megalotis by Cape hunting dogs Lycaon pictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.A. Rasmussen

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The predatory habits of the Cape hunting dog Lycaon pictus have been well documented, and have been found to include almost exclusively mammalian herbivores (Childes 1988. The prey species chosen varies from area to area according to availability, with wildebeest Connochaetes taurinus and Thompson's gazelle, Gazella thomsonii being recorded as preferred prey in East Africa (Malcolm & Van Lawick 1975, whereas impala Aepyceros melampus, kudu Tragelaphus strepsiceros and duiker Sylvicapra grimmia are predominantly selected in southern Africa (Fuller & Kat 1990. This paper documents a case of a pack of Cape hunting dogs preying specifically on bat-eared foxes.

  16. CAPE Variations in the Current Climate and in a Climate Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Bing; del Genio, Anthony D.; Lo, Kenneth K.-W.

    1998-08-01

    Observed variations of convective available potential energy (CAPE) in the current climate provide one useful test of the performance of cumulus parameterizations used in general circulation models (GCMs). It is found that frequency distributions of tropical Pacific CAPE, as well as the dependence of CAPE on surface wet-bulb potential temperature (w) simulated by the Goddard Institute for Space Studies's GCM, agree well with that observed during the Australian Monsoon Experiment period. CAPE variability in the current climate greatly overestimates climatic changes in basinwide CAPE in the tropical Pacific in response to a 2°C increase in sea surface temperature (SST) in the GCM because of the different physics involved. In the current climate, CAPE variations in space and time are dominated by regional changes in boundary layer temperature and moisture, which in turn are controlled by SST patterns and large-scale motions. Geographical thermodynamic structure variations in the middle and upper troposphere are smaller because of the canceling effects of adiabatic cooling and subsidence warming in the rising and sinking branches of the Walker and Hadley circulations. In a forced equilibrium global climate change, temperature change is fairly well constrained by the change in the moist adiabatic lapse rate and thus the upper troposphere warms to a greater extent than the surface. For this reason, climate change in CAPE is better predicted by assuming that relative humidity remains constant and that the temperature changes according to the moist adiabatic lapse rate change of a parcel with 80% relative humidity lifted from the surface. The moist adiabatic assumption is not symmetrically applicable to a warmer and colder climate: In a warmer regime moist convection determines the tropical temperature structure, but when the climate becomes colder the effect of moist convection diminishes and the large-scale dynamics and radiative processes become relatively important

  17. Urban bioclimate and comfort assessment in the African city of Praia (Cape Verde)

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, António; Correia, Ezequiel; Nascimento, Judite M.; Canário, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    The population of Praia (Ilha de Santiago/Cape Verde) has recently increasedfrom 90,000 inhabitants in 2000 to 132,300 in 2012. Located in the southern part of the SantiagoIsland, the city has an average temperature of 22ºC and high values of humidity.The hot andrainy season occurs between July and October. According to the Cape Verde “National ClimateChange Adaptation” report, the temperatures increased about 1ºC in the last 15 years andscenariosindicate an annual warming between 0.7ºC and 2...

  18. Hacia una contextualización de las migraciones de caboverdeanos en el Gran Buenos Aires a partir de sus diferencias generacionales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia Martino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Towards a Contextualization of Cape Verdeans Migration in the Greater Buenos Aires from their Generational Differences Abstract This article aims to analyze the relations between Cape Verdeans immigrants and descendants in the Greater Buenos Aires from the analysis of generational categories in use that define positions and identifications over time. Three periods are proposed to tackle this process of change and continuity. From the incorporation of Cape Verdean society language to institution in order to promote the inclusion of young people in a context of growing political mobilization of African descent groups in the country, it is analyzed how the generational dimension was expressed. It is concluded that emerging categories such as ‘African descent’, adopted by some young people today, make possible to unify them in the formation of collective identities that take up the line of continuity with the past and reverse the process of invisibility experienced by previous generations.

  19. Hospital-acquired infections associated with poor air quality in air-conditioned environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgound and Objectives: Individuals living in cities increasingly spend more time indoors in air-conditioned environments. Air conditioner contamination can be caused by the presence of aerosols from the external or internal environment, which may be associated with disease manifestations in patients present in this type of environment. Therefore, the aim of this review was to assess the air quality in air-conditioned hospital environments as a risk factor for hospital-acquired infections – HAI – as the air can be a potential source of infection, as well as assess the exposure of professionals and patients to different pollutants. Material and Methods: A literature review was performed in the LILACS, MEDLINE, SCIELO, SCIENCE DIRECT databases, CAPES thesis database and Ministry of Health – Brazil, including studies published between 1982 and 2008. The literature search was grouped according to the thematic focus, as follows: ventilation, maintenance and cleaning of systems that comprehend the environmental quality standard. Discussion and Conclusion: Outbreaks of hospital-acquired infections associated with Aspergillus, Acinetobacter, Legionella, and other genera such as Clostridium and Nocardia, which were found in air conditioners, were observed, thus indicating the need for air-conditioning quality control in these environments.

  20. Geochemical signatures of the diffuse CO2 emission from Brava volcanic system, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, F.; Bandomo, Z.; Barros, I.; Dias Fonseca, J.; Fernandes, P.; Rodrigues, J.; Melian Rodriguez, G.; Padron, E.; Dionis, S.; Sonia, S.; Gonçalves, A.; Fernandes, A.; Hernandez Perez, P. A.; Perez, N.

    2010-12-01

    Brava (67 km2) the smallest of the populated Cape Verde islands, lies at the southwestern end of the archipelagic crescent. Brava volcanic system has no documented historical eruptions, but its youthful volcanic morphology and the fact that earthquake swarms still occur indicate the potential for future eruptions. A geochemical survey of diffuse gas emissions was carried out in Brava island during February and March 2010. For this survey 228 sampling sites were selected all over the island to perform soil CO2 efflux measurements, using a portable accumulation chamber and an IR sensor, and soil temperature measurements at a depth of 30-50 cm. Soil gas samples were collected at 40 cm depth for chemical (He, H2, N2, CO2, CH4, Ar and O2) and isotopic (δ13C-CO2) analysis in 32 selected sampling sites. CO2 efflux values ranged from non-detectable up to 1.343 g m-2 d-1. To quantify the total diffuse CO2 emission from Brava volcanic system, a CO2 efflux map was constructed using sequential Gaussian simulations (sGs). Most of the studied area showed background levels of CO2 efflux (˜2 g m-2 d-1), while peak levels (>1300 g m-2 d-1) were mainly identified at Vinagre and Baleia areas. The total diffuse CO2 output from Brava volcanic system was estimated about 41.6 t d-1. The analysis of the carbon isotopic signature of the CO2 in the soil atmosphere provides an insight for evaluating the origin of the diffuse CO2 emission. Observed δ13C-CO2 values ranged from -20.86 to -1.26 ‰. A binary plot of CO2 concentrations versus δ13C-CO2 values allows us to represent three major geochemical reservoirs (atmospheric air, volcanic gas, and biogenic gas) and their related mixing lines. The chemical and isotopic analysis of Brava soil gas samples suggest a mixing with deep-seated CO2 and biogenic gas for the diffuse CO2 emission from Brava volcanic system. The lack of visible volcanic gas emission in Brava highlights the importance of monitoring diffuse CO2 emission to improve its

  1. 77 FR 62257 - Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Herring River Restoration Project, Cape Cod National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...The National Park Service (NPS) announces the availability of a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the Herring River Restoration Project in Cape Cod National Seashore, Massachusetts. The DEIS provides a systematic analysis of alternative approaches to restore the Herring River estuary to a more productive and natural condition after a century of diking and...

  2. Neohyssura atlantica n.sp. from the Cape Verde Islands (Crustacea: Isopoda: Anthuridea)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wägele, Johann Wolfgang

    1987-01-01

    A fourth species of Neohyssura is described from a beach of a lagoon of Ilha do Sal (Cape Verde Islands). The species is blind and can easily be recognized by the oval, spinose outline of the telson and the spines on the uropodal endopod.

  3. Environmental Education Evaluation at the School: An Example in Sao Nicolau Island, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziani, Pietro; Cabral, Daniel; Santana, Nelson

    2013-01-01

    Monte Gordo Natural Park (MGNP) is part of the Cape Verde (CV) Protected Areas National Network. In order to create an effective Environmental Education (EE) curriculum, it is crucial to first identify the level of environmental knowledge of both teachers and students. In 2007 we implemented a set of four surveys to students and educators and…

  4. Immigration and Resiliency: Unpacking the Experiences of High School Students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersi, Afra Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the complex factors, both individual and social, that contribute to the resiliency and academic achievement of six adolescent African immigrant students from Cape Verde and Ethiopia who were enrolled in a small high school in the United States. The school was designed specifically for recent adolescent immigrant students.…

  5. Geochemical stratigraphy of submarine lavas (3-5 Ma) from the Flamengos Valley, Santiago, Cape Verde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.;

    2009-01-01

    New high-precision Pb-Sr-Nd isotope, major and trace element and mineral chemistry data are presented for the submarine stage of ocean island volcanism on Santiago, one of the southern islands of the Cape Verde archipelago. Pillow basalts and hyaloclastites in the Flamengos Valley are divided...

  6. Marine interstitial Amphipoda and Isopoda (Crustacea) from Santiago, Cape Verde Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stock, Jan H.; Vonk, Ronald

    1992-01-01

    Three species of Amphipoda are recorded from interstices of a marine beach on the island of Santiago, Cape Verde Archipelago: Cabogidiella littoralis n. gen., n. sp. (Bogidiellidae), Psammogammarus spinosus n. sp. (Melitidae), and Idunella sketi Karaman, 1980 (Liljeborgiidae). The latter, widely dis

  7. Zoanthids of the Cape Verde Islands and their symbionts: previously unexamined diversity in the Northeastern Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reimer, J.D.; Hirose, M.; Wirtz, P.

    2010-01-01

    The marine invertebrate fauna of the Cape Verde Islands contains many endemic species due to their isolated location in the eastern Atlantic, yet research has not been conducted on most taxa here. One such group are the zoanthids or mat anemones, an order of benthic cnidarians (Hexacorallia: Zoantha

  8. Miocene climate and vegetation changes in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa: Evidence from biogeochemistry and palynology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sciscio, L.; Tsikos, H.; Roberts, D.L.; Scott, L.; van Breugel, Y.; Sinninghe Damste, J.S.; Schouten, S.; Grocke, D.R.

    2016-01-01

    Organic material from the Noordhoek area on the western margin of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa, wasobtained from a ~50 m-long drill-core dominated by fluvio-lacustrine siliciclastic sediments. The aim of thisstudy is to constrain fluctuations in climate and the decline of tropical vegetation ele

  9. The volcanic and geochemical development of São Nicolau, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duprat, Helene Inga; Holm, Paul Martin; Sherson, Jacob Friis;

    2007-01-01

    We present 34 new age results from 40 Ar/39 Ar incremental heating analyses of groundmass separates from volcanic rocks from São Nicolau, Cape Verde. Combining the age results with field observations, we show that the volcanic activity that formed the island occurred in four separate stages: 1: >...

  10. A volcanological and geochemical investigation of Boa Vistta, Cape Verde Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhr, Charlotte Thorup; Holm, Paul Martin

    2009-01-01

    Boa Vista, the easternmost island in the Cape Verde archipelago, consists of volcanic products, minor intrusions and a thin partial sedimentary cover. The first 15 age results from 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating analysis of groundmass separates from volcanic and plutonic rocks from Boa Vista are p...

  11. 78 FR 7402 - Small Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ... IHA. CWA is not proposing to change their survey activities in any way. However, the geotechnical... Specified Activities; Cape Wind's High Resolution Survey in Nantucket Sound, MA AGENCY: National Marine... mammals, by harassment, incidental to pre-construction high resolution survey activities. CWA began...

  12. 77 FR 9974 - Notice of Entering Into a Compact With the Republic of Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... promoting economic growth and the elimination of extreme poverty in Cape Verde and that MCC assistance under... poverty through economic growth (the ``Compact''). To this end, the Compact's two projects are intended to... advance the goal of reducing poverty through economic growth, the Compact will fund two projects. The...

  13. The reaction of the Cape Mountain Zebra (Equus Zebra Zebra to certain chemical immobilisation drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Young

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available he physiological reactions evoked by M@99 and Aza- perone in the Cape Mountain Zebra (Equus zebra Zebra are discussed. Notes on clinical as well as physiological parameters are presented and it is concluded that these drugs can be used effectively in the capture of individuals of this rare mammal.

  14. 33 CFR 80.115 - Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Portland Head, ME to Cape Ann, MA. 80.115 Section 80.115 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY..., MA. (a) Except inside lines specifically described in this section, the 72 COLREGS shall apply on...

  15. Fungal radiation in the Cape Floristic Region: an analysis based on Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets, F.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.; Dreyer, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) displays high levels of plant diversity and endemism, and has received focused botanical systematic attention. In contrast, fungal diversity patterns and co-evolutionary processes in this region have barely been investigated. Here we reconstruct molecular phylogenies

  16. Fungal Radiation in the Cape Floristic Region: an analysis based on Gondwanamyces and Ophiostoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roets, F.; Wingfield, M.J.; Crous, P.W.; Dreyer, L.L.

    2009-01-01

    The Cape Floristic Region (CFR) displays high levels of plant diversity and endemism, and has received focused botanical systematic attention. In contrast, fungal diversity patterns and co-evolutionary processes in this region have barely been investigated. Here we reconstruct molecular phylogenies

  17. Further information on the Dohrn-Keulemans collection of birds from the Cape Verde Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazevoet, C.J.; Fischer, S.

    1996-01-01

    Until recently, only one specimen from the series of syntypes of the Cape Verde Cane Warbler Acrocephalus brevipennis, collected by H. Dohrn and J.G. Keulemans in 1865, was known to be still in existence. Another specimen belonging to this series has now been discovered in the collections of the Ber

  18. Tetrapocillon atlanticus n.sp. (Porifera, Poecilosclerida) from the Cape Verde Islands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1988-01-01

    A representative of the rare genus Tetrapocillon Brondsted (1924) was found for the first time in the Atlantic Ocean, dredged at 70 m depth during the recent CANCAP VII Expedition to the Cape Verde Islands. The single specimen differed from the previously known Indo-Pacific specimens of the genus (

  19. The Effects of Community Violence on Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The primary objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between exposure to community violence (neighborhood, school, police, and gang violence) and psychological distress in a sample of children living in the Cape Town, South Africa area. Another objective was to identify variables that moderate and mediate the…

  20. Intervening in Children's Involvement in Gangs: Views of Cape Town's Young People

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Catherine L.; Bakhuis, Karlijn

    2010-01-01

    Gangs have a long history in Cape Town and children tend to begin involvement around age 12. Children's views on causes of children's involvement in gangs and appropriate interventions, were sought for inclusion in policy recommendations. Thirty focus group discussions were held with in- and out-of-school youth in different communities.…

  1. Introductory Astronomy Course at the University of Cape Town: Probing Student Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-01-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire…

  2. Exploring the Factors Influencing the Adoption of Open Source Software in Western Cape Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Kevin; Begg, Shameemah; Tanner, Maureen

    2013-01-01

    Open Source Software (OSS) presents many benefits to both the private and the public sectors, and has proven to be a viable solution in schools. Although a policy mandating the use of OSS exists in the Western Cape province of South Africa, very few schools in the province have adopted OSS. The education system in South Africa is currently facing…

  3. Establishing Validity of the Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zraick, Richard I.; Kempster, Gail B.; Connor, Nadine P.; Thibeault, Susan; Klaben, Bernice K.; Bursac, Zoran; Thrush, Carol R.; Glaze, Leslie E.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The Consensus Auditory-Perceptual Evaluation of Voice (CAPE-V) was developed to provide a protocol and form for clinicians to use when assessing the voice quality of adults with voice disorders (Kempster, Gerratt, Verdolini Abbott, Barkmeier-Kramer, & Hillman, 2009). This study examined the reliability and the empirical validity of the…

  4. Options for Water, Energy and Chemical Savings for Finitex, Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Zsig; Wenzel, Henrik

    An analysis of the options identified for saving of water, energy and chemicals was conducted at Finitex, Cape Town on the 18th October 2002. Cost savings were calculated from an estimation of the reduction in cost of water, energy and chemical usage associated with various interventions. Capital...... period....

  5. An 40 Ar- 39 Ar study of the Cape Verde hot spot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Paul Martin; Grandvuinet, Tanja; Wilson, James Richard;

    2008-01-01

    Cretaceous age for limestones deposited on the seafloor and later uplifted. The Cape Verde Rise is indicated to have fully formed in the early Miocene around 22 Ma, accompanied by the initial alkaline volcanism. Considerable volcanism on Sal, Boa Vista, and Maio took place in the Miocene and Pliocene...

  6. The Tangled Web: Investigating Academics' Views of Plagiarism at the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jager, Karin; Brown, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    This article considers the problematic question of student plagiarism, its causes and manifestations, and how it is addressed in academic environments. A literature survey was conducted to establish how higher education institutions approach these issues, and a twofold investigation was conducted at the University of Cape Town. Data was gathered…

  7. The MobiSan approach: informal settlements of Cape Town, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naranjo, A.; Castellano, D.; Kraaijvanger, H.; Meulman, B.; Mels, A.R.; Zeeman, G.

    2010-01-01

    Pook se Bos informal settlement and the Cape Town Water & Sanitation Services Department are partnering on an urban sanitation project with a Dutch Consortium consisting of Lettinga Associates Foundation (LeAF), Landustrie Sneek and Vitens-Evides International. The aim of the project is to impro

  8. Language Policy as a Sociocultural Tool: Insights from the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karjalainen, Magda

    2016-01-01

    This theoretically oriented article draws on the author's previous research, which examined language policy and planning (LPP) of the University of Cape Town within the context of post-apartheid transformation driven by need to redress inequalities of the past, and demands of globalization. Drawing on critical linguistics, but indicating…

  9. Los Angeles Public Library's TeenS'cape Takes on the "New Callousness."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Anthony

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the Los Angeles Public Library's TeenS'cape, located in the middle of the city's Central Library. This technically sophisticated library space, opened after the 1992 L.A. riots, provides custom furnishings, postmodernist architecture, and equipment and materials specifically catered to the local teens, amid the culture of "anti-youth"…

  10. Parental Investment, Club Membership, and Youth Sexual Risk Behavior in Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental…

  11. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : Cape Verde Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Tutu, Osei Agyeman

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev)-supported survey of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. Cape Verde has made significant strides in the implementation of ICTs in education. The drawback o...

  12. 78 FR 49972 - Importation of Cape Gooseberry From Colombia Into the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... commodity import evaluation document (CIED) titled ``Recognition of cape gooseberry production sites that... imported for sale and distribution. Such identification is based on a variety of indicators, including, but... averaging, the total annual burden hours may not equal the product of the annual number of...

  13. University Multilingualism: A Critical Narrative from the University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antia, Bassey E.

    2015-01-01

    This article offers a narrative of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa, from the prism of the duality of language as a co-modality (with people, protest, policy and practices) for constituting the institution in whole or in part and as a reflection of its co-modalities. For its framing, the narrative eclectically draws on language…

  14. 77 FR 37324 - Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Cape Fear River; Wilmington, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Major Motion Picture Filming, Cape Fear... will be performed on the river during the filming of this motion picture. DATES: This rule is effective... DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking...

  15. Orientation Impact on Performance of Undergraduate Students in University of Cape Coast (Ghana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Georgina Asi; Tawiah, Millan Ahema; Sena-Kpeglo, Cynthia; Onyame, Jeff Teye

    2014-01-01

    Orientation is widely conceived to encompass activities that support the transition into educational institutions. The University of Cape Coast, Ghana places a premium on orientation for freshman year students and yet the impact of such programmes on students' performance remains a difficult thing to determine. This study, therefore, focuses on…

  16. Melt segregation in the Muroto Gabbroic Intrusion, Cape Muroto - Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floess, David; Caricchi, Luca; Wallis, Simon

    2014-05-01

    Melt segregation is a crucial process in igneous petrology and is commonly used to explain characteristic geochemical trends of magmatic rocks (e.g. Brophy 1991), as well as the accumulation of large amounts of eruptible magma (e.g. Bachmann & Bergantz, 2008). In order to gain further insight into the physical processes behind melt segregation we investigated a small-scale, natural setting. The Miocene Muroto Gabbroic Intrusion (MGI) is a 230m thick, layered sill located at Cape Muroto (Shikoku Island - Japan; Yoshizawa, 1953). It was rotated into a near-vertical (~70°) orientation after horizontal emplacement, allowing for easy sampling of the entire sill from bottom to top. We collected ~70 oriented samples for petrographic and geochemical analysis, as well as for structural analysis using Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS). A well-defined horizon (zone I) between 50 and 125m from the bottom shows spectacular evidence for the segregation of felsic melts from the mafic mush (Hoshide et al. 2006). Individual, cm- to m-sized, anorthositic melt lenses mainly consist of plagioclase laths with minor cpx. Small diapirs emanate from the melt lenses and clearly indicate the paleo-upward direction of the sill. Zone I is overlaid by a coarse-grained gabbro (zone II) with cm-sized crystals of plag+cpx and no anorthositic segregations can be found. The MGI grades into fine-grained dolerite towards the top and bottom margins of the sill. We modeled the phase relations of a representative MGI gabbro composition (chilled margin) upon cooling using MELTS (Gualda et al. 2012). Extracted physical parameters (i.e. melt and solid densities, melt viscosity) were used as a proxy for melt mobility (Sakamaki et al. 2013). The temporal and spatial evolution of melt mobility within the sill was investigated using the temperature-time curve obtained through a thermal model for the MGI. We observed several peaks for the melt mobility, implying zones of melt drainage (when mobility

  17. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene. PMID:25973508

  18. From introduced American weed to Cape Verde Islands endemic: the case of Solanum rigidum Lam. (Solanaceae, Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Sandra; Vorontsova, Maria S

    2013-01-01

    A Solanum species long considered an American introduction to the Cape Verde Islands off the west coast of Africa is identified as Solanum rigidum, a member of the Eggplant clade of Old World spiny solanums (Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum) and is probably endemic to the Cape Verde Islands. Collections of this species from the Caribbean are likely to have been introduced from the Cape Verde Islands on slave ships. We discuss the complex nomenclatural history of this plant and provide a detailed description, illustration and distribution map. The preliminary conservation status of Solanum rigidum is Least Concern, but needs to be reassessed in light of its endemic rather than introduced status. PMID:24198710

  19. A new culture plant in Söke Plain (Aydın): Cape Gooseberry/Golden Strawberry (Physalis peruviana)

    OpenAIRE

    Özdemir, Yasemin; GÜNAL, NURTEN

    2012-01-01

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an economically valuable species of Physalis in the family of Solanaceae. Native to the tropical South America, Cape Gooseberry then spread to tropical, subtropical, and sometimes mild climate zones. Physalis peruviana is a plant that highly needs heat, sun light and moisture, and that does not withstand low temperature and strong winds. It is not so much selective in terms of soil.Cape Gooseberry/Golden Strawberry was first grown in the town Bağarası i...

  20. Particle characterization at the Cape Verde atmospheric observatory during the 2007 RHaMBLe intensive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical characterization of filter high volume (HV and Berner impactor (BI samples PM during RHaMBLe 2007 shows that the Cape Verde aerosol particles are mainly composed of sea salt, mineral dust and associated water. The influence from the African continent on the aerosol constitution was generally small but air masses which came from south-western Europe crossing the Canary Islands transported dust to the sampling site together with other loadings. The mean mass concentration was determined for PM10 as 17 μg/m3 from the impactor samples and as 24.2 μg/m3 from HV filter samples. Non sea salt (nss components of PM were found in the submicron fractions including nitrate in the coarse mode fraction. Bromide was found in all samples with much depleted concentrations in the range 1–8 ng/m3 compared to fresh sea salt aerosol indicating intense atmospheric halogen chemistry. A chloride deficit of 31% and 38% for the coarse mode particles (3.5–10 μm; 1.2–3.5 μm, of 67% (0.42–1.2 μm and 83% (0.14–0.42 μm for the submicron fractions was determined.

