Sample records for capacitor array based

  1. Microcomputer Based System to control the Load of a Capacitor Array in the TJ-1 Tokamak; Sistema de Control de Carga de Condensadores del TJ-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Asenso, L.; Sanz, J. A.


    The power to create the magnetic fields in the TJ-1 Tokamak is provides by an array of 16 capacitor sets. The total capacity of this array is 8. 1F. This work describes a computer system based on the Motorola M-6800 micro- processor which controls the load of the capacitor set and stablished the conditions for the reactor trigger. (Author)

  2. Fabrication of three-dimensional MIS nano-capacitor based on nano-imprinted single crystal silicon nanowire arrays

    KAUST Repository

    Zhai, Yujia


    We report fabrication of single crystalline silicon nanowire based-three-dimensional MIS nano-capacitors for potential analog and mixed signal applications. The array of nanowires is patterned by Step and Flash Imprint Lithography (S-FIL). Deep silicon etching (DSE) is used to form the nanowires with high aspect ratio, increase the electrode area and thus significantly enhance the capacitance. High-! dielectric is deposited by highly conformal atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3 over the Si nanowires, and sputtered metal TaN serves as the electrode. Electrical measurements of fabricated capacitors show the expected increase of capacitance with greater nanowire height and decreasing dielectric thickness, consistent with calculations. Leakage current and time-dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) are also measured and compared with planar MIS capacitors. In view of greater interest in 3D transistor architectures, such as FinFETs, 3D high density MIS capacitors offer an attractive device technology for analog and mixed signal applications. - See more at:

  3. Radiation tolerant ASIC for controlling switched-capacitor arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Gingrich, Douglas M; Buchanan, Norm J; Liu Shang Li; Parsons, John A; Sippach, Bill W


    We describe a radiation-tolerant controller used to control switched- capacitor arrays. The controller has been developed for the liquid argon calorimeter of the ATLAS detector. Radiation tolerance has been achieved by applying layout, circuit, and system mitigation techniques to a commercial 0.25 mum complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology. 22 Refs.

  4. Linearity Analysis on a Series-Split Capacitor Array for High-Speed SAR ADCs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Zhu


    Full Text Available A novel Capacitor array structure for Successive Approximation Register (SAR ADC is proposed. This circuit efficiently utilizes charge recycling to achieve high-speed of operation and it can be applied to high-speed and low-to-medium-resolution SAR ADC. The parasitic effects and the static linearity performance, namely, the INL and DNL, of the proposed structure are theoretically analyzed and behavioral simulations are performed to demonstrate its effectiveness under those nonidealities. Simulation results show that to achieve the same conversion performance the proposed capacitor array structure can reduce the average power consumed from the reference ladder by 90% when compared to the binary-weighted splitting capacitor array structure.

  5. Novel design of highly [110]-oriented barium titanate nanorod array and its application in nanocomposite capacitors. (United States)

    Yao, Lingmin; Pan, Zhongbin; Zhai, Jiwei; Chen, Haydn H D


    Nanocomposites in capacitors combining highly aligned one dimension ferroelectric nanowires with polymer would be more desirable for achieving higher energy density. However, the synthesis of the well-isolated ferroelectric oxide nanorod arrays with a high orientation has been rather scant, especially using glass-made substrates. In this study, a novel design that is capable of fabricating a highly [110]-oriented BaTiO3 (BT) nanorod array was proposed first, using a three-step hydrothermal reaction on glass-made substrates. The details for controlling the dispersion of the nanorod array, the orientation and the aspect ratio are also discussed. It is found that the alkaline treatment of the TiO2 (TO) nanorod array, rather than the completing transformation into sodium titanate, favors the transformation of the TO into the BT nanorod array, as well as protecting the glass-made substrate. The dispersity of the nanorod array can be controlled by the introduction of a glycol ether-deionized water mixed solvent and soluble salts. Moreover, the orientation of the nanorod arrays could be tuned by the ionic strength of the solution. This novel BT nanorod array was used as a filler in a nanocomposite capacitor, demonstrating that a large energy density (11.82 J cm-3) can be achieved even at a low applied electric field (3200 kV cm-1), which opens us a new application in nanocomposite capacitors.

  6. Studying DAC capacitor-array degradation in charge-redistribution SAR ADCs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, M.A.; Kerkhoff, Hans G.


    In this paper, system-level behavioural models are used to simulate the aging-related degradation effects in the DAC capacitor array of a charge-redistribution successive approximation register (SAR) ADC because of the large calculation time of transistor-level aging simulators. A

  7. Optimal capacitor sizing and placement based on real time analysis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, optimal capacitor sizing and placement method was used to improve energy efficiency. It involves the placement of capacitors in a specific location with suitable sizing based on the current load of the electrical system. The optimization is done in real time scenario where the sizing and placement of the ...

  8. Physics based Degradation Modeling and Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors under Electrical Overstress Conditions (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes a physics based degradation modeling and prognostics approach for electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic capacitors are critical components in...

  9. Prognostics Health Management and Physics based failure Models for Electrolytic Capacitors (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes first principles based modeling and prognostics approach for electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic capacitors and MOSFETs are the two major...

  10. Electrostatic spray deposition based lithium ion capacitor (United States)

    Agrawal, Richa; Chen, Chunhui; Wang, Chunlei


    Conventional Electrochemical double-layer capacitors (EDLCs) are well suited as power devices that can provide large bursts of energy in short time periods. However, their relatively inferior energy densities as compared to their secondary battery counterparts limit their application in devices that require simultaneous supply of both high energy and high power. In the wake of addressing this shortcoming of EDLCs, the concept of hybridization of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) and EDLCs has attracted significant scientific interest in recent years. Such a device, generally referred to as the "lithium-ion capacitor" typically utilizes a lithium intercalating electrode along with a fast charging capacitor electrode. Herein we have constructed a lithium hybrid electrochemical capacitor comprising a Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 (LTO-TiO2) anode and a reduced graphene oxide and carbon nanotube (rGO-CNT) composite cathode using electrostatic spray deposition (ESD). The electrodes were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies. Cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge measurements were carried out to evaluate the electrochemical performance of the individual electrodes and the full hybrid cells.

