WorldWideScience

Sample records for capacity transportation research

  1. Sediment transport capacity of hyperconcentrated flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As one of the most important components of river mechanics,sediment transport capacity of sediment-laden flows has attracted much attention from many researchers working on river mechanics and hydraulic engineering. Based on the time-averaged equation for a turbulent energy equilibrium in solid and liquid two-phase flow,an expression for the efficiency coefficient of suspended load movement was derived for the two-dimensional,steady,uniform,fully-developed turbulent flow. A new structural expression of sediment transport capacity was achieved. Using 115 runs of flume experimental data,which were obtained through two kinds of sediment transport experiments in the state of equilibrium,in combination with the basic rheological and sediment transporting characteristics of hyperconcentrated flow,the main parameters in the structural expression of sediment transport capacity were calibrated,and a new formula of sediment transport capacity for hyperconcentrated flow was developed. A large amount of field data from the Yellow River,Wuding River,and Yangtze River,etc. were adopted to verify the new formula and good agreement was obtained. These results above contribute to an improved theoretical system of river mechanics and a reliable tool for management of rivers carrying high concentration of sediments.

  2. Improving African health research capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Wallace, Samantha A; Liljestrand, Jerker

    2010-01-01

    is the migration of health professionals to countries that offer more lucrative opportunities, like those in western Europe. To combat this ''brain drain'', already back in 1984, the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) created a training programme in which healthcare professionals from......The issue of strengthening local research capacity in Africa is again high on the health and development agenda. The latest initiative comes from the Wellcome Trust. But when it comes to capacity development, one of the chief obstacles that health sectors in the region must confront...... of beneficial research capacity in the countries of sub-Saharan Africa, this article suggests several recommendations to both donors and governments that have broad application for general health research issues in the region....

  3. The concept of transport capacity in geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainwright, John; Parsons, Anthony J.; Cooper, James R.; Gao, Peng; Gillies, John A.; Mao, Luca; Orford, Julian D.; Knight, Peter G.

    2015-12-01

    The notion of sediment-transport capacity has been engrained in geomorphological and related literature for over 50 years, although its earliest roots date back explicitly to Gilbert in fluvial geomorphology in the 1870s and implicitly to eighteenth to nineteenth century developments in engineering. Despite cross fertilization between different process domains, there seem to have been independent inventions of the idea in aeolian geomorphology by Bagnold in the 1930s and in hillslope studies by Ellison in the 1940s. Here we review the invention and development of the idea of transport capacity in the fluvial, aeolian, coastal, hillslope, débris flow, and glacial process domains. As these various developments have occurred, different definitions have been used, which makes it both a difficult concept to test, and one that may lead to poor communications between those working in different domains of geomorphology. We argue that the original relation between the power of a flow and its ability to transport sediment can be challenged for three reasons. First, as sediment becomes entrained in a flow, the nature of the flow changes and so it is unreasonable to link the capacity of the water or wind only to the ability of the fluid to move sediment. Secondly, environmental sediment transport is complicated, and the range of processes involved in most movements means that simple relationships are unlikely to hold, not least because the movement of sediment often changes the substrate, which in turn affects the flow conditions. Thirdly, the inherently stochastic nature of sediment transport means that any capacity relationships do not scale either in time or in space. Consequently, new theories of sediment transport are needed to improve understanding and prediction and to guide measurement and management of all geomorphic systems.

  4. 大规模部队铁路输送能力建设研究%Research on Capacity Construction of Large-scale Army Railway Transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓东; 杨磊

    2011-01-01

    By analyzing the relationship between railway development and requirement of military transportation,a view was proposed that the development of railway has promoted the capacity of army railway transportation.In the same time,the paradox still exists between the capacity and the demand.Some advices are given to construct army railway transport system on improving capability.%为有效促进我军大规模部队铁路输送能力的进一步提高,通过对近年来铁路建设发展与我军部队铁路输送能力需求的分析,提出了当前大规模部队铁路输送力量建设的措施建议。

  5. Capacity Utilisation of Vehicles for Road Freight Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kveiborg, Ole; Abate, Megersa Abera

    Purpose This chapter discusses a central aspect of freight transportcapacity utilisation with a link to empty running of commercial freight vehicles. Methodology/approach The paper provides an overview of the literature on these topics and groups the contributions into two segments according...... to their analytical approach and origin of research. Findings The first approach looks at utilisation based on economic theories such as the firms’ objective to maximise profitability and considers how various firm and haul (market) characteristics influence utilisation. The second approach stems from the transport...... modelling literature and its main aim is analysing vehicle movement and usage in transport demand modelling context. A strand of this second group of contributions is the modelling of trip-chain and its implication on the level of capacity utilisation. Research limitations The review is not a comprehensive...

  6. Multi-Stage Transportation Problem With Capacity Limit

    OpenAIRE

    I. Brezina; Z. Čičková; J. Pekár; M. Reiff

    2010-01-01

    The classical transportation problem can be applied in a more general way in practice. Related problems as Multi-commodity transportation problem, Transportation problems with different kind of vehicles, Multi-stage transportation problems, Transportation problem with capacity limit is an extension of the classical transportation problem considering the additional special condition. For solving such problems many optimization techniques (dynamic programming, linear programming, special algor...

  7. High capacity carrier ethernet transport networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Anders; Zhang, Jiang; Yu, Hao;

    2009-01-01

    Ethernet as a transport technology has, up to now, lacked the features such as network layer architecture, customer separation and manageability that carriers require for wide-scale deployment. However, with the advent of PBB-TE and T-MPLS, it is now possible to use Ethernet as a transport...... OAM functions, survivability and the increased bandwidth requirements of carrier class systems. This article provides an overview of PBB-TE and T-MPLS and demonstrates how IPTV services can be realized in the framework of Carrier Ethernet. In addition we provide a case study on performing bit error...

  8. Determinants of Capacity Utilization in Road Freight Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abate, Megersa Abera

    2014-01-01

    Recent performance figures in the European road freight transport sector show that there is an excess capacity. To shed light on this phenomenon, this paper studies two aspects of capacity utilization in trucking: the extent of empty running and the load factor. The paper shows that they can...

  9. Research on advanced transportation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Hirokazu; Hashimoto, Ryouhei; Nosaka, Masataka; Koyari, Yukio; Yamada, Yoshio; Noda, Keiichirou; Shinohara, Suetsugu; Itou, Tetsuichi; Etou, Takao; Kaneko, Yutaka

    1992-08-01

    An overview of the researches on advanced space transportation systems is presented. Conceptual study is conducted on fly back boosters with expendable upper stage rocket systems assuming a launch capacity of 30 tons and returning to the launch site by the boosters, and prospect of their feasibility is obtained. Reviews are conducted on subjects as follows: (1) trial production of 10 tons sub scale engines for the purpose of acquiring hardware data and picking up technical problems for full scale 100 tons thrust engines using hydrocarbon fuels; (2) development techniques for advanced liquid propulsion systems from the aspects of development schedule, cost; (3) review of conventional technologies, and common use of component; (4) oxidant switching propulsion systems focusing on feasibility of Liquefied Air Cycle Engine (LACE) and Compressed Air Cycle Engine (CACE); (5) present status of slosh hydrogen manufacturing, storage, and handling; (6) construction of small high speed dynamometer for promoting research on mini pump development; (7) hybrid solid boosters under research all over the world as low-cost and clean propulsion systems; and (8) high performance solid propellant for upper stage and lower stage propulsion systems.

  10. Capacity building in global mental health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornicroft, Graham; Cooper, Sara; Bortel, Tine Van; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Lund, Crick

    2012-01-01

    Research-generated information about mental disorders is crucial in order to establish the health needs in a given setting, to propose culturally apt and cost-effective individual and collective interventions, to investigate their implementation, and to explore the obstacles that prevent recommended strategies from being implemented. Yet the capacity to undertake such research in low- and middle-income countries is extremely limited. This article describes two methods that have proved successful in strengthening, or that have the potential to strengthen, mental health research capacity in low-resource settings. We identify the central challenges to be faced, review current programs offering training and mentorship, and summarize the key lessons learned. A structured approach is proposed for the career development of research staff at every career stage, to be accompanied by performance monitoring and support. A case example from the Mental Health and Poverty Project in sub-Saharan Africa illustrates how this approach can be put into practice-in particular, by focusing upon training in core transferrable research skills. PMID:22335179

  11. High thermal-transport capacity heat pipes for space radiators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Albert W.; Gustafson, Eric; Roukis, Susan L.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents the results of performance tests of several dual-slot heat pipe test articles. The dual-slot configuration has a very high thermal transport capability and has been identified as a very promising candidate for the radiator system for the NASA Space Station solar dynamic power modules. Two six-foot long aluminum heat pipes were built and tested with ammonia and acetone. A 20-ft long heat pipe was also built and tested with ammonia. The test results have been compared with performance predictions. A thermal transport capacity of 2000 W at an adverse tilt of 1 in. and a 1000 W capacity at an adverse tilt of 2 in. were achieved on the 20-ft long heat pipe. These values are in close agreement with the predicted performance limits.

  12. Transport Research Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortúzar, Juan de Dios; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Luis

    2014-01-01

    of supply and demand in strategic planning contexts; the latter involving large zoning systems, huge multimodal networks and highly complex dynamic modelling approaches (Mahmassani, 2001). But questions also arise at a more macro level (and in a different time span) regarding the interaction of transport...

  13. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B M; Pedersen, O;

    1990-01-01

    increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost...... exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training...... session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by...

  14. Optimal fares and capacity decisions for crowded public transport systems

    OpenAIRE

    De Palma, André; Lindsey, Robin; Monchambert, Guillaume

    2015-01-01

    International audience There is a large operations research literature on public transit system design. An extensive economic literature has also developed on public transit capacity investments, service frequency, and optimal pricing and subsidy policy. These two branches of literature have made significant advances in understanding public transit systems. However, in contrast to the literature on automobile traffic congestion, most of the studies have employed static models that cannot a...

  15. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by training in fast-twitch red muscle fibers. In parallel to this, Western blot demonstrated a approximately 47% increase in GLUT-1 protein and a approximately 31% increase in GLUT-4 protein. This indicates that the increases in maximum velocity for 3-MG transport in trained muscle is due to an increased number of glucose transporters

  16. Subsurface transport program: Research summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DOE's research program in subsurface transport is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical, hydrological, and biological mechanisms that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in subsurface ecosystems can be understood. Understanding the physical and chemical mechanisms that control the transport of single and co-contaminants is the underlying concern of the program. Particular attention is given to interdisciplinary research and to geosphere-biosphere interactions. The scientific results of the program will contribute to resolving Departmental questions related to the disposal of energy-producing and defense wastes. The background papers prepared in support of this document contain additional information on the relevance of the research in the long term to energy-producing technologies. Detailed scientific plans and other research documents are available for high priority research areas, for example, in subsurface transport of organic chemicals and mixtures and in the microbiology of deep aquifers. 5 figs., 1 tab

  17. Optimization Research on Capacity of Road Transport Coach Route Based on Bi-level Programming Model%基于双层规划的道路客运班线运力优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄涛; 潘青; 徐亚

    2013-01-01

    As an important factor of road transport system, rational allocation of coach route capacity brings about passenger satisfaction and profit-making. As for coach route optimization problem, a bi-level programming model based on utility theory is established. The upper-layer model aims at maximizing the transport enterprises' profit, which is determined by transport enterprises decision-making. Meanwhile, with a view towards maximizing passenger satisfaction, the function of lower-layer is transport mode selection. Moreover, the model is solved by heuristic algorithm based on sensitivity analysis. This paper take the coach route of Wuhan to Huangshi as a case to verify the feasibility and scientific of the model.%客运班线是道路运输系统重要的组成要素,合理的班线运力对班线旅客的满意度以及班线的盈利有着重要的意义.针对道路客运班线运力优化问题,在效用理论的基础上,建立了基于双层规划的班线运力优化模型.上层模型以道路客运企业利益最大化为目标,由客运企业决策班线运力投入;下层模型以旅客总体满意度最大化为目标,由旅客决策选择运输方式.采用基于灵敏度分析的启发式算法来求解模型,并以武汉至黄石班线为例验证了模型的可行性及科学性.

  18. Competence and Capacity-Building Requirements in Transport and Logistics Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazaras Darius

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses theoretical aspects of the qualitative assessment of logistics and transport specialists’ potential, as well as provides research results on competence and capacity-building process in preparation of logistics and transport specialists. The results enabled to identify problematic areas of graduate integration in the labour market and foresee the possible requirements for professional development. In some cases, internal motivation is related to problematic points or negative view from the environment, as well as poor understanding of knowledge benefits in the person’s practical life. Training and education is objectively at the meeting point between research, technological and organisational systems. In such conditions the objective of the education on logistics is to offer the customers the best possible service in the field of the transfer of knowledge in harmony with the trend in logistics programme development. The main problems and perspectives of logistics education and training process are discussed in this article.

  19. Building Capacity through Action Research Curricula Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Vanessa; Coombe, Leanne; Robinson, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    In Australia, graduates of Master of Public Health (MPH) programmes are expected to achieve a set of core competencies, including a subset that is specifically related to Indigenous health. This paper reports on the methods utilised in a project which was designed using action research to strengthen Indigenous public health curricula within MPH…

  20. Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity-The case of Nabucco and its open season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a response to the Russian dominance of the EU's natural gas supplies and the EU's increasing gas demands, major gas pipeline projects are currently under way to enhance the EU's energy supply security. Oftentimes to raise financing and to allocate gas transportation capacities, auctions are carried out to allow gas shippers to book transportation rights. In recent years, auctions have emerged as one of the most successful allocation mechanisms in the microeconomic theory. However, different auction designs can lead to different outcomes making the choice of auction design a decisive one, especially for divisible-good auctions. This paper seeks to give a formulation of an optimal auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. Specifically three different mechanisms are tested: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. In addition, Nabucco is taken as a case study to empirically show results of such auction designs. Results show that a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation can be observed: allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central. - Research highlights: → Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. → Empirical market-survey of Nabucco pipeline project auction as input data. → Testing of three different allocation mechanisms: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. → Results show a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation. → Allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. → On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central.

  1. Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity-The case of Nabucco and its open season

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickl, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.pickl@univie.ac.a [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria); Wirl, Franz [University of Vienna, Faculty of Business, Economics and Statistics (Austria)

    2011-04-15

    As a response to the Russian dominance of the EU's natural gas supplies and the EU's increasing gas demands, major gas pipeline projects are currently under way to enhance the EU's energy supply security. Oftentimes to raise financing and to allocate gas transportation capacities, auctions are carried out to allow gas shippers to book transportation rights. In recent years, auctions have emerged as one of the most successful allocation mechanisms in the microeconomic theory. However, different auction designs can lead to different outcomes making the choice of auction design a decisive one, especially for divisible-good auctions. This paper seeks to give a formulation of an optimal auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. Specifically three different mechanisms are tested: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. In addition, Nabucco is taken as a case study to empirically show results of such auction designs. Results show that a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation can be observed: allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central. - Research highlights: {yields} Auction design for gas pipeline transportation capacity. {yields} Empirical market-survey of Nabucco pipeline project auction as input data. {yields} Testing of three different allocation mechanisms: (i) NPV allocation; (ii) pro rata allocation; and (iii) optimization. {yields} Results show a trade-off between revenue optimization and fair allocation. {yields} Allocation per optimization is the favorable auction design when revenue maximization is more important than fair allocation. {yields} On the other hand, pro rata allocation is the auction design to be chosen when fairness of allocation is considered most central.

  2. Appraisal of increased public transport capacity: the case of a new metro line to Nacka, Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Cats , Oded; West , Jens; ELIASSON, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common motivations for public transport investments is increased capacity. However, appraisal methodologies for projects meant to increase capacity are relatively less well developed compared to methodologies for projects aiming to reduce travel times. Each of the consequences of capacity limitations - crowding, risk for denied boarding and unreliable waiting and travel times - can increase the generalized travel costs. The appraisal of capacity improvements requires supply an...

  3. Research Capacity Building in Education: The Role of Digital Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Accounts of how research capacity in education can be developed often make reference to electronic networks and online resources. This paper presents a theoretically driven analysis of the role of one such resource, an online archive of educational research studies that includes not only digitised collections of original documents but also videos…

  4. US computer research networks: Domestic and international telecommunications capacity requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.

    1990-01-01

    The future telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements of the United States (US) research and development (R&D) community raise two concerns. First, would there be adequate privately-owned communications capacity to meet the ever-increasing requirements of the US R&D community for domestic and international connectivity? Second, is the method of piecemeal implementation of communications facilities by individual researchers cost effective when viewed from an integrated perspective? To address the capacity issue, Contel recently completed a study for NASA identifying the current domestic R&D telecommunications capacity and connectivity requirements, and projecting the same to the years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010. The work reported here extends the scope of an earlier study by factoring in the impact of international connectivity requirements on capacity and connectivity forecasts. Most researchers in foreign countries, as is the case with US researchers, rely on regional, national or continent-wide networks to collaborate with each other, and their US counterparts. The US researchers' international connectivity requirements, therefore, stem from the need to link the US domestic research networks to foreign research networks. The number of links and, more importantly, the speeds of links are invariably determined by the characteristics of the networks being linked. The major thrust of this study, therefore, was to identify and characterize the foreign research networks, to quantify the current status of their connectivity to the US networks, and to project growth in the connectivity requirements to years 1991, 1996, 2000, and 2010 so that a composite picture of the US research networks in the same years could be forecasted. The current (1990) US integrated research network, and its connectivity to foreign research networks is shown. As an example of projections, the same for the year 2010 is shown.

  5. Measuring the pollutant transport capacity of dissolved organic matter in complex matrixes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, L.; Alsberg, T.; Odham, G.;

    2003-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) facilitated transport in contaminated groundwater was investigated through the measurement of the binding capacity of landfill leachate DOM (Vejen, Denmark) towards two model pollutants (pyrene and phenanthrene). Three different methods for measuring binding capacity....... It was further concluded that DOM facilitated transport should be taken into account for non-ionic PAHs with lg K OW above 5, at DOM concentrations above 250 mg C/L. The total DOM concentration was found to be more important for the potential of facilitated transport than differences in the DOM binding capacity....

  6. Least dissipation principle of heat transport potential capacity and its application in heat conduction optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    In the viewpoint of heat transfer, heat transport potential capacity and its dissipation are defined based on the essence of heat transport phenomenon. Respectively, their physical meanings are the overall heat transfer capabilityand the dissipation rate of the heat transfer capacity. Then the least dissipation principle of heat transport potential capacity is presented to enhance the heat conduction efficiency in the heat conduction optimization. The principle is,for a conduction process with the constant integral of the thermal conductivityover the region, the optimal distribution of thermal conductivity, which corresponds to the highest heat conduction efficiency, is characterized by the least dissipation of heat transport potential capacity. Finally the principle is applied to some cases in heat conduction optimization.

  7. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewailly Eric

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1 conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2 build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3 develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML. The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1 the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2 the Burden of Illness (BOI studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3 the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4 the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5 the Food Safety Training Program has

  8. Beyond a complete failure: The impact of partial capacity reductions on public transport network vulnerability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cats, O.; Jenelius, E.

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions often result with partial capacity reduction without resulting with a complete breakdown. This study aims to move beyond the analysis of complete failure by investigating the impacts of partial capacity reduction on public transport network performance. We analyse the relation between th

  9. A Research Synthesis of the Evaluation Capacity Building Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labin, Susan N.; Duffy, Jennifer L.; Meyers, Duncan C.; Wandersman, Abraham; Lesesne, Catherine A.

    2012-01-01

    The continuously growing demand for program results has produced an increased need for evaluation capacity building (ECB). The "Integrative ECB Model" was developed to integrate concepts from existing ECB theory literature and to structure a synthesis of the empirical ECB literature. The study used a broad-based research synthesis method with…

  10. Motivators, enablers, and barriers to building allied health research capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Golenko X; Holden L; Pager S

    2012-01-01

    Susan Pager1, Libby Holden2, Xanthe Golenko21Queensland Health Metro South, 2School of Medicine, Griffith University, Brisbane, Queensland, AustraliaPurpose: A sound, scientific base of high quality research is needed to inform service planning and decision making and enable improved policy and practice. However, some areas of health practice, particularly many of the allied health areas, are generally considered to have a low evidence base. In order to successfully build research capacity in...

  11. A framework to evaluate research capacity building in health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooke Jo

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Building research capacity in health services has been recognised internationally as important in order to produce a sound evidence base for decision-making in policy and practice. Activities to increase research capacity for, within, and by practice include initiatives to support individuals and teams, organisations and networks. Little has been discussed or concluded about how to measure the effectiveness of research capacity building (RCB Discussion This article attempts to develop the debate on measuring RCB. It highlights that traditional outcomes of publications in peer reviewed journals and successful grant applications may be important outcomes to measure, but they may not address all the relevant issues to highlight progress, especially amongst novice researchers. They do not capture factors that contribute to developing an environment to support capacity development, or on measuring the usefulness or the 'social impact' of research, or on professional outcomes. The paper suggests a framework for planning change and measuring progress, based on six principles of RCB, which have been generated through the analysis of the literature, policy documents, empirical studies, and the experience of one Research and Development Support Unit in the UK. These principles are that RCB should: develop skills and confidence, support linkages and partnerships, ensure the research is 'close to practice', develop appropriate dissemination, invest in infrastructure, and build elements of sustainability and continuity. It is suggested that each principle operates at individual, team, organisation and supra-organisational levels. Some criteria for measuring progress are also given. Summary This paper highlights the need to identify ways of measuring RCB. It points out the limitations of current measurements that exist in the literature, and proposes a framework for measuring progress, which may form the basis of comparison of RCB

  12. Capacity development for health research in Africa: experiences managing the African Doctoral Dissertation Research Fellowship Program

    OpenAIRE

    Wambugu Susan W; Izugbara Chimaraoke O; Kabiru Caroline W; Ezeh Alex C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Africa's progress depends on her capacity to generate, adapt, and use scientific knowledge to meet regional health and development needs. Yet, Africa's higher education institutions that are mandated to foster this capacity lack adequate resources to generate and apply knowledge, raising the need for innovative approaches to enhance research capacity. In this paper, we describe a newly-developed program to support PhD research in health and population sciences at African universities...

  13. The Theory Question in Research Capacity Building in Education: Towards an Agenda for Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesta, Gert; Allan, Julie; Edwards, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The question of capacity building in education has predominantly been approached with regard to the methods and methodologies of educational research. Far less attention has been given to capacity building in relation to theory. In many ways the latter is as pressing an issue as the former, given that good research depends on a combination of high…

  14. Optimum Repartition of Transport Capacities in the Logistic System using Dynamic Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe BĂŞANU

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Transportations take an essential role in logistics, interconnecting the majority of processes and operations within logistic system. The efficient use of transportation capacity is a priority whose achievement can diminish logistic costs. This objective is today difficult to achieve due to increasing complexity of transportation monitoring and coordination. This complexity is determined by transportation number and diversity, by the volume and diversity of orders, by increasing the targets to be supplied.Dynamic programming represents a highly useful tool for logistic managers, considering that its specific techniques and methods are oriented toward solving problems related to resource optimum allocation and utilization.The present paper presents briefly a series of theoretical elements of dynamic programming applied in logistics, based on which it is shown a mathematic model to determine the optimum policy for transport capacity repartition for the area attached to a logistic centre, through three distribution centres.

  15. Climate change and changes in sediment transport capacity in the Colorado Plateau, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milhous, R.T.

    2005-01-01

    Information is presented on changes in the sediment transport capacity of streams of the Colorado Plateau region of the United States. The changes in transport capacity may be due to changes in climate. Changes in the ability of three rivers in the Colorado Plateau to transport sediment were investigated (Paria River at Lees Ferry, Arizona; Sevier River at Hatch, Utah; and Little Colorado at Woodruff, Arizona) using an index to sediment transport potential (or capacity) of the rivers. The index is called a Sediment Transport Capacity Index (STCI). The parameters in the index are calibrated to measured sediment concentrations. Other investigators have postulated that there have been three climate regimes in the Colorado Plateau during the 20th century: 1905-1941, 1942-1977 and 1978-1998. Time series analyses of the STCI showed reasonably clearly that there was a change in the climate about 1941 and a high probability of a change about 1923-1929. The STCI time series for the Sevier River had the expected pattern because the STCI increased in the years following 1997 nearly to the pre-1942 values from lower 1942-1977 values. The Little Colorado River showed a similar pattern, but not nearly to the magnitude suggested by the change in precipitation. The STCI for the Paria River essentially did not change. Changes in sediment transport also are investigated in the lower San Juan River where alterations in the sediment balance of the river may be due to variations in the character of summer precipitation.

  16. Consultancy research as a barrier to strengthening social science research capacity in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Daniel; Ahikire, Josephine; Kwesiga, Joy C

    2014-09-01

    There is a shortage of senior African social scientists available to lead or manage research in Africa, undermining the continent's ability to interpret and solve its socio-economic and public health problems. This is despite decades of investment to strengthen research capacity. This study investigated the role of individually commissioned consultancy research in this lack of capacity. In 2006 structured interviews (N = 95) and two group discussions (N = 16 total) were conducted with a fairly representative sample of Ugandan academic social scientists from four universities. Twenty-four senior members of 22 Ugandan and international commissioning organizations were interviewed. Eight key actors were interviewed in greater depth. Much of Ugandan social science research appears to take the form of small, individually contracted consultancy projects. Researchers perceived this to constrain their professional development and, more broadly, social science research capacity across Uganda. Conversely, most research commissioners seemed broadly satisfied with the research expertise available and felt no responsibility to contribute to strengthening research capacity. Most consultancy research does not involve institutional overheads and there seems little awareness of, or interest in, such overheads. Although inequalities in the global knowledge economy are probably perpetuated primarily by macro-level factors, in line with Dependency Theory, meso-level factors are also important. The current research market and institutional structures in Uganda appear to create career paths that seriously impede the development of high quality social science research capacity, undermining donor investments and professional effort to strengthen this capacity. These problems are probably generic to much of sub-Saharan Africa. However, both commissioning and research organizations seem ready, in principle, to establish national guidelines for institutional research consultancies. These

  17. Consultancy research as a barrier to strengthening social science research capacity in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wight, Daniel; Ahikire, Josephine; Kwesiga, Joy C

    2014-09-01

    There is a shortage of senior African social scientists available to lead or manage research in Africa, undermining the continent's ability to interpret and solve its socio-economic and public health problems. This is despite decades of investment to strengthen research capacity. This study investigated the role of individually commissioned consultancy research in this lack of capacity. In 2006 structured interviews (N = 95) and two group discussions (N = 16 total) were conducted with a fairly representative sample of Ugandan academic social scientists from four universities. Twenty-four senior members of 22 Ugandan and international commissioning organizations were interviewed. Eight key actors were interviewed in greater depth. Much of Ugandan social science research appears to take the form of small, individually contracted consultancy projects. Researchers perceived this to constrain their professional development and, more broadly, social science research capacity across Uganda. Conversely, most research commissioners seemed broadly satisfied with the research expertise available and felt no responsibility to contribute to strengthening research capacity. Most consultancy research does not involve institutional overheads and there seems little awareness of, or interest in, such overheads. Although inequalities in the global knowledge economy are probably perpetuated primarily by macro-level factors, in line with Dependency Theory, meso-level factors are also important. The current research market and institutional structures in Uganda appear to create career paths that seriously impede the development of high quality social science research capacity, undermining donor investments and professional effort to strengthen this capacity. These problems are probably generic to much of sub-Saharan Africa. However, both commissioning and research organizations seem ready, in principle, to establish national guidelines for institutional research consultancies. These

  18. Gas Release and Transport Capacity Investment as Instruments to Foster Competition in Gas Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Chaton, Corinne; Gasmi, Farid; Guillerminet, Marie-Laure; Oviedo, Juan Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Motivated by recent policy events experienced by the European natural gas industry, this paper develops a simple model for analyzing the interaction between gas release and capacity investment programs as tools to improve the performance of imperfectly competitive markets. We consider a regional market in which a measure that has an incumbent release part of its gas to a marketer complements a program of investment in transport capacity dedicated to imports by the marketer, at a regulated tra...

  19. Sexual and Reproductive Health Research and Research Capacity Strengthening in Africa: Perspectives from the region

    OpenAIRE

    Adanu, Richard; Mbizvo, Michael T; Baguiya, Adama; Adam, Vincent; Ademe, Beyene W.; Ankomah, Augustine; Aja, Godwin N.; Ajuwon, Ademola J.; Esimai, Olapeju A; Ibrahim, Taofeek; Mogobe, Dintle K.; Tunçalp, Özge; Chandra-Mouli, Venkatraman; Temmerman, Marleen

    2015-01-01

    Developing the capacity to effectively carry out public health research is an integral part of health systems at both the national and global levels and strengthening research capacity is recognized as an approach to better health and development in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Especially fields such as sexual and reproductive health (SRH) would require inter-disciplinary teams of researchers equipped with a range of methodologies to achieve this. In November 2013, as part of the...

  20. The role of the nurse research facilitator in building research capacity in the clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamerson, Patricia A; Vermeersch, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    With little guidance in the literature regarding best practices, clinical institutions have used different organizational models to meet the challenges of building research capacity. This article provides recommendations regarding the most productive models based on review of historical clinical research facilitation models and the results of a survey regarding extant models conducted among research facilitators who were members of the Midwest Nursing Research Society.

  1. The meaning of different limiters relations for definig public transport routes capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam MOLECKI

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mutual affecting of different limiters of capacity is a very important feature, which makes difficult the right appreciation of the transport systems. In most cases, there is no way to use procedures which define relations by correlation coefficients etc. Completely divergent character of limiters induce that only way of effective appreciation is modeling by Monte Carlo simulations.

  2. ARCHES: Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milewski, A.; Fryar, A. E.; Durham, M. C.; Schroeder, P.; Agouridis, C.; Hanley, C.; Rotz, R. R.

    2013-12-01

    Educating young scientists and building capacity on a global scale is pivotal towards better understanding and managing our water resources. Based on this premise the ARCHES (Advancing Research & Capacity in Hydrologic Education and Science) program has been established. This abstract provides an overview of the program, links to access information, and describes the activities and outcomes of student participants from the Middle East and North Africa. The ARCHES program (http://arches.wrrs.uga.edu) is an integrated hydrologic education approach using online courses, field programs, and various hands-on workshops. The program aims to enable young scientists to effectively perform the high level research that will ultimately improve quality of life, enhance science-based decision making, and facilitate collaboration. Three broad, interlinked sets of activities are incorporated into the ARCHES program: (A1) the development of technical expertise, (A2) the development of professional contacts and skills, and (A3) outreach and long-term sustainability. The development of technical expertise (A1) is implemented through three progressive instructional sections. Section 1: Students were guided through a series of online lectures and exercises (Moodle: http://wrrs.uga.edu/moodle) covering three main topics (Remote Sensing, GIS, and Hydrologic Modeling). Section 2: Students participated in a hands-on workshop hosted at the University of Georgia's Water Resources and Remote Sensing Laboratory (WRRSL). Using ENVI, ArcGIS, and ArcSWAT, students completed a series of lectures and real-world applications (e.g., Development of Hydrologic Models). Section 3: Students participated in field studies (e.g., measurements of infiltration, recharge, streamflow, and water-quality parameters) conducted by U.S. partners and international collaborators in the participating countries. The development of professional contacts and skills (A2) was achieved through the promotion of networking

  3. 78 FR 38055 - Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation Program (U18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... illustrates that tobacco products are inherently dangerous and cause cancer, heart disease, and other serious... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product... for Tobacco Product's (CTP's) Building Research Capacity in Global Tobacco Product Regulation...

  4. Species Transport Mechanisms Governing Crossover and Capacity Loss in Vanadium Redox Flow Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agar, Ertan

    Vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) are an emerging energy storage technology that offers unique advantages for grid-scale energy storage due to their flexible design and decoupled power/energy feature. Despite their popularity, a series of technical challenges hinder their widespread implementation. Among these, capacity loss (i.e., loss of energy storage capability) due to the undesired species crossover across the membrane has been identified as the key issue limiting the longevity of these systems. This issue is primarily governed by the properties of the membrane and can be mitigated by using proper membrane architectures with desired features. Presently, identifying proper membrane architectures for VRFB systems is hampered by the lack of a fundamental understanding of the nature of species transport mechanisms and how they are related to the membrane properties and key operating conditions. This Ph.D. study seeks to address this critical challenge by exploring the fundamental mechanisms responsible for species transport within the membrane. The overall objective of this dissertation study is to establish a fundamental understanding of the multi-ionic transport in VRFB membranes by investigating the ionic transport mechanisms responsible for crossover, and utilize this understanding to reveal the role of membrane properties and operating conditions on the capacity loss. To achieve these goals, a combined experimental and computational study was designed. An experimentally validated, 2-D, transient VRFB model that can track the vanadium crossover and capture the related capacity loss was developed. In addition to the model, several electrochemical techniques were used to characterize different types of membrane and study the effects of various operating conditions on the species crossover. Using these computational and experimental tools, an in-depth understanding of the species transport mechanisms within the membrane and how they are related to membrane

  5. Research on the Elements of Firm's IS Absorptive Capacity%Research on the Elements of Firm' s IS Absorptive Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yong; NING Dong-ling

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the capacity during the process of a firm's information system adoption and implementation from knowledge management perspective, based on a firm's level construct. According to the di- mensions of absorptive capacity proposed by Zahra and George, we point out that the concept of IS absorptive ca- pacity, analyze and summarize the elements of potential absorptive capacity and realized absorptive capacity. We use data from two manufacturing organizations, analyze two firm's realities of IS absorptive capacity. The study indicates differing antecedents may have differing effects on potential absorptive capacity and realized ab- sorptive capacity.

  6. Materials Research Advances towards High-Capacity Battery/Fuel Cell Devices (Invited paper)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-Dong He; Lu-Han Ye; Ke-Chun Wen; Ya-Chun Liang; Wei-Qiang Lv; Gao-Long Zhu; Kelvin H. L. Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The world has entered an era featured with fast transportations, instant communications, and prompt technological revolutions, the further advancement of which all relies fundamentally, yet, on the development of cost-effective energy resources allowing for durable and high-rate energy supply. Current battery and fuel cell systems are challenged by a few issues characterized either by insufficient energy capacity or by operation instability and, thus, are not ideal for such highly-demanded applications as electrical vehicles and portable electronic devices. In this mini-review, we present, from materials perspectives, a few selected important breakthroughs in energy resources employed in these applications. Prospectives are then given to look towards future research activities for seeking viable materials solutions for addressing the capacity, durability, and cost shortcomings associated with current battery/fuel cell devices.

  7. Capacity for work researching method in animal experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existing methods of examining the work capacity of animals are discussed with reference to extrapolation of animal data to man. A modified procedure for measuring maximal physical strength is proposed, whereby static endurance of animals at a given exercise rate can be measured. For an integrated evaluation of work capacity, a formula of absolute work capacity is suggested. The proposed procedure may be used to study the working capacity of animals exposed to unfavorable factors of radiation or nonradiation nature

  8. Microdialysis as a tool for in vivo investigation of glutamate transport capacity in rat brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    1995-01-01

    The role of glutamate as a possible mediator of neurodegeneration is well described, and the homeostasis of extracellular glutamate is considered of major importance when addressing the pathogenesis of excitatory neurodegeneration. Applying the 'indicator diffusion' method to the microdialysis......-D-aspartate was due to cellular uptake by glutamate transporters. The cell membrane permeability towards 3H-D-aspartate was reduced by approximately 98% due to THA, indicating that the cell membranes per se are highly resistant to diffusion of 3H-D-aspartate. It is concluded that the present method can be used...... in studying the capacity of the glutamate transporters in vivo....

  9. Research on Psychological Carrying Capacity of Tourism Destination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Zhiyong; Zhong Sheng

    2009-01-01

    As a part of the carrying capacity system of tourism destination,tourism psychological carrying capacity and its makeup are very important indexes which reflect the harmonious development of tourism destination develops harmoniously,but the academy has not paid enough attention to them.Based on the concept and connotation of psychological carrying capacity,this paper explains the influencing factors which affect the psychological capacity of the tourist and the resident after the acknowledged concept,and then designs a harmonious development model of tourism destination.Finally,it offers some countermeasures against the overloading psychological capacity.

  10. Operations Research in PassengerRaiway Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Lentink, Ramon; Vromans, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms to solve them. We do not only consider classical, well-known topics such as timetabling, rolling stock scheduling and crew scheduling, but we also discuss some recently developed topics such as shu...

  11. Operations research in passenger railway transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Huisman, Dennis; Kroon, Leo; Lentink, Ramon; Vromans, Michiel

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, we give an overview of state-of-the-art Operations Research models and techniques used in passenger railway transportation. For each planning phase (strategic, tactical and operational), we describe the planning problems arising there and discuss some models and algorithms to solve them. We do not only consider classical, well-known topics such as timetabling, rolling stock scheduling and crew scheduling, but we also discuss some recently developed topics as shuntin...

  12. Towards Sustainable Research Capacity Development and Research Ownership for Academic Institutes in Developing Countries: The Malawian Research Support Centre Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomo, Exnevia; Kalilani, Linda; Mwapasa, Victor; Trigu, Chifundo; Phiri, Kamija; Schmidt, Joann; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2011-01-01

    In lesser-developed African countries, the lack of institutionalised support for research, combined with limited career opportunities and poor remuneration, have contributed to weak research infrastructure and capacity, and a continuing brain drain to developed countries. Malawi's Research Support Centre (RSC) model is novel in that it provides a…

  13. An evaluation of the 'Designated Research Team' approach to building research capacity in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyas Jane

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes an evaluation of an initiative to increase the research capability of clinical groups in primary and community care settings in a region of the United Kingdom. The 'designated research team' (DRT approach was evaluated using indicators derived from a framework of six principles for research capacity building (RCB which include: building skills and confidence, relevance to practice, dissemination, linkages and collaborations, sustainability and infrastructure development. Methods Information was collated on the context, activities, experiences, outputs and impacts of six clinical research teams supported by Trent Research Development Support Unit (RDSU as DRTs. Process and outcome data from each of the teams was used to evaluate the extent to which the DRT approach was effective in building research capacity in each of the six principles (as evidenced by twenty possible indicators of research capacity development. Results The DRT approach was found to be well aligned to the principles of RCB and generally effective in developing research capabilities. It proved particularly effective in developing linkages, collaborations and skills. Where research capacity was slow to develop, this was reflected in poor alignment between the principles of RCB and the characteristics of the team, their activities or environment. One team was unable to develop a research project and the funding was withdrawn at an early stage. For at least one individual in each of the remaining five teams, research activity was sustained beyond the funding period through research partnerships and funding successes. An enabling infrastructure, including being freed from clinical duties to undertake research, and support from senior management were found to be important determinants of successful DRT development. Research questions of DRTs were derived from practice issues and several projects generated outputs with potential to change daily

  14. Leaf photosynthetic rate of tropical ferns is evolutionarily linked to water transport capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Bao; Sun, Mei; Cao, Kun-Fang; Hu, Hong; Zhang, Jiao-Lin

    2014-01-01

    Ferns usually have relatively lower photosynthetic potential than angiosperms. However, it is unclear whether low photosynthetic potential of ferns is linked to leaf water supply. We hypothesized that there is an evolutionary association of leaf water transport capacity with photosynthesis and stomatal density in ferns. In the present study, a series of functional traits relating to leaf anatomy, hydraulics and physiology were assessed in 19 terrestrial and 11 epiphytic ferns in a common garden, and analyzed by a comparative phylogenetics method. Compared with epiphytic ferns, terrestrial ferns had higher vein density (Dvein), stomatal density (SD), stomatal conductance (gs), and photosynthetic capacity (Amax), but lower values for lower epidermal thickness (LET) and leaf thickness (LT). Across species, all traits varied significantly, but only stomatal length (SL) showed strong phylogenetic conservatism. Amax was positively correlated with Dvein and gs with and without phylogenetic corrections. SD correlated positively with Amax, Dvein and gs, with the correlation between SD and Dvein being significant after phylogenetic correction. Leaf water content showed significant correlations with LET, LT, and mesophyll thickness. Our results provide evidence that Amax of the studied ferns is linked to leaf water transport capacity, and there was an evolutionary association between water supply and demand in ferns. These findings add new insights into the evolutionary correlations among traits involving carbon and water economy in ferns.

  15. The Influence of Age, Health Literacy, and Affluence on Adolescents' Capacity to Consent to Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Lance R; Stupiansky, Nathan W; Ott, Mary A

    2016-04-01

    While adults are assumed to have the capacity to consent to medical research, and young children to have no capacity, adolescents' capacity to consent is not well described. Adapting the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR), we describe adolescents' capacity to consent to medical research and factors influencing that capacity. Our pilot study included a community-based sample of 30 adolescents, 14 to 21 years of age, who completed the MacCAT-CR after undergoing a simulated informed consent process. We found that adolescents' capacity to consent to research was associated with age, health literacy, and family affluence. These findings suggest that investigators and institutional review boards should be aware that factors other than age may influence capacity to consent, and, for modifiable factors, such as health literacy, consent processes for medical research with adolescents can be modified. PMID:27009303

  16. Research from therapeutic radiographers: An audit of research capacity within the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research from Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) is anecdotally known to lag behind that of other professions. The developing research landscape within other therapies and internationally led us to question how UK practice in therapeutic radiography was developing. The aim of the survey was to audit research capacity across therapy radiography in the UK. Method: An electronic survey was sent to Radiotherapy Service Managers (RSM) and research leads in each of the radiotherapy centres in the UK. An adapted version of the ‘Auditing Research Capacity’ tool (ARC© tool) was used as the basis of the questionnaire. Results: A total of 45 RSM responded to the survey (67% response rate) and 30 Research radiographers (RR) (45% response rate). A total of 51 RR were in post equating to 40.3 whole time equivalents and averaging 1 RR per centre. Variation was evident in the commitment to the development of a research culture identified by practices such as linking research to the business planning cycle, inclusion of research in recruitment and advertising materials, or having a nominated therapeutic radiographer lead on research for the department. Over a third of responding centres did not have a research strategy and training for RRs was limited; specifically in areas such as writing funding bids, writing for publication and the research and governance process. Conclusion: A number of short and long-term strategies are proposed that should enhance a positive research culture and improve research capacity for therapeutic radiography led research. These include utilisation of the existing infrastructure provided by the National Institute for Health Research, a lead or co-ordinator for research activity with a remit to motivate others. Development of links and networks, and the development of a research strategy linked to wider Trust research priorities. The research strategy should include mentoring or developing appropriate research skills for those engaged in research

  17. The highway capacity manual a conceptual and research history

    CERN Document Server

    Roess, Roger P

    2014-01-01

    Since 1950, the Highway Capacity Manual has been a standard used in the planning, design, analysis, and operation of virtually any highway traffic facility in the United States. It has also been widely used abroad, and has spurred the development of similar manuals in other countries. The twin concepts of capacity and level of service have been developed in the manual, and methodologies have been presented that allow highway traffic facilities to be designed on a common basis, and allow for the analysis of operational quality under various traffic demand scenarios. The manual also addresses related pedestrian, bicycle, and transit issues.   This book details the fundamental development of the concepts of capacity and level of service, and of the specific methodologies developed to describe them over a wide range of facility types. The book is comprised of two volumes. Volume 1 (this book) focuses on the development of basic principles, and their application to uninterrupted flow facilities: freeways, multila...

  18. Experimental research of joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on thermal capacity of frozen ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motenko, R.G. [Moscow State Univ., Moscow (Russian Federation). Dept. of Geocryology; Grechishcheva, E.S. [Fundamentproek, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2010-07-01

    Most gas and petroleum fields are located in permafrost zones, with some being on saline territories. Oil pollution of soils can occur in different ways and at different points such as during the extraction, processing and storage, and during transportation of oil and petroleum products. Oil producing pollution and salinization of soil often happen together. In this case, the sources of salts are the formation fluid, commercial waste water, the contents of the granaries and other geochemically active substances used for the extraction and desalting of crude oil. Joint salinization and contamination can also happen during the rupture of oil pipelines in saline areas. Although there is research available on the properties of saline soils and on properties of soils polluted with petroleum, there are no studies that describe changes of ground properties with joint pollution of salt and petroleum. This paper presented a study that examined the joint influence of salinization and petroleum pollution on the thermal characteristics of thawed and frozen grounds, particularly on thermal capacity. The paper outlined the purpose of the research and described the experimental methods. It was concluded that an increase of salinization increases the heat capacity of frozen soil because the amount of unfrozen water increases with increasing salinization. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Research Equity: A Capacity Building Workshop of Research Methodology for Medical Health Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Research is a cornerstone for knowledge generation, which in turns requires capacity building for its tools and techniques. Despite having a vast infrastructure in India the research in medical science has been carried out in limited and focused institutions. In order to build the capacity in carrying out research activities a five-day planning workshop was conducted at state run medical college. Total 22 medical faculty members participated in the workshop with average public health experience of 12 years (range: 5–25 years. The knowledge was assessed objectively by multiple-choice questionnaire. The mean score increased from 6.7 to 7.9 from pre- to posttest. About seventy-percent participants showed improvement, whereas 21.0% showed deterioration in the knowledge and the rest showed the same score. Apart from knowledge skills also showed improvement as total 12 research projects were generated and eight were approved for funding by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR, New Delhi. It can be concluded that a supportive environment for research can be built with the technical assistance.

  20. Maintenance of xylem network transport capacity: a review of embolism repair in vascular plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig eBrodersen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of long distance water transport in xylem is essential to plant health and productivity. Both biotic and abiotic environmental conditions lead to embolism formation within the xylem resulting in lost transport capacity and ultimately death. Plants exhibit a variety of strategies to either prevent or restore hydraulic capacity through cavitation resistance with specialized anatomy, replacement of compromised conduits with new growth, and a metabolically active embolism repair mechanism. In recent years, mounting evidence suggests that metabolically active cells surrounding the xylem conduits in some, but not all, species are capable of restoring hydraulic conductivity. This review summarizes our current understanding of the osmotically driven embolism repair mechanism, the known genetic and anatomical components related to embolism repair, rehydration pathways through the xylem, and the role of capacitance. Anatomical differences between functional plant groups may be one of the limiting factors that allow some plants to refill while others do not, but further investigations are necessary to fully understand this dynamic process. Finally, xylem networks should no longer be considered an assemblage of dead, empty conduits, but instead a metabolically active tissue finely tuned to respond to ever changing environmental cues.

  1. Underestimation of the Maximal Capacity of the Mitochondrial Electron Transport System in Oligomycin-Treated Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana S Ruas

    Full Text Available The maximal capacity of the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS in intact cells is frequently estimated by promoting protonophore-induced maximal oxygen consumption preceded by inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation by oligomycin. In the present study, human glioma (T98G and U-87MG and prostate cancer (PC-3 cells were titrated with different concentrations of the protonophore CCCP to induce maximal oxygen consumption rate (OCR within respirometers in a conventional growth medium. The results demonstrate that the presence of oligomycin or its A-isomer leads to underestimation of maximal ETS capacity. In the presence of oligomycin, the spare respiratory capacity (SRC, i.e., the difference between the maximal and basal cellular OCR, was underestimated by 25 to 45%. The inhibitory effect of oligomycin on SRC was more pronounced in T98G cells and was observed in both suspended and attached cells. Underestimation of SRC also occurred when oxidative phosphorylation was fully inhibited by the ATP synthase inhibitor citreoviridin. Further experiments indicated that oligomycin cannot be replaced by the adenine nucleotide translocase inhibitors bongkrekic acid or carboxyatractyloside because, although these compounds have effects in permeabilized cells, they do not inhibit oxidative phosphorylation in intact cells. We replaced CCCP by FCCP, another potent protonophore and similar results were observed. Lower maximal OCR and SRC values were obtained with the weaker protonophore 2,4-dinitrophenol, and these parameters were not affected by the presence of oligomycin. In permeabilized cells or isolated brain mitochondria incubated with respiratory substrates, only a minor inhibitory effect of oligomycin on CCCP-induced maximal OCR was observed. We conclude that unless a previously validated protocol is employed, maximal ETS capacity in intact cells should be estimated without oligomycin. The inhibitory effect of an ATP synthase blocker on potent

  2. Addressing NCDs through research and capacity building in LMICs: lessons learned from tobacco control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting research capacity building and addressing the growing burden of NCDs in low- and middle-income countries. One program in particular, the NIH International Tobacco and Health Research and Capacity Building Program (TOBAC program), offers an important model for conducting research and building research capacity simultaneously. This article describes the lessons learned from this unique funding model and demonstrates how a relatively modest investment can make important contributions to scientific evidence and capacity building that could inform ongoing and future efforts to tackle the global burden of NCDs. PMID:27545455

  3. Administrative mechanics of research fuel transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation contains the discussion on the multitude of administrative mechanics that have to be meshed for the successful completion of a shipment of spent fuel, HEU or LEU in the research reactors fuel cycle. The costs associated with transportation may be the equivalent of 'a black hole', so an overview of cost factors is given. At the end one could find that this black hole factor in the budget is actually a bargain. The first step is the quotation phase. The cost variables in the quotation contain the cost of packaging i.e. containers; the complete routing of the packages and the materials. Factors that are of outmost importance are the routing restrictions and regulations, physical security regulations. All of this effort is just to provide a valid quotation not to accomplish the goal of completing a shipment. Public relations cannot be omitted either

  4. Building research capacity for evidence-informed tobacco control in Canada: a case description

    OpenAIRE

    Leatherdale Scott T; Robinson Sarah J; Viehbeck Sarah; McDonald Paul W; Nykiforuk Candace IJ; Jolin Mari

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Tobacco use remains the leading cause of death and disability in Canada. Insufficient research capacity can inhibit evidence-informed decision making for tobacco control. This paper outlines a Canadian project to build research capacity, defined as a community's ability to produce research that adequately informs practice, policy, and future research in a timely, practical manner. A key component is that individuals and teams within the community must mutually engage around common, c...

  5. The Use of Artificial Neural Networks to Assess the Capacity of Transport Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchaczek Artur

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the area of logistics management both managers and engineers rely primarily on proven computational algorithms, for this reason, it is often difficult to convince them to the use of artificial neural networks in solving decision problems. The paper presents the possibilities of using the FANN library in building of a computer application applied in the area of logistics. The possibilities of the component are presented on the example of applications of artificial neural networks to estimate the capacity of transport vehicles based on their dimensions. The example presented in the work was solved with the use of a multi-network Layered Perceptron. The example depicted not only the possibility of using artificial neural networks for solving poorly structured tasks but also practical application of the TFannNetwork component

  6. SLC2A9 is a high-capacity urate transporter in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Caulfield

    2008-10-01

    0.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9 to 1.05, p > 0.33 by meta-analysis of an SLC2A9 variant in six case-control studies including 11,897 participants. In a separate meta-analysis of four population studies including 11,629 participants we found no association of SLC2A9 with systolic (effect size -0.12 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.68 to 0.43, p = 0.664 or diastolic blood pressure (effect size -0.03 mm Hg, 95% CI -0.39 to 0.31, p = 0.82. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that SLC2A9 splice variants act as high-capacity urate transporters and is one of the first functional characterisations of findings from genome-wide association scans. We did not find an association of the SLC2A9 gene with blood pressure in this study. Our findings suggest potential pathogenic mechanisms that could offer a new drug target for gout.

  7. Methods to enhance capacity of medical teachers for research publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Neelakandhan; Shaji, Kunnukattil S

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the Medical Council of India (MCI) made a certain number of research publications mandatory for the promotion to higher posts of medical teachers. Responding to this, there was a series of workshops on research and scientific writing for faculty members of a medical college. We decided to explore the opinions and perceptions of the participants on the need and relevance of such efforts, using qualitative methods such as focus-group discussions (FGDs) and semi-structured interview. The main themes that emerged from the study were as follows: a) presently, there are several hurdles for research and publication; b) recent attempts to upgrade skills of research methodology and scientific writing are encouraging, but need to be sustained; c) the traditional role of clinician - teacher is being replaced with that of clinician-teacher-researcher. Suggestions for future included - a) combined workshops on research methodology and scientific writing skills, b) continuous institutional support system for research and publication, and c) effective mentorship. PMID:27350712

  8. Building capacity for sustainable research programmes for cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, Isaac; Martin, Damali N; Williams, Makeda J; Adebamowo, Clement; Bhatia, Kishor; Berling, Christine; Casper, Corey; Elshamy, Karima; Elzawawy, Ahmed; Lawlor, Rita T; Legood, Rosa; Mbulaiteye, Sam M; Odedina, Folakemi T; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olopade, Christopher O; Parkin, Donald M; Rebbeck, Timothy R; Ross, Hana; Santini, Luiz A; Torode, Julie; Trimble, Edward L; Wild, Christopher P; Young, Annie M; Kerr, David J

    2014-05-01

    Cancer research in Africa will have a pivotal role in cancer control planning in this continent. However, environments (such as those in academic or clinical settings) with limited research infrastructure (laboratories, biorespositories, databases) coupled with inadequate funding and other resources have hampered African scientists from carrying out rigorous research. In September 2012, over 100 scientists with expertise in cancer research in Africa met in London to discuss the challenges in performing high-quality research, and to formulate the next steps for building sustainable, comprehensive and multi-disciplinary programmes relevant to Africa. This was the first meeting among five major organizations: the African Organisation for Research and Training in Africa (AORTIC), the Africa Oxford Cancer Foundation (AfrOx), and the National Cancer Institutes (NCI) of Brazil, France and the USA. This article summarizes the discussions and recommendations of this meeting, including the next steps required to create sustainable and impactful research programmes that will enable evidenced-based cancer control approaches and planning at the local, regional and national levels.

  9. Methods to enhance capacity of medical teachers for research publications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelakandhan Asokan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, the Medical Council of India (MCI made a certain number of research publications mandatory for the promotion to higher posts of medical teachers. Responding to this, there was a series of workshops on research and scientific writing for faculty members of a medical college. We decided to explore the opinions and perceptions of the participants on the need and relevance of such efforts, using qualitative methods such as focus-group discussions (FGDs and semi-structured interview. The main themes that emerged from the study were as follows: a presently, there are several hurdles for research and publication; b recent attempts to upgrade skills of research methodology and scientific writing are encouraging, but need to be sustained; c the traditional role of clinician - teacher is being replaced with that of clinician-teacher-researcher. Suggestions for future included - a combined workshops on research methodology and scientific writing skills, b continuous institutional support system for research and publication, and c effective mentorship.

  10. Methods to enhance capacity of medical teachers for research publications

    OpenAIRE

    Neelakandhan Asokan; Kunnukattil S Shaji

    2016-01-01

    In 2009, the Medical Council of India (MCI) made a certain number of research publications mandatory for the promotion to higher posts of medical teachers. Responding to this, there was a series of workshops on research and scientific writing for faculty members of a medical college. We decided to explore the opinions and perceptions of the participants on the need and relevance of such efforts, using qualitative methods such as focus-group discussions (FGDs) and semi-structured interview. Th...

  11. Sonic anemometers in aeolian sediment transport research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boxel, J. H.; Sterk, G.; Arens, S. M.

    2004-04-01

    Fast-response wind and turbulence instruments, including sonic anemometers, are used more and more in aeolian sediment transport research. These instruments give information on mean wind, but also on fluctuations and turbulent statistics, such as the uw covariance, which is a direct measure of Reynolds' stress (RS) and friction velocity. This paper discusses the interpretation of sonic anemometer data, the transformations needed to get proper results and turbulence spectra, and how they are influenced by instrument size, sampling frequency, and measurement height. Turbulence spectra characterize how much the different frequencies in the turbulent signals contribute to the variance of wind speed, or to the covariance of horizontal and vertical wind speed. They are important in determining the measurement strategy when working with fast-response instruments, such as sonic anemometers, and are useful for interpreting the measurement results. Choices on the type of sonic anemometer, observation height, sampling period, sampling frequency, and filtering can be made on the basis of expected high and low-frequency losses in turbulent signals, which are affected by those variables, as well as wind speed and atmospheric stability. Friction velocity and RS, important variables in aeolian sediment transport research, are very sensitive to tilt or slope errors. During a field experiment, the slope sensitivity of the RS was established as 9% per degree of slope, which is 1.5 times the value reported in literature on the basis of theoretical considerations. An important reason for the difference probably is the large influence of streamline curvature on turbulence statistics and thereby on the slope sensitivity of the RS. An error of 9% per degree of slope in the RS will translate into an error of approximately 4% per degree of slope in the calculated friction velocity. Space-time correlation of the horizontal wind speed is much larger than that of the vertical wind speed and

  12. Building Human Resources Management Capacity for University Research: The Case at Four Leading Vietnamese Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, T. L.