    During 14 May with high mineral dust loads also the maximum of OC (1.71 μg/m3 and EC (1.25 μg/m3 was measured. The minimum of TC (0.25 μg/m3 was detected during the period 25 to 27 May when pure marine air masses arrived. The concentrations of carbonaceous material decrease with increasing particles size from 60% for the ultra fine particles to 2.5% in coarse mode PM.

    Total iron (dust vs. non-dust: 0.53 vs. 0.06 μg m−3, calcium (0.22 vs. 0.03 μg m−3 and potassium (0.33 vs. 0.02 μg m−3 were found as good indicators for dust periods because of their heavily increased concentration in the 1.2 to 3.5 μm fraction as compared to their concentration during the non-dust periods. For the organic constituents, oxalate (78–151 ng/m3 and

  1. Particle characterization at the Cape Verde atmospheric observatory during the 2007 RHaMBLe intensive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Müller

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The chemical characterization of filter high volume (HV and Berner impactor (BI samples PM during RHaMBLe (Reactive Halogens in the Marine Boundary Layer 2007 shows that the Cape Verde aerosol particles are mainly composed of sea salt, mineral dust and associated water. Minor components are nss-salts, OC and EC. The influence from the African continent on the aerosol constitution was generally small but air masses which came from south-western Europe crossing the Canary Islands transported dust to the sampling site together with other loadings. The mean mass concentration was determined for PM10 to 17 μg/m3 from impactor samples and to 24.2 μg/m3 from HV filter samples. Non sea salt (nss components of PM were found in the submicron fractions and nitrate in the coarse mode fraction. Bromide was found in all samples with much depleted concentrations in the range 1–8 ng/m3 compared to fresh sea salt aerosol indicating intense atmospheric halogen chemistry. Loss of bromide by ozone reaction during long sampling time is supposed and resulted totally in 82±12% in coarse mode impactor samples and in filter samples in 88±6% bromide deficits. A chloride deficit was determined to 8% and 1% for the coarse mode particles (3.5–10 μm; 1.2–3.5 μm and to 21% for filter samples.

    During 14 May with high mineral dust loads also the maximum of OC (1.71μg/m3 and EC (1.25 μg/m3 was measured. The minimum of TC (0.25 μg/m3 was detected during the period 25 to 27 May when pure marine air masses arrived. The concentrations of carbonaceous material decrease with increasing particle size from 60% for the ultra fine particles to 2.5% in coarse mode PM.

    Total iron (dust vs. non-dust: 0.53 vs. 0.06 μg m3, calcium (0.22 vs. 0.03 μg m3 and potassium (0.33 vs. 0.02 μg m3 were found as good indicators for dust periods because of their

  2. Can Cape Town's unique biodiversity be saved? Balancing conservation imperatives and development needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Wood

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town is an urban hotspot within the Cape Floristic Region global biodiversity hotspot. This city of 2,460 km² encompasses four local centers of fynbos plant endemism, 19 national terrestrial vegetation types (six endemic to the city, wetland and coastal ecosystems, and 190 endemic plant species. Biodiversity in the lowlands is under threat of extinction as a result of habitat loss to agriculture, urban development, mining, and degradation by invasive alien plants. Cape Town's population is 3.7 million, increasing by an estimated 55,000 people/yr, which puts pressure on biodiversity remnants for development. South Africa is a signatory to international instruments to reduce biodiversity loss and has a good legislative and policy framework to conserve biodiversity, yet implementation actions are slow, with limited national and provincial support to conserve Cape Town's unique and irreplaceable biodiversity. The lack-of-action problem is two-fold: national government is slow to implement the policies developed to realize the international instruments it has signed, with conservation initiatives inadequately funded; and local governments are not yet recognized as important implementation partners. A further problem is created by conflicting policies such as the national housing policy that contributes to urban sprawl and loss of critical biodiversity areas. The City's Biodiversity Management Branch, with partners, is making some headway at implementation, but stronger political commitment is needed at all levels of government. Our objective is to improve the status and management of biodiversity in existing conservation areas through the statutory proclamation process and management effectiveness monitoring, respectively, and to secure priority areas of the BioNet, Cape Town's systematic biodiversity plan. The most important tools for the latter are incorporating the BioNet plan into City spatial plans; communication, education, and public

  3. IMPLEMENTATION OF A CAPE-OPEN COMPLIANT PROCESS SIMULATOR USING MICROSOFT'S VISUAL STUDIO.NET AND THE .NET FRAMEWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency is developing a ComputerAided Process Engineering (CAPE) software tool for the metal finishingindustry that helps users design efficient metal finishing processes thatare less polluting to the environment. Metal finish...

  4. Continuous Resistivity Profile Tracklines of Data Collected from Cape Cod National Seashore, May 17-20, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  5. Point Shapefile with a Point Every 100 meters along the Cape Cod National Seashore Resistivity Survey tracklines, Feb. 28, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Continuous resistivity profiling (CRP) surveys were conducted at Cape Cod National Seashore in 2004 and 2006 in order to test hypotheses about groundwater flow...

  6. Oregon Islands, Three Arch Rocks, and Cape Meares National Wildlife Refuges: Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Wilderness Stewardship Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Oregon Islands, Three Arch Rocks, and Cape Meares NWRs for the next 15 years. This...

  7. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009: First Surface

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the National Park Service Southeast Coast Network's Cape Hatteras National Seashore in North Carolina, post-Nor'Ida...

  8. HATTERAS_BASELINE: Offshore baseline for Hatteras Island from Oregon Inlet to Cape Hatteras Point, North Carolina (geographic, WGS84).

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The shoreline of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, is experiencing long-term coastal erosion. In order to better understand and monitor the changing coastline,...

  9. Population and productivity studies of black-legged kittiwakes, common murres, and pelagic cormorants at Cape Peirce, Alaska, summer 1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Cape Peirce, Alaska, was the site of a nesting seabird study from June 16 to August 20, 1988. Three species of nesting seabirds Blacklegged Kittiwakes, Common...

  10. EAARL Coastal Topography--Cape Hatteras National Seashore, North Carolina, Post-Nor'Ida, 2009: Bare Earth

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Cape Hatteras National Seashore in North Carolina, post-Nor'Ida (November 2009 nor'easter), was produced from...

  11. Chemometric Characterization of Alembic and Industrial Sugar Cane Spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina F. R. Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sugar cane spirits are some of the most popular alcoholic beverages consumed in Cape Verde. The sugar cane spirit industry in Cape Verde is based mainly on archaic practices that operate without supervision and without efficient control of the production process. The objective of this work was to evaluate samples of industrial and alembic sugar cane spirits from Cape Verde and Ceará, Brazil using principal component analysis. Thirty-two samples of spirits were analyzed, twenty from regions of the islands of Cape Verde and twelve from Ceará, Brazil. Of the samples obtained from Ceará, Brazil seven are alembic and five are industrial spirits. The components analyzed in these studies included the following: volatile organic compounds (n-propanol, isobutanol, isoamylic, higher alcohols, alcoholic grade, acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetate; copper; and sulfates.

  12. Thin air

    OpenAIRE

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Clearing the air How do we grasp the air? Without Michel Callon’s guidance, I might never have asked that question. Years ago, when I first entered environmental law practice, I took it for granted that problems such as air pollution exist “out there” in the real world for science to discover and law to fix. It is a measure of Callon’s influence that I understand the law today as a metaphysical instrument, no less powerful in its capacity to order nature than the tools of the ancient oracular...

  13. Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a close in June 2013 when the company, Conscious Clothing, was awarded the My Air grand ... Page Options: Request Translation Services Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google+ Reddit Email Evernote More Increase Font Size Decrease ...

  14. A numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, and its demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation of GEO-CAPE and GOES-R

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a numerical testbed for remote sensing of aerosols, together with a demonstration for evaluating retrieval synergy from a geostationary satellite constellation. The testbed combines inverse (optimal-estimation) software with a forward model containing linearized code for computing particle scattering (for both spherical and non-spherical particles), a kernel-based (land and ocean) surface bi-directional reflectance facility, and a linearized radiative transfer model for polarized radiance. Calculation of gas absorption spectra uses the HITRAN (HIgh-resolution TRANsmission molecular absorption) database of spectroscopic line parameters and other trace species cross-sections. The outputs of the testbed include not only the Stokes 4-vector elements and their sensitivities (Jacobians) with respect to the aerosol single scattering and physical parameters (such as size and shape parameters, refractive index, and plume height), but also DFS (Degree of Freedom for Signal) values for retrieval of these parameters. This testbed can be used as a tool to provide an objective assessment of aerosol information content that can be retrieved for any constellation of (planned or real) satellite sensors and for any combination of algorithm design factors (in terms of wavelengths, viewing angles, radiance and/or polarization to be measured or used). We summarize the components of the testbed, including the derivation and validation of analytical formulae for Jacobian calculations. Benchmark calculations from the forward model are documented. In the context of NASA's Decadal Survey Mission GEO-CAPE (GEOstationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events), we demonstrate the use of the testbed to conduct a feasibility study of using polarization measurements in and around the O2A band for the retrieval of aerosol height information from space, as well as an to assess potential improvement in the retrieval of aerosol fine and coarse mode aerosol optical depth (AOD) through the

  15. The effect of CAPE on lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels in the plasma of rats following thermal injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoşnuter, Mübin; Gürel, Ahmet; Babucçu, Orhan; Armutcu, Ferah; Kargi, Eksal; Işikdemir, Ahmet

    2004-03-01

    Both experimental and clinical studies have shown that oxygen-derived free radicals rise in the plasma after thermal injury and participate in the pathogenesis of tissue damage. Hence, various antioxidant molecules have been used in treatment of burn injury both experimentally and clinically. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), an active component of propolis from honeybee hives, is known to have potent antioxidant property. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CAPE on oxidative stress in plasma of burned rats. Experiment was designed in three groups of rats with 20% full-thickness burn: (a) sham burn (n = 7); (b) burn only (n = 22); (c) burn + treatment with CAPE (n = 22). Plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and the activities of xanthine oxidase (XO), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were used as both bio-indicators of oxidant status and determinant of antioxidant effect of CAPE. They were assessed by biochemical methods at 1st, 3rd, 7th, and 14th post-burn days. In conclusion, CAPE was shown to possess antioxidant activity by saving SOD activity, preventing XO activity and decreasing the levels of MDA, and NO. Our study showed that CAPE may be beneficial in burn injury.

  16. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood. PMID:14610654

  17. Magnetic anomalies northeast of Cape Adare, northern Victoria Land (Antarctica), and their relation to onshore structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damaske, D.; Läufer, A.L.; Goldmann, F.; Möller, H.-D.; Lisker, F.

    2007-01-01

    An aeromagnetic survey was flown over the offshore region northeast of Cape Adare and the magnetic anomalies compared to onshore structures between Pennell Coast and Tucker Glacier. The magnetic anomalies show two nearly orthogonal major trends. NNW-SSE trending anomalies northeast of Cape Adare represent seafloor spreading within the Adare Trough. A connection of these anomalies to the Northern Basin of the Ross Sea is not clear. Onshore faults are closely aligned to offshore anomalies. Main trends are NW-SE to NNW-SSE and NE-SW to NNESSW. NNW-SSE oriented dextral-transtensional to extensional faults parallel the Adare Peninsula and Adare Trough anomalies. NE-SW trending normal faults appear to segment the main Hallett volcanic bodies.

  18. Attitudes toward couples-based HIV counseling and testing among MSM in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Rob; Rentsch, Christopher; Sullivan, Patrick; McAdams-Mahmoud, Ayesha; Jobson, Geoff; Struthers, Helen; McIntyre, James

    2013-05-01

    Couples-based voluntary HIV counseling and testing (CVCT) allows couples to receive their HIV test results together and has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing HIV transmission, increasing and sustaining condom use, and reducing sexual risk-taking among at-risk heterosexual couples. However, the acceptability of CVCT among MSM has yet to be evaluated in an African setting. The results from seven focus group discussions and 29 in-depth interviews conducted in Cape Town, South Africa exhibit overwhelmingly high acceptance of CVCT. Participants were attracted to the counseling components of the service, stating that these would allow for the couple to increase their commitment and to explore methods of how to effectively reduce their risk of acquiring or transmitting HIV in the presence of a trained counselor. These results suggest CVCT would be highly welcomed and could work to fill the significant lack of services available and accessible to MSM couples in Cape Town.

  19. Oviposition by small hive beetles elicits hygienic responses from Cape honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J D; Richards, C S; Hepburn, H R; Elzen, P J

    2003-11-01

    Two novel behaviours, both adaptations of small hive beetles ( Aethina tumida Murray) and Cape honeybees ( Apis mellifera capensis Esch.), are described. Beetles puncture the sides of empty cells and oviposit under the pupae in adjoining cells. However, bees detect this ruse and remove infested brood (hygienic behaviour), even under such well-disguised conditions. Indeed, bees removed 91% of treatment brood (brood cells with punctured walls caused by beetles) but only 2% of control brood (brood not exposed to beetles). Only 91% of treatment brood actually contained beetle eggs; the data therefore suggest that bees remove only that brood containing beetle eggs and leave uninfected brood alone, even if beetles have accessed (but not oviposited on) the brood. Although this unique oviposition strategy by beetles appears both elusive and adaptive, Cape honeybees are able to detect and remove virtually all of the infested brood.

  20. Brand Preference for Mobile Phone Operator Services in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Dadzie; Francis Boachie-Mensah

    2011-01-01

    Branding is increasingly being used as a strategy for managing markets in developed countries while developingcountries still lag behind. The objective of this study was to assess the level of brand awareness and factorsunderlying brand preference of mobile phone service brands in Cape Coast market in Ghana. A total of 100respondents who included individual consumers were selected using accidental simple sampling technique.Primary data was collected using structured interview schedules develo...

  1. The Cape Town science centre : a comprehensive business plan / Christian Rudolph Faure

    OpenAIRE

    Faure, Christian Rudolph

    1999-01-01

    This business plan describes the activities and projected financial operation of the Futropolis, a new science and technology centre to be located at Century City, Cape Town. The Futropolis is the first of a network of science and technology centres that will be established by MTN in South Africa and elsewhere in Africa with the aim of increasing the techno-literacy of all South Africans. The Directors and Financial Managers of science centres and theme parks throughout the ...

  2. From warm to cold: migration of Adélie penguins within Cape Bird, Ross Island

    OpenAIRE

    Yaguang Nie; Liguang Sun; Xiaodong Liu; Emslie, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Due to their sensitivity to environmental change, penguins in Antarctica are widely used as bio-indicators in paleoclimatic research. On the basis of bio-element assemblages identified in four ornithogenic sediment profiles, we reconstructed the historical penguin population change at Cape Bird, Ross Island, for the past 1600 years. Clear succession of penguin population peaks were observed in different profiles at about 1400 AD, which suggested a high probability of migration within this reg...

  3. Desertification of subtropical thicket in the Eastern Cape, South Africa: Are there alternatives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, G I; Knight, M H; de Kock, M

    1995-01-01

    The Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket (ECST) froms the transition between forest, semiarid karroid shrublands, and grassland in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Undegraded ECST forms an impenetrable, spiny thicket up to 3 m high consisting of a wealth of growth forms, including evergreen plants, succulent and deciduous shrubs, lianas, grasses, and geophytes. The thicket dynamics are not well understood, but elephants may have been important browsers and patch disturbance agents. These semiarid thickets have been subjected to intensive grazing by domestic ungulates, which have largely replaced indigenous herbivores over the last 2 centuries. Overgrazing has extensively degraded vegetation, resulting in the loss of phytomass and plant species and the replacement of perennials by annuals. Coupled with these changes are alterations of soil structure and secondary productivity. This rangeland degradation has largely been attributed to pastoralism with domestic herbivores. The impact of indigenous herbivores differs in scale, intensity, and nature from that of domestic ungulates. Further degradation of the ECST may be limited by alternative management strategies, including the use of wildlife for meat production and ecotourism. Producing meat from wildlife earns less income than from domestic herbivores but is ecologically sustainable. The financial benefits of game use can be improved by developing expertise, technology, and marketing. Ecotourism is not well developed in the Eastern Cape although the Addo Elephant National Park is a financial success and provides considerable employment benefits within an ecologically sustainable system. The density of black rhinoceros and elephant in these thickets is among the highest in Africa, with high population growth and the lowest poaching risk. The financial and ecological viability of ecotourism and the conservation status of these two species warrant expanding ecotourism in the Eastern Cape, thereby reducing the probability of

  4. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. PMID:25979965

  5. Simulations of atmospheric methane for Cape Grim, Tasmania, to constrain southeastern Australian methane emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Z. M. Loh; R. M. Law; Haynes, K. D.; P. B. Krummel; Steele, L. P.; P. J. Fraser; S. D. Chambers; Williams, A G

    2015-01-01

    This study uses two climate models and six scenarios of prescribed methane emissions to compare modelled and observed atmospheric methane between 1994 and 2007, for Cape Grim, Australia (40.7° S, 144.7° E). The model simulations follow the TransCom-CH4 protocol and use the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) and the CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM). Radon is also simulated and used to reduce the i...

  6. Simulations of atmospheric methane for Cape Grim, Tasmania, to constrain South East Australian methane emissions

    OpenAIRE

    Z. M. Loh; R. M. Law; Haynes, K. D.; P. B. Krummel; Steele, L. P.; P. J. Fraser; Chambers, S; Williams, A

    2014-01-01

    This study uses two climate models and six scenarios of prescribed methane emissions to compare modelled and observed atmospheric methane between 1994 and 2007, for Cape Grim, Australia (40.7° S, 144.7° E). The model simulations follow the TransCom-CH4 protocol and use the Australian Community Climate and Earth System Simulator (ACCESS) and the CSIRO Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM). Radon is also simulated and used to reduce the i...

  7. An evaluation of guided reading in three primary schools in the Western Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Renee R Nathanson; Alide Kruizinga

    2011-01-01

    Given that the South African government intends to improve its literacy rates by implementing Guided Reading in the primary schools, teachers are challenged to give good quality Guided Reading instruction. The study which this article draws on evaluates how teachers understand and implement Guided Reading in Grade 1 and 2 at three public schools in the Western Cape. Data were drawn from observations of teachers using Fountas & Pinnell’s Guided Reading instruction and a Guided Reading Self...

  8. Rural growth linkages in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ngqangweni, Simphiwe

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses the impact of rising smallholder incomes on local non-agricultural development in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. It determines how increased rural incomes are spent on a mix of goods and services, and debates the implications of these spending patterns for growth in rural areas through the alleviation of demand constraints. These results make it possible to identify areas of intervention necessary for sustaining growth originating from stimulus to tradable agriculture...

  9. Secondary Education and Health Outcomes in Young People from the Cape Area Panel Study (CAPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Joseph L.; Viner, Russell M

    2016-01-01

    Aim Education is one of the strongest social determinants of health, yet previous literature has focused on primary education. We examined whether there are additional benefits to completing upper secondary compared to lower secondary education in a middle-income country. Methods We performed a longitudinal analysis of the Cape Area Panel Study, a survey of adolescents living in South Africa. We undertook causal modeling using structural marginal models to examine the association between leve...

  10. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde, through a participatory approach: which outcome?

    OpenAIRE

    P. Texier-Teixeira; Chouraqui, F.; A. Perrillat-Collomb; Lavigne, F.; J. R. Cadag; Grancher, D.

    2014-01-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of Work Package 5 (socio-economical vulnerability assessment and community-based disaster risk reduction) of the MIAVITA (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) research programme conducted on Fogo Volcano, Cape Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 years (May 2010 to January 2012), of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km wide caldera ...

  11. The last whale : rise and demise of shore-based whaling in the Cape Verde Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Cabral, José J.; Hazevoet, Cornelis J.

    2015-01-01

    For two centuries, the seas of the Cape Verde archipelago were a favorite whaling ground – known as the ‘San Antonio Ground’ among whalers – for an international fleet of whaling ships and especially for the "Yankee whalers" from New England, USA. One of their main targets was the humpback whale Megaptera novaeangliae, of which large numbers were caught (e.g. Clark 1887, Townsend 1935, Reeves et al. 2002, Smith & Reeves 2003, 2010).

  12. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, Maritha E

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading pr...

  13. Water cycle research associated with the CaPE hydrometeorology project (CHymP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchon, Claude E.

    1993-01-01

    One outgrowth of the Convection and Precipitation/Electrification (CaPE) experiment that took place in central Florida during July and August 1991 was the creation of the CaPE Hydrometeorology Project (CHymP). The principal goal of this project is to investigate the daily water cycle of the CaPE experimental area by analyzing the numerous land and atmosphere in situ and remotely sensed data sets that were generated during the 40-days of observations. The water cycle comprises the atmospheric branch. In turn, the atmospheric branch comprises precipitation leaving the base of the atmospheric volume under study, evaporation and transpiration entering the base, the net horizontal fluxes of water vapor and cloud water through the volume and the conversion of water vapor to cloud water and vice-versa. The sum of these components results in a time rate of change in the water and liquid water (or ice) content of the atmospheric volume. The components of the land branch are precipitation input to and evaporation and transpiration output from the surface, net horizontal fluxes of surface and subsurface water, the sum of which results in a time rate of change in surface and subsurface water mass. The objective of CHymP is to estimate these components in order to determine the daily water budget for a selected area within the CaPE domain. This work began in earnest in the summer of 1992 and continues. Even estimating all the budget components for one day is a complex and time consuming task. The discussions below provides a short summary of the rainfall quality assessment procedures followed by a plan for estimating the horizontal moisture flux.

  14. Causes of plant diversification in the Cape biodiversity hotspot of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Jan; Barraclough, Timothy G; Boatwright, James S; Goldblatt, Peter; Manning, John C; Powell, Martyn P; Rebelo, Tony; Savolainen, Vincent

    2011-05-01

    The Cape region of South Africa is one of the most remarkable hotspots of biodiversity with a flora comprising more than 9000 plant species, almost 70% of which are endemic, within an area of only ± 90,000 km2. Much of the diversity is due to an exceptionally large contribution of just a few clades that radiated substantially within this region, but little is known about the causes of these radiations. Here, we present a comprehensive analysis of plant diversification, using near complete species-level phylogenies of four major Cape clades (more than 470 species): the genus Protea, a tribe of legumes (Podalyrieae) and two speciose genera within the iris family (Babiana and Moraea), representing three of the seven largest plant families in this biodiversity hotspot. Combining these molecular phylogenetic data with ecological and biogeographical information, we tested key hypotheses that have been proposed to explain the radiation of the Cape flora. Our results show that the radiations started throughout the Oligocene and Miocene and that net diversification rates have remained constant through time at globally moderate rates. Furthermore, using sister-species comparisons to assess the impact of different factors on speciation, we identified soil type shifts as the most important cause of speciation in Babiana, Moraea, and Protea, whereas shifts in fire-survival strategy is the most important factor for Podalyrieae. Contrary to previous findings in other groups, such as orchids, pollination syndromes show a high degree of phylogenetic conservatism, including groups with a large number of specialized pollination syndromes like Moraea. We conclude that the combination of complex environmental conditions together with relative climatic stability promoted high speciation and/or low extinction rates as the most likely scenario leading to present-day patterns of hyperdiversity in the Cape.

  15. Association analysis for disease resistance to Fusarium oxysporum in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L)

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio-Guarín, Jaime A.; Enciso-Rodríguez, Felix E.; González, Carolina; Fernández-Pozo, Noé; Mueller, Lukas A.; Barrero, Luz Stella

    2016-01-01

    Background Vascular wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum is the most important disease in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in Colombia. The development of resistant cultivars is considered one of the most cost-effective means to reduce the impact of this disease. In order to do so, it is necessary to provide breeders with molecular markers and promising germplasm for introgression of different resistance loci as part of breeding schemes. Here we described an association mapping study in c...