  11. Physics Based Modeling and Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan; Ceyla, Jose R.; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai


    This paper proposes first principles based modeling and prognostics approach for electrolytic capacitors. Electrolytic capacitors have become critical components in electronics systems in aeronautics and other domains. Degradations and faults in DC-DC converter unit propagates to the GPS and navigation subsystems and affects the overall solution. Capacitors and MOSFETs are the two major components, which cause degradations and failures in DC-DC converters. This type of capacitors are known for its low reliability and frequent breakdown on critical systems like power supplies of avionics equipment and electrical drivers of electromechanical actuators of control surfaces. Some of the more prevalent fault effects, such as a ripple voltage surge at the power supply output can cause glitches in the GPS position and velocity output, and this, in turn, if not corrected will propagate and distort the navigation solution. In this work, we study the effects of accelerated aging due to thermal stress on different sets of capacitors under different conditions. Our focus is on deriving first principles degradation models for thermal stress conditions. Data collected from simultaneous experiments are used to validate the desired models. Our overall goal is to derive accurate models of capacitor degradation, and use them to predict performance changes in DC-DC converters.

  12. Reliability Modeling Development and Its Applications for Ceramic Capacitors with Base-Metal Electrodes (BMEs) (United States)

    Liu, Donhang


    This presentation includes a summary of NEPP-funded deliverables for the Base-Metal Electrodes (BMEs) capacitor task, development of a general reliability model for BME capacitors, and a summary and future work.

  13. High Speed Capacitor-Inverter Based Carbon Nanotube Full Adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashtian M


    Full Text Available Abstract Carbon Nanotube filed-effect transistor (CNFET is one of the promising alternatives to the MOS transistors. The geometry-dependent threshold voltage is one of the CNFET characteristics, which is used in the proposed Full Adder cell. In this paper, we present a high speed Full Adder cell using CNFETs based on majority-not (Minority function. Presented design uses eight transistors and eight capacitors. Simulation results show significant improvement in terms of delay and power-delay product in comparison to contemporary CNFET Adder Cells. Simulations were carried out using HSPICE based on CNFET model with 0.6 V VDD.

  14. Differential non-linearity compensation in ADCs employing charge redistribution in an array of binary weighted capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Sushkov, V V


    Differential non-linearity (DNL) compensation in an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) is discussed. The successive approximation ADC under study employs charge redistribution in an array of binary weighted capacitors. The method of DNL compensation is supposed to be implemented in the ADC destined for the tracker readout of the CMS detector at LHC. The parameters of the DNL compensation technique are treated with the constructed simulator built in the Mathematica programming environment. (4 refs).

  15. A Model-based Prognostics Methodology for Electrolytic Capacitors Based on Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction methodology for elec- trolytic capacitors is presented. This methodology is based on the Kalman filter framework and an empirical...

  16. A Model-Based Prognostics Methodology For Electrolytic Capacitors Based On Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction methodology for electrolytic capacitors is presented. This methodology is based on the Kalman filter framework and an empirical...

  17. Thin PZT-Based Ferroelectric Capacitors on Flexible Silicon for Nonvolatile Memory Applications

    KAUST Repository

    Ghoneim, Mohamed T.


    A flexible version of traditional thin lead zirconium titanate ((Pb1.1Zr0.48Ti0.52O3)-(PZT)) based ferroelectric random access memory (FeRAM) on silicon shows record performance in flexible arena. The thin PZT layer requires lower operational voltages to achieve coercive electric fields, reduces the sol-gel coating cycles required (i.e., more cost-effective), and, fabrication wise, is more suitable for further scaling of lateral dimensions to the nano-scale due to the larger feature size-to-depth aspect ratio (critical for ultra-high density non-volatile memory applications). Utilizing the inverse proportionality between substrate\\'s thickness and its flexibility, traditional PZT based FeRAM on silicon is transformed through a transfer-less manufacturable process into a flexible form that matches organic electronics\\' flexibility while preserving the superior performance of silicon CMOS electronics. Each memory cell in a FeRAM array consists of two main elements; a select/access transistor, and a storage ferroelectric capacitor. Flexible transistors on silicon have already been reported. In this work, we focus on the storage ferroelectric capacitors, and report, for the first time, its performance after transformation into a flexible version, and assess its key memory parameters while bent at 0.5 cm minimum bending radius.

  18. Stabilization of a Network of the FitzHugh–Nagumo Oscillators by Means of a Single Capacitor Based RC Filter Feedback Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Adomaitienė


    Full Text Available We suggest employing the first-order stable RC filters, based on a single capacitor, for control of unstable fixed points in an array of oscillators. A single capacitor is sufficient to stabilize an entire array, if the oscillators are coupled strongly enough. An array, composed of 24 to 30 mean-field coupled FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN type asymmetric oscillators, is considered as a case study. The investigation has been performed using analytical, numerical, and experimental methods. The analytical study is based on the mean-field approach, characteristic equation for finding the eigenvalue spectrum, and the Routh–Hurwitz stability criteria using low-rank Hurwitz matrix to calculate the threshold value of the coupling coefficient. Experiments have been performed with a hardware electronic analog, imitating dynamical behavior of an array of the FHN oscillators.

  19. SOGI-based capacitor voltage feedback active damping in LCL-filtered grid converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xin, Zhen; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang


    The capacitor voltage feedback active damping control is an attractive way to suppress LCL-filter resonance especially for the systems where the capacitor voltage is used for grid synchronization, since no extra sensors are added. The derivative is the core of the capacitor voltage feedback active...... damping control. However, in digital systems, the discrete implementation of the derivative suffers from noise amplification and accuracy issues. To overcome these drawbacks, this paper proposes a new derivative method based on Second-Order Generalized Integrator. Theoretical study shows that the proposed...

  20. Concurrent array-based queue (United States)

    Heidelberger, Philip; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard


    According to one embodiment, a method for implementing an array-based queue in memory of a memory system that includes a controller includes configuring, in the memory, metadata of the array-based queue. The configuring comprises defining, in metadata, an array start location in the memory for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, an array size for the array-based queue, defining, in the metadata, a queue top for the array-based queue and defining, in the metadata, a queue bottom for the array-based queue. The method also includes the controller serving a request for an operation on the queue, the request providing the location in the memory of the metadata of the queue.

  1. Performance and Radiation Testing of a Low-Noise Switched Capacitor Array for the CMS Endcap Muon System.

    CERN Document Server

    Breedon, R E; Ko, W; Mobley, D; Murray, P; Tripathi, M M


    The 16-channel, 96-cell per channel switched capacitor array ( SCA) ASIC developed at UC Davis for the cathode readout of the cathode strip chambers ( CSC) in the CMS endcap muon system is ready for production. For the final full-sized prototype, the Address Decoder was re-designed and LVDS receivers were incorporated into the chip package. Under precision testing, the chip exhibits excellent linearity within the 1V design range and very low cell-to-cell pedestal variation. Monitored samples of the production design were subjected to exposure to a 63.3 MeV proton beam. The performance of chips after exposures up to 100 krad was within tolerances of an unexposed part.