    2016-01-01

    At research-intensive universities, building human resources management (HRM) capacity has become a key approach to enhancing a university's research performance. However, despite aspiring to become a research-intensive university, many teaching-intensive universities in developing countries may not have created effective research-promoted HRM…

  13. For a better understanding of adaptive capacity to climate change: a research framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally accepted that there exists a systematic link between a low level of adaptive capacity and a low level of development, which thus implies that the poor inevitably have low adaptive capacities. We argue here that this viewpoint is biased because adaptation to climate change is not solely determined by economic and technological capacities. Many other characteristics of a community can play a major role in its ability to react to and anticipate climate changes (e.g. the territorial identity or the social relationships). From our point of view, this limited view of adaptive capacity is related to a relative immaturity of the science of adaptation, a discipline that analyses the processes and determinants of adaptive capacity. This can be explained by the fact that there are currently few existing frameworks for studying adaptive capacity. This paper consists in a proposal for a research framework which is based upon four main fields of investigation: (i) the influential factors of adaptive capacity and their interactions, (ii) the relevant spatial and temporal scales of adaptive capacity, (iii) the links between adaptive capacity, vulnerability and the level of development and (iv) the theoretical links between adaptation and sustainability. These four fields of research should bring new knowledge on adaptive capacity and feed a more general reflection on the adaptation pathways for dealing with climate change. (author)

  14. Capacity for Clinical Research on Herbal Medicines in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Willcox, Merlin; Siegfried, Nandi; Johnson, Quinton

    2012-01-01

    An electronic survey was used to assess the training needs of clinical and public health researchers who have been involved, and/or plan to become involved, in clinical trials of herbal medicines in Africa. Over 90 researchers were contacted through pre-existing networks, of whom 58 (64%) responded, from 35 institutions in 14 African countries. Over half (57%) had already been involved in a clinical trial of an herbal medicine, and gave information about a total of 23 trials that have already...

  15. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long

  16. Institutional capacity for health systems research in East and Central African schools of public health: experiences with a capacity assessment tool

    OpenAIRE

    Jessani, Nasreen; Lewy, Daniela; Ekirapa-Kiracho, Elizabeth; Bennett, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite significant investments in health systems research (HSR) capacity development, there is a dearth of information regarding how to assess HSR capacity. An alliance of schools of public health (SPHs) in East and Central Africa developed a tool for the self-assessment of HSR capacity with the aim of producing institutional capacity development plans. Methods Between June and November 2011, seven SPHs across the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, an...

  17. Issues of the European transport policy and current state of EU funded transport research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannopoulos George A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper sets out the main lines of the existing EU Transport Policy, and transport research. After a brief description of the main elements of this policy, a discussion is given of its relation with transport research and the basic orientations that existed under the previous Framework Programs for EU funded research. Then the main elements of the policy for the new (6th Framework Program are presented.

  18. Research on Effect of Sports Nutrition Supplements on Athletic Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaolong Chen

    2015-01-01

    Sports drinks are developed on the basis of scientific research; aiming at adapting to the change of organism functions. The reasonable nutrient composition of sports drinks can improve functional status. Sports nutrition supplements are more and more accepted by the public in alleviating fatigue and enhancing athletic performance with appropriate usage. Varied sports supplements are developed to meet various requirements. This study reviewed recent advances in the effects of major sports sup...

  19. Research on Effect of Sports Nutrition Supplements on Athletic Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolong Chen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Sports drinks are developed on the basis of scientific research; aiming at adapting to the change of organism functions. The reasonable nutrient composition of sports drinks can improve functional status. Sports nutrition supplements are more and more accepted by the public in alleviating fatigue and enhancing athletic performance with appropriate usage. Varied sports supplements are developed to meet various requirements. This study reviewed recent advances in the effects of major sports supplements on athletic performance. The powerful means outside of sports training which is used after competitive sports is concerned by training sector all the time. The means of nutritional supplements plays a very important role in improving athletic ability.

  20. Vegetative impacts upon bedload transport capacity and channel stability for differing alluvial planforms in the Yellow River source zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhi Wei; Yu, Guo An; Brierley, Gary; Wang, Zhao Yin

    2016-07-01

    The influence of vegetation upon bedload transport and channel morphodynamics is examined along a channel stability gradient ranging from meandering to anabranching to anabranching-braided to fully braided planform conditions along trunk and tributary reaches of the Upper Yellow River in western China. Although the regional geology and climate are relatively consistent across the study area, there is a distinct gradient in the presence and abundance of riparian vegetation for these reaches atop the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau (elevations in the study area range from 2800 to 3400 m a.s.l.). To date, the influence of vegetative impacts upon channel planform and bedload transport capacity of alluvial reaches of the Upper Yellow River remains unclear because of a lack of hydrological and field data. In this region, the types and pattern of riparian vegetation vary with planform type as follows: trees exert the strongest influence in the anabranching reach, the meandering reach flows through meadow vegetation, the anabranching-braided reach has a grass, herb, and sparse shrub cover, and the braided reach has no riparian vegetation. A non-linear relation between vegetative cover on the valley floor and bedload transport capacity is evident, wherein bedload transport capacity is the highest for the anabranching reach, roughly followed by the anabranching-braided, braided, and meandering reaches. The relationship between the bedload transport capacity of a reach and sediment supply from upstream exerts a significant influence upon channel stability. Bedload transport capacity during the flood season (June-September) in the braided reach is much less than the rate of sediment supply, inducing bed aggradation and dynamic channel adjustments. Rates of channel adjustment are less pronounced for the anabranching-braided and anabranching reaches, while the meandering reach is relatively stable (i.e., this is a passive meandering reach).

  1. Mapping of capacities for research on health and its social determinants in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elis Borde

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article describes tendencies in research on social determinants of health (SDH and health inequities in Brazil (2005-2012 and maps research system structures to analyze capacities for research on health and its social determinants. Brazil has a strong national research system and counts on a wealth of research in the field of SDH drawing on a long tradition of research and political commitment in this area. While innovative strategies seeking to strengthen the links between research, policy and practice have been developed, the impact of SDH research continues to be largely restricted to the academic community with notable but still insufficient repercussions on public policy and the social determinants of health inequities. SDH research in Brazil will therefore need to become even more responsive to social urgencies and better attuned to political processes, enhancing its capacity to influence strategic policy decisions affecting health inequities and mobilize strategic agendas for health equity.

  2. Servant leadership in nursing: a framework for developing sustainable research capacity in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the current professional climate, research activities are highly valued with nurses in all sectors actively encouraged to participate. However, working environments for many nurses are such that it can be difficult to privilege research activities in any sustained way. A number of organisational challenges coalesce to impede participation in research activities, including limited resources, lack of skills, knowledge and opportunities, and a culture of individualism. Strong, effective research leadership is essential to help mediate some of these negative aspects of organisational life, and promote creative environments to facilitate the development of research capacity. Servant leadership is a service-oriented approach that focuses on valuing and developing people, and offers a participatory and collaborative framework within which to build creative and productive research communities. Such communities can encourage connectedness between people, deepen the capacity for supportive collegiality, and foster a holistic social learning milieu to support researchers of all levels, including early career researchers and research higher degree candidates.

  3. Health Research Profile to assess the capacity of low and middle income countries for equity-oriented research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czerny P

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Commission on Health Research for Development concluded that "for the most vulnerable people, the benefits of research offer a potential for change that has gone largely untapped." This project was designed to assess low and middle income country capacity and commitment for equity-oriented research. Methods A multi-disciplinary team with coordinators from each of four regions (Asia, Latin America, Africa and Central and Eastern Europe developed a questionnaire through consensus meetings using a mini-Delphi technique. Indicators were selected based on their quality, validity, comprehensiveness, feasibility and relevance to equity. Indicators represented five categories that form the Health Research Profile (HRP: 1 Research priorities; 2 Resources (amount spent on research; 3 Production of knowledge (capacity; 4 Packaging of knowledge and 5 Evidence of research impact on policy and equity. We surveyed three countries from each region. Results Most countries reported explicit national health research priorities. Of these, half included specific research priorities to address inequities in health. Data on financing were lacking for most countries due to inadequate centralized collection of this information. The five main components of HRP showed a gradient where countries scoring lower on the Human Development Index (HDI had a lower capacity to conduct research to meet local health research needs. Packaging such as peer-reviewed journals and policy forums were reported by two thirds of the countries. Seven out of 12 countries demonstrated impact of health research on policies and reported engagement of stakeholders in this process. Conclusion Only one out of 12 countries indicated there was research on all fronts of the equity debate. Knowledge sharing and management is needed to strengthen within-country capacity for research and implementation to reduce inequities in health. We recommend that all countries (and external

  4. Role of Research-based Education in Sustainable Capacity Building in Marine Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittekkot, V.

    2008-05-01

    SCOR (Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research)has been contributing to building capacity in marine sciences around the world for almost five decades. Most of these efforts have been through SCOR-sponsored research projects and SCOR-working groups as well as through cooperative efforts with its partners at national, regional and international levels. This presentation will give examples of efforts based on several years of experience in research-based capacity building in marine sciences at the author's institution within partnership projects with universities and research institutions around the world and with regional and international organizations. The experience so gained will be discussed within the context of the work of SCOR's newly-formed Committee for Capacity Building and its focus on Regional Graduate Schools of Oceanography as well as of forming potential new global and regional partnerships and alliances.

  5. Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research: Creating Spaces for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodyear, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides some background information about the Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research initiative: a joint program of work sponsored by the Australian Association for Research in Education and the Australian Council of Deans of Education. In addition, it offers some broader analysis of the contexts within which…

  6. Training for Innovation: Capacity-Building in Agricultural Research in Post-War Sierra Leone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gboku, Matthew L. S.; Bebeley, Jenneh F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the Sierra Leone Agricultural Research Institute (SLARI) used training and development to build capacity for innovation in agricultural research following the country's civil war which ended in 2002. The Institute's training for innovation addressed different agricultural product value chains (APVCs) within the framework of…

  7. Investing in nursing research in practice settings: a blueprint for building capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Smith, Orla; Beswick, Susan; Maoine, Maria; Ferris, Ella

    2013-12-01

    Engaging clinical nurses in practice-based research is a cornerstone of professional nursing practice and a critical element in the delivery of high-quality patient care. Practising staff nurses are well suited to identify the phenomena and issues that are clinically relevant and appropriate for research. In response to the need to invest in and build capacity in nursing research, hospitals have developed creative approaches to spark interest in nursing research and to equip clinical nurses with research competencies. This paper outlines a Canadian hospital's efforts to build research capacity as a key strategy to foster efficacious, safe and cost-effective patient care practices. Within a multi-pronged framework, several strategies are described that collectively resulted in enhanced research and knowledge translation productivity aimed at improving the delivery of safe and high-quality patient care. PMID:24377848

  8. Investing in nursing research in practice settings: a blueprint for building capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffs, Lianne; Smith, Orla; Beswick, Susan; Maoine, Maria; Ferris, Ella

    2013-12-01

    Engaging clinical nurses in practice-based research is a cornerstone of professional nursing practice and a critical element in the delivery of high-quality patient care. Practising staff nurses are well suited to identify the phenomena and issues that are clinically relevant and appropriate for research. In response to the need to invest in and build capacity in nursing research, hospitals have developed creative approaches to spark interest in nursing research and to equip clinical nurses with research competencies. This paper outlines a Canadian hospital's efforts to build research capacity as a key strategy to foster efficacious, safe and cost-effective patient care practices. Within a multi-pronged framework, several strategies are described that collectively resulted in enhanced research and knowledge translation productivity aimed at improving the delivery of safe and high-quality patient care.

  9. Academic and research capacity development in Earth observation for environmental management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassells, Gemma; Woodhouse, Iain H; Patenaude, Genevieve [School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Scotland EH8 9XP (United Kingdom); Tembo, Mavuto, E-mail: g.f.cassells@sms.ed.ac.uk [Department of Land Management, Mzuzu University, Private Bag 201, Luwinga, Mzuzu 2 (Malawi)

    2011-10-15

    Sustainable environmental management is one of the key development goals of the 21st century. The importance of Earth observation (EO) for addressing current environmental problems is well recognized. Most developing countries are highly susceptible to environmental degradation; however, the capacity to monitor these changes is predominantly located in the developed world. Decades of aid and effort have been invested in capacity development (CD) with the goal of ensuring sustainable development. Academics, given their level of freedom and their wider interest in teaching and knowledge transfer, are ideally placed to act as catalyst for capacity building. In this letter, we make a novel investigation into the extent to which the EO academic research community is engaged in capacity development. Using the Web of Knowledge publication database (http://wok.mimas.ac.uk), we examined the geographical distribution of published EO related research (a) by country as object of research and (b) by authors' country of affiliation. Our results show that, while a significant proportion of EO research (44%) has developing countries as their object of research, less than 3% of publications have authors working in, or affiliated to, a developing country (excluding China, India and Brazil, which not only are countries in transition, but also have well established EO capacity). These patterns appear consistent over the past 20 years. Despite the wide awareness of the importance of CD, we show that significant progress on this front is required. We therefore propose a number of recommendations and best practices to ease collaboration and open access.

  10. Geographic trends in research output and citations in veterinary medicine: insight into global research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Mary M.; Marusic, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background Bibliographic data can be used to map the research quality and productivity of a discipline. We hypothesized that bibliographic data would identify geographic differences in research capacity, species specialization, and interdisciplinary relationships within the veterinary profession that corresponded with demographic and economic indices. Results Using the SCImago portal, we retrieved vet...

  11. Overview on transportation infrastructure research in Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Hugo Manuel Ribeiro Dias da

    2003-01-01

    The road infrastructures in Portugal have a great importance in the general transportation system, and the investments made in the last decades in the Portuguese road network resulted in road infrastructures of very good quality, classified by OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) in the best places between the OECD countries. Concomitantly, the number of road accidents in Portugal deeply decreased into values only observed a few decades ago, when the traffi...

  12. Building research capacity for evidence-informed tobacco control in Canada: a case description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Paul W; Viehbeck, Sarah; Robinson, Sarah J; Leatherdale, Scott T; Nykiforuk, Candace Ij; Jolin, Mari Alice

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco use remains the leading cause of death and disability in Canada. Insufficient research capacity can inhibit evidence-informed decision making for tobacco control. This paper outlines a Canadian project to build research capacity, defined as a community's ability to produce research that adequately informs practice, policy, and future research in a timely, practical manner. A key component is that individuals and teams within the community must mutually engage around common, collectively negotiated goals to address specific practices, policies or programs of research. An organizing framework, a set of activities to build strategic recruitment, productivity tools, and procedures for enhancing social capital are described. Actions are intended to facilitate better alignment between research and the priorities of policy developers and service providers, enhance the external validity of the work performed, and reduce the time required to inform policy and practice. PMID:19664224

  13. Building research capacity for evidence-informed tobacco control in Canada: a case description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leatherdale Scott T

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tobacco use remains the leading cause of death and disability in Canada. Insufficient research capacity can inhibit evidence-informed decision making for tobacco control. This paper outlines a Canadian project to build research capacity, defined as a community's ability to produce research that adequately informs practice, policy, and future research in a timely, practical manner. A key component is that individuals and teams within the community must mutually engage around common, collectively negotiated goals to address specific practices, policies or programs of research. An organizing framework, a set of activities to build strategic recruitment, productivity tools, and procedures for enhancing social capital are described. Actions are intended to facilitate better alignment between research and the priorities of policy developers and service providers, enhance the external validity of the work performed, and reduce the time required to inform policy and practice.

  14. Developing low-carbon transport policies in Peru with capacity-building for their implementation: Draft Transport NAMA

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, N. A.; Ramirez, C.

    2012-01-01

    Transport has been identified as one of the biggest sectors that contribute to climate change (23%) due to its energy demand and polluting emissions and therefore one of the sectors that needs to take action to mitigate its impact. A few countries in Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Mexico and Colombia) have started their transport NAMA development and are at different stages in the process. Peru has started this process more recently and this report aims at facilitating the NAMA development and...

  15. Dry matter accumulation in citrus fruit is not limited by transport capacity of the pedicel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Luis, A; Oliveira, M E M; Bordon, Y; Siqueira, D L; Tominaga, S; Guardiola, J L

    2002-12-01

    mass transfer in the phloem but had no influence on fruit growth. These observations demonstrate that the transport capacity in the phloem of the pedicel does not limit fruit growth and, within the limits of our experiments, an increase in demand by the fruit appeared to be matched by an increase in SMT. The dependence of late xylem formation (after the period of fruitlet abscission) on fruitlet growth was demonstrated in Salustiana orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] by means of controlling fruit growth through the manipulation of leaf area. Fruit growth at this time was more closely related to leaf area than to carbohydrate levels, suggesting that it may be limited by current photosynthesis. PMID:12451031

  16. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research and capacity-building initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Sorvari, S.; Bäck, J.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-11-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multidisciplinary, multiscale and multicomponent research, research infrastructure and capacity-building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth system science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked, global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change; air quality; biodiversity loss; urbanization; chemicalization; food and freshwater availability; energy production; and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructure and related capacity-building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure and summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  17. Balancing research and organizational capacity building in front-end project design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée; Meilby, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    phase of RCB partnerships and examine how they influence the balance between performing collaborative research and developing general organizational capacity. Data collection was based on a survey (n = 25), and individual interviews and focus group discussions with 17 Danish project managers from...... is more complex. We identify 11 specific factors influencing front-end project management related to structure, process and relationship, and we theorize about how these factors influence the choice between research and more general capacity development activities. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd...

  18. Building capacity for public and population health research in Africa: the consortium for advanced research training in Africa (CARTA model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex C. Ezeh

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, sub-Saharan Africa bears the greatest burden of disease. Strengthened research capacity to understand the social determinants of health among different African populations is key to addressing the drivers of poor health and developing interventions to improve health outcomes and health systems in the region. Yet, the continent clearly lacks centers of research excellence that can generate a strong evidence base to address the region's socio-economic and health problems. Objective and program overview: We describe the recently launched Consortium for Advanced Research Training in Africa (CARTA, which brings together a network of nine academic and four research institutions from West, East, Central, and Southern Africa, and select northern universities and training institutes. CARTA's program of activities comprises two primary, interrelated, and mutually reinforcing objectives: to strengthen research infrastructure and capacity at African universities; and to support doctoral training through the creation of a collaborative doctoral training program in population and public health. The ultimate goal of CARTA is to build local research capacity to understand the determinants of population health and effectively intervene to improve health outcomes and health systems. Conclusions: CARTA's focus on the local production of networked and high-skilled researchers committed to working in sub-Saharan Africa, and on the concomitant increase in local research and training capacity of African universities and research institutes addresses the inability of existing programs to create a critical mass of well-trained and networked researchers across the continent. The initiative's goal of strengthening human resources and university-wide systems critical to the success and sustainability of research productivity in public and population health will rejuvenate institutional teaching, research, and administrative systems.

  19. Effect of dietary creatine monohydrate supplementation on muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of transported broilers in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Li, Y J; Liu, Y; Li, J L; Gao, F; Zhou, G H; Zhang, L

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was to evaluate the effect of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate (CMH) during the finishing period on the muscle lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of broilers that experienced transport stress in summer. A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broilers (28 d in age) were randomly allotted to 3 dietary treatments including a basal control diet without additional CMH (160 birds), or with 600 (80 birds) or 1,200 mg/kg (80 birds) CMH for 14 d. On the morning of d 42, after an 8-h fast, the birds fed the basal diets were divided into 2 equal groups, and all birds in the 4 groups of 80 birds were transported according to the following protocols: 1) a 0.75-h transport of birds on basal diets (as a lower-stress control group), 2) a 3-h transport of birds on basal diets, 3) a 3-h transport of birds on 600 or 4) 1,200 mg/kg CMH supplementation diets. The results showed that the 3-h transport decreased the concentration of creatine (Cr) in both the pectoralis major (PM) and the tibialis anterior (TA) muscles, increased the concentration of phosphocreatine (PCr) and PCr/Cr ratio in PM muscle, and elevated the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and the activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase in both the PM and TA muscles of birds (P protein and heat shock protein 70 in both the PM and TA muscles, as well as avian peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α in the TA muscle (P 0.05). These results indicate that dietary CMH supplementation does not provide any significant protection via directly scavenging free radicals or increased antioxidant capacity of transported broilers. PMID:26371332

  20. The Road Traffic Injuries Research Network: a decade of research capacity strengthening in low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyder, Adnan A; Norton, Robyn; Pérez-Núñez, Ricardo; Mojarro-Iñiguez, Francisco R; Peden, Margie; Kobusingye, Olive

    2016-02-27

    Road traffic crashes have been an increasing threat to the wellbeing of road users worldwide; an unacceptably high number of people die or become disabled from them. While high-income countries have successfully implemented effective interventions to help reduce the burden of road traffic injuries (RTIs) in their countries, low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have not yet achieved similar results. Both scientific research and capacity development have proven to be useful for preventing RTIs in high-income countries. In 1999, a group of leading researchers from different countries decided to join efforts to help promote research on RTIs and develop the capacity of professionals from LMICs. This translated into the creation of the Road Traffic Injuries Research Network (RTIRN) - a partnership of over 1,100 road safety professionals from 114 countries collaborating to facilitate reductions in the burden of RTIs in LMICs by identifying and promoting effective, evidenced-based interventions and supporting research capacity building in road safety research in LMICs. This article presents the work that RTIRN has done over more than a decade, including production of a dozen scientific papers, support of nearly 100 researchers, training of nearly 1,000 people and 35 scholarships granted to researchers from LMICs to attend world conferences, as well as lessons learnt and future challenges to maximize its work.

  1. A multicriteria method for evaluating transport research projects.

    OpenAIRE

    La Paix Puello, Lissy Cesarina; López Lambas, Maria Eugenia

    2010-01-01

    Research evaluation has emerged as a ―rapid growth industry‖. Every four years more than 10 billion Euros are allocated to research projects by the European Commission through Framework Programmes. During the last ten years a large number of research projects have been addressed to evaluate other projects. However, some evaluation projects do not take a global view of the project results. The evaluation of research projects in the field of transport should be ‗quantified‘ as follows: R...

  2. Assessing capacity for health policy and systems research in low and middle income countries*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills Anne

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As demand grows for health policies based on evidence, questions exist as to the capacity of developing countries to produce the health policy and systems research (HPSR required to meet this challenge. Methods A postal/web survey of 176 HPSR producer institutions in developing countries assessed institutional structure, capacity, critical mass, knowledge production processes and stakeholder engagement. Data were projected to an estimated population of 649 institutions. Results HPSR producers are mostly small public institutions/units with an average of 3 projects, 8 researchers and a project portfolio worth $155,226. Experience, attainment of critical mass and stakeholder engagement are low, with only 19% of researchers at PhD level, although researchers in key disciplines are well represented and better qualified. Research capacity and funding are similar across income regions, although inequalities are apparent. Only 7% of projects are funded at $100,000 or more, but they account for 54% of total funding. International sources and national governments account for 69% and 26% of direct project funding, respectively. A large proportion of international funds available for HPSR in support of developing countries are either not spent or spent through developed country institutions. Conclusions HPSR producers need to increase their capacity and critical mass to engage effectively in policy development and to absorb a larger volume of resources. The relationship between funding and critical mass needs further research to identify the best funding support, incentives and capacity strengthening approaches. Support should be provided to network institutions, concentrate resources and to attract funding.

  3. Enhancing research capacity across healthcare and higher education sectors: development and evaluation of an integrated model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitworth Anne

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With current policy in healthcare research, in the United Kingdom and internationally, focused on development of research excellence in individuals and teams, building capacity for implementation and translation of research is paramount among the professionals who use that research in daily practice. The judicious use of research outcomes and evaluation of best evidence and practice in healthcare is integrally linked to the research capacity and capabilities of the workforce. In addition to promoting high quality research, mechanisms for actively enhancing research capacity more generally must be in place to address the complexities that both undermine and facilitate this activity. Methods A comprehensive collaborative model for building research capacity in one health professional group, speech and language therapy, was developed in a region within the UK and is presented here. The North East of England and the strong research ethos of this profession in addressing complex interventions offered a fertile context for developing and implementing a model which integrated the healthcare and university sectors. Two key frameworks underpin this model. The first addresses the individual participants’ potential trajectory from research consciousness to research participative to research active. The second embeds a model developed for general practitioners into a broader framework of practice-academic partnership and knowledge and skills exchange, and considers external drivers and impacts on practice and patient outcomes as key elements. Results and discussion The integration of practice and academia has been successful in building a culture of research activity within one healthcare profession in a region in the UK and has resulted, to date, in a series of research related outcomes. Understanding the key components of this partnership and the explicit strategies used has driven the implementation of the model and are discussed

  4. Claim Your Space: Leadership Development as a Research Capacity Building Goal in Global Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airhihenbuwa, Collins O.; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Jean-Louis, Girardin; Williams, Natasha; Zizi, Freddy; Okuyemi, Kolawole

    2016-01-01

    As the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) rises in settings with an equally high burden of infectious diseases in the Global South, a new sense of urgency has developed around research capacity building to promote more effective and sustainable public health and health care systems. In 2010, NCDs accounted for more than 2.06 million deaths…

  5. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Canales, Maritza; Enriquez, Lourdes; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zelaya, Ada Argentina; Espinoza, Vilma Esther; Fontecha, Gustavo Adolfo

    2013-01-01

    Background In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS) has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Objective This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH). The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ). In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its potential contribution

  6. A research capacity strengthening project for infectious diseases in Honduras: experience and lessons learned

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lourdes Sanchez

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Honduras, research capacity strengthening (RCS has not received sufficient attention, but an increase in research competencies would enable local scientists to advance knowledge and contribute to national priorities, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs. Objective: This project aimed at strengthening research capacity in infectious diseases in Honduras, focusing on the School of Microbiology of the National Autonomous University of Honduras (UNAH. The primary objective was the creation of a research-based graduate program for the continued training of researchers. Parallel objectives included institutional strengthening and the facilitation of partnerships and networks. Methods: Based on a multi-stakeholder consultation, an RCS workplan was designed and undertaken from 2007 to 2012. Due to unexpected adverse circumstances, the first 2 years were heavily dedicated to implementing the project's flagship, an MSc program in infectious and zoonotic diseases (MEIZ. In addition, infrastructure improvements and demand-driven continuing education opportunities were facilitated; biosafety and research ethics knowledge and practices were enhanced, and networks fostering collaborative work were created or expanded. Results: The project coincided with the peak of UNAH's radical administrative reform and an unprecedented constitutional crisis. Challenges notwithstanding, in September 2009, MEIZ admitted the first cohort of students, all of whom undertook MDG-related projects graduating successfully by 2012. Importantly, MEIZ has been helpful in expanding the School of Microbiology's traditional etiology-based, disciplinary model to infectious disease teaching and research. By fulfilling its objectives, the project contributed to a stronger research culture upholding safety and ethical values at the university. Conclusions: The resources and strategic vision afforded by the project enhanced UNAH's overall research capacity and its

  7. Addressing NCDs through research and capacity building in LMICs: lessons learned from tobacco control

    OpenAIRE

    Sturke, Rachel; Vorkoper, Susan; Duncan, Kalina; Levintova, Marya; Parascondola, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Confronting the global non-communicable diseases (NCDs) crisis requires a critical mass of scientists who are well versed in regional health problems and understand the cultural, social, economic, and political contexts that influence the effectiveness of interventions. Investments in global NCD research must be accompanied by contributions to local research capacity. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the Fogarty International Center have a long-standing commitment to supporting res...

  8. Developing a Culture to Facilitate Research Capacity Building for Clinical Nurse Consultants in Generalist Paediatric Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lesley Wilkes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a research capacity building exercise with a group of CNCs practicing in the speciality of paediatrics in New South Wales (NSW, Australia. It explores the first step in building a research culture, through identifying the research priorities of members of the NSW Child Health Networks Paediatric Clinical Nurse Consultant group, and this forms the major focus of this paper. A nominal group technique (NGT was utilised with sixteen members to identify research topics for investigation which were considered a priority for improving children's health care. The group reviewed and prioritised 43 research topics in children's health which were identified in the literature. As a result of conducting this research prioritisation exercise, the group chose two research topics to investigate: reasons for children representing to the Emergency Department and a comparison of the use of high-flow and low-flow nasal prongs in children with bronchiolitis. The research team will continue to mentor the nurses throughout their research projects which resulted from the NGT. One bridge to leadership development in enhancing patient care is translating knowledge to practice and policy development. This study leads the way for a group of CNCs in paediatric nursing to combine their research capacity and influence clinical knowledge.

  9. Modeling Np and Pu transport with a surface complexation model and spatially variant sorption capacities: Implications for reactive transport modeling and performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2003-01-01

    One-dimensional (1D) geochemical transport modeling is used to demonstrate the effects of speciation and sorption reactions on the ground-water transport of Np and Pu, two redox-sensitive elements. Earlier 1D simulations (Reardon, 1981) considered the kinetically limited dissolution of calcite and its effect on ion-exchange reactions (involving 90Sr, Ca, Na, Mg and K), and documented the spatial variation of a 90Sr partition coefficient under both transient and steady-state chemical conditions. In contrast, the simulations presented here assume local equilibrium for all reactions, and consider sorption on constant potential, rather than constant charge, surfaces. Reardon's (1981) seminal findings on the spatial and temporal variability of partitioning (of 90Sr) are reexamined and found partially caused by his assumption of a kinetically limited reaction. In the present work, sorption is assumed the predominant retardation process controlling Pu and Np transport, and is simulated using a diffuse-double-layer-surface-complexation (DDLSC) model. Transport simulations consider the infiltration of Np- and Pu-contaminated waters into an initially uncontaminated environment, followed by the cleanup of the resultant contamination with uncontaminated water. Simulations are conducted using different spatial distributions of sorption capacities (with the same total potential sorption capacity, but with different variances and spatial correlation structures). Results obtained differ markedly from those that would be obtained in transport simulations using constant Kd, Langmuir or Freundlich sorption models. When possible, simulation results (breakthrough curves) are fitted to a constant K d advection-dispersion transport model and compared. Functional differences often are great enough that they prevent a meaningful fit of the simulation results with a constant K d (or even a Langmuir or Freundlich) model, even in the case of Np, a weakly sorbed radionuclide under the

  10. Bursaries, writing grants and fellowships: a strategy to develop research capacity in primary health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farmer Elizabeth A

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners and other primary health care professionals are often the first point of contact for patients requiring health care. Identifying, understanding and linking current evidence to best practice can be challenging and requires at least a basic understanding of research principles and methodologies. However, not all primary health care professionals are trained in research or have research experience. With the aim of enhancing research skills and developing a research culture in primary health care, University Departments of General Practice and Rural Health have been supported since 2000 by the Australian Government funded 'Primary Health Care Research Evaluation and Development (PHCRED Strategy'. A small grant funding scheme to support primary health care practitioners was implemented through the PHCRED program at Flinders University in South Australia between 2002 and 2005. The scheme incorporated academic mentors and three types of funding support: bursaries, writing grants and research fellowships. This article describes outcomes of the funding scheme and contributes to the debate surrounding the effectiveness of funding schemes as a means of building research capacity. Methods Funding recipients who had completed their research were invited to participate in a semi-structured 40-minute telephone interview. Feedback was sought on acquisition of research skills, publication outcomes, development of research capacity, confidence and interest in research, and perception of research. Data were also collected on demographics, research topics, and time needed to complete planned activities. Results The funding scheme supported 24 bursaries, 11 writing grants, and three research fellows. Nearly half (47% of all grant recipients were allied health professionals, followed by general practitioners (21%. The majority (70% were novice and early career researchers. Eighty-nine percent of the grant recipients were

  11. Research on the Logistics Supply Chain in Port Logistics Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan-liang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to improve and increase the logistics system effectiveness and to solve the problem of optimal movement of different flows. Logistics transport carrying the world on material resources transfer exchange important mission and economic development and our lives are closely linked, logistics chain logistics transport occupies an important position and in the e logistics chain in port logistics has play a decisive role. For many coastal countries port logistics is the economic lifeline of the country, on China's economic development role as important, port logistics transport bear the material exchange with the external communication of important role, so the Chinese port logistics transportation research, clear port logistics transportation, current situation, find the existing problems in the light of the problem, to find a suitable method for solving has great realistic meaning. To promote logistics development, improve the logistics supply chain system has play an important role in this filed.

  12. Research capacity and training needs for non-communicable diseases in the public health arena in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Bulent KILIC; Phillimore, Peter; Islek, Duygu; Oztoprak, Dilek; Korkmaz, Eren; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen; Zaman, Shahaduz; Unal, Belgin

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to define the research capacity and training needs for professionals working on non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in the public health arena in Turkey. Methods This study was part of a comparative cross-national research capacity-building project taking place across Turkey and the Mediterranean Middle East (RESCAP-Med, funded by the EU). Identification of research capacity and training needs took place in three stages. The first stage involved mapp...

  13. Does recombinant human Epo increase exercise capacity by means other than augmenting oxygen transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Robach, P; Boushel, R;

    2008-01-01

    This study was performed to test the hypothesis that administration of recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo) in humans increases maximal oxygen consumption by augmenting the maximal oxygen carrying capacity of blood. Systemic and leg oxygen delivery and oxygen uptake were studied during...

  14. Mechanism Research on the Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Single Pile by Pile-base Post Grouting Technique and Estimation of Bearing Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base post grouting pile, which has a certain reference value for theoretical research and technical application of the technique.

  15. NEURAL NETWORKS IN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH – RECENT APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa PAMUŁA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Neural networks’ (NNs capability of mapping the nonlinear functions of variables describing the behaviour of objects and the simplicity of designing their configuration favours their applications in transport. This paper presents representative examples in the scope of prediction of road traffic parameters, road traffic control, measurement of road traffic parameters, driver behaviour and autonomous vehicles, and transport policy and economics. The features of the solutions are examined. The review shows that feedforward multilayer neural networks are the most often utilised configurations in transportation research. No systematic approach is reported on the optimisation of the NN configurations to achieve a set level of performance in solving modelling tasks

  16. Building Interdisciplinary Research Capacity: a Key Challenge for Ecological Approaches in Public Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay P. Galway

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings of public health research informed by reductionist and fragmented biomedical approaches and the emergence of wicked problems are fueling a renewed interest in ecological approaches in public health. Despite the central role of interdisciplinarity in the context of ecological approaches in public health research, inadequate attention has been given to the specific challenge of doing interdisciplinary research in practice. As a result, important knowledge gaps exist with regards to the practice of interdisciplinary research. We argue that explicit attention towards the challenge of doing interdisciplinary research is critical in order to effectively apply ecological approaches to public health issues. This paper draws on our experiences developing and conducting an interdisciplinary research project exploring the links among climate change, water, and health to highlight five specific insights which we see as relevant to building capacity for interdisciplinary research specifically, and which have particular relevance to addressing the integrative challenges demanded by ecological approaches to address public health issues. These lessons include: (i the need for frameworks that facilitate integration; (ii emphasize learning-by-doing; (iii the benefits of examining issues at multiple scales; (iv make the implicit, explicit; and (v the need for reflective practice. By synthesizing and sharing experiences gained by engaging in interdisciplinary inquiries using an ecological approach, this paper responds to a growing need to build interdisciplinary research capacity as a means for advancing the ecological public health agenda more broadly.

  17. Human behavior research and the design of sustainable transport systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J.

    2011-09-01

    reduced carbon emissions are central to the design and optimization of future low carbon transport systems. Gaker et al (2011) suggest a framework, and provide insight into the willingness of transport consumers to pay for emission reductions of carbon dioxide from their personal transport choices within the context of other attributes of transport variables. The results of this study, although limited to a small demographic segment of the US population, demonstrate that people can integrate information on greenhouse gas emissions with other transport attributes including cost and time. Likewise, the research shows that the study group was willing to pay for reduction in greenhouse gas emissions associated with their transport choices. The study examined auto purchase choice, transport mode choice and transport route choice, which represent key decisions associated with transport that impact greenhouse gas emissions. Interestingly, they found that the study group was willing to pay for reductions in greenhouse gas emissions at a relatively consistent price across these transport choices. Clearly, the study results may not broadly apply to all demographics of users of transport, even in the study domain, due to the small demographic segment that was examined and the fact that the study was conducted in the laboratory. However, the methods used by Gaker et al (2011) are cause for optimism that future studies can obtain much needed mapping of transport preferences and willingness to pay for greenhouse gas emission reductions associated with personal transport choices. Although the Gaker et al (2011) study is directed at understanding the promotion of low carbon transport in the context of existing infrastructures, the ability of these studies to elucidate human behavior and preferences within the trade-offs of transport are critical to the design of future transport systems that seek to meet transport demand with constrained greenhouse gas emissions. Additional studies of

  18. Main academic institutions conducting research in the public transport area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B.E. [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Traffic Planning and Engineering

    1997-12-01

    The international exchange of knowledge is becoming increasingly important for all activities. Within Europe, the need for simple reviews of institutions within one and the same subject area has become more tangible since the European Union started its public transport research program. The survey has been carried out in two stages. First a questionnaire was sent to those institutions, public transport authorities, public transport associations and individuals within the subject area that were known to the Department. In this questionnaire we asked for the names and addresses of institutions at colleges and universities where significant research on public transport is carried out. In a second stage, a list was compiled of the 48 institutions that were named in the results of the first questionnaire. This list was sent to these institutions with the request for a brief presentation of their research within the public transport sector and information on any institution they felt were missing in the list. We found further interesting institutions on the Internet. The final list contains more than 60 institutions outside the Nordic area. Within the Nordic countries we have exclusively followed our own address list of institutions with long-term research work within the subject area

  19. Vision document on transport scarcity. Policy line for shortage in transport capacity on the electricity grid; Visiedocument transportschaarste. Beleidslijn inzake de schaarste aan transportcapaciteit op het elektriciteitsnetwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    The Netherlands Competition Authority (NMa) has observed an increasing problem in relation to possible future shortage of transport capacity in the electricity grid. This vision document aims to provide clarity to market parties with regard to their general vision on this shortage problem [mk]. [Dutch] De Nederlandse Mededingingsautoriteit (NMa) heeft geconstateerd dat er in toenemende mate problemen optreden die verband houden met de (mogelijk toekomstige) schaarste aan transportcapaciteit op het elektriciteitsnetwerk.Met dit Visiedocument beoogt de NMa zoveel mogelijk duidelijkheid te verschaffen aan marktpartijen met betrekking tot zijn algemene visie ten aanzien van de schaarsteproblematiek.

  20. Comparative Education and Research Capacity Building: Reflections on International Transfer and the Significance of Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Crossley

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in comparative and international education, along with a fundamental reconceptualisation of this distinctive multidisciplinary field of study. The nature and significance of these developments are explored with particular reference to their implications for broader research capacity building initiatives worldwide. In doing so, a critique of the international transfer of globally dominant research modalities and strategies is presented--along with arguments for increased attention to context sensitivity in both international development cooperation and educational research in general. Illustrative examples that support these arguments are drawn from the author's own research, from an analysis of emergent educational policy debates in the UK, and from related studies being carried out in Malaysia. In concluding, the strategic role of comparative research traditions and perspectives in a rapidly globalizing world is highlighted, while supporting the promotion of new initiative and research centres for comparative and international education.

  1. Energetic consequences of the sugar cane alcohol plant production capacity on the raw material transportation and the efficiency of the biomass to fuel alcohol converter; Implicacoes energeticas da capacidade produtora de uma usina de alcool da cana-de-acucar sobre o transporte da materia prima e sobre a eficiencia do sistema conversor da biomassa em alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Filho, Waldir [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Biomedica; Urban, Carlos W. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Cerqueira, Sergio A.G. [Fundacao de Ensino Superior de Sao Joao del Rei (FUNREI), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Mecanica

    1995-07-01

    This paper describes, from the energy point of view, the relation of sugarcane transportation with the biomass demand in sugarcane alcohol factories. it also researches the influence of the factory production capacity in the global system efficiency. The results indicates that a bigger energetic global efficiency is reached by the reduction of the production capacity of the alcohol factories and by investment in industrial technology. (author)

  2. Regional Research Capacity-Building in Sustainability Science:Facts, Gaps, and Futures in Northeast Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Jiehua

    2004-01-01

    Evidence shows that some conceptual ideas relevant to both local and global sustainability have been adopted in some official documents in northeast Asian nations, particularly China, South Korea, and Japan. This seems to be a very positive signal for the future development of sustainability science in this region. However, studyes show that there are still some major gaps there. One is the problem of how to build up the regional research capacity of sustainability science among northeast Asian research institutes across different disciplines as well as different political systems. Another is how to shift the conceptual frameworks of sustainability science into the operational policy frameworks. There are four major obstacles to the enhancement of regional research capacity-building in sustainability science. In order to build up the regional research capacity in sustainability science and to realize both local and global goals of the sustainable development in northeast Asia, this paper proposes some basic frameworks, including regional institutional innovations, establishment of a regional sustainability information network, initiatives of the regional assessment programme, and focus on the regional education and training of sustainability knowledge.

  3. MX8: the next generation high capacity system for land transport of Mox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the near future, MOX fuel design is adapted in order to comply with the basic requirements of the utility in view to obtain an equivalence with UO2 fuels. An increasing number of reactors is going to be loaded with MOX: up to 28 at the end of the century. It was decide at the end of 1996 to develop a new transport system taking into account the evolutions, and to reduce the number of transports. The new generation of packaging for MOX fuel is the M.X type packaging. (N.C.)

  4. Neuroscience-related research in Ghana: a systematic evaluation of direction and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases account for considerable healthcare, economic and social burdens in Ghana. In order to effectively address these burdens, appropriately-trained scientists who conduct high-impact neuroscience research will be needed. Additionally, research directions should be aligned with national research priorities. However, to provide information about current neuroscience research productivity and direction, the existing capacity and focus need to be identified. This would allow opportunities for collaborative research and training to be properly explored and developmental interventions to be better targeted. In this study, we sought to evaluate the existing capacity and direction of neuroscience-related research in Ghana. To do this, we examined publications reporting research investigations authored by scientists affiliated with Ghanaian institutions in specific areas of neuroscience over the last two decades (1995-2015). 127 articles that met our inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated in terms of research foci, annual publication trends and author affiliations. The most actively-researched areas identified include neurocognitive impairments in non-nervous system disorders, depression and suicide, epilepsy and seizures, neurological impact of substance misuse, and neurological disorders. These studies were mostly hospital and community-based surveys. About 60% of these articles were published in the last seven years, suggesting a recent increase in research productivity. However, data on experimental and clinical research outcomes were particularly lacking. We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases. PMID:26344503

  5. Neuroscience-related research in Ghana: a systematic evaluation of direction and capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quansah, Emmanuel; Karikari, Thomas K

    2016-02-01

    Neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases account for considerable healthcare, economic and social burdens in Ghana. In order to effectively address these burdens, appropriately-trained scientists who conduct high-impact neuroscience research will be needed. Additionally, research directions should be aligned with national research priorities. However, to provide information about current neuroscience research productivity and direction, the existing capacity and focus need to be identified. This would allow opportunities for collaborative research and training to be properly explored and developmental interventions to be better targeted. In this study, we sought to evaluate the existing capacity and direction of neuroscience-related research in Ghana. To do this, we examined publications reporting research investigations authored by scientists affiliated with Ghanaian institutions in specific areas of neuroscience over the last two decades (1995-2015). 127 articles that met our inclusion criteria were systematically evaluated in terms of research foci, annual publication trends and author affiliations. The most actively-researched areas identified include neurocognitive impairments in non-nervous system disorders, depression and suicide, epilepsy and seizures, neurological impact of substance misuse, and neurological disorders. These studies were mostly hospital and community-based surveys. About 60% of these articles were published in the last seven years, suggesting a recent increase in research productivity. However, data on experimental and clinical research outcomes were particularly lacking. We suggest that future investigations should focus on the following specific areas where information was lacking: large-scale disease epidemiology, effectiveness of diagnostic platforms and therapeutic treatments, and the genetic, genomic and molecular bases of diseases.

  6. Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: Findings of the National Research Council Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, S. J.; Feeley, M. H.

    2008-05-01

    With the increasing stress on ocean and coastal resources, ocean resource management will require greater capacity in terms of people, institutions, technology and tools. Successful capacity-building efforts address the needs of a specific locale or region and include plans to maintain and expand capacity after the project ends. In 2008, the US National Research Council published a report that assesses past and current capacity-building efforts to identify barriers to effective management of coastal and marine resources. The report recommends ways that governments and organizations can strengthen marine conservation and management capacity. Capacity building programs instill the tools, knowledge, skills, and attitudes that address: ecosystem function and change; processes of governance that influence societal and ecosystem change; and assembling and managing interdisciplinary teams. Programs require efforts beyond traditional sector-by-sector planning because marine ecosystems range from the open ocean to coastal waters and land use practices. Collaboration among sectors, scaling from local community-based management to international ocean policies, and ranging from inland to offshore areas, will be required to establish coordinated and efficient governance of ocean and coastal ecosystems. Barriers Most capacity building activities have been initiated to address particular issues such as overfishing or coral reef degradation, or they target a particular region or country facing threats to their marine resources. This fragmentation inhibits the sharing of information and experience and makes it more difficult to design and implement management approaches at appropriate scales. Additional barriers that have limited the effectiveness of capacity building programs include: lack of an adequate needs assessment prior to program design and implementation; exclusion of targeted populations in decision- making efforts; mismanagement, corruption, or both; incomplete or

  7. Building research ethics capacity in post-communist countries: experience of two Fogarty training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strosberg, Martin A; Gefenas, Eugenijus; Loue, Sana; Philpott, Sean

    2013-12-01

    The post-Communist countries of Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia are at various stages of development with respect to their capacity to protect human research participants. We examined the impact of two Fogarty-funded programs in this region, the Union Graduate College-Vilnius University Advanced Certificate Program and the Case Western Reserve University Master's Degree Program, by surveying these programs' graduates and by examining alumni activities. Alumni have served in leadership roles on research ethics committees, developed and taught new courses in research ethics, and contributed to scholarship. However, political, social, and economic challenges impede the ability of graduates to maximize their effectiveness. Additional curricular attention is needed in research methodology, policy development and implementation, and the interplay between research ethics and human rights. PMID:24384514

  8. Assessing Clinical Research Capacity in Vietnam: A Framework for Strengthening Capability for Clinical Trials in Developing Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jonathan; Giang, Dao Duc; Iademarco, Michael F; Phung, Van Tt; Lau, Chuen-Yen; Quang, Nguyen Ngo

    2016-01-01

    Although improving health systems promises important benefits, most developing nations lack the resources to support nationally driven clinical research. Strengthened clinical research capacity can advance national health goals by supporting greater autonomy in aligning research with national priorities. From March through June 2010, we assessed six elements of clinical research capacity in Vietnam: research agenda; clinical investigators and biostatisticians; donors and sponsors; community involvement; scientific, ethical, safety, and quality oversight; and clinical research institutions. Assessments were drawn from interviews with investigators, Ministry of Health staff members, nongovernment organizations, and U.S. Mission staff members, and document review. Observations and recommendations were shared with collaborators. Reassessment in 2015 found growth in the number of clinical trials, improved regulation in human subjects protection and community engagement, and modest advances in research agenda setting. Training and investment in institutions remain challenging. A framework for assessing clinical research capacity can affirm strengths and weaknesses and guide the coordination of capacity-building efforts. PMID:27252559

  9. Physics of transportation: Towards optimal capacity using the multilayer network framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wen-Bo; Zhou, Xing-Lian; Jusup, Marko; Wang, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Because of the critical role of transportation in modern times, one of the most successful application areas of statistical physics of complex networks is the study of traffic dynamics. However, the vast majority of works treat transportation networks as an isolated system, which is inconsistent with the fact that many complex networks are interrelated in a nontrivial way. To mimic a realistic scenario, we use the framework of multilayer networks to construct a two-layered traffic model, whereby the upper layer provides higher transport speed than the lower layer. Moreover, passengers are guided to travel along the path of minimal travelling time and with the additional cost they can transfer from one layer to another to avoid congestion and/or reach the final destination faster. By means of numerical simulations, we show that a degree distribution-based strategy, although facilitating the cooperation between both layers, can be further improved by enhancing the critical generating rate of passengers using a particle swarm optimisation (PSO) algorithm. If initialised with the prior knowledge from the degree distribution-based strategy, the PSO algorithm converges considerably faster. Our work exemplifies how statistical physics of complex networks can positively affect daily life.

  10. Determination of serum iron and of the transport capacity of iron by transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three methods were standardized in order to determine the iron level in serum, the total iron binding capacity of transferrin and the iron binding capacity of free transferrin. The first of them, appropriate to estimate iron and total transferrin level, is based on the development of color as a consequence of iron binding to bathophenanthrolin (BATO); the second, used for the same purposes, employs atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AA); the third, used to estimate free transferrin, is a radioassay (RE). It was known that the methods employing atomic absorption espectrophotometry and radioassay are precise and especific, while the use of bathophenanthrolin constantly provides differing results. This was the reason why statistic analysis of the results showed significant differences between the first method (BATO) and the remaining two (RE and AA). Nevertheless, the fluctuation of results observed with the use of bathophenanthrolin is small (less than 10%), the method is easy to perform and it is not dispendious concerning reagents as well as equipament. Therefore it was concluded that the BATO method is very safe when used for diagnosis of iron deficiency or excess of storage, even of low magnitude. (Author)

  11. The Globalization of Addiction Research: Capacity Building Mechanisms and Selected Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A.; Woody, George; Kresina, Thomas F.; Gust, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the amount and variety of addiction research around the world has increased substantially. Researchers in the United States, Western Europe, United Kingdom, Canada, and Australia have significantly contributed to knowledge about addiction and its treatment. However, the nature and context of substance use disorders (SUDs) and the populations using drugs are far more diverse than is reflected in studies done in Western cultures. To stimulate new research from a diverse set of cultural perspectives, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has promoted the development of addiction research capacity and skills around the world for over 25 years. This review will describe the programs NIDA has developed to sponsor international research and research fellows and will provide some examples of the work NIDA has supported. NIDA fellowships have allowed 496 individuals from 96 countries to be trained in addiction research. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia have recently developed funding to support addiction research to study SUD problems that impact their societies with NIDA guidance.. Examples from Malaysia, Tanzania, Brazil, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Republic of Georgia, Iceland, China, and Vietnam are used to illustrate research being conducted with NIDA support. Health services research, collaboratively funded by NIH and the Department of State, addresses a range of addiction service development questions in low- and middle-income countries. Findings have expanded the understanding of addiction and its treatment and are enhancing the ability of practitioners and policy makers to address SUDs using data to guide their decision-making. PMID:25747927

  12. The globalization of addiction research: capacity-building mechanisms and selected examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, Richard A; Woody, George; Kresina, Thomas F; Gust, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, the amount and variety of addiction research around the world has increased substantially. Researchers in Australia, Canada, United Kingdom, United States, and western Europe have significantly contributed to knowledge about addiction and its treatment. However, the nature and context of substance use disorders and the populations using drugs are far more diverse than is reflected in studies done in Western cultures. To stimulate new research from a diverse set of cultural perspectives, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has promoted the development of addiction research capacity and skills around the world for over 25 years. This review will describe the programs NIDA has developed to sponsor international research and research fellows and will provide some examples of the work NIDA has supported. NIDA fellowships have allowed 496 individuals from 96 countries to be trained in addiction research. The United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabia have recently developed funding to support addiction research to study, with advice from NIDA, the substance use disorder problems that affect their societies. Examples from Malaysia, Tanzania, Brazil, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Republic of Georgia, Iceland, China, and Vietnam are used to illustrate research being conducted with NIDA support. Health services research, collaboratively funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health and Department of State, addresses a range of addiction service development questions in low- and middle-income countries. Findings have expanded the understanding of addiction and its treatment, and are enhancing the ability of practitioners and policy makers to address substance use disorders.

  13. Monitoring cholinergic activity during attentional performance in mice heterozygous for the choline transporter: a model of cholinergic capacity limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paolone, Giovanna; Mallory, Caitlin S; Koshy Cherian, Ajeesh; Miller, Thomas R; Blakely, Randy D; Sarter, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Reductions in the capacity of the human choline transporter (SLC5A7, CHT) have been hypothesized to diminish cortical cholinergic neurotransmission, leading to risk for cognitive and mood disorders. To determine the acetylcholine (ACh) release capacity of cortical cholinergic projections in a mouse model of cholinergic hypofunction, the CHT+/- mouse, we assessed extracellular ACh levels while mice performed an operant sustained attention task (SAT). We found that whereas SAT-performance-associated increases in extracellular ACh levels of CHT+/- mice were significantly attenuated relative to wildtype littermates, performance on the SAT was normal. Tetrodotoxin-induced blockade of neuronal excitability reduced both dialysate ACh levels and SAT performance similarly in both genotypes. Likewise, lesions of cholinergic neurons abolished SAT performance in both genotypes. However, cholinergic activation remained more vulnerable to the reverse-dialyzed muscarinic antagonist atropine in CHT+/- mice. Additionally, CHT+/- mice displayed greater SAT-disrupting effects of reverse dialysis of the nAChR antagonist mecamylamine. Receptor binding assays revealed a higher density of α4β2* nAChRs in the cortex of CHT+/- mice compared to controls. These findings reveal compensatory mechanisms that, in the context of moderate cognitive challenges, can overcome the performance deficits expected from the significantly reduced ACh capacity of CHT+/- cholinergic terminals. Further analyses of molecular and functional compensations in the CHT+/- model may provide insights into both risk and resiliency factors involved in cognitive and mood disorders.

  14. Approaches and impact of non-academic research capacity strengthening training models in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Mugabo, Lambert; Rouleau, Dominique; Odhiambo, Jackline; Nisingizwe, Marie Paul; Amoroso, Cheryl; Barebwanuwe, Peter; Warugaba, Christine; Habumugisha, Lameck; Hedt-Gauthier, Bethany L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research is essential to identify and prioritize health needs and to develop appropriate strategies to improve health outcomes. In the last decade, non-academic research capacity strengthening trainings in sub-Saharan Africa, coupled with developing research infrastructure and the provision of individual mentorship support, has been used to build health worker skills. The objectives of this review are to describe different training approaches to research capacity strengthening in ...

  15. Channel-conveyance capacity, channel change, and sediment transport in the lower Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers, western Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Czuba, Christiana R.; Magirl, Chistopher S.; Voss, Frank D.

    2010-01-01

    Draining the volcanic, glaciated terrain of Mount Rainier, Washington, the Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers convey copious volumes of water and sediment down to Commencement Bay in Puget Sound. Recent flooding in the lowland river system has renewed interest in understanding sediment transport and its effects on flow conveyance throughout the lower drainage basin. Bathymetric and topographic data for 156 cross sections were surveyed in the lower Puyallup River system by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and were compared with similar datasets collected in 1984. Regions of significant aggradation were measured along the Puyallup and White Rivers. Between 1984 and 2009, aggradation totals as measured by changes in average channel elevation were as much as 7.5, 6.5, and 2 feet on the Puyallup, White, and Carbon Rivers, respectively. These aggrading river sections correlated with decreasing slopes in riverbeds where the rivers exit relatively confined sections in the upper drainage and enter the relatively unconstricted valleys of the low-gradient Puget Lowland. Measured grain-size distributions from each riverbed showed a progressive fining downstream. Analysis of stage-discharge relations at streamflow-gaging stations along rivers draining Mount Rainier demonstrated the dynamic nature of channel morphology on river courses influenced by glaciated, volcanic terrain. The greatest rates of aggradation since the 1980s were in the Nisqually River near National (5.0 inches per year) and the White River near Auburn (1.8 inches per year). Less pronounced aggradation was measured on the Puyallup River and the White River just downstream of Mud Mountain Dam. The largest measured rate of incision was measured in the Cowlitz River at Packwood (5.0 inches per year). Channel-conveyance capacity estimated using a one-dimensional hydraulic model decreased in some river reaches since 1984. The reach exhibiting the largest decrease (about 20-50 percent) in channel

  16. Comparative Research of Residents’ Effect Perception and Participation Capacity and Willingness on Pro-poor Tourism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guoqing; HUANG; Hong; SHU

    2014-01-01

    In this article,comparative research on residents’ effect perception,participation capacity and willingness on Pro-poor Tourism( PPT) is given based on the questionnaire carried out in Wulong County and Fengjie County in Three Gorges Area,Chongqing,China. Some technologies,such as SPSS 13. 0,ANOVA and T-test are applied to analyze the data and results show Wulong residents’ perception behavior is better than that of Fengjie residents. Moreover,the residents with different demographic characteristics have different participation behavior.Finally,multiple regression analysis is applied to identify the key factors influencing residents’ perception behavior,that is participation willingness and positive economic effect perception,positive social and cultural effect perception and participation capacity.