  16. Development and Characterization of Microsatellite Markers for the Cape Gooseberry Physalis peruviana

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Simbaqueba; Pilar Sánchez; Erika Sanchez; Victor Manuel Núñez Zarantes; Maria Isabel Chacon; Luz Stella Barrero; Leonardo Mariño-Ramírez

    2011-01-01

    Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Cape gooseberry, is an Andean Solanaceae fruit with high nutritional value and interesting medicinal properties. In the present study we report the development and characterization of microsatellite loci from a P. peruviana commercial Colombian genotype. We identified 932 imperfect and 201 perfect Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) loci in untranslated regions (UTRs) and 304 imperfect and 83 perfect SSR loci in coding regions from the assembled Physalis peruvi...

  17. Growth and nutrient absorption of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis Peruviana L.) in soilless culture

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Rubio, Jose Francisco; Pascual Seva, Nuria; San Bautista Primo, Alberto; Pascual España, Bernardo; López Galarza, Salvador Vicente; Alagarda Pardo, José; Maroto Borrego, José Vicente

    2015-01-01

    "This is an Author's Accepted Manuscript of an article published in [include the complete citation information for the final version of the article as published in the Journal of Plant Nutrition 2015 March, available online at: http://www.tandfonline.com/10.1080/01904167.2014.934474." Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) is a solanaceous plant. The growth and time-course of nutrient accumulation of the plant and its partitioning between roots, stems, leaves, and fruits were examined. Th...

  18. Culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of 596 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hesseling Anneke C; Whitelaw Andrew; Marais Ben J; Schaaf H Simon; Eley Brian; Hussey Gregory D; Donald Peter R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinical, radiological and microbiological features of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis diagnosed at two referral hospitals are described. Methods Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from children less than 13 years of age at Tygerberg and Red Cross Children's Hospitals, Cape Town, South Africa, were collected from March 2003 through February 2005. Folder review and chest radiography were performed and drug susceptibility tests done. Results Of 596 children ...

  19. Understanding Social Responsiveness: Portraits of practice at the University of Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Judith Favish; Sonwabo Ngcelwane

    2009-01-01

    In 2004 the University of Cape (UCT) launched its first annual report on social responsiveness at the university. As a public institution receiving considerable funding from the public purse, it was deemed appropriate that the university should report annually on how it was addressing major development challenges facing the country. The first part of this article describes the process of developing a shared definition of and conceptual clarity about social responsiveness. The second part deve...

  20. Resistance screening trials on coconut varieties to Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Quaicoe Robert Nketsia; Dery Sylvester Kuuna; Philippe René; Baudouin Luc; Nipah Joseph Owusu; Nkansah-Poku Joe; Arthur Ransford; Dare Daniel; Yankey Egya Ndede; Pilet Fabian; Dollet Michel

    2009-01-01

    The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD) is a coconut lethal yellowing type disease (LY) and is the single most serious threat to coconut cultivation in Ghana. The recommended disease management strategy is the cultivation of disease-resistant coconut varieties. More than 38 varieties have been screened for their resistance to CSPWD since 1956 and the results are reviewed in this paper. Two varieties, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf (SGD) and Vanuatu Tall (VTT), have shown high resistance to the diseas...

  1. State of Biodiversity: Western Cape Province, South Africa. Amphibians and Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Baard, E.H.W; de Villiers, A.L.

    2000-01-01

    The six floristic biomes in the Western Cape Province (W.C.P.), namely the Fynbos, Afromontane Forest, Thicket, Grassland, Nama and Succulent Karoo Biomes (Low and Rebelo, 1996), are not only diverse with regard to the variety of plant species and communities occurring there, but also contain a wide diversity of animal species, biogeographical zones, landscapes and natural features, both within the terrestrial and aquatic (freshwater and marine) context. In addition to...

  2. Living with HIV/AIDS in King Williams Town, Eastern Cape

    OpenAIRE

    Chinyama Ephraim .P

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the lifestyle decisions of people who are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in King Williams Town, Eastern Cape. The study was motivated by the ever growing number of people who are now living with HIV/AIDS. Therefore the researcher intended to examine their decisions regarding sexual choices, reproductive health, diet, physical fitness and their coping strategies.The study found that there is very low uptake of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT). Most people only get tested if ...

  3. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dia Ibrahima

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3 epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to monitor their the current status of insecticide susceptibility. Findings The two tested strains were highly resistant to DDT. The Cape Verde strain was found to be susceptible to all others tested insecticides except for propoxur 0.1%, which needs further investigation. The Dakar strain was susceptible to fenitrothion 1% and permethrin 0.75%, but displayed reduced susceptibility to deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin and propoxur. Conclusions As base-line results, our observations stress a careful management of insecticide use for the control of Ae. aegypti. Indeed, they indicate that DDT is no longer efficient for the control of Ae. aegypti populations in Cape Verde and Dakar and further suggest a thorough follow-up of propoxur susceptibility status in both sites and that of deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin in Ae. aegypti populations in Dakar. Thus, regular monitoring of susceptibility is greatly needed as well as the knowing if this observed resistance/susceptibility is focal or not and for observed resistance, the use of biochemical methods is needed with detailed comparison of resistance levels over a large geographic area. Keywords Aedes aegypti, Insecticides, Susceptibility, Cape Verde, Senegal

  4. Three Continents, one Language: Studying English in a Portuguese Landscape (Brazil, Cape Verde and Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Azuaga, Luísa; Cavalheiro, Lili

    2012-01-01

    Unlike other languages, English has spread to all continents and become a truly global language, a process observable in countries, like Brazil, Cape Verde, and Portugal, located in three different continents, and sharing a common official language: Portuguese. This relatively recent development has contributed to the wide exposure to English and the growing influence of the language in their societies, being used with lingua franca communicative purposes, which raises pedagogical issues. Our...

  5. The Nainital–Cape Survey: A Search for Variability in Ap and Am Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Santosh Joshi

    2005-06-01

    The ``Nainital–Cape Survey” program for searching photometric variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars was initiated in 1997 at ARIES, Nainital. We present here the results obtained to date. The Am stars HD 98851, HD 102480, HD 13079 and HD 113878 were discovered to exhibit Scuti type variability. Photometric variability was also discovered in HD 13038, for which the type of peculiarity and variability is not fully explained. The null results of this survey are also presented and discussed.

  6. A new Cyrtanthus species(Amaryllidaceae: Cyrtantheae endemic to the Albany Centre, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. A. Snijman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyrtanthus macmasteri Snijman is a rare new species from the Albany Centre of endemism. Eastern Cape. South Africa. Most closely related to C.  galpinii Baker, and autumn-flowering species with a single or rarely-flowered inflorescence from the northern regions of southern Africa. C macmasteri is distinguished by a 3 to 6-flowered inflorescence. It grows on steep banks of the Great Kei River and its tributaries and flowers in summer.

  7. Insecticide susceptibility of Aedes aegypti populations from Senegal and Cape Verde Archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Dia Ibrahima; Diagne Cheikh; Ba Yamar; Diallo Diawo; Konate Lassana; Diallo Mawlouth

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Two concomitant dengue 3 (DEN-3) epidemics occurred in Cape Verde Archipelago and Senegal between September and October 2009. Aedes aegypti was identified as the vector of these epidemics as several DEN-3 virus strains were isolated from this species in both countries. The susceptibility to pyrethroids, organochlorine, organophosphates and carbamate was investigated in two field strains of Aedes aegypti from both countries using WHO diagnostic bioassay kits in order to mon...

  8. Do power lines and protected areas present a catch-22 situation for Cape vultures (Gyps coprotheres?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Louis Phipps

    Full Text Available Cape vulture Gyps coprotheres populations have declined across their range due to multiple anthropogenic threats. Their susceptibility to fatal collisions with the expanding power line network and the prevalence of carcasses contaminated with illegal poisons and other threats outside protected areas are thought to be the primary drivers of declines in southern Africa. We used GPS-GSM units to track the movements and delineate the home ranges of five adult (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 121,655±90,845 km(2 and four immature (mean ±SD minimum convex polygon area = 492,300±259,427 km(2 Cape vultures to investigate the influence of power lines and their use of protected areas. The vultures travelled more than 1,000 km from the capture site and collectively entered five different countries in southern Africa. Their movement patterns and core foraging ranges were closely associated with the spatial distribution of transmission power lines and we present evidence that the construction of power lines has allowed the species to extend its range to areas previously devoid of suitable perches. The distribution of locations of known Cape vulture mortalities caused by interactions with power lines corresponded to the core ranges of the tracked vultures. Although some of the vultures regularly roosted at breeding colonies located inside protected areas the majority of foraging activity took place on unprotected farmland. Their ability to travel vast distances very quickly and the high proportion of time they spend in the vicinity of power lines and outside protected areas make Cape vultures especially vulnerable to negative interactions with the expanding power line network and the full range of threats across the region. Co-ordinated cross-border conservation strategies beyond the protected area network will therefore be necessary to ensure the future survival of threatened vultures in Africa.

  9. Parental Investment, Club Membership, and Youth Sexual Risk Behavior in Cape Town

    OpenAIRE

    Camlin, Carol S.; Snow, Rachel C

    2008-01-01

    This study examines whether parental investment and membership in social clubs are associated with safer sexual behaviors among South African youth. Participants comprised 4,800 randomly selected adolescents age 14 to 22 living in the Cape Town area in 2002. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between measures of parental investment and associational membership with reported condom use at first and most recent sexual intercourse, net of effects of HIV knowledge, age, educatio...

  10. Quality Assessment of Artemether-Lumefantrine Samples and Artemether Injections Sold in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    OpenAIRE

    James Prah; Elvis Ofori Ameyaw; Richmond Afoakwah; Patrick Fiawoyife; Ernest Oppong-Danquah; Johnson Nyarko Boampong

    2016-01-01

    Most prescribers and patients in Ghana now opt for the relatively expensive artemether/lumefantrine rather than artesunate-amodiaquine due to undesirable side effects in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The study sought to determine the existence of substandard and/or counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine tablets and suspension as well as artemether injection on the market in Cape Coast. Six brands of artemether-lumefantrine tablets, two brands of artemether-lumefantrine suspensions, and...

  11. A Profile of the Eastern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Eastern Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  12. A Profile of the Western Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Western Cape. Most of the data presented are dr...

  13. A Profile of the Northern Cape Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the Northern Cape. Most of the data presented are d...

  14. A Bayesian analysis of two probability models describing thunderstorm activity at Cape Kennedy, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williford, W. O.; Hsieh, P.; Carter, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    A Bayesian analysis of the two discrete probability models, the negative binomial and the modified negative binomial distributions, which have been used to describe thunderstorm activity at Cape Kennedy, Florida, is presented. The Bayesian approach with beta prior distributions is compared to the classical approach which uses a moment method of estimation or a maximum-likelihood method. The accuracy and simplicity of the Bayesian method is demonstrated.

  15. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Nelson, Michael H.; Fierke, Kerry K.; Sucher, Brandon J.; Janke, Kristin K.

    2015-01-01

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI exper...

  16. Thirteen new records of marine invertebrates and two of fishes from Cape Verde Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WIRTZ, P.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The sea anemones Actinoporus elegans Duchassaing, 1850 and Anthothoe affinis (Johnson, 1861 are new records from Cape Verde Islands. Also new to the marine fauna of Cape Verde are an undescribed mysid species of the genus Heteromysis that lives in associationwith the polychaete Branchiomma nigromaculata, the shrimp Tulearicoaris neglecta Chace, 1969 that lives in association with the sea urchin Diadema antillarum, an undescribed nudibranch of the genus Hypselodoris, and two undescribed species of the parasitic gastropod genus Melanella and Melanella cf. eburnea. An undescribedplathelmint of the genus Pseudobiceros, the nudibranch Phyllidia flava (Aradas, 1847 and the parasitic gastropod Echineulima leucophaes (Tomlin & Shackleford, 1913 are recorded, based on colour photos taken in the field. The crab Nepinnotheres viridis Manning, 1993 was encountered in the bivalve Pseudochama radians, which represents the first host record for this pinnotherid species. The nudibranch Tambja anayana, previously only known from a single animal, was reencountered and photographed alive. The sea anemone Actinoporus elegans, previously only known from the western Atlantic, is also reported here from São Tomé Island. In addition, the bythiid fish Grammonus longhursti and an undescribed species of the genus Apletodon are recorded from the Cape Verde Islands for the first time.

  17. Improving Access to Pediatric Cardiology in Cape Verde via a Collaborative International Telemedicine Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapão, Luís Velez; Correia, Artur

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the role of international telemedicine services in supporting the evacuation procedures from Cape Verde to Portugal, enabling better quality and cost reductions in the management of the global health system. The Cape Verde, as other African countries, health system lacks many medical specialists, like pediatric cardiologists, neurosurgery, etc. In this study, tele-cardiology shows good results as diagnostic support to the evacuation decision. Telemedicine services show benefits while monitoring patients in post-evacuation, helping to address the lack of responsive care in some specialties whose actual use will help save resources both in provision and in management of the evacuation procedures. Additionally, with tele-cardiology collaborative service many evacuations can be avoided whereas many cases will be treated and followed locally in Cape Verde with remote technical support from Portugal. This international telemedicine service enabled more efficient evacuations, by reducing expenses in travel and housing, and therefore contributed to the health system's improvement. This study provides some evidence of how important telemedicine really is to cope with both the geography and the shortage of physicians. PMID:25980705

  18. Influence of Electromagnetic Fields on Bone Fracture in Rats: Role of CAPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    EKREM CICEK; OSMAN GOKALP; REMZI VAROL; GOKHAN CESUR

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of radiation emitted by mobile phones on bone strength and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) on the changes induced by radiation. Methods Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups. Rats in the control group (first group) were left within the experimental setup for 30 min/day for 28 days without radiation exposure. Nine hundred MHz radiation group was broke down into 2 subgroups (group 1/2). Both subgroups were exposed to radiation for 28 days (30 min/day). The next group was also divided into 2 subgroups (group 3/4). Each was exposed to 1800 MHz of radiation for 28 days (30 min/day). The third and fifth groups were also treated with CAPE for 28 days. Treatment groups received ip caffeic acid phenethyl ester (10 μmol/kg per day) before radiation session. Bone fracture was analyzed. Results Breaking force, bending strength, and total fracture energy decreased in the irradiated groups but increased in the treatment groups. Conclusion Radiation and CAPE can significantly improve bone.

  19. Performing rap ciphas in late-modern Cape Town: extreme locality and multilingual citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams, Quentin E.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of hip-hop in Cape Town, and indeed South Africa, has traditionally focused on the narratives and poetics of resistance, race and counter-hegemonic agency in the context of apartheid and the early days of post-apartheid. Despite this attention, hip-hop cipha performances remain relatively under-researched. The aim of this paper is to suggest that cipha performances display linguistic and discursive features that not only are of particular interest to rap music and hip-hop on the Cape Flats of Cape Town specifically, but that also engage core issues around multilingualism, agency and voice more generally. It demonstrates how in the process of entextualization a sense of locality, extreme locality, emerges in cipha performances by means of verbal cueing, representing place, expressing disrespect (dissing, and the (deictic reference to local coordinates that is achieved by transposing or recontextualizing transidiomatic phrases, and by incorporating local proxemics and audience reactions through commentary and response. It concludes by suggestingthat competition around acceptable linguistic forms and framings (metalinguistic disputes of extreme locality comprise the very micro-processes behind the formation of new registers. At the same time, these registers create the semiotic space for the exercise of agency and voice through multilingual practices, that is, multilingual citizenship.

  20. La Caille's Expedition to the Cape of Good Hope 1751--3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glass, Ian S.

    2012-09-01

    Nicolas-Louis de La Caille (1713--1762) of the Collège Mazarin in Paris was one of the greatest observational astronomers of the eighteenth century. In 1751 he persuaded the Royal Academy of Sciences to send him to the Cape of Good Hope to make a survey of the southern sky, the first systematic sky survey ever undertaken. At the Cape he worked every night for a year, observing swathes of the sky 3° wide in declination, timing the transits and interpolating the declinations of about 10,000 stars. He measured the distances of Mars and Venus (at their times of closest approach) by observing them simultaneously with European observers. He also determined the orbit of the Earth by observing the apparent orbit of the Sun, found the latitude and longitude of the Cape and generated new tables of atmospheric refraction. Additionally, he made a note of every extended object that he saw, more than doubling the number known. The existing constellations of the southern sky he found to be poorly defined. He named fourteen new ones after the scientific instruments of the time. An exceptional new name was Mons Mensa, or Table Mountain.

  1. Acoustic Telemetry, Cape Hatteras, and ocean Migratory Corridors: Defining Critical Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger A. Rulifson

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available North Carolina continental shelf waters are being targeted for development for wind farms and for oil and gas exploration. The main site for the latter is only 38 miles from Cape Hatteras, a major topographic feature that changes the dynamics of near-shore large ocean currents including the Labrador Current and Gulf Stream. The Cape constricts shelf habitat and restricts the migratory corridors of highly migratory species. The Hatteras Acoustic Array just south of the Cape indicates that this area is heavily used by species of concern year-around. Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrhynchus migrate southward through Hatteras Bight in the fall and northward in the spring; some remain in the area throughout the winter months. Sandbar Sharks, Sand Tiger Sharks, and some Atlantic Sturgeon seem to migrate to Hatteras Bight and remain in the area throughout the winter, while other Atlantic sturgeon and White Sharks tend to migrate through Hatteras Bight on the way to other overwintering grounds. The period November through April seems to be the most critical period for these four species. Agencies need to expand the area of focus for these studies, as well as gather new information about resident species and marine mammals, before science-based environmental assessment can be made.

  2. Coastal vulnerability assessment of Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) to sea-level rise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendleton, Elizabeth A.; Theiler, E. Robert; Williams, S. Jeffress

    2005-01-01

    A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) was used to map the relative vulnerability of the coast to future sea-level rise within Cape Hatteras National Seashore (CAHA) in North Carolina. The CVI ranks the following in terms of their physical contribution to sea-level rise-related coastal change: geomorphology, regional coastal slope, rate of relative sea-level rise, historical shoreline change rates, mean tidal range, and mean significant wave height. The rankings for each variable were combined and an index value was calculated for 1-minute grid cells covering the park. The CVI highlights those regions where the physical effects of sea-level rise might be the greatest. This approach combines the coastal system's susceptibility to change with its natural ability to adapt to changing environmental conditions, yielding a quantitative, although relative, measure of the park's natural vulnerability to the effects of sea-level rise. The CVI provides an objective technique for evaluation and long-term planning by scientists and park managers. Cape Hatteras National Seashore consists of stable and washover dominated segments of barrier beach backed by wetland and marsh. The areas within Cape Hatteras that are likely to be most vulnerable to sea-level rise are those with the highest occurrence of overwash and the highest rates of shoreline change.

  3. Characterization of polyphenol oxidase from Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Karent; Osorio, Edison

    2016-04-15

    Cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana) is an exotic fruit highly valued, however it is a very rich source of polyphenol oxidase (PPO). In this study, Cape gooseberry PPO was isolated and biochemically characterized. The enzyme was extracted and purified using acetone and aqueous two-phase systems. The data indicated that PPO had the highest substrate affinity for chlorogenic acid, 4-methylcatechol and catechol. Chlorogenic acid was the most suitable substrate (Km=0.56±0.07 mM and Vmax=53.15±2.03 UPPO mL(-1) min(-1)). The optimal pH values were 5.5 for catechol and 4-methylcatechol and 5.0 for chlorogenic acid. Optimal temperatures were 40°C for catechol, 25°C for 4-methylcatechol and 20°C for chlorogenic acid. In inhibition tests, the most potent inhibitor was found to be ascorbic acid followed by L-cysteine and quercetin. This study shows possible treatments that can be implemented during the processing of Cape gooseberry fruits to prevent browning. PMID:26616939

  4. Pulling teeth for fashion: dental modification in modern day Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedling, L J; Morris, A G

    2007-04-01

    Friedling and Morris (2005) have reported that intentional removal of incisors as a form of dental modification is relatively common in Cape Town. In this paper we further report on the style of modification and the reasons for the modification. A survey of eight adjoining areas in the northern suburbs of the Cape Town Metropole in the Western Cape was done to investigate the current prevalence of this practice. The survey was conducted by means of a questionnaire. Three groups of study subjects (scholars, working people and retired people) were included to gain a perspective of the community in general. The individual ages ranged from 15 to 83-years-old. A total of 2167 individuals participated in this study. Forty one percent had modified their teeth. More males (44,8%) than females (37,9%) were involved in this practice. Six "styles" of modification were identified. The removal of the upper four incisors was by far the most common modification (93,7%). There were four reported reasons for dental modification i.e. gangsterism, peer pressure, fashion and medical (dental) or accidental. More than two thirds (69,8%) of individuals with modifications also wore dentures. PMID:17612385

  5. High-resolution sea surface reconstructions off Cape Hatteras over the last 10 ka

    Science.gov (United States)

    CléRoux, Caroline; Debret, Maxime; Cortijo, Elsa; Duplessy, Jean-Claude; Dewilde, Fabien; Reijmer, John; Massei, Nicolas

    2012-03-01

    This study presents high-resolution foraminiferal-based sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity and upper water column stratification reconstructions off Cape Hatteras, a region sensitive to atmospheric and thermohaline circulation changes associated with the Gulf Stream. We focus on the last 10,000 years (10 ka) to study the surface hydrology changes under our current climate conditions and discuss the centennial to millennial time scale variability. We observed opposite evolutions between the conditions off Cape Hatteras and those south of Iceland, known today for the North Atlantic Oscillation pattern. We interpret the temperature and salinity changes in both regions as co-variation of activities of the subtropical and subpolar gyres. Around 8.3 ka and 5.2-3.5 ka, positive salinity anomalies are reconstructed off Cape Hatteras. We demonstrate, for the 5.2-3.5 ka period, that the salinity increase was caused by the cessation of the low salinity surface flow coming from the north. A northward displacement of the Gulf Stream, blocking the southbound low-salinity flow, concomitant to a reduced Meridional Overturning Circulation is the most likely scenario. Finally, wavelet transform analysis revealed a 1000-year period pacing the δ18O signal over the early Holocene. This 1000-year frequency band is significantly coherent with the 1000-year frequency band of Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) between 9.5 ka and 7 ka and both signals are in phase over the rest of the studied period.

  6. Investigation of the Possibilities for After Harvest Ripening the Fruits of Cape Gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) Depending on the Applied Agrotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    PANAYOTOV, Nikolay; POPOVA, Ani

    2014-01-01

    The main goal of the present study was to establish the possibilities for posy-harvest ripening of fruit of cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.). Some part of the cape gooseberry fruit can not ripen until the end of the growing season. Therefore, it is necessary to be carried out the studies in relation with after harvest ripening. This results on an increase in overall productivity. The experiments were carried out with two genotypes of cape gooseberry – first Bulgarian variety Plovdiv an...

  7. Air surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, G.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the air surveillance and monitoring programs currently in operation at that Hanford Site. Atmospheric releases of pollutants from Hanford to the surrounding region are a potential source of human exposure. For that reason, both radioactive and nonradioactive materials in air are monitored at a number of locations. The influence of Hanford emissions on local radionuclide concentrations was evaluated by comparing concentrations measured at distant locations within the region to concentrations measured at the Site perimeter. This section discusses sample collection, analytical methods, and the results of the Hanford air surveillance program. A complete listing of all analytical results summarized in this section is reported separately by Bisping (1995).