  2. Physics Based Electrolytic Capacitor Degradation Models for Prognostic Studies under Thermal Overstress (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose R.; Goebel, Kai; Biswas, Gautam


    Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications ranging from power supplies on safety critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. This makes them good candidates for prognostics and health management research. Prognostics provides a way to assess remaining useful life of components or systems based on their current state of health and their anticipated future use and operational conditions. Past experiences show that capacitors tend to degrade and fail faster under high electrical and thermal stress conditions that they are often subjected to during operations. In this work, we study the effects of accelerated aging due to thermal stress on different sets of capacitors under different conditions. Our focus is on deriving first principles degradation models for thermal stress conditions. Data collected from simultaneous experiments are used to validate the desired models. Our overall goal is to derive accurate models of capacitor degradation, and use them to predict performance changes in DC-DC converters.

  3. Condition Monitoring for DC-link Capacitors Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Gadalla, Brwene Salah Abdelkarim


    hardware will reduce the cost, and therefore could be more promising for industry applications. A condition monitoring method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is therefore proposed in this paper. The implementation of the ANN to the DC-link capacitor condition monitoring in a back......In power electronic systems, capacitor is one of the reliability critical components . Recently, the condition monitoring of capacitors to estimate their health status have been attracted by the academic research. Industry applications require more reliable power electronics products...... with preventive maintenance. However, the existing capacitor condition monitoring methods suffer from either increased hardware cost or low estimation accuracy, being the challenges to be adopted in industry applications. New development in condition monitoring technology with software solutions without extra...

  4. Carbon-Nanotube-Based Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitor Technologies for Spaceflight Applications (United States)

    Arepalli, S.; Fireman, H.; Huffman, C.; Maloney, P.; Nikolaev, P.; Yowell, L.; Kim, K.; Kohl, P. A.; Higgins, C. D.; Turano, S. P.


    Electrochemical double-layer capacitors, or supercapacitors, have tremendous potential as high-power energy sources for use in low-weight hybrid systems for space exploration. Electrodes based on single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) offer exceptional power and energy performance due to the high surface area, high conductivity, and the ability to functionalize the SWCNTs to optimize capacitor properties. This paper will report on the preparation of electrochemical capacitors incorporating SWCNT electrodes and their performance compared with existing commercial technology. Preliminary results indicate that substantial increases in power and energy density are possible. The effects of nanotube growth and processing methods on electrochemical capacitor performance is also presented. The compatibility of different SWCNTs and electrolytes was studied by varying the type of electrolyte ions that accumulate on the high-surface-area electrodes.

  5. Switched Capacitor Realizations of Fractional-Order Differentiators and Integrators Based on an Operator with Improved Performance


    Varshney, P.; Gupta, M.; Visweswaran, G. S.


    In this paper, switched capacitor realizations of discretized models of half differentiator and half integrator based on a new operator with improved performance have been proposed. This Al-Hsue operator is the weighted sum of the Al-Alaoui operator and the Hsue operator. The discretized models of the Al-Hsue operator have been expanded using Taylor Series Expansion and Continued Fraction Expansion, to be able to develop the Switched Capacitor realizations. These Switched Capacitor realizatio...

  6. Recent progress in layered double hydroxide based materials for electrochemical capacitors: design, synthesis and performance. (United States)

    Zhao, Mingming; Zhao, Qunxing; Li, Bing; Xue, Huaiguo; Pang, Huan; Chen, Changyun


    As representative two-dimensional (2D) materials, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) have received increasing attention in electrochemical energy storage and conversion because of the facile tunability between their composition and morphology. The high dispersion of active species in layered arrays, the simple exfoliation into monolayer nanosheets and chemical modification offer the LDHs an opportunity as active electrode materials in electrochemical capacitors (ECs). LDHs are favourable in providing large specific surface areas, good transport features as well as attractive physicochemical properties. In this review, our purpose is to provide a detailed summary of recent developments in the synthesis and electrochemical performance of the LDHs. Their composites with carbon (carbon quantum dots, carbon black, carbon nanotubes/nanofibers, graphene/graphene oxides), metals (nickel, platinum, silver), metal oxides (TiO2, Co3O4, CuO, MnO2, Fe3O4), metal sulfides/phosphides (CoS, NiCo2S4, NiP), MOFs (MOF derivatives) and polymers (PEDOT:PSS, PPy (polypyrrole), P(NIPAM-co-SPMA) and PET) are also discussed in this review. The relationship between structures and electrochemical properties as well as the associated charge-storage mechanisms is discussed. Moreover, challenges and prospects of the LDHs for high-performance ECs are presented. This review sheds light on the sustainable development of ECs with LDH based electrode materials.

  7. A Reliability Model for Ni-BaTiO3-Based (BME) Ceramic Capacitors (United States)

    Liu, Donhang


    The evaluation of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) with base-metal electrodes (BMEs) for potential NASA space project applications requires an in-depth understanding of their reliability. The reliability of an MLCC is defined as the ability of the dielectric material to retain its insulating properties under stated environmental and operational conditions for a specified period of time t. In this presentation, a general mathematic expression of a reliability model for a BME MLCC is developed and discussed. The reliability model consists of three parts: (1) a statistical distribution that describes the individual variation of properties in a test group of samples (Weibull, log normal, normal, etc.), (2) an acceleration function that describes how a capacitors reliability responds to external stresses such as applied voltage and temperature (All units in the test group should follow the same acceleration function if they share the same failure mode, independent of individual units), and (3) the effect and contribution of the structural and constructional characteristics of a multilayer capacitor device, such as the number of dielectric layers N, dielectric thickness d, average grain size r, and capacitor chip size S. In general, a two-parameter Weibull statistical distribution model is used in the description of a BME capacitors reliability as a function of time. The acceleration function that relates a capacitors reliability to external stresses is dependent on the failure mode. Two failure modes have been identified in BME MLCCs: catastrophic and slow degradation. A catastrophic failure is characterized by a time-accelerating increase in leakage current that is mainly due to existing processing defects (voids, cracks, delamination, etc.), or the extrinsic defects. A slow degradation failure is characterized by a near-linear increase in leakage current against the stress time; this is caused by the electromigration of oxygen vacancies (intrinsic defects). The

  8. Closed Loop Control of Active Damped Small DC-link Capacitor Based Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    A new method of active damping for small DC-link capacitor based drive system is implemented in stator flux oriented control for an induction machine. The active damping technique is based on a detailed model of the drive system which leads to a very simple implementation. The active damping can ...