  17. Research activity and capacity in primary healthcare: The REACH study: A survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iglesias Alberto A

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased investment in primary care research and development (R&D, the level of engagement of primary healthcare professionals with research remains poor. The aim of this study is to assess the level of research activity and capacity for research among primary healthcare professionals in a health authority of over one million people in a mixed urban/rural setting in the West of Ireland. Methods A questionnaire, incorporating the R+D Culture Index, was sent to primary healthcare professionals in the HSE Western Region. Baseline characteristics were analysed with the use of one-way ANOVA and Chi-square test and the dependence of R&D Culture Index score on all sixteen available covariates was examined using multiple regression and regression tree modelling. Results There was a 54% response rate to the questionnaire. Primary healthcare professionals appeared to have an interest in and awareness of the importance of research in primary care but just 15% were found to be research active in this study. A more positive attitude towards an R&D culture was associated with having had previous research training, being currently involved in research and with not being a general practitioner (GP (p Conclusion Despite awareness of the importance of R&D in primary care and investment therein, primary healthcare professionals remain largely unengaged with the R&D process. This study highlights the issues that need to be addressed in order to encourage a shift towards a culture of R&D in primary care: lack of research training particularly in basic research skills and increased opportunities for research involvement. The use of the R&D Culture Index may enable groups to be identified that may be more research interested and can therefore be targeted in any future R&D strategy.

  18. Research activity and capacity in primary healthcare: the REACH study: a survey.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, Liam G

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite increased investment in primary care research and development (R&D), the level of engagement of primary healthcare professionals with research remains poor. The aim of this study is to assess the level of research activity and capacity for research among primary healthcare professionals in a health authority of over one million people in a mixed urban\\/rural setting in the West of Ireland. METHODS: A questionnaire, incorporating the R+D Culture Index, was sent to primary healthcare professionals in the HSE Western Region. Baseline characteristics were analysed with the use of one-way ANOVA and Chi-square test and the dependence of R&D Culture Index score on all sixteen available covariates was examined using multiple regression and regression tree modelling. RESULTS: There was a 54% response rate to the questionnaire. Primary healthcare professionals appeared to have an interest in and awareness of the importance of research in primary care but just 15% were found to be research active in this study. A more positive attitude towards an R&D culture was associated with having had previous research training, being currently involved in research and with not being a general practitioner (GP) (p < 0.001), but much variability in the R&D culture index score remained unexplained. CONCLUSION: Despite awareness of the importance of R&D in primary care and investment therein, primary healthcare professionals remain largely unengaged with the R&D process. This study highlights the issues that need to be addressed in order to encourage a shift towards a culture of R&D in primary care: lack of research training particularly in basic research skills and increased opportunities for research involvement. The use of the R&D Culture Index may enable groups to be identified that may be more research interested and can therefore be targeted in any future R&D strategy.

  19. Building Research Integrity and Capacity (BRIC): An Educational Initiative to Increase Research Literacy among Community Health Workers and Promotores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebeker, Camille; López-Arenas, Araceli

    2016-03-01

    While citizen science is gaining attention of late, for those of us involved in community-based public health research, community/citizen involvement in research has steadily increased over the past 50 years. Community Health Workers (CHWs), also known as Promotores de Salud in the Latino community, are critical to reaching underserved populations, where health disparities are more prevalent. CHWs/Promotores provide health education and services and may also assist with the development and implementation of community- and clinic-based research studies. Recognizing that CHWs typically have no formal academic training in research design or methods, and considering that rigor in research is critical to obtaining meaningful results, we designed instruction to fill this gap. We call this educational initiative "Building Research Integrity and Capacity" or BRIC. The BRIC training consists of eight modules that can be administered as a self-paced training or incorporated into in-person, professional development geared to a specific health intervention study. While we initially designed this culturally-grounded, applied ethics training for Latino/Hispanic community research facilitators, BRIC training modules have been adapted for and tested with non-Latino novice research facilitators. This paper describes the BRIC core content and instructional design process. PMID:27047588

  20. Do Regional Disparities in Research on Climate and Water Influence Adaptive Capacity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiparsky, M.; Brooks, C. [Energy and Resources Group, University of California, 310 Barrows Hall, Berkeley, CA, 94720-3050 (United States); Gleick, P.H. [Pacific Institute, 654 13th Street, Oakland, CA, 94612 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    As part of a long-term effort to both improve access to information on climate change and freshwater resources, and to understand the state of the science, we compiled an electronic bibliography of scientific literature in that area. We analyzed the distribution of information on climatic impacts on freshwater resources, with an emphasis on differences between developed and developing regions as well as differences in the types and focus of research carried out among regions. There has been more research overall in developed countries than in the developing world. Proportionally more of the available research on natural and human systems pertains to developed regions, while most of the analysis done in developing countries is limited to higher-level climatology and hydrology. We argue that scientific information and understanding are important elements of the ability to adapt to potential climatic changes. The distribution of the scientific literature in our database suggests that the types of science most directly relevant to adaptive capacity are skewed towards developed countries, which may exacerbate existing disparities in adaptive capacity, and ultimately worsen the consequences of climatic impacts in developing countries.

  1. 75 FR 38605 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program... research on issues related to planning, environment, and realty will be included in future...

  2. 76 FR 50312 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program... research on issues related to planning, environment, and realty will be included in future...

  3. 77 FR 38709 - Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program (STEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-28

    ... Federal Highway Administration Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research...-LU) established the Surface Transportation Environment and Planning Cooperative Research Program... research on issues related to planning, environment, and realty will be included in future...

  4. RESEARCH ON SYSTEM DYNAMICS MODEL OF CONVEYANCE CAPACITY IN SYMMETRIC COMPOUND CHANNELS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ke-jun; CAO Shu-you; LIU Xing-nian

    2005-01-01

    Stage-discharge curves are particularly important in river basin management. For a compound channel, the stage-discharge curve is often difficult to be extrapolated to yield estimates of level for a given frequency of flow. By analyzing a large number of experimental data from Science and Engineering Research Council Flood Channel Facility (SERC-FCF) and applying system dynamics method, the authors established system dynamics model of conveyance capacity when rivers flow in an overbank mode, spilling onto the adjoining flood plain. The model was applied to a compound channel. And the corresponding simulated results are shown to attain high accurcy.

  5. The research on natural gas pipeline transportation price formulation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YU Wenjia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper will introduce a method of natural gas pipeline transportation price on the basis of two-part tariff.Distance,investment and income have been taken into consideration.The total fee is divided into three parts:reservation fee,usage fee and peak-load regulation fee.Because there are different types of users in the natural gas market who show great difference in the continuity and reliability of gas supply,capacity of bearing price,elastic demand and balance use of gas,according to the method,the different types of users can pay reasonable fee.This method not only considers the investment income recovery but also considers the different types of users paying a reasonable fee.We hope the new pricing model can give a reference to the development of China's natural gas industry.

  6. Variant at serotonin transporter gene predicts increased imitation in toddlers: relevance to the human capacity for cumulative culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, Kari Britt; Asherson, Philip; Blake, Peter R; Fenstermacher, Susan K; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2016-04-01

    Cumulative culture ostensibly arises from a set of sociocognitive processes which includes high-fidelity production imitation, prosociality and group identification. The latter processes are facilitated by unconscious imitation or social mimicry. The proximate mechanisms of individual variation in imitation may thus shed light on the evolutionary history of the human capacity for cumulative culture. In humans, a genetic component to variation in the propensity for imitation is likely. A functional length polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene, the short allele at 5HTTLPR, is associated with heightened responsiveness to the social environment as well as anatomical and activational differences in the brain's imitation circuity. Here, we evaluate whether this polymorphism contributes to variation in production imitation and social mimicry. Toddlers with the short allele at 5HTTLPR exhibit increased social mimicry and increased fidelity of demonstrated novel object manipulations. Thus, the short allele is associated with two forms of imitation that may underlie the human capacity for cumulative culture. The short allele spread relatively recently, possibly due to selection, and its frequency varies dramatically on a global scale. Diverse observations can be unified via conceptualization of 5HTTLPR as influencing the propensity to experience others' emotions, actions and sensations, potentially through the mirror mechanism. PMID:27072408

  7. Evaluation of KFB-funded research on transport systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyce, D.; Knudsen, T.; Wegener, M.

    1999-09-01

    This report presents an evaluation of two research projects on transport systems, which have been financed fully or partially by KFB. The projects are: l. Systems analysis of transport markets at the Division of Transport and Location Analysis in the Department of Infrastructure and Planning of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm; and 2. Planning, analysis and management in traffic networks - optimization models and methods at the Division of Optimization in the Department of Mathematics at Linkoeping University. The evaluation seeks to examine the scientific quality of the research and its relevance to the academic world and society. The two project teams prepared a self-assessment of their research activities and submitted copies of relevant publications. The evaluation committee visited both institutions and engaged the teams in discussions of their results and methodology. These visits occurred on June 1 and 2, 1999. This report is based on the self-assessments of the teams, the materials submitted and the meetings with the project teams. The evaluation and recommendations presented in the report are those of the reviewers and do not necessarily represent the views of KFB

  8. A Social Approach to Decision-Making Capacity: Exploratory Research with People with Experience of Mental Health Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaid, Shari; Delaney, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on exploratory, qualitative research conducted with eight people with experience of mental health treatment about their understanding of decision-making capacity. While acknowledging that there are times when mental or emotional distress can interfere with the capacity to make decisions, participants described how their capacity…

  9. Subsurface transport with emphasis on hydrology: research needs. Subsurface Transport Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of energy technologies presently in operation or under development generate solid wastes in large quantities as a major byproduct. These wastes will, for the most part, be disposed to the ground in landfills or inactive mine sites. Although the waste materials differ significantly among technologies, most contain residual, water-soluble chemical components which are of ecological and human health concern. Thus, in ground disposal may have a significant long-term impact on water supplies and human health if not properly conducted. With the growing magnitude of solid waste disposal operations, it becomes imperative to establish common ground between technologies such that research in this complex area can be efficiently managed to benefit a variety of users. This report develops the concept of multitechnology or generic research in subsurface transport with emphasis on hydrogeochemistry. Initially, a generic research approach was developed independent of waste characteristics. This approach both identified and prioritized the research information or experimentation and data management tools (models) required to resolve major technical concerns for in ground disposal. Waste characteristics were then evaluated to identify the common, cross-technology information needs. This evaluation indicated that solid wastes from energy producing technologies have physiocochemical properties in common which serve as a useful basis for identification of fundamental, generic research needs. Priority research projects are suggested for addressing contaminant identification, solubilization, transformation and transport. 38 references, 3 tables

  10. Automatic braking system modification for the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Transportation Systems Research Vehicle (TSRV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, J. J.

    1986-01-01

    Modifications were designed for the B-737-100 Research Aircraft autobrake system hardware of the Advanced Transport Operating Systems (ATOPS) Program at Langley Research Center. These modifications will allow the on-board flight control computer to control the aircraft deceleration after landing to a continuously variable level for the purpose of executing automatic high speed turn-offs from the runway. A bread board version of the proposed modifications was built and tested in simulated stopping conditions. Test results, for various aircraft weights, turnoff speed, winds, and runway conditions show that the turnoff speeds are achieved generally with errors less than 1 ft/sec.

  11. Epidermal growth factor decreases PEPT2 transport capacity and expression in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Amstrup, Jan;

    2004-01-01

    transport capacity and expression in the rat proximal tubule cell line SKPT0193 cl.2 (SKPT), which expresses rat PEPT2 (rPEPT2) in the apical membrane. Treatment of SKPT cells with EGF during cell culture growth caused a dose-dependent decrease in rPEPT2 transport capacity and expression, as determined...... suggests that this might be disadvantageous when studying PEPT2-mediated transport phenomena. These findings demonstrate for the first time EGF-mediated regulation of PEPT2 expression in a kidney cell line. The relevance for kidney regulation of peptide transport activity in physiological and...... by studies of apical uptake of [14C]glycylsarcosine, rPepT2 mRNA levels, and immunostaining of SKPT cells with a rPEPT2-specific antibody. On the contrary, apical uptake of glucose and lysine was increased in EGF-treated cells, indicating that EGF was not acting generally to decrease apical nutrient uptake...

  12. 75 FR 24773 - Research and Innovative Technology Administration Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... Bureau of Transportation Statistics Research and Innovative Technology Administration Advisory Council on Transportation Statistics; Notice of Meeting AGENCY: Research and Innovative Technology Administration, U.S... introduction of council members; (2) Overview of prior meeting; (3) Advisory Council Members Interest...

  13. HOTLAB: European hot laboratories research and capacities and needs. Plenary meeting 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberlaender, B.C.; Jenssen, H.K. (ed.)

    2005-01-01

    The report presents proceedings from the 2004 annual HOTLAB plenary meeting at Halden and Kjeller, Norway. The goal of the yearly plenary meeting was to: Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research. Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling, etc. Promote normalisation and co-operation, e.g. by looking at mutual complementarities. Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The main themes of the five topical oral sessions of the Halden plenary meeting cover: Work package leaders report and specific papers, presentation of PIE facility databases, i.e. one worldwide (IAEA) and one inside the European communities. Reports from present and future needs and on nuclear transports. Refabrication and instrumentation: Available equipment, technical characteristics such as fabrication procedures, hot-cell compatibility, and practical experiences. Post irradiation examination: Updated and new remote techniques and methodologies, new materials such as inert matrix fuels, spallation sources and neutron absorber materials. Refurbishment and decommissioning: reports on refurbishment and decommissioning of PIE facilities. Waste and transport: Hot laboratory waste characteristics and handling, spent fuel research. Several posters are presented.

  14. HOTLAB: European hot laboratories research capacities and needs. Plenary meeting 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents proceedings from the 2004 annual HOTLAB plenary meeting at Halden and Kjeller, Norway. The goal of the yearly plenary meeting was to: Exchange experience on analytical methods, their implementation in hot cells, the methodologies used and their application in nuclear research. Share experience on common infrastructure exploitation matters such as remote handling techniques, safety features, QA-certification, waste handling, etc. Promote normalisation and co-operation, e.g. by looking at mutual complementarities. Prospect present and future demands from the nuclear industry and to draw strategic conclusions regarding further needs. The main themes of the five topical oral sessions of the Halden plenary meeting cover: Work package leaders report and specific papers, presentation of PIE facility databases, i.e. one worldwide (IAEA) and one inside the European communities. Reports from present and future needs and on nuclear transports. Refabrication and instrumentation: Available equipment, technical characteristics such as fabrication procedures, hot-cell compatibility, and practical experiences. Post irradiation examination: Updated and new remote techniques and methodologies, new materials such as inert matrix fuels, spallation sources and neutron absorber materials. Refurbishment and decommissioning: reports on refurbishment and decommissioning of PIE facilities. Waste and transport: Hot laboratory waste characteristics and handling, spent fuel research. Several posters are presented

  15. Road transport emissions and capacity of forests in the region of Athens for sequestring these emissions: carbon flow before and after forest fires

    OpenAIRE

    Petros Chatzimpiros; Natalia Roumelioti; Anna Zamba; Kimon Hadjibiros

    2016-01-01

    One important component of the urban contribution to carbon dioxide atmospheric emissions is road transport. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from urban road transport in the centre of Athens recorded over a period of five years (2000–2005) are compared with the carbon sequestration capacity of regional forests, prior to and after the devastating forest fires in Attica in 2007 and 2009, which is the administrative region of Athens. The comparison of carbon flow reveals two complementary aspects...

  16. Assessment of capacity for Health Policy and Systems Research and Analysis in seven African universities: results from the CHEPSAA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzoev, Tolib; Lê, Gillian; Green, Andrew; Orgill, Marsha; Komba, Adalgot; Esena, Reuben K; Nyapada, Linet; Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Amde, Woldekidan K; Nxumalo, Nonhlanhla; Gilson, Lucy

    2014-10-01

    The importance of health policy and systems research and analysis (HPSR+A) is widely recognized. Universities are central to strengthening and sustaining the HPSR+A capacity as they teach the next generation of decision-makers and health professionals. However, little is known about the capacity of universities, specifically, to develop the field. In this article, we report results of capacity self- assessments by seven universities within five African countries, conducted through the Consortium for Health Policy and Systems Analysis in Africa (CHEPSAA). The capacity assessments focused on both capacity 'assets' and 'needs', and covered the wider context, as well as organizational and individual capacity levels. Six thematic areas of capacity were examined: leadership and governance, organizations' resources, scope of HPSR+A teaching and research, communication, networking and getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP), demand for HPRS+A and resource environment. The self-assessments by each university used combinations of document reviews, semi-structured interviews and staff surveys, followed by comparative analysis. A framework approach, guided by the six thematic areas, was used to analyse data. We found that HPSR+A is an international priority, and an existing activity in Africa, though still neglected field with challenges including its reliance on unpredictable international funding. All universities have capacity assets, such as ongoing HPSR+A teaching and research. There are, however, varying levels of assets (such as differences in staff numbers, group sizes and amount of HPSR+A teaching and research), which, combined with different capacity needs at all three levels (such as individual training, improvement in systems for quality assurance and fostering demand for HPSR+A work), can shape a future agenda for HPSR+A capacity strengthening. Capacity assets and needs at different levels appear related. Possible integrated strategies for strengthening

  17. Perspectives on Emerging Zoonotic Disease Research and Capacity Building in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Stephen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonoses are fundamental determinants of community health. Preventing, identifying and managing these infections must be a central public health focus. Most current zoonoses research focuses on the interface of the pathogen and the clinically ill person, emphasizing microbial detection, mechanisms of pathogenicity and clinical intervention strategies, rather than examining the causes of emergence, persistence and spread of new zoonoses. There are gaps in the understanding of the animal determinants of emergence and the capacity to train highly qualified individuals; these are major obstacles to preventing new disease threats. The ability to predict the emergence of zoonoses and their resulting public health and societal impacts are hindered when insufficient effort is devoted to understanding zoonotic disease epidemiology, and when zoonoses are not examined in a manner that yields fundamental insight into their origin and spread.

  18. Research and development of electric vehicles for clean transportation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WADA Masayoshi

    2009-01-01

    This article presents the research and development of an electric vehicle (EV) in Dept.of Human-Robotics Saitama Institute of Technology.Electric mobile systems developed in our laboratory include a converted electric automobile,electric wheelchair and personal mobile robot.These mobile systems contribute to realize clean transportation since energy sources and devices from all vehicles,i.e.,batteries and electric motors,does not deteriorate the environment.To drive motors for vehicle traveling,robotic technologies were applied.

  19. Open Distance Learning for Development: Lessons from Strengthening Research Capacity on Gender, Crisis Prevention, and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Chandra Babu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper documents the experience and lessons from implementing an e-learning program aimed at creating research capacity for gender, crisis prevention, and recovery. It presents a case study of bringing together a multidisciplinary group of women professionals through both online and face-to-face interactions to learn the skills needed to be a successful researcher. It reviews the issues related to distance learning programs with particular reference to the e-learning courses and highlights the constraints and challenges in implementing them. Lessons from the experience for future development of similar courses indicate that participant profiling prior to the course, user friendliness of technology, meeting various learning styles, encouraging and rewarding online exchanges, commitment of course moderators, a variety of learning materials, and mixed approaches to learning are some of the factors that can enhance the success of e-learning programs. The paper concludes that enhancing skills of developing country researchers through e-learning programs can increase learning accessibility to those living and working in remote and conflict ridden areas, and bring together a network of professionals to interact and exchange experiences on common problems and solutions.

  20. INFRAVEC: research capacity for the implementation of genetic control of mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crisanti, Andrea

    2013-12-01

    genetics, and the ecology of Anopheles and Aedes mosquitoes paralleled by the development of new molecular tools for investigating gene function and mosquito ability to transmit parasite and viral diseases. They offer a compelling opportunity to design and validate new genetic vector control measures. The size and the complexity of this undertaking require a high level of capacity, effort, and technological platforms. No laboratory--or even institution--has the resources, the infrastructure capacity, and the expertise to accomplish this task alone. INFRAVEC addresses the need of the scientific community to share facilities and integrate cutting-edge knowledge and technologies that are not readily accessible but nevertheless critical to exploit genetic and genomic information in the effort to control mosquito-borne diseases. Its objective is to provide laboratories that currently operate individually with limited coordination and little sharing of technologies, with the collective research capacity of the laboratories forming the core project infrastructure. INFRAVEC has provided resources to 31 institutions from European and African countries to enhance collaborative links, to execute joint research activity, and most importantly to enable individual researchers (from PhD students to established academics) to carry complex experimental activities by assigning research packages or ‘infrastructure access’ to be executed in the laboratory facilities and infrastructures of INFRAVEC. I report here on the overall activities of INFRAVEC and its impact on the scientific community with the purpose to initiate a dialogue with all stakeholders on its future evolution.

  1. How reliable is the offline linkage of Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim for this research is to evaluate the ability of the offline linkage of Weather Research & Forecasting Model (WRF) and Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model to produce hydrological, e.g. evaporation (ET), soil moisture (SM), runoff, and baseflow. First, the VIC mo...

  2. A review and synthesis of recreation ecology research supporting carrying capacity and visitor use management decisionmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Resource and experiential impacts associated with visitation to wilderness and other similar backcountry settings have long been addressed by land managers under the context of “carrying capacity” decisionmaking. Determining a maximum level of allowable use, below which high-quality resource and experiential conditions would be sustained, was an early focus in the 1960s and 1970s. However, decades of recreation ecology research have shown that the severity and areal extent of visitor impact problems are influenced by an interrelated array of use-related, environmental, and managerial factors. This complexity, with similar findings from social science research, prompted scientists and managers to develop more comprehensive carrying capacity frameworks, including a new Visitor Use Management framework. These frameworks rely on a diverse array of management strategies and actions, often termed a “management toolbox,” for resolving visitor impact problems. This article reviews the most recent and relevant recreation ecology studies that have been applied in wildland settings to avoid or minimize resource impacts. The key findings and their management implications are highlighted to support the professional management of common trail, recreation site, and wildlife impact problems. These studies illustrate the need to select from a more diverse array of impact management strategies and actions based on an evaluation of problems to identify the most influential factors that can be manipulated.

  3. A practical and systematic approach to organisational capacity strengthening for research in the health sector in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bates, Imelda; Boyd, Alan; Smith, Helen; Cole, Donald C

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite increasing investment in health research capacity strengthening efforts in low and middle income countries, published evidence to guide the systematic design and monitoring of such interventions is very limited. Systematic processes are important to underpin capacity strengthening interventions because they provide stepwise guidance and allow for continual improvement. Our objective here was to use evidence to inform the design of a replicable but flexible process to guide ...

  4. Impact of Health Research Capacity Strengthening in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: The Case of WHO/TDR Programmes

    OpenAIRE

    Happiness Minja; Christian Nsanzabana; Christine Maure; Axel Hoffmann; Susan Rumisha; Olumide Ogundahunsi; Fabio Zicker; Marcel Tanner; Pascal Launois

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Measuring the impact of capacity strengthening support is a priority for the international development community. Several frameworks exist for monitoring and evaluating funding results and modalities. Based on its long history of support, we report on the impact of individual and institutional capacity strengthening programmes conducted by the UNICEF/UNDP/World Bank/WHO Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) and on the factors that influenced the...

  5. Strengthening capacity for AIDS vaccine research: analysis of the Pfizer Global Health Fellows Program and the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Vian, Taryn; Koseki, Sayaka; Feeley, Frank G; Beard, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Background Industry partnerships can help leverage resources to advance HIV/AIDS vaccine research, service delivery, and policy advocacy goals. This often involves capacity building for international and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). International volunteering is increasingly being used as a capacity building strategy, yet little is known about how corporate volunteers help to improve performance of NGOs in the fight against HIV/AIDS. Methods This case study helps to extend our...

  6. A research agenda for helminth diseases of humans: health research and capacity building in disease-endemic countries for helminthiases control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Atweneboana, Mike Y; Lustigman, Sara; Prichard, Roger K; Boatin, Boakye A; Basáñez, María-Gloria

    2012-01-01

    Capacity building in health research generally, and helminthiasis research particularly, is pivotal to the implementation of the research and development agenda for the control and elimination of human helminthiases that has been proposed thematically in the preceding reviews of this collection. Since helminth infections affect human populations particularly in marginalised and low-income regions of the world, they belong to the group of poverty-related infectious diseases, and their alleviation through research, policy, and practice is a sine qua non condition for the achievement of the United Nations Millennium Development Goals. Current efforts supporting research capacity building specifically for the control of helminthiases have been devised and funded, almost in their entirety, by international donor agencies, major funding bodies, and academic institutions from the developed world, contributing to the creation of (not always equitable) North-South "partnerships". There is an urgent need to shift this paradigm in disease-endemic countries (DECs) by refocusing political will, and harnessing unshakeable commitment by the countries' governments, towards health research and capacity building policies to ensure long-term investment in combating and sustaining the control and eventual elimination of infectious diseases of poverty. The Disease Reference Group on Helminth Infections (DRG4), established in 2009 by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR), was given the mandate to review helminthiases research and identify research priorities and gaps. This paper discusses the challenges confronting capacity building for parasitic disease research in DECs, describes current capacity building strategies with particular reference to neglected tropical diseases and human helminthiases, and outlines recommendations to redress the balance of alliances and partnerships for health research between the developed countries of the "North" and

  7. Neglected tropical diseases: a systematic evaluation of research capacity in Nigeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia N Okorie

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria carries the highest burden and diversity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs in sub-Saharan Africa and is preparing to scale up its efforts to control/eliminate these diseases. To achieve this it will require a range of internal technical support and expertise for mapping, monitoring and evaluating, operational research and documenting its success. In order to begin to evaluate this potential in Nigeria, this study collated and analysed information for lymphatic filariasis (LF, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths (STH, which are currently being targeted with preventive chemotherapy through mass drug administration (MDA.Information from 299 scientific articles published on the selected NTDs in 179 journals between January 2008 and September 2013 was extracted and systematically compiled into a geo-referenced database for analysis and mapping. The highest number of articles was from the southern geo-political zones of the country. The majority of articles focused on one specific disease, and schistosomiasis and STH were found to have the highest and most wide ranging research output. The main type of study was parasitological, and the least was biotechnological. Nigerian authors were mostly affiliated with universities, and there was a wide range of international co-authors from Africa and other regions, especially the USA and UK. The majority of articles were published in journals with no known impact factor.The extensive database and series of maps on the research capacity within Nigeria produced in this study highlights the current potential that exists, and needs to be fully maximized for the control/elimination of NTDs in the country. This study provides an important model approach that can be applied to other low and middle income countries where NTDs are endemic, and NTD programmes require support from the expertise within their own country, as well as internationally, to help raise their profile and

  8. Transportable Heavy Duty Emissions Testing Laboratory and Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Lyons

    2008-03-31

    The objective of this program was to quantify the emissions from heavy-duty vehicles operating on alternative fuels or advanced fuel blends, often with novel engine technology or aftertreatment. In the first year of the program West Virginia University (WVU) researchers determined that a transportable chassis dynamometer emissions measurement approach was required so that fleets of trucks and buses did not need to be ferried across the nation to a fixed facility. A Transportable Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Testing Laboratory (Translab) was designed, constructed and verified. This laboratory consisted of a chassis dynamometer semi-trailer and an analytic trailer housing a full scale exhaust dilution tunnel and sampling system which mimicked closely the system described in the Code of Federal Regulations for engine certification. The Translab was first used to quantify emissions from natural gas and methanol fueled transit buses, and a second Translab unit was constructed to satisfy research demand. Subsequent emissions measurement was performed on trucks and buses using ethanol, Fischer-Tropsch fuel, and biodiesel. A medium-duty chassis dynamometer was also designed and constructed to facilitate research on delivery vehicles in the 10,000 to 20,000lb range. The Translab participated in major programs to evaluate low-sulfur diesel in conjunction with passively regenerating exhaust particulate filtration technology, and substantial reductions in particulate matter were recorded. The researchers also participated in programs to evaluate emissions from advanced natural gas engines with closed loop feedback control. These natural gas engines showed substantially reduced levels of oxides of nitrogen. For all of the trucks and buses characterized, the levels of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide and particulate matter were quantified, and in many cases non-regulated species such as aldehydes were also sampled. Particle size was also

  9. Switching the poles in sexual and reproductive health research: implementing a research capacity-strengthening network in West and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossou, Jean-Paul; Assarag, Bouchra; Delamou, Alexandre; Van der Veken, Karen; Belaid, Loubna; Ouédraogo, Moctar; Khalfallah, Sonia; Aouras, Hayet; Diadhiou, Mohamed; Fassassi, Raïmi; Delvaux, Thérèse

    2016-01-01

    Health research capacities have been improved in Africa but still remain weak as compared to other regions of the World. To strengthen these research capacities, international collaboration and networking for knowledge and capacity transfer are needed. In this commentary, we present the Network for Scientific Support in the field of Sexual and Reproductive Health in West and North Africa, its priority research topics and discuss its implementation process. Established in January 2014, the Network aims at generating human rights and gender-based research fully carried out and driven by South based institutions. It is composed of 12 institutions including the Institute of Tropical Medicine of Antwerp (Belgium) and 11 institutions from eight Francophone West and North African countries. The key areas of interest of this network are health policies analysis and health system research in family planning, HIV prevention among vulnerable groups, quality of care and breast cancers. Since it started, seventeen research proposals based on locally relevant research questions have been developed. Among the seventeen proposals, eleven have been implemented. Several research institutions enhanced linkages with local representations of international partners such as UNFPA. The network is committed to strengthening methodological research capacities and soft skills such as fundraising, advocacy and leadership. Such competencies are strongly needed for developing an effective South-based leadership in Sexual and Reproductive Health research, and for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. PMID:27502593

  10. Community capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence: a survey of Ontario's HIV/AIDS sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rourke Sean B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based organizations (CBOs are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery. To better support CBOs to find and use research evidence, we sought to assess the capacity of CBOs in the HIV/AIDS sector to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence in their work. Methods We invited executive directors of HIV/AIDS CBOs in Ontario, Canada (n = 51 to complete the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation's "Is Research Working for You?" survey. Findings Based on responses from 25 organizations that collectively provide services to approximately 32,000 clients per year with 290 full-time equivalent staff, we found organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence to be low. CBO strengths include supporting a culture that rewards flexibility and quality improvement, exchanging information within their organization, and ensuring that their decision-making processes have a place for research. However, CBO Executive Directors indicated that they lacked the skills, time, resources, incentives, and links with experts to acquire research, assess its quality and reliability, and summarize it in a user-friendly way. Conclusion Given the limited capacity to find and use research evidence, we recommend a capacity-building strategy for HIV/AIDS CBOs that focuses on providing the tools, resources, and skills needed to more consistently acquire, assess, adapt, and apply research evidence. Such a strategy may be appropriate in other sectors and jurisdictions as well given that CBO Executive Directors in the HIV/AIDS sector in Ontario report low capacity despite being in the enviable position of having stable government infrastructure in place to support them, benefiting from long-standing investment in capacity building, and being part of an active provincial network. CBOs in other

  11. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX – multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research and capacity building initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX is a multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research, research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities, and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, urbanization, chemicalization, food and fresh water availability, energy production and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructures and related capacity building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure, summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  12. Introduction: The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) - multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research and capacity building initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulmala, M.; Lappalainen, H. K.; Petäjä, T.; Kurten, T.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Viisanen, Y.; Hari, P.; Bondur, V.; Kasimov, N.; Kotlyakov, V.; Matvienko, G.; Baklanov, A.; Guo, H. D.; Ding, A.; Hansson, H.-C.; Zilitinkevich, S.

    2015-08-01

    The Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a multi-disciplinary, multi-scale and multi-component research, research infrastructure and capacity building program. PEEX has originated from a bottom-up approach by the science communities, and is aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in Earth System Science and global sustainability issues concerning the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions, as well as China. The vision of PEEX is to solve interlinked global grand challenges influencing human well-being and societies in northern Eurasia and China. Such challenges include climate change, air quality, biodiversity loss, urbanization, chemicalization, food and fresh water availability, energy production and use of natural resources by mining, industry, energy production and transport sectors. Our approach is integrative and supra-disciplinary, recognizing the important role of the Arctic and boreal ecosystems in the Earth system. The PEEX vision includes establishing and maintaining long-term, coherent and coordinated research activities as well as continuous, comprehensive research and educational infrastructures and related capacity building across the PEEX domain. In this paper we present the PEEX structure, summarize its motivation, objectives and future outlook.

  13. Enhancing research ethics capacity in the Middle East: experience and challenges of a Fogarty-sponsored training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Henry; Edwards, Hillary; Shamoo, Adil; Matar, Amal

    2013-12-01

    We describe the research ethics capacity needs of the countries from the Middle East region. Against this background, we relate the experience of an international training program focused on providing long-term training in research ethics to individuals from low and middle-income countries in the Middle East area. We describe our pedagogical approach to training, program changes to address challenges faced, and accomplishments of trainees. Many former trainees developed research ethics curricula in their home institutions, established or enhanced their institutions' research ethics committees, provided leadership to national research ethics systems, and conducted research in research ethics. Based on our analysis, we make recommendations for how trainees can further address current regional research ethics needs in the Middle East and conduct future research. This paper is part of a collection of papers analyzing the Fogarty International Center's International Research Ethics Education and Curriculum Development program.

  14. RESEARCHING OIL CAPACITY OF MOSS FUSCUM PEAT TO THE COMMERCIAL OIL AND STABLE GAS CONDENSATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHUHAREVA N.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The articles talks about influence of fractional composition of moss fuscum peat on its oil capacity. The technique for determining oil capacity of peat are discribed. The experiments were carried out for hydrocarbons with different density ( ρ =880 kg/m3 and ρ =770 kg/m3.

  15. A generalized mathematical model to understand the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries - Effects of solvent and lithium transport

    OpenAIRE

    Abhishek Deshpande; Saksham Phul; Balaji Krishnamurthy

    2015-01-01

    A general mathematical model to study capacity fading in lithium ion batteries is developed. The model assumes that the formation of the Solid Electrolyte interphase(SEI) layer is the primary reason behind the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. Previous models have assumed that either the solvent or the lithium plays a key role in the film formation reaction which drives the capacity fading in lithium ion batteries. The current model postulates that the solvent species and lithium ions...

  16. Community-based participatory research: a capacity-building approach for policy advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Barbara A; Coombe, Chris M; Cheezum, Rebecca R; Schulz, Amy J; McGranaghan, Robert J; Lichtenstein, Richard; Reyes, Angela G; Clement, Jaye; Burris, Akosua

    2010-11-01

    There have been increasing calls for community-academic partnerships to enhance the capacity of partners to engage in policy advocacy aimed at eliminating health disparities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a partnership approach that can facilitate capacity building and policy change through equitable engagement of diverse partners. Toward this end, the Detroit Community-Academic Urban Research Center, a long-standing CBPR partnership, has conducted a policy training project. We describe CBPR and its relevance to health disparities; the interface between CBPR, policy advocacy, and health disparities; the rationale for capacity building to foster policy advocacy; and the process and outcomes of our policy advocacy training. We discuss lessons learned and implications for CBPR and policy advocacy to eliminate health disparities. PMID:20864728

  17. Decentralisation, Local Governance and Community Participation in Vietnam (Research Reports of the VASS/ISS Capacity Building Project)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. de Wit (Joop)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractIntroduction: In the context of the VASS-ISS project research has been carried out that is relevant for the project‟s core concern of capacity building for local governance and that is to feed into the training workshops provided under the project. The present document is a report on res

  18. The revised IAEA regulations and their impact on the transport of research reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Transport Regulations are the basis for most shipments of radioactive material. During the year 2001 the requirements of the 1996 revised edition have been implemented into international and national regulations. The revised version contain new and more stringent requirements concerning radiation protection, package performance and criticality safety in case of air transport. Whereas the transport of spent MTR fuel remains practically unaffected, there might be restrictions of package capacity in case of air shipments of fresh MTR fuel. In future, the IAEA transport regulations will be reviewed at 2 years intervals. Attempts are made to avoid a negative impact on the validity of package approvals. (author)

  19. Advanced computer technology - An aspect of the Terminal Configured Vehicle program. [air transportation capacity, productivity, all-weather reliability and noise reduction improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkstresser, B. K.

    1975-01-01

    NASA is conducting a Terminal Configured Vehicle program to provide improvements in the air transportation system such as increased system capacity and productivity, increased all-weather reliability, and reduced noise. A typical jet transport has been equipped with highly flexible digital display and automatic control equipment to study operational techniques for conventional takeoff and landing aircraft. The present airborne computer capability of this aircraft employs a multiple computer simple redundancy concept. The next step is to proceed from this concept to a reconfigurable computer system which can degrade gracefully in the event of a failure, adjust critical computations to remaining capacity, and reorder itself, in the case of transients, to the highest order of redundancy and reliability.

  20. Importance of Research Reactors in Human Capacity Building in Nuclear Science and Engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This oral presentation describes the robust utilization program of a university reactor in the United States, particularly through agreements for human capacity building in nuclear engineering and reactor operation. (author)

  1. Predicted Aerobic Capacity of Asthmatic Children: A Research Study from Clinical Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lene Lochte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare longitudinally PAC of asthmatic children against that of healthy controls during ten months. Methods. Twenty-eight asthmatic children aged 7–15 years and 27 matched controls each performed six submaximal exercise tests on treadmill, which included a test of EIA (exercise-induced asthma. Predicted aerobic capacity (mLO2/min/kg was calculated. Spirometry and development were measured. Physical activity, medication, and “ever asthma/current asthma” were reported by questionnaire. Results. Predicted aerobic capacity of asthmatics was lower than that of controls (P=0.0015 across observation times and for both groups an important increase in predicted aerobic capacity according to time was observed (P<0.001. FEV1 of the asthmatic children was within normal range. The majority (86% of the asthmatics reported pulmonary symptoms to accompany their physical activity. Physical activity (hours per week showed important effects for the variation in predicted aerobic capacity at baseline (F=2.28, P=0.061 and at the T4 observation (F=3.03, P=0.027 and the analyses showed important asthma/control group effects at baseline, month four, and month ten. Physical activity of the asthmatics correlated positively with predicted aerobic capacity. Conclusion. The asthmatic children had consistently low PAC when observed across time. Physical activity was positively associated with PAC in the asthmatics.

  2. Packet radio data link applications in the NASA Langley Research Center Transport Systems Research Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Wesley C.; Carter, Donald; Mcluer, David G.

    1994-01-01

    An amateur packet radio system operating in the very high frequency (VHF) range has been implemented in the Transport Systems Research Vehicle at the NASA Langley Research Center to provide an economical, bidirectional, real-time, ground-to-air data link. The packet system has been used to support flight research involving air traffic control (ATC), differential global positioning systems (DGPS), and windshear terminal doppler weather radar (TDWR). A data maximum rate of 2400 baud was used. Operational reliability of the packet system has been very good. Also, its versatility permits numerous specific configurations. These features, plus its low cost, have rendered it very satisfactory for support of data link flight experiments that do not require high data transfer rates.

  3. RESEARCH ON THE POPULATION CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE LAND RESOURCES IN THE ECONOMIC AREA OF ZHUJIANG DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The authors once made a preliminary research on population carrying capacity of the land in the Economic Area of Zhujiang Delta (EAZD for short) in 1995, and reckoned that the ultimate population in this region will be 23 550 thousand by year of 2000. While the population in being in EAZD was 22.62 million in 1999. This accords with the prefigured result in the rough from the point of view of development. According to the data of plow land resources from the 2000 Statistical Yearbook of EAZD and the study on the population-foodstuff-plow land relationship, this paper calculates the productive potential of plow land and the population carrying capacity of land by year of 2010, and puts forward the countermeasures for improving the population carrying capacity of land in this region.

  4. Experience of IEA-R1 research reactor spent fuel transportation back to United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IPEN/CNEN-SP is sending the IEA-R1 Research Reactor spent fuels from USA origin back to this country. This paper describes the experience in organizing the negotiations, documents and activities to perform the transport. Subjects as cask licensing, transport licensing and fuel failure criteria for transportation are presented. (author)

  5. Public Transport for Everyone: A Summary of the Results of Research and Development Projects Concerning Disabled People and Transport Facilities Supported by the Swedish Transport Research Board. TFB-Report 1989:1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borjesson, Mats

    This report summarizes the results of research and development concerning disabled individuals in Sweden and their use of transport facilities. The first section, "People with Impaired Mobility and Their Travel Needs," outlines Sweden's transport policy goal to adapt transport to the needs of disabled people, addresses the difficulty in…

  6. Characterization of organics in Whiteshell research area groundwater and the implications for radionuclide transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naturally occurring organics in groundwaters of the Whiteshell Research Area (WRA) of southern Manitoba were investigated to assess their potential role in radionuclide transport within granite fractures of the Canadian Shield. A survey of dissolved organic carbon concentrations, carried out to determine the variability in the organic content of these groundwaters, showed average concentrations of 0.8 ±0.1 mg/L for Fracture Zone 2, 0.8 ± 0.4 mg/L for near-vertical fractures and 2.3 ± 0.8 mg/L for deeper saline groundwater. The dissolved organic carbon consisted mainly of hydrophilic neutral compounds (60 to 75%), and hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids (23 to 39%), along with very small amounts of hydrophobic bases and neutrals, and hydrophilic bases. Significant contamination from drilling operations and plastics, mostly in the form of hydrophobic neutrals, was observed in some samples. These compounds would not contribute to radionuclide migration in a natural system and are not included in the assessment of the organic complexing capacity of these groundwaters. Based on groundwater concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids and on the measured carboxylic functional group content of these acids, the average complexing capacity of natural organics in Whiteshell Research Area groundwaters was calculated to be 2.9 x 10(-6) eq/L. The ability of these organics to complex radionuclides was tested using conditional stability constants from the literature for humic complex formation with Am(III), Th(IV), and U(VI). The chemistry of U(VI) was predicted to be dominated by inorganic complexes and not significantly affected by organics. The literature contains a wide range in values of stability constants for Am(III) and Th(TV) complexes with humics. The aqueous chemistry of Am(III) and Th(VI) could be affected by complexation with natural organics if the higher stability constant values are valid for WRA groundwaters. (UK)

  7. IOT technology application model research of transportation industry in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Mingyong; Zhou Tang; Liu Zhengchi

    2013-01-01

    The paper studied the connection between intemet of things (IOT) technology and transportation industry.Meanwhile,the definition of IOT in transportation was given.Concerning that many problems occurred during the process of traditional intelligent transportation system,the paper proposed a promising model of IOT in transportation.The advantage of the information utilization model from information to function was confirmed through comparative study.Finally,the model presented that a real interconnection of transportation would be achieved based on the unified information collection.It can greatly save cost on technology transfer,exploit potential value of information,and promote the emergence of a sustainable information service market and the industrial upgrade.

  8. Professional Knowledge Formation and Organisational Capacity-Building in ACE: Lessons from the Victorian Research Circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, John

    2008-01-01

    The national reform agenda of the Council of Australian Governments challenges community education agencies to contribute to its goals and raises questions about their capacity to do so. It is crucial to define the conditions that are necessary to develop the capability of adult and community education (ACE) organisations to play a broader social…

  9. Empowering Smallholder Farmers in Markets: strengthening the advocacy capacities of national farmer organisations through collaborative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ton, G.; Grip, de K.; Lançon, F.; Onumah, G.; Proctor, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    The Empowering Smallholder Farmers in Markets programme (ESFIM) supported the advocacy capacities of national farmer organisations (NFOs) for improving smallholder market access. The programme gave NFOs in 11 countries the opportunity to contract local experts to strengthen the evidence-base of thei

  10. Linking training, research and policy advice: capacity building for adaptation to climate change in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terwisscha van Scheltinga, C.T.H.M.; Geene, van J.

    2011-01-01

    It is increasingly acknowledged that adapting to climate change is important in developing countries, where the majority of people depend on agriculture and natural resources for their livelihoods, and their capacity to adapt to change is low. These people are especially vulnerable to climate change

  11. Assessment of Antioxidant Capacities in Foods: A Research Experience for General Chemistry Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoch, Matthew A.; Russell, Cianan B.; Steffen, Debora M.; Weaver, Gabriela C.; Burgess, John R.

    2009-01-01

    With the booming interest in health food and nutrition, investigations of the antioxidant capacities of various foods have come to the forefront of food science. This general chemistry laboratory curriculum provides students with an opportunity to design and implement their own experiments relating to antioxidants in food. The curriculum is six…

  12. Research on the Specific Heat Capacity of PBX Formulations Based on RDX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Rodrigues Chaves

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results of specific heat capacity of 2 plastic bonded explosives formulations based on 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine, using differential scanning calorimetry thermal analysis, and the theoretical ones calculated with the specific heat capacity and mass fraction of individual compounds are compared for a temperature range between 340 and 410 K. Apart the filler, the plastic bonded explosives composition includes the binder based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene, the plasticizer bis (2-ethylhexyl sebacate and the curing agent isophorone diisocyanate. The experimental and theoretical results showed a better approach when no curing agent is added. Without curing agent, the specific heat capacity of plastic bonded explosives increases linearly with temperature. When plastic bonded explosive is cured, the specific heat capacity is nearly constant until 380 K and decreases linearly for higher temperature values. These results suggest that phase change requires adjusting parameters to different heating rates in order to describe adequately the experimental data.

  13. Rotina computacional e equação simplificada para modelar o transporte de sedimentos num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico Computational routine and simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity in a Dystrophic Hapludox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar E. Cerquetani

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram desenvolver rotina computacional para a solução da equação de Yalin e do diagrama de Shields e avaliar uma equação simplificada para modelar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento num Latossolo Vermelho Distrófico que possa ser utilizada no Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, assim como em outros modelos de predição da erosão do solo. A capacidade de transporte de sedimento para o fluxo superficial foi representada como função-potência da tensão cisalhante, a qual revelou ser aproximação da equação de Yalin. Essa equação simplificada pôde ser aplicada em resultados experimentais oriundos de topografia complexa. A equação simplificada demonstrou acuracidade em relação à equação de Yalin, quando calibrada utilizando-se da tensão média cisalhante. Testes de validação com dados independentes demonstraram que a equação simplificada foi eficiente para estimar a capacidade de transporte de sedimento.The objectives of the present work were to develop a computational routine to solve Yalin equation and Shield diagram and to evaluate a simplified equation for modeling sediment transport capacity in a Dystrophic Hapludox that could be used in the Water Erosion Prediction Project - WEPP, as well as other soil erosion models. Sediment transport capacity for shallow overland flow was represented as a power function of the hydraulic shear stress and which showed to be an approximation to the Yalin equation for sediment transport capacity. The simplified equation for sediment transport could be applied to experimental data from a complex topography. The simplified equation accurately approximated the Yalin equation when calibrated using the mean hydraulic shear stress. Validation tests using independent data showed that the simplified equation had a good performance in predicting sediment transport capacity.

  14. Improving the design of higher-capacity railway tank cars for hazardous materials transport: optimizing the trade-off between weight and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkan, Christopher P L

    2008-12-15

    As with many aspects of modern industrial society, decision-makers face trade-offs in considering hazardous materials transportation equipment and practices. Tank cars used for transport of hazardous materials can be made more resistant to damage in accidents through use of a thicker steel tank and other protective features. However, the additional weight of these features reduces the car's capacity and thus its efficiency as a transportation vehicle. In this paper the problem of tank car safety versus weight is developed as a multi-attribute decision problem. North American railroads recently developed specifications for higher capacity tank cars for transportation of hazardous materials including enhanced safety design features. A group of tank car safety design features or "risk reduction options" (RROs) were analyzed with regard to their effect on the conditional probability of release in an accident, and their incremental effect on tank car weight. All possible combinations of these RROs were then analyzed in terms of the reduced release probability per unit of weight increase and the Pareto optimal set of options identified. This set included the combinations of RROs that provided the greatest improvement in safety with the least amount of additional weight for any desired level of tank car weight increase. The analysis was conducted for both non-insulated and insulated tank cars and used two objective functions, minimization of conditional probability of release, and minimization of expected quantity lost, given that a car was derailed in an accident. Sensitivity analyses of the effect of tank car size and use of different objective functions were conducted and the optimality results were found to be robust. The results of this analysis were used by the Association of American Railroads Tank Car Committee to develop new specifications for higher capacity non-insulated and insulated, non-pressure tank cars resulting in an estimated 32% and 24% respective

  15. Extending the road safety research and development capacity in Morocco : a joint CNPAC, SWOV and RDW initiative.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schermers, G. Hagenzieker, M. Vliet, A. van & Hengel, J. ten

    2015-01-01

    During the Moroccan trade mission to the Netherlands in March 2013, a delegation of the Moroccan Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport and the National Committee for the Prevention of Road Traffic Accidents (CNPAC) visited the Dutch Institute for Road Safety Research (SWOV), the Dutch vehicle and

  16. The Influence of Organisational Defensive Patterns on Innovation Capacity and Learning of Information and Communication Technology: An Empirical Study in Hong Kong Transport Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2010-01-01

    Organisational defensive patterns, including skilled incompetence, organisational defensive routines and fancy footwork, are considered to be a hindrance to effective learning and innovation capacity building in all organisations. The purpose of this research is to investigate: 1) the perceptions of the influence of organisational defensive…

  17. The intellectual structure of transportation management research : A review of the literature

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhold, Stephan; Laesser, Christian; Bazzi, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    "Transportation Management" and "Management of Transportation" are keywords frequently featured on, yet hardly ever comprehensively defined or explained in peer-reviewed publications in the transportation research domain. In this study, we reveal and analyze the hitherto implicit intellectual structure of this advanced and diverse research field using bibliometrical methods. On the basis of a systematic review of 900 scholarly articles published between 1946 and 2012, we identify 55 topical c...

  18. NEURAL NETWORKS IN TRANSPORTATION RESEARCH – RECENT APPLICATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa PAMUŁA

    2016-01-01

    Neural networks’ (NNs) capability of mapping the nonlinear functions of variables describing the behaviour of objects and the simplicity of designing their configuration favours their applications in transport. This paper presents representative examples in the scope of prediction of road traffic parameters, road traffic control, measurement of road traffic parameters, driver behaviour and autonomous vehicles, and transport policy and economics. The features of the solutions are examined. The...

  19. Research on the Logistics Supply Chain in Port Logistics Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Yan-liang

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to improve and increase the logistics system effectiveness and to solve the problem of optimal movement of different flows. Logistics transport carrying the world on material resources transfer exchange important mission and economic development and our lives are closely linked, logistics chain logistics transport occupies an important position and in the e logistics chain in port logistics has play a decisive role. For many coastal countries port logistics is the eco...

  20. High capacity cask (TN28V) and International Transport System for the return shipment of vitrified high activity wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reprocessing of spent fuel generates different kinds of wastes. Among them fission products and non fissile actinides represent 98% of the radioactivity; these wastes are separated, concentrated, mixed with molten glass and poured into stainless steel containers. For political reasons, it is necessary to return these vitrified high activity wastes to the foreign countries which have decided to have their spent fuel reprocessed in France. So the transport of vitrified waste is vital for both the reprocessor and the utilities that have trusted the reprocessor and this operation has to be securely performed to give satisfaction to all concerned particles. For that reason Cogema will control the whole transport activity from La Hague plants to the receiving facilities of the customers. Therefore cogema will be responsible of the transport whatever the cask type (transport or storage) and will subcontract the transport operation to experienced companies such as Transnucleaire, PNTL or NTL, who will act on behalf of Cogema. Cogema will be the owner of the transport casks while the storage casks will normally be owned by the customers. Both cask types will of course have to comply with the requirements of La Hague, as published by Cogema

  1. Predicted Aerobic Capacity of Asthmatic Children: A Research Study from Clinical Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Lene Lochte

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To compare longitudinally PAC of asthmatic children against that of healthy controls during ten months. Methods. Twenty-eight asthmatic children aged 7–15 years and 27 matched controls each performed six submaximal exercise tests on treadmill, which included a test of EIA (exercise-induced asthma). Predicted aerobic capacity (mLO2/min/kg) was calculated. Spirometry and development were measured. Physical activity, medication, and “ever asthma/current asthma” were reported by questi...

  2. 批量隐写容量研究%Research of capacity for batch steganography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈够喜; 陈俊杰

    2011-01-01

    通过对批量隐写的定性分析,提出了增大批量隐写容量的方法.对大容量图像的位平面进行等分分块,采用矩阵编码技术,证明了至多修改像素的1 LSB位能够嵌入2 bit隐秘信息的结论,提升了批量隐写容量,并给出了安全性分析.最后结合隐秘信息的嵌入和提取算法,以航拍图为隐写载体进行实验,验证了算法的有效性.%According to the definition of batch steganography and the properties of security,this paper presented a method to increase capacity for batch steganography. By dividing up bit-plane of large images and matrix coding,it proved that,a given image block could embed 2 bit by changing at most 1 bit in pixel,and enlarging embedding capacity. Besides analyed security of algorithm and gave embedding and extracting algorithm. The result of experiments shows that the new method of batch steganography for capacity increasing is reasonable.

  3. Research on the Food Security Condition and Food Supply Capacity of Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1 model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80% under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.

  4. Network transportation model with capacity restrictions for the Bolivia Brazil gas pipeline influence area; Modelo de transporte em rede com restricoes de capacidade para a area de influencia do Gasoduto Bolivia Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Patricia Mannarino; Carpio, Lucio Guido Tapia [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Programa de Planejamento Energetico

    2004-07-01

    We present the application of a network transportation model, with capacity restrictions, to determine the minimal cost of supply of a group of markets at the Bolivia Brazil Gas Pipeline influence area, as a function of city gate price. We consider the potential of integration of pipeline transportation at the South Cone, looking forward to supply the Brazilian market. The city gate price consists of the sum of commodity price plus transportation tariffs over every gas pipeline through which the gas passes (except distribution pipelines). There is no distinction related to product quality (e.g. heating value) among suppliers, or among end uses (thermal, thermoelectric or chemical). The model is numerically solved by linear programming. Flow direction alternatives and transportation tariffs alternatives (postal and by zone) are proposed. The model allows, among other applications: identification of the lowest cost supply strategy, identification of network flow capacity bottlenecks, determination of operation and expansion marginal costs using dual solution analysis, investigation of alternative sceneries through sensibility analysis and appreciation of non-optimal solutions that might be attractive. (author)

  5. Predicting Supervisor Capacities to Foster Higher Forms of Learning through Undergraduate Medical Student Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    The credibility of short-term undergraduate research as a paradigm for effective learning within Medicine has been recognized. With a view to strengthening this paradigm and enhancing research-teaching linkages, this study explores whether particular types of research supervisor are pre-disposed to providing supportive learning environments.…

  6. Exploring mentorship as a strategy to build capacity for knowledge translation research and practice: protocol for a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gagliardi Anna R

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research funders, educators, investigators and decision makers worldwide have identified the need to improve the quality of health care by building capacity for knowledge translation (KT research and practice. Peer-based mentorship represents a vehicle to foster KT capacity. The purpose of this exploratory study is to identify mentoring models that could be used to build KT capacity, consult with putative mentee stakeholders to understand their KT mentorship needs and preferences, and generate recommendations for the content and format of KT mentorship strategies or programs, and how they could be tested through future research. Methods A conceptual framework was derived based on mentoring goals, processes and outcomes identified in the management and social sciences literature, and our research on barriers and facilitators of academic mentorship. These concepts will inform data collection and analysis. To identify useful models by which to design, implement and evaluate KT mentorship, we will review the social sciences, management, and nursing literature from 1990 to current, browse tables of contents of relevant journals, and scan the references of all eligible studies. Eligibility screening and data extraction will be performed independently by two investigators. Semi-structured interviews will be used to collect information about KT needs, views on mentorship as a knowledge sharing strategy, preferred KT mentoring program elements, and perceived barriers from clinician health services researchers representing different disciplines. Qualitative analysis of transcripts will be performed independently by two investigators, who will meet to compare findings and resolve differences through discussion. Data will be shared and discussed with the research team, and their feedback incorporated into final reports. Discussion These findings could be used by universities, research institutes, funding agencies, and professional

  7. Road transport emissions and capacity of forests in the region of Athens for sequestring these emissions: carbon flow before and after forest fires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Chatzimpiros

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available One important component of the urban contribution to carbon dioxide atmospheric emissions is road transport. Carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions from urban road transport in the centre of Athens recorded over a period of five years (2000–2005 are compared with the carbon sequestration capacity of regional forests, prior to and after the devastating forest fires in Attica in 2007 and 2009, which is the administrative region of Athens. The comparison of carbon flow reveals two complementary aspects of the same socio-environmental issue: persistent sources versus weakening sinks for CO2 within a mixed (urban and rural setting. Road transport emissions are calculated bottom-up using traffic data from in-situ measurements along segments of main roads. The sequestration capacity of forests is estimated by combining satellite images of changes in land cover with literature values of biomass growth rates. Over the study period, the per capita CO2 emissions averaged 0.72 t CO2/cap/year, which is four times higher than the sequestration capacity of forests before and six times higher after the fires. This imbalance highlights the inadequacy of the local carbon sink. Although there is no biogeochemical need to neutralise carbon budgets locally, defining the CO2 flows from urban activities and local ecosystems is likely to raise awareness and promote global environmental sustainability. The results are compared with top-down estimates of CO2 emissions at a regional scale, where suburban areas are dominant, and the differences are discussed in the light of local socioeconomic factors.