  8. Origin and Population Dynamics of a Novel HIV-1 Subtype G Clade Circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pina-Araujo, Isabel Inês M; Delatorre, Edson; Guimarães, Monick L; Morgado, Mariza G; Bello, Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype G is the most prevalent and second most prevalent HIV-1 clade in Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively; but there is no information about the origin and spatiotemporal dispersal pattern of this HIV-1 clade circulating in those countries. To this end, we used Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian coalescent-based methods to analyze a collection of 578 HIV-1 subtype G pol sequences sampled throughout Portugal, Cape Verde and 11 other countries from West and Central Africa over a period of 22 years (1992 to 2013). Our analyses indicate that most subtype G sequences from Cape Verde (80%) and Portugal (95%) branched together in a distinct monophyletic cluster (here called G(CV-PT)). The G(CV-PT) clade probably emerged after a single migration of the virus out of Central Africa into Cape Verde between the late 1970s and the middle 1980s, followed by a rapid dissemination to Portugal a couple of years later. Reconstruction of the demographic history of the G(CV-PT) clade circulating in Cape Verde and Portugal indicates that this viral clade displayed an initial phase of exponential growth during the 1980s and 1990s, followed by a decline in growth rate since the early 2000s. Our data also indicate that during the exponential growth phase the G(CV-PT) clade recombined with a preexisting subtype B viral strain circulating in Portugal, originating the CRF14_BG clade that was later disseminated to Spain and Cape Verde. Historical and recent human population movements between Angola, Cape Verde and Portugal probably played a key role in the origin and dispersal of the G(CV-PT )and CRF14_BG clades. PMID:25993094

  9. The Effect of Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester (CAPE) Fortification on the Liver Element Distribution that Occurs After Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akil, Mustafa; Coban, Funda Karabag; Yalcinkaya, Ozcan

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) fortification applied to the rats, which were made to exercise, on the liver elements. The study was conducted on 32 Sprague-Dawley male rats. The experimental animals were divided into 4 groups in equal numbers. Group 1 is the group which was applied 10 μmol/kg/day CAPE as intraperitoneal (IP) for 4 weeks, and they were not made to exercise at the end of the application. Group 2 is the group which was applied 10 μmol/kg/day CAPE as IP for 4 weeks, and they were made to exercise at the end of the 4th week. Group 3 is the general control group. Group 4 is the swimming control group. A 10 mmol/kg CAPE application dissolved in ethyl alcohol of 10 % was applied to the CAPE group. Sodium (Na), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), chrome (Cr), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) levels were identified in the liver samples at the end of the application. The results of the study suggest that exercise and CAPE fortification in rats cause changes in the Na, Zn, Ca, Fe and Cr parameters in liver tissues, and it does not affect Cd, Cu, Mg and K element distribution. It is thought that CAPE fortification would be helpful for preserving those parameters whose levels are known to be changing with exercise. PMID:26743862

  10. Healthy Air Outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Our Initiatives > Healthy Air > Outdoor Healthy Air Outdoors The quality of the air we breathe ... families and can even shorten their lives. Outdoor Air Pollution and Health Outdoor air pollution continues to ...

  11. Insights from fumarole gas geochemistry on the recent volcanic unrest of Pico do Fogo, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melián, Gladys V.; Dionis, Samara; Asensio-Ramos, María; Padilla, Germán; Fernandes, Paulo; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Sumino, Hirochika; Padrón, Eleazar; Hernández, Pedro A.; Silva, Sónia; Pereira, José Manuel; Semedo, Helio; Cabral, Jeremias

    2015-04-01

    Fogo is a volcanic island of the Cape Verde archipelago and host at its center the active stratovolcano Pico do Fogo (2829 m.a.s.l.). On November 23, 2014 a new volcanic eruption started at the southwestern flank of Pico do Fogo, after 19 years of the last eruptive event. Since 2007, regular sampling and analysis of fumarole gas discharges from a fumarole (F1) has been performed in a yearly basis to monitor the chemical and isotopic gas composition. From 2008, fumarole gas sampling was also performed in a second fumarole (F2). During the period of study, outlet temperature in F1 has ranged between 62 to 159°C, whereas the F2 has ranged between 295 and 344°C. For determination of major gas species, fumarolic gases were collected in evacuated flasks containing a 5N NaOH solution. In addition, condensed steam and non-condensable gases (dry gas) were sampled by flowing the fumarolic gases through a water-cooled condenser. The isotopic composition of He (3He/4He) was determined on dry gas samples at the GRC of Tokyo University. Water vapor is by far the most abundant component, as shown by a gas/steam molar ratio between 0.08 and 0.48, followed by CO2 (384,606 - 988,679 mmol/mol in the dry gas phase). The concentration of the other gases in the gas dry phase and expressed in mol/mol: Stotal varies from 3,411 to 606,054, N2 from 835 to 84,672, H2 from 45.6 to 68,439, CH4 from 0 to 61,785, Cl from 4.9 to 1,729, CO from 0 to 1,396 and He from 4.4 to 617. The presence of O2 in concentrations from 10.4 to 17,350 mol/mol reflects minor air contamination either during sampling or storage, or naturally in the sampled vents. Carbon isotopic composition of Pico do Fogo fumarolic CO2, expressed in d13C-CO2 vs. VPDB notation, varied from -4.62 to -4.06 ‰, whereas 3He/4He data, expressed as R/RA, ranged from 5.70 to 8.81. In the classical He-Ar-N2 triangular diagram, most of samples plot between the He, air and ASW end members, showing compositions variably contaminated by

  12. Fonte investigadora em Educação: registros do banco de teses da CAPES An investigation source in Education: the records in the CAPES theses database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata de Almeida Vieira

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Apresenta-se neste artigo o resultado de uma investigação realizada no Banco de Teses CAPES - Resumos, banco de dados multidisciplinar disponibilizado via internet pela Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES. Ao congregar informações básicas de pesquisas de pós-graduação stricto sensu - mestrado e doutorado - das diversas áreas e subáreas do conhecimento humano, desenvolvidas em Instituições de Ensino Superior - IES - públicas e particulares de todo o território nacional e defendidas a partir de 1987, esse banco, por meio de resumos, constitui-se em uma fonte de pesquisa abrangente, bem como em um instrumento relevante de divulgação do conhecimento científico brasileiro. Considerada tal abrangência e relevância, ao perceber em consulta às suas bases algumas incongruências nos dados recuperados pelo sistema, bem como falta de informações senão importantes, mas efetivamente necessárias àqueles que pesquisam ou buscam informações preliminares de estudos, efetuou-se uma investigação exploratória em uma amostra de seus registros, a qual se pautou em pesquisa documental e foi iniciada por meio da palavra-chave preconceito. Fruto dessa exploração é o presente ensaio, que tem por objetivo apresentar um panorama das constatações feitas acerca do aspecto formal dos registros e das estrutura dos resumos constantes nesse banco. Objetiva-se, também, marcar a importância de se realizar estudos que contribuam para o fomento de um debate crítico-reflexivo que implique ações resolutivas dos problemas constatados.This article presents results of an investigation made with the CAPES Theses Database - Abstracts, a multidisciplinary database offered through the Internet by CAPES - Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel. By congregating basic information about stricto sensu graduate researches - Master and Doctorate levels - developed in various areas and sub-areas of

  13. Royal Danish Air Force. Air Operations Doctrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Søren

    This brief examines the development of the first Danish Air Force Air Operations Doctrine, which was officially commissioned in October 1997 and remained in effect until 2010. The development of a Danish air power doctrine was heavily influenced by the work of Colonel John Warden (USAF), both...... through his book ”The Air Campaign” and his subsequent planning of the air campaign against Iraq in 1990-1991. Warden’s ideas came to Denmark and the Danish Air Force by way of Danish Air Force students attending the United States Air Force Air University in Alabama, USA. Back in Denmark, graduates from...... the Air University inspired a small number of passionate airmen, who then wrote the Danish Air Operations Doctrine. The process was supported by the Air Force Tactical Command, which found that the work dovetailed perfectly with the transformation process that the Danish Air Force was in the midst...

  14. Isopach grid of the Quaternary sediment thickness, inner shelf and back-barrier from Virginia border to Cape Lookout, North Carolina (q0thick, ESRI binary grid, 200 m cell size, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  15. 0.5 meter backscatter JPEG image (with world file) of the nearshore seafloor off of northern Cape Hatteras National Seashore, NC (mosaic8.jpg, UTM Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  16. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf with stretched histogram, from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, NC (composite_nhatt_str.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  17. 4 meter sidescan-sonar GeoTIFF image of inner shelf from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, NC (composite_nhatt.tif, UTM, Zone 18N, WGS84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  18. Isopach grid of the modern marine sand above the top of Pleistocene surface along the inner shelf from Virginia border to Cape Hatteras, North Carolina (modsand, ESRI binary grid, 100 m cellsize, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  19. 40 meter ESRI binary grid of single beam and swath bathymetry of inner continental shelf north of Cape Hatteras, NC to Virginia border (nhatt, UTM Zone 18N, WGS 84)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The northeastern North Carolina coastal system, from False Cape, Virginia, to Cape Lookout, North Carolina, has been studied by a cooperative research program that...

  20. Physical and chemical data collected from bottle casts in the Sargasso Sea from CAPE HENLOPEN and other platforms from 21 January 1988 to 10 December 1988 (NODC Accession 0000407)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Physical and chemical data were collected using bottle casts in the Sargasso sea from CAPE HENLOPEN, CAPE HATTERAS, and WEATHERBIRD from 21 January 1988 to 10...

  1. Alternative ozone metrics and daily mortality in Suzhou: the China Air Pollution and Health Effects Study (CAPES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chunxue; Yang, Haibing; Guo, Shu; Wang, Zongshuang; Xu, Xiaohui; Duan, Xiaoli; Kan, Haidong

    2012-06-01

    Controversy remains regarding the relationship between various metrics of ozone (O(3)) and mortality. In China, the largest developing country, there have been few studies investigating the acute effect of O(3) on death. We used three exposure metrics of O(3) (1-hour maximum, maximum 8-hour average and 24-hour average) to examine its short-term association with daily mortality in Suzhou, China. We used a Generalized Additive Model (GAM) with penalized splines to analyze the mortality, O(3), and covariate data. We examined the association by season, age group, sex and educational level. We found that the current level of O(3) in Suzhou is associated with death rates from all causes and cardiovascular diseases. Among various metrics of O(3), maximum 8-hour average and 1-hour maximum concentrations seem to be more strongly associated with increased mortality rate compared to 24-hour average concentrations. Using maximum 8-hour average, an inter-quartile range increase of 2-day average O(3) (lag 01) corresponds to 2.15% (95%CI, 0.36 to 3.93), 4.47% (95%CI, 1.43 to 7.51), -1.85% (95%CI, -6.91 to 3.22) increase in all-cause, cardiovascular, and respiratory mortality, respectively. The associations between O(3) and daily mortality appeared to be more evident in the cool season than in the warm season. In conclusion, maximum 8-hour average and 1-hour maximum concentrations of O(3) are associated with daily mortality in Suzhou. Our analyses strengthen the rationale for further limiting levels of O(3) pollution in the city. PMID:22521098

  2. Plant communities along the Eerste River, Western Cape, South Africa: Community descriptions and implications for restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifton S. Meek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Riparian plant communities fulfil many functions, including the provision of corridors linking protected areas and other zones of high conservation value. These habitats across much of South Africa’s Cape Floristic Region, especially in the lowlands, have been heavily impacted and degraded by human activities. There is increasing interest in the restoration of degraded riparian zones and the ecosystem services they provide to enhance the conservation value of landscapes. Previous studies of riparian vegetation in the Cape Floristic Region focused on pristine headwater systems, and little is known about human-impacted communities that make up most of the riparian vegetation in downstream areas. More information is needed on the composition of these plant communities to establish a baseline for management intervention. The riparian zone of the Eerste River in South Africa’s Western Cape province provides a good opportunity to study the features of riparian vegetation along the entire gradient, from pristine vegetation in a protected area through different levels of human-mediated degradation. Riparian vegetation was surveyed in 150 plots along the entire length of the Eerste River (ca. 40 km. Data were analysed using the vegetation classification and analysis software package JUICE. Final groupings were plotted onto a two-dimensional detrended correspondence analysis plane to check the position of the communities in the reduced multidimensional space. Ten distinct plant communities were identified, including several novel communities dominated by alien plant species. Descriptions of each plant community are presented. Diagnostic, constant and dominant species are listed and the major structural and ecological characteristics of each community are described.Conservation implications: Major changes to hydrological and soil properties, nutrient dynamics and disturbance regimes and plant species composition along sections of the riparian zone mean

  3. Health research in the Western Cape province, South Africa: Lessons and challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie London

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Health research can play a critical role in strengthening health systems.However, little monitoring of health research is conducted in African countries to identify whether research contributes to addressing local health priorities.Aim/Setting: To review the profile of research on the health service platform in the Western Cape province of South Africa which was approved by the health authorities over the period January 2011 to December 2012.Methods: Databases held by both the Provincial and City of Cape Town health departments were reviewed. Descriptions of research institution, location of research, topic and funding size and source were analysed.Results: Of the health research approved in the province, 56% of projects were located on the District Health Services platform and 70% were based in the Cape Metropolitan area. For projects reporting budgetary information, the total funding was US $29.2 million. The primary focus of research was on HIV and tuberculosis (TB, whilst relatively few studies addressed nutrition, mental health or injury and there was little health systems research. Research funding was dominated by very large grants from foreign funders for HIV and/or TB research. South African government sources comprised less than 8% of all health research funding.Conclusion: There is a partial mismatch of donor funding to local health priorities. Greater focus on neglected areas such as mental health, trauma, nutrition and non-communicable disease, as well as greater investment in health systems research, is needed. Unless governments increase funding for research and a culture of research translation is achieved, health research will have limited impact on both local and national priorities.

  4. Key Recent Scientific Results from the Opportunity Rover's Exploration of Cape Tribulation, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvidson, R. E.; Squyres, S. W.; Gellert, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Crumpler, L. S.; McLennan, S. M.; Farrand, W. H.; Jolliff, B. L.; Morris, R. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Opportunity Rover is in its 11th year of exploration, currently exploring the Cape Tribulation rim segment of the ~22 km wide Noachian Endeavour Crater and its tilted and fractured outcrops. A key target for Opportunity's measurements has been the Spirit of Saint Louis crater (SoSL), which is ~25 m wide, oval in plan view, shallow, flat-floored, and has a slightly raised rim. SoSL crater is surrounded by an apron of bright, polygonally-shaped outcrops and is superimposed on a gentle swale in Cape Tribulation. Rocks in a thin reddish zone on the rim are enriched in hematite, Si, and Ge, and depleted in Fe, relative to surrounding rocks. Apron rocks include an outcrop also enriched in Si and Ge, and slightly depleted in Fe. In general rocks in the crater and apron have elevated S levels relative to Shoemaker formation breccias, tracking values observed in the Cook Haven (gentle swale superimposed on Murray Ridge and site of Opportunity's 5th winter site) and the Hueytown fracture (running perpendicular to Cape Tribulation) outcrops. SoSL crater lies just to the west of Marathon Valley, a key target for exploration by Opportunity because five separate CRISM observations indicate the presence of Fe/Mg smectites on the upper valley floor. Opportunity data show that low relief, relatively bright, wind-scoured outcrops dominate the valley floor where not covered by scree and soil shed from surrounding walls. Initial reconnaissance shows that the outcrops are breccias with compositions similar to the typical SoSL crater apron and floor rocks, although only the very upper portion of the valley has been explored as of August 2015. Pervasive but modest aqueous alteration of Endeavour's rim is implied by the combination of CRISM and Opportunity data, providing insight into early aqueous processes dominated in this location by relatively low water to rock ratios, and at least in part associated with enhanced fluid flow along fractures.

  5. Pb-Sr-He isotope and trace element geochemistry of the Cape Verde Archipelago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doucelance, Régis; Escrig, Stéphane; Moreira, Manuel; Gariépy, Clément; Kurz, Mark D.

    2003-10-01

    New lead, strontium and helium isotopic data, together with trace element concentrations, have been determined for basalts from the Cape Verde archipelago (Central Atlantic). Isotopic and chemical variations are observed at the scale of the archipelago and lead to the definition of two distinct groupings, in keeping with earlier studies. The Northern Islands (Santo Antão, São Vicente, São Nicolau and Sal) present Pb isotopic compositions below the Northern Hemisphere Reference Line (NHRL) (cf. Hart, 1984), unradiogenic Sr and relatively primitive 4He/ 3He ratios. In contrast, the Southern Islands (Fogo and Santiago) display Pb isotopes above the NHRL, moderately radiogenic Sr and MORB-like helium signatures. We propose that the dichotomy between the Northern and Southern Islands results from the presence of three isotopically distinct components in the source of the Cape Verde basalts: (1) recycled ˜1.6-Ga oceanic crust (high 206Pb/ 204Pb, low 87Sr/ 86Sr and high 4He/ 3He); (2) lower mantle material (high 3He); and (3) subcontinental lithosphere (low 206Pb/ 204Pb, high 87Sr/ 86Sr and moderately radiogenic 4He/ 3He ratios). The signature of the Northern Islands reflects mixing between recycled oceanic crust and lower mantle, to which small proportions of entrained depleted material from the local upper mantle are added. Basalts from the Southern Islands, however, require the addition of an enriched component thought to be subcontinental lithospheric material instead of depleted mantle. The subcontinental lithosphere may stem from delamination and subsequent incorporation into the Cape Verde plume, or may be remnant from delamination just before the opening of the Central Atlantic. Basalts from São Nicolau reflect the interaction with an additional component, which is identified as oceanic crustal material.

  6. The Nainital-Cape Survey. IV. A search for pulsational variability in 108 chemically peculiar stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, S.; Martinez, P.; Chowdhury, S.; Chakradhari, N. K.; Joshi, Y. C.; van Heerden, P.; Medupe, T.; Kumar, Y. B.; Kuhn, R. B.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The Nainital-Cape Survey is a dedicated ongoing survey program to search for and study pulsational variability in chemically peculiar (CP) stars to understand their internal structure and evolution. Aims: The main aims of this survey are to find new pulsating Ap and Am stars in the northern and southern hemisphere and to perform asteroseismic studies of these new pulsators. Methods: The survey is conducted using high-speed photometry. The candidate stars were selected on the basis of having Strömgren photometric indices similar to those of known pulsating CP stars. Results: Over the last decade a total of 337 candidate pulsating CP stars were observed for the Nainital-Cape Survey, making it one of the longest ground-based surveys for pulsation in CP stars in terms of time span and sample size. The previous papers of this series presented seven new pulsating variables and 229 null results. In this paper we present the light curves, frequency spectra and various astrophysical parameters of the 108 additional CP stars observed since the last reported results. We also tabulated the basic physical parameters of the known roAp stars. As a part of establishing the detection limits in the Nainital-Cape Survey, we investigated the scintillation noise level at the two observing sites used in this survey, Sutherland and Nainital, by comparing the combined frequency spectra stars observed from each location. Our analysis shows that both the sites permit the detection of variations of the order of 0.6 milli-magnitude (mmag) in the frequency range 1-4 mHz, Sutherland is on average marginally better. The dataset is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/590/A116

  7. Island Freeboard Reconstructions for the Cape Verde Archipelago Using the Geological Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalho, R.; Helffrich, G.; Cosca, M.; Vance, D.; Schmidt, D. N.; Hoffmann, D.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean island freeboard of the Cape Verde Archipelago off the west coast of Northern Africa is contemporaneous with volcanism as determined by uplift of paleo sea-level markers over the 25 Ma history of hotspot activity. Whereas the growth and decay of ocean island volcanoes is accompanied by buoyancy- driven vertical movements such as: a) aging of the underlying lithosphere; b) lithospheric flexural response to surface and sub-surface loading and volume redistribution by mass-wasting; and c) volume changes from hotspot dynamics, tracking island freeboard through geological time potentially provides constraints on the relative importance of these different processes for lithospheric behavior and island building in response to hotspot activity. The Cape Verde Archipelago is unique among major hotspots due to its semi-stationary position and because it sits on the largest bathymetric anomaly in the oceans - the Cape Verde rise. Paleo sea-level markers include shallow marine carbonate terraces, beach deposits, submarine volcanic units, and lava deltas and marine abrasion surfaces. Using high-precision laser step heating Ar-Ar and U-Th disequilibrium geochronological methods, we dated a set of raised submarine volcanic flows, lava-deltas and terraces from the islands. By tracking the relative sea-level changes within the islands (using the age and the present elevation of the markers), and comparing them with the eustatic sea-level curve, we found evidence for substantial vertical movements accompanying volcanism, at rates ranging from 35-100m/Ma over the last ~6 Ma. The maximum vertical displacement is +450 m for Santiago Island. We deduce that island freeboard is contemporaneous with volcanism, and are currently evaluating parameters that account for total freeboard and differential uplift observed among the islands.

  8. Changing tune in Woodstock: Creative industries and local urban development in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Wenz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of the new millennium, a plethora of works has been published on the making of the ‘creative city’ and the urban impact of the creative economy. So far, however, limited recognition has been given to how the development of cultural industries and the creative economy as a whole influences urban transformation in the rapidly urbanising Global South, especially in Africa. In Cape Town, a steadily growing number of creative industries and ‘culturepreneurs’ (Lange 2005 are carving out new spaces from the city’s highly contested urban setting. Over the past five years, the mixed-use, inner-city fringe area of Woodstock has seen the incessant arrival of creatives from various sectors. Travelling alongside is a property sector geared towards catering specifically for the creative industries’ spatial demands by turning old industrial structures – the remains of Woodstock’s former capacity as national hub for clothing, food processing and other light manufacturing – into creative centres hosting international film studios, leading galleries and designer ‘theatre retail spaces’. After setting the stage through a comprehensive introduction to the rise of the creative economy in South Africa and Cape Town, this article tunes into the current local development of Woodstock, based on extensive field research in the area. It traces ways and forms of conflict but also new social interfaces between the new creative tenants and the old established community, on the one hand pointing to problematic issues like lingering gentrification, sociospatial polarisation and lopsided cultural representation while also trying to flesh out some of the opportunities for finding the right frequency of engagement between creative industries and spaces of vernacular creativity within Cape Town’s post-apartheid urban realm. Keywords: Creative economy, creative city, Global South, urban regeneration, gentrification, vernacular

  9. The impact of black wattle encroachment of indigenous grasslands on soil carbon, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oelofse, Myles; Birch-Thomsen, Torben; Magid, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    adverse environmental impacts in South Africa. Little is known about the effects of black wattle encroachment on soil carbon, therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the impact of black wattle encroachment of natural grassland on soil carbon stocks and dynamics. Focussing on two sites...... in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, the study analysed carbon stocks in soil and litter on a chronosequence of black wattle stands of varying ages (up to >50 years) and compared these with adjacent native grassland. The study found that woody encroachment of grassland at one site had an insignificant effect...

  10. Observations of communication between dancer and musician in the Cape Breton community

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, Mats H.

    2010-01-01

    non-peer-reviewed The connection between dancers and musicians are very strong in the dancing communities of Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia, Canada. At many social events where music features dance is a natural companion. At musical sessions in halls, pubs and other venues on the island it is the norm that dancing features to some extent. This is only natural as most locals refer to their traditional music as ‘dance music’. In the middle of a pub session a square set may form or solo danc...

  11. Annual ryegrass toxicity in Thoroughbred horses in Ceres in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Grewar

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of annual ryegrass toxicity occurred on a Thoroughbred stud in Ceres in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. This is the 1st report of annual ryegrass toxicity in horses in South Africa, although the condition has been reported in cattle and sheep populations in the past. Annual ryegrass toxicity is characterised by a variety of neurological signs including tremors, convulsions, recumbency and in many cases death. The description of the outbreak includes the history, clinical presentation and treatment protocol administered during the outbreak. Various epidemiological variables and their influence in the outbreak are also considered.

  12. Estudio de usabilidad del Portal de Periódicos de CAPES

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Ferreira da Costa; Francisca Arruda Ramalho

    2011-01-01

    Objetivo. El estudio analiza la usabilidad del Portal de Periódicos de la Coordinación de Perfeccionamiento de Personal de Nivel Superior (CAPES) en base a los parámetros de usabilidad desarrollados por el estudioso Jakob Nielsen y bajo la perspectiva de un estudio de usuario, haciendo una vinculación inevitable de la información con los ámbitos de la tecnología y la Ciencia de la Información. Método. Este es un estudio de naturaleza descriptiva, usa un abordaje cualitativo con aporte cuantit...

  13. Reducing volcanic risk on Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde, through a participatory approach: which out coming?