  9. Electrochemical capacitor materials based on carbon and luminophors doped with lanthanide ions (United States)

    Kubasiewicz, Konrad; Slesinski, Adam; Gastol, Dominika; Lis, Stefan; Frackowiak, Elzbieta


    The described research is focused on the hybrid, bi-functional composite materials dedicated to the electrochemical capacitor electrodes. The novel material exhibits both luminescent and capacitive properties. The fabrication process of semi-products and the final composite is described. The structure and homogeneity of luminophors are confirmed with the XRD analysis. The morphology of materials is also determined by TEM and SEM images. The detailed spectroscopic characterization includes excitation and emission spectra, luminescence decay curves, emission lifetimes, CIE chromaticity indexes. The electrochemical studies of composite electrodes carried out by cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy exhibit good charge propagation. For the first time, inorganic luminophors containing doped LaF3 and GdVO4 have been successfully used for electrochemical capacitor. It is the primary stage to design a new generation of light emitting capacitors utilizing more stable inorganic luminophors than organic-based ones.

  10. Flexible hybrid paper made of monolayer Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microsphere arrays on rGO/CNTs and their application in electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Changzhou [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of technology, Ma' anshan, 243002 (China); School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, 637457 (Singapore); Yang, Long; Hou, Linrui; Li, Jiaoyang; Sun, Yaxin [Anhui Key Laboratory of Metal Materials and Processing, School of materials Science and Engineering, Anhui University of technology, Ma' anshan, 243002 (China); Zhang, Xiaogang; Shen, Laifa; Lu, Xiangjun [College of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Xiong, Shenglin [Key Laboratory of Colloid and Interface Chemistry (Shandong University), Ministry of Education and School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Lou, Xiong Wen [School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 70 Nanyang Drive, 637457 (Singapore)


    A facile one-step hydrothermal method is developed for large-scale production of well-designed flexible and free-standing Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}/reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/carbon nanotubes (CNTs) hybrid paper as an electrode for electrochemical capacitors. Densely packed unique Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} monolayer microsphere arrays uniformly cover the surface of the rGO/CNTs film. The alkaline hydrothermal treatment leads to not only the deposition of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres array, but also the reduction of the GO sheets at the same time. The unique hybrid paper is evaluated as an electrode for electrochemical capacitors without any ancillary materials. It is found that the obtained hybrid flexible paper, composed of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} microsphere array anchored to the underling conductive rGO/CNTs substrate with robust adhesion, is able to deliver high specific capacitance with excellent electrochemical stability even at high current densities, suggesting its promising application as an efficient electrode material for electrochemical capacitors. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  11. A Switched-Capacitor Based High Conversion Ratio Converter for Renewable Energy Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Kerui; Yin, Zhijian; Yang, Yongheng


    A high step-up switched-capacitor based converter is proposed in this paper. The proposed converter features high conversion ratio, low voltage stress and continuous input current, which makes it very suitable for renewable energy applications like photovoltaic systems. More importantly......, the proposed switched-capacitor cells in series with converter can be generalized in two ways, resulting in dc-dc converters of ultra-high dc conversion ratios. Theoretical analysis, simulation and experimental tests have demonstrated the superior performance of the proposed converter in terms of high dc...... voltage gain, low voltage stress on the switches, continuous input current, and relatively high efficiency....

  12. Towards A Model-based Prognostics Methodology for Electrolytic Capacitors: A Case Study Based on Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Biswas


    Full Text Available This paper presents a model-driven methodology for predict- ing the remaining useful life of electrolytic capacitors. This methodology adopts a Kalman filter approach in conjunction with an empirical state-based degradation model to predict the degradation of capacitor parameters through the life of the capacitor. Electrolytic capacitors are important components of systems that range from power supplies on critical avion- ics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical actuators. These devices are known for their comparatively low reliability and given their critical role in the system, they are good candidates for component level prognostics and health management. Prognostics provides a way to assess remain- ing useful life of a capacitor based on its current state of health and its anticipated future usage and operational conditions. This paper proposes and empirical degradation model and discusses experimental results for an accelerated aging test performed on a set of identical capacitors subjected to electrical stress. The data forms the basis for developing the Kalman-filter based remaining life prediction algorithm.

  13. A frequency output ferroelectric phase PNZT capacitor-based temperature sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Naveed


    In this paper, a frequency output temperature sensor based on a 4% Niobium doped 20/80 Zr/Ti Lead Zirconate Titanate (PNZT) capacitor is proposed. The sensor capacitance vs temperature and capacitance vs voltage characteristics are experimentally measured below the Curie temperature of the ferroelectric capacitor. The capacitance of the 20/80 (Zr/Ti) composition PNZT capacitor changes by 29% for a temperature change from 10°C to 100°C, which translates to 0.32%/°C temperature sensitivity. The measured sensor characteristics show less than ∼0.7°C deviation from the ideal linear response. A Wien bridge oscillator based temperature sensor is demonstrated based on the PNZT capacitors. Mathematical analysis for the effect of the op-amp finite unity-gain frequency on the sensor circuit oscillation frequency is provided. The experimentally realized frequency output temperature sensor shows -17.6% relative frequency change for a temperature change from 10°C to 100°C. The proposed capacitive temperature sensor can be used in low-power smart sensor nodes without the need for extensive calibration. © 2015 IEEE.

  14. Graphene-based lithium ion capacitor with high gravimetric energy and power densities (United States)

    Ajuria, Jon; Arnaiz, Maria; Botas, Cristina; Carriazo, Daniel; Mysyk, Roman; Rojo, Teofilo; Talyzin, Alexandr V.; Goikolea, Eider


    Hybrid capacitor configurations are now of increasing interest to overcome the current energy limitations of supercapacitors. In this work, we report a lithium ion capacitor (LIC) entirely based on graphene. On the one hand, the negative -battery-type- electrode consists of a self-standing, binder-free 3D macroporous foam formed by reduced graphene oxide and decorated with tin oxide nanoparticles (SnO2-rGO). On the other hand, the positive -capacitor-type- electrode is based on a thermally expanded and physically activated reduced graphene oxide (a-TEGO). For comparison purposes, a symmetric electrical double layer capacitor (EDLC) using the same activated graphene in 1.5 M Et4NBF4/ACN electrolyte is also assembled. Built in 1 M LiPF6 EC:DMC, the graphene-based LIC shows an outstanding, 10-fold increase in energy density with respect to its EDLC counterpart at low discharge rates (up to 200 Wh kg-1). Furthermore, it is still capable to deliver double the energy in the high power region, within a discharge time of few seconds.