  8. Research of antioxidant capacity of araza (Eugenia stipitata Mc Vaugh during the ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio A. Cuellar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The araza is a fruit native of the Amazon region, like other fruits of this region has some antioxidant components. This work was carried out the classification of the fruits of araza in four different states using as the index of maturity, then phenolic compounds were extracted using mixtures of solvents (methanol, acetone, water and your content was determined by the spectrophotometric method Folin-Ciocalteu in the epicarp and mesocarp. Additionally, partially identified phenolic compounds by reversed phase HPLC with diode array, finding the phenolic acids such as chlorogenic, gallic and caffeic, such as phenols responsible for the majority of araza antioxidant activity. It was noted that araza mesocarp polyphenol content was higher in the green (1200 mg/1000g fruto BH state followed by mature (1200 mg/1000g fruto BH, pinton (905 mg/1000g fruto BH and over mature (550 mg/1000g fruto BH while the epicarp was greater in states mature (170 mg/1000g fruto BH and green (295 mg/1000g fruto BH followed of the over-mature (50 mg/1000g fruto BH and pinton (100 mg/1000g fruto BH states. The antioxidant capacity was determined by three hydrophilic methods (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP in the mesocarp found that the antioxidant capacity was higher in the green state followed by mature, pinton  and over mature while the epicarp was higher in mature, green, pinton and over-mature state. We also determined the antioxidant capacity by a lipophilic method (b-carotene bleaching found that in the mesocarp was higher in states followed by mature (110 mg/1000g fruto BH, pinton (90 mg/1000g fruto BH and  green (26 mg/1000g fruto BH while in the epicarp was higher in the over mature stage (50 mg/1000g fruto BHfollowed by greeen states (45 mg/1000g fruto BH, mature (55 mg/1000g fruto BHand  sobre mature  (25 mg/1000g fruto BH. Finally we conclude that the mature and green had the highest antioxidant capacity, phenolic compounds being present in the epicarp and mesocarp

  9. Mechanism Research on the Improvement of Bearing Capacity of Single Pile by Pile-base Post Grouting Technique and Estimation of Bearing Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao Feng

    2015-01-01

    The slurry wall bored grouting has some defects. The pile-base post grouting technique can efficiently make up these defects and greatly improve the bearing capacity. Based on the pile-base post grouting technique and its process analysis, this paper carries out a detailed analysis about the improvement of mechanism of bearing capacity and mechanism of spherical expansion by the use of pile-base post grouting technique, as well as the estimation method of the bearing capacity of pile-base pos...

  10. An evaluation capacity building toolkit for principal investigators of undergraduate research experiences: A demonstration of transforming theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorrer, Audrey S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the approach and process undertaken to develop evaluation capacity among the leaders of a federally funded undergraduate research program. An evaluation toolkit was developed for Computer and Information Sciences and Engineering(1) Research Experiences for Undergraduates(2) (CISE REU) programs to address the ongoing need for evaluation capacity among principal investigators who manage program evaluation. The toolkit was the result of collaboration within the CISE REU community with the purpose being to provide targeted instructional resources and tools for quality program evaluation. Challenges were to balance the desire for standardized assessment with the responsibility to account for individual program contexts. Toolkit contents included instructional materials about evaluation practice, a standardized applicant management tool, and a modulated outcomes measure. Resulting benefits from toolkit deployment were having cost effective, sustainable evaluation tools, a community evaluation forum, and aggregate measurement of key program outcomes for the national program. Lessons learned included the imperative of understanding the evaluation context, engaging stakeholders, and building stakeholder trust. Results from project measures are presented along with a discussion of guidelines for facilitating evaluation capacity building that will serve a variety of contexts.

  11. An evaluation capacity building toolkit for principal investigators of undergraduate research experiences: A demonstration of transforming theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorrer, Audrey S

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the approach and process undertaken to develop evaluation capacity among the leaders of a federally funded undergraduate research program. An evaluation toolkit was developed for Computer and Information Sciences and Engineering(1) Research Experiences for Undergraduates(2) (CISE REU) programs to address the ongoing need for evaluation capacity among principal investigators who manage program evaluation. The toolkit was the result of collaboration within the CISE REU community with the purpose being to provide targeted instructional resources and tools for quality program evaluation. Challenges were to balance the desire for standardized assessment with the responsibility to account for individual program contexts. Toolkit contents included instructional materials about evaluation practice, a standardized applicant management tool, and a modulated outcomes measure. Resulting benefits from toolkit deployment were having cost effective, sustainable evaluation tools, a community evaluation forum, and aggregate measurement of key program outcomes for the national program. Lessons learned included the imperative of understanding the evaluation context, engaging stakeholders, and building stakeholder trust. Results from project measures are presented along with a discussion of guidelines for facilitating evaluation capacity building that will serve a variety of contexts. PMID:26788814

  12. Research plan: geochemical, hydrological and biological cycling of energy residuals. Subsurface Transport Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy development and production, particularly the generation of various waste products, have resulted in a need for long term scientific information on the geochemical transformations, transport rates, and potential for bioaccumulation or biotransformation of contaminants in subsurface environments. This plan describes proposed research goals and specific research directions intended to address these scientific questions. Research needs are grouped into three areas: (1) biogeo-chemical mobilization; (2) hydrological transport in subsurface systems; and (3) biological uptake and food chain transfer

  13. Geochemical, hydrological and biological cycling of energy residuals. Research plan: Subsurface Transport Program. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy development and production, particularly the generation of various waste products, have resulted in a need for long-term scientific information on the geochemical transformations, transport rates, and potential for bioaccumulation or biotransformation of contaminants in subsurface environments. This plan describes proposed research goals and specific research directions intended to address these scientific questions. Research needs are grouped into three areas: (1) biogeochemical mobilization; (2) hydrological transport in subsurface systems; and (3) biological uptake and food chain transfer

  14. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes an

  15. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Alternative Fuel Infrastructure Expansion: Costs, Resources, Production Capacity, and Retail Availability for Low-Carbon Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melaina, M. W.; Heath, G.; Sandor, D.; Steward, D.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Warner, E.; Webster, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    Achieving the Department of Energy target of an 80% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 depends on transportation-related strategies combining technology innovation, market adoption, and changes in consumer behavior. This study examines expanding low-carbon transportation fuel infrastructure to achieve deep GHG emissions reductions, with an emphasis on fuel production facilities and retail components serving light-duty vehicles. Three distinct low-carbon fuel supply scenarios are examined: Portfolio: Successful deployment of a range of advanced vehicle and fuel technologies; Combustion: Market dominance by hybridized internal combustion engine vehicles fueled by advanced biofuels and natural gas; Electrification: Market dominance by electric drive vehicles in the LDV sector, including battery electric, plug-in hybrid, and fuel cell vehicles, that are fueled by low-carbon electricity and hydrogen. A range of possible low-carbon fuel demand outcomes are explored in terms of the scale and scope of infrastructure expansion requirements and evaluated based on fuel costs, energy resource utilization, fuel production infrastructure expansion, and retail infrastructure expansion for LDVs. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored transportation-related strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence.

  16. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Nuclear spent fuel transportation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, there are a number of institutional problems associated with the shipment of spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear power plants: new and conflicting regulations, embargoing of certain routes, imposition of transport safeguards, physical security in-transit, and a lack of definition of when and where the fuel will be moved. This report presents a summary of these types and kinds of problems. It represents the results of evaluations performed relative to fuel receipt at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant. Case studies were made which address existing reactor sites with near-term spent fuel transportation needs. Shipment by either highway, rail, water, or intermodal water-rail was considered. The report identifies the impact of new regulations and uncertainty caused by indeterminate regulatory policy and lack of action on spent fuel acceptance and storage. This stagnant situation has made it impossible for industry to determine realistic transportation scenarios for business planning and financial risk analysis. A current lack of private investment in nuclear transportation equipment is expected to further prolong the problems associated with nuclear spent fuel and waste disposition. These problems are expected to intensify in the 1980's and in certain cases will make continuing reactor plant operation difficult or impossible

  17. Research and Evaluations of the Health Aspects of Disasters, Part VIII: Risk, Risk Reduction, Risk Management, and Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birnbaum, Marvin L; Loretti, Alessandro; Daily, Elaine K; O'Rourke, Ann P

    2016-06-01

    There is a cascade of risks associated with a hazard evolving into a disaster that consists of the risk that: (1) a hazard will produce an event; (2) an event will cause structural damage; (3) structural damage will create functional damages and needs; (4) needs will create an emergency (require use of the local response capacity); and (5) the needs will overwhelm the local response capacity and result in a disaster (ie, the need for outside assistance). Each step along the continuum/cascade can be characterized by its probability of occurrence and the probability of possible consequences of its occurrence, and each risk is dependent upon the preceding occurrence in the progression from a hazard to a disaster. Risk-reduction measures are interventions (actions) that can be implemented to: (1) decrease the risk that a hazard will manifest as an event; (2) decrease the amounts of structural and functional damages that will result from the event; and/or (3) increase the ability to cope with the damage and respond to the needs that result from an event. Capacity building increases the level of resilience by augmenting the absorbing and/or buffering and/or response capacities of a community-at-risk. Risks for some hazards vary by the context in which they exist and by the Societal System(s) involved. Birnbaum ML , Loretti A , Daily EK , O'Rourke AP . Research and evaluations of the health aspects of disasters, part VIII: risk, risk reduction, risk management, and capacity building. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(3):300-308. PMID:27025980

  18. Experimental research on ultimate bearing capacity of grouted-round-steel-tube N-joint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Wen-zhong; LIU Xu-dong; ZHANG Ge-ming; ZHANG Bo-yi

    2007-01-01

    As an important structural member in self-supporting concrete floor during construction, encased steel truss-concrete composite beam has brilliant prospect in outer-jacketing structures for adding stories or mega frame structures. Compared with encased angle truss, encased round steel tube truss can facilitate layout of itself in column and facilitate layout and anchorage of prestressed reinforcement placed horizontally. N-joint is wildly used in encased steel truss. For cave-in failure easily occurs in hollow steel-tube joint, the idea that the chord is grouted to increase cave-in bearing capacity of hollow tube is proposed. Test results of 8 grouted-roundsteel-tube N-joints from the beginning of loading to failure are reported. Mechanical property and failure mode of this kind of truss joint are analyzed, and the formulas of ultimate bearing capacity of the joint corresponding to different failure modes are established. All these can provide basic data for spreading encased steel truss-concrete composite beam.

  19. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE EFFECT OF SOME BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PRODUCTS UPON THE GERMINATION CAPACITIES OF SMOOTH BROME SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PET

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The carrying out of uniform forage crops represents an important technological loop for all agricultural species. The uniformity of these crops is caused especially by seed germination capacity, respectively by plant emergence capacity, depending upon the climatic and technological conditions. With regards to the researches carried out in this direction, we present here the influence exerted by some biologically-active products, used through extra-root application during plant vegetation period, upon seeds submitted to germination. The observations performed on smooth brome seeds have led to the conclusion that the per cent of germinated seeds ranges from 82%, in the untreated control variant, to 87.67% in the variant treated with the product Stimupro.

  20. Methodological Capacity within the Field of "Educational Technology" Research: An Initial Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulfin, Scott; Henderson, Michael; Johnson, Nicola F.; Selwyn, Neil

    2014-01-01

    The academic study of educational technology is often characterised by critics as methodologically limited. In order to test this assumption, the present paper reports on data collected from a survey of 462 "research active" academic researchers working in the broad areas of educational technology and educational media. The paper…

  1. In EXOG-depleted cardiomyocytes cell death is marked by a decreased mitochondrial reserve capacity of the electron transport chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigchelaar, Wardit; De Jong, Anne Margreet; van Gilst, Wiek H; De Boer, Rudolf A; Silljé, Herman H W

    2016-07-01

    Depletion of mitochondrial endo/exonuclease G-like (EXOG) in cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes stimulates mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and induces hypertrophy via reactive oxygen species (ROS). Here, we show that neurohormonal stress triggers cell death in endo/exonuclease G-like-depleted cells, and this is marked by a decrease in mitochondrial reserve capacity. Neurohormonal stimulation with phenylephrine (PE) did not have an additive effect on the hypertrophic response induced by endo/exonuclease G-like depletion. Interestingly, PE-induced atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) gene expression was completely abolished in endo/exonuclease G-like-depleted cells, suggesting a reverse signaling function of endo/exonuclease G-like. Endo/exonuclease G-like depletion initially resulted in increased mitochondrial OCR, but this declined upon PE stimulation. In particular, the reserve capacity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and maximal respiration were the first indicators of perturbations in mitochondrial respiration, and these marked the subsequent decline in mitochondrial function. Although pathological stimulation accelerated these processes, prolonged EXOG depletion also resulted in a decline in mitochondrial function. At early stages of endo/exonuclease G-like depletion, mitochondrial ROS production was increased, but this did not affect mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) integrity. After prolonged depletion, ROS levels returned to control values, despite hyperpolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. The mitochondrial dysfunction finally resulted in cell death, which appears to be mainly a form of necrosis. In conclusion, endo/exonuclease G-like plays an essential role in cardiomyocyte physiology. Loss of endo/exonuclease G-like results in diminished adaptation to pathological stress. The decline in maximal respiration and reserve capacity is the first sign of mitochondrial dysfunction that determines subsequent cell death. PMID:27417117

  2. Co-current air-water flow in downward sloping pipes: Transport of capacity reducing gas pockets in wastewater mains

    OpenAIRE

    Pothof, I.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Air-water flow is an undesired condition in many systems for the transportation of water or wastewater. Air in storm water tunnels may get trapped and negatively affect the system. Air pockets in hydropower tunnels or sewers may cause blow-back events and inadmissible pressure spikes. Water pipes and wastewater pressure mains in particular are subject to air pocket formation in downward-sloping reaches, such as inverted siphons or terrain slopes. Air pocket accumulation causes energy losses a...

  3. Role of a major facilitator superfamily transporter in adaptation capacity of Penicillium funiculosum under extreme acidic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoxue; Chen, Jinyin; Xu, Houjuan; Li, Duochuan

    2014-08-01

    Fungal species present in extreme low pH environments are expected to have adapted for tolerance to high H(+) concentrations. However, their adaptability mechanism is unclear. In this study, we isolated an acid-tolerant strain of Penicillium funiculosum, which can grow actively at pH 1.0 and thrived in pH 0.6. A major facilitator superfamily transporter (PfMFS) was isolated from an acid-sensitive random insertional mutant (M4) of the fungus. It encodes a putative protein of 551 residues and contains 14 transmembrane-spanning segments. A targeted mutant (M7) carrying an inactivated copy of PfMFS showed an obvious reduction of growth compared with the wild type (WT) and complementation of M7 with PfMFS restored the wild-type level of growth at pH 1.0. Further data showed that the wild-type showed higher intracellular pH than M7 in response to pH 1. Subcellular localization showed that PfMFS was a cell membrane protein. Homology modeling showed structural similarity with an MFS transporter EmrD from Escherichiacoli. These results demonstrate that the PfMFS transporter is involved in the acid resistance and intracellular pH homeostasis of P. funiculosum.

  4. Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S

    2014-12-01

    The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated.

  5. Coordination between water transport capacity, biomass growth, metabolic scaling and species stature in co-occurring shrub and tree species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Duncan D; Sperry, John S

    2014-12-01

    The significance of xylem function and metabolic scaling theory begins from the idea that water transport is strongly coupled to growth rate. At the same time, coordination of water transport and growth seemingly should differ between plant functional types. We evaluated the relationships between water transport, growth and species stature in six species of co-occurring trees and shrubs. Within species, a strong proportionality between plant hydraulic conductance (K), sap flow (Q) and shoot biomass growth (G) was generally supported. Across species, however, trees grew more for a given K or Q than shrubs, indicating greater growth-based water-use efficiency (WUE) in trees. Trees also showed slower decline in relative growth rate (RGR) than shrubs, equivalent to a steeper G by mass (M) scaling exponent in trees (0.77-0.98). The K and Q by M scaling exponents were common across all species (0.80, 0.82), suggesting that the steeper G scaling in trees reflects a size-dependent increase in their growth-based WUE. The common K and Q by M exponents were statistically consistent with the 0.75 of ideal scaling theory. A model based upon xylem anatomy and branching architecture consistently predicted the observed K by M scaling exponents but only when deviations from ideal symmetric branching were incorporated. PMID:25041417

  6. Transportation Secure Data Center: Real-World Data for Value Pricing and Tolling Research (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) have launched the free, web-based Transportation Secure Data Center (TSDC). The TSDC (www.nrel.gov/tsdc) preserves respondent anonymity while making vital transportation data available to a broad group of users through secure, online access. The TSDC database provides free-of-charge web-based access to valuable transportation data that can be used for: Location and time-of-day variable tolling research, Mileage-based fee analysis, Travel demand modeling and transit planning, Congestion mitigation research, and Validating transportation data from other sources. The TSDC's two levels of access make composite data available with simple online registration, and allow researchers to use detailed spatial data after completing a straight forward application process.

  7. Challenges on setting-up the research and development tools and capacities in a transitional country (Kosovo)

    OpenAIRE

    Dedaj, But; Carabregu, Mjellma

    2012-01-01

    Presented at the CRIS2012 Conference in Prague.-- 8 pages.-- Full conference programme available at: http://www.cris2012.org/findByFilter.do?categoryId=1158 This paper presents progress and challenges made on setting-up the research and development (R&D) tools and capacities in a transitional country, Kosovo. Thus, the largest public higher education institution of Kosovo, the University of Prishtina (UP) is taken as a case study. It examines the establishment process of R&D structure at t...

  8. MARKETING RESEARCHES IN THE SYSTEM OF UPGRADING OF PASSENGER SERVICE ON A RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Naumova, O.; Golovan, L.

    2010-01-01

    The article is sanctified to determination of role of marketing researches in the system of upgrading of passenger service on a railway transport. The necessity of regular realization of marketing researches is reasonable. Results over of marketing research are brought in relation to the exposure of relation of passengers to present services and possibility of introduction of new services.

  9. The capacity of Listeria monocytogenes mutants with in-frame deletions in putative ATP-binding cassette transporters to form biofilms and comparison with the wild type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ceruso

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes (Lm is a food-borne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, an invasive infection with high mortality rates. Lm has developed efficient strategies for survival under stress conditions such as starvation and wide variations in temperature, pH, and osmolarity. Therefore, Lm can survive in food under multiple stress conditions. Detailed studies to determine the mode of action of this pathogen for survival under stress conditions are important to control Lm in food. It has been shown that genes encoding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC transporters are induced in Lm in food, in particular under stress conditions. Previous studies showed that these genes are involved in sensitivity to nisin, acids, and salt. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of some ABC transporters in biofilm formation. Therefore, deletion mutants of ABC transporter genes (LMOf2365_1875 and LMOf2365_1877 were created in Lm F2365, and then were compared to the wild type for their capacity to form biofilms. Lm strain F2365 was chosen as reference since the genome is fully sequenced and furthermore this strain is particularly involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Our results showed that DLMOf2365_1875 had an increased capacity to form biofilms compared to the wild type, indicating that LMOf2365_1875 negatively regulates biofilm formation. A deeper knowledge on the ability to form biofilms in these mutants may help in the development of intervention strategies to control Lm in food and in the environment.

  10. The Capacity of Listeria Monocytogenes Mutants with In-Frame Deletions in Putative ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters to form Biofilms and Comparison with the Wild Type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceruso, Marina; Fratamico, Pina; Chirollo, Claudia; Taglialatela, Rosanna; Cortesi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a food-borne pathogen responsible for human listeriosis, an invasive infection with high mortality rates. Lm has developed efficient strategies for survival under stress conditions such as starvation and wide variations in temperature, pH, and osmolarity. Therefore, Lm can survive in food under multiple stress conditions. Detailed studies to determine the mode of action of this pathogen for survival under stress conditions are important to control Lm in food. It has been shown that genes encoding for ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters are induced in Lm in food, in particular under stress conditions. Previous studies showed that these genes are involved in sensitivity to nisin, acids, and salt. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of some ABC transporters in biofilm formation. Therefore, deletion mutants of ABC transporter genes (LMOf2365_1875 and LMOf2365_1877) were created in Lm F2365, and then were compared to the wild type for their capacity to form biofilms. Lm strain F2365 was chosen as reference since the genome is fully sequenced and furthermore this strain is particularly involved in food-borne outbreaks of listeriosis. Our results showed that ΔLMOf2365_1875 had an increased capacity to form biofilms compared to the wild type, indicating that LMOf2365_1875 negatively regulates biofilm formation. A deeper knowledge on the ability to form biofilms in these mutants may help in the development of intervention strategies to control Lm in food and in the environment. PMID:27800311

  11. Basic Research Needs for Clean and Efficient Combustion of 21st Century Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlroy, A.; McRae, G.; Sick, V.; Siebers, D. L.; Westbrook, C. K.; Smith, P. J.; Taatjes, C.; Trouve, A.; Wagner, A. F.; Rohlfing, E.; Manley, D.; Tully, F.; Hilderbrandt, R.; Green, W.; Marceau, D.; O' Neal, J.; Lyday, M.; Cebulski, F.; Garcia, T. R.; Strong, D.

    2006-11-01

    To identify basic research needs and opportunities underlying utilization of evolving transportation fuels, with a focus on new or emerging science challenges that have the potential for significant long-term impact on fuel efficiency and emissions.

  12. Towards a Common Research Strategic Roadmap for the Transportation Sector in Europe and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Bekiaris

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available DETRA (Developing a European Transport Research Alliance is a 7th Framework project, whose concept derived from the so-called Lyon Declaration and concerns the deepening of the European Research Area objectives in transport in order to address the Grand Challenges. Key priorities of this Alliance is to examine the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT in the domain and develop common understanding and approaches to reducing fragmentation and overcoming barriers. The DETRA project aimed to meet and exceed the requirements and objectives of the call for an Analysis of the state of ERA development within the transport domain and to develop recommendations for the EC, member states and other stakeholders as well as for the DETRA partner organizations themselves. In this study, particular emphasis is given to the part of DETRA concerning the development of a single trans- European research program, which can be used as a compass for the future research activities of the whole transportation area.

  13. RESULTS OF RESEARCH OF AIR POLLUTION BY AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORT IN THE STREETS OF KHARKIV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lezhneva, E.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of the research of the atmospheric air of residential area roadside territory at functioning of motor transport are presented. Architectural and planning activities to improve the environmental performance of the local area of Kharkiv are offered.

  14. Experimental research on the creep behavior and bearing capacity of repeatedly prestressed concrete beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Xudong; LI Lifeng; YANG Jianjun

    2007-01-01

    In the prestress tensioning process of medium or short span prestressed concrete beam bridges,there are always many serious problems,such as the camber of straight beam being too large,curved beam going crosswise,and columns of rigid beam bridge cracking,that can be commonly seen because of its greater additional stress in prestressing.To solve the above problems,a new concept of repeatedly prestressed bridge structure was innovatively proposed in this work.It was proved,through theoretical and experimental comparison between this new structure and the traditional prestressed structure,that the application of repeated prestressing technology can greatly improve the mechanical and deformational performance of the low height beam during construction and long-term use.Furthermore,a kind of computational formula to calculate creep strain and deformation due to repeated prestressing in terms of time t was derived in this paper and the bearing capacity of this new structure has been tested.Finally,the work concludes that there is a bright application prospect for this new structure for medium and short span prestressed beam bridges to control deformations.

  15. Transnational Capacity Building: An Australian-Danish Partnership Model for Higher Education and Research in Nursing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Bodil; Kolbæk, Raymond; Lorentzen, Vibeke;

    2013-01-01

    outcomes for the population they care for. Rapid globalisation, instant communication, opportunity for increased international research collaboration and migration all require nurses to expand their perceptions of the contexts in which they work. One method to advance these notions is by sharing knowledge...... and expertise across international borders as an important vehicle for developing nursing practice and research. Conclusion: The Australian-Danish education and research partnership program demonstrates that exchanging experiences can create opportunities for nurses’ professional growth, to advance careers......Aim: The article describes how a three level nursing partnership program between Australia and Denmark evolved and how barriers can be diminished when built on guiding principles of: professional trust, mutual understanding and respect for each other’s social, educational and cultural conditions...

  16. Harnessing the Slipstream: Building Educational Research Capacity in Northern Ireland. Size Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Ruth

    2009-01-01

    Northern Ireland is uniquely distinguished from England, Scotland and Wales, by being a society in transition, emerging from a prolonged period of civil conflict and political instability that has affected its infrastructure and has increased the need for co-ordinated and specialist research. The current paper traces some of the systemic…

  17. Strengthening tourism research and educational capacities in Africa: an overview of projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duim, van der V.R.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of Tourism Analysis is to promote a forum for practitioners and academicians in the fields of Leisure, Recreation, Tourism, and Hospitality (LRTH). As a interdisciplinary journal, it is an appropriate outlet for articles, research notes, and computer software packages designed to be of inter

  18. Building and Strengthening Policy Research Capacity: Key Issues in Canadian Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of higher education in social and economic development, governments need to build a strong higher education data and policy research infrastructure to support informed decision-making, provide policy advice, and offer a critical assessment of key trends and issues. The author discusses the decline of higher education policy…

  19. Exploring Market and Competitive Intelligence Research as a Source for Enhancing Innovation Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Deepak

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the role of Competitive and Market Intelligence (CI/MI) Research as a potential source for improving the innovation capability of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME's) leading to successful new product/services/processes/capabilities development (Cooper & Edgett, 2002). This report highlights the…

  20. Applying Research to Enhance Capacity: A Unifying Purpose for an Integrated Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Elizabeth King

    2016-01-01

    For more than a century the social work profession has had a dual purpose: to promote individual well-being and social justice, but the micro-macro divide is fragmenting the profession. This article suggests that the profession's aim might best be realized by adopting a unifying purpose, a just sense of well-being. Research on complex adaptive…

  1. APPRECIATIVE INQUIRY IN THE OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT: IMPROVING THE COLLABRATIVE CAPACITY OF ORGANIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper highlights the use of appreciative inquiry (AI), a growing practice in organization development in the Office of Research and Development (ORD) of the Environmental Protection Agency. AI is a strength-based approach to change that induces innovation and collaboration t...

  2. Participatory action research, strengthening institutional capacity and governance: Confronting the urban challenge in Kampala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaib Lwasa

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Urban governance presents the most daunting and challenging task for sub-Saharan African countries in this century (Rakodi, 1997: 3; Rakodi, 2001; 5; McGill, 1988; 6. Africa is urbanizing faster than any other region. The level of urbanization stands at 39.1%, with annual rates of growth ranging between 8% and 13%. It is estimated that by 2025 half of the African population will be urban. This demographic shift, particularly in the sub-Saharan region, presents major problems for urban management. Although urban management programs of infrastructure development, financial management, economic development, environmental planning, spatial development mechanisms and social services provision continue to be enhanced, there is a mismatch between the program outcomes and need. Due to this shortfall, alternative strategies have been sought but with little documented evidence of successes, failures and lessons because of limited evaluation. The importance of research-informed policy is underscored by the apparent disconnect between actors in the urban field. These actors include city managers, researchers, political leaders and most important, communities. The latter are often disregarded yet they largely influence the development path and shape the fabric of urban space. Even where communities are engaged, they exert less influence than other actors on urban policies and programs. This paper examines how participatory action research is changing the relationships between researchers, communities and city authorities in a search for alternative approaches to address urban poverty and environmental challenges in Kampala – in particular service delivery, solid waste management and flood control. Based on an action-research and development project conducted in Kampala since 2006, there is evidence that communities can be galvanized not only to design solutions to their problems, but also to engage with city authorities through information sharing

  3. Review of Research on Organizational Capacity for Change%组织变革能力研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘广平; 陈立文; 孙晨

    2013-01-01

    本文回顾和评析了组织变革能力的概念、开发方法与途径、变革主导者、前因与后果和测量维度。通过相关文献的梳理归纳发现,组织变革能力属于动态能力的范畴;对组织变革能力开发的主导者主要涉及变革专业人员、人力资源部门、项目/项目群经理以及变革经理和项目经理搭配等4种形式;开发组织变革能力的途径可以通过构建组织变革模型、管理人员能力提升以及组织、文化及变革方法的改变等来实现;对于组织变革能力与其它因素的影响关系,学者们则从前因与结果两个视角及个人、组织和环境3个层面进行了研究。而有关组织变革能力测度方面的研究较为稀少,是后续研究的重点。文章最后,对组织变革能力的未来研究方向进行了展望。%This paper reviews and assesses the concept of organizational change capability , developing methods , change comman-ders , antecedents and consequences and measurement dimensions . Through the relevant literature and found that organizational change ca-pability belongs to the category of dynamic capabilities . Organizational change capacity development mainly has been directed by change professionals , the human resources department , project/programme managers and change manager plus project manager . Organizational capacity for change can be developed through building models of organizational change , improving the competency of management persons and adjusting organization , culture and change methods . Scholars researched about the influencing relationship between organizational change capability and other factors , and formed two perspectives and three levels of individual , organization and environment . The re-search on the scale of organizational capacity for change is scary . We should make a further research in the future . Finally , the future di-rection of organizational capacity of change was prospected .

  4. Intermodal safety research needs report of the sixth workshop on national transportation problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warshawer, A.J. (ed.)

    1976-04-01

    This conference brought together DOT policymakers, university principal investigators and other professionals to consider the intermodal safety research requirements of the Department of Transportation. The objectives of the conference were: (1) to highlight safety problems and needed transportation safety research identified by DOT modal safety managers and to stimulate university or university/industry teams to respond with research proposals which emphasize multi-modal applicability and a system view; and (2) to provide a forum for university research groups to inform DOT safety managers of promising new directions in transportation safety research and new tools with which to address safety related problems. The conference addressed the research requirements for safety as identified by the Statement of National Transportation Policy and by the modal safety managers in three principal contexts, each a workshop panel: I, Inter-Institutional Problems of Transportation Safety. Problems were described as: Federal-State, local; Federal-Industry; Federal-Public, Consumer groups. II, Goal Setting and Planning for Transportation Safety Programs. Issues were: modifying risk behavior, safety as a social value, and involving citizens in development of standards as a way of increasing probability of achieving program objectives. III, DOT Information, Management, and Evaluation Systems Requirements. Needs were: data requirements and analytic tools for management of safety programs.

  5. Lessons learned from bacterial transport research at the South Oyster Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheibe, T.; Hubbard, S.S.; Onstott, T.C.; DeFlaun, M.F.

    2011-04-01

    This paper provides a review of bacterial transport experiments conducted by a multi-investigator, multi-institution, multi-disciplinary team of researchers under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE). The experiments were conducted during the time period 1999-2001 at a field site near the town of Oyster, Virginia known as the South Oyster Site, and included four major experimental campaigns aimed at understanding and quantifying bacterial transport in the subsurface environment. Several key elements of the research are discussed here: (1) quantification of bacterial transport in physically, chemically and biologically heterogeneous aquifers, (2) evaluation of the efficacy of conventional colloid filtration theory, (3) scale effects in bacterial transport, (4) development of new methods for microbial enumeration and screening for low adhesion strains, (5) application of novel hydrogeophysical techniques for aquifer characterization, and (6) experiences regarding management of a large field research effort. Lessons learned are summarized in each of these areas. The body of literature resulting from South Oyster Site research has been widely cited and continues to influence research into the controls exerted by aquifer heterogeneity on reactive transport (including microbial transport). It also served as a model (and provided valuable experience) for subsequent and ongoing highly-instrumented field research efforts conducted by DOE-sponsored investigators.

  6. Integrated Water Resources Management: Relevant concept or irrelevant buzzword? A capacity building and research agenda for Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zaag, Pieter

    This article examines the concept ‘Integrated Water Resources Management’ (IWRM) and inquires as to its relevance for the Southern African region. The paper first acknowledges the contributions made to IWRM by three regional initiatives-WaterNet, the Water Research Fund for Southern Africa (WARFSA), and the Southern African chapter of the Global Water Partnership. Then, three important aspects of IWRM are highlighted: that IWRM requires institutional capacity to integrate, which often is a scarce resource; that IWRM is neither solution nor recipe, but rather a perspective or way of looking at problems with a view to solving them through transparent and inclusive decision-making processes; and that IWRM should explicitly deal with the fact that water tends to build asymmetrical relationships between people, communities and nations. An IWRM agenda is subsequently set out, focussing on five critical issues: the dilemma between economic development and sustainability; the unresolved issue of water as an economic good; the place and role of rainfed farmers in IWRM; the importance of training and teaching; and the need for building reflexive capacity in the new and existing water institutions. The paper concludes that IWRM is a relevant, yet elusive and fuzzy concept. Evidence from Southern Africa and around the world shows that IWRM inspires a new generation of water managers and researchers to act creatively; assists in addressing the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs); and instils mutual respect, understanding and co-operation among water professionals in Southern Africa.

  7. RESEARCH ON THE POPULATION CARRYING CAPACITY OF THE LAND RESOURCES IN THE ECONOMIC AREA OF ZHUJIANG DELTA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG; Hui-jun

    2001-01-01

    [1]Guangdong Province Statistics Bureau, 2000. The Statistic Annual of Agricultural Economy of Guangdong[Z] ) Beijing:Chinese Statistic Press, 39-40, 203-222. (in Chinese)[2]Guangdong Province Construction Committee, 1996. The Planning of Zhujiang Delta Cities[Z]. Beijing: Chinese Architecture Technology Press. (in Chinese)[3]WANG Ying-cai, ZHANG Miao-ling, 1994. Research on the Population Carrying Potentiality of the Land Resource in Jiangsu Province [M]. Beijing: Chinese Agricultural Technology Press. 288-303. (in Chinese)[4]TANG Hui-jun, 1997. Research on the population carrying capacity of the land resources in the economic area of Zhujiang Delta[J]. Journal of Guangdong University of Technology.14(3): 44. (in Chinese)

  8. Neglected Tropical Diseases: A Systematic Evaluation of Research Capacity in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Okorie, Patricia N.; Moses J Bockarie; David H Molyneux; Kelly-Hope, Louise A

    2014-01-01

    Background Nigeria carries the highest burden and diversity of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) in sub-Saharan Africa and is preparing to scale up its efforts to control/eliminate these diseases. To achieve this it will require a range of internal technical support and expertise for mapping, monitoring and evaluating, operational research and documenting its success. In order to begin to evaluate this potential in Nigeria, this study collated and analysed information for lymphatic filariasi...

  9. Communication research between working capacity of hard- alloy cutting tools and fractal dimension of their wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arefiev, K.; Nesterenko, V.; Daneykina, N.

    2016-06-01

    The results of communication research between the wear resistance of the K applicability hard-alloy cutting tools and the fractal dimension of the wear surface, which is formed on a back side of the cutting edge when processing the materials showing high adhesive activity are presented in the paper. It has been established that the wear resistance of tested cutting tools samples increases according to a fractal dimension increase of their wear surface.

  10. Research on Transport Properties of HFC-227ea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Shi; Xiaojun Liu; Yuanyuan Duan; Lizhong Han; Mingshan Zhu

    2001-01-01

    HFC-227ea(1,1,1,2,3,3,3-heptafluoropropane) is considered as a promising refrigerant alternative, especially as a component in mixtures, to replace to CFC-12, HCFC-22 and R502. But reliable transport properties data for HFC-227ea are very limited. In this paper, experimental data of viscosity along the saturation line and gaseous thermal conductivity of HFC-227ea are given. The viscosity of HFC-227ea was measured with a capillary viscometer at temperatures between 263.15 K and 333.15 K along the saturation line and its uncertainty of the results is estimated to be no more than +3%. The thermal conductivity of gaseous HFC-227ea was also measured with a transient hot-wire instrument at temperatures between 259.28 K and 341.75 K and pressures up to 1.289MPa, and its uncertainty of the results is estimated to be less than +1%.

  11. An assessment of Makerere University College of Health Sciences: optimizing health research capacity to meet Uganda’s priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groves Sara

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health research is critical to the institutional mission of the Makerere College of Health Sciences (MakCHS. Optimizing the alignment of health research capacity at MakCHS with the health needs and priorities of Uganda, as outlined in the country’s Health Sector Strategic Plan (HSSP, is a deliberate priority, a responsibility, and a significant opportunity for research. To guide this strategic direction, an assessment of MakCHS’s research grants and publication portfolio was conducted. Methods A survey of all new and ongoing grants, as well as all publications, between January 2005 and December 2009 was conducted. Research, training, and education grants awarded to MakCHS’ constituent faculties and departments, were looked for through financial records at the college or by contact with funding organizations. Published manuscripts registered with PubMed, that included MakCHS faculty authors, were also analyzed. Results A total of 58 active grants were identified, of which 18 had been initiated prior to 2005 and there were an average of about eight new grants per year. Most grants funded basic and applied research, with major focus areas being HIV/AIDS (44%, malaria (19%, maternal and child health (14%, tuberculosis (11%, mental health (3%, and others (8%. MakCHS faculty were identified as Principal Investigators (PIs in only 22 (38% active grants. Grant funding details were only available for one third of the active grants at MakCHS. A total of 837 publications were identified, with an average of 167 publications per year, most of which (66% addressed the country’s priority health areas, and 58% had MakCHS faculty or students as first authors. Conclusions The research grants and publications at MakCHS are generally well-aligned with the Ugandan Health Ministry priorities. Greater efforts to establish centralized and efficient grants management procedures are needed. In addition, greater efforts are needed to expand

  12. Scientific Mobility and International Research Networks: Trends and Policy Tools for Promoting Research Excellence and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Merle; Meek, V. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    One of the ways in which globalization is manifesting itself in higher education and research is through the increasing importance and emphasis on scientific mobility. This article seeks to provide an overview and analysis of current trends and policy tools for promoting mobility. The article argues that the mobility of scientific labour is an…

  13. Improving health care globally : a critical review of the necessity of family medicine research and recommendations to build research capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weel, C. van; Rosser, W.W.

    2004-01-01

    An invitational conference led by the World Organization of Family Doctors (Wonca) involving selected delegates from 34 countries was held in Kingston, Ontario, Canada, March 8 to12, 2003. The conference theme was "Improving Health Globally: The Necessity of Family Medicine Research." Guiding confer

  14. Report by the AERES on the unit: Unit of researches on neutron transport and radioactivity confinement in nuclear installations under the supervision of the establishments and bodies: IRSN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a kind of audit report on a research laboratory whose activity is organized in three departments: neutron transport and criticality (themes: numerical methods, maths and statistics related to the simulation of neutral particle propagation, nuclear data, uncertainty propagation and bias estimation, code qualification and associated experimental programs, neutron transport in reactors and fuel cycle, criticality accidents), radionuclide transfer in radioactive waste disposals (site identification strategy, hydro-mechanical phenomena affecting storage performance, physical-chemical evolution factors, storage modelling), and metrology and confinement of radioactive gases and aerosols. The authors discuss an assessment of the unit activities in terms of strengths and opportunities, aspects to be improved and recommendations, productions and publications. A more detailed assessment is presented for each department in terms of scientific quality, influence and attractiveness (awards, recruitment capacity, capacity to obtain financing and to tender, participation to international programs), strategy and governance, and project

  15. Capacity Analysis on Multi-Lane Roundabouts: An Evaluation With Highway Capacity Manual 2010 Capacity Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melike Ersoy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, capacity estimations with the incorporation of Highway Capacity Manual (HCM 2010 method are evaluated. Parameter based sensitivity analysis on calculations with the new HCM formula and a comparative evaluation of the new methodology with two most common capacity analysis methods, i.e., the method of critical gap acceptance and the method of regression analysis, are performed. Maximum and minimum headway intervals of follow up time and critical gap parameters are alternated within the sensitivity analysis. The Transport Research Laboratory formula for regression and Australian formula for gap acceptance method are considered in comparison. Relative comparisons of predictions on capacity by HCM2010 method, regression analysis and gap acceptance method are presented considering field data obtained by observations at two roundabouts in Izmir, Turkey. The results of the study show that the HCM2010 formula led to lower capacity estimates than regression analysis and higher estimates than the gap acceptance method. Regarding the real capacity observations under high circulating flow-rates the HCM2010 method yielded to more appropriate results than the regression method. In addition to comparisons, studies on the sensitivity analysis show that entry capacity estimates possess sharper changes as smaller follow up headways are accepted.

  16. Role of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the kinetics of low-affinity high-capacity Na{sup +}-dependent alanine transport in SHR proximal tubular epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Vanda; Pinho, Maria Joao [Institute of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal); Jose, Pedro A. [Center for Molecular Physiology Research, Children' s National Medical Center, Department of Pediatrics, George Washington School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Washington, DC (United States); Soares-da-Silva, Patricio, E-mail: pss@med.up.pt [Institute of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto (Portugal)

    2010-07-30

    Research highlights: {yields} H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only. {yields} It is suggested that Na{sup +} binding in renal ASCT2 may be regulated by ROS in SHR PTE cells. -- Abstract: The presence of high and low sodium affinity states for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in immortalized renal proximal tubular epithelial (PTE) cells was previously reported (Am. J. Physiol. 293 (2007) R538-R547). This study evaluated the role of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} on the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake of ASCT2 in immortalized renal PTE cells from Wistar Kyoto rat (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Na{sup +} dependence of [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake was investigated replacing NaCl with an equimolar concentration of choline chloride in vehicle- and apocynin-treated cells. Na{sup +} removal from the uptake solution abolished transport activity in both WKY and SHR PTE cells. Decreases in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels in the extracellular medium significantly reduced Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} values of the low-affinity high-capacity component in SHR PTE cells, with no effect on the high-affinity low-capacity state of the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake. After removal of apocynin from the culture medium, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels returned to basal values within 1 to 3 h in both WKY and SHR PTE cells and these were found stable for the next 24 h. Under these experimental conditions, the Na{sup +}-K{sub m} and V{sub max} of the high-affinity low-capacity state were unaffected and the low-affinity high-capacity component remained significantly decreased 1 day but not 4 days after apocynin removal. In conclusion, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} in excess is required for the presence of a low-affinity high-capacity component for the Na{sup +}-dependent [{sup 14}C]-L-alanine uptake in SHR PTE cells only

  17. Geochemical, hydrological and biological cycling of energy residuals. Research plan: subsurface transport program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because natural processes associated with the release and the transport of organic compounds, trace metals, and radionuclides are incompletely understood, research in this area is critical if the long term scientific uncertainties about contaminant transport are to be resolved. The processes that control mobilization and attenuation of energy residuals in soils and geological strata, their hydrological transport to and within ground water regimes, and their accumulation in biological systems require research attention. A summary of DOE's core research program is described. It is designed to provide a base of fundamental scientific information so that the geochemical hydrological, and biophysical mechanics that contribute to the transport and long term fate of energy related contaminants in natural systems can be understood

  18. Transportation and Aging: A Research Agenda for Advancing Safe Mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Anne E.; Molnar, Lisa J.; Eby, David W.; Adler, Geri; Bedard, Michel; Berg-Weger, Marla; Classen, Sherrilene; Foley, Daniel; Horowitz, Amy; Kerschner, Helen; Page, Oliver; Silverstein, Nina M.; Staplin, Loren; Trujillo, Leonard

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We review what we currently know about older driver safety and mobility, and we highlight important research needs in a number of key areas that hold promise for achieving the safety and mobility goals for the aging baby boomers and future generations of older drivers. Design and Methods: Through the use of a framework for transportation…

  19. The capacity of hydrous fluids to transport and fractionate incompatible elements and metals within the Earth's mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, John; Locmelis, Marek; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Rushmer, Tracy; Fiorentini, Marco L.

    2014-06-01

    silicate melts and aqueous fluids are thought to play critical roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth's crust and mantle. Yet their relative effects are poorly constrained. We have addressed this issue by measuring partition coefficients for 50 trace and minor elements in experimentally produced aqueous fluids, coexisting basanite melts, and peridotite minerals. The experiments were conducted at 1.0-4.0 GPa and 950-1200°C in single capsules containing (either 40 or 50 wt %) H2O and trace element-enriched basanite glass. This allowed run products to be easily identified and analyzed by a combination of electron microprobe and LAM-ICP-MS. Fluid and melt compositions were reconstructed from mass balances and published solubility data for H2O in silicate melts. Relative to the basanite melt, the solutes from H2O-fluids are enriched in SiO2, alkalis, Ba, and Pb, but depleted in FeO, MgO, CaO, and REE. With increasing pressure, the mutual solubility of fluids and melts increases rapidly with complete miscibility between H2O and basanitic melts occurring between 3.0 and 4.0 GPa at 1100°C. Although LREE are favored over HREE in the fluid phase, they are less soluble than the HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti). Thus, the relative depletions of HFSE that are characteristic of arc magmas must be due to a residual phase that concentrates HFSE (e.g., rutile). Otherwise, H2O-fluids have the capacity to impart many of the geochemical characteristics that distinguish some rocks and melts from the deep mantle lithosphere (e.g., MARID and lamproites).

  20. Impacts of technology on the capacity needs of the US national airspace system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausrotas, Raymond A.; Simpson, Robert W.

    1992-01-01

    A review of the U.S. air transportation system is undertaken, focusing on airspace and airport capacity. Causes of delay and congestion are investigated. Aircraft noise is identified as the fundamental hindrance to capacity improvement. Research areas for NASA are suggested to improve capacity through technology.

  1. Swing-free transport of suspended loads. Summer research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, A.M.H.

    1996-02-01

    Transportation of large objects using traditional bridge crane can induce pendulum motion (swing) of the object. In environments such as factory the energy contained in the swinging mass can be large and therefore attempts to move the mass onto target while still swinging can cause considerable damage. Oscillations must be damped or allowed to decay before the next process can take place. Stopping the swing can be accomplished by moving the bridge in a manner to counteract the swing which sometimes can be done by skilled operator, or by waiting for the swing to damp sufficiently that the object can be moved to the target without risk of damage. One of the methods that can be utilized for oscillation suppression is input preshaping. The validity of this method depends on the exact knowledge of the system dynamics. This method can be modified to provide some degrees of robustness with respect to unknown dynamics but at the cost of the speed of transient response. This report describes investigations on the development of a controller to dampen the oscillations.

  2. Research on Pricing in a Gas Transportation Network

    OpenAIRE

    Plott, Charles R.

    1988-01-01

    This report is focused upon regulatory institutions that organize prices within a network of commodity flows. The network has economic properties of the natural gas pipeline industry and the regulatory institutions have properties similar to those that arc being considered as alternatives for the current rate hearing process. The questions posed at this stage of research are somewhat basic about the technical details of the institutions and how markets perfonn when they are in pla...

  3. Research capacity building and collaboration between South African and American partners: the adaptation of an intervention model for HIV/AIDS prevention in corrections research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Priscilla; Taylor, Sandra E; Sifunda, Sibusiso

    2002-10-01

    This article examines a partnership between researchers from the United States who are involved in corrections health issues and scientists from South Africa who conduct prison health research, a previously underresearched area in South Africa. The article discusses some of the challenges as well as opportunities for knowledge and skills exchange via capacity building and collaboration strategies. Through historical and contemporary perspectives, it also discusses barriers and benefits of collaboration when forging links between researchers from developed and less developed nations. A focus on conducting public health research in South Africa, and on HIV/AIDS studies in particular, is placed within the context of the 2001 document of the Council on Health Research for Development. The South African prison health study represents a collaborative between the South African National Health Promotion Research and Development Group of the Medical Research Council, the South African Department of Correctional Services, and Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia. The article illuminates the process of adapting a model for a postapartheid prison study from one designed for use in the American correctional system. PMID:12413197

  4. Ecological, Social and Economic Evaluation of Transport Scenarios: An Integral Approach. A Phd research programme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurs KT; LAE

    2000-01-01

    This report describes a research programme for the development of a methodology for the integral assessment of ecological, economic and social impacts of transport scenarios. The following research activities are planned: (1) a literature study on theories and conceptual models, explaining the funct

  5. Technical Assistance to Enhance Prevention Capacity: a Research Synthesis of the Evidence Base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Jason; Wandersman, Abraham

    2016-05-01

    Despite the availability of many evidence-based prevention interventions (EBIs), gaps exist in bringing these programs into widespread practice. Technical assistance (TA) is a strategy for enhancing the readiness of practitioners to implement EBIs. Although many millions of dollars are spent on TA each year, there is little consensus about what the essential features of TA are and how to provide TA with quality. A broad-based research synthesis methodology was used for analyzing the current evidence base for TA using three frames: (1) applying the Getting To Outcomes (GTO) model for categorizing evidence on TA that specifies tasks for planning, implementing, and evaluating TA; (2) understanding the relevance of a successful relationship between the TA provider and TA recipient; and (3) considering the extent to which TA fits the life cycle needs of the preventive intervention. Results indicated that an explicit model or organizing framework is rarely used to plan, implement, and/or evaluate TA; specific TA tasks performed vary widely across studies; TA is rarely delivered to recipients who are seeking to sustain innovations subsequent to adoption and implementation; however, there is systematic attention to relationships and relationship-building. Overall, this synthesis indicates that the extent to which TA is being delivered systematically is limited. We suggest that funders and other stakeholders develop and implement standards for TA quality in order to ensure that many of these limitations are addressed.

  6. BNFL's experience in the sea transport of irradiated research reactor fuel to the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BNFL provides worldwide transport for a wide range of nuclear materials. BNFL Transport manages an unique fleet of vessels, designed, built, and operated to the highest safety standards, including the highest rating within the INF Code recommended by the International Maritime Organisation. The company has some 20 years of experience of transporting irradiated research reactor fuel in support of the United States' programme for returning US obligated fuel from around the world. Between 1977 and 1988 BNFL performed 11 shipments of irradiated research reactor fuel from the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute to the US. Since 1997, a further 3 shipments have been performed as part of an ongoing programme for Japanese research reactor operators. Where possible, shipments of fuel from European countries such as Sweden and Spain have been combined with those from Japan for delivery to the US. (author)

  7. Enhancing Research Ethics Review Systems in Egypt: The Focus of an International Training Program Informed by an Ecological Developmental Approach to Enhancing Research Ethics Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Hillary Anne; Hifnawy, Tamer; Silverman, Henry

    2015-12-01

    Recently, training programs in research ethics have been established to enhance individual and institutional capacity in research ethics in the developing world. However, commentators have expressed concern that the efforts of these training programs have placed 'too great an emphasis on guidelines and research ethics review', which will have limited effect on ensuring ethical conduct in research. What is needed instead is a culture of ethical conduct supported by national and institutional commitment to ethical practices that are reinforced by upstream enabling conditions (strong civil society, public accountability, and trust in basic transactional processes), which are in turn influenced by developmental conditions (basic freedoms of political freedoms, economic facilities, social opportunities, transparency guarantees, and protective security). Examining this more inclusive understanding of the determinants of ethical conduct enhances at once both an appreciation of the limitations of current efforts of training programs in research ethics and an understanding of what additional training elements are needed to enable trainees to facilitate national and institutional policy changes that enhance research practices. We apply this developmental model to a training program focused in Egypt to describe examples of such additional training activities.

  8. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report has been prepared for the Strategic Analysis in Science and Technology Unit (SAST) of the Directorate-General for Science, Research and Development of the Commission of the European Communities. The background of the project to which this report contributes is a recognition of the growing impact of transportation on the environment, both as a function of growth in trade and as a leisure activity. The project is directed towards the elucidation of the many interactions between technology, transport and environment, in order to provide the Commission with (a) recommendations on the priorities for Community research and development in transport technology and other related areas of technology, and (b) an understanding of the implications of technological change on policy options, within the Community with regard to transport and environment and other related areas, such as energy and regional planning

  9. Savannah River Laboratory environmental transport and effects research. Annual report, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, T.V. (comp.)

    1979-11-01

    Research in the environmental sciences by the Savannah River Laboratory during 1978 is described in 43 articles. These articles are in the fields of terrestrial ecology, geologic studies, aquatic transport, aquatic ecology, atmospheric transport, emergency response, computer methods development, ocean program, and fuel cycle program. Thirty-seven of the articles were abstracted individually for ERA/EDB; those in scope were also included in INIS.

  10. SHIELD-HIT12A - a Monte Carlo particle transport program for ion therapy research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bassler, Niels; Hansen, David Christoffer; Lühr, Armin;

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Purpose: The Monte Carlo (MC) code SHIELD-HIT simulates the transport of ions through matter. Since SHIELD-HIT08 we added numerous features that improves speed, usability and underlying physics and thereby the user experience. The “-A” fork of SHIELD-HIT also aims to attach SHIELD...... of computation time. Scheduled for later release are CT import and photon-electron transport. Conclusions: SHIELD-HIT12A is an interesting alternative ion transport engine. Apart from being a flexible particle therapy research tool, it can also serve as a back end for a MC ion treatment planning system. More...

  11. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: Taking off on an exciting journey into Air Transport Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gonzalez-Prieto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM. JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, project management, quality, as well as regional development, economics, organizational behaviour, finance and accounting in air transport research.

  12. Increasing the general level of academic capacity in general practice: introducing mandatory research training for general practitioner trainees through a participatory research process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tulinius, Anne-Charlotte; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Hansen, Lars Jørgen;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To obtain good quality evidence-based clinical work there needs to be a culture of critical appraisal, and strong bridges between the clinical and the academic worlds in general practice. AIM: The aim was to educate the general practitioner (GP) trainees to obtain critical appraisal...... skills, and through the development and implementation of the mandatory programme to gradually empower the GP community to achieve academic capacity by creating a link between the GP researchers and the GP training community. This was done by developing a faculty, giving teaching skills to GP academics...... of the planning phase. RESULTS: From 2006 to 2009, we built a teaching faculty of 25 teachers among clinical GPs and GP academics; developed the training programme; and delivered the programme to 95 GP trainees. Some of the GP trainees later showed an interest in more substantial research projects, and GP...