    OpenAIRE

    P. Texier-Teixeira; Chouraqui, F.; A. Perrillat-Collomb; Lavigne, F.; J. R. Cadag; Grancher, D.

    2013-01-01

    This research paper presents the outcomes of the Work Package 5 (Socio-economical Vulnerability Assessment and Community-Based Disaster Risk Reduction) of the MIAVITA Research Program (MItigate and Assess risk from Volcanic Impact on Terrain and human Activities) conducted in Fogo Volcano, Cape-Verde. The study lasted for almost 3 yr (May 2010–January 2012) of which most of the time was spent in the village of Chã das Caldeiras, situated within the 9 km-wide caldera o...

  14. The Eastern Cape labour market in transition: Key issues and debates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Wood

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available This study represents an assessment of key issues relating to the labour market based on survey research conducted in an Eastern Cape secondary urban centre. This study was conducted at a time when South Africa was undergoing rapid social, economic and political transition. The primary focus of this study is on the specific implications of structural unemployment. Key sub-dimensions include the nature of divisions in the labour market, the extent of migrancy, survival strategies by the structurally unemployed, and perceptions of the union movement at a time when the latter’s role has become increasingly institutionalised.

  15. Research Station "Ice Base "Cape Baranov"- overview of activities in 2013 - 2015 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makshtas, Alexander; Sokolov, Vladimir; Bogorodskii, Peter; Kustov, Vasily; Movchan, Vadim; Laurila, Tuomas; Asmi, Eija; Popovicheva, Olga; Eleftheriadis, Kostas

    2016-04-01

    Research Station "Ice base "Cape Baranov" of Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) had been opened in the fall 2013 on the Bolshevik Island, Archipelago Severnaya Zemlia. Now it is going as the integrated observatory, conducting comprehensive studies in practically all areas of Earth Sciences: from free atmosphere to sea ice and sea water structure in the Shokalsky Strait, from glaciers to permafrost, from paleogeography to ornithology. Overview of activities together with some preliminary results of field works at the station performing in 2014 - 2015 years by international multidisciplinary team in frame of free atmosphere, atmospheric surface layer, greenhouse gases and aerosol studies is presented together with model estimations of active soil layer.

  16. Research to action to address inequities: the experience of the Cape Town Equity Gauge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reagon Gavin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the importance of promoting equity to achieve health is now recognised, the health gap continues to increase globally between and within countries. The description that follows looks at how the Cape Town Equity Gauge initiative, part of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA is endeavouring to tackle this problem. We give an overview of the first phase of our research in which we did an initial assessment of health status and the socio-economic determinants of health across the subdistrict health structures of Cape Town. We then describe two projects from the second phase of our research in which we move from research to action. The first project, the Equity Tools for Managers Project, engages with health managers to develop two tools to address inequity: an Equity Measurement Tool which quantifies inequity in health service provision in financial terms, and a Equity Resource Allocation Tool which advocates for and guides action to rectify inequity in health service provision. The second project, the Water and Sanitation Project, engages with community structures and other sectors to address the problem of diarrhoea in one of the poorest areas in Cape Town through the establishment of a community forum and a pilot study into the acceptability of dry sanitation toilets. Methods A participatory approach was adopted. Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. The first phase, the collection of measurements across the health subdistricts of Cape Town, used quantitative secondary data to demonstrate the inequities. In the Equity Tools for Managers Project further quantitative work was done, supplemented by qualitative policy analysis to study the constraints to implementing equity. The Water and Sanitation Project was primarily qualitative, using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions. These were used to gain an understanding of the impact of the inequities, in this instance, inadequate sanitation

  17. THE ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ROMANIAN LITTORAL LAKES – THE SECTOR MIDIA CAPE - VAMA VECHE

    OpenAIRE

    Gheorghe ROMANESCU

    2008-01-01

    In the present study we have taken into account only the lakes between Midia cape and Vama Veche, and only those that have directly communicated with the sea. As origin, the littoral lakes from the south-eastern part of the Black Sea are of three categories: fluvio-marine (Corbu - Gargalâc, Taşaul, Tăbăcariei, Agigea, Techirghiol, Costineşti, Tatlageac, Mangalia); lagoons (Siutghiol, Comorova, Hergheliei - Mangaliei Moor); man-made (Belona, partially Costineşti, the three lakes of the Comorov...

  18. Airborne gamma-ray spectrometer and magnetometer survey, Cape Flattery quadrange (Washington). Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No uranium anomalies meet the minimum statistical requirements as defined. There is no Uranium Anomaly Interpretation Map for the Cape Flattery quadrangle. Potassium (%K), equivalent Uranium (ppM eU), equivalent Thorium (ppM eT), eU/eT, eU/K, eT/K, and magnetic pseudo-contour maps are presented in Appendix E. Stacked Profiles showing geologic strip maps along each flight-line, together with sensor data, and ancillary data are presented in Appendix F. All maps and profiles were prepared on a scale of 1:250,000, but have been reduced to 1:500,000 for presentation

  19. Decadal-Scale Tropical North Atlantic Climate Variability Recorded in Slow Growing Cape Verde Corals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, C. S.; Swart, P. K.; Dodge, R. E.; Helmle, K. P.; Thorrold, S.

    2002-12-01

    The decadal to century scale climate variability of the tropical North Atlantic has major implications for both neighboring coastal and inland areas. Changes in patterns of sea surface temperature (SST) and SST anomalies (SSTA) in the tropical North Atlantic are known to affect rainfall in Florida, South America, and sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the number of major hurricanes formed in the Atlantic. Because of the significance of these connections, it is important to further increase our predictive capacity for the recognition of trends and cycles in tropical North Atlantic SST and SSTA. Located at 15° N latitude off the west coast of sub-Saharan Africa, the Cape Verde Islands are an ideal geographic location to search for records of the Tropical North Atlantic Index (TNA). Such patterns are present in proxy indicators of climate (O, C, Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca) recorded in the skeletons of slow growing corals, such as Siderastrea radians, found in Cape Verde (growth rate = 1-2 mm/yr). These corals represent an archive for SST and SSTA records that exceed the instrumental period of the eastern tropical North Atlantic. We cored corals from several different locations within the Cape Verde archipelago and analyzed them for stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) and minor elements (Sr, Mg, and Ba). The δ18O signal present in these corals shows a distinct relationship to the TNA over the better part of the last 100 years. In addition, the δ18O record in several of these corals also records the onset of the latest Sahel (11°-18° N in Africa) drought which began in 1970. The Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca records of these corals indicate a slight warming of the waters around Cape Verde during the last 100 years, as well as accurately recording the El Niño events of 1982-83 and 1997-98. The correlations present between the records in these corals and the known instrumental record for the eastern tropical North Atlantic suggests that the fluctuations recorded in the proxy indicators may be

  20. Characterization of W-Beijing isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Crystal A; Streicher, Elizma M; Warren, Robin M; Victor, Thomas C; Orme, Ian M

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this simple study was to characterize a panel of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtained from the Western Cape region of South Africa where new clinical vaccine trials are beginning, in the low dose aerosol guinea pig infection model. Most of the strains tested grew well in the lungs and other organs of these animals, and in most cases gave rise to moderate to very severe lung damage. We further observed that the current BCG vaccine was highly protective against two randomly selected strains, giving rise to significantly prolonged survival.

  1. Characterization of W-Beijing isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from the Western Cape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, Crystal A.; Streicher, Elizma M.; Warren, Robin M.; Victor, Thomas C.; Orme, Ian M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this simple study was to characterize a panel of clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis obtained from the Western Cape region of South Africa where new clinical vaccine trials are beginning, in the low dose aerosol guinea pig infection model. Most of the strains tested grew well in the lungs and other organs of these animals, and in most cases gave rise to moderate to very severe lung damage. We further observed that the current BCG vaccine was highly protective against two randomly selected strains, giving rise to significantly prolonged survival. PMID:24144471

  2. The Saluting Battery at the Castle of Good Hope Cape Town 1910-1942

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Bisset

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the guns of the Castle of Good Hope in Cape Town never fired a shot in anger, they often fired salutes in honour of Royalty (the King's Birthday, visiting heads of state and warships, Union Day (a salute of 19 guns in 1931 and on other appropriate occasions. The subject of this article is the Saluting Battery on Katzenellenbogen Bastion at the Castle which was operational from about 1910 until about 1942. In 1912 the Castle was the only authorized saluting station in the Union of South Africa. The battery was manned by personnel of the Royal Garrison Artillery until it was taken over by South Africa in 1921.

  3. Including Emotional Intelligence in Pharmacy Curricula to Help Achieve CAPE Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael H; Fierke, Kerry K; Sucher, Brandon J; Janke, Kristin K

    2015-05-25

    The importance of emotional intelligence (EI) for effective teamwork and leadership within the workplace is increasingly apparent. As suggested by the 2013 CAPE Outcomes, we recommend that colleges and schools of pharmacy consider EI-related competencies to build self-awareness and professionalism among students. In this Statement, we provide two examples of the introduction of EI into pharmacy curricula. In addition, we provide a 4-phase process based on recommendations developed by EI experts for structuring and planning EI development. Finally, we make 9 recommendations' to inform the process of including EI in pharmacy curricula. PMID:26089557

  4. Biology and host range of the moth Digitivalva delaireae as one of two candidate agents for biological control of Cape-ivy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cape-ivy (Delairea odorata, Asteraceae), native to coastal floodplains and mountains in eastern South Africa, is an invasive vine in coastal riparian, woodland and scrub habitats in California and southern Oregon, as well as mid-elevation regions on some of the Hawaiian Islands. Cape-ivy smothers na...

  5. Air filtration and indoor air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Demands for better indoor air quality are increasing, since we spend most of our time indoors and we are more and more aware of indoor air pollution. Field studies in different parts of the world have documented that high percentage of occupants in many offices and buildings find the indoor air...... decent ventilation and air cleaning/air filtration, high indoor air quality cannot be accomplished. The need for effective air filtration has increased with increasing evidence on the hazardous effects of fine particles. Moreover, the air contains gaseous pollutants, removal of which requires various air...... cleaning techniques. Supply air filter is one of the key components in the ventilation system. Studies have shown that used ventilation filters themselves can be a significant source of indoor air pollution with consequent impact on perceived air quality, sick building syndrome symptoms and performance...

  6. A five million year record of compositional variations in mantle sources to magmatism on Santiago, southern Cape Verde archipelago

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Abigail K.; Holm, Paul Martin; Peate, David W.;

    2010-01-01

    High-precision Pb isotope data and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope data are presented together with major and trace element data for samples spanning the 4.6 Ma history of volcanism at Santiago, in the southern Cape Verde islands. Pb isotope data confirm the positive ¿8/4 signature of the southern islands...... indicating that the north-south compositional heterogeneity in the Cape Verde archipelago has persisted for at least 4.6 Ma. The Santiago volcanics show distinct compositional differences between the old, intermediate and young volcanics, and suggest greater involvement of an enriched mantle (EM1)-like...

  7. First record of Anguillicoloides crassus (Nematoda) in American eels (Anguilla rostrata) in Canadian estuaries, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, L S; Jones, K M M; Cone, D K

    2009-04-01

    In the summer of 2007, American eels, Anguilla rostrata, from 2 localities on Cape Breton Island, were found to be infected with the swim bladder nematode Anguillicoloides crassus. This is the first documented report of this highly invasive parasite in Canadian waters. More than half of the yellow eels in Mira River (6 of 10), and 1 eel (of 5) from Sydney Harbour were infected. Parasite intensity ranged from 1 to 11 worms per eel. The occurrence of A. crassus at these 2 localities suggests the need for a more extensive survey on the distribution of this exotic parasite in eel populations throughout Cape Breton Island. PMID:18767906

  8. New species and new records of Pterosthetops: eumadicolous water beetles of the South African Cape (Coleoptera, Hydraenidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, David T

    2014-06-05

    Pterosthetops is one of a number of hydraenid genera endemic to the Cape of South Africa, whose minute moss beetle fauna is amongst the most diverse on earth. Here seven species are described as new: Pterosthetops baini sp. nov., Pterosthetops coriaceus sp. nov., Pterosthetops indwei sp. nov., Ptersothetops pulcherrimus sp. nov., Pterosthetops swartbergensis sp. nov., Pterosthetops tuberculatus sp. nov. and Pterosthetops uitkyki sp. nov., all from mountains in the Western Cape region. New collection records are also provided for all five previously described members of the genus, together with a revised key. Pterosthetops appear to be specialist inhabitants of seepages over rock faces (hygropetric/madicolous habitats), rarely being found outside such situations.

  9. Empowering adolescents to engage in healthy behaviours through peer leadership training in the townships of Cape Town

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Andersson, Mikael; Johansson, Josefine

    2014-01-01

    and qualitative interviews and analysed through thematic content analysis. The results showed that peer educators’ self-esteem, confidence and motivation increased, as did their knowledge and skills related to communication, supporting and motivating peers and clients. Additionally the results showed......This paper investigated peer educators’ perceptions of their self-empowerment, learning, and experiences of being a peer educator within the Leadership South Programme (LSP) in Cape Town, South Africa. The data about the peer educators’ perceptions was gathered through open-ended questionnaires...... that education based on trainee resources and strengths successfully promoted healthy behaviours and fostered health promotion among the adolescents living in the townships of Cape Town....

  10. AirData

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The AirData site provides access to yearly summaries of United States air pollution data, taken from EPA's air pollution databases. AirData has information about...

  11. R9 Air Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Region 9 Air Districts layer is a compilation of polygons representing the California Air Pollution Control and Air Quality Management Districts, Arizona Air...

  12. Hazardous Air Pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Hazardous Air Pollutants Hazardous air pollutants are those known to cause ... protect against adverse environmental effects. About Hazardous Air Pollutants What are hazardous air pollutants? Health and Environmental ...

  13. California Air Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Air ResourcesCalifornia Air Resources BoardThe following datasets are from the California Air Resources Board: * arb_california_airbasins - California Air BasinsThe...

  14. Places for all? Cape Town’s public library services to gays and lesbians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevieve Hart

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The article reports on an investigation of the provision of gay and lesbian literature and of information services to gays and lesbians in Cape Town’s public libraries. Although by definition public libraries serve all members of a community, the international literature suggests that they neglect the reading and information needs and interests of gays and lesbians. The progressive South African Constitution views the rights of gays and lesbians as human rights; yet homophobia is prevalent. Using a questionnaire, the study explored attitudes and practices of 69 senior librarians, responsible for collection development, across all six of Cape Town’s library districts. The situation was found to be “spotty” with only 26 respondents believing that their library service is meeting the needs of gays and lesbians. The survey found contradictions between stated beliefs and behaviours. Thus, although most agree that LGBT rights to information and equal services are human rights, only 55% consider LGBT people in their selection procedures and very little material is acquired. Information services are thin with, for example, only 10% of the libraries in the survey providing LGBT related information in their community information files.

  15. Behavioural correlates of urbanisation in the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Tarryn; Rymer, Tasmin; Pillay, Neville

    2012-11-01

    Urbanisation critically threatens biodiversity because of habitat destruction and novel selection pressures. Some animals can respond to these challenges by modifying their behaviour, particularly anti-predator behaviour, allowing them to persist in heavily transformed urban areas. We investigated whether the anti-predator behaviour of the Cape ground squirrel Xerus inauris differed in three localities that differed in their level of urbanisation. According to the habituation hypothesis, we predicted that ground squirrels in urban areas would: (a) be less vigilant and forage more; (b) trade-off flight/vigilance in favour of foraging; and (c) have shorter flight initiation distances (FID) when approached by a human observer. Observations were made in winter and summer at each locality. As expected, ground squirrels in urbanised areas were less vigilant and had shorter FIDs but did not trade-off between foraging and vigilance. In contrast, a population in a non-urbanised locality showed greater levels of vigilance, FID and traded-off vigilance and foraging. A population in a peri-urban locality showed mixed responses. Our results indicate that Cape ground squirrels reduce their anti-predator behaviour in urban areas and demonstrate a flexible behavioural response to urbanisation.

  16. Oxygen, hydrogen, and helium isotopes for investigating groundwater systems of the Cape Verde Islands, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, V.M.; Solomon, K.D.; Gingerich, S.B.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2009-01-01

    Stable isotopes (??18O, ??2H), tritium (3H), and helium isotopes (3He, 4He) were used for evaluating groundwater recharge sources, flow paths, and residence times of three watersheds in the Cape Verde Islands (West Africa). Stable isotopes indicate the predominance of high-elevation precipitation that undergoes little evaporation prior to groundwater recharge. In contrast to other active oceanic hotspots, environmental tracers show that deep geothermal circulation does not strongly affect groundwater. Low tritium concentrations at seven groundwater sites indicate groundwater residence times of more than 50 years. Higher tritium values at other sites suggest some recent recharge. High 4He and 3He/4He ratios precluded 3H/3He dating at six sites. These high 3He/4He ratios (R/Ra values of up to 8.3) are consistent with reported mantle derived helium of oceanic island basalts in Cape Verde and provided end-member constraints for improved dating at seven other locations. Tritium and 3H/3He dating shows that S??o Nicolau Island's Ribeira Faj?? Basin has groundwater residence times of more than 50 years, whereas Fogo Island's Mosteiros Basin and Santo Ant??o Island's Ribeira Paul Basin contain a mixture of young and old groundwater. Young ages at selected sites within these two basins indicate local recharge and potential groundwater susceptibility to surface contamination and/or salt-water intrusion. ?? Springer-Verlag 2009.

  17. Caching in the presence of competitors: Are Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) sensitive to audience attentiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jamie; Manser, Marta B

    2016-01-01

    When social animals cache food close to their burrow, the potential for an audience member to observe the event is significantly increased. As a consequence, in order to reduce theft it may be advantageous for animals to be sensitive to certain audience cues, such as whether they are attentive or not to the cache event. In this study, observations were made on three groups of Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in their natural habitat when they cached provisioned food items. When individuals cached within 10 m of conspecifics, we recorded the attentiveness (i.e. whether any audience members were orientated towards the cacher, had direct line of site and were not engaged in other activities) and identity of audience members. Overall, there was a preference to cache when audience members were inattentive rather than attentive. Additionally, we found rank effects related to cache avoidance whereby high-ranked individuals showed less avoidance to cache when audience members were attentive compared to medium- and low-ranked individuals. We suggest this audience sensitivity may have evolved in response to the difference in competitive ability amongst the ranks in how successful individuals are at winning foraging competitions. This study demonstrates that Cape ground squirrels have the ability to not only monitor the presence or absence of conspecifics but also discriminate individuals on the basis of their attentive state.

  18. The Sustainability and Challenges of Business Incubators in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobekani Lose

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Notwithstanding the growing interest in business incubation programmes and the benefits derived from such programmes, the path is beset by numerous challenges. This paper investigates the challenges faced by business incubators (BIs as they strive to support their clients. The study utilized a qualitative approach to collect data by way of interviews to gain in-depth knowledge and understanding of the concept and challenges of business incubators. The data were collected using structured and unstructured in-depth personal interviews, which were carried out with the respondents of business incubators in the Western Cape. The research participants for this study were limited to the business incubators on the database of a local organization that promotes small and medium enterprises (SMEs development strategy and programmes in the Western Cape Province. All five business incubators on the database were deemed suitable for the study. The results indicated that an average of twenty-five entrepreneurs graduated from the incubation programme in the last five years. Furthermore, lack of sponsorship, production space, advanced technological facilities (prototype and expansion to different areas were found to be among the challenges hindering incubators.

  19. Skupnost v težavah? Vpliv gentrifikacije na sosesko Bo-Kaap v Cape Townu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Kotze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Bo-Kaap je stara delavska soseska v središču Cape Towna v Južnoafriški republiki. Leta 1930 je bila to prenaseljena in zanemarjena soseska s propadajočimi hišami. Leta 1941 so lokalne oblasti tam razlastile že približno 150 stanovanj zaradi programa celostne prenove tega območja, vendar je proces ustavila skupina za ohranitev malajske četrti, ki se je borila proti rušenju hiš v tej soseski. Danes je območje s slikovitimi hišami in z enajstimi mošejami del kulturne dediščine Cape Towna in pomembna turistična znamenitost. Kot v sosednji gentrificirani soseski De Waterkant je bilo tudi tukaj veliko stanovanj prenovljeno in izboljšano. Cene nepremičnin so skokovito narastle, čeprav so še vedno razmeroma nizke. Število prodanih nepremičnin tako močno narašča, da se lokalne oblasti in predvsem muslimanski prebivalci nenehno borijo za ohranitev kulturne identitete soseske.

  20. Composition and biogeography of forest patches on the inland mountains of the southern Cape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Geldenhuys

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Patterns in species richness of 23 small, isolated forests on the inland mountains of the southern Cape were studied. Species richness of woody plants and vines of the Kouga-Baviaanskloof Forests was higher than in the western mountain complexes, where species richness in the more southern Rooiberg and Kamanassie Mountains was higher than in the Swartberg range. The Rooiberg, a dry mountain with small forests far away from the coastal source area, had more species than, and contained many species which are absent from, the larger, moister forests of the Kamanassie which are closest to the coastal source areas. Neither altitude nor distance from the source area, the forests south of the coastal mountains, nor long-distance dispersal, adequately explained the variation in species richness. The variations are best explained in terms of dispersal corridors along the Gouritz and Gamtoos River systems which connect the coastal forests with the inland mountains. The distribution patterns of four species groups in relation to the geomorphological history of the two river systems provide relative dates for the expansion and contraction of temperate forest, subtropical forest and subtropical transitional thicket in the southern Cape.

  1. Evaluating water management scenarios to support habitat management for the Cape Sable seaside sparrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M.; Romañach, Stephanie S.; McKelvy, Mark

    2016-06-22

    The endangered Cape Sable seaside sparrow (Ammodramus maritimus mirabilis) is endemic to south Florida and a key indicator species of marl prairie, a highly diverse freshwater community in the Florida Everglades. Maintenance and creation of suitable habitat is seen as the most important pathway to the persistence of the six existing sparrow subpopulations; however, major uncertainties remain in how to increase suitable habitat within and surrounding these subpopulations, which are vulnerable to environmental stochasticity. Currently, consistently suitable conditions for the Cape Sable seaside sparrow are only present in two of these subpopulations (B and E). The water management scenarios evaluated herein were intended to lower water levels and improve habitat conditions in subpopulation A and D, raise water levels to improve habitat conditions in subpopulations C and F, and minimize impacts to subpopulations B and E. Our objective in this analysis was to compare these scenarios utilizing a set of metrics (short- to long-time scales) that relate habitat suitability to hydrologic conditions. Although hydrologic outputs are similar across scenarios in subpopulation A, scenario R2H reaches the hydroperiod and depth suitability targets more than the other scenarios relative to ECB, while minimizing negative consequences to subpopulation E. However, although R2H hydroperiods are longer than those for ECB during the wet season in subpopulations C and F, depths during the breeding season are predicted to decrease in suitability (less than -50 cm) relative to existing conditions.

  2. Health risk behaviours of stroke patients in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Biggs

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a leading cause of death and a major cause of disability globally. Individuals with physical disabilities, including thosewho have suffered a stroke are at risk of secondary complications due to the impact of their disability, which may be exacerbated by their lifestylechoices. The aim of the present study was to determine the health riskbehaviours and factors that influence these behaviours of stroke patients inthe Metropole Region of the Western Cape, South Africa. A cross – sectionalsurvey, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire on a convenient sampleof 417 stroke patients, was used to collect data. A sub-sample of 10 parti-cipants was purposively selected for in-depth, face-to-face interviews.Approximately forty percent (40.3% of the participants did not engage in physical exercise. While 30.2% smoked only9% abused alcohol. A significant association was found between age and smoking (p<0.002. Information gathered in the in-depth interviews revealed factors that influenced the behaviours of the participants. These factors includedlack of financial resources and lack of access to information. As participants were found to be at risk of secondarycomplications because of poor lifestyle choices, there is a clear need to implement health promotion programmes topromote well-ness enhancing behaviours in order to enhance the quality of health of patients who have suffered astroke in the Western Cape, South Africa.