  15. Switched Capacitor Realizations of Fractional-Order Differentiators and Integrators Based on an Operator with Improved Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Varshney


    Full Text Available In this paper, switched capacitor realizations of discretized models of half differentiator and half integrator based on a new operator with improved performance have been proposed. This Al-Hsue operator is the weighted sum of the Al-Alaoui operator and the Hsue operator. The discretized models of the Al-Hsue operator have been expanded using Taylor Series Expansion and Continued Fraction Expansion, to be able to develop the Switched Capacitor realizations. These Switched Capacitor realizations are implemented using Spice and the results obtained are compared with the theoretical results of the continuous- time domain half differentiators and integrators. These Spice simulation results are also compared with the results of existing Al-Alaoui operator and Hsue operator based Switched Capacitor realizations of half differentiators and integrators of order 1/2. The results validate the effectiveness of the Switched Capacitor circuit implementation of the proposed approach.

  16. Artificial Neural Network Algorithm for Condition Monitoring of DC-link Capacitors Based on Capacitance Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Gadalla, Brwene Salah Abdelkarim


    challenges. A capacitance estimation method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is therefore proposed in this paper. The implemented ANN estimated the capacitance of the DC-link capacitor in a back-toback converter. Analysis of the error of the capacitance estimation is also given......In power electronic converters, reliability of DC-link capacitors is one of the critical issues. The estimation of their health status as an application of condition monitoring have been an attractive subject for industrial field and hence for the academic research filed as well. More reliable...... solutions are required to be adopted by the industry applications in which usage of extra hardware, increased cost, and low estimation accuracy are the main challenges. Therefore, development of new condition monitoring methods based on software solutions could be the new era that covers the aforementioned...

  17. High-volumetric performance aligned nano-porous microwave exfoliated graphite oxide-based electrochemical capacitors. (United States)

    Ghaffari, Mehdi; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Haiping; Lin, Minren; Kim, Tae Young; Ruoff, Rodney S; Zhang, Q M


    Ultra-high volumetric performance electrochemical double layer capacitors based on high density aligned nano-porous microwave exfoliated graphite oxide have been studied. Elimination of macro-, meso-, and larger micro-pores from electrodes and controlling the nano-morphology results in very high volumetric capacitance, energy, and power density values. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Fault Diagnosis for Compensating Capacitors of Jointless Track Circuit Based on Dynamic Time Warping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Dong


    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of online fault diagnosis for compensating capacitors of jointless track circuit, a dynamic time warping (DTW based diagnosis method is proposed in this paper. Different from the existing related works, this method only uses the ground indoor monitoring signals of track circuit to locate the faulty compensating capacitor, not depending on the shunt current of inspection train, which is an indispensable condition for existing methods. So, it can be used for online diagnosis of compensating capacitor, which has not yet been realized by existing methods. To overcome the key problem that track circuit cannot obtain the precise position of the train, the DTW method is used for the first time in this situation to recover the function relationship between receiver’s peak voltage and shunt position. The necessity, thinking, and procedure of the method are described in detail. Besides the classical DTW based method, two improved methods for improving classification quality and reducing computation complexity are proposed. Finally, the diagnosis experiments based on the simulation model of track circuit show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  19. Downward Slope Driving Control for Electric Powered Wheelchair Based on Capacitor Regenerative Brake (United States)

    Seki, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Yoshiaki

    This paper describes a novel capacitor regenerative braking control scheme of electric powered wheelchairs for efficient driving on downward slopes. An electric powered wheelchair, which generates the driving force by electric motors, is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people and disabled people; however the energy efficiency has to be further improved because it is driven only by battery energy. This study proposes a capacitor regenerative braking circuit and two types of velocity control schemes with variable duty ratio. The proposed regenerative braking circuit is based on the step-up/down circuit with additional resistance and connects right and left motors in series in order to obtain a larger braking power. Some driving experiments on a practical downward slope show the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  20. Design of a Three-Phase Statcom-Based Inductive Static VAR Compensator Using DC Capacitor Voltage Control Scheme


    Abdulkareem Mokif Obais; Jagadeesh Pasupuleti


    In this study, a three-phase continuously controlled harmonic-free inductive static VAR compensator is presented. The compensator is built of a three-phase voltage source inverter based statcom. The phase currents of this compensator are linearly and continuously controlled by the statcom DC capacitor voltage. The control strategy is outlined by a process of forcing the capacitor voltage to follow a certain reference voltage which can be varied linearly from its maximum to its minimum values ...

  1. High Energy Density Electrolytic Capacitor (United States)

    Evans, David A.


    A new type of electrolytic capacitor which combines an electrolytic capacitor anode with an electrochemical capacitor cathode was developed. The resulting capacitor has a four time higher energy density than standard electrolytic capacitors, with comparable electric performance. The prototype, a 480 microFarad, 200 V device, has an energy density exceeding 4 J/cc. Now a 680 microFarad 50 V, MIL-style all tantalum device has been constructed and is undergoing qualification testing. Pending a favorable outcome, work will begin on other ratings. The potential for commercially significant development exists in applying this technology to aluminum-based electrolytic capacitors. It is possible to at least double the energy density of aluminum electrolytics, while using existing manufacturing methods, and without adding material expense. Data presented include electrical characteristics and performance measurements of the 200 V and 50 V hybrid capacitors and results from ongoing qualification testing of the MIL-style tantalum capacitors.

  2. Comparator-Based Switched-Capacitor Integrator for use in Delta-Sigma Modulator


    Torgersen, Svend Bjarne


    A comparator-based switched capacitor integrator for use in a Delta Sigma ADC has been designed. Basic theory about comparator-based circuits has been presented and design equations have been developed. The integrator had a targeted performance of a bandwidth of 1.5MHz with a SNR of 80dB. Due to the lack of a complete modulator feedback system, the integrator was simulated in open-loop. For the integrator not to saturate in open-loop, an overshoot calibration circuit was enabled during the si...