  13. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  14. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicated on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction. 43 refs

  15. Legislative and Regulatory Information System: a research tool for transporting radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the US Department of Energy's overall research and development program to analyze and resolve the complex problems of nuclear materials transportation, the Legislative and Regulatory Information System (LRIS) was developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as a key component of ORNL's overall Transportation Program. The information contained in the LRIS has been organized into two specialized interrelated research files, the Legislative Data Base and the Operational Restrictions and Emergency Response Contacts Directory. Combined, these data bases allow interested users to quickly identify legislative restrictions as well as key state and local personnel and agencies responsible for regulating the movement of hazardous materials

  16. Research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated, fractured rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the Yucca Mountain Project, our research program to develop and validate conceptual models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock integrates fundamental physical experimentation with conceptual model formulation and mathematical modeling. Our research is directed toward developing and validating macroscopic, continuum-based models and supporting effective property models because of their widespread utility within the context of this project. Success relative to the development and validation of effective property models is predicted on a firm understanding of the basic physics governing flow through fractured media, specifically in the areas of unsaturated flow and transport in a single fracture and fracture-matrix interaction

  17. Right from primary school, I liked science: understanding health research capacity building in sub-Saharan Africa through Kenyan training experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Farquhar, Carey

    2014-02-20

    Defining research career paths that enable Africans to address local and global health issues is essential for population health. This study was conducted to better understand how international health training programs contribute to human resource capacity building in health research. Research career motivations, decision-making and experiences were explored among a small group of Kenyan HIV/AIDS researchers who had completed an international training program. We found that intersecting social dynamics within specific geographic spaces influenced individual training decision-making and motivated research career decisions over time. The concept that 'geo-social motivation' is an important determinant of success for an African considering a research career developed from this study, and may be used to tailor future health research human resource capacity-building programs. PMID:24557949

  18. Gender mainstreaming european transport research and policies. Building the knowledge base and mapping good practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roemer Christensen, H.; Poulsen, H.; Hjorth Oldrup, H.; Malthesen, T.; Hvidt Breengaard, M.; Holmen, M.

    2007-07-01

    This report documents that there are clear and persistent gender differences in travel patterns. Men consistently travel further than women, men are more likely to travel by car and women by public transport, and women's trips tend to be more local. Explanations to these differences are linked to unequal gendered relations in the household and labour market and urban structures as well as gender socialisation. This means that men and women make different uses of a shared system of transport. Transport is an overwhelmingly male-dominated sector. At the EU level, political committees in the transport sector as well as transport research and advisory boards have a marked gender imbalance with less than 15% female membership in most boards and none with equal representation. This also goes for transport-related committees at national levels. Yet with one notable exception: Sweden has a 50-50 balance in the National Transport Committee. Current gender mainstreaming initiatives in the transport sector relate to a wide range of issues: They relate to planning and policy, safety issues, gendering of technology as well as employment. The report substantiates that the implementation of equality programmes, and not their formulation makes up the biggest challenge. One programme does not solve all problems, but opens up new avenues for initiatives and intervention. Gender is a central stratifying factor in transport use at all levels. In order to provide a more complete picture of gender differences, and in order to qualify EU goals of combating multi-level inequalities, there is a need to link gender with the broader axes of inequalities, namely ethnicity, sexuality, age and handicap in future studies of transport and mobility. (au)

  19. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries - An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Michael; Maure, Christine; Halpaap, Beatrice M M; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Yamaka, Sara; Launois, Pascal; Casamitjana, Núria

    2016-05-01

    Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization) underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers' and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs or, generally, to

  20. Travel time simulation for radionuclide transport at the Korean underground research facility, KURT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, N.; Hwang, Y.; Jeong, J.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    For the research on the deep geological disposal of radioactive waste, it is necessary to understand the underground environment, including the geology and hydrogeology. In Korea, KURT (KAERI Underground Research Tunnel) was constructed in 2006 at KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute). Geological and hydrogeological field data have been obtained from the facility, and the groundwater flow system was simulated. Based on the data observed and analyzed on a groundwater flow system, the transport of potential radionuclides, which were assumed to be released at the supposed position, was then calculated in order to prepare the fundamental data for a safety assessment of a hypothetical underground repository. Several pathways with highly water-conductive features were selected to evaluate the elapsed times of radionuclide transport. The transport times were calculated using a TDRW (Time-Domain Random Walk) method. The matrix diffusion and sorption mechanisms in the host rock, as well as the advection-dispersion processes, were considered under the KURT field conditions. To reflect the radioactive decay, some decay chains were selected. The simulation results indicate that the main factors for the shapes of the mass discharge of the radionuclides were the half-life and distribution coefficient. This shows that the long-lived radionuclides must be treated accurately at the steps of determining radioactive waste source term as well as considering the transport process, and intensified research is required for the sorption between radionuclides and host rocks for making the safety assessment process more reliable and less uncertain.

  1. Fundamental and applied research in hydraulic transportation at the CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauermann, H.B.

    1983-03-01

    The paper outlines the type of work on hydraulic transportation of solids which has been and is being carried out by the National Mechanical Engineering Research Institute at Pretoria. Special emphasis is placed on handling mineral slurries, since the mining industry plays an important part in the South African economy. (7 refs.)

  2. Fundamental and applied research in hydraulic transportation at the CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauermann, H.B.

    1983-03-01

    This article outlines the type of work on hydraulic transportation of solids which has been and is being carried out by the National Mechanical Engineering Research Institute at Pretoria. Special emphasis is placed on handling mineral slurries, since the mining industry plays an important part in the South African economy.

  3. Research and Development Program for transportation packagings at Sandia National Laboratories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains information about the research and development programs dealing with waste transport at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper discusses topics such as: Why new packaging is needed; analytical methodologies and design codes;evaluation of packaging components; materials characterization; creative packaging concepts; packaging engineering and analysis; testing; and certification support

  4. New York Times journalist receives Pulitzer Prize for story highlighting Virginia Tech Transportation Institute research

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Sherri

    2010-01-01

    Last week, the 2010 Pulitzer Prize in Journalism for national reporting was awarded to Matt Richtel and members of The New York Times staff for their July 18, 2009, front page story that highlighted research study results from the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute.

  5. Transportation of failed or damaged foreign research reactor spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Messick, C.E. [U.S. Department of Energy, Savannah River Site (United States); Mustin, T.P. [U.S. Department of Energy (United States); Massey, C.D. [Sandia National Laboratorier (United States)

    1998-07-01

    Since resuming the Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel (FRR SNF) Acceptance Program in 1996, the Program has had to deal with difficult issues associated with the transportation of failed or damaged spent fuel. In several instances, problems with failed or damaged fuel have prevented the acceptance of the fuel at considerable cost to both the Department of Energy (DOE) and research reactor operators. In response to the problems faced by the Acceptance Program, DOE has undertaken significant steps to better define the spent fuel acceptance criteria. DOE has worked closely with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to address failed or damaged research reactor spent fuel and to identify cask certificate issues which must be resolved by cask owners and foreign regulatory authorities. The specific issues associated with the transport of Materials Testing Reactor (MTR)-type FRR SNF will be discussed. The information presented will include U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory issues, cask certificate issues, technical constraints, and lessons learned. Specific information will also be provided on the latest efforts to revise DOE's Appendix B, Transport Package (Cask) Acceptance Criteria. The information presented in this paper will be important to foreign research reactor operators, shippers, and cask vendors, so that appropriate amendments to the Certificate of Compliance for spent fuel casks can be submitted in a timely manner to facilitate the safe and scheduled transport of FRR SNF.

  6. Practical Application of a Subscale Transport Aircraft for Flight Research in Control Upset and Failure Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin; Foster, John V.; Morelli, Eugene A.; Murch, Austin M.

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade, the goal of reducing the fatal accident rate of large transport aircraft has resulted in research aimed at the problem of aircraft loss-of-control. Starting in 1999, the NASA Aviation Safety Program initiated research that included vehicle dynamics modeling, system health monitoring, and reconfigurable control systems focused on flight regimes beyond the normal flight envelope. In recent years, there has been an increased emphasis on adaptive control technologies for recovery from control upsets or failures including damage scenarios. As part of these efforts, NASA has developed the Airborne Subscale Transport Aircraft Research (AirSTAR) flight facility to allow flight research and validation, and system testing for flight regimes that are considered too risky for full-scale manned transport airplane testing. The AirSTAR facility utilizes dynamically-scaled vehicles that enable the application of subscale flight test results to full scale vehicles. This paper describes the modeling and simulation approach used for AirSTAR vehicles that supports the goals of efficient, low-cost and safe flight research in abnormal flight conditions. Modeling of aerodynamics, controls, and propulsion will be discussed as well as the application of simulation to flight control system development, test planning, risk mitigation, and flight research.

  7. Clinical education and training: Using the nominal group technique in research with radiographers to identify factors affecting quality and capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of group-based research techniques available to determine the views or perceptions of individuals in relation to specific topics. This paper reports on one method, the nominal group technique (NGT) which was used to collect the views of important stakeholders on the factors affecting the quality of, and capacity to provide clinical education and training in diagnostic imaging and radiotherapy and oncology departments in the UK. Inclusion criteria were devised to recruit learners, educators, practitioners and service managers to the nominal groups. Eight regional groups comprising a total of 92 individuals were enrolled; the numbers in each group varied between 9 and 13. A total of 131 items (factors) were generated across the groups (mean = 16.4). Each group was then asked to select the top three factors from their original list. Consensus on the important factors amongst groups found that all eight groups agreed on one item: staff attitude, motivation and commitment to learners. The 131 items were organised into themes using content analysis. Five main categories and a number of subcategories emerged. The study concluded that the NGT provided data which were congruent with the issues faced by practitioners and learners in their daily work; this was of vital importance if the findings are to be regarded with credibility. Further advantages and limitations of the method are discussed, however it is argued that the NGT is a useful technique to gather relevant opinion; to select priorities and to reach consensus on a wide range of issues

  8. 植物阻沙能力研究进展%Research Review of Capacity of Plant for Trapping Blown Sand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐艳; 刘连友; 屈志强; 胡霞; 郭兰兰; 吕艳丽; 曹恒武; 贾振杰; 杨岩岩

    2011-01-01

    Above-ground parts of the plant are key components that alter the wind flow and affect the movement of blown sand. The volume of dune body and sediment transport rate may be used to measure the capacity of plant for trapping blown sand, which is influenced by some factors such as plant morphology and structure, roughness concentration, community collocation and so on. Under the same circumstance, different plants may have different capacities for trapping blown sand due to differential crown morphology, flexibility of branch and leaf area. In different phonological phases of the same plant, the factors like crown morphology, flexibility of branch, leaf area and the resulting distribution pattern of aboveground biomass change significantly. There are several future research directions of capacity of plant for trapping blown sand.(1) How to determine and divide the flexibility levels of plant branch, and to develop evaluation indexes and system of capacity of plant for trapping blown sand; (2) how to make certain the critical roughness concentration of plant community for trapping blown sand; (3) how to enhance the diversity of configuration models when community roughness concentration reaches critical roughness concentration, and find the effectiveness and coordination among roughness concentration, community collocation (when distance between rows and hills changes) and utility maximization to contribute to the current practice of ecological construction.%植物单株与群落的阻沙能力可以用植物周围沉积的积沙体体积与输沙率来衡量,其受植物地上形态结构、粗糙元密集度以及群落配置等多种因素影响.相同区域环境下不同种类的植物以及同种植物在与风沙活动季节相对应的不同物候期内,阻沙能力受冠层形态、茎枝的柔韧性、叶面积以及由此导致的地上生物量分配模式等因素影响较大.因此,植物的阻沙能力应综合各参数进行评价.从植物个体的

  9. Assessing global, regional, national and sub–national capacity for public health research: a bibliometric analysis of the Web of ScienceTM in 1996–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badenhorst, Anna; Mansoori, Parisa; Chan, Kit Yee

    2016-01-01

    Background The past two decades have seen a large increase in investment in global public health research. There is a need for increased coordination and accountability, particularly in understanding where funding is being allocated and who has capacity to perform research. In this paper, we aim to assess global, regional, national and sub–national capacity for public health research and how it is changing over time in different parts of the world. Methods To allow comparisons of regions, countries and universities/research institutes over time, we relied on Web of ScienceTM database and used Hirsch (h) index based on 5–year–periods (h5). We defined articles relevant to public health research with 98% specificity using the combination of search terms relevant to public health, epidemiology or meta–analysis. Based on those selected papers, we computed h5 for each country of the world and their main universities/research institutes for these 5–year time periods: 1996–2000, 2001–2005 and 2006–2010. We computed h5 with a 3–year–window after each time period, to allow citations from more recent years to accumulate. Among the papers contributing to h5–core, we explored a topic/disease under investigation, “instrument” of health research used (eg, descriptive, discovery, development or delivery research); and universities/research institutes contributing to h5–core. Results Globally, the majority of public health research has been conducted in North America and Europe, but other regions (particularly Eastern Mediterranean and South–East Asia) are showing greater improvement rate and are rapidly gaining capacity. Moreover, several African nations performed particularly well when their research output is adjusted by their gross domestic product (GDP). In the regions gaining capacity, universities are contributing more substantially to the h–core publications than other research institutions. In all regions of the world, the topics of articles

  10. Shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis of spent fuel transportation cask in research reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, A; Hassanzadeh, M; Gharib, M

    2016-02-01

    In this study, shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis were carried out for general material testing reactor (MTR) research reactors interim storage and relevant transportation cask. During these processes, three major terms were considered: source term, shielding, and criticality calculations. The Monte Carlo transport code MCNP5 was used for shielding calculation and criticality safety analysis and ORIGEN2.1 code for source term calculation. According to the results obtained, a cylindrical cask with body, top, and bottom thicknesses of 18, 13, and 13 cm, respectively, was accepted as the dual-purpose cask. Furthermore, it is shown that the total dose rates are below the normal transport criteria that meet the standards specified. PMID:26720262

  11. Share of Nations in 37 International Public Health Journals: An Equity and Diversity Perspective Towards Health Research Capacity Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E de Leeuw

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: This paper contributes to further exploration of inequity in access to health research capacity development by examining the representation of different nations in international public health journals. It also aims to examine the degree of diversity that exists in these journals.Methods: This study is a descriptive survey. It was done with objective sampling on 37 ISI health journals on October of 2008.The number and nationality of people in different editorial positions of the journals was identified. The second analy­sis involved recalculating the numbers obtained for each nation to the population size of nations per million inhabitants. In order to better compare countries in terms of presence in editorial team of the journals, a ‘public health editor equity gap ratio' (PHEEGR was developed.Results: Low income countries have occupied none of the leadership positions of chief editor or associate /assistant chief editors and middle income countries at maximum shared less than 5 percent. The PHEEGR gap in access to the different editorial positions between highest to the lowest representation of countries was 16/1 for chief editors, 12/1 for associate editors , 335/1 for editorial boards and 202/1 for associate editorial boards. However, after normalizing the data to the country's population, the gap increased significantly.Conclusion: There is an imbalance and possibly even inequity in the composition of editorial boards and offices of interna­tional health journals that should be paid significant attention. This can contribute to fill the equity gap exists between health in developing and developed countries.

  12. 提高民航货机输送部队重装备保障能力的思考%Reflections on Improving Transporting Army Heavy Equipment Support Capacity by Civil Aviation Freighter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    海军; 李健

    2011-01-01

    分析了利用民航货机输送部队装备的限制因素,指出了当前民航货机输送部队重装备存在的主要问题,从对部队重装备进行技术处理、研发重装备空运专用设备和适应国际航空运输标准要求等方面,探讨了提高部队重装备空运能力的对策措施,对于拓展部队重装备航空运输保障范围,提高部队航空应急投送能力具有一定的参考价值。%This paper analyzed the limiting factors of transporting army equipments by civil aviation freighter,pointed out its main existing problems,explored some countermeasures for improving army heavy equipments aerial transporting support capacity from disposing the heavy equipments technology,developing the special aerial transporting facility of heavy equipments,and adapting the international aviation transportation standards,which has certain values to expand the support scopes of army heavy equipments aerial transportation,and to improve the support capacity of army aviation emergence transportation.

  13. Carrying Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroll, Henning; Andersen, Jan; Kjærgård, Bente

    2012-01-01

    carrying capacity (SCC) and assimilative carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts...... carrying capacity (ACC). The act mandates that the latter two aspects must be taken into consideration in the local spatial plans. The present study aimed at developing a background for a national guideline for carrying capacity in Indonesian provinces and districts/cities. Four different sectors (water...

  14. NASA transport systems research vehicle B-737 data link system and display formats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Charles E.; Scanlon, Charles H.

    1990-01-01

    A data link system was designed to support flight tests in the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737 airplane. The purpose of the flight tests was to evaluate pilot acceptance of using data link as the primary source of communications for strategic and tactical air traffic control clearances, weather information, and company messages. The airborne functional operations of the data link system flight tested in 1990 are described.

  15. Building local capacity for genomics research in Africa: recommendations from analysis of publications in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, Babatunde O.; Olopade, Christopher O.; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.

    2016-01-01

    Background The poor genomics research capacity of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) could prevent maximal benefits from the applications of genomics in the practice of medicine and research. The objective of this study is to examine the author affiliations of genomic epidemiology publications in order to make recommendations for building local genomics research capacity in SSA. Design SSA genomic epidemiology articles published between 2004 and 2013 were extracted from the Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) database. Data on authorship details, country of population studied, and phenotype or disease were extracted. Factors associated with the first author, who has an SSA institution affiliation (AIAFA), were determined using a Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results The most commonly studied population was South Africa, accounting for 31.1%, followed by Ghana (10.6%) and Kenya (7.5%). About one-tenth of the papers were related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) such as cancer (6.1%) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (4.3%). Fewer than half of the first authors (46.9%) were affiliated with an African institution. Among the 238 articles with an African first author, over three-quarters (79.8%) belonged to a university or medical school, 16.8% were affiliated with a research institute, and 3.4% had affiliations with other institutions. Conclusions Significant disparities currently exist among SSA countries in genomics research capacity. South Africa has the highest genomics research output, which is reflected in the investments made in its genomics and biotechnology sector. These findings underscore the need to focus on developing local capacity, especially among those affiliated with SSA universities where there are more opportunities for teaching and research. PMID:27178644

  16. Building local capacity for genomics research in Africa: recommendations from analysis of publications in Sub-Saharan Africa from 2004 to 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Adedokun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The poor genomics research capacity of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA could prevent maximal benefits from the applications of genomics in the practice of medicine and research. The objective of this study is to examine the author affiliations of genomic epidemiology publications in order to make recommendations for building local genomics research capacity in SSA. Design: SSA genomic epidemiology articles published between 2004 and 2013 were extracted from the Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE database. Data on authorship details, country of population studied, and phenotype or disease were extracted. Factors associated with the first author, who has an SSA institution affiliation (AIAFA, were determined using a Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Results: The most commonly studied population was South Africa, accounting for 31.1%, followed by Ghana (10.6% and Kenya (7.5%. About one-tenth of the papers were related to non-communicable diseases (NCDs such as cancer (6.1% and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs (4.3%. Fewer than half of the first authors (46.9% were affiliated with an African institution. Among the 238 articles with an African first author, over three-quarters (79.8% belonged to a university or medical school, 16.8% were affiliated with a research institute, and 3.4% had affiliations with other institutions. Conclusions: Significant disparities currently exist among SSA countries in genomics research capacity. South Africa has the highest genomics research output, which is reflected in the investments made in its genomics and biotechnology sector. These findings underscore the need to focus on developing local capacity, especially among those affiliated with SSA universities where there are more opportunities for teaching and research.

  17. Transport of HIFAR spent fuel from Lucas Heights Research Establishment to the United Kingdom for reprocessing. Public Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-27

    The normal operations of HIFAR produce thirty-eight spent fuel elements annually. Since 1958, when operations began, 1,660 spent fuel elements have been accumulated and are stored in ANSTO`s engineered interim storage facilities at Lucas Heights. In the light of the limited size of these storage facilities and following the Research Reactor Review (1993) and an Inter-Agency Review, the Commonwealth Government announced its decision to reduce the number of spent fuel elements stored at the site. Therefore, ANSTO has been authorised to negotiate the terms for shipment of spent fuel elements of United Kingdom (UK) origin to the Dounreay reprocessing plant in Scotland. This Public Environment Report, prepared under the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974, describes the potential impacts and risks of a proposed initial shipment of 120 spent fuel elements to the Dounreay reprocessing plant. It describes the intended packaging and transport procedures and considers possible alternative methods of dealing with the continued production of spent fuel rods and the limited storage capacity at LHRL. The exhaustive analysis of every phase of operations involved in the shipping of a cask of spent HIFAR fuel elements from Lucas Heights to Dounreay, for reprocessing, has shown that there are no significant environmental or public health impacts from such a shipment conducted in accordance with standard, internationally established procedures. 18 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs.

  18. Transport of HIFAR spent fuel from Lucas Heights Research Establishment to the United Kingdom for reprocessing. Public Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The normal operations of HIFAR produce thirty-eight spent fuel elements annually. Since 1958, when operations began, 1,660 spent fuel elements have been accumulated and are stored in ANSTO's engineered interim storage facilities at Lucas Heights. In the light of the limited size of these storage facilities and following the Research Reactor Review (1993) and an Inter-Agency Review, the Commonwealth Government announced its decision to reduce the number of spent fuel elements stored at the site. Therefore, ANSTO has been authorised to negotiate the terms for shipment of spent fuel elements of United Kingdom (UK) origin to the Dounreay reprocessing plant in Scotland. This Public Environment Report, prepared under the Environment Protection (Impact of Proposals) Act 1974, describes the potential impacts and risks of a proposed initial shipment of 120 spent fuel elements to the Dounreay reprocessing plant. It describes the intended packaging and transport procedures and considers possible alternative methods of dealing with the continued production of spent fuel rods and the limited storage capacity at LHRL. The exhaustive analysis of every phase of operations involved in the shipping of a cask of spent HIFAR fuel elements from Lucas Heights to Dounreay, for reprocessing, has shown that there are no significant environmental or public health impacts from such a shipment conducted in accordance with standard, internationally established procedures. 18 refs., 12 tabs., 2 figs

  19. Savannah River Laboratory environmental transport and effects research. Annual report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective of environmental transport research at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) is to develop, apply, adapt, use, test, and verify models that predict the directions and magnitude of ecosystem processes. Since an ecosystem is understood to be a complex ecological unit composed of physical, chemical, and biotic components interacting in the cycling and transport of matter and the flow of energy, the understanding of ecosystem processes demands integrated study by scientists of differing disciplines. Data are included from studies on factors that affect the atmospheric transport and dispersion of radionuclides and chemical effluents; surface and groundwater transport of various pollutants following release to the soil surface or a flowing stream; the uptake and retention of tritium oxide by pine trees; calculations of the radiation dose commitment for human populations from 14C released by the nuclear industry; the effects of thermal effluents on aquatic organisms, including plankton productivity, the population dynamics of freshwater snails, and the growth and respiration rates of the sand-burrowing mayfly (Dolania americana). Data are included from a survey of seismic activity in South Carolina. (CH)

  20. Research program for the evaluation of fission product release and transport behavior focusing on FP chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new research program on severe accidents has been launched for the evaluation of FP release and transport behavior in the BWR system. The purpose of the program is to improve the FP release and transport model using the experimental database of FP chemistry focusing on Cs and I chemistry. In this program, the effects of B including control rod materials, B4C for the Cs and I chemistry are considered. Postulated behaviors in the BWR system for Cs, I, B release and transport are classified into 4 processes based on typical BWR severe accident scenarios. The experimental database used for improvement will consist of results obtained with a newly-prepared test device under an atmosphere with broad-ranging oxygen and/or steam partial pressure simulated in the BWR. The state of preparation for these experimental studies and analyses is introduced. In addition, preliminary testing was initiated to show B chemical effect on Cs and I transport under one of the processes; namely deposited Cs compounds, B vapor and aerosol interaction. In this experiment, 'B stripping effect' to deposited CsI was observed. (author)

  1. Analysis energetics of the fuel alcohol production system: considerations on the plant capacity producer effect in the sugar cane transportation and in the energy efficiency system; Analise energetica do sistema de producao de alcool carburante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dias Filho, Waldir

    1994-12-01

    This work analyses the sugarcane alcohol factory as a energy production system. It considers the energy balance models of the literature that counts the energy inputs in the two phases of the agricultural and industrial processing. This analysis shows the need of the construction of a new model that could consider the sugarcane transportation as a third subsystem that consists in the interface of the agricultural and industrial subsystems. The analysis of sensibility of the efficiency function for the ratio of agricultural, industrial and transportation return suggests production models of small capacity with some technic, as being the most reasonable from the energy point of view. Besides, the work indicates that a bigger impact over the energetic global efficiency of the alcohol industrial sector could be reached by investment in industrial technology applied to the small capacity alcohol factories. (author)

  2. Living in a 2.2 World: From Mapping to Strategic Capacity Building for Australian Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Neil; Seddon, Terri

    2013-01-01

    The results of Australia's first national research assessment, excellence for research in Australia, provoked considerable discussion about the state of educational research in Australia. Understanding the nature of this field of research became the focus for empirical research and analysis that was intended to inform strategic planning. This…

  3. Research of transport and deposition of aerosol in human airway replica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizal, Frantisek; Jedelsky, Jan; Elcner, Jakub; Durdina, Lukas; Halasova, Tereza; Mravec, Filip; Jicha, Miroslav

    2012-04-01

    Growing concern about knowledge of aerosol transport in human lungs is caused by great potential of use of inhaled pharmaceuticals. Second substantial motive for the research is an effort to minimize adverse effects of particular matter emitted by traffic and industry on human health. We created model geometry of human lungs to 7th generation of branching. This model geometry was used for fabrication of two physical models. The first one is made from thin walled transparent silicone and it allows a measurement of velocity and size of aerosol particles by Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). The second one is fabricated by stereolithographic method and it is designed for aerosol deposition measurements. We provided a series of measurements of aerosol transport in the transparent model and we ascertained remarkable phenomena linked with lung flow. The results are presented in brief. To gather how this phenomena affects aerosol deposition in human lungs we used the second model and we developed a technique for deposition fraction and deposition efficiency assessment. The results confirmed that non-symmetric and complicated shape of human airways essentially affects transport and deposition of aerosol. The research will now focus on deeper insight in aerosol deposition.

  4. Thermal simulations and tests in the development of a helmet transport spent fuel elements Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel from research reactors was designed by a group of researchers to improve the capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the reactors operated in the region. Two half-scale models for MTR fuel were constructed and tested so far and a third one for both MTR and TRIGA fuels will be constructed and tested next. Four test campaigns have been carried out, covering both normal and hypothetical accident conditions of transportation. The thermal test is part of the requirements for the qualification of transportation packages for nuclear reactors spent fuel elements. In this paper both the numerical modelling and experimental thermal tests performed are presented and discussed. The cask is briefly described as well as the finite element model developed and the main adopted hypotheses for the thermal phenomena. The results of both numerical runs and experimental tests are discussed as a tool to validate the thermal modelling. The impact limiters, attached to the cask for protection, were not modelled. (author)

  5. Research into the application of biodiesel in the transport sector of Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedevas, S.; Vaicekauskas, A. [Klaipeda University Maritime Inst. (Lithuania)

    2006-07-01

    The solution of ecological problems on the international level strongly influences the development of new technologies, especially of the transport sector. The problem of greenhouse effect related to the emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2} gases and environmental air pollution with harmful components of exhaust gases charges competitive international and national organizations to regulate and owners of transport fleets to reduce the harmful emission of exhaust gases to the environment. The replacement of mineral fuel by biodiesel is one of the most effective ways for solving the problem of saving and effective usage of energy resources. The material of this publication presents the results of a complex research into the application of standard rapseed methyl ester (RME) and new types of biodiesels produced from waste of vegetable oil and animal fat in the transport sector of Lithuania. The analytical analysis of physical, chemical and thermodynamical properties of biodiesels is performed and its results are evualated during the formation of tasks of experimental motor tests and research into mathematical modelling. Their influence for the paramaters of a working process and exploiting characteristics such as power, fuel economy, reliability and harmful emission of gases is evaluated.

  6. Research of transport and deposition of aerosol in human airway replica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mravec Filip

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Growing concern about knowledge of aerosol transport in human lungs is caused by great potential of use of inhaled pharmaceuticals. Second substantial motive for the research is an effort to minimize adverse effects of particular matter emitted by traffic and industry on human health. We created model geometry of human lungs to 7th generation of branching. This model geometry was used for fabrication of two physical models. The first one is made from thin walled transparent silicone and it allows a measurement of velocity and size of aerosol particles by Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA. The second one is fabricated by stereolithographic method and it is designed for aerosol deposition measurements. We provided a series of measurements of aerosol transport in the transparent model and we ascertained remarkable phenomena linked with lung flow. The results are presented in brief. To gather how this phenomena affects aerosol deposition in human lungs we used the second model and we developed a technique for deposition fraction and deposition efficiency assessment. The results confirmed that non-symmetric and complicated shape of human airways essentially affects transport and deposition of aerosol. The research will now focus on deeper insight in aerosol deposition.

  7. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities. The Conference proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) world conference, volume 5 is presented. The topics include: 1) The Temporal Configuration of Airline Networks in Europe; 2) Determination and Applications of Environmental Costs at Different Sized Airports-Aircraft Noise and Engine Emissions; 3) Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector; 4) An Assessment of the Sustainability of Air Transport System: Quantification of Indicators; 5) Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation; 6) Regulation in the Air: Price and Frequency Cap; 7) Industry Consolidation and Future Airline Network Structures in Europe; 8) Application of Core Theory to the U.S. Airline Industry; 9) Air Freight Transshipment Route Choice Analysis; 10) A Fuzzy Approach of the Competition on Air Transport Market; and 11) Developing Passenger Demand Models for International Aviation from/to Egypt: A Case Study of Cairo Airport and Egyptair.

  8. The Conference Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG) of the WCTR Society. Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oum, Tae Hoon (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Thirteen papers (presentations) from the 8th World Conference on Transportation Research are presented. Topics include European Airline competition, cost analyses, performance evaluations, deregulation; aviation policy in Southeast Asia; corporate involvement in European business transportation; and cycles in the airline industry.

  9. Testing of a Transport Cask for Research Reactor Spent Fuel - 13003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourao, Rogerio P.; Leite da Silva, Luiz [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte (Brazil); Miranda, Carlos A.; Mattar Neto, Miguel [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Quintana, Jose F.A.; Saliba, Roberto O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Bariloche (Argentina); Novara, Oscar E. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    Since the beginning of the last decade three Latin American countries that operate research reactors - Argentina, Brazil and Chile - have been joining efforts to improve the regional capability in the management of spent fuel elements from the TRIGA and MTR reactors operated in the region. A main drive in this initiative, sponsored by the International Atomic Energy Agency, is the fact that no definite solution regarding the back end of the research reactor fuel cycle has been taken by any of the participating country. However, any long-term solution - either disposition in a repository or storage away from reactor - will involve at some stage the transportation of the spent fuel through public roads. Therefore, a licensed cask that provides adequate shielding, assurance of subcriticality, and conformance to internationally accepted safety, security and safeguards regimes is considered a strategic part of any future solution to be adopted at a regional level. As a step in this direction, a packaging for the transport of irradiated fuel for MTR and TRIGA research reactors was designed by the tri-national team and a half-scale model equipped with the MTR version of the internal basket was constructed in Argentina and Brazil and tested in Brazil. Three test campaigns have been carried out so far, covering both normal conditions of transportation and hypothetical accident conditions. After failing the tests in the first two test series, the specimen successfully underwent the last test sequence. A second specimen, incorporating the structural improvements in view of the previous tests results, will be tested in the near future. Numerical simulations of the free drop and thermal tests are being carried out in parallel, in order to validate the computational modeling that is going to be used as a support for the package certification. (authors)

  10. 山西省护理人员科研能力调查研究%Investigation on scientific research capacity of nursing staff in Shanxi province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘银河; 程金莲; 寇丽红; 孙玉梅

    2011-01-01

    [目的]了解山西省护理人员科研能力状况及其特点.[方法]采用修订后的护理人员科研能力自评量表对山西省太原市6所三级甲等医院的临床护士进行调查,并对结果进行分析.[结果]护理人员科研能力总得分及各维度得分跨度较大,临床护理人员的整体科研能力较低,不同学历、职称的临床护理人员科研能力总分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).不同学历的临床护理人员科研能力各维度得分差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);有行政职务者科研能力比无行政职务者强(P<0.05);不同年龄在问题发现能力和论文写作能力比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);不同护龄的护理人员只在问题发现能力上差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).[结论]太原市三级甲等医院临床护理人员的整体科研能力比较低,且参差不齐,提示给临床护理人员的科研培训应该有针对性.%Objective:To know about the status quo and characteristics of scientific research capacity of nursing staff in Shanxi province. Methods:Clinical nurses from six three - grade class A hospitals in Taiyuan city Shanxi province were investigated by using nursing staff scientific research ability self - assessment scale. And the results were analyzed. Results: The span of total score and every dimension score of scientific research capacity of nursing staff were wide. Global scientific research capacity of clinical nursing staff was low. There were significant statistical differences in terms of the total score of scientific research ability among clinical nurses with different educational background and professional titles(P<0.05). There were significant statistical differences in every dimension score of scientific research capacity among clinical nurses with different educational background(P<0.05). Scientific research capacity of clinical nurses on administrative duty was better than without duty(P<0.05). For different ages,the ability to

  11. 流溪河水库水环境容量研究%Research on Water Environment Capacity of Liuxihe Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈炜; 罗华兵; 黄璇

    2011-01-01

    研究在流溪河水库水质现状调查的基础上,结合历史调查资料,采用了VoUenweider模型、OECD模型对流溪河水库水质进行了模拟并对TN、TP水环境容量进行了计算。结果表明,水库的TN、TP水环境容量在2005—2009年间分别是364.21—661.49t/a、25.37—44.15t/a,水环境容量与降雨量呈正相关,由于水库的降雨量年际变化比较大,导致水库的水环境容量的年际变化也较大。从流溪河水库4年的平均状况来看,水库总氮没有剩余容量,应削减负荷22.53%,总磷的剩余容量为2.27t/a,占其总环境容量的比重为18.27%。%Models of Vollenweider and OECD were used to simulate the water quality of Liuxihe reservoir and studies were carried out on the basis of on-site investigation combined with historical data collection. The verified models were used to calculate the water environment capacities of TN and TP. Results showed that the water environment capacities were TN 364.21-661.49 t/a and TP 25.37-44.15 t/a during 2005-2009, which had a positive correlation with precipitation and varied with the annual changes of precipitation. When compared with the practical pollution loads of the reservoir, there was no surplus capacity for the pollutants of TN and 22.53% of the pollution loads should be cut off, while the surplus capacity of TP was 2.27t/a, which took 18.27% of the whole capacity.

  12. Heat Capacity Analysis Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to provide heat capacity values for the host and surrounding rock layers for the waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The heat capacity representations provided by this analysis are used in unsaturated zone (UZ) flow, transport, and coupled processes numerical modeling activities, and in thermal analyses as part of the design of the repository to support the license application. Among the reports that use the heat capacity values estimated in this report are the ''Multiscale Thermohydrologic Model'' report, the ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' report, the ''Ventilation Model and Analysis Report, the Igneous Intrusion Impacts on Waste Packages and Waste Forms'' report, the ''Dike/Drift Interactions report, the Drift-Scale Coupled Processes (DST and TH Seepage) Models'' report, and the ''In-Drift Natural Convection and Condensation'' report. The specific objective of this study is to determine the rock-grain and rock-mass heat capacities for the geologic stratigraphy identified in the ''Mineralogic Model (MM3.0) Report'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170031], Table 1-1). This report provides estimates of the heat capacity for all stratigraphic layers except the Paleozoic, for which the mineralogic abundance data required to estimate the heat capacity are not available. The temperature range of interest in this analysis is 25 C to 325 C. This interval is broken into three separate temperature sub-intervals: 25 C to 95 C, 95 C to 114 C, and 114 C to 325 C, which correspond to the preboiling, trans-boiling, and postboiling regimes. Heat capacity is defined as the amount of energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of material by one degree (Nimick and Connolly 1991 [DIRS 100690], p. 5). The rock-grain heat capacity is defined as the heat capacity of the rock solids (minerals), and does not include the effect of water that exists in the rock pores. By comparison, the rock-mass heat capacity considers the heat capacity of both solids and pore

  13. Research on numerical simulation and protection of transient process in long-distance slurry transportation pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The calculation of water-hammer pressure phenomenon of single-phase liquid is already more mature for a pipeline of uniform characteristics, but less research has addressed the calculation of slurry water hammer pressure in complex pipelines with slurry flows carrying solid particles. In this paper, based on the developments of slurry pipelines at home and abroad, the fundamental principle and method of numerical simulation of transient processes are presented, and several boundary conditions are given. Through the numerical simulation and analysis of transient processes of a practical engineering of long-distance slurry transportation pipeline system, effective protection measures and operating suggestions are presented. A model for calculating the water impact of solid and fluid phases is established based on a practical engineering of long-distance slurry pipeline transportation system. After performing a numerical simulation of the transient process, analyzing and comparing the results, effective protection measures and operating advice are recommended, which has guiding significance to the design and operating management of practical engineering of longdistance slurry pipeline transportation system

  14. Study of beam transport lines for a biomedical research facility at CERN based on LEIR

    CERN Document Server

    Abler, D; Garonna, A; Peach, K

    2014-01-01

    The Low Energy Ion Ring (LEIR) at CERN has been proposed to provide ion beams with magnetic rigidities up to 6.7 T.m for biomedical research, in parallel to its continued operation for LHC and SPS fixed target physics experiments. In the context of this project, two beamlines are proposed for transporting the extracted beam to future experimental end-stations: a vertical beamline for specific low-energy radiobiological research, and a horizontal beamline for radiobiology and medical physics experimentation. This study presents a first linear-optics design for the delivery of 1–5mm FWHM pencil beams and 5 cm 5 cm homogeneous broad beams to both endstations. High field uniformity is achieved by selection of the central part of a strongly defocused Gaussian beam, resulting in low beam utilisation.

  15. Urban Integrated Transportation Planning Based on Transit Oriented Development and its Research Challenges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Huapu

    2005-01-01

    Satisfying the increasing traffic demand with the least amount of resource and environmental costs, the sustainable development object of urban traffic system determines that from long-term viewpoint, it is necessary to establish urban integrated traffic planning system with public transport as it is.The planning idea of Transit Oriented Development ( TOD ) is an important method to realize urban integrated traffic planning system. Research and practice reveal that harmony and integration is the key method to solve urban traffic problems. The integration of traffic system and land-use is the basic problem. Urban traffic development strategy with TOD provides ideas and ways to harmonize the traffic and land-use systems, which brings out a series of new research subjects and challenges in the field of traffic planning.

  16. The use of modern information technology in research on transport accessibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz BARTOSIEWICZ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Transport accessibility can be analyzed using a number of different methods. The problem with each of them is the difficulty of obtaining data to measure this phenomenon The focus of this article and its main goal are to present methods and tools for gathering data on road traffic; thanks to modern information technology, it is possible to collect real data without the need for large-scale and highly capital-intensive measurements. The application of modern information technology (IT presented in the article, such as computer programs and applications like Google Maps Traffic Overlay and TomTom Live Traffic, enable research to be conducted on a scale that has thus far been unattainable, and allows information to be collected on such criteria as traffic volume, flow, average traffic speed, and actual journey time. Such innovative means of gathering data on automobile traffic open up new perspectives for assessing transport accessibility in terms of automobile traffic by providing high-quality data that meet the requirements for use in primary research.

  17. RESEARCHES REGARDING THE INFLUENCE OF RECOVERY MEDIA ON THE IN VITRO DEVELOPMENT CAPACITY OF THE PREIMPLANTATIONAL MOUSE EMBRYO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADA CEAN

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Phosphate Bufered Saline with 0.4% BSA and M2 medium are one of the most common media used in embryorecovery. The aim of our paper was to investigate if the recovery media used for the recovery of the mouseembryo is influencing in vitro developmental capacity. As biological material we used 10 used were mousefemales, age 2 months superovulated with 5UI PMSG (Pregnant Mare Serum Gonadotropine and 5 UI hCG(human Corionic Gonadotropine. The embryos used were recovered, by oviduct flushing, at 24 hours from theidentification of the vaginal plug. The majority of the embryos (78.3% were in two cells stage. A total of 123, 2cells embryos were cultivated in M16 medium. The evolution of the embryos was examined at 24, 48 and 72hours interval. The proportion of hatched blastocyst was higher at the embryos recovered with M2 (53.7%compared with the embryos recovered with PBS 0.4% BSA. The difference is statistically very significant(p<0.001. Embryos recovered in M2 media have a higher in vitro developmental capacity compared with theembryos recovered in PBS media supplemented with 0,4% BSA, possibly because of the sodium bicarbonate andlactate used in M2 media for pH regulation.

  18. Particle radiation transport and effects models from research to space weather operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Giovanni; Nieminen, Petteri; Rivera, Angela; Ibarmia, Sergio; Truscott, Pete; Lei, Fan; Desorgher, Laurent; Ivanchenko, Vladimir; Kruglanski, Michel; Messios, Neophytos

    Assessment of risk from potential radiation-induced effects to space systems requires knowledge of both the conditions of the radiation environment and of the impact of radiation on sensi-tive spacecraft elements. During sensitivity analyses, test data are complemented by models to predict how external radiation fields are transported and modified in spacecraft materials. Radiation transport is still itself a subject of research and models are continuously improved to describe the physical interactions that take place when particles pass through shielding materi-als or hit electronic systems or astronauts, sometimes down to nanometre-scale interactions of single particles with deep sub-micron technologies or DNA structures. In recent years, though, such radiation transport models are transitioning from being a research subject by itself, to being widely used in the space engineering domain and finally being directly applied in the context of operation of space weather services. A significant "research to operations" (R2O) case is offered by Geant4, an open source toolkit initially developed and used in the context of fundamental research in high energy physics. Geant4 is also being used in the space domain, e.g. for modelling detector responses in science payloads, but also for studying the radiation environment itself, with subjects ranging from cosmic rays, to solar energetic particles in the heliosphere, to geomagnetic shielding. Geant4-based tools are now becoming more and more integrated in spacecraft design procedures, also through user friendly interfaces such as SPEN-VIS. Some examples are given by MULASSIS, offering multi-layered shielding analysis capa-bilities in realistic spacecraft materials, or GEMAT, focused on micro-dosimetry in electronics, or PLANETOCOSMICS, describing the interaction of the space environment with planetary magneto-and atmospheres, or GRAS, providing a modular and easy to use interface to various analysis types in simple or

  19. 内分泌专业硕士研究生科研能力的培养%Tar ining scientific research capacity of endocrinology clinical professional postgraduates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨光燃

    2016-01-01

    Scientific research and clinical talents are the key to train the professional postgraduate students .Training scientific research capacity is a gradually accumulation process .Choosing the research issues , preparing the opening report , writing a review , participating the academic seminars or conferences , and writing the graduation thesis would be helpful for training scientific research capacity of endocrinology clinical professional postgraduates .%在专业学位研究生的培养过程中做到“科研”与“临床”并重,是临床培养专业学位硕士生的关键。科研能力的培养是一个多方面积累的过程。在内分泌科临床专业学位硕士研究生培养过程中可以从课题选题、开题报告会、综述撰写、学术交流以及学位论文书写等多个方面培养硕士研究生的科研能力。

  20. Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, K. D.; Mittleman, A.; Taghavy, A.; Fortner, J.; Lantagne, D.; Abriola, L. M.

    2015-12-01

    Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media Anjuliee M. Mittelman, Amir Taghavy, Yonggang Wang, John D. Fortner, Daniele S. Lantagne, Linda M. Abriola and Kurt D. Pennell* Detailed knowledge of the processes governing nanoparticle transport and reactivity in porous media is essential for accurate predictions of environmental fate, water and wastewater treatment system performance, and assessment of potential risks to ecosystems and water supplies. To address these issues, an interdisciplinary research team combined experimental and mathematical modeling studies to investigate the mobility, dissolution, and aging of silver nanoparticles (nAg) in representative aquifer materials and ceramic filters. Results of one-dimensional column studies, conducted with water-saturated sands maintained at pH 4 or 7 and three levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), revealed that fraction of silver mass eluted as Ag+ increased with increasing DO level, and that the dissolution of attached nAg decreased over time as a result of surface oxidation. A hybrid Eulerain-Lagragian nanoparticle transport model, which incorporates DO-dependent dissolution kinetics and particle aging, was able to accurately simulate nAg mobility and Ag+ release measured in the column experiments. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that as the flow velocity and particle size decrease, nAg dissolution and Ag+ transport processes increasingly govern silver mobility. Consistent results were obtained in studies of ceramic water filters treated with nAg, where silver elution was shown to be governed by nAg dissolution to form Ag+ and subsequent cation exchange reactions. Recent studies explored the effects of surface coating aging on nAg aggregation, mobility and dissolution. Following ultraviolet light, nAg retention in water saturated sand increased by 25-50%, while up to 50% of the applied mass eluted as Ag+ compared to less than 1% for un-aged n

  1. Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennell, K. D.; Mittleman, A.; Taghavy, A.; Fortner, J.; Lantagne, D.; Abriola, L. M.

    2014-12-01

    Interdisciplinary Research to Elucidate Mechanisms Governing Silver Nanoparticle Fate and Transport in Porous Media Anjuliee M. Mittelman, Amir Taghavy, Yonggang Wang, John D. Fortner, Daniele S. Lantagne, Linda M. Abriola and Kurt D. Pennell* Detailed knowledge of the processes governing nanoparticle transport and reactivity in porous media is essential for accurate predictions of environmental fate, water and wastewater treatment system performance, and assessment of potential risks to ecosystems and water supplies. To address these issues, an interdisciplinary research team combined experimental and mathematical modeling studies to investigate the mobility, dissolution, and aging of silver nanoparticles (nAg) in representative aquifer materials and ceramic filters. Results of one-dimensional column studies, conducted with water-saturated sands maintained at pH 4 or 7 and three levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), revealed that fraction of silver mass eluted as Ag+ increased with increasing DO level, and that the dissolution of attached nAg decreased over time as a result of surface oxidation. A hybrid Eulerain-Lagragian nanoparticle transport model, which incorporates DO-dependent dissolution kinetics and particle aging, was able to accurately simulate nAg mobility and Ag+ release measured in the column experiments. Model sensitivity analysis indicated that as the flow velocity and particle size decrease, nAg dissolution and Ag+ transport processes increasingly govern silver mobility. Consistent results were obtained in studies of ceramic water filters treated with nAg, where silver elution was shown to be governed by nAg dissolution to form Ag+ and subsequent cation exchange reactions. Recent studies explored the effects of surface coating aging on nAg aggregation, mobility and dissolution. Following ultraviolet light, nAg retention in water saturated sand increased by 25-50%, while up to 50% of the applied mass eluted as Ag+ compared to less than 1% for un-aged n

  2. NRC Technical Research Program to Evaluate Extended Storage and Transportation of Spent Nuclear Fuel - 12547

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any new direction proposed for the back-end of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) cycle will require storage of SNF beyond the current licensing periods. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has established a technical research program to determine if any changes in the 10 CFR part 71, and 72 requirements, and associated guidance might be necessary to regulate the safety of anticipated extended storage, and subsequent transport of SNF. This three part program of: 1) analysis of knowledge gaps in the potential degradation of materials, 2) short-term research and modeling, and 3) long-term demonstration of systems, will allow the NRC to make informed regulatory changes, and determine when and if additional monitoring and inspection of the systems is necessary. The NRC has started a research program to obtain data necessary to determine if the current regulatory guidance is sufficient if interim dry storage has to be extended beyond the currently approved licensing periods. The three-phased approach consists of: - the identification and prioritization of potential degradation of the components related to the safe operation of a dry cask storage system, - short-term research to determine if the initial analysis was correct, and - a long-term prototypic demonstration project to confirm the models and results obtained in the short-term research. The gap analysis has identified issues with the SCC of the stainless steel canisters, and SNF behavior. Issues impacting the SNF and canister internal performance such as high and low temperature distributions, and drying have also been identified. Research to evaluate these issues is underway. Evaluations have been conducted to determine the relative values that various types of long-term demonstration projects might provide. These projects or follow-on work is expected to continue over the next five years. (authors)

  3. Supporting early career health investigators in Kenya: A qualitative study of HIV/AIDS research capacity building

    OpenAIRE

    Daniels, Joseph; Nduati, Ruth; Kiarie, James; Farquhar, Carey

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Strategies to transfer international health research training programs to sub-Saharan African institutions focus on developing cadres of local investigators who will lead such programs. Using a critical leadership theory framework, we conducted a qualitative study of one program to understand how collaborative training and research can support early career investigators in Kenya toward the program transfer goal. Methods We used purposive sampling methods and a semi-structured pro...

  4. Overview of research and development in subsurface fate and transport modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, T.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Chehata, M. [Science Applications Internationa Corp. (United States)

    1995-05-01

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of over 450 different subsurface-contaminated sites. Contaminant plumes at these sites range in volume from several to millions of cubic yards. The concentration of contaminants also ranges over several orders of magnitude. Contaminants include hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and organic chemicals, radioactive waste including tritium, uranium, and thorium, and mixed waste, which is a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The physical form of the contaminants includes solutes, nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), and vapor phase contaminants such as volatilized organic chemicals and radon. The subject of contaminant fate and transport modeling is multi-disciplinary, involving hydrology, geology, microbiology, chemistry, applied mathematics, computer science, and other areas of expertise. It is an issue of great significance in the United States and around the world. As such, many organizations have substantial programs in this area. In gathering data to prepare this report, a survey was performed of research and development work that is funded by US government agencies to improve the understanding and mechanistic modeling of processes that control contaminant movement through subsurface systems. Government agencies which fund programs that contain fate and transport modeling components include the Environmental Protection Agency, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Agriculture, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Department of Defense, United States Geological Survey, and National Institutes of Health.

  5. Overview of research and development in subsurface fate and transport modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy is responsible for the remediation of over 450 different subsurface-contaminated sites. Contaminant plumes at these sites range in volume from several to millions of cubic yards. The concentration of contaminants also ranges over several orders of magnitude. Contaminants include hazardous wastes such as heavy metals and organic chemicals, radioactive waste including tritium, uranium, and thorium, and mixed waste, which is a combination of hazardous and radioactive wastes. The physical form of the contaminants includes solutes, nonaqueous phase liquids (NAPLs), and vapor phase contaminants such as volatilized organic chemicals and radon. The subject of contaminant fate and transport modeling is multi-disciplinary, involving hydrology, geology, microbiology, chemistry, applied mathematics, computer science, and other areas of expertise. It is an issue of great significance in the United States and around the world. As such, many organizations have substantial programs in this area. In gathering data to prepare this report, a survey was performed of research and development work that is funded by US government agencies to improve the understanding and mechanistic modeling of processes that control contaminant movement through subsurface systems. Government agencies which fund programs that contain fate and transport modeling components include the Environmental Protection Agency, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Department of Agriculture, Department of Energy, National Science Foundation, Department of Defense, United States Geological Survey, and National Institutes of Health

  6. Research on Some Bus Transport Networks with Random Overlapping Clique Structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xu-Hua; WANG Bo; WANG Wan-Liang; SUN You-Xian

    2008-01-01

    On the basis of investigating the statistical data of bus transport networks of three big cities in China, we propose that each bus route is a clique (maximal complete subgraph) and a bus transport network (BTN) consists of a lot of cliques, which intensively connect and overlap with each other. We study the network properties, which include the degree distribution, multiple edges' overlapping time distribution, distribution of the overlap size between any two overlapping cliques, distribution of the number of cliques that a node belongs to. Naturally, the cliques also constitute a network, with the overlapping nodes being their multiple links. We' also research its network properties such as degree distribution, clustering, average path length, and so on. We propose that a BTN has the properties of random clique increment and random overlapping clique, at the same time, a BTN is a small-world network with highly clique-clustered and highly clique-overlapped. Finally, we introduce a BTN evolution model, whose simulation results agree well with the statistical laws that emerge in real BTNs.

  7. Requirements for a systems-based research and development management process in transport infrastructure engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rust, Frederik Christoffel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The management of research and development (R&D in the transport infrastructure field is complex due to the multidisciplinary nature of the work. The literature shows that linear R&D models that progress from idea through to consumer product are not suitable for the management of such multi-disciplinary projects. This study focuses on determining the key characteristics required for a systems-based approach to the management of R&D projects. The information and data was compiled from literature reviews, interviews, and an e-mail survey with responses from 42 significant international R&D programmes. The findings confirmed the need for a systems-based approach to R&D management. The study formulated twelve principles or tenets for a new, systems-based approach.

  8. U.S. Regulatory Research Program for Implementation of Burnup Credit in Transport Casks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1999 the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (U.S. NRC) initiated a research program to support the development of technical bases and guidance that would facilitate the implementation of burnup credit into licensing activities for transport and dry cask storage. This paper reviews the following major areas of investigation: (1) specification of axial burnup profiles, (2) assumption on cooling time, (3) allowance for assemblies with fixed and removable neutron absorbers, (4) the need for a burnup margin for fuel with initial enrichments over 4 wt %, and (5) evaluation of assay data and critical experiments. The capabilities of a new computational tool that facilitates the performance and coupling of the depletion and criticality analyses needed for burnup credit are also discussed

  9. Transport services and their impact on poverty and growth in rural sub-Saharan Africa : a review of recent research and future research needs.

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Gina

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews recent transport services research in rural sub-Saharan Africa, with reference to the crucial significance of transport services for reducing poverty and encouraging growth. It focuses on issues key to improved well-being: generation of direct employment, broader economic effects on agricultural and off-farm activities, and social effects regarding health and education. Throughout, the emphasis is on implications for vulnerable groups. Attention is drawn to the potential of...

  10. Studies and research concerning BNFP. Spent fuel disassembly: increasing hot-cell storage capacity at the Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the results of work performed at AGNS in 1979 related to production-rate fuel disassembly in the existing hot cell spaces of the BNFP. The primary advantage of the developed technique is realized at a reprocessing plant facility where suitable hot cells and connecting storage pools are available. The existing spent fuel pools are also candidates for away-from-reactor (AFR) storage space. Storage estimates based on utilization of the BNFP indicate that a major expansion from 1600 MTU up to 3000 MTU is possible. The report presents data on the results of initial process development and prototype equipment testing. Assessments were made of operational safety, licensing, and economic factors. These studies indicate that the techniques are performable and have economic merit when there is a requirement for a large increment of new storage capacity. A development program plan is presented. This plan delineates the future work required to bring the process to a point where implementation is possible

  11. Evaluating the capacity of theories of justice to serve as a justice framework for international clinical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Bridget; Zion, Deborah; Loff, Bebe

    2012-01-01

    This article investigates whether or not theories of justice from political philosophy, first, support the position that health research should contribute to justice in global health, and second, provide guidance about what is owed by international clinical research (ICR) actors to parties in low- and middle-income countries. Four theories-John Rawls's theory of justice, the rights-based cosmopolitan theories of Thomas Pogge and Henry Shue, and Jennifer Ruger's health capability paradigm-are evaluated. The article shows that three of the four theories require the conduct of health research for justice in global health. The theories help identify the ends of justice to which ICR is to contribute, but they cannot tell us how to organize ICR to promote these ends. Aside from Ruger's health capability paradigm, the theories also lack an allocative principle for assigning specific duties to specific actors. This creates difficulties for establishing obligations for certain types of ICR actors.

  12. Co-authorship network analysis: a powerful tool for strategic planning of research, development and capacity building programs on neglected diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Medicis Morel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New approaches and tools were needed to support the strategic planning, implementation and management of a Program launched by the Brazilian Government to fund research, development and capacity building on neglected tropical diseases with strong focus on the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of the country where these diseases are prevalent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Based on demographic, epidemiological and burden of disease data, seven diseases were selected by the Ministry of Health as targets of the initiative. Publications on these diseases by Brazilian researchers were retrieved from international databases, analyzed and processed with text-mining tools in order to standardize author- and institution's names and addresses. Co-authorship networks based on these publications were assembled, visualized and analyzed with social network analysis software packages. Network visualization and analysis generated new information, allowing better design and strategic planning of the Program, enabling decision makers to characterize network components by area of work, identify institutions as well as authors playing major roles as central hubs or located at critical network cut-points and readily detect authors or institutions participating in large international scientific collaborating networks. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Traditional criteria used to monitor and evaluate research proposals or R&D Programs, such as researchers' productivity and impact factor of scientific publications, are of limited value when addressing research areas of low productivity or involving institutions from endemic regions where human resources are limited. Network analysis was found to generate new and valuable information relevant to the strategic planning, implementation and monitoring of the Program. It afforded a more proactive role of the funding agencies in relation to public health and equity goals, to scientific capacity building

  13. Numerical research on the anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media with micron X-ray computed tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Yong Wang; Wenzheng Yue; Mo Zhang

    2016-01-01

    The anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media is of great research interests in many fields. In this paper, it is the first time that a new model based on micron X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been proposed to simultaneously consider both the separation of matrix and pore and the distribution of mineral components. We apply the Monte Carlo method to simulate thermal neutrons transporting through the model along different directions, and meanwhile detect those ...