  3. Quality Assessment of Artemether-Lumefantrine Samples and Artemether Injections Sold in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Prah

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Most prescribers and patients in Ghana now opt for the relatively expensive artemether/lumefantrine rather than artesunate-amodiaquine due to undesirable side effects in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The study sought to determine the existence of substandard and/or counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine tablets and suspension as well as artemether injection on the market in Cape Coast. Six brands of artemether-lumefantrine tablets, two brands of artemether-lumefantrine suspensions, and two brands of artemether injections were purchased from pharmacies in Cape Coast for the study. The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated. The samples were then analyzed for the content of active ingredients using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with a variable wavelength detector. None of the samples was found to be counterfeit. However, the artemether content of the samples was variable (93.22%−104.70% of stated content by manufacturer. The lumefantrine content of the artemether/lumefantrine samples was also variable (98.70%–111.87%. Seven of the artemether-lumefantrine brands passed whilst one failed the International Pharmacopoeia content requirements. All brands of artemether injections sampled met the International Pharmacopoeia content requirement. The presence of a substandard artemether-lumefantrine suspension in the market should alert regulatory bodies to be more vigilant and totally flush out counterfeit and substandard drugs from the Ghanaian market.

  4. Drivers of spring and summer variability in the coastal ocean offshore of Cape Cod, MA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirincich, Anthony R.; Gawarkiewicz, Glen G.

    2016-03-01

    The drivers of spring and summer variability within the coastal ocean east of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, a critical link between the Gulf of Maine and Mid-Atlantic Bight, are investigated using 2 years of shipboard and moored hydrographic and velocity observations from 2010 and 2011. The observations reveal sharp differences in the spring transition and along-shelf circulation due to variable freshwater and meteorological forcing, along with along-shelf pressure gradients. The role of the along-shelf pressure gradient is inferred using in situ observations of turbulent momentum flux, or Reynolds stresses, estimated from the ADCP-based velocities using recently developed methods and an inversion of the along-shelf momentum balance. During spring, the locally relevant along-shelf pressure gradient contains a sizable component that is not coupled to the along-shelf winds and often opposes the regional sea level gradient. Together with the winds, local pressure gradients dominate along-shelf transport variability during spring, while density-driven geostrophic flows appear to match the contribution of the local winds during summer. These results suggest that local effects along the Outer Cape have the potential to cause significant changes in exchange between the basins.

  5. Captive breeding of the white rhinoceros, Ceratotherium simum, and the Cape buffalo, Syncerus caffer : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Skinner

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Breeding records of 40 white rhinoceros and 155 Cape buffalo were analysed. Three rhinoceros cows bred in captivity, themselves conceived for the first time at 84, 87 and 95 months of age, respectively. Rhinoceros cows breed throughout the year. There is no evidence of a relationship between calving interval and month of birth. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 34 months and there were no significant differences between bulls, cows or sex of calf. There was no difference in the sex ratio of calves born to young cows nor older cows. The male:female ratio of the calves was Younger cows did not have shorter birth intervals. Although captive Cape buffaloes breed throughout the year, there is a preponderance of births in midsummer. There was some evidence that larger cows produce heavier calves and that season of birth may influence birth weight. Male calves weighed 41.20 + 0.68 kg vs 39.00 + 0.73 kg (range 24-60 kg for female calves but this difference was not significant. Calving intervals were normally distributed about the mean of 395 days and the male:female ratio of the calves was 1:1.2.

  6. Contribution of unit managers to the training of student nurses in the Cape Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Troskie

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on research conducted over the period 1993 to 1996 in the Cape Peninsula. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of unit managers towards the training of student nurses coming to their units for clinical practice. The sample consisted of student nurses training in the four nursing colleges in the Cape Peninsula, and the unit managers working in the health services accommodating students for clinical practice in the same area. The findings revealed that the majority of unit managers were teaching students whenever they had the opportunity. Generally unit managers were prepared for their teaching function, but many students were not satisfied with some clinical learning opportunities presented to them, for example drawing up patient care plans, discussing patients’ treatment plans when handing over report, giving assistance regarding care decisions and lending support when students are confronted with patient care problems. There appears to be a need to educate unit managers regarding these and other aspects of the students’ training programme.

  7. Contribution of unit managers to the training of student nurses in the Cape Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troskie, R; Guwa, S N; Booyens, S W

    1998-12-01

    The article is based on research conducted over the period 1993 to 1996 in the Cape Peninsula. The purpose of the study was to determine the contribution of unit managers towards the training of student nurses coming to their units for clinical practica. The sample consisted of student nurses training in the four nursing colleges in the Cape Peninsula, and the unit managers working in the health services accommodating students for clinical practica in the same area. The findings revealed that the majority of unit managers were teaching students whenever they had the opportunity. Generally unit managers were prepared for their teaching function, but many students were not satisfied with some clinical learning opportunities presented to them, for example drawing up patient care plans, discussing patients' treatment plans when handing over report, giving assistance regarding care decisions and lending support when students are confronted with patient care problems. There appears to be a need to educate unit managers regarding these and other aspects of the students' training programme.

  8. A community in trouble? The impact of gentrification on the Bo-Kaap, Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nico Kotze

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Bo-Kaap is an older inner-city, working-class neighbourhood in Cape Town, South Africa. By the 1930s, the area had degenerated into an overcrowded and run-down neighbourhood, consisting largely of dilapidated houses, but by 1941 about 150 housing units had been expropriated by the local authority for redevelopment in a comprehensive renewal scheme for the area. However, the process was halted with the formation of the so-called “Group for the Preservation of the Malay Quarter”, which fought against the demolition of the houses. At present, the area with its colourful housing units and 11 mosques is part of Cape Town’s cultural heritage and a very important tourist attraction. As in the case of De Waterkant, a gentrified neighbourhood adjacent to it, the area has seen a large number of housing units renovated and upgraded. Property prices have increased dramatically, although they are still relatively low, while the number of properties sold is also on the rise – so much so that the community leaders and especially the Muslim residents are in a constant battle to preserve the neighbourhood’s cultural identity.

  9. Caching in the presence of competitors: Are Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) sensitive to audience attentiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jamie; Manser, Marta B

    2016-01-01

    When social animals cache food close to their burrow, the potential for an audience member to observe the event is significantly increased. As a consequence, in order to reduce theft it may be advantageous for animals to be sensitive to certain audience cues, such as whether they are attentive or not to the cache event. In this study, observations were made on three groups of Cape ground squirrels (Xerus inauris) in their natural habitat when they cached provisioned food items. When individuals cached within 10 m of conspecifics, we recorded the attentiveness (i.e. whether any audience members were orientated towards the cacher, had direct line of site and were not engaged in other activities) and identity of audience members. Overall, there was a preference to cache when audience members were inattentive rather than attentive. Additionally, we found rank effects related to cache avoidance whereby high-ranked individuals showed less avoidance to cache when audience members were attentive compared to medium- and low-ranked individuals. We suggest this audience sensitivity may have evolved in response to the difference in competitive ability amongst the ranks in how successful individuals are at winning foraging competitions. This study demonstrates that Cape ground squirrels have the ability to not only monitor the presence or absence of conspecifics but also discriminate individuals on the basis of their attentive state. PMID:26242609

  10. Healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Riley

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the health needs and experiences of South African lesbian and bisexual women is imperative for implementing effective and inclusive public health strategies. Such understanding, however, is limited due to the exclusion of these women from most existing research on healthcare access in the region. This paper bridges that gap by investigating the healthcare experiences of lesbian and bisexual women in Cape Town. Data were gathered from 22 interviews with self-identified lesbian and bisexual community members and university students in the Cape Town area. Interviews explored obstacles women face in accessing affirming services, different experiences with public and private healthcare, fear of stigma/discrimination, availability of relevant sexual health information and suggestions to improve existing programmes. Findings suggest that South African lesbians and bisexual women may have a range of both positive and negative experiences in public and private health services, that they use protective strategies when 'coming out' and that they find that sexual health information pertinent to them is largely unavailable. These discussions contribute to a more inclusive understanding of the experiences of lesbian and bisexual women accessing healthcare and other services and help to inform providers, thereby enabling them to deliver more meaningful care to lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in South Africa. PMID:25291355

  11. Investigating 19th and early 20th century Earthquakes in the Eastern Cape Province (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albini, Paola; Strasser, Fleur O.; Flint, Nicolette S.

    2014-05-01

    The seismicity for the years between 1820 and 1936 of Grahamstown, a settlement located in the heart of the current Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, is investigated with recourse to contemporaneous documentary sources. This investigation led to the development of a seismic history incorporating consideration of the broader geo-political context of the Eastern Cape colonial territory at that time. Individual studies of five regional events, ranging from Mw 6 to 4, that were felt in Grahamstown during that period are presented. An additional earthquake that was not felt at Grahamstown was included to present the exhaustive approach adopted in the study of the seismicity of the area. Each earthquake study includes the development of a full set of intensity data points (IDPs), which are used to determine reappraised epicentral locations and magnitudes, some of which differ significantly from previously listed parameters. The results thus obtained highlight the value of seeking out additional contemporary sources from a variety of sources in different languages when revisiting the source parameters of earthquakes for which no or only very limited instrumental information is available.

  12. Quality Assessment of Artemether-Lumefantrine Samples and Artemether Injections Sold in the Cape Coast Metropolis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prah, James; Ameyaw, Elvis Ofori; Afoakwah, Richmond; Fiawoyife, Patrick; Oppong-Danquah, Ernest; Boampong, Johnson Nyarko

    2016-01-01

    Most prescribers and patients in Ghana now opt for the relatively expensive artemether/lumefantrine rather than artesunate-amodiaquine due to undesirable side effects in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria. The study sought to determine the existence of substandard and/or counterfeit artemether-lumefantrine tablets and suspension as well as artemether injection on the market in Cape Coast. Six brands of artemether-lumefantrine tablets, two brands of artemether-lumefantrine suspensions, and two brands of artemether injections were purchased from pharmacies in Cape Coast for the study. The mechanical properties of the tablets were evaluated. The samples were then analyzed for the content of active ingredients using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with a variable wavelength detector. None of the samples was found to be counterfeit. However, the artemether content of the samples was variable (93.22%-104.70% of stated content by manufacturer). The lumefantrine content of the artemether/lumefantrine samples was also variable (98.70%-111.87%). Seven of the artemether-lumefantrine brands passed whilst one failed the International Pharmacopoeia content requirements. All brands of artemether injections sampled met the International Pharmacopoeia content requirement. The presence of a substandard artemether-lumefantrine suspension in the market should alert regulatory bodies to be more vigilant and totally flush out counterfeit and substandard drugs from the Ghanaian market. PMID:27006665

  13. Flavivirus isolations from mosquitoes collected from western Cape York Peninsula, Australia, 1999-2000.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Cheryl A; Nisbet, Debra J; Zborowski, Paul; van den Hurk, Andrew F; Ritchie, Scott A; Mackenzie, John S

    2003-12-01

    After the 1st appearance of Japanese encephalitis virus (JE) on mainland Australia in 1998, a study was undertaken to investigate whether JE had become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western Cape York Peninsula. Adult mosquitoes were collected during the late wet season from Kowanyama and Pormpuraaw in April 1999, and Pormpuraaw and Barr's Yard in April 2000. Despite processing 269,270 mosquitoes for virus isolation, no isolates of JE were obtained. However, other flaviviruses comprising Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Kunjin virus, Alfuy virus, and Kokobera virus (KOK) were isolated. Isolates of the alphaviruses Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus (BF), and Sindbis virus (SIN) also were obtained. The majority (88%) of isolates were from members of the Culex sitiens subgroup. Single isolates of KOK, BF, and SIN were obtained from Ochlerotatus vigilax, Oc. normanensis, and Anopheles bancroftii, respectively. The isolations of flaviviruses during the late wet season indicate that conditions were suitable for flavivirus activity in the area. No evidence was found to suggest that JE has become established in enzootic transmission cycles on western Cape York, although study sites and field trips were limited. PMID:14710742

  14. Intercâmbios acadêmicos internacionais: bolsas Capes, CNPq e Fapesp International academic exchange programs: Capes, CNPq and Fapesp fellowships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Mazza

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo é parte de pesquisa que atenta para o peso crescente que a circulação internacional de pessoas, saberes e práticas tem alcançado nos processos de escolarização e formação profissional de determinados setores sociais. Considerando os recursos públicos que a Capes, o CNPq e a Fapesp destinam à formação de pesquisadores com vistas ao fomento à pesquisa e aos investimentos em ciência e tecnologia no horizonte da circulação internacional, recortamos para este artigo a descrição e a análise preliminares da base de dados de bolsistas no exterior dessas agências de fomento, no período de 1970 a 2000. O movimento de fluxos, a partir da metodologia quantitativa de correlação de variáveis, desenha as tendências dos intercâmbios acadêmicos internacionais promovidos pelas três agências e nas diversas áreas do conhecimento, sendo que se procura contextualizá-las nas políticas de desenvolvimento científico-tecnológico desenvolvidas pelo Estado brasileiro no período.This article is part of a study considering the growing importance of the international transit of people, knowledge, and practices in the schooling and professional education processes of some social segments. Considering the public funds made available by the Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel - Capes -, the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development - CNPq - and the State of São Paulo Research Foundation - Fapesp - to support researchers' fellowships abroad, aming to improve research and investments on Science and Technology on the context of international exchanges, we have dedicated this article to the preliminary description and analysis of the database of fellows funded abroad by these research agencies from 1970 to 2000. The movement of flows based on the quantitative methodology of the correlation of variables draws the trends of international academic exchange programs in the three research

  15. Impact of active layer detachments on carbon exchange in a high-Arctic ecosystem, Cape Bounty, Nunavut, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, N. A.; Beamish, A.; Neil, A.; Wagner, I.

    2011-12-01

    High Arctic ecosystems are experiencing some of the earliest and most extreme changes in climate, including increases in both temperature and precipitation leading to a deepening and destabilization of the active layer. This destabilization of shallow slopes can lead to disturbances such as active layer detachments (ALD), which could further alter soil temperature and moisture regimes, potentially releasing carbon (C) and nutrients previously unavailable to soil microbes. We explored the impact of ALD's on carbon dioxide (CO2) exchange at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory on Melville Island, Canada over two growing seasons. CO2 exchange under light and dark conditions was measured approximately every five to nine days across both growing seasons for a total of five sampling day in 2009 and nine sampling days in 2010. Sampling was stratified to include highly disturbed, moderately disturbed, and undisturbed areas. Transparent static chambers were equipped with a Vaisala GMP343 CO2 sensor to measure changes in CO2 concentration over time. Based on static chamber C flux measurements during the growing seasons of 2009 and 2010, we found that the moderately disturbed sites were net sinks of CO2 (-6.44gC m-2 season-1, -8.21gC m-2 season-1, respectively). The highly disturbed sites however were net sources of CO2 in both seasons (3.01gC m-2 season-1, 30.01gC m-2 season-1, respectively). Control sites in 2009 were a net C sink (-6.48gC m-2 season-1) while in 2010 they represented a net C source (16.75gC m-2 season-1). Overall, the formation of ALD's led to highly disturbed areas (roughly 40% of the area of an ALD) becoming C sources, but appeared to enhance C uptake in moderately disturbed areas. Active layer depth explained little of the variation in any of the C fluxes, while combinations of soil moisture, temperature, and air temperature explained up to roughly 40% of the variation in C fluxes. These findings have important implications if temperature and

  16. The spatial and seasonal variation of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide in Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Canada, and the association with lichen abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Mark D.; Heal, Mathew R.; Li, Zhengyan; Kuchta, James; King, Gavin H.; Hayes, Alex; Lambert, Sheldon

    2013-01-01

    Over 200,000 tourists per year visit Cape Breton Highlands National Park, Nova Scotia, Canada. The forests within the park are home to many rare epiphytic lichens, the species diversity of which has declined in some areas. The primary motivation for this study was to gain insight into the concentrations and potential local and long-range sources of air pollution, but its association with lichen species diversity was also examined. Ogawa passive diffusion samplers were used to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the park at 19 sites in the winter and 20 sites in the summer of 2011. An improvement in the sensitivity of the sampler analytical protocol was developed. The mean concentrations in the park of winter and summer NO2 (0.81 and 0.16 ppb) and SO2 (0.24 and 0.21 ppb) are not at levels known to be phytotoxic to lichen. The NO2 concentrations in winter were significantly (p = 0.001) higher than those in summer whilst the SO2 concentrations did not differ significantly between winter and summer (p = 0.429). Highest NO2 concentrations in both seasons were observed in the Grand Anse Valley, presumably due to the steep road, emissions from the Pleasant Bay community at the foot of the valley and the enclosed topography of this area reducing dispersion of primary emissions. The SO2 concentrations in the park tended to be greater at elevated sites than valley sites, consistent with dispersion from long-range, rather than local, sources for this pollutant. Significant predictors in a multilinear regression for an index of air purity (lichen based measure of air quality) were lichen species number (p = 0.009), forest old growth index (p = 0.001) and distance from roads (p < 0.001) (model R2 = 0.8, model p = 0.004). The study suggests that local sources of pollution (roads emissions) are adversely associated with lichen species diversity in this National Park, compared with long-range transport, and that monitoring programs such as a lichen

  17. Challenges Pre-School Teachers Face in the Implementation of the Early Childhood Curriculum in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntumi, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the challenges that pre-school teachers encounter in the implementation of the early childhood curriculum; exploring teaching methods employed by pre-schools teachers in the Cape Coast Metropolis. The study employed descriptive survey as the research design. A convenient sample of 62 pre-school teachers were selected from a…

  18. On the history and type specimens of the Cape Verde Cane Warbler Acrocephalus brevipennis (Keulemans, 1866) (Aves, Sylviidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazevoet, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    The Cape Verde Cane Warbler Acrocephalus brevipennis was first described in 1866, and again in 1871 and 1883. These descriptions were all made after specimens from the same series. A type specimen was never designated and only one syntype from the original series can be traced today. The taxonomic h

  19. Assessing the need for hospital admission by the Cape Triage discriminator presentations and the simple clinical score.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Emmanuel, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    There is uncertainty about how to assess unselected acutely ill medical patients at the time of their admission to hospital. This study examined the use of the Simple Clinical Score (SCS) and the medically relevant Cape Triage discriminator clinical presentations to determine the need for admission to an acute medical unit.

  20. From Digital Divide to Digital Equity: Learners' ICT Competence in Four Primary Schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors influencing the digital divide in four schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Three of the schools are for disadvantaged learners whereas the fourth was previously for whites only. All the schools use ICT in their curriculum delivery and thereby support the emphasis of provincial educational authorities on ICT access for…

  1. Comparison and validation of full-scale data from wind measurements in the Cape Peninsula, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruger, Andries C.; Goliger, Adam M.; Larsén, Xiaoli Guo;

    2014-01-01

    The complexity of the wind climate of Cape Town and its surroundings can be shown by the measurements of specific wind phenomena by weather stations around Table Mountain. It is shown that there are substantial differences between wind speed characteristics affecting various parts of the city...

  2. The quality of nursing documentation in some private and provincial hospitals in the Cape Peninsula and the PWV-area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne W. Booyens

    1989-09-01

    Full Text Available An investigation was undertaken with the aim o f establishing standards for the documentation o f nursing care. Nursing care records in the medical and surgical units o f private and general hospitals in the PWV-area and the Cape Peninsula were audited. A considerable number o f deficiencies were identified in the daily record keeping o f nursing care.

  3. The quality of nursing documentation in some private and provincial hospitals in the Cape Peninsula and the PWV-area

    OpenAIRE

    Susanne W. Booyens; Uys, Leana R.

    1989-01-01

    An investigation was undertaken with the aim o f establishing standards for the documentation o f nursing care. Nursing care records in the medical and surgical units o f private and general hospitals in the PWV-area and the Cape Peninsula were audited. A considerable number o f deficiencies were identified in the daily record keeping o f nursing care.

  4. Ambiguities of resistance and collaboration on the Eastern Cape frontier : the Kat River settlement 1829-1856

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ross, R.; Abbink, J.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Walraven, van K.

    2003-01-01

    This chapter unravels the complexities of resistance to, and collaboration with, the British colonizers of the Eastern Cape, South Africa, by the inhabitants of the Upper Kat River Valley. Since the Khoikhoi landholders of the valley had received their land as a result of British action against the

  5. Racial Desegregation and the Institutionalisation of "Race" in University Governance: The Case of the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luescher, Thierry M.

    2009-01-01

    The racial desegregation of the student bodies of historically white universities in South Africa has had significant political implications for student politics and university governance. I discuss two key moments in the governance history of the University of Cape Town (UCT) critically. The first involves the experience of racial parallelism in…

  6. Diversity and Contested Social Identities in Multilingual and Multicultural Contexts of the University of the Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Felix; Peck, Amiena

    2016-01-01

    We draw on Rampton's "Crossing: Language and Ethnicity Among Adolescents" (2014. 2nd ed. New York: Routledge) notion of "crossing" to explore contestations in ethnolinguistic, cultural and racial affiliations at the University of the Western Cape (UWC), a university built for "Coloureds" in apartheid South Africa, but…

  7. 76 FR 78231 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Fresh Cape Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... accordance with that process, we published a notice \\1\\ in the Federal Register on August 11, 2011 (76 FR... Gooseberry Fruit With Husks From Chile AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... continental United States of fresh Cape gooseberry fruit (Physalis peruviana L.) with husks from Chile....

  8. Sulphur dioxide (SO2) emissions during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrancos, José; Dionis, Samara; Quevedo, Roberto; Fernandes, Paulo; Rodríguez, Fátima; Pérez, Nemesio M.; Silva, Sónia; Cardoso, Nadir; Hernández, Pedro A.; Melián, Gladys V.; Padrón, Eleazar; Padilla, Germán; Asensio-Ramos, María; Calvo, David; Semedo, Helio; Alfama, Vera

    2015-04-01

    A new eruption started at Fogo volcanic island on November 23, 2014, an active stratovolcano, located in the SW of the Cape Verde Archipelago; rising over 6 km from the 4000m deep seafloor to the Pico do Fogo summit at 2829m above sea level (m.a.s.l.). Since settlement in the 15th century, 27 eruptions have been identified through analysis of incomplete written records (Ribeiro, 1960), with average time intervals of 20 yr and average duration of two months. The eruptions were mostly effusive (Hawaiian to Strombolian), with rare occurrences of highly explosive episodes including phreatomagmatic events (Day et al., 1999). This study reports sulphur dioxide (SO2) emission rate variations observed throughout the 2014-15 Fogo eruption, Cape Verde. More than 100 measurements of SO2 emission rate have been carried out in a daily basis by ITER/INVOLCAN/UNICV/OVCV/SNPC research team since November 28, 2014, five days after the eruption onset, by means of a miniDOAS using the traverse method with a car. The daily deviation obtained of the data is around 15%. Estimated SO2 emission rates ranged from 12,476 ± 981 to 492 ± 27 tons/day during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption until January 1, 2015. During this first five days of measurements, the observed SO2 emission rates were high with an average rate of 11,100 tons/day. On December 3, 2014 the SO2 emission rate dropped to values close to 4,000 tons/day, whereas few days later, on December 10, 2014, an increase to values close to 11,000 tons/day was recorded. Since then, SO2 emission rate has shown decrease trend to values close to 1,300 tons/day until December 21, 2014. The average of the observed SO2 emission rate was about 2,000 tons/day from December 21, 2014 to January 1, 2015, without detecting a specific either increasing or decreasing trend of the SO2 emission rate. The objective of this report is to clarify relations between the SO2 emission rate and surface eruptive activity during the 2014-15 Fogo eruption. Day, S. J

  9. Frequency and Distribution of Tuberculosis Resistance-Associated Mutations between Mumbai, Moldova, and Eastern Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georghiou, S B; Seifert, M; Catanzaro, D; Garfein, R S; Valafar, F; Crudu, V; Rodrigues, C; Victor, T C; Catanzaro, A; Rodwell, T C

    2016-07-01

    Molecular diagnostic assays, with their ability to rapidly detect resistance-associated mutations in bacterial genes, are promising technologies to control the spread of drug-resistant tuberculosis (DR-TB). Sequencing assays provide detailed information for specific gene regions and can help diagnostic assay developers prioritize mutations for inclusion in their assays. We performed pyrosequencing of seven Mycobacterium tuberculosis gene regions (katG, inhA, ahpC, rpoB, gyrA, rrs, and eis) for 1,128 clinical specimens from India, Moldova, and South Africa. We determined the frequencies of each mutation among drug-resistant and -susceptible specimens based on phenotypic drug susceptibility testing results and examined mutation distributions by country. The most common mutation among isoniazid-resistant (INH(r)) specimens was the katG 315ACC mutation (87%). However, in the Eastern Cape, INH(r) specimens had a lower frequency of katG mutations (44%) and higher frequencies of inhA (47%) and ahpC (10%) promoter mutations. The most common mutation among rifampin-resistant (RIF(r)) specimens was the rpoB 531TTG mutation (80%). The mutation was common in RIF(r) specimens in Mumbai (83%) and Moldova (84%) but not the Eastern Cape (17%), where the 516GTC mutation appeared more frequently (57%). The most common mutation among fluoroquinolone-resistant specimens was the gyrA 94GGC mutation (44%). The rrs 1401G mutation was found in 84%, 84%, and 50% of amikacin-resistant, capreomycin-resistant, and kanamycin (KAN)-resistant (KAN(r)) specimens, respectively. The eis promoter mutation -12T was found in 26% of KAN(r) and 4% of KAN-susceptible (KAN(s)) specimens. Inclusion of the ahpC and eis promoter gene regions was critical for optimal test sensitivity for the detection of INH resistance in the Eastern Cape and KAN resistance in Moldova. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration number NCT02170441.).