  3. Nanohybrid capacitor: the next generation electrochemical capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K. [Institute of Symbiotic Science and Technology, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8558 (Japan)


    Conventional electric double layer capacitors (EDLC) designed with two symmetrical activated carbon electrodes can deliver substantially more power than similar size Li-ion batteries. There is presently a major effort to increase the energy density of EDLC s up to a target value in the vicinity of 20-30 Wh kg{sup -1}.The present review article deals with the recent contributions to get this high energy density and new approaches that have been made to increase the withstanding voltage of the EDLCs. Important alternative approach to meet this goal that is under serious investigation is to develop an asymmetric (hybrid) capacitors. Hybrid capacitor systems are the promising approach to meet the goal to effectively increase the energy density. The investigation is to develop hybrid capacitors has been initiated by Li-ion capacitors. And, now Nanohybrid capacitor certainly achieves as high energy density as Li-ion capacitors with higher stability, higher safety and higher productivity. This is the new lithium-ion based hybrid capacitor using the lithium titanate (Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}) negative intercalation electrode that can operate at unusually high current densities. The high-rate Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} negative electrode has a unique nano-structure consisting of unusually small nano-crystalline Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} nucleated and grafted onto carbon nano-fiber anchors (nc-Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}/CNF). (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  4. Enhanced static ground power unit based on flying capacitor based h-bridge hybrid active-neutral-point-clamped converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abarzadeh, Mostafa; Madadi Kojabadi, Hossein; Deng, Fujin


    Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages of the p......Static power converters have various applications, such as static ground power units (GPUs) for airplanes. This study proposes a new configuration of a static GPU based on a novel nine-level flying capacitor h-bridge active-neutral-point-clamped (FCHB_ANPC) converter. The main advantages...... demonstrate the validity and feasibility of the proposed converter and the modulation method under various operating conditions....

  5. Performance of flexible capacitors based on polypyrrole/carbon fiber electrochemically prepared from various phosphate electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Wei; Han, Gaoyi, E-mail:; Chang, Yunzhen; Li, Miaoyu; Xiao, Yaoming, E-mail:; Zhou, Haihan; Zhang, Ying; Li, Yanping


    Highlights: • PPy/CFs have been fabricated by electrodepositing polypyrrole on carbon fibers. • The electrolytes in deposition solution have effect on PPy/CFs’ capacitive behavior. • Cells of PPy/CFs obtained from NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4} electrolyte has good stability in PVA/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. - Abstract: In order to investigate the influence of electrolytes in electro-deposition solution on the capacitive properties of polypyrrole (PPy), we have chosen phosphoric acid, phosphate, hydrogen phosphate and dihydrogen phosphate as electrolyte in deposition solution respectively and electrochemically deposited PPy on carbon fibers (CFs) via galvanostatic method. The morphologies of the PPy/CFs samples have been characterized by scanning electron microscope. The specific capacitance of PPy/CFs samples has been evaluated in different electrolytes through three-electrode test system. The assembled flexible capacitors by using PPy/CFs as electrodes and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/polyvinyl alcohol as gel electrolyte have been systematically measured by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The results show that the electrochemical capacitors based on PPy/CFs prepared from deposition solution containing NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O electrolyte exhibit higher specific capacitance, flexibility and excellent stability (retaining 96.8% of initial capacitance after 13,000 cycles), and that three cells connected in series can power a light-emitting diode.

  6. Wide-range 7-switch flying capacitor based dc-dc converter for point-of-load applications (United States)

    Jain, Parth

    In this thesis a dc-dc converter referred to as the 7-switch flying capacitor (7SFC) based multi-level buck converter intended for point-of-load applications is presented. The 7SFC operates with the principle of "transformability" which allows it to run in several switching modes when paired with a digital controller. The mode is selected based on input and output conditions by estimating the highest efficiency mode. The 7SFC converter utilizes a flying capacitor, which for certain modes allows for a large reduction in switching losses, especially when the converter is operated with high-input voltages. Compared to the conventional 2-phase interleaved buck converter, the 7SFC is able to reduce the size of the output inductors and capacitor by 33%. The 7SFC discrete prototype is able to achieve efficiencies greater than 90% over the majority of the operating range.

  7. Effect of Microstructure on Reliability of Ca(TiZr)O3-Based Multilayer Ceramic Capacitors (United States)

    Motoki, Tomoo; Naito, Masahiro; Sano, Harunobu; Konoike, Takehiro; Tomono, Kunisaburo


    We examined the reliability of Ca(TiZr)O3 (CTZ)-based Ni-electrode multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCs) prepared by two different processes with particular interest in the microstructure. One process was to calcine the mixture of CaCO3 and TiO2 to prepare CaTiO3 (CT) powder and the mixture of CaCO3 and ZrO2 to prepare CaZrO3 (CZ) powder, and then mix these calcined powders and sinter them to synthesize the CTZ-based ceramics. The other was to calcine the mixture of CaCO3, TiO2 and ZrO2 powders together to prepare CTZ powder and then sinter them. These two processes of CTZ ceramic preparation resulted in a different crystallinity and distribution of the elements. We found that these factors influenced the reliability of CTZ-based MLCs.

  8. An Active Damping Technique for Small DC-Link Capacitor Based Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Lu, Kaiyuan


    A small dc-link capacitor based drive system shows instability when it is operated with large input line inductance at operating points with high power. This paper presents a simple, new active damping technique that can stabilize effectively the drive system at unstable operating points, offering...... greatly reduced input line current total harmonic distortion (THD). The proposed method requires only a first-order, high-pass filter with a gain. Active damping voltage terms, linked directly to the dc-link voltage ripple through gain units, are injected to the drive machine for stabilizing the operating...... points. The stabilizing effect of the active damping terms is demonstrated for an induction machine based drive system. The effects of the added damping terms on the machine current and dc-link voltage are analyzed in detail. A design recommendation for the proposed active damping terms is given...

  9. Capacitance Estimation for DC-link Capacitors in a Back-to-Back Converter Based on Artificial Neural Network Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soliman, Hammam Abdelaal Hammam; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    of the aforementioned challenges and shortcomings. In this paper, a pure software condition monitoring method based on Artificial Neural Network (ANN) algorithm is proposed. The implemented ANN estimates the capacitance of the dc-link capacitor in a back-to-back converter. The error analysis of the estimated results......The reliability of dc-link capacitors in power electronic converters is one of the critical aspects to be considered in modern power converter design. The observation of their ageing process and the estimation of their health status have been an attractive subject for the industrial field and hence...