  14. Capacity-Building for African American Mental Health Training and Research: Lessons from the Howard-Dartmouth Collaborative Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipolito, Maria M. S.; Malik, Mansoor; Carpenter-Song, Elizabeth; Whitley, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Background: Many psychiatric residents have traditionally received little-or-no training in cross cultural approaches to psychiatric training and research. Method: The Dartmouth-Howard Collaboration summer school training program had a 5-year grant to explore approaches to enhancing understanding of cultural factors in mental health treatment and…

  15. A Qualitative Research on the University Administrators' Capacity to Use Management Knowledge Tools (The Case of TRNC Universities)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagli, Gokmen; Silman, Fatos; Birol, Cem

    2009-01-01

    In order to reach goals and continue the ongoing learning process, like other organizations, universities also need the effective use of knowledge management. Knowledge management is an ongoing process and it has to be organized in a manner that is always open to new ideas. In universities where research and development studies play an important…

  16. Study on the Adaptability and Solution of the Channel Capacity of Railway Transportation of Coal%广西煤炭铁路运输通道能力适应性分析及对策研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆达飞

    2011-01-01

    在分析预测广西煤炭需求及各铁路煤炭运量基础上,针对区域既有煤炭运输通道运煤能力与预测煤炭运量之间不足的情况,提出了需重点建设的煤炭铁路运输通道项目:近期南昆线增建二线、黔桂线麻尾~金城江段新建双线、金城江~柳州段增建二线、焦柳线电气化改造、湘桂线电气化改造,远期焦柳线增建二线;最后对各主要煤炭运输通道能力适应性进行分析后认为,重点煤炭铁路运输通项目实施后,区域能源安全和经济结构调整将得到充分保障。%Based on the analysis and prediction of the coal demand and railway transportation volume of coal,to solve the differences between the existing coal transportation capacity and the expected transportation volume,railway project of coal transportation is proposed:construction of second line Nankun railway second line,second line for Guiqian railway,Mawei-Jincheng section,Jinchengjiang-Lvzhou section.At last,after an analysis of the adaptability of railway transportation,it proves that the regional energy safty and the adjustment of economic structure can be ensured by the construction of key coal transportation railway.

  17. Research on atmospheric environment carrying capacity of ports%港口大气环境承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘长兵

    2012-01-01

    以秦皇岛煤炭港口为例,筛选煤粉尘(TSP)作为典型大宗散货港口大气环境优先污染物,通过对港口区域现有重点煤尘污染源、烟尘污染源和工业粉尘污染源排放和治理状况以及大气污染物迁移扩散规律的研究,结合社会、经济和环境因素,以满足秦皇岛煤炭作业环境和周边地区大气环境功能区环境质量标准为约束条件,探求了港口大气污染物排放总量及环境承载力控制目标.%In this paper,taking Qinhuangdao coal port for example,TSP was selected as the priority pollutants of atmospheric environment of the typical large-sized bulk cargo port.The emission and treatment of the existing key pollution sources for coal dust smoke and dust, industrial dust and the spreading law of air pollutants in port area were studied.Under the constraint conditions of coal working environment of Qinhuangdao and the atmospheric environment functional regionalization environmental quality standard of its surrounding areas,the control targets of the total air pollutants emission and the environment carrying capacity of port were explored with the combination of the social,economic and environmental factors.These results can provide effective technical support for the general development plan of port,dust pollution treatment and environmental feasibility study of a new port.

  18. NASA Langley's Formal Methods Research in Support of the Next Generation Air Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ricky W.; Munoz, Cesar A.

    2008-01-01

    This talk will provide a brief introduction to the formal methods developed at NASA Langley and the National Institute for Aerospace (NIA) for air traffic management applications. NASA Langley's formal methods research supports the Interagency Joint Planning and Development Office (JPDO) effort to define and develop the 2025 Next Generation Air Transportation System (NGATS). The JPDO was created by the passage of the Vision 100 Century of Aviation Reauthorization Act in Dec 2003. The NGATS vision calls for a major transformation of the nation s air transportation system that will enable growth to 3 times the traffic of the current system. The transformation will require an unprecedented level of safety-critical automation used in complex procedural operations based on 4-dimensional (4D) trajectories that enable dynamic reconfiguration of airspace scalable to geographic and temporal demand. The goal of our formal methods research is to provide verification methods that can be used to insure the safety of the NGATS system. Our work has focused on the safety assessment of concepts of operation and fundamental algorithms for conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) and self- spacing in the terminal area. Formal analysis of a concept of operations is a novel area of application of formal methods. Here one must establish that a system concept involving aircraft, pilots, and ground resources is safe. The formal analysis of algorithms is a more traditional endeavor. However, the formal analysis of ATM algorithms involves reasoning about the interaction of algorithmic logic and aircraft trajectories defined over an airspace. These trajectories are described using 2D and 3D vectors and are often constrained by trigonometric relations. Thus, in many cases it has been necessary to unload the full power of an advanced theorem prover. The verification challenge is to establish that the safety-critical algorithms produce valid solutions that are guaranteed to maintain separation

  19. 大容量公共交通引导模式下的城市空间规划设计策略%Large Capacity Public Transport Oriented Urban Space Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈少青

    2013-01-01

    Fast urbanization has brought about increasing needs in transportation, and the change has made large capacity transit oriented space and transport integration planning imperative. The paper elaborates large capacity public transpor connotation and components, analyzes successful cases, and raises spatial planning strategies including compact land use, transfer system integration, low impact development etc.%快速城镇化带来大城市交通需求急剧增长,因此大容量公共交通引导的空间和交通一体化规划与建设兼具必要性与紧迫性。研究在全面阐述大容量公共交通内涵和系统构成的基础上,分析借鉴国内外成功案例,并根据我国土地利用、交通建设和城市发展特点,从城市规划角度提出多样化城市功能聚集策略、集约化高效土地利用策略、换乘系统完善策略、低冲击开发策略及弹性预留策略等大容量公共交通引导模式下的城市空间规划设计策略。

  20. Integrating Sustainability into Teaching and Research at the University of the South Pacific to Enhance Capacity for the Sustainable Development of Pacific Island Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanayathu C. Koshy

    2011-01-01

    substantially to regional integration. In addition, these projects play a key role in the promotion of the Pacific ESD Framework (2006 and the Pacific ESD Action Plan (2007, both endorsed by the Pacific Education Ministers. Conclusion: The ACCU-USP and EDULINK-NIU projects attempt to strike a balance between the need for SD capacity building to be multidisciplinary and problem oriented by design and maintaining the status quo that favors discipline based structuring of knowledge creation and dissemination. While the renewed commitment of USP, UPNG and NUS to reorient their curriculum, research and outreaches to meet the sustainability capacity needs is beginning to bear fruit, the lack of long-term funding and the low level of awareness on sustainability may hamper progress.

  1. Probing Capacity

    CERN Document Server

    Asnani, Himanshu; Weissman, Tsachy

    2010-01-01

    We consider the problem of optimal probing of states of a channel by transmitter and receiver for maximizing rate of reliable communication. The channel is discrete memoryless (DMC) with i.i.d. states. The encoder takes probing actions dependent on the message. It then uses the state information obtained from probing causally or non-causally to generate channel input symbols. The decoder may also take channel probing actions as a function of the observed channel output and use the channel state information thus acquired, along with the channel output, to estimate the message. We refer to the maximum achievable rate for reliable communication for such systems as the 'Probing Capacity'. We characterize this capacity when the encoder and decoder actions are cost constrained. To motivate the problem, we begin by characterizing the trade-off between the capacity and fraction of channel states the encoder is allowed to observe, while the decoder is aware of channel states. In this setting of 'to observe or not to o...

  2. The Synergetic Approach to Effective Teachers' Research Education: An Innovative Initiative for Building Educational Research Capacity in a Hispanic-Serving Institution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ming-Tsan Pierre; Ward, Hsuying C.; Overton, Terry; Shin, Yousun

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the synergetic approach to research education for graduate students in a Hispanic-Serving Institution (HSI). A group of cross-disciplinary faculty members developed a series of graduate-level research methods-related workshops for pre- and in-service teachers. The investigators…

  3. Building Research Capacity of Medical Students and Health Professionals in Rural Communities: Leveraging a Rural Clinical School's Resources to Conduct Research Skills Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasserre, Kaye E.; Moffatt, Jennifer J.

    2013-01-01

    The paper reports on a project where the objective was for the Rural Clinical School, The University of Queensland, Australia, to design an acceptable model of research skills workshops for medical students and rural health professionals. Eight, interactive research skills workshops focused on skill development were conducted in rural Queensland,…

  4. The way forward in capacity building in developing countries: space research center at Minoufiyia University, Egypt, as case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosalam Shaltout, M. A.

    With the starting the year 2002 the Menoufiyia University Council taked an Issue by construction Space Research Center, as a first Center for Space Research in the Egyptian Universities (20 Universities), as a part from the Desert Environment Research Institute for temporal time, then after the growth, it will be independent center. The green area of Egypt (Nile Valley and Delta) are 4% only from the total area of Egypt, the remain 96% is desert area. The most useful thing is to study the desert from space. For that the suggested projects to be performed in this new center are: 1. Monitoring the storage tanks of the underground water in the Egyptian Desert (Sahara) by artificial satellites as GRACE of NASA and DLR. 2. Building 32 meter Radio telescope at Abu-Simbel in the South of Egypt as part of the European VLBI network (EVN) to cover the gab between the radio telescope in the western Europe and the radio telescope at Hartebessthock in South Africa. The cooperation of International interested institutions is being explored for this important project of Egypt. 3. Solar activity and the climatic changes through the 21st century as clarified by global solar radiation data at Khargha Oases at the western desert of Egypt. 4. Testing of the Martian exploration instruments for 2005 space trips to Mars in the western desert of Egypt, as it is the driest area in the world, where are similarity between the dry atmosphere of Sahara and the atmosphere of Mars, also in the soil, and dry valleys. In collaboration with NASA and ESA. 5. Studding the eastern structure, due to meteoric impact in the western desert of Egypt since 28 Million years. Also, studding the meteors chemistry, for meteors found in the Egyptian desert, and the origin of life as meteor (Nachlet) in collaboration with NASA and ESA. 6. Solar energy and humidity distribution over Sahara from artificial Satellite Meteostat observations.

  5. Research and design of the structure of information support of road transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. G. Kozlov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main issue is to study the interaction between the system of road transport and security of its information systems. The mechanism of this interaction is studied only on the basis of studies of the learning process. These two interacting systems through training react to each other. Due to the strong correlation between these two systems offer the development of the basics of management information support to carry out complex, without violating the integrity of the systems. As the methods of research used methods of system analysis and probability theory. The criteria for the study of the interaction of systems: full-scale technological and economic indicators. By the technological parameters include: completeness of use of the system (load, and performance of information security; to full-scale - the cost of labor, energy, materials; to the economic - the cost, payback, profit, profit. The stages of the development of the structure of information support: the definition of objectives; study of the problems and the choice of solution to the problem; agreed solutions (thematic plan; approval of decisions; Management and Implementation; verification of the effectiveness of decisions. Established shortcomings in the existing system of information support of decentralization processes interrelated technical planning; territorial, institutional and administrative divisions of organizations taking interdependent solutions; the lack of control most of the organizations operating information support for road transport; incomplete information of the absolute majority of publishing houses in the needs of motorists; duplication of the work of many publishers. There are two mechanisms of control information management system. Control enhances performance management system, improves the output characteristics of the system.

  6. Research And Development For Capacity Building In TVET: The International PhD Programme Between UTHM And ITB Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jailani M.Y.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Ninth Malaysia Plan, which is one step on the way to achieve Vision 2020, features a separate section on Technical and Vocational Education and Training (TVET. It assigns responsibilities for TVET teacher education at the various levels to specific institutions such as polytechnics and community colleges. Malaysia will also face significant challenge as the country is set to become industrialized. Strategic knowledge and skill have to be the basic form of capital to position Malaysia towards industrialization. The education system especially in TVET must yield K-workers to push Malaysia into the K-economy. The Malaysian government has been dedicated to reform the education system and to place Malaysia into a world-class education hub. One critical strategy taken by the government is to implement the National Dual Training System (NDTS. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM has been the key institution that strives to fulfil the national objective. UTHM offers and supply qualified TVET professionals at the academic levels of Bachelor, Master, and PhD programme to enrich the human capital of the nation. Due to the active international involvement and excellence recognition of UTHM as a TVET provider, a cross country research project involving UTHM from Malaysia, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB from Spain, The Institute Technik und Bildung (ITB, Universität Bremen from Germany and Vocational Education Development Centre (VEDC Malang, Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia (UPI Bandung and Technical Education Development Centre (TEDC Bandung from Indonesia has agreed to partnership cooperation on a research project funded by the European Union Asia Link project headed by ITB. The research is focus on the development of trans-national standards of teacher training, their accreditation as well as the development of curricula. To strengthen the international collaboration, UTHM has taken an innovative initiative to work closely with the

  7. Economic feasibility study to Raise the operational capacity of the Electron Beam Accelerator at the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to investigate the economic feasibility to raise the operational capacity of the accelerator at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, through proposal of additional processing of power cables as it have 4 thousand operating hours per year of total 6 thousand hours per year. The study involved three sections; the first section included the technical aspects and marketing, the second section was concerned with financial analysis, and the third section included the national return of the project. In the first part, the electronic and technical requirements of the accelerator were studied to raise the capacity of the accelerator and to identify the time trend of demand for services in marketing. The second section included the financial feasibility of the project which was carried out through two parts; the first part deal with the analysis of costs of the project including identifying of investment, spending, labor costs, operating expenses, the annual installment of the annual depreciation expense with the total annual costs and operating costs per hour and ton. The second part was carried out to evaluated business profitability of the project, preparation of the annual cash flow, calculation of the internal rate of return, payback period of capital, and the analysis of sensitivity of the project in terms of its ability to achieve profitable business in the event of increasing costs and decreasing revenue. The third section was carried out to raise the operational capacity of the accelerator at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority to generate added value for national income, and to study the social rate of return for the project and examine the project's ability to provide new employment opportunities. The study showed the possibility and the importance of the project implemented at the level of private investment and national security.

  8. Capacity Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Outcomes & Recommendations: • Significant increase needed in the nuclear workforce both to replace soon-to-retire current generation and to staff large numbers of new units planned • Key message, was the importance of an integrated approach to workforce development. • IAEA and other International Organisations were asked to continue to work on Knowledge Management, Networks and E&T activities • IAEA requested to conduct Global Survey of HR needs – survey initiated but only 50% of operating countries (30% of capacity) took part, so results inconclusive

  9. 现代军事物流发展对军交运输装备保障能力的需求分析%Analysis of Requirement of Military Transportation Equipment Support Capacity on Evolution of Modern Military Logistic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海泉; 崔振宇; 沈咏梅

    2012-01-01

    Military transportation equipment is the main carrier to the flow of military material in the system of modem mili- tary logistic. It is analyzed in this paper that to make overall plans and take all factors into consideration of military trans- portation equipment development, to recognize the requirement of military transportation equipment support capacity on the evolution of modem military logistic in the progress of building the system of modem military Logistic. It is vital realistic to establish countermeasure of military transportation equipment development. It will lead to efficiencies of Military Logistic.%军交运输装备是军事物流系统中军事物资流动的重要载体。在构建现代军事物流体系过程中,统筹考虑军交运输装备的建设与发展,认清现代军事物流发展对军交运输装备建设与发展的需求,对于制定军交运输装备建设与发展对策、提高军事物流效率,具有重要的现实意义。

  10. Vedr.: Military capacity building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Josefine Kühnel; Struwe, Lars Bangert

    2013-01-01

    Kühnel Larsen and researcher Lars Bangert Struwe of CMS had organized a seminar in collaboration with Royal Danish Defense Colleg and the East African Security Governance Network. The seminar focused on some of the risks involved in Military capacity building and how these risks are dealt with from...

  11. Analysis of different research activities and description of parties within the Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundgren, Joakim [Bio4Energy, Luleaa (Sweden); Wallberg, Ola [Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2012-07-01

    The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels (f3) is a nationwide centre, which through cooperation and a systems approach will contribute to the development of sustainable fossil free fuels for transportation. The centre will, through joint efforts by the centre partners, perform syntheses of current research about the production of renewable fuels as well as supplementing research, such as comparative systems analyses of fuels, processes, raw materials and plant design. f3 provides a platform for collaboration between centre partners, with a common vision of sustainable fuels for transportation and common objectives. The centre partners include Sweden's most active universities and research institutes within the field, as well as a number of highly relevant industrial companies. New fuels will be an important component of a strategy to reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and our dependence on petroleum. The Swedish Government has established a vision for the Swedish transport industry to function without fossil fuels by 2030. Such a development requires a concerted response, with participation from all stake holders. Swedish researchers in various disciplines and at various colleges and institutes have a unique breadth and they are at the forefront in several areas of knowledge appropriate for a centre for renewable fuels. Through collaboration, f3 should help to link engineering and systems research and communicate results and conclusions from these research efforts. Within the f3 centre, several parties with different research activities are represented. This document is a snapshot of the different parties at the end of 2011 where the stake holders are described and their current research is highlighted. Also, the different projects conducted by the parties have been categorized and presented at the end of the document.

  12. An Approach for Economic Analysis of Intermodal Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahri Sahin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A different intermodal transportation model based on cost analysis considering technical, economical, and operational parameters is presented. The model consists of such intermodal modes as sea-road, sea-railway, road-railway, and multimode of sea-road-railway. A case study of cargo transportation has been carried out by using the suggested model. Then, the single road transportation mode has been compared to intermodal modes in terms of transportation costs. This comparison takes into account the external costs of intermodal transportation. The research reveals that, in the short distance transportation, single transportation modes always tend to be advantageous. As the transportation distance gets longer, intermodal transportation advantages begin to be effective on the costs. In addition, the proposed method in this study leads to determining the fleet size and capacity for transportation and the appropriate transportation mode.

  13. Description of the primary flight display and flight guidance system logic in the NASA B-737 transport systems research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Charles E.

    1990-01-01

    A primary flight display format was integrated with the flight guidance and control system logic in support of various flight tests conducted with the NASA Transport Systems Research Vehicle B-737-100 airplane. The functional operation of the flight guidance mode control panel and the corresponding primary flight display formats are presented.

  14. Development of Teachers'Capacity for Scientific Research%浅谈教师科研能力的培养与提高

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧芳; 刘萍

    2015-01-01

    提高教师的科研能力是教师转型发展的需要,也是做精做优培训工作的需要,同时还是增强教师综合素质和培训能力的重要途径。教师要向培训师转型,就应该积极从事科研工作,在教育培训实践中探索、研究,才能不断完善、提高自己,适应培训中心发展的需要。教师的科研能力是一个长期的知识积淀、不断内化、逐渐发展的过程。教师要深化认识,转变观念,树立科研为培训服务的思想,注重业务学习,夯实专业基础,提高科研素质,提升专业素养。学校也要不断完善科研管理制度,提升教师科研能力。%Enhancing teachers'capacity for scientific research meets the need for their transformation development and optimizing training work and is also an important way of strengthening their overall quality and teaching ability .The improvement of their research capacity will be a long -term development process in which the teachers must deepen their understanding of research ,change their idea ,build up the thought that scientific research serves training ,and lay a solid professional foundation so as to improve their professional quality .At the same time ,scientific research management in the Training Center must be improved continuously to provide a guarantee for promotion of their re‐search ability .

  15. Silicon-enhanced resistance to cadmium toxicity in Brassica chinensis L. is attributed to Si-suppressed cadmium uptake and transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense capacity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Alin [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Li Zhaojun [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Zhang Jie [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Xue Gaofeng; Fan Fenliang [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Liang Yongchao, E-mail: ycliang@caas.ac.cn [College of Resources and Environmental Sciences, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing 210095 (China); Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Crop Nutrition and Fertilization, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081 (China); Key Laboratory of Oasis Eco-Agriculture, College of Agriculture, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003 (China)

    2009-12-15

    A series of hydroponics experiments were performed to investigate roles of silicon (Si) in enhancing cadmium (Cd) tolerance in two pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) cultivars: i.e. cv. Shanghaiqing, a Cd-sensitive cultivar, and cv. Hangyoudong, a Cd-tolerant cultivar. Plants were grown under 0.5 and 5 mg Cd L{sup -1} Cd stress without or with 1.5 mM Si. Plant growth of the Cd-tolerant cultivar was stimulated at the lower Cd level, but was decreased at the higher Cd level when plants were treated with Cd for one week. However, Plant growth was severely inhibited at both Cd levels as stress duration lasted for up to three weeks. Plant growth of the Cd-sensitive cultivar was severely inhibited at both Cd levels irrespective of Cd stress duration. Addition of Si increased shoot and root biomass of both cultivars at both Cd levels and decreased Cd uptake and root-to-shoot transport. Superoxide dismutase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase activities decreased, but malondialdehyde and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were counteracted by Si added. Ascorbic acid, glutathione and non-protein thiols concentrations increased at the higher Cd level, which were further intensified by addition of Si. The effects of Si and Cd on the antioxidant enzyme activity were further verified by isoenzyme analysis. Silicon was more effective in enhancing Cd tolerance in the Cd-tolerant cultivar than in the Cd-sensitive cultivar. It can be concluded that Si-enhanced Cd tolerance in B. chinensis is attributed mainly to Si-suppressed Cd uptake and root-to-shoot Cd transport and Si-enhanced antioxidant defense activity.

  16. 宁夏优秀运动员时间肺活量的再研究%The further research on elite athletes' time vital capacity in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺长乐; 黄海平

    2001-01-01

    目的 实验研究优秀运动员与一般常人时间肺活量(FEV1.0、FEV1.0%)的差异,探讨不同项目优秀运动员时间肺活量均值与项目特点的关系。方法 应用英国MORQAN呼气式便携肺量计,对140名不同项目男、女优秀运动员的时间肺活量(FEV1.0、FEV1.0%)进行测定。以58名同龄男、女中学生为对照组比较,并做相应统计学分析。结果 优秀男、女运动员时间肺活量FEV1.0值分别为3.81、3.01,对照组为3.14、2.51;FEV1.0%值分别为56.43%、91.02%,对照组为82.79%、85.81%,均有统计学意义(P<0.05,P<0.01)。田径、武术、曲棍球、女柔、女举等项目优秀运动员FEV1.0%差异极显著(P<0.01)、自行车、男举、男柔与对照组比较,无统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论 优秀运动员时间肺活量(FEV1.0、FEV1.0%)高于一般常人,项目不同时间肺活量的值不同时间肺活量的值不同,与项目特点有关。女子FEV1.0%均值显著高于男子(P<0.01),原因待探讨。%Objectives  This research is to compare the difference of time vital capacity (FEV1.0, FEV1.0%) between elite athletes and the normal person and to discuss the connection between the average figure of time vital capacity and the characteristic of items of sport. Methods  To use British MORQAN to measure 140 elite athletes' time vital capacity of all items, male or female in our district. And we take another 58middle school students, who are of the same age as those athletes' as a contrast group and make statistical analysis.Results  The elite athletes' time vital capacity are 3.18(male) and 3.01 (female). The contrast group's are 3.41(male) and 2.51(female). The percent of FEV1.0 are 56.43%(male), 91.02 (female) The contrast group's are 82.79%(male), 85.81%(female). All these statistics are eloquent (P<0.05,P<0.01), with a clear difference in women's items of track and field, wushu, hockey, judo and

  17. 广东电网可再生能源接纳能力研究%Research on Guangdong Power Gird’s capacity of renewable energy integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨龙; 胡少强; 杨苹

    2013-01-01

    With the rapid development of renewable energy especially the introduction of offshore-wind power plan in Guangdong province, to study the capacity of renewable energy integration is very significant because a large scale of renewable energy integrated into Guangdong power grid can severely influence the power grid. The current situation and program of renewable energy are summarized briefly. A calculation method of renewable energy integration capacity based on power balance after renewable energy admitted is proposed by all-round analysis of renewable energy’s output characteristics, load characteristics, ability of powers peak load regulation and comprehensively considering influence of reserve capacity and ability of tie lines regulation. This method is applied into the analysis of Guangdong power gird’s capacity of renewable energy integration in 2020, obtaining that the accommodating capacity is less than the planed. Some suggestions are put forward for the maximum installed capacity of renewable energy according to the analysis of sensitivity of parameters affecting capability of the renewable energy integration. This research result provides reference to powers program, grid frame construction and operation and dispatch.%  随着广东省可再生能源的不断发展,尤其是广东海上风电场规划的出台,可再生能源大规模接入将对电网造成严重影响,研究电网对可再生能源的接纳能力具有重要意义。概述了广东电网可再生能源发展现状及规划,通过详细分析可再生能源的出力特性、负荷特性以及电源的调峰能力以及综合考虑了旋转备用和联络线调节能力的影响,提出了基于可再生能源接入系统后电力平衡的可再生能源接纳能力计算方法。将该方法应用于广东电网2020年可再生能源接纳能力分析,得出接纳容量小于规划容量,根据对影响因素参数灵敏度分析,最后给出了

  18. Increasing the reliability and capacity of Ukrainian gas transit system; Augmentation de la capacite et de la fiabilite du systeme Ukrainien de transport du gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozgonyk, V.; Osinchuk, Z. [Naftogaz of Ukraine (Ukraine)

    2000-07-01

    Ukrainian gas transmission system plays a key role in the transit deliveries of Russian natural gas to European countries. Therefore special attention is paid to reliability and efficiency of the existing gas pipelines. The in-line inspections of pipelines as well as update methods of corrosion pipeline protection control and developed vibration diagnostic system for gas compressor units are used on a large scale. The program for gas transmission pipeline reconstruction and upgrading of 50 compressor stations of main lines is being under realization. Modernization of compressor stations will allow to increase turbine drivers' efficiency up to 34-36 per cent to save about 1-10{sup 9} cubic meters of fuel gas annually. The reliability of gas transit deliveries is supported by powerful underground gas storage facilities, situated mostly in the Western Ukraine. The expansion of gas pipe lines system is carried out that will increase transit capacity of Ukrainian gas trunk lines up to 160 -10{sup 9} cubic meters a year. (authors)

  19. Research and application advances in ecological carrying capacity%生态承载力研究和应用进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向芸芸; 蒙吉军

    2012-01-01

    The study of ecological carrying capacity is an important basis for the settlement of resource shortage and environment deterioration and the realization of regional sustainable development, and also, one of the hot spots in geography, ecology, and economics. After reviewing the related research achievements, this paper elucidated the connotation of ecological carrying capacity , i. e. , a representation of the supporting function and compressive stress of complex ecosystem , introduced the universal measuring methods of ecological carrying capacity, e. g. , net primary productivity (NPP) , ecological footprint (EF) , balance of supply and demand, evaluation with comprehensive indices, and systematic modeling, and presented the research progress in the ecological carrying capacity of the regions being more concerned, including watersheds, ecological fragile areas, cities, agricultural areas, and tourism areas. The deficiencies in current studies, such as the shortage of complete scientific research system, the ambiguity of threshold value's ecological meaning, the lack of time series study, and the absence of spatial pattern analysis, were summarized, and accordingly, the development trends in action mechanisms, model construction, and practical application were prospected.%生态承载力研究是解决资源-环境矛盾、实现区域可持续发展的重要基础,也是地理学、生态学和经济学关注的热点与前沿领域.本文在综述国内外相关研究成果的基础上,阐述了生态承载力的概念内涵,即对复合生态系统支持力和压力的表征;评述了常用的研究方法,即净初级生产力估测法、生态足迹法、供需平衡法、综合指标评价法和系统模型法;介绍了目前较为关注的流域、生态脆弱区、城市、农业区和旅游区生态承载力的研究进展;总结了目前生态承载力研究存在的缺乏科学完整的研究体系、阈值的生态学指示意义不明确、动

  20. Transport operations in container terminals : Literature overview, trends, research directions and classification scheme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carlo, Hector J.; Vis, Iris F. A.; Roodbergen, Kees Jan

    2014-01-01

    Internal transport operations connect the seaside, yard side, and landside processes at container terminals. This paper presents an in-depth overview of transport operations and the material handling equipment used, highlights current industry trends and developments, and proposes a new classificati

  1. Research on Development Measures of Low-carbon Transportation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Zong

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available With the development of economy, vehicle ownership is growing rapidly. People gradually concentrate on the energy consumption of transportation industry and environmental pollution. Because of air pollution, energy consumption, climate change and other problems, people in major cities pay more attention to energy conservation and emission reduction in transportation. Transportation industry is an important source of energy consumption and carbon emission. Facing the task of energy conservation and emission reduction in the Twelfth Five-year Plan for economic and social development, it is extremely urgent to adjust the transportation industry and take road of low-carbon transportation. Low-carbon transportation is an important breakthrough for Beijing to readjust industrial structure and transform the economic development pattern; it is also a demand for Culture-enriched Beijing, Technology-empowered Beijing, Environment-friendly Beijing as well as an inevitable choice for the coordinated development of economy, society and environment. This paper analyzes the status quo and major problems facing Beijing low-carbon transportation and comes up with policy advice for low-carbon transportation development.

  2. Mobilizing local innovation capacity through a simulation game in a participatory research project on agricultural innovation in El Brahmi irrigation scheme (Tunisia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinska, Aleksandra; d'Aquino, Patrick; Imache, Amar; Dionnet, Mathieu; Rougier, Jean-Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    In the framework of the European Union and African Union cooperative research to increase Food production in irrigated farming systems in Africa (EAU4Food project) we conducted a participatory research on the possible innovative practices to increase production of dairy farms in the irrigation scheme El Brahmi in Tunisia in the face of changing economic, political and environmental conditions. Our aim was to find effective research method to stimulate farmers' participation in the innovation process. Although the capacities of farmers in producing knowledge and in innovating are recognized and the shift from the linear model of technology transfer towards more participatory approaches to innovation is postulated, in which the role of researchers changes from providing solutions towards supporting farmers in finding their own solutions, in practice, the position of farmers in shaping innovation practice and process remains weak. After a series of participatory workshops and in-depth interviews with the actors of the local innovation system we developed and tested a simple open simulation game Laitconomie for farmers. The game proved to be effective in increasing our understanding of the system as the farmers were adding new elements and rules while playing, and in mobilizing farmers' knowledge (including tacit knowledge) in the simulated innovation process. The result reported by the participants was learning how to improve farm management, soil fertility management and cow nutrition practices. Some of the participants used the game as a decision support tool. While our game and its scope were modest and mobilized only two types of players (farmers and extension agent), open simulation proved to be a useful tool to analyze a local innovation system. Designing similar type of tools that would mobilize more diverse players and hence have a larger scope can be imagined.

  3. Is the Standard Definition of Poleward Heat Transport Appropriate in Climate Research?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Minyi; Czaja, Arnaud; Graversen, Rune; Tailleux, Remi

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, a problem with the standard definition of poleward heat transport is highlighted. This, we argue, arises because of the dependence of the standard definition on an arbitrary reference state for moist static energy. This dependence may result in large uncertainty in the estimates of ocean-atmosphere coupling, the signature in heat transport of the atmospheric storm track and annular modes of variability. A new definition is proposed to address the problem, which removes unrealistically large fluctuations (4PW) found when using the standard definition. A practical way to implement the new formulation is also discussed. The new heat transport definition is shown to lead to better correlations with climate indices compared to the traditional definition. In particular a clear relationship between the AO, El Niño and heat transport emerges in our analysis. In addition, it also produces different time sequence of event with large/weak poleward heat transport. It is hoped that the new heat transport definition may shed light on studies exploring the link between energy transport and climate variability.

  4. Improving capacity for evidence-based practice in South East Asia: evaluating the role of research fellowships in the SEA-ORCHID Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martis Ruth

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fellowships are a component of many professional education programs. They provide opportunities to develop skills and competencies in an environment where time is protected and resources and technical support are more readily available. The SEA-ORCHID fellowships program aimed to increase capacity for evidence-based practice and research synthesis, and to encourage fellows to become leaders in these areas. Methods Fellows included doctors, nurses, midwives and librarians working in the maternal and neonatal areas of nine hospitals in South East Asia. Fellowships were undertaken in Australia and involved specific outputs related to evidence-based practice or research synthesis. Training and support was tailored according to the type of output and the fellow's experience and expertise. We evaluated the fellowships program quantitatively and qualitatively through written evaluations, interviews and follow-up of fellowship activities. Results During 2006-07, 23 fellows from Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines undertook short-term fellowships (median four weeks in Australia. The main outputs were drafts of Cochrane systematic reviews, clinical practice guidelines and protocols for randomised trials, and training materials to support evidence-based practice. Protocols for Cochrane systematic reviews were more likely to be completed than other outcomes. The fellows identified several components that were critical to the program's overall success; these included protected time, tailored training, and access to technical expertise and resources. On returning home, fellows identified a lack of time and limited access to the internet and evidence-based resources as barriers to completing their outputs. The support of colleagues and senior staff was noted as an important enabler of progress, and research collaborators from other institutions and countries were also important sources of support. Conclusions The SEA

  5. 提高医学博士后科研水平途径的探讨%Consideration for improving Research Capacity of Medical Post-Doctor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓英

    2016-01-01

    Medical post-doctor is an active and indispensable part in the field of medical research,making contribution to the development of medicine.This paper discussed the evaluation index of post-doctor and pointed out that the main ways to improve the research capacity of medical post-doctor including selection of excellent PhD students,evaluation,effective incentive and making full use of the leading role of co-supervisors.%医学博士后是活跃于医学研究领域不可或缺的部分,为医学的发展做出了贡献.本文在探讨博士后考核评价指标的同时指出了提高医学博士后科研水平的主要途径有:重视优秀博士生选拔、加强考核评价、有效激励、充分发挥合作导师的主导作用等.

  6. Summary of the FY 2005 Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) research program annual review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2005-08-01

    This document presents a summary of the evaluation and comments provided by the review panel for the FY 2005 Department of Energy (DOE) Batteries for Advanced Transportation Technologies (BATT) program annual review.

  7. Journal of Airline and Airport Management: taking off on an exciting journey into air transport research

    OpenAIRE

    David Gonzalez-Prieto; Oriol Lordan; Jose M Sallan; Pep Simo; Mihaela Enache; Vicenc Fernandez

    2011-01-01

    We are pleased to introduce this first and inaugural issue of the first volume of the Journal of Airline and Airport Management (JAIRM). JAIRM is an international journal that proposes and fosters discussion on the theory and application in all areas of air transport, including (but not limited to) air transport and globalization, airline and airport management. We are interested in issues related to production, logistics, operations, marketing, policy and regulation, information systems, pro...

  8. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    Volume 3 of the 2003 Air Transport Reserch Society (ATRS) World Conference includes papers on topics relevant to airline operations worldwide. Specific topics include: European Union and civil aviation regimens;simulating decision making in airline operations, passenger points of view on convenient airports; route monopolies and nonlinear pricing; cooperation among airports in Europe; fleet modernizaiton in Brazil;the effects of deregulation on the growth of air transportation in Europe and the United States.

  9. Short communication: expression of transporters and metabolizing enzymes in the female lower genital tract: implications for microbicide research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Hu, Minlu; Cost, Marilyn; Poloyac, Samuel; Rohan, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Topical vaginal microbicides have been considered a promising option for preventing the male-to-female sexual transmission of HIV; however, clinical trials to date have not clearly demonstrated robust and reproducible effectiveness results. While multiple approaches may help enhance product effectiveness observed in clinical trials, increasing the drug exposure in lower genital tract tissues is a compelling option, given the difficulty in achieving sufficient drug exposure and positive correlation between tissue exposure and microbicide efficacy. Since many microbicide drug candidates are substrates of transporters and/or metabolizing enzymes, there is emerging interest in improving microbicide exposure and efficacy through local modulation of transporters and enzymes in the female lower genital tract. However, no systematic information on transporter/enzyme expression is available for ectocervical and vaginal tissues of premenopausal women, the genital sites most relevant to microbicide drug delivery. The current study utilized reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to examine the mRNA expression profile of 22 transporters and 19 metabolizing enzymes in premenopausal normal human ectocervix and vagina. Efflux and uptake transporters important for antiretroviral drugs, such as P-gp, BCRP, OCT2, and ENT1, were found to be moderately or highly expressed in the lower genital tract as compared to liver. Among the metabolizing enzymes examined, most CYP isoforms were not detected while a number of UGTs such as UGT1A1 were highly expressed. Moderate to high expression of select transporters and enzymes was also observed in mouse cervix and vagina. The implications of this information on microbicide research is also discussed, including microbicide pharmacokinetics, the utilization of the mouse model in microbicide screening, as well as the in vivo functional studies of cervicovaginal transporters and enzymes.

  10. Studies and research concerning BNFP: transportation of radioactive material by water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently there are many limitations imposed on the shipment of radioactive material from nuclear power plants. In this regard, many questions have arisen related to the feasibility of substituting water transportation of these materials as a backup or supplement to the highway and rail modes which are now in use. This study addresses the results of studies performed by Allied-General Nuclear Services concerning the water transportation of spent nuclear fuel and radwaste materials. The report presents both an overview of the possible applications, problems, and means of solution, and specific information related to one particular site. In particular, a detailed case study of a nuclear plant site located on a navigable waterway (Chesapeake Bay) was made. The study concludes that there are some real advantages in using water transport, which are particularly evident if a site is not served by rail or its primary transport route lies near populous areas. Whereas, water transport has been used extensively in Europe and Japan, it has been virtually bypassed in the United States. A recommendation is made to continue examination of water transport, including the development of necessary standards for possible future operations

  11. Research Capacity Strengthening in Low and Middle Income Countries – An Evaluation of the WHO/TDR Career Development Fellowship Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Käser, Michael; Maure, Christine; Halpaap, Beatrice M. M.; Vahedi, Mahnaz; Yamaka, Sara; Launois, Pascal; Casamitjana, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Between August 2012 and April 2013 the Career Development Fellowship programme of the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (World Health Organization) underwent an external evaluation to assess its past performance and determine recommendations for future programme development and continuous performance improvement. The programme provides a year-long training experience for qualified researchers from low and middle income countries at pharmaceutical companies or product development partnerships. Independent evaluators from the Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute and the Barcelona Institute for Global Health used a results-based methodology to review the programme. Data were gathered through document review, surveys, and interviews with a range of programme participants. The final evaluation report found the Career Development Fellowship to be relevant to organizers’ and programme objectives, efficient in its operations, and effective in its training scheme, which was found to address needs and gaps for both fellows and their home institutions. Evaluators found that the programme has the potential for impact and sustainability beyond the programme period, especially with the successful reintegration of fellows into their home institutions, through which newly-developed skills can be shared at the institutional level. Recommendations included the development of a scheme to support the re-integration of fellows into their home institutions post-fellowship and to seek partnerships to facilitate the scaling-up of the programme. The impact of the Professional Membership Scheme, an online professional development tool launched through the programme, beyond the scope of the Career Development Fellowship programme itself to other applications, has been identified as a positive unintended outcome. The results of this evaluation may be of interest for other efforts in the field of research capacity strengthening in LMICs or, generally, to

  12. Absorptive Capacity and Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristinsson, Kári

    that contribute to the neo-Schumpeterian economics literature and hopefully inspires further research into this area. The main findings of the dissertation can be divided into four distinct parts. First, diversity of individuals within firms is associated with firm innovative performance. This is in line......One of the most influential contributions to neo-Schumpeterian economics is Cohen and Levinthal‘s papers on absorptive capacity. Since their publication in the late 1980s and early 1990s the concept absorptive capacity has had substantial impact on research in economics and management, including...... international business, organizational economics, strategic management, technology management and last but not least neo-Schumpeterian economics. The goal of this dissertation is to examine what many consider as neglected arguments from the work by Cohen and Levinthal and thereby illuminate an otherwise...

  13. Transport safety record and measures taken for the United States Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel Acceptance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), in consultation with the Department of State (DOS), adopted the Nuclear Weapons Non-proliferation Policy Concerning Foreign Research Reactor Spent Nuclear Fuel in May 1996. As of January 2003, the Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Acceptance Program has completed 25 shipments. Over 5,500 spent fuel assemblies from eligible research reactors throughout the world have been accepted into the United States under this program. Shipments are continuing on schedule, amidst a climate of heightened vigilance following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Recent guidance and an associated Order from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) pertaining to security and safeguards issues deals directly with the transport of irradiated nuclear fuel. As the Acceptance Program consistently worked above and beyond basic regulatory requirements to provide additional safety enhancements in transporting spent nuclear fuel, the new guidance did not adversely effect the Program. Other global SNF shipping campaigns and the recent recommendation to proceed with the licensing application process for Yucca Mountain as the geologic repository for spent fuel have increased media and public interest in SNF transport. The Acceptance Policy is planned to expire in May 2006, per the 1996 Programmatic Record of Decision on the Policy, but some shipments will continue until May 2009. Currently, there are no plans to renew the Acceptance Policy. This paper examines the safety record of the Acceptance Program, and discusses the measures that have been taken to ensure future shipments are safe and uneventful. (author)

  14. 运动饮料对提高运动能力的研究现状%Research Status of Improving Sport Capacity of Sport Beverage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽霞; 李军兰

    2011-01-01

    Sport beverage with rational nutrition composition can change athete' sbody function. This article studied the effect of nutrient in sport beverage on sport capacity and the research status of sport beverage in resisting sport fatigue and enginering restore to provide a basic theory for rational sport beverage using.%运动饮料是在科学研究基础上,针对运动时机体机能变化而研制的.运动饮料中合理的营养素构成可改善运动者机能状态.本文主要研究运动饮料中各种营养素对运动能力的影响、运动饮料对运动疲劳及其恢复作用的影响的研究现状,旨在为进一步合理选择和应用运动饮料提供科学基础.

  15. Research Update: Structural and transport properties of (Ca,La)FeAs2 single crystal

    OpenAIRE

    Caglieris, F.; Sala, A.; Fujioka, M.; F. Hummel; Pallecchi, I.; Lamura, G.; Johrendt, D.; Takano, Y.; Ishida, S; A. Iyo; Eisaki, H.; Ogino, H.; H. Yakita; Shimoyama, J.; Putti, M.

    2016-01-01

    Structural and transport properties in the normal and superconducting states are investigated in a Ca0.8La0.2FeAs2 single crystal with Tc = 27 K, belonging to the newly discovered 112 family of iron based superconductors. The transport critical current density Jc for both field directions measured in a focused ion beam patterned microbridge reveals a weakly field dependent and low anisotropic behaviour with a low temperature value as high as Jc(B = 0) ∼ 105 A/cm2. This demonstrates not only b...

  16. Research on antioxidative capacity of whey protein-derived peptides%乳清蛋白肽抗氧化活性的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晶; 苗颖; 赵征

    2011-01-01

    The research on milk protein-derived peptides and antioxidative way of whey protein-derived peptides were summarized. whey protein-derived peptides could be used as antioxidants, which could scavenge free radical, chelate metal ion, reduce hydrogen peroxide ,and change food physical property. The relationship between variety of amino acid, the structure of peptide and antioxidative activity was discussed. Amino acids with the capacity of hydrogen donating were easy to oxidize, which was one of the antioxidative mechanism of peptides. Spatial structure also had the effect on the antioxidative capacity of peptides. Because of the different determination methods and indice, conflictive results could be obtained. Whey protein-derived peptides possessed superiority, compared with other peptides, and have widespread market prospect.%综述了乳源蛋白肽的研究现状和乳清蛋白肽的抗氧化途径.乳清蛋白肽通过清除自由基,螯合金属离子,减少氢过氧化物和改变食品物理性状等方式起到抗氧化作用.探讨了氨基酸组成及乳清蛋白肽的结构与抗氧化活性之间的关系.易于供氢的氨基酸最易被氧化起到抗氧化作用,抗氧化活性还受到多肽空间结构的影响.测定乳清蛋白肽抗氧化活性的方法很多,由于测定条件和测定指标的不同,研究者往往得出截然相反的结论.抗氧化活性肽来源丰富,乳清蛋白肽显示出一定的优势,具有广泛的市场应用前景.

  17. Building on a YMCA's health and physical activity promotion capacities: A case study of a researcher-organization partnership to optimize adolescent programming_.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Paula Louise; García Bengoechea, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    School-based physical activity programs are only effective for increasing adolescents' school-based physical activity. To increase out-of-school-time physical activity, complementary community programs are warranted. Partnerships between universities and community organizations may help build the capacity of these organizations to provide sustainable programs. To understand capacity building processes and outcomes, we partnered with a YMCA to build on their adolescent physical activity promotion capacity. Together, we designed and implemented means to evaluate the YMCA teen program to inform program planning. For this qualitative case study, emails and interviews and meetings transcripts were collected over 2.5 years and analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Findings illustrate that the YMCA's workforce and organizational development capacities (e.g., evaluation and health promotion capacity and competence) were increased through our partnership, resource allocation, and leadership. We responded to YMCA partners' perceived needs, yet guided them beyond those needs, successfully combining our complementary objectives, knowledge, and skills to generate an integrated program vision, rationale, and evaluation results. This provided YMCA partners with validation, reminders, and awareness. In turn, this contributed to programming and evaluation practice changes. In light of extant capacity building literature, we discuss how our partnership increased the YMCA's capacity to promote healthy adolescent programs.

  18. Building on a YMCA's health and physical activity promotion capacities: A case study of a researcher-organization partnership to optimize adolescent programming_.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, Paula Louise; García Bengoechea, Enrique

    2016-08-01

    School-based physical activity programs are only effective for increasing adolescents' school-based physical activity. To increase out-of-school-time physical activity, complementary community programs are warranted. Partnerships between universities and community organizations may help build the capacity of these organizations to provide sustainable programs. To understand capacity building processes and outcomes, we partnered with a YMCA to build on their adolescent physical activity promotion capacity. Together, we designed and implemented means to evaluate the YMCA teen program to inform program planning. For this qualitative case study, emails and interviews and meetings transcripts were collected over 2.5 years and analyzed using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Findings illustrate that the YMCA's workforce and organizational development capacities (e.g., evaluation and health promotion capacity and competence) were increased through our partnership, resource allocation, and leadership. We responded to YMCA partners' perceived needs, yet guided them beyond those needs, successfully combining our complementary objectives, knowledge, and skills to generate an integrated program vision, rationale, and evaluation results. This provided YMCA partners with validation, reminders, and awareness. In turn, this contributed to programming and evaluation practice changes. In light of extant capacity building literature, we discuss how our partnership increased the YMCA's capacity to promote healthy adolescent programs. PMID:27161649

  19. ROMANIAN ADMINISTRATIVE CAPACITY OF EUROPEAN FUNDS ABSOBTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Bosie (Ungureanu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The capacity to absorb European funds is part of a state complex integrated admninistrative capacity, a component of a state as a whole. The analysis in this article starts from the theoretical development by studying the reports made by the Romanian Government, correlated with the European Union reports on funds and Romanian legislation. This analysis of the EU's structural funds, highlights the importance of accessing them and the degree to which Romania and member countries benefits of income support.European funds are meant to supplement a member of the Union funds to the extent that they are accessed through the projects. Money allocated on type of operation is distributed in amounts proportionate to that state needs. Money distributed will be justified by their realization of infrastructure projects, environment, transport, human resources development, rural and regional development.Theoretical research lay the foundation for determining administrative capacity in Romania from the first time of defining the concept until now. Empirical research reveals the degree of absorption of which is that Romania has in comparison with some EU countries, former socialist countries present democratic states.The absorption capacity of European funds determine the strength of a state administrative management issues in the management of monetary dated. Power in handling management administrative problems can be efficient in higher manner and it’s represented by cost-benefit analysis and the degree of satisfaction of citizen interest. As public services are financially supported and developed, the degree of citizen satisfaction is greater in an implemented decentralized administrative system.

  20. 护理硕士研究生科研能力的非智力影响因素分析%The influence of nonintellectual factors on the research capacity of master nursing students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    季丽丽; 范秀珍; 程敏; 杨柳

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨护理硕士研究生科研能力的非智力影响因素,为提高护理硕士研究生的科研能力提供依据.方法 采用护理人员科研能力自评量表、科研动机量表、大学生创新效能感量表和自行设计的一般资料问卷,对来自全国22所院校的354名护理硕士研究生进行调查.结果 护理硕士研究生科研能力总分为(73.95±16.25)分.分层回归分析表明,年级、内在科研动机、回避失败动机、外在科研动机、对灵活性的效能感和对流质性的效能感对护生的科研能力有显著影响(P<0.05),共解释护理硕士研究生科研能力43%的变异量.其中,回避失败动机和外在科研动机不仅直接预测科研能力,还以创新自我效能为中介变量间接影响科研能力,而内在科研动机则完全以创新自我效能为中介变量间接影响科研能力.结论 护理硕士研究生的科研能力有待进一步提升,护理教育者应结合其非智力影响因素合理地制订干预措施,促进护理硕士研究生科研能力的提高.%Objective To investigate the influence of nonintellectual factors on the research capacity of master nursing students. Methods A total of 354 master nursing students from 22 universities in China were investigated with Self-Rating Nursing Research Capacity Questionnaire, Research Motivation Scale,Creative Self-efficacy Scale for Chinese College Students and self-designed general information questionnaire. Results The total score of research capacity of master nursing students was 73.95±16.25. Hierarchical regression analysis showed that grade, intrinsic research motivation, failure avoidance, extrinsic research motivation, self-efficacy of flexibility and self-efficacy of fluidity had significant influence on the research capacity, which could explain 43% of the variance of research capacity. Creative self-efficacy completely mediated the relationship between intrinsic research motivation and

  1. Skilled Cities, Regional Disparities, and Efficient Transport: The state of the art and a research agenda

    OpenAIRE

    Proost, Stef; Thisse, Jacques-François

    2015-01-01

    The three themes of this survey—cities, regions, and transport—are closely intertwined and gathered in the category R of the JEL Classification System. We discuss cities and regions in separate sections because they are different spatial units facing specific problems. Transport issues affect both cities and regions and are discussed in each relevant section. The introductory remarks explain both the reason for this division, as well as what spatial economics is all about. Because general eco...

  2. Research Update: Structural and transport properties of (Ca,LaFeAs2 single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Caglieris

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural and transport properties in the normal and superconducting states are investigated in a Ca0.8La0.2FeAs2 single crystal with Tc = 27 K, belonging to the newly discovered 112 family of iron based superconductors. The transport critical current density Jc for both field directions measured in a focused ion beam patterned microbridge reveals a weakly field dependent and low anisotropic behaviour with a low temperature value as high as Jc(B = 0 ∼ 105 A/cm2. This demonstrates not only bulk superconductivity but also the potential of 112 superconductors towards applications. Interestingly, this superconducting compound undergoes a structural transition below 100 K which is evidenced by temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction measurements. Data analysis of Hall resistance and magnetoresistivity indicate that magnetotransport properties are largely dominated by an electron band, with a change of regime observed in correspondence of the onset of a structural transition. In the low temperature regime, the contribution of a hole band to transport is suggested, possibly playing a role in determining the superconducting state.

  3. A Research Program for Fission Product/Dust Transport in HTGR’s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyalka, Sudarshan [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

    2016-02-01

    High and Very High Temperatures Gas Reactors (HTGRs/VHTRs) have five barriers to fission product (FP) release: the TRISO fuel coating, the fuel elements, the core graphite, the primary coolant system, and the reactor building. This project focused on measurements and computations of FP diffusion in graphite, FP adsorption on graphite and FP interactions with dust particles of arbitrary shape. Diffusion Coefficients of Cs and Iodine in two nuclear graphite were obtained by the release method and use of Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) and Instrumented Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). A new mathematical model for fission gas release from nuclear fuel was also developed. Several techniques were explored to measure adsorption isotherms, notably a Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) and Instrumented Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Some of these measurements are still in progress. The results will be reported in a supplemental report later. Studies of FP interactions with dust and shape factors for both chain-like particles and agglomerates over a wide size range were obtained through solutions of the diffusion and transport equations. The Green's Function Method for diffusion and Monte Carlo technique for transport were used, and it was found that the shape factors are sensitive to the particle arrangements, and that diffusion and transport of FPs can be hindered. Several journal articles relating to the above work have been published, and more are in submission and preparation.

  4. Research Update: Structural and transport properties of (Ca,La)FeAs2 single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglieris, F.; Sala, A.; Fujioka, M.; Hummel, F.; Pallecchi, I.; Lamura, G.; Johrendt, D.; Takano, Y.; Ishida, S.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H.; Ogino, H.; Yakita, H.; Shimoyama, J.; Putti, M.

    2016-02-01

    Structural and transport properties in the normal and superconducting states are investigated in a Ca0.8La0.2FeAs2 single crystal with Tc = 27 K, belonging to the newly discovered 112 family of iron based superconductors. The transport critical current density Jc for both field directions measured in a focused ion beam patterned microbridge reveals a weakly field dependent and low anisotropic behaviour with a low temperature value as high as Jc(B = 0) ˜ 105 A/cm2. This demonstrates not only bulk superconductivity but also the potential of 112 superconductors towards applications. Interestingly, this superconducting compound undergoes a structural transition below 100 K which is evidenced by temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction measurements. Data analysis of Hall resistance and magnetoresistivity indicate that magnetotransport properties are largely dominated by an electron band, with a change of regime observed in correspondence of the onset of a structural transition. In the low temperature regime, the contribution of a hole band to transport is suggested, possibly playing a role in determining the superconducting state.

  5. Research Update: Structural and transport properties of (Ca,La)FeAs{sub 2} single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caglieris, F.; Pallecchi, I.; Lamura, G.; Putti, M. [CNR-SPIN and Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Sala, A. [CNR-SPIN and Università di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, I-16146 Genova (Italy); Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Fujioka, M. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Hokkaido University, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Hummel, F.; Johrendt, D. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Department Chemie, Butenandtstr. 5-13, 81377 München (Germany); Takano, Y. [National Institute for Materials Science (NIMS), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan); Ishida, S.; Iyo, A.; Eisaki, H. [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8565 (Japan); Ogino, H.; Yakita, H. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Shimoyama, J. [Department of Applied Chemistry, The University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1 Fuchinobe, Chuo-ku, Sagamihara 252-5258 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Structural and transport properties in the normal and superconducting states are investigated in a Ca{sub 0.8}La{sub 0.2}FeAs{sub 2} single crystal with T{sub c} = 27 K, belonging to the newly discovered 112 family of iron based superconductors. The transport critical current density J{sub c} for both field directions measured in a focused ion beam patterned microbridge reveals a weakly field dependent and low anisotropic behaviour with a low temperature value as high as J{sub c}(B = 0) ∼ 10{sup 5} A/cm{sup 2}. This demonstrates not only bulk superconductivity but also the potential of 112 superconductors towards applications. Interestingly, this superconducting compound undergoes a structural transition below 100 K which is evidenced by temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction measurements. Data analysis of Hall resistance and magnetoresistivity indicate that magnetotransport properties are largely dominated by an electron band, with a change of regime observed in correspondence of the onset of a structural transition. In the low temperature regime, the contribution of a hole band to transport is suggested, possibly playing a role in determining the superconducting state.