  10. Gulf Stream marine hydrokinetic energy resource characterization off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muglia, M.; He, R.; Lowcher, C.; Bane, J.; Gong, Y.; Taylor, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Gulf Stream off North Carolina has current velocities that approach 3 m/s and an average volume transport of 90 Sv (1 Sv= 106 m3/s) off of Cape Hatteras, making it the most abundant MHK (Marine Hydrokinetic Energy) resource for the state. Resource availability at a specific location depends primarily on the variability in Gulf Stream position, which is least offshore of Cape Hatteras after the stream exits the Florida Straits. Proximity to land and high current velocities in relatively shallow waters on the shelf slope make this an optimal location to quantify the MHK energy resource for NC. 3.5 years of current measurements beginning in August of 2013 from a moored 150 kHz ADCP (Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler) at an optimal location for energy extraction quantify the available energy resource and its variability, and establish the skill of a Mid-Atlantic Bight and South Atlantic Bight Regional Ocean Model in predicting the MHK energy resource. The model agrees well with long-term observed current averages and with weekly to monthly fluctuations in the current speeds. Model and observations over the first 9 months of the ADCP deployment period both averaged 1.15 m/s thirty meters below the surface. The model under estimates observed current speeds for the higher frequency current fluctuations of days to weeks. Comparisons between the model and ADCP observed currents, and velocity derived power density over the entire 3.5 years of observations demonstrate the significant inter-annual variability in power density. Shipboard 300 kHz ADCP cross-stream transects and hourly surface currents measurements off Cape Hatteras from a network of land based HF (high frequency) radars further quantify available MHK energy and assess model skill. Cross-stream transects were made with a vessel-mounted 300 kHz ADCP on a line from the 100-1000m isobaths, and measured currents in the top 100m. These measurements demonstrate the variability in the resource with water depth, and

  11. Cold-water coral growth under extreme environmental conditions, the Cape Lookout area, NW Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mienis, F.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Davies, A. J.; Lavaleye, M. M. S.; Ross, S. W.; Seim, H.; Bane, J.; van Haren, H.; Bergman, M. J. N.; de Haas, H.; Brooke, S.; van Weering, T. C. E.

    2014-05-01

    The Cape Lookout cold-water coral area off the coast of North Carolina forms the shallowest and northernmost cold-water coral mound area on the Blake Plateau in the NW Atlantic. Cold-water coral habitats near Cape Lookout are occasionally bathed in the Gulf Stream, which is characterised by oligotrophic warm water and strong surface currents. Here, we present the first insights into the mound distribution and morphology, sedimentary environment and coral cover and near-bed environmental conditions as recorded by bottom landers from this coral area. The mounds occur between 320 and 550 m water depth and are characterised by high acoustic backscatter indicating the presence of hard structure. Three distinct mound morphologies were observed: (1) a mound with a flattened top at 320 m, (2) multi-summited mounds with a teardrop shape in the middle part of the area and (3) a single mound at 540 m water depth. Echosounder profiles show the presence of a strong reflector underneath all mound structures that forms the base of the mounds. This reflector cropped out at the downstream side of the single mound and consists of carbonate slabs. Video analysis revealed that all mounds are covered by Lophelia pertusa and that living colonies only occur close to the summits of the SSW side of the mounds, which is the side that faces the strongest currents. Off-mound areas were characterised by low backscatter and sediment ripples, indicating the presence of relatively strong bottom currents. Two bottom landers were deployed amidst the coral mounds between December 2009 and May 2010. Both landers recorded prominent events, characterised by large fluctuations in environmental conditions near the seabed as well as in the overlying water column. The period between December and April was characterised by several events of increasing temperature and salinity, coinciding with increased flow and near-bed acoustic backscatter. During these events temperature fluctuated by up to 9 °C within a

  12. Package Equivalent Reactor Networks as Reduced Order Models for Use with CAPE-OPEN Compliant Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Chou, C. -P.; Garratt, T.

    2013-03-31

    high-fidelity kinetics simulation, while maintaining the spatial information derived from the geometrically faithful CFD model. The reduced-order models are generated in such a way that they can be easily imported into a process flowsheet simulator, using the CAPE-OPEN architecture for unit operations. The ENERGICO/CHEMKIN-PRO software produces an ERN-definition file that is read by a dynamically linked library (DLL) that can be easily linked to any CAPE-OPEN compliant software. The plug-in unitoperation module has been successfully demonstrated for complex ERNs of coal gasifiers, using both Aspen Plus and COFE process flowsheet simulators through this published CAPE-OPEN interface.

  13. Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araujo, Julio A.; Abiodun, Babatunde J.; Crespo, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Droughts remain a threat to grape yields in South Africa. Previous studies on the impacts of climate on grape yield in the country have focussed on the impact of rainfall and temperature separately; meanwhile, grape yields are affected by drought, which is a combination of rainfall and temperature influences. The present study investigates the impacts of drought on grape yields in the Western Cape (South Africa) at district and farm scales. The study used a new drought index that is based on simple water balance (Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index; hereafter, SPEI) to identify drought events and used a correlation analysis to identify the relationship between drought and grape yields. A crop simulation model (Agricultural Production Systems sIMulator, APSIM) was applied at the farm scale to investigate the role of irrigation in mitigating the impacts of drought on grape yield. The model gives a realistic simulation of grape yields. The Western Cape has experienced a series of severe droughts in the past few decades. The severe droughts occurred when a decrease in rainfall occurred simultaneously with an increase in temperature. El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) appears to be an important driver of drought severity in the Western Cape, because most of the severe droughts occurred in El Niño years. At the district scale, the correlation between drought index and grape yield is weak ( r≈-0.5), but at the farm scale, it is strong ( r≈-0.9). This suggests that many farmers are able to mitigate the impacts of drought on grape yields through irrigation management. At the farm scale, where the impact of drought on grape yields is high, poor yield years coincide with moderate or severe drought periods. The APSIM simulation, which gives a realistic simulation of grape yields at the farm scale, suggests that grape yields become more sensitive to spring and summer droughts in the absence of irrigation. Results of this study may guide decision-making on

  14. Fine-scale recognition and use of mesoscale fronts by foraging Cape gannets in the Benguela upwelling region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarros, Philippe S.; Grémillet, David; Demarcq, Hervé; Moseley, Christina; Pichegru, Lorien; Mullers, Ralf H. E.; Stenseth, Nils C.; Machu, Eric

    2014-09-01

    Oceanic structures such as mesoscale fronts may become hotspots of biological activity through concentration and enrichment processes. These fronts generally attract fish and may therefore be targeted by marine top-predators. In the southern Benguela upwelling system, such fronts might be used as environmental cues by foraging seabirds. In this study we analyzed high-frequency foraging tracks (GPS, 1 s sampling) of Cape gannets Morus capensis from two colonies located on the west and east coast of South Africa in relation to mesoscale fronts detected on daily high-resolution chlorophyll-a maps (MODIS, 1 km). We tested the association of (i) searching behavior and (ii) diving activity of foraging birds with mesoscale fronts. We found that Cape gannets shift from transiting to area-restricted search mode (ARS) at a distance from fronts ranging between 2 and 11 km (median is 6.7 km). This suggests that Cape gannets may be able to sense fronts (smell or vision) or other predators, and that such detection triggers an intensified investigation of their surroundings (i.e. ARS). Also we found that diving probability increases near fronts in 11 out of 20 tracks investigated (55%), suggesting that Cape gannets substantially use fronts for feeding; in the remaining cases (45%), birds may have used other cues for feeding including fishing vessels, particularly for gannets breeding on the west coast. We demonstrated in this study that oceanographic structures such as mesoscale fronts are important environmental cues used by a foraging seabird within the rich waters of an upwelling system. There is now need for further investigations on how Cape gannets actually detect these fronts.

  15. Air movement and perceived air quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.

    2012-01-01

    The impact of air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) and sick building syndrome (SBS) symptoms was studied. In total, 124 human subjects participated in four series of experiments performed in climate chambers at different combinations of room air temperature (20, 23, 26 and 28 °C), relative...... humidity (30, 40 and 70%) and pollution level (low and high). Most of the experiments were performed with and without facially applied airflow at elevated velocity. The importance of the use of recirculated room air and clean, cool and dry outdoor air was studied. The exposures ranged from 60. min to 235....... min. Acceptability of PAQ and freshness of the air improved when air movement was applied. The elevated air movement diminished the negative impact of increased air temperature, relative humidity and pollution level on PAQ. The degree of improvement depended on the pollution level, the temperature...

  16. The relevance of social contexts and social action in reducing substance use and victimization among women participating in an HIV prevention intervention in Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Reed E; Emanuel AN; Myers B; Johnson K; Wechsberg WM

    2013-01-01

    Elizabeth Reed,1 Andrea N Emanuel,2 Bronwyn Myers,3,4 Kim Johnson,3 Wendee M Wechsberg2,5–7 1George Washington University School of Public Health, Department of Prevention and Community Health, Washington, DC, USA; 2RTI International, Research Triangle Park, NC, USA; 3Alcohol and Drug Abuse Research Unit, Medical Research Council, Cape Town, South Africa; 4Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa; 5Gillings Global School of Public Heal...

  17. Dragonflies (Insecta, Odonata) collected in the Cape Verde Islands, 1960-1989 : including records of two taxa new to the archipelago

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Andreas; Loureiro, Nuno de Santos; Hazevoet, Cornelis J.

    2015-01-01

    Dragonflies from the Cape Verde Islands, collected between 1960 and 1989 and kept in institutes in Portugal and Cape Verde, were studied. The Cape Verde collection at the Centro de Zoologia, Instituto de Investigação Científica Tropical, Lisbon, Portugal, includes eight species of dragonflies represented by 279 specimens collected in 1960-61 and 1969-72. The entomological collection at the Instituto Nacional de Investigação e Desenvolvimento Agrário (INIDA), São Jorge dos Orgãos, Republic of ...

  18. Health physics innovations developed during Cassini for future space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickell, Rod; Rutherford, Theresa; Marmaro, George

    1999-01-01

    There has been a long history of space missions involving Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) devices starting with the Transit 4A Spacecraft (1961), on through the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars Pathfinder, and most recently, Cassini (1997). All of these Major Radiological Source (MRS) missions were processed at the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC/CCAS) Launch Site in full compliance with program and regulatory requirements. The cumulative experience gained supporting these past missions has led to significant innovations which will be useful for bench-marking future MRS ground processing.

  19. Deep Impact Delta II Launch Vehicle Cracked Thick Film Coating on Electronic Packages Technical Consultation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kenneth D.; Kichak, Robert A.; Piascik, Robert S.; Leidecker, Henning W.; Wilson, Timmy R.

    2009-01-01

    The Deep Impact spacecraft was launched on a Boeing Delta II rocket from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) on January 12, 2005. Prior to the launch, the Director of the Office of Safety and Mission Assurance (OS&MA) requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) lead a team to render an independent opinion on the rationale for flight and the risk code assignments for the hazard of cracked Thick Film Assemblies (TFAs) in the E-packages of the Delta II launch vehicle for the Deep Impact Mission. The results of the evaluation are contained in this report.

  20. Phoenix - The First Mars Scout Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Barry; Shotwell, Robert

    2008-01-01

    As the first of the new Mars Scouts missions, the Phoenix project was selected by NASA in August of 2003. Four years later, almost to the day, Phoenix was launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station and successfully injected into an interplanetary trajectory on its way to Mars. On May 25, 2008 Phoenix conducted the first successful powered decent on Mars in over 30 years. This paper will highlight some of the key changes since the 2008 IEEE paper of the same name, as well as performance through cruise, landing at the north pole of Mars and some of the preliminary results of the surface mission.

  1. Cassini's remote sensing pallet is prepared for installation in the PHSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The complete remote sensing pallet is lowered by technicians from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology to mate with the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at KSC in July. A four-year, close- up study of the Saturnian system, the Cassini mission is scheduled for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station in October 1997. It will take seven years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. Scientific instruments carried aboard the spacecraft will study Saturn's atmosphere, magnetic field, rings, and several moons. JPL is managing the Cassini project for NASA.

  2. Cassini's remote sensing pallet is installed in the PHSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Technicians from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology lift the remote sensing pallet in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at KSC in July prior to installation on the Cassini spacecraft. A four- year, close-up study of the Saturnian system, the Cassini mission is scheduled for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station in October 1997. It will take seven years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. Scientific instruments carried aboard the spacecraft will study Saturn's atmosphere, magnetic field, rings, and several moons. JPL is managing the Cassini project for NASA.

  3. Cassini's remote sensing pallet is mated to the spacecraft in the PHSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The complete remote sensing pallet is lowered by technicians from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology and mated at the interface with the Cassini spacecraft in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility at KSC in July. A four-year, close-up study of the Saturnian system, the Cassini mission is scheduled for launch from Cape Canaveral Air Station in October 1997. It will take seven years for the spacecraft to reach Saturn. Scientific instruments carried aboard the spacecraft will study Saturn's atmosphere, magnetic field, rings, and several moons. JPL is managing the Cassini project for NASA.

  4. The solar panels of the spacecraft Stardust are deployed before undergoing lighting test in the PHSF

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    In the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility, workers look over the solar panels on the Stardust spacecraft that are deployed for lighting tests. Stardust is scheduled to be launched aboard a Boeing Delta II rocket from Launch Pad 17A, Cape Canaveral Air Station, on Feb. 6, 1999, for a rendezvous with the comet Wild 2 in January 2004. Stardust will use a substance called aerogel to capture comet particles flying off the nucleus of the comet, plus collect interstellar dust for later analysis. The collected samples will return to Earth in a sample return capsule to be jettisoned as it swings by Earth in January 2006.

  5. The solar panels on the GOES-L satellite are deployed

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    Loral workers at Astrotech, Titusville, Fla., check out the solar panels of the GOES-L weather satellite, to be launched from Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) aboard an Atlas II rocket in late March. The GOES-L is the fourth of a new advanced series of geostationary weather satellites for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It is a three-axis inertially stabilized spacecraft that will provide pictures and perform atmospheric sounding at the same time. Once launched, the satellite, to be designated GOES-11, will undergo checkout and provide backup capabilities for the existing, aging GOES East weather satellite.

  6. Health physics innovations developed during Cassini for future space applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There has been a long history of space missions involving Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) devices starting with the Transit 4A Spacecraft (1961), on through the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking, Voyager, Galileo, Ulysses, Mars Pathfinder, and most recently, Cassini (1997). All of these Major Radiological Source (MRS) missions were processed at the Kennedy Space Center/Cape Canaveral Air Station (KSC/CCAS) Launch Site in full compliance with program and regulatory requirements. The cumulative experience gained supporting these past missions has led to significant innovations which will be useful for bench-marking future MRS ground processing

  7. Condom use at last sexual relationship among adolescents of Santiago Island, Cape Verde, - West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Carlos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To estimate factors associated with condom use at last sexual intercourse among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study of a representative sample of 368 sexually active adolescents aged 13–17 years from eight public high schools on Santiago Island, Cape Verde, 2007. The level of significance was 5.0% obtained from logistic regression, considering the association between condom use and socio-demographic, sexual and reproductive variables. Results The prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse was 94.9%. Factors associated with condom use at last sexual relationship were: non-Catholic religion (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.52; 0.88 and affective-sexual partnership before the interview (OR=5.15, 95%CI: 1.79; 14.80. Conclusions There was a high prevalence of condom use at last sexual intercourse of adolescents.

  8. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Louise; Pina-Araujo I, Isabel de; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-09-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution. PMID:27653363

  9. An adaptation of the Moyers mixed dentition space analysis for a Western Cape Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, S W; Rossouw, P; van Wyk Kotze, T J; Trutero, H

    1991-09-01

    200 dental plaster casts of Western Cape Caucasoid subjects, all of whom were under the age of 21 years, were used in this study. Mesio-distal measurements (MD lengths) were obtained of all the teeth, disregarding the third molars. This data was used to develop regression equations, for maxillary and for mandibular arches, to enable the prediction of the mesio-distal lengths of the canine and two premolars. The study identified the sum of the MD lengths of the permanent lower incisors as the best predictor. It appears that separate predictions for male and female are not warranted. The equations and the predicted values were compared with those of Moyers (1973 and 1988) and some significant differences were found. The Prediction Tables will be useful in analysis of the mixed dentition phase in patients from this population group. PMID:1820683

  10. Digital models of ground-water flow in the Cape Cod aquifer system, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guswa, John H.; LeBlanc, Denis R.

    1981-01-01

    The Cape Cod aquifer system was simulated with three-dimensional finite-difference ground-water-flow models. Five areas were modeled to provide tools which can be used to help predict the hydrologic impacts of regional water development and disposal schemes. Model boundaries were selected to represent the natural hydrologic boundaries of the aquifer. The boundary between fresh and saline ground water is treated as an interface of no dispersion, and the saline-water zone is treated as being non-flowing. Comparisons of calculated and observed head values, position of the freshwater and saline-water boundary, and ground-water-discharge rates at locations where data are available indicate that the simulated ground-water reservoirs generally agree with the field conditions and the models can be used for predictive studies. (USGS)

  11. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Louise; de Pina-Araujo I, Isabel; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution.

  12. Making unhealthy places: The built environment and non-communicable diseases in Khayelitsha, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Warren; de Lannoy, Ariane; Dover, Robert V H; Lambert, Estelle V; Levitt, Naomi; Watson, Vanessa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we examine how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs in Khayelitsha (a predominantly low income area in Cape Town, South Africa) through their shaping of the built environment. The paper draws on literature reviews and ethnographic fieldwork undertaken in Khayelitsha. The three main pathways through which the built environment of the area impacts on NCDs are through a complex food environment in which it is difficult to achieve food security, an environment that is not conducive to safe physical activity, and high levels of depression and stress (linked to, amongst other factors, poverty, crime and fear of crime). All of these factors are at least partially linked to the isolated, segregated and monofunctional nature of Khayelitsha. The paper highlights that in order to effectively address urban health challenges, we need to understand how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs through the way they shape built environments. PMID:27157313

  13. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritha E. Snyman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading promotion project was responsible for positive changes in the lives of the beneficiaries of the intervention. It especially points to the positive role access to appropriate reading material and prolonged and enthusiastic reading motivation can play in the lives of a developing community with little means.Keywords: reading; reading promotion; reader development; longitudinal

  14. Resistance screening trials on coconut varieties to Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease in Ghana

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    Quaicoe Robert Nketsia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD is a coconut lethal yellowing type disease (LY and is the single most serious threat to coconut cultivation in Ghana. The recommended disease management strategy is the cultivation of disease-resistant coconut varieties. More than 38 varieties have been screened for their resistance to CSPWD since 1956 and the results are reviewed in this paper. Two varieties, Sri Lanka Green Dwarf (SGD and Vanuatu Tall (VTT, have shown high resistance to the disease, and their hybrid (SGD × VTT is under observation to determine its performance. A programme to rehabilitate the CSPWD-devastated areas was started in 1999. Emerging results indicate that the MYD × VTT hybrid being used for the programme, succumbs to the disease under intense disease pressure. A redirection of the rehabilitation programme and the screening of more varieties are recommended.

  15. Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease of coconut in Ghana: surveillance and management of disease spread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nkansah-Poku Joe

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The Cape Saint Paul Wilt Disease (CSPWD, a lethal-yellowing type disease of coconut has been in Ghana since 1932. Aerial and/or ground surveys were undertaken to assess the current status of the disease spread. The survey showed that the spread of the disease for the past 5 years has mainly been the expansion of existing foci. However, new outbreaks were identified at Glidzi in the Volta, Bawjiase and Efutu Breman in Central regions. After the resurgence in the Volta region in 1995, the Woe-Tegbi-Dzelukope corridor has remained endemic, but less aggressive. Pockets of healthy groves remain along all the coastline and inland of known disease zones. Eradication of diseased palms at Ampain focus lying just about 60 km to the Ivorian border, and disease situations on new replanting with MYD × VTT hybrid are discussed.

  16. Large-scale penetration of Gulf Stream water onto the continental shelf north of Cape Hatteras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawarkiewicz, Glen; Church, Thomas M.; Luther, George W., III; Ferdelman, Timothy G.; Caruso, Michael

    1992-01-01

    The presence of Gulf Stream water on the continental shelf as much as 60 km north of Cape Hatteras was observed during a hydrographic cruise in the summer of 1990. Gulf Stream water was concentrated at mid-depth between 10 and 30 m and penetrated the shelfbreak front which normally separates the shelf water from slope water and Gulf Stream water. Velocities of Gulf Stream water in the upper 110 m of the water column along the 1000 m isobath indicated a flow of 18 to 25 cm/s directed towards the northwest. Gulf Stream water on the shelf is considered to be associated with low values of fluorescence, transmissivity, and nutrient concentrations relative to adjacent shelf water.

  17. The Cape Mendocino, California, earthquakes of April 1992: Subduction at the triple junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, D.; Beroza, G.; Carver, G.; Dengler, L.; Eaton, J.; Gee, L.; Gonzalez, F.; Jayko, A.; Li, W.H.; Lisowski, M.; Magee, M.; Marshall, G.; Murray, M.; McPherson, R.; Romanowicz, B.; Satake, K.; Simpson, R.; Somerville, P.; Stein, R.; Valentine, D.

    1993-01-01

    The 25 April 1992 magnitude 7.1 Cape Mendocino thrust earthquake demonstrated that the North America-Gorda plate boundary is seismogenic and illustrated hazards that could result from much larger earthquakes forecast for the Cascadia region. The shock occurred just north of the Mendocino Triple Junction and caused strong ground motion and moderate damage in the immediate area. Rupture initiated onshore at a depth of 10.5 kilometers and propagated up-dip and seaward. Slip on steep faults in the Gorda plate generated two magnitude 6.6 aftershocks on 26 April. The main shock did not produce surface rupture on land but caused coastal uplift and a tsunami. The emerging picture of seismicity and faulting at the triple junction suggests that the region is likely to continue experiencing significant seismicity.

  18. Emerging Societal Involvement in City Management : the case of Cape Town

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    Neil Dewar

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Since the advent of full participatory democracy in South Africa in April 1994, a fundamental revision of the norms, values and practices of urban management has occurred. A central feature of this is expressed commitment to greater transparency and public participation in decision-making and project execution. Manegerial practice has moved from being essentially technocratic and control-oriented to more pluralistic and development-oriented. The previously disenfranchised and largely impoverished sectors of the community have moved from exclusion and confrontation toward greater involvement and empowerment. This has not been without problems however. The current status of community participation in Cape Town is reviewed and explored against a theoretical model. The conclusion drawn is that, political impediments notwithstanding, a considerable energy and momentum has been generated at local level in civil society towards the goal of improvement in social and living environments in the city.