  10. Capacitor regenerative braking system of electric wheelchair for senior citizen based on variable frequency chopper control. (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Seki, Hirokazu


    This paper proposes a novel regenerative braking control system of electric wheelchairs for senior citizen. "Electric powered wheelchair", which generates the driving force by electric motors according to the human operation, is expected to be widely used as a mobility support system for elderly people. This study focuses on the braking control to realize the safety and smooth stopping motion using the regenerative braking control technique based on fuzzy algorithm. The ride quality improvement and energy recycling can be expected by the proposed control system with stopping distance estimation and variable frequency control on the step-up/down chopper type of capacitor regenerative circuit. Some driving experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed control system.

  11. Performance analysis of active damped small DC-link capacitor based drive for unbalanced input voltage supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig


    A small DC-link capacitor based drive is presented in this paper. The drive shows negative impedance instability at operating points with high power load. A phase portrait is presented for input filter states which exhibit a limit cycle. When the drive is operated with unbalanced input supply vol...

  12. Asymmetric capacitors based on TiO2 and mesoporous MnO2 electrodes using neutral aqueous electrolyte (United States)

    Gu, Jianmin; Jin, Cuihong; Bian, Zhenpan; Liu, Xin; Li, Siheng; Tang, Shoufeng; Yuan, Deling


    Asymmetric capacitor based on TiO2 with the size range from 90 to 410 nm and mesoporous MnO2 (ca. 200-380 nm) electrodes has been successfully constructed and characterized in LiClO4 aqueous electrolyte. The samples of both metal oxides were fully characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), N2 adsorption-desorption, and so on. The electrochemical capacitive performances of both electrode materials were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge-discharge in 1 mol/L LiClO4 with a working voltage of 2.0 V. The discharge profile of the asymmetric capacitor exhibited an excellent capacitive behavior and good cycling stability after 2000 cycles. Moreover, the TiO2//MnO2 asymmetric capacitor possesses both higher energy density and power density (7.7 Wh/kg, 762.5 W/kg) than that of Maxsorb//Maxsorb symmetrical capacitor (7.0 Wh/kg, 400.0 W/kg). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  13. Increased Multilayer Fabrication and RF Characterization of a High-Density Stacked MIM Capacitor Based on Selective Etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, VFG; Xie, HK


    This paper presents the fabrication and characterization of a high-density multilayer stacked metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor based on a novel process of depositing the MIM multilayer on pillars followed by polishing and selective etching steps to form a stacked capacitor with merely three photolithography steps. In this paper, the pillars were made of glass to prevent substrate loss, whereas an oxide-nitride-oxide dielectric was employed for lower leakage, better voltage/frequency linearity, and better stress compensation. MIM capacitors with six dielectric layers were successfully fabricated, yielding capacitance density of 3.8 fF/mu m(2), maximum capacitance of 2.47 nF, and linear and quadratic voltage coefficients of capacitance below 21.2 ppm/V and 2.31 ppm/V-2. The impedance was measured from 40 Hz to 3 GHz, and characterized by an analytically derived equivalent circuit model to verify the radio frequency applicability. The multilayer stacking-induced plate resistance mismatch and its effect on the equivalent series resistance (ESR) and effective capacitance was also investigated, which can be counteracted by a corrected metal thickness design. A low ESR of 800 m Omega was achieved, whereas the self-resonance frequency was >760 MHz, successfully demonstrating the feasibility of this method to scale up capacitance densities for high-quality-factor, high-frequency, and large-value MIM capacitors.

  14. Design and fabrication of a high-density multilayer metal-insulator-metal capacitor based on selective etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, VFG; Xie, H


    This paper presents a novel and cost-effective method for fabricating high-density multilayer metal-insulator-metal (MIM) integrated capacitors. To eliminate the usage of numerous photolithography steps when parallel stacking multiple capacitors layers, a unique process has been developed based on depositing the MIM layers onto a substrate with two protruding pillars, polishing down the pillars to expose the multilayer cross sections and then selectively etching the metal layers on each pillar to form the alternating capacitor plate electrodes. For demonstration purpose, only capacitors with two dielectric layers were fabricated, and the measurement results were verified by a compact analytical model together with finite element simulations. With 200 nm thick silicon nitride/oxide dielectric layers, a capacitance density of 0.6 fF mu m(-2) was achieved, which can be easily increased by scaling down the layer thicknesses and/or stacking more layers. A low equivalent series resistance (ESR) of 300-700 m Omega was measured, and the self-resonance frequency was above measurement limits (> 100 MHz). Further design optimization shows that the ESR can be reduced to below 80 m Omega, while the operation frequency extended to above 2.6 GHz.

  15. Modeling a photovoltaic energy storage system based on super capacitor, simulation and evaluation of experimental performance (United States)

    Ben Fathallah, Mohamed Ali; Ben Othman, Afef; Besbes, Mongi


    Photovoltaic energy is very important to meet the consumption needs of electrical energy in remote areas and for other applications. Energy storage systems are essential to avoid the intermittent production of photovoltaic energy and to cover peaks in energy demand. The super capacitor, also known as electrochemical double layer capacitor, is a storage device which has a very high power density compared to conventional battery and is capable of storing a large amount of electrical energy in short time periods, which reflects its interest to be used for the storage of photovoltaic energy. From this principle, this paper represents a three-branch RC model of super capacitor to describe its different dynamics of operation during the charging, discharging and rest phases. After having validated the good functioning of this model with the experimental study of Zubieta, The super capacitor performance has been demonstrated and compared with a conventional battery in a photovoltaic converter chain to power AC machine.

  16. Physics Based Electrolytic Capacitor Degradation Models for Prognostic Studies under Thermal Overstress (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications rang- ing from power supplies on safety critical avionics equipment to power drivers for electro-mechanical...

  17. Rotary capacitor

    CERN Multimedia


    The rotating wheel of the rotary capacitor representing the most critical part of the new radio-frequency system of the synchro-cyclotron. The three rows of teeth on the circumference of the wheel pass between four rows of stator blades with a minimum clearance of 1 mm at a velocity of 1700 rev/min.

  18. Aqueous based asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor with a 2.4 V operating voltage (United States)

    Wu, Haoran; Lian, Keryn


    A novel asymmetrical-bipolar electrochemical capacitor system leveraging the contributions of a Zn-CNT asymmetrical electrode and a KOH-H2SO4 dual-pH electrolyte was developed. The positive and negative electrodes operated in electrolytes with different pH, exploiting the maximum potential of both electrodes, which led to a cell voltage of 2.4 V. The potential tracking of both electrodes revealed that the Zn negative electrode could maintain a potential at -1.2 V, while the CNT positive electrode can be charged to +1.2 V without significant irreversible reactions. A bipolar ion exchange membrane has effectively separated the acid and alkaline from neutralization, which resulted in stable performance of the device with capacitance retention of 94% and coulombic efficiency of 99% over 10,000 cycles. This asymmetrical-bipolar design overcomes the thermodynamic limit of water decomposition, opening a new avenue towards high energy and high power density aqueous-based ECs.