  6. Korea-Japan Joint Research on Development of Seismic Capacity Evaluation and Enhancement Technology Considering Near-Fault Effect (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choun, Young Sun; Choi, In Kil; Kim, Min Kyu [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ohtori, Yasuki; Shiba, Yoshiaki; Nakajima, Masato [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    2006-12-15

    We compiled the results of the source analysis obtained under the collaboration research. Recent construction scheme for source modeling adopted in Japan is described, and strong-motion prediction is performed assuming the scenario earthquakes occurring in the Ulsan fault system, Korea. Finally Qs values beneath the Korean inland crust are estimated using strong-motion records in Korea from the 2005 Off West Fukuoka earthquake (M7.0). Probabilistic seismic hazard for four NPP sites in Korea are evaluated, in which the site specific attenuation equations with Index SA developed for NPP sites are adopted. Furthermore, the uniform hazard spectra for the four NPP sites in Korea are obtained by conducting the PSHA by using the attenuation equations with the index of response spectra and seismic source model cases with maximum weights. The supporting tools for seismic response analysis, the evaluation tool for evaluating annual probability of failure, and system analysis program were developed for the collaboration. The tools were verified with theoretical results, the results written in the reference document of EQESRA, and so forth. The system analysis program was applied for the investigation of the effect of improving the seismic capacity of equipment. We evaluated the annual probability of failure of isolated and non-isolated EDG at Younggwang NPP site as the results of the collaboration. The input ground motion for generating the seismic fragility curve was determined based on the seismic hazard analysis. It was found that the annual probability of failure of isolated EDG is lower than that of non-isolated EDG.

  7. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M;

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....../or glial cells: the solute carrier (SLC)1 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of glutamate, and the SLC6 transporter family, which includes the transporters that mediate the Na(+)-dependent uptake of dopamine, 5-HT, norepinephrine, glycine and GABA....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  8. Using sediment transport and river restoration to link research and education, and promote K-12 female involvement in STEM fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yager, E. M.; Bradley-Eitel, K.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of this CAREER award is to better understand and predict the mechanics of sediment transport, to link research and education through courses and shared field sites, and to increase female interest in STEM fields. To accomplish the education component of this proposal we have focused on the following three activities: 1) a Keystone course on the scientific method, 2) a Women Outside with Science (WOWS) camp and 3) a permanent field site for research and education on river processes. In the Keystone Course, students investigated the impact of roughness addition, in sediment-starved river reaches (e.g. downstream of dams), on the retention of gravel used for spawning. They developed research questions and hypotheses, designed and conducted a set of scaled laboratory flume experiments, analyzed their data and wrote a draft manuscript of their results. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive on the merits of this course, which included hands-on learning of the following: basic sediment transport and fluvial geomorphology, applied statistics, laboratory methods, and scientific writing skills. Students sometimes struggled when flume experiments did not progress as planned, and in the analysis and interpretation of complex data. Some of the students in the course have reanalyzed data, conducted additional experiments and are currently rewriting the manuscript for submission to a peer-reviewed journal. Such a course fundamentally links research and teaching, and provides an introduction to research for advanced undergraduates or beginning graduate students. We have also run one summer WOWS camp, which was a ten day camping and inquiry based research experience for 20 female junior-high and high-school students. The girls studied climate change and water related issues, worked on a restoration project on the Little Salmon River, met with a fish biologist and did fish habitat surveys and studied water quality along the North Fork of the Payette River while on a

  9. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 15. Research agendas of the Indonesian partner universities. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2010-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. This report provides an overview of the status of development of research agendas at the five partner universities. The research agendas consists of a research proposals, purchasing and installation of research equipment, cooperation with industries and conducting the research proposals. Start of the development of the agendas is determining the fields of interest and formulating research projects. Research development is an ongoing process and therefore by the end of 2011 part 2 of this report will be prepared which will present the new developments in the research agendas over the coming year.

  10. Design of integrated autopilot/autothrottle for NASA TSRV airplane using integral LQG methodology. [transport systems research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminer, Isaac; Benson, Russell A.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle control system has been developed for the NASA transport system research vehicle using a two-degree-of-freedom approach. Based on this approach, the feedback regulator was designed using an integral linear quadratic regulator design technique, which offers a systematic approach to satisfy desired feedback performance requirements and guarantees stability margins in both control and sensor loops. The resulting feedback controller was discretized and implemented using a delta coordinate concept, which allows for transient free controller switching by initializing all controller states to zero and provides a simple solution for dealing with throttle limiting cases.

  11. A research of virtual reality engineering for emergency response in radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As the result of typical nuclear accidents in last few years, people began to pay attention to the emergency response in nuclear accidents. CRIEPI developed the concept of support system for all of normal condition, emergency condition and education during transport, using Virtual Reality technique and other up-to-date engineering. This system consist of three subsystems, namely 'on-site' for normal condition, 'on-site support system' for emergency condition and 'education system' for transport workers training. Each subsystem contains computer, communication devices, display, video camera, various sensors, data base and control or analysis programs. This system needs the following characteristics; 1) Using Virtual Reality technique, it is practicable for users to produce the hypothetical accident scenes and to show data, graphs and text messages on a see-through type head-mounted display. 2) Each subsystem refers the common data bases for route soundings, accident probability estimation and environment impact assessment and so on. 3) In the case of accident, it can smoothly transfer from 'on-site support system' for normal condition to 'on-site support system' for emergency condition. 4) It is capable to communicate by digital full duplex communication between on-site and the control center. 5) Movie from video camera and observed data from on-site monitoring posts are transmitted to the control center, analyzed with the central computer, then returned to on-site transportation team for visualization on each head mounted displays of crew. Some technology, mainly in the field for communication, have been developed up to now, but the others are expected to realize in near future. CRIEPI will constantly make efforts for those development. (author)

  12. The Symposium Proceedings of the 1998 Air Transport Research Group (ATRG). Volume 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds-Feighan, Aisling (Editor); Bowen, Brent D. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    Contents include the following: airline deregulation in Australia: a medium term assessment; why can't Japan deregulate the airline industry and open the sky immediately?; toward a market-oriented air transport system?: present developments in Russian civil aviation performance and policy; the asian economic crisis and its implications for aviation policy in asia pacific: industry outlook approaching the next millennium; a tale of two airlines: the post privatization performance of two caribbean airlines: the role of capital productivity in British Airways' financial recovery; airline privatization: does it matter?; airfright demand: responding to new developments in logistics; and air cargo business relationships.

  13. PROGRESS AND A REVIEW OF NEW METHODS IN WATER RESOURCES CAPACITY RESEARCH%水资源承载力研究进展与新方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓; 陈隽; 范琳琳; 崔胜玉

    2014-01-01

    To better guide economic and social development planning, to rationally develop water resources,and to promote sustainable human development,water resources carrying capacity (WRCC)has been researched in-depth.Major problems in water resources carrying capacity were summarized as follows. The concept of WRCC is not clear;Quantitative methods were confused due to inconsistent concepts of WRCC, resulting in poor operability of WRCC;WRCC study is,to some degree,incongruous with the concept of sustainable development.To solve these problems,a new definition of WRCC and related quantitative methods are proposed in this paper.The water resources carrying level (WRCL)should refer to human development level,under certain circumstance of technology and management,held by regional water resources system;WRCC is stable maximum of WRCL,maximum of human development level steadily caught by regional water resources system,under certain level of technology and management;WRCC quantitative equation is,scaled by ecosystem services value, established from 4 aspects including economy, culture, ecological support and ecological assimilation.%在综述水资源承载力前人研究的基础上,总结了水资源承载力研究中存在的问题:水资源承载力的概念不明确;水资源承载力的量化方法建立在概念不一致的基础之上,导致水资源承载力量化可操作性差;当前水资源承载力的研究没有完全符合可持续发展思想等。为解决这些问题,本文提出了水资源承载力的新定义及相关的量化方法:水资源承载水平是在一定的技术和管理水平下,区域水资源系统承载的人类发展水平;水资源承载力是水资源承载水平的稳定最大值,即一定的技术和管理水平下,区域水资源系统能稳定承载的人类最大发展水平;并以生态服务功能价值为标尺,从经济、文化、生态支撑、生态同化4个方面建立水资源承载力的量化方程。

  14. 储层砂体渗流能力聚类研究%Research of Sand Body Percolation Capacity Division Based on Clustering Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李航; 佘玉洁; 董庆明

    2012-01-01

    The sand body percolation capacity division theory is put forward. The theory based on clustering analysis which belongs to the statistics. Its principle is collect well log data of all well point in the reservoir and put these data into the clustering analysis software. Through the analysis results of clustering software, the percolation capacity of sand at different well point will divided into different levels. After that, the percolation capacity data be tween different well point will be got through the interpolation method. At least the percolation capacity distribution picture through these data be could got. Percolation capacity distribution picture could prove percolation capacity of different area in reservoir intuitively. At least the sand body percolation capacity division result of a block which be longs to a oil production company of Daqing oilfield is-put forward.%基于数学统学中的聚类理论提出了一种划分储层砂体渗流能力级别的方法:砂体渗流能力聚类法.运用该方法对油藏各个井点的地质属性数据进行聚类分析,将每个小层上各个井点的渗流能力分为若干级别,并对井点之间储层的渗流能力级别进行插值出图,从而得到不同小层的储层渗流能力聚类图,该图能直观地反应小层各个区域渗流能力.最后用大庆某采油厂某区块进行实例分析并给出聚类结果.

  15. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  16. IASOA circumpolar observations in service for research of atmospheric transports into and out of the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihma, Timo; Uttal, Taneil; Walden, Von; Cox, Christopher; Starkweather, Sandy; Makshtas, Alexander; Key, Jeff

    2016-04-01

    The International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) is an International Polar Year legacy consortium that focuses on coordinating measurements of the Arctic atmosphere collected at ten observatories in the U.S., Canada, Russia, Norway, Finland, and Greenland. The IASOA data portal and collaboratory process support thematic expert groups that work towards common goals for utilizing interoperable data products across the observatories. In addition to detailed surface observations and upper-air radiosonde program, some of the IASOA observatories collect information on the vertical profiles of moisture, cloud boundaries, cloud water/ice contents, and aerosols using radars, lidars ceilometers and radiometers. Collectively the IASOA network provides a unique source of information that can be utilized in order to provide the best possible empirical estimates of the horizontal atmospheric transports of momentum, heat, moisture, cloud water, cloud ice, and aerosols into and out of the Arctic Ocean region. These can be used in turn to support the evaluation of atmospheric reanalyses, weather and climate models, and satellite remote sensing products, and subsequently studies on the interaction between the Arctic and lower latitudes including the role of mid- and low-latitude forcing on the Arctic amplification of climate warming and the effects of Arctic changes on mid-latitude weather and climate. In addition, the IASOA data are valuable for the evaluation of gridded products (reanalyses, models, and satellite data) with respect to Earth surface variables, such as snow depth, soil moisture, surface temperature, radiative fluxes, albedo, as well as turbulent fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and CH4. Evaluation of surface fluxes is a vital to complement the evaluation of horizontal transports. These together will yield a comprehensive assessment of the quality of available gridded products in representing atmospheric budgets of heat, moisture

  17. [Research on carbon reduction potential of electric vehicles for low-carbon transportation and its influencing factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiao-Qing; Li, Xiao-Nuo; Yang, Jian-Xin

    2013-01-01

    Transportation is the key industry of urban energy consumption and carbon emissions. The transformation of conventional gasoline vehicles to new energy vehicles is an important initiative to realize the goal of developing low-carbon city through energy saving and emissions reduction, while electric vehicles (EV) will play an important role in this transition due to their advantage in energy saving and lower carbon emissions. After reviewing the existing researches on energy saving and emissions reduction of electric vehicles, this paper analyzed the factors affecting carbon emissions reduction. Combining with electric vehicles promotion program in Beijing, the paper analyzed carbon emissions and reduction potential of electric vehicles in six scenarios using the optimized energy consumption related carbon emissions model from the perspective of fuel life cycle. The scenarios included power energy structure, fuel type (energy consumption per 100 km), car type (CO2 emission factor of fuel), urban traffic conditions (speed), coal-power technologies and battery type (weight, energy efficiency). The results showed that the optimized model was able to estimate carbon emissions caused by fuel consumption more reasonably; electric vehicles had an obvious restrictive carbon reduction potential with the fluctuation of 57%-81.2% in the analysis of six influencing factors, while power energy structure and coal-power technologies play decisive roles in life-cycle carbon emissions of electric vehicles with the reduction potential of 78.1% and 81.2%, respectively. Finally, some optimized measures were proposed to reduce transport energy consumption and carbon emissions during electric vehicles promotion including improving energy structure and coal technology, popularizing energy saving technologies and electric vehicles, accelerating the battery R&D and so on. The research provides scientific basis and methods for the policy development for the transition of new energy vehicles

  18. Numerical research on the anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media with micron X-ray computed tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Yue, Wenzheng; Zhang, Mo

    2016-06-01

    The anisotropic transport of thermal neutron in heterogeneous porous media is of great research interests in many fields. In this paper, it is the first time that a new model based on micron X-ray computed tomography (CT) has been proposed to simultaneously consider both the separation of matrix and pore and the distribution of mineral components. We apply the Monte Carlo method to simulate thermal neutrons transporting through the model along different directions, and meanwhile detect those unreacted thermal neutrons by an array detector on the other side of the model. Therefore, the anisotropy of pore structure can be imaged by the amount of received thermal neutrons, due to the difference of rock matrix and pore-filling fluids in the macroscopic reaction cross section (MRCS). The new model has been verified by the consistent between the simulated data and the pore distribution from X-ray CT. The results show that the evaluation of porosity can be affected by the anisotropy of media. Based on the research, a new formula is developed to describe the correlation between the resolution of array detectors and the quality of imaging. The formula can be further used to analyze the critical resolution and the suitable number of thermal neutrons emitted in each simulation. Unconventionally, we find that a higher resolution cannot always lead to a better image.

  19. [Research and implementation of the TLS network transport security technology based on DICOM standard].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Jianfeng

    2012-02-01

    With the development of medical information, Picture Archiving and Communications System (PACS), Hospital Information System/Radiology Information System(HIS/RIS) and other medical information management system become popular and developed, and interoperability between these systems becomes more frequent. So, these enclosed systems will be open and regionalized by means of network, and this is inevitable. If the trend becomes true, the security of information transmission may be the first problem to be solved. Based on the need for network security, we investigated the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) Standard and Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol, and implemented the TLS transmission of the DICOM medical information with OpenSSL toolkit and DCMTK toolkit. PMID:22404001

  20. 美丽河南建设背景下河南乡村旅游发展对策研究%Research on Rural Tourism Capacity and Countermeasure According to Beautiful Henan Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮亮

    2015-01-01

    从提升游客体验质量,同时提高目的地居民收益角度出发,梳理了和乡村旅游紧密相关的旅游容量指标:乡村旅游生态容量、心理容量、经济容量等,并提出了提升乡村旅游容量的措施,以促进乡村旅游的可持续发展。%From the perspective of promoting tourist experience quality and improving the destination residents benefit , this thesis makes a deep research on tourism capacity system related to rural tourism from three aspects:ecological capacity in rural tourism , psychologi-cal capacity in rural tourism and economical capacity in rural tourism .Meanwhile it attempts to present some countermeasure to solve the problems related to rural tourism capacity in order to promote the sustainable development in rural tourism .

  1. Surface retention capacity calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Vaclav; Dostal, Tomas

    2010-05-01

    Flood wave transformation in the floodplain is the phenomenon which is researched within interdisciplinary project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase. The project focuses on broad range of floodplain ecosystem services and mitigation of flooding is one of them. Despite main influence on flood wave transformation is due to flow retardation, retention in surface depressions within floodplain has been analyzed to get better overview of whole transformation process. Detail digital relief model (DRM) has been used for given purposes to be able to analyze terrain depressions volumes. The model was developed with use of stereophotogrammetric evaluation of airborne images with high resolution of 10 cm. It was essential for purposes of presented analysis not to apply pit removal routines which are often used for generation of DRM for hydrological modelling purposes. First, the methodology of analysis was prepared and tested on artificial surface. This surface was created using random raster generation, filtration and resampling with final resolution of 1000 x 1000 units and height of maximum 10 units above datum. The methodology itself is based on analysis of areas inundated by water at different elevation levels. Volume is than calculated for each depression using extraction of terrain elevations under corresponding water level. The method was then applied on the area of Lužnice River floodplain section to assess retention capacity of real floodplain. The floodplain had to be cut into sections perpendicular to main river orientation for analyses as the method was tested for square shaped area without any significant inclination. Results obtained by mentioned analysis are presented in this paper. Acknowledgement Presented research was accomplished within national project NIVA - Water Retention in Floodplains and Possibilities of Retention Capacity Increase, nr. QH82078. The project is funded by Ministry of Agriculture of

  2. Research and technology strategy to help overcome the environmental problems in relation to transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report considers local pollution issues, i.e. emissions which have an impact on the quality of water, air and soil with local and regional (e.g. acid deposition) significance. The following technology clusters: traffic control, modal transfer and fleet management are also examined and recommendations are made for a Community Research and Technology Development strategy

  3. Exploration of capacity-building of scientific research of medical and nursing postgraduate%医学及护理研究生科研能力培养的探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁芳; 张伟; 师忠芳

    2014-01-01

    The capacity-building of scientific research is an important part as well as the main purpose of medical and nursing postgraduate training .However , there are still many gaps and deficiencies in the process of the capacity-building of scientific research .In this paper , the authors described the existed specific problems in the capacity-building of scientific research of medical and nursing postgraduate , and also deeply explored the approaches of capacity-building of scientific research of postgraduate including enhancing the awareness of research , cultivating scientific thinking , focusing on reading the literature , improving the ability of operation and writing of thesis and so on .%科研能力培养是医学及护理研究生培养的重要环节和主要目的,但目前关于医学及护理研究生的科研能力培养中尚存在许多欠缺和不足。本文结合我国医学及护理研究生科研能力培养中存在的具体问题,从增强科研意识、培养科研思维、注重文献阅读、提高动手操作能力和论文撰写能力等方面对医学及护理研究生科研能力培养途径进行深入探讨。

  4. The Research of Ganquan Railway Interval Through Capacity%甘泉铁路区间通过能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆振华

    2015-01-01

    This paper expounds the station distribution and freight development of ganquan railway , analyzed the problem of insufficient ability because of the development of freight increasement ,introduces railway traffic organization of ganquan railway and the method of calculate interval through capacity ,and calculated the capacity of each interval .Combined with the recent freight traffic 5 million、7 million、10 million tons of three conditions ,calculated the requirement capacity of each interval ,provide specific scheme of improve the interval through capacity ,be prepared for the next step of freight increasement .%阐述甘泉铁路车站分布和运量发展情况及货运量增加后区间通过能力不足的问题,介绍甘泉铁路行车组织和区间通过能力计算方法,计算各区间的通过能力,结合近期货物运量500万t、700万t、1000万t三种情况,计算需求通过能力,并给出提高通过能力的具体方案,为下一步货运量的增加做准备。

  5. Capacity development in food composition database management and nutritional research and education in Central and Eastern European, Middle Eastern and North African countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gurinovic, M.; Witthöft, C.; Tepsic, J.; Ranic, M.; Hulshof, P.J.M.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Porubska, J.; Gohar, A.; Debeljak-Martacic, J.; Petrovic-Oggiano, G.; Novakovic, R.N.; Glibetic, M.; Oshaug, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: Capacity development (CD) in food and nutrition is much more than formal training and includes human resource development, and organisational, institutional and legal framework development with the aim of enhancing nutrition-relevant knowledge and skills to support infrastruct

  6. Coordination between stem water transport capacity and photosynthesis in corn and sorghum cultivars during progressive soil drying%土壤渐进干旱过程中玉米、高粱茎水分传输能力与光合作用的协调性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽敏; 李秧秧; 左力翔

    2013-01-01

    以两种不同抗旱性的玉米品种(“陕单21”和“郑单958”)和高梁品种(“晋中405”和“晋杂12”)为对象,研究了土壤渐进干旱过程中茎木质部水分传输能力与光合作用之间的协调关系,试图揭示玉米和高梁品种抗旱性差异的水力生理机制.结果表明:(1)相同土壤干旱程度下,玉米品种“郑单958”的叶水势、净光合速率(Pn)、最大光化学量子效率(Fv/Fm)和PSⅡ实际量子效率(ΦPSⅡ)高于“陕单21”,其气孔导度(Gs)及蒸腾速率(Tr)则低于“陕单21”.高梁品种“晋杂12”的Pn和ΦPSⅡ高于“晋中405”.表明玉米品种“郑单958”和高梁品种“晋杂12”的抗旱性相对较强.(2)土壤渐进干旱过程中,玉米和高梁光合气体交换参数(Pn、Gs及Tr)的下降早于叶绿素荧光参数(Fv/Fm、ΦPSⅡ)的下降,表明气孔关闭比PSⅡ活性受损要早.(3)抗旱性强的玉米品种“郑单958”和高梁品种“晋杂12”同时具有相对高的水分传输能力,其抵抗气穴化形成的能力更强,但高粱抵抗气穴化的能力不如玉米,高梁通过快速的栓塞来减少水分散失.(4)玉米Pn和Gs对茎木质部水分传输能力下降的敏感性高于高粱,抗旱性强的玉米和高梁品种Gs对木质部水分传输能力下降的敏感性更强.高梁能在低水分传输能力的情况下,维持较高的光合作用,反映了高粱保守性的水分利用策略.%Despite the fact of a strong linkage has been noted between xylem water transport capacity and photosynthesis in several woody plant species,not much research has studied such linkage in herbaceous plants.Herbaceous plants could be more vulnerable to drought-induced embolism than woody plants due to their lower xylem structure.Hence in a pot experiment,this paper investigated the coordination between stem water transport capacity and photosynthesis in corn cultivars (“Shaandan 21” and “Zhengdan 958”) and sorghum cultivars (

  7. An introduction to the Transport Properties Research Laboratory at the British Geological Survey and its 50+ years' experience in geological disposal research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zihms, S.G.; Shaw, R.P.; Harrington, J.F.; Cuss, R.J.; Graham, C.C.; Wiseall, A.; McEvoy, F. [British Geological Survey, Nickerhill Keyworth (United Kingdom)

    2015-07-01

    The Transport Properties Research Laboratory (TPRL) is one of the leading centers in Europe for the study of fluid movement in ultra-low permeability media. The facility is well known for long-term high quality experimental work and process-based interpretation. Focus is on multi-phase flow in natural and engineered, low permeability geomaterials (e.g. caprocks, well bore cements and engineered clays), and their associated deformation behavior. Measurements include: saturation and consolidation properties; intrinsic permeability (or transmissivity); anisotropy; specific storage; coupled flow parameters (e.g. osmotic permeability); capillary entry, breakthrough and threshold pressures; gas permeability function; drained and undrained compressibilities; and rheological (creep) properties. Laboratory experiments are performed under simulated in-situ conditions (stress, pore pressure, temperature and chemical environment). Three key areas explored are: (i) baseline characterization of hydromechanical properties, (ii) influence of stress path and stress history on transport properties and (iii) transmissivity of fractures, faults and discontinuities (e.g., wellbore interfaces). Tests are designed to provide quantitative data for mathematical modeling of ultra-low permeability materials, together with process understanding of key transport mechanisms. Key equipment includes: high pressure isotropic permeameters (70 MPa); constant volume permeameters (70 MPa); high pressure triaxial permeameter (70 MPa); heavy-duty, high-precision shear-rigs; high temperature, high pressure geochemical flow reactor (130 MPa at 140 C); and novel tracer systems (nanoparticle injection or radiological tagging of gas) to characterize and identify potential migration pathways. The key achievements from the TPRL at the BGS include generation of new conceptual models applied throughout Europe, transfer of skills and knowledge to other complex geoscience problems (e.g. shale gas, CCS). The TPRL

  8. An introduction to the Transport Properties Research Laboratory at the British Geological Survey and its 50+ years' experience in geological disposal research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Transport Properties Research Laboratory (TPRL) is one of the leading centers in Europe for the study of fluid movement in ultra-low permeability media. The facility is well known for long-term high quality experimental work and process-based interpretation. Focus is on multi-phase flow in natural and engineered, low permeability geomaterials (e.g. caprocks, well bore cements and engineered clays), and their associated deformation behavior. Measurements include: saturation and consolidation properties; intrinsic permeability (or transmissivity); anisotropy; specific storage; coupled flow parameters (e.g. osmotic permeability); capillary entry, breakthrough and threshold pressures; gas permeability function; drained and undrained compressibilities; and rheological (creep) properties. Laboratory experiments are performed under simulated in-situ conditions (stress, pore pressure, temperature and chemical environment). Three key areas explored are: (i) baseline characterization of hydromechanical properties, (ii) influence of stress path and stress history on transport properties and (iii) transmissivity of fractures, faults and discontinuities (e.g., wellbore interfaces). Tests are designed to provide quantitative data for mathematical modeling of ultra-low permeability materials, together with process understanding of key transport mechanisms. Key equipment includes: high pressure isotropic permeameters (70 MPa); constant volume permeameters (70 MPa); high pressure triaxial permeameter (70 MPa); heavy-duty, high-precision shear-rigs; high temperature, high pressure geochemical flow reactor (130 MPa at 140 C); and novel tracer systems (nanoparticle injection or radiological tagging of gas) to characterize and identify potential migration pathways. The key achievements from the TPRL at the BGS include generation of new conceptual models applied throughout Europe, transfer of skills and knowledge to other complex geoscience problems (e.g. shale gas, CCS). The TPRL

  9. 人为干扰机制下的MIMO系统安全容量研究%Research on secrecy capacity of MIMO system in artificial interference mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱耀; 朱义君; 张水莲; 程增霞

    2012-01-01

    In MIMO wiretap channel, for the problem that the secrecy capacity equals to zero while the channel of illegitimate receiver is not the degraded of the channel of legitimate receiver, two specific design algorithms which are orthogonal and null space methods of the artificial interference which only jam the illegitimate receiver are proposed to produce a positive secrecy capacity. In addition, for the constraint of message signal power and the total transmitted power, two kinds of secrecy capacity expression are presented respectively. Simulation result shows that this artificial interference mechanism can improve the secrecy capacity effectively, even though the channel of illegitimate receiver is not the degraded of the channel of legitimate receiver, it still produces a positive secrecy capacity.%在MIMO系统窃听信道中,针对当非法接收者的信道与合法接收者的信道相比是非退化信道时,安全容量为零的问题,提出两种具体的仅仅对非法接收者产生影响的人为干扰算法——零空间法和正交法,从而产生正的安全容量,并且分别给出了发射者消息信号功率受限和发射总功率受限两种情况下的安全容量表达式.仿真结果表明,人为干扰机制能够有效地改善和提高MIMO系统的安全容量,即使非法信道是非退化的信道,仍然能够产生正的安全容量.

  10. Research on closed-loop supply chain network equilibrium with two-type suppliers, risk-averse manufacturers and capacity constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of this paper is to investigate the closed-loop supply chain (CLSC network equilibrium wiht the consideration of three practical factors: two complementary types of suppliers, risk-averse character of the manufacturer and capacity constraints of the suppliers. Design/methodology/approach: The equilibrium of various decision makers including the suppliers, the manufacturers, the retailers, the collectors and the demand markets are modeled via finite-dimensional variational inequality, respectively. Then the governing CLSC network equilibrium model is established. The logarithmic-quadratic proximal prediction-correction algorithm is designed to solve the variational inequality model. Numerical examples are given to analyze the impact of return rate, risk-averse degree and capacity constraints on the network equilibrium under different product BOMs. Findings: with the increase of return rate, the profits of various channel members and the performance of the CLSC system will improve. There is a contradiction between profit maximization and risk minimization for the manufacturers. Moreover, the economic behavior of the CLSC is likely to be limited by the capacity constraints of the suppliers. Originality/value: Prior to this paper, few papers have addressed with the CLSC network equilibrium considering some practical factors. They assume all the suppliers are identical and all the decision-makers are risk neutral. Furthermore, the production capacities of all suppliers are assumed to be infinite or large enough. To fill the gap, this paper examines the influences of two-type suppliers, risk aversion and capacity constraints upon the CLSC network equilibrium.

  11. Atmospheric transport and deposition of mineral dust to the ocean: implications for research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Michael; Prospero, Joseph M; Baker, Alex R; Dentener, Frank; Ickes, Luisa; Liss, Peter S; Mahowald, Natalie M; Nickovic, Slobodan; García-Pando, Carlos Pérez; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sarin, Manmohan; Tegen, Ina; Duce, Robert A

    2012-10-01

    This paper reviews our knowledge of the measurement and modeling of mineral dust emissions to the atmosphere, its transport and deposition to the ocean, the release of iron from the dust into seawater, and the possible impact of that nutrient on marine biogeochemistry and climate. Of particular concern is our poor understanding of the mechanisms and quantities of dust deposition as well as the extent of iron solubilization from the dust once it enters the ocean. Model estimates of dust deposition in remote oceanic regions vary by more than a factor of 10. The fraction of the iron in dust that is available for use by marine phytoplankton is still highly uncertain. There is an urgent need for a long-term marine atmospheric surface measurement network, spread across all oceans. Because the southern ocean is characterized by large areas with high nitrate but low chlorophyll surface concentrations, that region is particularly sensitive to the input of dust and iron. Data from this region would be valuable, particularly at sites downwind from known dust source areas in South America, Australia, and South Africa. Coordinated field experiments involving both atmospheric and marine measurements are recommended to address the complex and interlinked processes and role of dust/Fe fertilization on marine biogeochemistry and climate.

  12. Research on Individual Advantage Identification and Evaluation of Organizational Learning Capacity%组织学习能力的个性优势识别与评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾建锋; 赵希男; 孙世敏

    2011-01-01

    Organizational learning capacity is a multidimensional concept. It is conducive to the promotion of organizational performance improvement to identify individual advantage and evaluate the situation of organizational learning capacity. In accordance with the idea of goal programming and q-norm distance, an individual advantage identification method of organizational learning capacity is put forward. The method identifies individual advantage from the view of respecting each evaluator, and on this basis, comprehensive evaluation conclusion is given. Taking 20 divisions of a large domestic software enterprise as a study sample, an empirical study is made, in which organizational learning capacity is composed of discovering capacity, innovating capacity, selecting capacity , executing capacity, transferring capacity, reflecting capacity, capacity of acquiring knowledge from environment , capacity of contributing knowledge to environment, and capacity of building organizational memory, the research result shows that evaluation method of organizational learning capacity based on individual advantage is in line with "people-oriented management" thinking, easy to be accepted by evaluators, and has the characteristics of objectivity and benchmarking effects.%组织学习能力是个多维概念,定期识别在哪个维度上具备个性优势并在此基础上对组织学习能力状况做出评价将有利于促进组织绩效的提升.本文按照目标规划的思想,依据2-范数距离,提出一种组织学习能力的个性优势识别方法,该方法从尊重每一位被评价者的意见出发识别其个性优势特征,并在此基础上给出综合评价结论.在此基础上以国内某大型软件企业的20个事业部为例进行了应用研究,组织学习能力由发现能力、发明能力、选择能力、执行能力、推广能力、反思能力、获取知识能力、输出知识能力、建立知识库能力九个维度组成.研究结果表明,基

  13. Competence building capacity shortage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990 and if the availability of Danish import and hydropower is normal. Finally, an analysis was done of Capacity Subscription, a model where consumers pay for the capacity they use during system peak load. It was shown how this model can be embedded in the Nordic market solution. However, given the present situation which is not seen as critical, a prospective introduction of this model would lie some years into the future. Further research with respect to technological solutions and market communication should be undertaken to learn more about these central issues for this model. (author)

  14. Competence building capacity shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doorman, Gerard; Wangensteen, Ivar; Bakken, Bjoern

    2005-02-01

    conditions after 1990 and if the availability of Danish import and hydropower is normal. Finally, an analysis was done of Capacity Subscription, a model where consumers pay for the capacity they use during system peak load. It was shown how this model can be embedded in the Nordic market solution. However, given the present situation which is not seen as critical, a prospective introduction of this model would lie some years into the future. Further research with respect to technological solutions and market communication should be undertaken to learn more about these central issues for this model. (author)

  15. 护理本科生科研能力及影响因素调查%Survey of scievotific research capacity of nursing undergraduates and its influencing factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭玉娇; 喻丹; 杜春林; 王燕; 但鑫; 黄丽; 安思漫

    2015-01-01

    [目的]了解护理本科生科研能力现状,分析影响护理本科生科研能力的相关因素,为提高护理本科生科研能力提供参考。[方法]采用配额抽样的方法,于2014年3月选择某校护理学院全日制本科1年级~4年级护生280人为调查对象,应用一般资料调查表、护理人员科研能力自评量表及护理科研障碍因素表对调查对象进行调查。[结果]护理本科生科研能力总分为52.96分±17.72分,科研能力水平较低,其中问题发现能力得分最低(4.87分±2.01分),论文写作能力得分最高(12.1 7分±4.70分);护理本科生科研能力的影响因素主要为年级、是否申报科研、是否有指导老师、是否了解学校对科研的支持方式(P <0.05);阻碍科研能力的因素有护理英语水平有限、阅读外国文献有障碍,缺乏对科研的兴趣、缺乏科研动力(P <0.05)。[结论]护理本科生科研能力较低,尤其是问题发现能力较差;学校应着重培养护生发现问题的能力,加强专业英语教育,支持鼓励护生参与科研,培养护生对科研的兴趣,增强科研动力,提高科研能力。%Objective:To know about the status quo of research capacity of nursing undergraduates,analyze the related influencing factors of research capacity of nursing undergraduates,aims to provide references for impro-ving the research capacity of nursing undergraduates.Methods:Using quota sampling method,a total of 280 nursing students were selected as subjects in 2014 March from grade 1 to grade 4 in a full time undergraduate nursing school,the respondents received survey by the general information questionnaire,self rating scale of re-search capacity of nursing personnel and nursing scientific research obstacle factors scale.Results:The total score of research capacity of nursing undergraduates was 52.96 ±17.72 and the level of research capacity was low,problem finding ability in which got the lowest

  16. Research about CHE HE-LA ME mine environmental self-purification capacity%车河-拉么矿区环境自净能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄耀思

    2013-01-01

    Through analyzing Self-purification capacity pull the Mody mine atmosphere, water self-purification ability of vegetation self-purification ability and soil self-purification capacity in CHE HE-LA ME mine ,Nandan County, Hechi City, Guangxi;reveals the mine the self-purification capacity of the atmosphere is low due to poor atmospheric stability, wind speed, high frequency of calm winds, the industrial zone to form the heat island effect, physical self-purification capacity of the mine water is strong, biological self-purification capacity is weak,chemical self-purification capacity due to the majority of metal ions into the body of water,so the river water, soil, groundwater has a pollution, and the upstream slow flow at river bend is more polluted, vegetation interception capacity is weak, transfer ability is strong,the mining soil of heavy metal adsorption capacity is strong, self-purification capacity is poor,it’s easy to form a serious pollution, so to explain the reasons why mine discharge standards or causes severe pollution, scientific basis for macroeconomic policy-making and environmental governance.%  通过广西河池市南丹县车河-拉么矿区的大气自净能力、水体自净能力、植被自净能力和土壤自净能力的分析,揭示了该矿区由于大气稳定度差、风速小、静风频率高、工业区形成热岛效应等,因而大气自净能力低;矿区水体物理自净能力很强,生物自净能力很弱、化学自净能力由于多数金属离子进入水体,因而沿河水体、土壤、地下水都有污染,且上游、缓流处、河道拐弯处污染较为严重。矿区植被拦截能力弱,转移能力强。矿区土壤对重金属吸附能力强、自净能力差,易形成严重污染。从而解释了为什么矿区达标排放却还是产生严重污染的原因,也为宏观决策和环境治理提出了科学根据。

  17. Research on contamination caused by the topographical difference in batch transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, J.; Yan, D.; Kang, Z. [PetroChina Co. Ltd., Beijing (China)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presented a mixing model for explaining the affect of density, viscosity and the topographical height difference on the interfacial product-mixing in a pipeline. The model used a new virtual axial dispersion coefficient which considers the factor that influence the mixing, such as the physical property differentials between the adjacent petroleum products, the concentration and its gradient, gravitation acceleration, and the inclination angle. Since several factors complicate the interface movement along the pipeline, the Reynolds number was simplified to consider the mixture as a function of concentration. The mixing model was solved numerically by the Crank-Nicholson implicit difference scheme. It was shown that the effect of inclination angle on contamination decreased gradually with an increase in the total distance traveled by the interface and the contamination Reynolds number. The degree of influence became negligible when the pipeline had complete turbulent flow and the Reynolds number was greater than the critical Reynolds number. It was concluded that in undulate long-distance multi-product pipelines, contamination due to topographical height difference can be ignored in turbulent flow when the Reynolds number is higher than the critical Reynolds number. The data, graphs and tables presented in this paper clarified the influence of density and viscosity differentials and topographical difference on the mixing in batch transfer. The proposed method was found to be particularly suitable for the design and operation of batch transportation in which a wide variety of petroleum products are successively pumped in a single long pipeline. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 7 figs.

  18. Experimental Research Of Transport Characteristics Of Charged Gas-solid Two-phase Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Can; Gao, Zhengping; Luo, Tiqian

    2007-06-01

    A tentative system of charged coagulation was designed and built involving fan, motor, vibratory filler, transparent test part and support platform. Titanium dioxides of certain dimension range were used as solid particles simulating for the tiny dusts in practical engineering processes. The transport of gas-solid flows and dispersed solid particles included was presented in a rectangle-section pipe. Charge-to-mass ratio was measured through grid object method. The quantity of electricity of charged particles was measured. The flow variables under different charge voltages were emphasized in detail. And the advanced flow measurement technique—PIV(Particle Image Velocimetry) system was adopted to study the additional electric field effect on the solid-gas flow. The experimental results manifest that if charged voltage is less than -10kV, the charge-to-mass ratio increases continuously and reversely with the voltage, then reaches a saturation value at charged voltage of -60kV. The coupling between flow and electric field results in the obvious variation of characteristics of flows containing solid particles. With changed voltage, the electric field has linear effect on the gas-solid flows. Through comparison between the data under charged and uncharged conditions, axial attenuation of charged particles is weaker than that of uncharged particles. The vorticity near the pipe's bottom wall reaches its peak value. The vorticity near the boundaries under charged condition is relatively bigger and increases with voltage's increasing. Approaching the heart axis of the pipe, the vorticity increases with voltage's decreasing, as proves that solid particles are less restricted by main flow with the influence of electric field. Turbulent kinetic energy of solid particles keeps declining when the voltage varies from 0kV to -40kV, but increases when the voltage approaches -50kV, then declines again as the voltage varys from -50kV to -70kV.

  19. Determining the Scope of Collection Development and Research Assistance for Cross-Disciplinary Areas: A Case Study of Two Contrasting Areas, Nanotechnology and Transportation Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jeanine M.; Han, Lee D.; Colon-Aguirre, Monica

    2009-01-01

    The study examined the extent of cross-disciplinarity in nanotechnology and transportation engineering research. Researchers in these two fields were determined from the web sites of the U.S. News and World Report top 100 schools in civil engineering and materials science. Web of Science searches for 2006 and 2007 articles were obtained and the…

  20. Applications of a gas-jet transport system at the research reactor TRIGA Mainz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research reactors of the TRIGA-type are light water cooled reactors using uranium-zirconium-hydride (UZrH) alloy fuel-moderator elements with 20% enrichment in 235U. The TRIGA Mark II-reactor at the Johannes Gutenberg-Universitat Mainz became first critical in 1965 and since then the reactor was operated failure-free during about 200 days per year. In the steady state mode the TRIGA-Mainz can be operated at power levels ranging from about 100 mWth up to 100 kWth, depending on the requirements of the different experiments. Pulse-mode operation is also possible, corresponding to a maximum pulse peak power of up to 250 MWth, a neutron flux in the order of 1015 cm-2 per pulse and a pulse width (FWHM) of about 30 ms. For irradiation experiments the TRIGA Mainz is equipped with a central experimental tube, a rotary specimen rack and three pneumatic transfer systems. In addition, four horizontal beam ports penetrate the biological shield and extend inside the pool towards the reflector surrounding the reactor core. The TRlGA-SPEC experiment currently being installed at beam port B of the TRlGA Mainz research reactor consists of two branches: (i) the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRlGA-TRAP and (ii) the collinear laser spectroscopy setup TRlGA-LASER. At TRlGA-SPEC a gas-jet system is connected to a high-temperature ion source and a subsequent mass analyzing magnet. The nuclides of interest are then guided either to TRlGA-TRAP or to TRlGA-LASER. Currently, TRlGA-SPEC is the only facility world-wide that is installed at a nuclear research reactor

  1. The Conference Proceedings of the 2003 Air Transport Research Society (ATRS) World Conference, Volume 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Brent (Editor); Gudmundsson, Sveinn (Editor); Oum, Tae (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The UNO Aviation Institute Monograph Series began in 1994 as a key component of the education outreach and information transfer missions of the Aviation Institute and the NASA Nebraska Space Grant & EPSCoR Programs. The series is an outlet for aviation materials to be indexed and disseminated through an efficient medium. Publications are welcome in all aspects of aviation. Publication formats may include, but are not limited to, conference proceedings, bibliographies, research reports, manuals, technical reports, and other documents that should be archived and indexed for future reference by the aviation and world wide communities.

  2. Symmetric, coherent, Choquet capacities

    OpenAIRE

    Kadane, Joseph B.; Wasserman, Larry

    1996-01-01

    Choquet capacities are a generalization of probability measures that arise in robustness, decision theory and game theory. Many capacities that arise in robustness are symmetric or can be transformed into symmetric capacities. We characterize the extreme points of the set of upper distribution functions corresponding to coherent, symmetric Choquet capacities on [0, 1]. We also show that the set of 2-alternating capacities is a simplex and we give a Choquet representation of this set.

  3. Radiation transport and shielding information, computer codes, and nuclear data for use in CTR neutronics research and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The activities of the Radiation Shielding Information Center (RSIC) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory are being utilized in support of fusion reactor technology. The major activities of RSIC include the operation of a computer-based information storage and retrieval system, the collection, packaging, and distribution of large computer codes, and the compilation and dissemination of processed and evaluated data libraries, with particular emphasis on neutron and gamma-ray cross-section data. The Center has acquired thirteen years of experience in serving fission reactor, weapons, and accelerator shielding research communities, and the extension of its technical base to fusion reactor research represents a logical progression. RSIC is currently working with fusion reactor researchers and contractors in computer code development to provide tested radiation transport and shielding codes and data library packages. Of significant interest to the CTR community are the 100 energy group neutron and 21 energy group gamma-ray coupled cross-section data package (DLC-37) for neutronics studies, a comprehensive 171 energy group neutron and 36 energy group gamma-ray coupled cross-section data base with retrieval programs, including resonance self-shielding, that are tailored to CTR application, and a data base for the generation of energy-dependent atomic displacement and gas production cross sections and heavy-particle-recoil spectra for estimating radiation damage to CTR structural components

  4. Study on nursing research capacity of nursing undergraduates and its influencing factors%护理本科生科研能力现状及其影响因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵龙; 韩爽; 卢彪; 王敏; 赵晓敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To comprehend nursing research capacity of nursing undergraduates and its influencing factors, and to provide information for reform of nursing education. Methods self-rating nursing research capacity scale was used to investigate 296 nursing undergraduates. Results Nursing undergraduates' research capacity scored (31.77 ± 20.62) points, the total score of each dimension listed in descending order were basic research knowledge(13.47±7.42), knowledge of paper writing(7.27±6.24), skills of operating statistic software(6.30±5.55), and knowledge of statistics(5.47±4.35). The influencing factors were grade, times of research training, numbers of literature searching, self-awareness of research capacity, frequency of acquisition of research knowledge, and degree of interest to research(P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusion Nursing undergraduates′ research capacity is poor, especially the skill of operating statistic software. Measures including optimizing curriculum structure, strengthening education on statistics, cultivating students interest to research, and encouraging students to participate in research, should be taken to promote research capacity of nursing undergraduates.%目的 了解护理本科生(下称护生)科研能力现状,分析其影响因素,为高等护理教育改革提供依据.方法 采用护理人员科研能力评价量表对296名护生进行调查.结果 护生科研能力总分为31.77±20.62,其中科研基础知识得分13.47±7.42,统计软件操作技能得分6.30±5.55,论文写作知识得分7.27±6.24,统计学知识得分5.47±4.35;影响护生科研能力的因素主要为年级、接受科研培训的次数、查阅文献的数量、对自身科研能力的认知程度、接受科研知识的频率、对科研感兴趣的程度(P<0.05,P<0.01).结论 护生科研能力偏低,特别是统计软件操作技能较差;学校教育应重点从优化课程结构、加强统计学的教育、培养护生科研兴趣、鼓

  5. 风电场最大注入容量的研究%RESEARCH ON CAPACITY OF WIND FARM MAXIMUM POWER INTEGRATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王湘明; 高杨; 刘丽钧

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, with the increasing development and application of wind power technology, the proportion of the wind power in power system has grown up, consequently the connecting wind power had impacted much on power system. In this paper, it studies of variable speed constant frequency doubly fed wind turbine, separately join 3-kind-turbine wind farms to IEEE-14. A method combined of steady and transient state has been used to analyse the maximum capacity of power systems, and ensure the wind farm capacity maintained the system stability. Simulation results show that the number of the turbines connecting to the system will be proportional to the its power, thus determine the maximum capacity of the wind farm. The method is used to determine the largest wind farm connecting to power system capacity, thus can guarantee its own wind farm and the system stability.%以变速恒频双馈风电机组为研究对象,对IEEE-14系统分别加入3种不同功率的风力发电机组成的风电场,采用稳态和暂态相结合的方法对最大装机容量进行分析,确定能使系统保持稳定的风电场容量.仿真计算结果表明,不同功率的风机并入系统中的台数与其功率有一定的比例关系,从而确定了风电场的最大容量.利用该方法确定的风电场接入电力系统最大容量,可保证风电场自身及系统运行的稳定性.

  6. Using Monte Carlo transport to accurately predict isotope production and activation analysis rates at the University of Missouri research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5) model of the University of Missouri research reactor (MURR) has been developed. The ability of the model to accurately predict isotope production rates was verified by comparing measured and calculated neutron- capture reaction rates for numerous isotopes. In addition to thermal (1/v) monitors, the benchmarking included a number of isotopes whose (n, γ) reaction rates are very sensitive to the epithermal portion of the neutron spectrum. Using the most recent neutron libraries (ENDF/ B-VII.0), the model was able to accurately predict the measured reaction rates in all cases. The model was then combined with ORIGEN 2.2, via MONTEBURNS 2.0, to calculate production of 99Mo from fission of low-enriched uranium foils. The model was used to investigate both annular and plate LEU foil targets in a variety of arrangements in a graphite irradiation wedge to optimize the production of 99Mo. (author)

  7. Interface of the transport systems research vehicle monochrome display system to the digital autonomous terminal access communication data bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, W. C.; Tanguy, J. S.

    1986-01-01

    An upgrade of the transport systems research vehicle (TSRV) experimental flight system retained the original monochrome display system. The original host computer was replaced with a Norden 11/70, a new digital autonomous terminal access communication (DATAC) data bus was installed for data transfer between display system and host, while a new data interface method was required. The new display data interface uses four split phase bipolar (SPBP) serial busses. The DATAC bus uses a shared interface ram (SIR) for intermediate storage of its data transfer. A display interface unit (DIU) was designed and configured to read from and write to the SIR to properly convert the data from parallel to SPBP serial and vice versa. It is found that separation of data for use by each SPBP bus and synchronization of data tranfer throughout the entire experimental flight system are major problems which require solution in DIU design. The techniques used to accomplish these new data interface requirements are described.

  8. Capacity Building in Local Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochyati Wahyuni Triana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to examine the concept of local government capacity building in both theoretical and operational aspects, regarding especially with local authorities in Indonesia, after the enforcement of regional autonomy. This is a basic research (fundamental research of library research type. Data collection technique involves using data sourced from a variety of secondary sources, as it should be; books, journals, and related legislation. To draw a conclusion regarding with the building of regional capacity after the implementation of regional autonomy, the data are analyzed using descriptive analysis technique; that is, examining secondary data based on Indonesian condition. This research concludes that Capacity Building is a huge job for the an autonomous local government, particularly when dealing with the system which is deemed to prioritize self-serving rather than public serving; yet this capacity building mission deserves to fight for. Stakeholders (other than legislatives need to regularly monitor the improved performance of the government so that the high expectation of the society could be fulfilled through the enforcement of regional autonomy.

  9. Transport and logistics as network competencies in a localized industrial cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Leif Gjesing

    2004-01-01

    This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation.......This chapter argues that transport is more than infrastructure and transport capacity for the processes governing industrial organisation....

  10. Investing in African research training institutions creates sustainable capacity for Africa: the case of the University of the Witwatersrand School of Public Health masters programme in epidemiology and biostatistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kellerman Ronel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improving health in Africa is a high priority internationally. Inadequate research capacity to produce local, relevant research has been identified as a limitation to improved population health. Increasing attention is being paid to the higher education sector in Africa as a method of addressing this; evidence that such investment is having the desired impact is required. A 1998 3-year investment by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR in research training at the School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, South Africa was reviewed to assess its' impact. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional survey of the 70 students registered for the masters programme in epidemiology & biostatistics from 2000-2005 was conducted. Data were collected from self-administered questionnaires. Results Sixty percent (42/70 of students responded. At the time of the survey 19% of respondents changed their country of residence after completion of the masters course, 14% migrated within Africa and 5% migrated out of Africa. Approximately half (47% were employed as researchers and 38% worked in research institutions. Sixty percent reported research output, and four graduates were pursuing PhD studies. Government subsidy to higher education institutions, investments of the University of the Witwatersrand in successful programmes and ongoing bursaries for students to cover tuition fees were important for sustainability. Conclusions Investing in African institutions to improve research training capacity resulted in the retention of graduates in Africa in research positions and produced research output. Training programmes can be sustained when national governments invest in higher education and where that funding is judiciously applied. Challenges remain if funding for students bursaries is not available.

  11. How policy can help develop and sustain workforce capacity in UK dementia research: insights from a career tracking analysis and stakeholder interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marjanovic, Sonja; Robin, Enora; Harte, Emma; MacLure, Calum; Walton, Clare; Pickett, James

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To identify research support strategies likely to be effective for strengthening the UK's dementia research landscape and ensuring a sustainable and competitive workforce. Design Interviews and qualitative analysis; systematic internet search to track the careers of 1500 holders of UK doctoral degrees in dementia, awarded during 1970–2013, to examine retention in this research field and provide a proxy profile of the research workforce. Setting and participants 40 interviewees based in the UK, whose primary role is or has been in dementia research (34 individuals), health or social care (3) or research funding (3). Interviewees represented diverse fields, career stages and sectors. Results While the UK has diverse strengths in dementia research, needs persist for multidisciplinary collaboration, investment in care-related research, supporting research-active clinicians and translation of research findings. There is also a need to better support junior and midlevel career opportunities to ensure a sustainable research pipeline and future leadership. From a sample of 1500 UK doctorate holders who completed a dementia-related thesis in 1970–2013, we identified current positions for 829 (55%). 651 (43% of 1500) could be traced and identified as still active in research (any field) and 315 (21%) as active in dementia research. Among recent doctoral graduates, nearly 70% left dementia research within 4–6 years of graduation. Conclusions A dementia research workforce blueprint should consider support for individuals, institutions and networks. A mix of policy interventions are needed, aiming to attract and retain researchers; tackle bottlenecks in career pathways, particularly at early and midcareer stages (eg, scaling-up fellowship opportunities, rising star programmes, bridge-funding, flexible clinical fellowships, leadership training); and encourage research networks (eg, doctoral training centres, succession and sustainability planning

  12. CO2管道输送工艺技术研究%Research on CO2 Pipeline Transportation Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆争光

    2016-01-01

    我国的 CO2排放量已居世界首位,碳减排压力巨大。为了控制温室气体的排放,CO2捕捉与封存技术呈现出快速发展的趋势,CO2管道输送相关的工艺技术也备受关注。基于纯 CO2物性以及管输CO2中杂质的种类与含量,分析了管输 CO2中的杂质会对其混合物性产生的影响规律;从管输相态选择、总体管输工艺、管输 CO2杂质预处理、设计压力和流动安全保障等方面,探讨了国内外 CO2管道输送工艺技术的发展,并对我国 CO2管道输送研究提出了相应的建议。%At present,the carbon dioxide emissions in China have been ranked first in the world,which leads to enor-mous pressure on carbon emissions.In order to control the emission of greenhouse gases,CO2 capture and geological storage technology has been developed rapidly,so also largely concern on CO2 pipeline transportation technology.Based on the pure CO2 property and the impurity,deeply analyz the effect of CO2 impurity on the property of the mixture CO2 in the pipeline. Then,introduce the current situation of CO2 pipeline transportation technology development worldwide in such aspect as phase selection,overall transportation system,impurity pretreatment,design pressure and flow assurance.Besides,analyze the problems and relative advices in CO2 pipeline transportation technology research in China.

  13. Electron Transport at the Microbe–Mineral Interface: A Synthesis of Current Research Challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, David; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Zachara, John M.

    2012-12-01

    Many bacterial and archaeal species can couple growth to the respiratory reduction or oxidation of insoluble mineral oxides of transition metals. These solid substrates are abundant electron sinks and sources for life on Earth, but, since they are insoluble in water, they cannot enter the bacterial cells. So, to exploit these electron sinks and sources, specific respiratory electron-transfer mechanisms must overcome the physical limitations associated with electron transfer between a microbe and extracellular metal oxides. Recent microbiological, geochemical, biochemical, spectroscopic and structural work is beginning to shed light on the molecular mechanism and impacts of electron transfer at themicrobe–mineral interface from a nanometre to kilometre scale. The research field is attracting attention in applied quarters from those with interests in nanowires, microbial fuel cells, bioremediation and microbial cell factories.

  14. 大直径扩底人工挖孔桩承载力研究%Experimental Research on Bearing Capacity of Large-Diameter Belled Pile

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨砚宗

    2014-01-01

    Based on a practical project in Wuhan, the bearing capacity of large-diameter belled pile has been studied by the limits of rock uniaxial compressive strength and deep plate loading test to determine the carrying capacity value of the bearing layer. We used standardized formulas to evaluate by two sets of test parameters characteristic values of pile capacity, and used static load tests to validate the estimated carrying capacity. The results showed that:the estimated carrying capacity of deep plate loading test, which is significantly greater than the uniaxial compressive strength test, is very similar with static load test. The plate loading test can accurately estimate the single pile loading capability, and that can provide a reliable reference for the design of large-diameter belled pile.%依托武汉某工程实例,对大直径扩底人工挖孔桩承载力进行了研究,通过岩石极限单轴抗压强度室内试验和深层载荷板试验确定持力层的承载力特征值,采用规范提供的计算公式,用两套试验参数对单桩承载力进行预估,并通过现场单桩载荷试验对计算结果进行验证。研究表明:深层载荷板试验参数预估单桩承载力特征值,明显大于岩石极限单轴抗压强度室内试验计算值,且前者与单桩静载荷试验结果更为接近,可准确预估单桩承载力,进而为后续大直径扩底挖孔桩设计提供可靠参考。

  15. A Front-Row Seat at a Wheelchair Crash Test: EP Kicks Off Its Wheelchair Transportation Safety Series with a Visit to the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Jan Carter

    2007-01-01

    The centerpiece of the University of Michigan's Transportation Research Institute (UMTRI) Sled Lab is "the impact sled," as it is called in the business. It's the business of conducting sled impact tests, perhaps better known as crash tests, on all types of wheelchairs and wheelchair seating systems as well as wheelchair tiedowns and…

  16. Research on residual bending capacities of used wood members based on the correlation between non-destructive testing results and the mechanical properties of wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin ZHANG; Qing-feng XU; Yi-xiang XU; Ming ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    To quantitatively assess the residual strength of wood members after rot and infestation using non-destructive testing (NDT), the multi-point Resistograph method was applied to test six used wood beams with initial imperfections. Each wood beam was then divided into a shorter segment for mechanical tests and a longer one for bending capacity tests. With the help of finite element analysis using ANSYS, bending capacity is predicted by taking account of the initial imperfections. Results show that there is a significant correlation between drill resistance values and strengths for small specimens. Therefore, the strengths of wood at other measurement points may be obtained through drill resistance values. The beams showed a near linear behaviour up to the maximum load with poor ductility performance in bending capacity tests. It can also be found that the effects of initial imperfec-tions on failure modes and ultimate loads are significant. The lateral side of specimen BA1 has serious infestation and the bottom of BA2 has a long longitudinal crack, the ultimate bearing capacities of these specimens are respectively only 67.6%and 64.8%of BA3, which has fewer cracks. BB1 and BB3 have knots at the bottom and their ultimate bearing capacities are respectively 83.9%and 81.0%of BB2, which has fewer cracks as well. Furthermore, there is quite good agreement between test results and numerical prediction using strength values obtained by NDT results. Therefore, the bending capacity of used wood beams can be obtained using NDT, which can provide the basis for the protection and retrofitting of wood structures.%题目:基于无损检测与木材力学性能相关性的既有木构件剩余抗弯承载力研究  目的:利用无损检测的方法,定量评估经腐朽和虫蛀后的既有木构件的剩余抗弯承载力。  方法:1.通过对木材小试件进行阻抗仪检测试验和材性试验,建立木材阻力值与抗压/抗拉强度

  17. The COSPAR Capacity Building Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gabriel, C.; Willmore, P.; Méndez, M.; Mathieu, P.-P.; Santolik, O.; Smith, R.; Evans, Ian N.; Accomazzi, Alberto; Mink, Douglas J.; Rots, Arnold H.