  19. Stories of Change: e/merge @ the University of Cape Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Tony

    The Center for Educational Technology (CET) is located at the University of Cape Town, which is a leading South African research and teaching university. This implies great opportunities and challenges since we are poised between the experience of and conditions faced by colleagues in other parts of Africa and those of the colleagues in first-world countries. We have access to the intellectual and professional networks of the first world and our university features on global rankings, yet our resourcing, while generous in terms of most other universities in our continent, is a fraction of that enjoyed by first-world universities of similar size and scope. Both globalization and developmental imperatives require us to rapidly extend the effective use of educational technology in our university for teaching and learning. The received models of e-Learning integration developed mostly in first-world countries need to be adapted for contexts with scarce resources.

  20. The introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town: probing student perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-01-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire (IAQ), which we administered as pre- and post-tests to students enrolled in the course. The instrument comprised a small number of questions which probed three areas of interest: student motivation and expectations, astronomy content, and worldview. Amongst our findings were that learning gains were made in several conceptual areas, and that students appeared to develop a more nuanced view of the nature of astronomy. There was some evidence that the course had a positive impact on students' worldviews, particularly their attitudes towards science. We also identified a promising predictor of course success that could in future be used to identify students requiring spec...

  1. Introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town: Probing student perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajpaul, Vinesh; Allie, Saalih; Blyth, Sarah-Louise

    2014-12-01

    We report on research carried out to improve teaching and student engagement in the introductory astronomy course at the University of Cape Town. This course is taken by a diverse range of students, including many from educationally disadvantaged backgrounds. We describe the development of an instrument, the Introductory Astronomy Questionnaire (IAQ), which we administered as pre- and posttests to students enrolled in the course. The instrument comprised a small number of questions which probed three areas of interest: student motivation and expectations, astronomy content, and worldview. Amongst our findings were that learning gains were made in several conceptual areas, and that students appeared to develop a more nuanced view of the nature of astronomy. There was some evidence that the course had a positive impact on students' worldviews, particularly their attitudes towards science. We also identified a promising predictor of course success that could in the future be used to identify students requiring special teaching intervention.

  2. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simbaqueba, Jaime; Sánchez, Pilar; Sanchez, Erika; Núñez Zarantes, Victor Manuel; Chacon, Maria Isabel; Barrero, Luz Stella; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo

    2011-01-01

    Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Cape gooseberry, is an Andean Solanaceae fruit with high nutritional value and interesting medicinal properties. In the present study we report the development and characterization of microsatellite loci from a P. peruviana commercial Colombian genotype. We identified 932 imperfect and 201 perfect Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) loci in untranslated regions (UTRs) and 304 imperfect and 83 perfect SSR loci in coding regions from the assembled Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome. The UTR SSR loci were used for the development of 162 primers for amplification. The efficiency of these primers was tested via PCR in a panel of seven P. peruviana accessions including Colombia, Kenya and Ecuador ecotypes and one closely related species Physalis floridana. We obtained an amplification rate of 83% and a polymorphic rate of 22%. Here we report the first P. peruviana specific microsatellite set, a valuable tool for a wide variety of applications, including functional diversity, conservation and improvement of the species. PMID:22039540

  3. Coastal geomorphic evolution at the Denglou Cape,the Leizhou Peninsula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽荣; 赵焕庭; 宋朝景; 袁家义; 于红兵

    2002-01-01

    The Denglou Cape, southwest of the Leizhou Peninsula, is the most typical tropical coast in the continent of China. The coastal geomorphic development basics of the geology and Quaternary environment change are discussed. Aerial photograph interpretation with fieldwork is applied to draw the outlines of geomorphic types. Based on the investigative data, the exogenic forces and marine organism conditions concerning tropical coast development in the area are expounded, and coastal dynano-deposition geomorphic bodies are analysed, mainly with sea cliff-abrasion platform, barrier-lagoon system,modern beach, coral reef and mangrove tidal flat, and the general process of coastal evolution at this area, as well as coastline changes since middle Holocene transgression.

  4. Living with HIV/AIDS in King Williams Town, Eastern Cape

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    Chinyama Ephraim .P

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the lifestyle decisions of people who are diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in King Williams Town, Eastern Cape. The study was motivated by the ever growing number of people who are now living with HIV/AIDS. Therefore the researcher intended to examine their decisions regarding sexual choices, reproductive health, diet, physical fitness and their coping strategies.The study found that there is very low uptake of Voluntary Counseling and Testing (VCT. Most people only get tested if they are compelled by other factors, like illness and pregnancy. It also found that HIV positive people continue to engage in risky sexual behaviour regardless of their positive status. In addition it also found that HIV positive status does not affect sexual activity and social support from family and friends is a very important factor that is helping the respondents to cope with HIV diagnosis.

  5. Microstructural study of natural fractures in Cape Roberts Project 3 core, Western Ross Sea, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, C.; Wilson, T.; Paulsen, T.

    2007-01-01

    Microstructures in natural fractures in core recovered offshore from Cape Roberts, Ross Sea, Antarctica, provide new constraints on the relative timing of faulting and sedimentation in the Victoria Land Basin along the Transantarctic Mountain rift flank. This study characterizes the textures, fabrics and grain-scale structures from thin section analysis of samples of microfaults, veins, and clastic dikes. Microfaults are abundant and display two different types of textures, interpreted to record two different deformation modes: pre-lithification shearing and brittle faulting of cohesive sediment. Both clastic dikes and calcite veins commonly follow fault planes, indicating that injections of liquefied sediment and circulating fluids used pre-existing faults as conduits. The close association of clastic injections, diagenetic mineralization, and faulting indicates that faulting was synchronous with deposition in the rift basin

  6. Dust generation and drought patterns in Africa from helium-4 in a modern Cape Verde coral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Kreycik, P.

    2008-10-01

    We show that helium-4 (4He) concentrations in a modern Porites coral from Cape Verde provides a robust reconstruction of mineral dust loading over the Eastern Tropical Atlantic from mid-1950's to mid-1990's. The 4He record demonstrates pronounced increases in dust emission from North Africa associated with the severe droughts in the Sahel. Our record provides direct evidence that dust emission rates in the 1950's, prior to the onset of the Sahel droughts, were a factor of nine lower than during 1980-84. This large change in dust emission rate indicates global aerosol contents would have increased by ~45% over this period, which may have contributed to a reduction in solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface. We find that dust emission from North Africa is most closely related to drought patterns, rather than to changes in atmospheric circulation patterns resulting from climate oscillations, such as North Atlantic Oscillations and El Nino/Southern Oscillation.

  7. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Cape gooseberry Physalis peruviana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Simbaqueba

    Full Text Available Physalis peruviana, commonly known as Cape gooseberry, is an Andean Solanaceae fruit with high nutritional value and interesting medicinal properties. In the present study we report the development and characterization of microsatellite loci from a P. peruviana commercial Colombian genotype. We identified 932 imperfect and 201 perfect Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR loci in untranslated regions (UTRs and 304 imperfect and 83 perfect SSR loci in coding regions from the assembled Physalis peruviana leaf transcriptome. The UTR SSR loci were used for the development of 162 primers for amplification. The efficiency of these primers was tested via PCR in a panel of seven P. peruviana accessions including Colombia, Kenya and Ecuador ecotypes and one closely related species Physalis floridana. We obtained an amplification rate of 83% and a polymorphic rate of 22%. Here we report the first P. peruviana specific microsatellite set, a valuable tool for a wide variety of applications, including functional diversity, conservation and improvement of the species.

  8. Erosion-land use change-climate change nexus in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakembo, Vincent

    2016-04-01

    Unlike many parts of the world where land recovery has been realised as a response to less dependence on land for a livelihood, soil erosion - mainly on abandoned cultivated and overgrazed communal lands in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa - has intensified. Land abandonment is attributed by most elderly land users to drought that hit the area in the 1960s. The interaction among land-degradation drivers - ranging from soil properties, topography, land-use changes and vegetation to local climate - has given rise to a self-amplifying land degradation feedback loop that has perpetuated severe forms of soil erosion. This has rendered the degraded areas particularly vulnerable to climate change impacts on water. The perpetual degradation calls for developing a dedicated policy on the management and rehabilitation of eroded lands. Restoration approaches should entail promoting disconnectivity on eroded hillslopes. Communal farmers also have to be sensitised and empowered to take ownership of the land-restoration process.

  9. The winter diet of elephant in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket, Addo Elephant National Park

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    R.G.T. Paley

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct observational methods were used to establish the winter diet of elephants in Eastern Cape Subtropical Thicket in the Addo Elephant National Park, thereby determining which plant species were most at risk from elephant herbivory. A total of 70 species were identified as food plants for elephants, with the grass Cynodon dactylon and the succulents Portulacaria afra and Platythyra haeckeliana dominating, both in terms of frequency of feeding events and volume consumed. In view of the fact that elephants represent 78 of the herbivore biomass in the park, it appears likely that elephant feeding restricts the availability of forage for other browsers. Due to the limited time frame of this study, further research is needed to provide a comprehensive record of the elephant diet for all seasons of the year.

  10. Making unhealthy places: The built environment and non-communicable diseases in Khayelitsha, Cape Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Warren; de Lannoy, Ariane; Dover, Robert V H; Lambert, Estelle V; Levitt, Naomi; Watson, Vanessa

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we examine how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs in Khayelitsha (a predominantly low income area in Cape Town, South Africa) through their shaping of the built environment. The paper draws on literature reviews and ethnographic fieldwork undertaken in Khayelitsha. The three main pathways through which the built environment of the area impacts on NCDs are through a complex food environment in which it is difficult to achieve food security, an environment that is not conducive to safe physical activity, and high levels of depression and stress (linked to, amongst other factors, poverty, crime and fear of crime). All of these factors are at least partially linked to the isolated, segregated and monofunctional nature of Khayelitsha. The paper highlights that in order to effectively address urban health challenges, we need to understand how economic, social and political forces impact on NCDs through the way they shape built environments.

  11. Genome-wide analyses of HTLV-1aD strains from Cape Verde, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanella, Louise; de Pina-Araujo I, Isabel; Morgado, Mariza G; Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    We characterised and reported the first full-length genomes of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 subgroup HTLV-1aD (CV21 and CV79). This subgroup is one of the major determinants of HTLV-1 infections in North and West Africa, and recombinant strains involving this subgroup have been recently demonstrated. The CV21 and CV79 strains from Cape Verde/Africa were characterised as pure HTLV-1aD genomes, comparative analyses including HTLV-1 subtypes and subgroups revealed HTLV-1aD signatures in the envelope, pol, and pX regions. These genomes provide original information that will contribute to further studies on HTLV-1a epidemiology and evolution. PMID:27653363

  12. Intraplate seismicity across the Cape Verde swell: A contribution from a temporary seismic network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vales, Dina; Dias, Nuno A.; Rio, Inês; Matias, Luís; Silveira, Graça; Madeira, José; Weber, Michael; Carrilho, Fernando; Haberland, Christian

    2014-12-01

    We present an analysis and characterization of the regional seismicity recorded by a temporary broadband seismic network deployed in the Cape Verde archipelago between November 2007 and September 2008. The detection of earthquakes was based on spectrograms, allowing the discrimination from low-frequency volcanic signals, resulting in 358 events of which 265 were located, the magnitudes usually being smaller than 3. For the location, a new 1-D P-velocity model was derived for the region showing a crust consistent with an oceanic crustal structure. The seismicity is located mostly offshore the westernmost and geologically youngest areas of the archipelago, near the islands of Santo Antão and São Vicente in the NW and Brava and Fogo in the SW. The SW cluster has a lower occurrence rate and corresponds to seismicity concentrated mainly along an alignment between Brava and the Cadamosto seamount presenting normal faulting mechanisms. The existence of the NW cluster, located offshore SW of Santo Antão, was so far unknown and concentrates around a recently recognized submarine cone field; this cluster presents focal depths extending from the crust to the upper mantle and suggests volcanic unrest. No evident temporal behaviour could be perceived, although the events tend to occur in bursts of activity lasting a few days. In this recording period, no significant activity was detected at Fogo volcano, the most active volcanic edifice in Cape Verde. The seismicity characteristics point mainly to a volcanic origin. The correlation of the recorded seismicity with active volcanic structures agrees with the tendency for a westward migration of volcanic activity in the archipelago as indicated by the geologic record.

  13. Risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa

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    Charles Bitamazire Businge

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of HIV among antenatal clients in South Africa has remained at a very high rate of about 29% despite substantial decline in several sub-Saharan countries. There is a paucity of data on risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal mothers and women within the reproductive age bracket in local settings in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Objective: To establish the risk factors for incident HIV infection among antenatal clients aged 18–49 years attending public antenatal clinics in rural Eastern Cape, South Africa. Design: This was an unmatched case–control study carried out in public health antenatal clinics of King Sabata District Municipality between January and March 2014. The cases comprised 100 clients with recent HIV infection; the controls were 200 HIV-negative antenatal clients. Socio-demographic, sexual, and behavioral data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires adapted from the standard DHS5 women's questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to identify the independent risk factors for HIV infection. A p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The independent risk factors for incident HIV infection were economic dependence on the partner, having older male partners especially among women aged ≤20 years, and sex under the influence of alcohol. Conclusions: Therefore, effective prevention of HIV among antenatal mothers in KSDM must target the improvement of the economic status of women, thereby reducing economic dependence on their sexual partners; address the prevalent phenomenon of cross-generation sex among women aged <20 years; and regulate the brewing, marketing, and consumption of alcohol.

  14. Dated Plant Phylogenies Resolve Neogene Climate and Landscape Evolution in the Cape Floristic Region.

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    Vera Hoffmann

    Full Text Available In the context of molecularly-dated phylogenies, inferences informed by ancestral habitat reconstruction can yield valuable insights into the origins of biomes, palaeoenvironments and landforms. In this paper, we use dated phylogenies of 12 plant clades from the Cape Floristic Region (CFR in southern Africa to test hypotheses of Neogene climatic and geomorphic evolution. Our combined dataset for the CFR strengthens and refines previous palaeoenvironmental reconstructions based on a sparse, mostly offshore fossil record. Our reconstructions show remarkable consistency across all 12 clades with regard to both the types of environments identified as ancestral, and the timing of shifts to alternative conditions. They reveal that Early Miocene land surfaces of the CFR were wetter than at present and were dominated by quartzitic substrata. These conditions continue to characterize the higher-elevation settings of the Cape Fold Belt, where they have fostered the persistence of ancient fynbos lineages. The Middle Miocene (13-17 Ma saw the development of perennial to weakly-seasonal arid conditions, with the strongly seasonal rainfall regime of the west coast arising ~6.5-8 Ma. Although the Late Miocene may have seen some exposure of the underlying shale substrata, the present-day substrate diversity of the CFR lowlands was shaped by Pliocene-Pleistocene events. Particularly important was renewed erosion, following the post-African II uplift episode, and the reworking of sediments on the coastal platform as a consequence of marine transgressions and tectonic uplift. These changes facilitated adaptive radiations in some, but not all, lineages studied.

  15. On the hydrology of the bauxite oases, Cape York Peninsula, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, M.; Tweed, S.; Lyon, B. J.; Bailey, J.; Franklin, C. E.; Harrington, G.; Suckow, A.

    2015-09-01

    One of the world's largest bauxite deposits is located in the Cape York Peninsula, North-East Australia. Little is known about the hydrology of these remote bauxite deposits. Here, we present results from a multidisciplinary study that used remote sensing, hydrochemistry, and hydrodynamics to analyse the occurrence of several large oases in connection with the bauxite plateaus. Across this vast region, otherwise dominated by savannah, these oases are sustained by permanent springs and support rich and diverse new sub-ecosystems (spring forests) of high cultural values to the local indigenous population. The spring water chemistry reveals a well-mixed system with minor inter-spring variation; TDS values of spring waters are low (27-72 mg L-1), major ion compositions are homogenous (Na-Si-DIC-Cl) and δ18O and δ2H values are reflective of rainwater origin with little evaporation prior to recharge. Dating of spring waters with anthropogenic trace gases (CFC-12 and SF6) indicates mean groundwater residence times ranging from <1 to 30 years. An artificial tracing experiment highlighted the existence of a flow pathway from the bauxite land surface to the sandy aquifer that feeds the springs through discontinuities in the ferricrete layer. In addition, the soil infiltrability tests showed the bauxite land surface has very high infiltrability (15 mm min-1), about four times greater than other adjacent land surfaces. Across the lower part of the Wenlock Basin, satellite data indicate a total number of 57 oases consistently located on the edge of the bauxite plateaus. This super-group of permanent hillslope springs and their ecosystems adds another important attribute to the list of natural and cultural values of the Cape York Peninsula.

  16. Mortality trends of stranded marine mammals on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts, USA, 2000 to 2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolni, Andrea L; Pugliares, Katie R; Sharp, Sarah M; Patchett, Kristen; Harry, Charles T; LaRocque, Jane M; Touhey, Kathleen M; Moore, Michael

    2010-01-25

    To understand the cause of death of 405 marine mammals stranded on Cape Cod and southeastern Massachusetts between 2000 and 2006, a system for coding final diagnosis was developed and categorized as (1) disease, (2) human interaction, (3) mass-stranded with no significant findings, (4) single-stranded with no significant findings, (5) rock and/or sand ingestion, (6) predatory attack, (7) failure to thrive or dependent calf or pup, or (8) other. The cause of death for 91 animals could not be determined. For the 314 animals that could be assigned a cause of death, gross and histological pathology results and ancillary testing indicated that disease was the leading cause of mortality in the region, affecting 116/314 (37%) of cases. Human interaction, including harassment, entanglement, and vessel collision, fatally affected 31/314 (10%) of all animals. Human interaction accounted for 13/29 (45%) of all determined gray seal Halichoerus grypus mortalities. Mass strandings were most likely to occur in northeastern Cape Cod Bay; 97/106 (92%) of mass stranded animals necropsied presented with no significant pathological findings. Mass strandings were the leading cause of death in 3 of the 4 small cetacean species: 46/67 (69%) of Atlantic white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus acutus, 15/21 (71%) of long-finned pilot whale Globicephala melas, and 33/54 (61%) of short-beaked common dolphin Delphinus delphis. These baseline data are critical for understanding marine mammal population health and mortality trends, which in turn have significant conservation and management implications. They not only afford a better retrospective analysis of strandings, but ultimately have application for improving current and future response to live animal stranding. PMID:20225675

  17. Tracking effusive eruptions in near real-time: 2014 Fogo (Cape Verde) eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laiolo, Marco; Coppola, Diego; Cigolini, Corrado; Faria, Bruno; Ripepe, Maurizio

    2015-04-01

    The Fogo volcano (Cape Verde), after almost 20 years of inactivity, entered in a new effusive phase on November 23, 2014. The eruption occurred on the Fogo's Pico cone inside the Cha Caldera where the lava flow caused the evacuation of the Bangaeira and Portela inhabitants. To track the thermal evolution of this eruption, we extended the near-real time processing of the MIROVA (Middle InfraRed Observation of Volcanic Activity) algorithm to Fogo island. MIROVA is a hot-spot detection system based on the analysis of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data that provide thermal maps (1 km resolution) and radiant flux estimates, in near real time (1-4 hours from satellite overpass). Thermal output retrieved by MIROVA can be converted into time-average lava discharge rates allowing the identification of ongoing effusive trends. During the first 45 days of activity the eruption shows a waxing-waning trend typical of pressurized closed systems. Preliminary results indicate that MIROVA is particularly efficient to provide near real-time data that are critical for better assessing volcanic risk, and to help the decision-makers during volcanic crisis. Data requested by the UNDAC (United Nations Disaster Assessment and Coordination) team operating in Cape Verde, through the Emergency Response Coordination Center (ERCC) of the European Mechanism of Civil Protection, were provided in near real-time via web to the National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics and to National Civil Protection. Once compared to seismological data, information provided by MIROVA have been successfully used during the volcanic crisis.

  18. An Ecological View of the History of the City of Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O'Farrell

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid global urbanization and the knowledge that ecological systems underpin the future sustainability and resilience of our cities, make an understanding of urban ecology critical. The way humans engage with ecological processes within cities is highly complex, and both from a social and ecological perspective these engagements cannot be interpreted meaningfully on the basis of a single timeframe. Historical analyses offer useful insights into the nature of social-ecological interactions under diverse conditions, enabling improved decision-making into the future. We present an historical review of the evolving relationship between the urban settlement of Cape Town and the ecological processes inherent to its natural surroundings. Since its establishment, the people of Cape Town have been acutely aware of, and exploited, the natural resources presented by Table Mountain and its surrounding wilderness area. An examination of this pattern of engagement, explored through an ecological process lens, in particular drawing on the terminology provided by the ecosystem services framework, reflects a journey of the changing needs and demands of a growing urban settlement. Ecological processes, and their ensuing flow of ecosystem services, have been exploited, overexploited, interrupted, reestablished, conserved, and variably valued through time. Processes of significance, for example water provision, soil erosion, the provision of wood and natural materials, and the role of fire, are presented. This historical analysis documents the progression from a wilderness to a tamed and largely benign urban environment. Evident is the variable valuing of ecosystem service attributes through time and by different people, at the same time, dependent on their immediate needs.

  19. Psicologia positiva e bem-estar docente: Estado de Conhecimento (CAPES, 2011-2012 = Positive psychology teacher and welfare State of Knowledge ( CAPES, 2011-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timm, Jordana Wruck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available São variadas as situações que afetam docentes em aspectos pessoais e profissionais, causando o denominado mal-estar docente, levando até a um estado de estresse ou mesmo esgotamento, destacando-se, entre eles: indisciplina discente, falta de qualificação, remuneração, gestão de tempo, tempo de preparo de atividades, entre outros. Como contraponto pode-se trabalhar em direção ao bem-estar docente, levando-se em conta propostas da Psicologia da Saúde e da Psicologia Positiva, antecipando-se ao mal-estar com medidas preventivas. O estudo levou em conta material bibliográfico (Teses e Dissertações disponibilizado em forma digital no Banco de Teses da CAPES, com o que pode-se construir um referencial que aborda aspectos referentes à Psicologia Positiva e ao bem-estar docente, bem como a relação entre ambos. Vale destacar que se trata de um estado de conhecimento sobre a temática, com base nos dois anos disponibilizados no referido banco. Após essa busca, foi realizada leitura flutuante dos textos selecionados. Como comentários finais destacam-se bons resultados com a aplicação mormente quando se atua de modo preventivo, sendo que Psicologia da Saúde e Psicologia Positiva conectam-se bem à Educação, tanto para docentes como para discentes

  20. HOCl and Cl2 observations in marine air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sommariva

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cl atoms in the marine atmosphere may significantly impact the lifetimes of methane and other hydrocarbons. However, the existing estimates of Cl atom levels in marine air are based on indirect evidence. Here we present measurements of the Cl precursors HOCl and Cl2 in the marine boundary layer during June of 2009 at the Cape Verde Atmospheric Observatory in the eastern tropical Atlantic. These are the first measurements of tropospheric HOCl. HOCl and Cl2 levels were low in air with open ocean back trajectories, with maximum levels always below 60 and 10 ppt (pmol/mol, respectively. In air with trajectories originating over Europe, HOCl and Cl2 levels were higher, with HOCl maxima exceeding 100 ppt each day and Cl2 reaching up to 35 ppt. The increased Cl cycling associated with long distance pollutant transport over the oceans likely impacts a wide geographic area and represents a mechanism by which human activities have increased the reactivity of the marine atmosphere. Data-constrained model simulations indicate that Cl atoms account for approximately 15 % of methane destruction on days when aged polluted air arrives at the site. A photochemical model does not adequately simulate the observed abundances of HOCl and Cl2, raising the possibility of an unknown HOCl source.