    2011-01-01

    The COSPAR Capacity Building Workshops have been conceived to meet the following objectives: (1) To increase knowledge and use of public archives of space data in order both to broaden the scope of research programs in developing countries and to ensure that scientists in those countries are aware o

  18. 轮胎桩复合地基承载性能研究%Numerical Simulation Research on Bearing Capacity of Rubber Tire Pile Composite Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凤池; 高寰; 张明; 董明

    2015-01-01

    In order to improve the utilization of waste tires and the bearing capacity of the composite foundation ,a new type of composite foundation with rubber tire piles was put forward .Based on the laboratory test data ,the bearing capaci-ty of tire pile composite foundation ,stress distribution of soil in the pile and lateral deformation of the pile were analyzed using the simulation software FLAC3D .The results indicate that the better the mechanical properties of the soil around the pile ,the larger the bearing capacity of the tire pile composite foundation .When there is a great difference between the compressive modulus of the soil around the pile and in the pile ,the depth gradually increases with the load .Its effect of foundation reinforcement is better than that of granular material piles .%为提高废弃轮胎的利用率,提高复合地基的承载能力,提出了一种新型复合地基,即轮胎桩复合地基。以室内试验数据为基础,利用 FLAC3D数值模拟软件对承载能力、桩内土体应力分布进行了模拟分析。结果表明:桩周土体的力学性质越好,轮胎桩复合地基的承载力越大。当桩周土体的压缩模量与桩内土体的压缩模量相差较大时,随着荷载的增加影响深度逐渐增大。其加固地基的效果较散体材料桩要好。

  19. Research on Shear Capacity of Transversely Prestressed Concrete Beams%横向预应力混凝土梁抗剪性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘灿; 吴波; 徐凯燕

    2008-01-01

    Four transversely prestressed concrete beams were tested,and the experimental results were compared with those of one ordinary reinforced concrete beam.The positive influence of transverse prestressing bars on shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams was demonstrated primarily.Test results show that:(a)comparing with ordinary reinforced concrete beams,the shear capacity of transversely prestressed concrete beams Call be increased by 70%;even in the condition that the transverse prestressing bars are not pre-tensioned,an increase of 40% in the shear capacity can be obtained.(b)For a given total areas of transverse prestressing bars,the bars with smaller diameter and smaller spacing can improve the mode of failure of beams.%通过4根加配横向预应力筋的钢筋混凝土梁和1根普通钢筋混凝土梁的对比试验,初步考察了横向预应力筋对提高钢筋混凝土梁抗剪性能的良好效果.研究结果表明:(1)加配横向预应力筋并施加适当预应力之后,钢筋混凝土梁的抗剪承载力提高70%以上,即使在不施加预应力的情况下,梁的抗剪承载力也约有40%的增长;(2)在横向预应力筋的总截面面积一定的情况下,采用直径较小的横向预应力筋和较小的间距,更有助于改善钢筋混凝土梁的破坏形态.

  20. Capacity Development and Strengthening for Energy Policy formulation and implementation of Sustainable Energy Projects in Indonesia CASINDO. Deliverable No. 16. Development and execution of pilot research projects at the CASINDO partner universities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnker, M. [Eindhoven University of Technology TUE, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-09-15

    The overall objective of the CASINDO programme is to establish a self-sustaining and self-developing structure at both the national and regional level to build and strengthen human capacity to enable the provinces of North Sumatra, Yogyakarta, Central Java, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua to formulate sound policies for renewable energy and energy efficiency and to develop and implement sustainable energy projects. Each of the five Indonesian universities managed to develop pilot research projects and wrote research proposals to outline and strengthen their ideas. All of the universities also purchased equipment for the purpose of executing this research. UNCEN (Cenderawasih University, Jayapura, Papua, Indonesia) and UNDIP (Diponegoro University in Semarang, Java, Indonesia) managed to finalize their research within the project period and wrote reports on their results. The other universities could not yet present results due to delay in one or several of the steps within the procedure.

  1. Maximizing the optical network capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayvel, Polina; Maher, Robert; Xu, Tianhua; Liga, Gabriele; Shevchenko, Nikita A; Lavery, Domaniç; Alvarado, Alex; Killey, Robert I

    2016-03-01

    Most of the digital data transmitted are carried by optical fibres, forming the great part of the national and international communication infrastructure. The information-carrying capacity of these networks has increased vastly over the past decades through the introduction of wavelength division multiplexing, advanced modulation formats, digital signal processing and improved optical fibre and amplifier technology. These developments sparked the communication revolution and the growth of the Internet, and have created an illusion of infinite capacity being available. But as the volume of data continues to increase, is there a limit to the capacity of an optical fibre communication channel? The optical fibre channel is nonlinear, and the intensity-dependent Kerr nonlinearity limit has been suggested as a fundamental limit to optical fibre capacity. Current research is focused on whether this is the case, and on linear and nonlinear techniques, both optical and electronic, to understand, unlock and maximize the capacity of optical communications in the nonlinear regime. This paper describes some of them and discusses future prospects for success in the quest for capacity. PMID:26809572

  2. Research on Emergency Capacity of Emergency Network Organization%应急网络组织的应急能力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜军

    2013-01-01

    在界定应急网络组织的应急能力这一概念的基础上,依据战略管理学中的工作与能力匹配原理,提出应急网络组织应具备与常态应急工作相适应的常态应急能力,主要包括常态组织管理能力、常态信息管理能力、常态技术准备能力、常态物资管理能力、常态关系管理能力五种,并对每种常态应急能力机理进行分析;提出需要具备与战态应急工作相适应的战态应急能力,主要包括敏捷动态学习能力、敏捷动态集成能力、敏捷动态适应能力、敏捷动态治理能力、敏捷动态实施能力五种,并对每种战态应急能力机理进行分析。%On the basis of the concept of defining emergency capabilities of the emergency network organization,based on the work and capacity matching principle of the strategic management,the paper first proposes that the emergency network organization should have five kinds of normal emergency capability compatible with the normal emergency work,including normal tissue management capabilities,normal information management capabilities,normal technical preparation capabili-ties,normal materials management ability,normal relations management ability. And then it analyzes the emergency mech-anism of each normal emergency capacity. Finally it proposes the need to have five kinds of war state emergency capability compatible with the warfare state emergency work,mainly including agile dynamic learning ability,agility,dynamic inte-gration capability,agile dynamic adaptability,agility,dynamic governance capacity,agile dynamic implementation capaci-ty,and analyzes the emergency mechanism of each warfare state emergency capacity.

  3. Research on Capacity Construction of Archives Management in Higher Vocational Colleges%高职院校档案管理人员能力建设研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马力

    2014-01-01

    Based on the background of the file informationization construction background, the article deeply analyses the necessity of improving the archives management ability in higher vocational colleges, and puts forward the measures of archives management capacity construction.%文章深入地分析了在档案信息化建设的背景下,高职院校提高档案管理人员能力的必要性,并提出了档案管理人员能力建设的路径选择和实施措施。

  4. A report on the transport of MTR-type spent fuel assemblies of the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty one (51) fuel assemblies of mixed enrichment from the Philippine Research Reactor (PRR-1), consisting of 50 spent and 1 fresh, were shipped to the United States last 14 March 1999 under the U.S. Return of Foreign Research Reactor (FRR) fuel policy. The shipment was in line with the U.S. initiative to implement its Record of Decision (ROD) which took effect on 13 May 1996 to accept and manage all FRR uranium fuel of U.S. origin and enriched in the United States. The shipment program would last10 years, ending midnight of 13 May 2006. The ROD provided a 3 year extension period within which to accept FRR spent nuclear fuel (SNF) withdrawn from reactors after 2006. The U.S. policy gave priority to the NPT significance of high enriched U, as the prime target of the return of FRR policy. Classified as a developing country, the Philippines, through the PNRI, signed a contract with the U.S. Department of Energy for the cost-free shipment of PRR-1 spent fuel to the United States. Spent fuel loading and transport operations to the port area lasted seven (7) days, from 8 to 14 March 1999. (Author)

  5. An integrated management tool for rockfall evaluation along transportation corridors: the ParaChute research project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloutier, Catherine; Locat, Jacques; Mayers, Mélanie; Noël, François; Turmel, Dominique; Jacob, Chantal; Dorval, Pierre; Bossé, François; Gionet, Pierre; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2016-04-01

    Rockfall is a significant hazard along linear infrastructures due to the presence of natural and man-made rock slopes. Knowing where the problematic rockfalls source areas are is of primary importance to properly manage and mitigate the risk associated to rockfall along linear infrastructures. The aim of the ParaChute research project is to integrate various technologies into a workflow for rockfall characterization for such infrastructures, using a 220 km-long railroad as the study site which is located on Québec's North Shore, Canada. The objectives of this 3-year project which started in 2014 are: (1) to optimize the use of terrestrial, mobile and airborne laser scanners data into terrain analysis, structural geology analysis and rockfall susceptibility rating, (2) to further develop the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) for photogrammetry applied to rock cliff characterization, and (3) to integrate rockfall simulation studies into a rock slope classification system similar to the Rockfall Hazard Rating System. Firstly, based on laser scanner data and aerial photographs, the morpho-structural features of the terrain (genetic material, landform, drainage, etc.) are mapped. The result can be used to assess all types of mass movements. Secondly, to guide field work and decrease uncertainty of various parameters, systematic rockfall simulations and a first structural analysis are made from point clouds acquired by mobile and airborne laser scanner. The simulation results are used to recognize the rock slopes that have potentially problematic rockfall paths, meaning they could reach the linear infrastructure. Other rock slopes are not included in the inventory. Field work is carried out to validate and complete the rock slopes characterization previously made from remote sensing technique. Because some or parts of cliffs are not visible or accessible from the railroad, we are currently developing the use of photogrammetry by UAV in order to complete the

  6. Total iron binding capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003489.htm Total iron binding capacity To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Total iron binding capacity (TIBC) is a blood test to ...

  7. Discontinuous symplectic capacities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zehmisch, K.; Ziltener, F.J.

    2014-01-01

    We show that the spherical capacity is discontinuous on a smooth family of ellipsoidal shells. Moreover, we prove that the shell capacity is discontinuous on a family of open sets with smooth connected boundaries.

  8. 铝合金薄壁件真空吸铸充型能力的研究%Research on Filling Capacity of Vacuum Suction Casting for Thin-Walled Aluminum Alloy Castings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李剑; 郝启堂; 李新雷; 陈云龙

    2012-01-01

    Filling capacity is an important factor affecting the forming of vacuum suction casting thin-walled castings. The filling capacity of vacuum suction casting was compared with the low-pressure casting by pouring sheet casting of aluminum alloys. Furthermore, the effects of vacuum level, filling speed and wall thickness on filling capacity in vacuum suction casting were researched. Due to the lower counter pressure in mold, the filling capacity of vacuum suction casting is the best among the investigated casting methods. In addition, the increase of vacuum and filling speed is helpful to increase the filling capacity of antigravity aluminum alloy casting, and the increase range is closely related to the wall thickness.%充型能力是影响真空吸铸薄壁铸件成形生产的重要因素.本研究通过铝合金薄板件的浇注试验,对比了真空吸铸和低压铸造的充型能力差异,研究了真空吸铸条件下真空度大小、充型速度及壁厚对充型能力的影响规律.结果表明:真空吸铸具有优良的充型能力,较低的型内反压是充型能力提高的主要原因;此外,真空度和充型速度的增大有助于提高反重力浇注铝合金薄壁件的充型能力,提高幅度与壁厚有密切关系.

  9. Research and Design of High-Power Capacity RF Switch Based on PIN Diode%基于PIN管的大功率射频开关研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹帅

    2012-01-01

    随着通信系统发射功率的增加,以及工作频率的提高,高功率容量,高隔离,低插损,短响应时间的射频开关尤其重要.文章简要介绍了PIN管单刀双掷射频开关的原理,对高功率容缱下PIN二极管的应用关键进行了详细分析,设计了一个工作于200MHz~500MHz,差损小于0.7dB,隔离度大于70dB,驻波比小一地1.5,功率容量100W,开关速度小于20μs的一分四射频开关.%With the RF power and working band increase in communication system, high power capacity, high isolation, low insertion loss, short response time of the RF switch is especially important. The theory of SPDT is introduced briefly, the key application of PIN diode is analyzed under the high power capacity and a Ito4 RF switch which working at 200MHz - 500MHz, loss70dB, VSWR<1. 5, Power 100W, response time<20μs is designed.

  10. 炼油厂区事故池容积设计探讨%Research on Design for the Capacity of Accident Pool in Oil Refinery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑广秋

    2009-01-01

    根据对炼油厂区需设置的事故池容积进行计算确定,结合厂区排水系统实际情况,分别计算最不利情况下应设置的污水事故池容积,为事故池的建设提供参考依据,充分考虑利用现有储存设施,使事故池的建设做到经济合理和安全可靠.%According to the Guidance for the Design of Prevention and Control Measures against Water Pollution, the capacity of accident pool that is required to be equipped within the factory district ofoil refinery has been calculated and decided. On the basis of actual situation of drainage system within the factory district, the possible capacities of waste water accident pool under the most disadvantageous situation were respectively set up, which will provide reference for the establishment of accident pool. With the available storage facilities brought fully into play, the establishment of accident pool will become economical, reasonable, safe and reliable.

  11. DNA远距离电荷传输机制研究进展述论%Research Evolvement of Mechanisms for Long-range DNA Charge Transport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛静; 崔运启

    2011-01-01

    Research about mechanisms for DNA charge transport has received considerable attention by researchers.Various factors can affect the long-range DNA charge transport in solution.In this paper,these factors are introduced briefly and current proposed are summarized.%分析了影响DNA电荷传输的因素,阐述了DNA中电荷传输的各种机制,认为DNA分子中任何一种构象都能形成多种电荷传输途径,条件的改变会导致DNA调节电荷传输的机制发生变化.

  12. CDMA systems capacity engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Kiseon

    2004-01-01

    This new hands-on resource tackles capacity planning and engineering issues that are crucial to optimizing wireless communication systems performance. Going beyond the system physical level and investigating CDMA system capacity at the service level, this volume is the single-source for engineering and analyzing systems capacity and resources.

  13. Female Academics' Research Capacities in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq: Socio-Cultural Issues, Personal Factors and Institutional Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masika, Rachel; Wisker, Gina; Dabbagh, Lanja; Akreyi, Kawther Jameel; Golmohamad, Hediyeh; Bendixen, Lone; Crawford, Kirstin

    2014-01-01

    In October 2010, an interdisciplinary group of female academics from a university in the Kurdistan region of Iraq initiated a collaborative research project with a UK university to investigate opportunities and challenges for female academics' research leadership in universities in the Kurdistan region of Iraq. The project aimed to develop…

  14. OBSERVATION RESEARCH FOR THE MEASURING RAINFALL CAPACITY OF TRMM/TMI-85.5G BASED ON PRECIPITATION DATA DURING THE HEAVY RAIN EXPERIMENT IN SOUTHERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The capacity of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Satellite for measuring rainfall was examined by using TMI-85.5 GHz microwave image data and precipitation data during a heavy rainfall experiment in southern China. From comparisons with the distribution of rain amount in an hour with of 85.5 GHz microwave, it is clear that the center of heavy rain corresponds with an area of low value. The location and shape of distribution is similar to that of precipitation, and the larger the rainfall rates, the lower the . A statistic analysis shows that the correlation coefficients between and rain rates is negative and significant. Especially, when the rain rate is over 7 mm/h, the correlation degree between and rain rates is more significant. The results shows that TRMM/TMI-85.5 G has great ability to measure convective heavy rain.

  15. Development of tritium transport package for ITER SDS supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ITER is the next generation fusion machine with the fuel of deuterium and tritium. The transport of large amounts of tritium is an important issue from viewpoints of fuel supply and safety. For the shipment of tritium to the ITER site, a transport container needs to be developed and licensed as type B(U) package. It is an ITER requirement to transport tritium as metal tritide, which has been considered to be the safest way for tritium transport. There are not many available licensed packages on the market today. Examples are the WSRC Hydride Transport Vessel (HTV), which can be loaded with up to 18 g tritium in uranium tritide powder and JAERI Type B(U) package with capacity up to 25 g tritium in ZrCo tritide material. JAERI (now JAEA) has proposed a 250 g capacity tritium transport package for future fusion reactors. The design would utilize ZrCo to form the metal tritide to store the tritium. This new package would have a volume of only approximately 50% more than that of the 25 g capacity package and would be capable of repeated use. The tritium will be transported from tritium production sites, mainly the CANDU type reactor sites to ITER tritium plant building. According to the tritium supply plan derived from the operation and experiment plan of ITER, it is necessary to develop a large capacity tritium transport package which is licensed for international transportation. In 2009, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) was commissioned the work of developing the tritium transport package from ITER Organization and the first stage of the development has been just finished. The interfaces of the package with related equipment/facilities were identified and the basic design and preliminary safety analyses were successfully performed. This paper describes the design requirements, basic design and the structural and thermal evaluation results of the developed package under the hypothetical accident conditions

  16. Capacity Statement for Railways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2007-01-01

    The subject “Railway capacity” is a combination of the capacity consumption and how the capacity is utilized. The capacity utilization of railways can be divided into 4 core elements: The number of trains; the average speed; the heterogeneity of the operation; and the stability. This article...... describes how the capacity consumption for railways can be worked out and analytical measurements of how the capacity is utilized. Furthermore, the article describes how it is possible to state and visualize railway capacity. Having unused railway capacity is not always equal to be able to operate more...... trains. This is due to network effects in the railway system and due to the fact that more trains results in lower punctuality....

  17. Investment Performance of the Basic Conditions of Agricultural S&T Research Based on Output Capacity%基于产出能力的农业科研基础条件投资效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于辉; 付静彬

    2012-01-01

    科研基础条件是指为了支持和促进科研活动开展而配置的科学实验条件与基础设施,是所有科技创新活动的“硬件”物质基础,加强基础条件投资对于提高科研机构的产出能力具有重要作用.本文采用固定效应模型,对1995-2009年间农业部系统内科研机构的基础条件投资效果进行了分析,得出增加科研基础条件投资对于提高科研机构的产出能力具有显著作用,其中对部属科研机构的产出能力影响最为明显,政府部门应进一步加强对农业科研机构的基础条件投资.%Basic conditions for scientific research are regarded as the material basis for the technology innovations, which can support and promote the implementation of research activities. Strengthening the investment of basic conditions is very useful for promoting the output capacity of research institutions. The thesis, with fixed effect model, analyzes the investment results of basic conditions in agricultural research institutions of MOA from 1995 to 2009. It comes to the conclusion that investment of basic conditions has significant effect on the output capacity of research institutions, especially of subordinate units of MOA. It's necessary for policymakers to increase the investment of basic conditions in research institutions.

  18. Bitstream - Capacity Building for Innovation : Final report

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Mikael; Hedestig, Ulf; Fallmyr, Terje; Ellingsen, Kjell; Hegerholm, Hallstein; Klæboe, Geir-Tore

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of the Bitstream project was to create a transnational platform for capacity building and exchange of experiences in the area of innovative business development. This includes capacity building for staff in the public sector in Norway and Sweden. The project deliverables has been to accomplish A virtual and physical transnational platform for capacity building that includes a cross-border exchange of experiences, research and developments in innovative business development....

  19. Research and development of proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell system for transportation applications. Phase I final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    Objective during Phase I was to develop a methanol-fueled 10-kW fuel cell power source and evaluate its feasibility for transportation applications. This report documents research on component (fuel cell stack, fuel processor, power source ancillaries and system sensors) development and the 10-kW power source system integration and test. The conceptual design study for a PEM fuel cell powered vehicle was documented in an earlier report (DOE/CH/10435-01) and is summarized herein. Major achievements in the program include development of advanced membrane and thin-film low Pt-loaded electrode assemblies that in reference cell testing with reformate-air reactants yielded performance exceeding the program target (0.7 V at 1000 amps/ft{sup 2}); identification of oxidation catalysts and operating conditions that routinely result in very low CO levels ({le} 10 ppm) in the fuel processor reformate, thus avoiding degradation of the fuel cell stack performance; and successful integrated operation of a 10-kW fuel cell stack on reformate from the fuel processor.

  20. Research on Forewarning System of Tourism Carrying Capacity in Pingtan Island Based on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation%基于模糊综合评价的海岛旅游环境承载力预警研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴丽芳; 丁丽英

    2012-01-01

    以旅游环境承栽力预警相关理论为指导,采用定性和定量相结合的方法,建立旅游环境承栽力综合评价指标体系,并以平潭海岛为个案进行实证研究.结果表明:平潭旅游环境承栽力总体处于轻度超栽状态,为实现平潭旅游的可持续发展,提出了平潭旅游今后发展的重点方向.%This paper is using the process of qualitative and quantitative combination to build the tourism carrying capacity assessment criteria system under the guidance of the forewarning system of the tourism carrying capacity and based on the empirical research of Pingtan Island. The results show that. the overall tourism carrying capacity in Pingtan is slightly overloaded. In order to achieve the sustainable development of tourism in Pingtan,the paper presents key directions of its furture development.

  1. Fundamental Research in Engineering Education. Identifying and Repairing Student Misconceptions in Thermal and Transport Science: Concept Inventories and Schema Training Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ronald L.; Streveler, Ruth A.; Yang, Dazhi; Roman, Aidsa I. Santiago

    2011-01-01

    This paper summarizes progress on two related lines of chemical engineering education research: 1) identifying persistent student misconceptions in thermal and transport science (fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and thermodynamics); and, 2) developing a method to help students repair these misconceptions. Progress on developing the Thermal and…

  2. Prospects for Research in Transport and Logistics on a Regional: Global Perspective (I: February 2009: İstanbul: Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    Ülengin, Füsun

    2009-01-01

    Committees, i -- Words of Welcome and Gratitude, ii -- Introduction, iii -- Chapter 1 Global Issues in Logistics and Transportation, 1 -- Potential to Reduce GHG through Efficient Logistic Concepts, 3 -- Werner Rothengatter -- A methodological framework for the evaluation and prioritisation of multinational transport projects: the Case of euro-asian transport linkages, 21 / Dimitrios TSAMBOULAS, Angeliki KOPSACHEILI -- Container port throughput performance - case study: Far east, north west e...

  3. Research, Calculation for Designing the Technological Equipment Line of Cementation with 3,000 Tonnes of Solid Waste/Year Capacity for ZOC Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technological process and equipment line for cementation with 3,000 tons of solid wastes/year capacity for ZOC plant was studied according to the quantity, the composition and the property of solid wastes from ZOC plant. The influence of several parameters with cementation process such as cement mixing ratio, size, moisture and NaCl content in residue, which affected to mechanical and chemical strength of waste block after cementation was evaluated. The calculation and designing for cementation equipment line were thus conducted and total investment cost of construction and installation as well as operation of this equipment line was also estimated. Radiation safety and environmental protection for waste treatment facility was calculated and the design on radiation safety and environmental protection for equipment line was proposed. Technological process and design document of this production line seemed to be reasonable because it is consistent with properties of wastes as well as it has been commonly used in the world to stabilize solid residues in nuclear industry. The advantages of this propose were simple structure of the devices, locally made, easy operation, locally available and inexpensive materials resulting in low cost of investment and operation. (author)

  4. Knowledge management capacity and innovation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Niloufar Asgarian

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to study relationship between knowledge management capacity and innovation performance. Knowledge management capacity includes knowledge sharing, knowledge application, and knowledge acquisition. For innovation performance, author considers the most important indicators including administrative innovation, product innovation, and process innovation. According to research model, 9 hypotheses are developed and the results show that there is not any positive relationship...

  5. Dispelling the magic : Towards memory without capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, NA

    2001-01-01

    The limited capacity for unrelated things is a fact that needs to be explained by a general theory of memory; rather than being itself used as a means of explaining data. A pure storage capacity is therefore not the right assumption for memory research. Instead an explanation is needed of how capaci

  6. Evaluation of railway capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex; Kaas, Anders H.; Schittenhelm, Bernd;

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the relatively new UIC 406 method for calculating capacity consumption on railway lines. The UIC 406 method is an easy and effective way of calculating the capacity consumption, but it is possible to expound the UIC 406 method in different ways which can lead to different...... of a railway network. Some of the aspects which have to be paid attention to making annual capacity statements are presented too....

  7. Nuclear Capacity Auctions

    OpenAIRE

    Fridolfsson, Sven-Olof; Tangerås, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    We propose nuclear capacity auctions as a means to improve the incentives for investing in nuclear power. A properly designed auction would (i) allocate the license to the most efficient bidder; (ii) sell the license if and only if new nuclear power was socially optimal. In particular, capacity auctions open the market for large-scale entry by outside firms. Requiring licensees to sell a share of capacity as virtual power plant contracts increases auction efficiency by softening incumbent pro...

  8. Capacity Building in Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Adam McCarty

    2001-01-01

    This report is the outcome of a study commissioned to examine the capacity building needs in Vietnam, and is a supplementary document to the Asian Development Bank's Country Operational Strategy for Vietnam. Vietnam's needs in terms of capacity building are particularly important given that is it a transitional economy and also one with little institutional experience in dealing with the international donor community. This paper examines the international awareness of capacity building and ca...

  9. Research Situation of the CO2 Pipeline Transportation Technology%CO2管道输送技术现状研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁雯宇; 陈磊; 韩喜龙; 张一楠; 孙东旭

    2014-01-01

    With in-depth study of the thir d oil field exploration and the development of carbon capture sequestration technology, CO2 injection becomes the effective means of enhancing oil recovery and reducing greenhouse effect. Aiming at the problem of long distance between gas source site and injection site, the pipeline transportation becomes the most important way of transporting carbon dioxide because of its advantages of huge throughput, long transmission distance and well economical efficiency. In this paper, through research on the CO2 pipeline transportation technology at home and abroad, characteristics of four pipeline transportation ways (supercritical transportation, dense phase transportation, liquid phase transportation and gas phase transportation) were analyzed. It’s pointed out that supercritical transportation and dense phase transportation are more reasonable. At last, the key technical problems in the transportation process were studied, which could provide technical support for the development of carbon dioxide pipeline transportation in China.%随着油田三次开采的深入与碳捕集封存技术的发展,CO2注入成为提高采收率与缓解温室气体效应的有效手段,针对气源地与注入地差异问题,管道输送以输量大、输送距离远、经济性好等优点成为 CO2输送的最重要途径。通过对国内外 CO2管道输送技术的研究,针对四种管输状态(即超临界输送、密相输送、液态输送、气态输送)的不同特点,得出管输中超临界输送与密相输送是较为合理的输送方式,并分析了输送过程中遇到的关键技术问题,为国内 CO2管道输送的开展提供技术支撑。

  10. 企业国际并购知识吸收能力提升机制研究%Research on Exaltation Mechanism of Absorptive Capacity about Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁力军; 孟凡臣

    2011-01-01

    Absorptive capacity is a research hotspot in recent years, and it is not only the core factor which could form and enhance technological capability of enterprises, but the key to obtain sustainable competitive advantage for modern enterprises. As complex organizations, cross-border mergers and acquisitions process is complex organizational behavior, coupled with cultural barriers, technical barriers, organizational barriers and knowledge distance, will affect directly or indirectly Absorptive capacity in cross-border M&As, thus affect the performance of knowledge transfer and M&As strategy. Under the cross-cultural, cross-organizational, cross-environmental background, it is critical to analyze objectively and systematically absorptive capacity status in cross-border M&As. Based on knowledge management, enterprises capacity, organizational learning, international M&As and complex theory, etc, the research proposed the absorptive capacity content, knowledge factors and effect factors in accordance with M&A characteristics. At the same time, the research employed system dynamics method to construct knowledge simulation model of absorptive capacity, further proposed future research directions and priorities.%知识吸收能力是近年来的研究热点,是形成和提升企业技术能力的核心要素,也是现代企业取得持续竞争优势的关键。由于国际并购是一种复杂性组织的复杂组织行为,加之文化障碍、技术障碍、组织障碍和知识距离的客观存在,将会对国际并购中的知识吸收能力产生直接或间接的影响,从而影响知识转移的效果和并购战略效果。在跨文化、跨组织、跨环境背景下,客观、系统地分析国际并购企业自身的知识吸收能力状况是至关重要的。研究将基于知识管理、企业能力、组织学习、国际并购和复杂性等学科理论,提出符合国际并购特点的知识吸收能力内涵、知识要素及影

  11. Leading survey and research report for fiscal 1999. New technology based on functions involved in intracellular protein transport; 1999 nendo saibonai tanpakushitsu yuso kino riyo gijutsu kenkyu hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    An intercellular transport technology (artificial manipulation of an intracellular protein transport system in eucaryotes) is studied for the accumulation of cytotoxic proteins, whose expression has so far been difficult, and activated proteins, which have avoided decomposition, in appropriate intracellular minute organs. The aim is to construct a system to allow foreign proteins high in productivity and quality to express themselves for production in eucaryotes. Basic surveys were conducted of the intracellular biological functions of single-membrane organelles (endoplasmic reticulum, peroxisome, vacuole/lysosome, and Golgi body), the molecular mechanism of protein transport to each organelle, and protein activation and quality control, and element technologies were extracted. For the development of novel pharmaceuticals making use of the intracellular protein transport technology, an activated protein production system was built and a search was made for transport activity impeding substances. Research tasks relative to the development of the new technologies were isolated, such as the visualization of intercellular transport. A survey was made of the market for pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, enzymes, and visualizing equipment (fluorescence microscope provided with new functions), etc. (NEDO)

  12. Transportation Decision-making Mechanism Research of Supply Chain%供应链运输决策机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁冬梅

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of a vast amount of literature research, this thesis summarizes and expounds the model of logistics based on supply chain, the basic concept of transportation decision-making mechanism purpose and decision participants, then analyses the contents of transportation decision-making mechanism: the content of the traffic prediction, the third party logistics provider selection decisions, transportation price decision-making and logistics transportation route optimization, etc., to ensure the transport decision properly, reduce the transportation cost and effective supply chain management.%本论文在研究大量文献的基础上,总结并阐述了基于供应链的物流模型、供应链运输决策机制的基本概念、目的以及决策参与者,接着从理论分析的角度研究供应链中物流管理的运输决策机制的内容:运输量的预测、第三方物流提供者选择决策、运输工具决策、运输价格决策以及物流运输路线优化决策等,以保证运输决策正确进行,降低运输成本以及有效的进行供应链管理。

  13. Capacity Building for Sustainable Seismological Networks in the Americas: A Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute on New Frontiers in Seismological Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, O. A.; Meltzer, A.; Sandvol, E. A.; Yepes, H.; Ruiz, M. C.; Barrientos, S. E.; Willemann, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    During July 2011, a Pan-American Advanced Studies Institute, "New Frontiers in Seismological Research: Sustainable Networks, Earthquake Source Parameters, and Earth Structure" was conducted in Quito Ecuador with participants from the US, Central, and South America, and the Caribbean at early stages in their scientific careers. This advanced studies institute was imparted by fifteen volunteer senior faculty and investigators from the U.S. and the Americas. The curriculum addressed the importance of developing and maintaining modern seismological observatories, reviewed the principles of sustainable network operations, and explored recent advances in the analysis of seismological data in support of basic research, education, and hazard mitigation. An additional goal was to develop future international research collaborations. The Institute engaged graduate students, post-doctoral students, and new faculty from across the Americas in an interactive collaborative learning environment including modules on double-difference earthquake location and tomography, regional centroid-moment tensors, and event-based and ambient noise surface wave dispersion and tomography. Under the faculty guidance, participants started promising research projects about surface wave tomography in southeastern Brazil, near the Chilean triple junction, in central Chilean Andes, at the Peru-Chile border, within Peru, at a volcano in Ecuador, in the Caribbean Sea region, and near the Mendocino triple junction. Other participants started projects about moment tensors of earthquakes in or near Brazil, Chile and Argentina, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Puerto Rico, western Mexico, and northern Mexico. In order to track the progress of the participants and measure the overall effectiveness of the Institute a reunion is planned where the PASI alumni will present the result of their research that was initiated in Quito

  14. The French capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The French capacity mechanism has been design to ensure security of supply in the context of the energy transition. This energy transition challenges the electricity market design with several features: peak load growth, the development of renewables, demand response,... To ensure security of supply in this context, a capacity mechanism is being implemented in France. It is a market wide capacity obligation on electricity suppliers, based on market principles. Suppliers are responsible for forecasting their obligation, which corresponds to their contribution to winter peak load, and must procure enough capacity certificates to meet their obligations. Capacity certificates are granted to capacities through a certification process, which assesses their contribution to security of supply on the basis of availability commitments. This certification process is technology neutral and performance based, associated with controls and penalties in case of non compliance. Demand Side is fully integrated in the market, either through the reduction of suppliers' capacity obligation or direct participation after certification. In addition to the expected benefits in terms of security of supply, the French capacity market will foster the development of demand response. The participation of foreign capacities will require adaptations which are scheduled in a road-map, and could pave the way for further European integration of energy policies. (authors)

  15. The bearing capacity research for slender reinforced high strength concrete columns under eccentric compression loading%钢筋高强混凝土偏压中长柱承载力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨荣华; 焦俊婷

    2015-01-01

    The bearing capacity was researched for slender reinforced high strength concrete ( RHC ) columns under eccentric compression loading .Based on the element model of beam -column when considering material nonlinearity and geometric nonlinearity , the computer program was given about nonlinearity analysis for RHC structures .Then main affecting factors were researched , such as slen-derness ratio , relative eccentricity , concrete strength , and longitudinal reinforcement ratio .The influ-encing order of these factors was relative eccentricity , slenderness ratio , longitudinal reinforcement ra-tio , and concrete strength , on the bearing capacity for slender RHC columns under eccentric compres-sion loading.As last, the design formula of the bearing capacity was given for slender RHC columns under eccentric compression loading by using the regression statistics method , this would offer design reference .%基于考虑材料非线性和几何非线性耦合梁柱单元模型,采用编制的钢筋高强混凝土结构非线性数值分析程序,分析钢筋高强混凝土偏压中长柱极限承载力主要影响因素有长细比、相对偏心距、混凝土强度、纵筋配筋率等。研究钢筋高强混凝土偏压中长柱极限承载力对各主要影响因素的敏感性,依次为相对偏心距、长细比、纵筋配筋率和混凝土强度。通过回归给出钢筋高强混凝土偏压中长柱极限承载力的计算公式,为实际工程应用提供计算参考。

  16. Absorptive capacity and smart companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moro González

    2014-12-01

    .Originality/value: This paper presents a novel integration of various concepts: the concept of absorptive capacity from academic research and strategic consulting associated with the tools of information management. This allows us to develop better management practices by obtaining profit from these investments and facilitating the creation of intelligence inside organizations.

  17. TOURISME-TRANSPORT : CAPACITE DE COORDINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two major findings emerge from the theoretical analysis of Transport-Tourism link via a game theory type model of capacity coordination. Firstly the model explains the optimal capacities ratio of Transport and Tourism by the quotient of the ratio of tourism type (ratio of the length of stay in the destination and of transport duration) divided by the installation costs ratio (of transport and tourism).The corollary of this first finding gives the second outcome: The optimal transport and Tour...

  18. TOURISME-TRANSPORT : CAPACITÉ DE COORDINATION

    OpenAIRE

    Marques, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Two major findings emerge from the theoretical analysis of Transport-Tourism link via a game theory type model of capacity coordination. Firstly the model explains the optimal capacities ratio of Transport and Tourism by the quotient of the ratio of tourism type (ratio of the length of stay in the destination and of transport duration) divided by the installation costs ratio (of transport and tourism).The corollary of this first finding gives the second outcome: The optimal transport and Tour...

  19. Empirical Assessment on the Capacity of Comprehensive Innovation at Non-profit Research Institution%福建省属公益类科研院所综合创新能力实证评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    池敏青

    2012-01-01

    运用层次分析法和专家咨询法原理,对福建省属公益类科研院所综合创新能力构建相应的指标体系,在此基础上,对39家公益类科研院所2009 ~2010年的综合创新能力进行实证评估和分析,探讨科研院所在综合创新能力方面取得的成效和不足,并提出相应的对策建议.%Using the principles of AHP method and expert consultation, the paper assesses the capacity of comprehensive innovation at the non - profit research institution in Fujian in order to establish an assessing index system. Meanwhile, on the basis of this index system, the paper carries out the empirical analysis on the comprehensive innovation capacity of 39 non - profit research institutions from the 2009 to 2010, discusses the effectiveness and existing problems, and proposes the corresponding suggestions.

  20. Research and Development Progress of Domestic G-M Cryocooler with Large Refrigerating Capacity%国内大冷量G-M制冷机的研究与开发现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建民; 施骏业; 陈江平; 张金喜

    2015-01-01

    Along with the continuous development and application of high temperature superconducting techniques, space environment simulation techniques and so on, the stringent demand of high performance G-M cryocooler that can provide large refrigerating capacity has been presented. In order to provide some reference for the future research and development, the research and development progress of large refrigerating capacity domestic G-M cryocooler has been summarized from the structural optimization of cryocooler, the application of new type regenerative materials, the optimization of operation parameters and other aspects.%随着高温超导、空间环境模拟等技术的不断发展和应用,对能提供大制冷量的高性能G-M制冷机提出了迫切需求。本文从制冷机结构优化、新型蓄冷材料应用、制冷机运行参数优化等方面总结了国内大冷量G-M制冷机的研究与开发进展,旨在为下一步的研究与开发工作提供参考。

  1. A Research on the Development of Tie-Stall Dairy Cattle Bars Projects at Different Capacities for Tekirdag and Kirklareli Region

    OpenAIRE

    I.Kocaman

    2008-01-01

    In livestock farming, a considerable proportion of the expenditure of the first investment is devoted for housing. But, generally, because of the structural developments without taking the housing components into consideration, an important amount of valuable sources are wasted and therefore, the expected economic benefits are not achieved.In this research, climatic project parameters effective in the design of animal barns were investigated for Tekirdağ and Kırklareli Provinces and according...

  2. CAPACITY OF ROTARY LOADING MACHINE ON COAL STOCK FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav Živković

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the cost of the stock facility, which might contain large coal masses (usually several hundreds of thousands of tons it is important to have the loading capacity adjusted to the transport and boiler capacity. In the case of either too small or too large capacity of loading machinery a technical incompatibility of the loading and transport system can occur, together with some unecessary investments in too large loading machines. This is why it is necessary to have an accurate determination of working conditions, specific for each stocking capacity (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. The ASTARTE Mass Transport Deposits data base - a web-based reference for submarine landslide research around Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelker, D.; De Martini, P. M.; Lastras, G.; Patera, A.; Hunt, J.; Terrinha, P.; Noiva, J.; Gutscher, M. A.; Migeon, S.

    2015-12-01

    EU project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe, Project number: 603839) aims at reaching a higher level of tsunami resilience in the North East Atlantic and Mediterranean (NEAM) region by a combination of field work, experimental work, numerical modeling and technical development. The project is a cooperative work of 26 institutes from 16 countries and links together the description of past tsunamigenic events, the characterization of tsunami sources, the calculation of the impact of such events, and the development of adequate resilience strategies (www.astarte.eu). Within ASTARTE a web-based data base on Mass Transport Deposit (MTD) in the NEAM areas is being created that claims to be the future reference source for this kind of research in Europe. The aim is to integrate every existing scientific reference on the topic and update on new entries every 3 months, hosting information and detailed data, that are crucial e.g for tsunami modeling. A relational database managed by ArcGIS for Desktop 10.3 software has been implemented to allow all partners to collaborate through a common platform for archiving and exchanging data and interpretations, such as MTD typology (slide, slump, debris, turbidite, etc), geometric characteristcs (location, depth, thickness, volume, slope, etc), but also age and dating method and eventually tsunamigenic potential. One of the final goals of the project is the sharing of the archived datasets through a web-based map service that will allow to visualize, question, analyze, and interpret all datasets. The interactive map service will be hosted by ArcGIS Online and will deploy the cloud capabilities of the portal. Any interested users will be able to access the online GIS resources through any Internet browser or ad hoc applications that run on desktop machines, smartphones, or tablets and will be able to use the analytical tools, key tasks, and workflows of the service.

  4. Iterative method research on lifting capacity of telescopic boom crane%伸缩臂起重机起重性能迭代算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘阚元; 高顺德; 王欣; 陈礼; 赵福令

    2011-01-01

    The calculation of lifting capacity of telescopic boom crane is a difficult point in the entire machine design. In order to obtain the maximum lifting mass under certain working condition, after the initial lifting mass is given, the lifting mass for next calculation was iterated based on the ratio of calculated complex stress to allowable stress, and the complex stress and lifting mass was re-calculated until the difference between calculated complex stress and allowable stress is very small, which is taken as the maximal lifting mass under this working condition. In this paper, constant increment method, proportional method and Lagrange method are proposed, by using examples, the influence on calculation by different Iterative methods under linear and nonlinear theories was compared. The result has indicated that it is the Lagrange method among three methods that the calculation efficiency is the highest.%伸缩臂起重机起重性能的计算是整机设计的一个难点.为得到某种工况下的最大起吊质量,给定初始起吊质量,根据计算出的复合应力与许用应力的比值迭代出下一次计算的起吊质量,重新计算复合应力与起吊质量,直至计算出复合应力与许用应力差别很小的起吊质量,作为此工况下的最大起吊质量.文中提出恒增量法、比例法和拉格朗日法3种迭代算法,通过算例比较线性和非线性理论下不同迭代算法对计算的影响,结果表明:3种方法之中拉格朗日法的计算效率最高.

  5. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  6. Source water assessment and nonpoint sources of acutely toxic contaminants: A review of research related to survival and transport of Cryptosporidium parvum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mark J.; Montemagno, Carlo D.; Jenkins, Michael B.

    1998-12-01

    Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (PL-930123) in 1996 required that public water supply managers identify potential sources of contamination within contributing areas. Nonpoint sources of acutely toxic microbial contaminants, such as Cryptosporidium parvum, challenge current approaches to source identification and management as a first step toward developing management plans for public water supply protection. Little may be known about survival and transport in the field environment, prescribed practices may not be designed to manage such substances, and infective stages may be present in vast numbers and may resist water treatment and disinfection processes. This review summarizes research related to survival and transport of C. parvum oocysts, as an example of an acutely toxic contaminant with nonpoint sources in animal agriculture. It discusses ∥1) significance of infected domesticated animals as potential sources of C. parvum, (2) laboratory and field studies of survival and transport, and (3) approaches to source control in the context of public health protection.

  7. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation’s Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sylvia M.; Singer, Susan R.

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are familiar with these long-standing programmatic efforts, BP is also a key component of NSF’s strategic plans, has been highlighted in National Science Board reports, and is the focus of ongoing outreach efforts. The majority of familiar BP programs, such as the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (now 25 years old), are housed in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources. However, fellowship programs such as the Graduate Research Fellowships and Postdoctoral Research Fellowships under the Directorate for Biological Sciences (and parallel directorates in other STEM disciplines) are frequently used to address underrepresentation in STEM disciplines. The FY2016 and FY2017 budget requests incorporate funding for NSF INCLUDES, a new cross-agency BP initiative that will build on prior successes while addressing national BP challenges. NSF INCLUDES invites the use of innovative approaches for taking evidence-based best practices to scale, ushering in a new era in NSF BP advancement. PMID:27587853

  8. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation's Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sylvia M; Singer, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are familiar with these long-standing programmatic efforts, BP is also a key component of NSF's strategic plans, has been highlighted in National Science Board reports, and is the focus of ongoing outreach efforts. The majority of familiar BP programs, such as the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (now 25 years old), are housed in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources. However, fellowship programs such as the Graduate Research Fellowships and Postdoctoral Research Fellowships under the Directorate for Biological Sciences (and parallel directorates in other STEM disciplines) are frequently used to address underrepresentation in STEM disciplines. The FY2016 and FY2017 budget requests incorporate funding for NSF INCLUDES, a new cross-agency BP initiative that will build on prior successes while addressing national BP challenges. NSF INCLUDES invites the use of innovative approaches for taking evidence-based best practices to scale, ushering in a new era in NSF BP advancement.

  9. From the NSF: The National Science Foundation's Investments in Broadening Participation in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Education through Research and Capacity Building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Sylvia M; Singer, Susan R

    2016-01-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) has a long history of investment in broadening participation (BP) in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) education. A review of past NSF BP efforts provides insights into how the portfolio of programs and activities has evolved and the broad array of innovative strategies that has been used to increase the participation of groups underrepresented in STEM, including women, minorities, and persons with disabilities. While many are familiar with these long-standing programmatic efforts, BP is also a key component of NSF's strategic plans, has been highlighted in National Science Board reports, and is the focus of ongoing outreach efforts. The majority of familiar BP programs, such as the Louis Stokes Alliances for Minority Participation (now 25 years old), are housed in the Directorate for Education and Human Resources. However, fellowship programs such as the Graduate Research Fellowships and Postdoctoral Research Fellowships under the Directorate for Biological Sciences (and parallel directorates in other STEM disciplines) are frequently used to address underrepresentation in STEM disciplines. The FY2016 and FY2017 budget requests incorporate funding for NSF INCLUDES, a new cross-agency BP initiative that will build on prior successes while addressing national BP challenges. NSF INCLUDES invites the use of innovative approaches for taking evidence-based best practices to scale, ushering in a new era in NSF BP advancement. PMID:27587853

  10. The predictive capacity of the theory of reasoned action and the theory of planned behavior in exercise research: an integrated literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blue, C L

    1995-04-01

    Although the association between habitual exercise and health benefits has been well documented, physical activity levels in the United States are lower than is necessary to reach the nation's health potential. Beliefs that people hold can be a motivating factor in engaging in exercise. A critical review of the literature was conducted to assess the efficacy of using the Theory of Reasoned Action and the Theory of Planned Behavior with respect to exercise. Evidence for the predictive utility of the theories was found. The Theory of Planned Behavior is a more promising framework for the study of exercise because it includes beliefs about control of factors that would facilitate or inhibit carrying out exercise. Strategies for use of the theories in planning exercise programs are provided and suggestions for future research discussed.

  11. Research on Rabbit Gastrointestinal Mucous Membrane Oxygen Uptake Capacity%兔胃肠黏膜摄氧能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅丽莎; 王伟芝; 罗艳华; 楚立超

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察兔胃肠黏膜摄氧能力及充氧量对其摄氧能力的影响。方法新西兰白兔80只,采用随机数字表法,将白兔随机分为4组(n=20):对照组(C组),实验组1(E1组),实验组2(E2组)和实验组3(E3组)。所有白兔均插胃管,麻醉后开腹游离出门静脉,并于此时( T0)分别抽取门静脉血和股静脉血进行血气分析。 C组注入氮气50ml,E1组经胃管注入氧气20ml,E2组经胃管注入氧气50ml,E3组经胃管注入氧气80ml。4组均于充气后5min(T1),10min(T2),30min(T3),60min(T4)分别抽取门静脉血和股静脉血进行血气分析。结果 C组注氮气前后门静脉氧分压变化无统计学意义,股静脉氧分压变化无统计学意义( P>0.05);与C组比较,E1组充氧气前后门静脉和股静脉氧分压变化均无统计学意义;与C组比较,E2组充氧气前后门静脉氧分压T1,T2时升高(P<0.05),T3,T4时无统计学意义(P>0.05),股静脉氧分压T1~T4时变化无统计学意义(P>0.05);与E2组比较,E3组门静脉和股静脉氧分压T1~T4时无统计学意义( P>0.05)。结论兔胃肠道黏膜具有摄氧能力且与氧气压力呈正相关,兔胃黏膜在充氧容积超过80ml后摄氧能力出现“封顶效应”。%Objective To observe the rabbit gastrointestinal mucous membrane oxygen uptake ability and oxygen filling its influ -ence on the oxygen uptake capacity .Methods Eighty New Zealand white rabbits ,using the method of random number table ,were randomly divided into four groups(n=20):the control group(group C),the experimental group 1(E1),group 2(E2),and the experimental group 3 group(E3).All the white rabbit accepted a gastric tube ,and portal veins were dissociate after laparotomy ,and at this time(T0),portal venous blood and femoral venous blood were extracted for blood gas analysis respectively .Group C accepted nitrogen

  12. Problems Of Transport Energetics In Lithuania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lithuania has more than one million of transport means, the thermal capacity of which is about 50 mill. kW, i.e. 10 times more than the capacity of all thermal power stations. In the 21st century electrical energy will be used for transport means instead of petrol, and new capacities of electric stations in Lithuania will be necessary. All perspective transport means are described and conclusions for Lithuanian energetics are presented. (author)

  13. 含风电场系统风电与抽水蓄能匹配容量研究%RESEARCH ON OPTIMAL CAPACITY BETWEEN WIND POWER AND PUMPED-STORAGE POWER STATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王睿; 张粒子; 张丽娟; 徐利美

    2012-01-01

    Based on integrated policy and planning research, an optimization model was executed by genetic algorithm , which combines setting the maximization of social benefits as objective function and studying the optimal capacity of wind power and pumped-storage power station. The simulation results indicate that it can promote the development of wind power and improve the energy utilization efficiency of power systems. The way has practical significance for ascertaining optimize capacity of wind power and pumped-storage power station.%基于宏观层面政策、规划研究应用的研究定位,以社会效益最大化为目标建立风电-抽水蓄能联合运行优化模型,研究含风电场系统风电与抽水蓄能的最优匹配容量问题,并采用嵌套式遗传算法进行优化仿真分析,仿真结果表明风电与抽水蓄能的合理配置可促进风电发展,实现社会效益的显著提高.该文给出的确定风电与抽水蓄能最优匹配容量的方法具有一定的实践意义.

  14. 钢-混凝土组合梁弯筋连接件的抗剪承载力%Shear capacity research on bend bar connectors of steel-concrete composite beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中育; 李青宁; 姜维山

    2013-01-01

    This article mainly does the research on bend bar shear connector of steel-concrete composite beams and compares the shear capacity calculation formulas of different standards in many countries,besides,this paper also analysis the characteristic and structure of serpents bern connectors which is used in practical engineering recent years.Based on these,the shear capacity calculation formulas are proposed which can provide references for engineering design.%针对钢-混凝土组合梁抗剪连接件中的弯筋连接件开展研究,比较了目前各国规范中的弯筋连接件形式及其抗剪承载力计算公式.分析了近年才开始用于实际工程中的蛇形弯筋连接件的特点及构造,并在此基础上提出蛇形弯筋连接件的抗剪承载力计算公式,以供工程设计参考.

  15. 基于TOPSIS的高校图书馆教师创新能力评价研究%Research on Innovation Capacity Evaluation of University Library Teacher Based on TOPSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯文春

    2011-01-01

    The innovation capacity of the university library teachers determines the efficiency and function of the university library directly.The paper takes the evaluation of the innovation capacity of the university library teachers as the research object, the TOPSIS evaluation method is introduced into the problem based on the construction of the index system.Finally, the method is explained by way of a case.%高校图书馆教师的创新能力直接决定了高校图书馆的运行效率和功能.本文以高校图书馆教师创新能力评价为研究对象,在构建高校图书馆教师创新能力评价指标体系的基础上,将逼近理想解的排序方法引入创新能力评价中,最后,通过案例介绍了方法的具体应用.

  16. The Research on Capacity Optimization of "Wind-Photovoltaic" Hybrid Power System Based on GBMMAS Algorithm%基于GBMMAS算法的"风-光"互补系统容量优化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢磊; 王飞; 余世杰; 陈晓高

    2011-01-01

    在保证"风-光"互补系统供电可靠性的前提下,对系统各组件的容量大小进行优化.提出一种基于有向图思想的"最大-最小"蚂蚁系统算法,在满足一定负载失电率(LPSP)的前提下,对系统能量均摊成本(ICE)进行优化,从而得出对应于最小LCE的系统各组件的容量大小.仿真及运算结果表明,该优化算法运算效率很高,得出的优化结果是合理可行的.%The research focus on the optimization of components capacity of "Wind-Photovoltaic" hybrid system under the premise of reliable power supply. A Graph-based "Max-Min" Ant System algorithm (GBMMAS) has been proposed to optimize levelized cost of energy (LCE) of system under the premise of certain loss power supply probability ( LPSP), and finally figured out system components capacity corresponding to minimized LCE. The simulation and operation results show that the optimization algorithm proposed is effective, the optimization results is reasonable and feasible.

  17. 预应力墩基础的抗倾覆承载力研究%Research on the Anti-overturning Bearing Capacity of Wind Turbine Prestressed Pier Foundation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭敏; 申超

    2013-01-01

    随着风电机组容量的逐渐增大,传统风电机组基础形式已经不能满足使用要求,必须要在传统基础上进行创新。预应力墩基础预应力墩基础作为一种新型基础,在适用范围、安全性能以及建造成本上具有一定优势。该文通过研究预应力墩基础的抗倾覆验算方法,为计算这种新型基础的抗倾覆承载力探索一种快速、合理的方法。%As the gradually increasing of wind turbine capacity, traditional wind turbine foundation type can no longer meet the operating requirements. It is necessary to make innovation based on the traditional foundations. As a new type of wind turbine foundation, the prestressed pier foundation has advantages on the application range, safety performance and construction costs. Tis paper researched and explored a fast and reasonable method for computing the anti-overturning bearing capacity of wind turbine prestressed pier foundation through studying several calculation methods.

  18. Talking about Basic Scientific Research Capacity-building of Immunology Graduates%浅谈免疫学专业研究生基础科研能力培养

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩俊峰; 周振华; 张俊磊; 吴玉章

    2012-01-01

    我国研究生教育是导师负责制,以培养学生的科研思维为主要目标,并且在科研工作开展时系统地对相关实验能力进行培养。但目前很多高校都在进行研究生扩招的情况下,导师很难"手把手"的培养众多的研究生,科研一线的青年工作者,就担负起了研究团队中培养研究生基础科研能力的责任,本文主要结合笔者自身的经验,探讨如何有效地做好研究生基础科研能力的培养工作。%Our graduate education is the instructors responsibility, to develop students' research thinking and culture, in the research work, carried out systematic experimental capabilities. Cultivate a large number of graduate students, research and first-line youth workers, but many colleges and universities are carrying out the circumstances of the graduate enrollment difficult for the supervisor "hands" to shoulder the responsibility for training graduate students in basic scientific research capacity of the research team, this paper of the author's own experiences and explore how to effectively do the work of grad- uate students' basic scientific research ability.

  19. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, G.

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe, was performed. Comparisons were made of the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns during the four-year period 1995-1998. Whenever possible the models were run over the same four-year period and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observati...

  20. An evaluation of the performance of chemistry transport models by comparison with research aircraft observations. Part 1: Concepts and overall model performance

    OpenAIRE

    Brunner, D.; Staehelin, J; Rogers, H. L.; Köhler, M. O.; Pyle, J.A.; Hauglustaine, D.; Jourdain, L.; Berntsen, T. K.; Gauss, M.; I. S. A. Isaksen; MEIJER E.; Van Velthoven, P.; Pitari, G.; Mancini, E; Grewe, V

    2003-01-01

    A rigorous evaluation of five global Chemistry-Transport and two Chemistry-Climate Models operated by several different groups in Europe was performed by comparing the models with trace gas observations from a number of research aircraft measurement campaigns. Whenever possible the models were run over the four-year period 1995–1998 and at each simulation time step the instantaneous tracer fields were interpolated to all coinciding observation points. This approach allows for a ...