  19. Capacity improvement of the carbon-based electrochemical capacitor by zigzag-edge introduced graphene (United States)

    Tamura, Naoki; Tomai, Takaaki; Oka, Nobuto; Honma, Itaru


    The electrochemical properties of graphene edge has been attracted much attention. Especially, zigzag edge has high electrochemical activity because neutral radical exits on edge. However, due to a lack of efficient production method for zigzag graphene, the electrochemical properties of zigzag edge have not been experimentally demonstrated and the capacitance enhancement of carbonaceous materials in energy storage devices by the control in their edge states is still challenge. In this study, we fabricated zigzag-edge-rich graphene by a one-step method combining graphene exfoliation in supercritical fluid and anisotropic etching by catalytic nanoparticles. This efficient production of zigzag-edge-rich graphene allows us to investigate the electrochemical activity of zigzag edge. By cyclic voltammetry, we revealed the zigzag edge-introduced graphene exhibited unique redox reaction in aqueous acid solution. Moreover, by the calculation on the density function theory (DFT), this unique redox potential for zigzag edge-introduced graphene can be attributed to the proton-insertion/-extraction reactions at the zigzag edge. This finding indicates that the graphene edge modification can contribute to the further increase in the capacitance of the carbon-based electrochemical capacitor.

  20. High-performance symmetric electrochemical capacitor based on graphene foam and nanostructured manganese oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulhakeem Bello


    Full Text Available We have fabricated a symmetric electrochemical capacitor with high energy and power densities based on a composite of graphene foam (GF with ∼80 wt% of manganese oxide (MnO2 deposited by hydrothermal synthesis. Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements showed the presence of nanocrystalline MnO2 on the GF, while scanning and transmission electron microscopies showed needle-like manganese oxide coated and anchored onto the surface of graphene. Electrochemical measurements of the composite electrode gave a specific capacitance of 240 Fg−1 at a current density of 0.1 Ag−1 for symmetric supercapacitors using a two-electrode configuration. A maximum energy density of 8.3 Whkg−1 was obtained, with power density of 20 kWkg−1 and no capacitance loss after 1000 cycles. GF is an excellent support for pseudo-capacitive oxide materials such as MnO2, and the composite electrode provided a high energy density due to a combination of double-layer and redox capacitance mechanisms.

  1. Enabling high-rate electrochemical flow capacitors based on mesoporous carbon microspheres suspension electrodes (United States)

    Tian, Meng; Sun, Yueqing; Zhang, Chuanfang (John); Wang, Jitong; Qiao, Wenming; Ling, Licheng; Long, Donghui


    Electrochemical flow capacitor (EFC) is a promising technology for grid energy storage, which combines the fast charging/discharging capability of supercapacitors with the scalable energy capacity of flow batteries. In this study, we report a high-power-density EFC using mesoporous carbon microspheres (MCMs) as suspension electrodes. By using a simple yet effective spray-drying technique, monodispersed MCMs with average particle size of 5 μm, high BET surface area of 1150-1267 m2 g-1, large pore volume of 2-4 cm3 g-1 and controllable mesopore size of 7-30 nm have been successfully prepared. The resultant MCMs suspension electrode shows excellent stability and considerable high capacitance of 100 F g-1 and good cycling ability (86% of initial capacitance after 10000 cycles). Specially, the suspension electrode exhibits excellent rate performance with 75% capacitance retention from 2 to 100 mV s-1, significantly higher than that of microporous carbon electrodes (20∼30%), due to the developed mesoporous channels facilitating for rapid ion diffusion. In addition, the electrochemical responses on both negative and positive suspension electrodes are studied, based on which an optimal capacitance matching between them is suggested for large-scale EFC unit.

  2. Lithium and sodium ion capacitors with high energy and power densities based on carbons from recycled olive pits (United States)

    Ajuria, Jon; Redondo, Edurne; Arnaiz, Maria; Mysyk, Roman; Rojo, Teófilo; Goikolea, Eider


    In this work, we are presenting both lithium and sodium ion capacitors (LIC and NIC) entirely based on electrodes designed from recycled olive pit bio-waste derived carbon materials. On the one hand, olive pits were pyrolized to obtain a low specific surface area semigraphitic hard carbon to be used as the ion intercalation (battery-type) negative electrode. On the other hand, the same hard carbon was chemically activated with KOH to obtain a high specific surface area activated carbon that was further used as the ion-adsorption (capacitor-type) positive electrode. Both electrodes were custom-made to be assembled in a hybrid cell to either build a LIC or NIC in the corresponding Li- and Na-based electrolytes. For comparison purposes, a symmetric EDLC supercapacitor cell using the same activated carbon in 1.5 M Et4NBF4/acetonitrile electrolyte was also built. Both LIC and NIC systems demonstrate remarkable energy and power density enhancement over its EDLC counterpart while showing good cycle life. This breakthrough offers the possibility to easily fabricate versatile hybrid ion capacitors, covering a wide variety of applications where different requirements are demanded.

  3. Ferrite LTCC based phased array antennas

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.


    Two phased array antennas realized in multilayer ferrite LTCC technology are presented in this paper. The use of embedded bias windings in these designs allows the negation of external magnets which are conventionally employed with bulk ferrite medium. This reduces the required magnetostatic field strength by 90% as compared to the traditional designs. The phase shifters are implemented using the SIW technology. One of the designs is operated in the half mode waveguide topology while the other design is based on standard full mode waveguide operation. The two phase shifter designs are integrated with two element patch antenna array and slotted SIW array respectively. The array designs demonstrate a beam steering of 30° and ±19° respectively for a current excitation of 200 mA. The designs, due to their small factor can be easily integrated in modern communication systems which is not possible in the case of bulk ferrite based designs.

  4. High-performance aqueous asymmetric electrochemical capacitor based on graphene oxide/cobalt(II)-tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine hybrids

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lekitima, JN


    Full Text Available A novel asymmetric electrochemical capacitor (AEC) with high energy and power densities has been developed using a graphene oxide/cobalt(II)tetrapyrazinoporphyrazine composite (GO/CoTPyzPz) as the positive electrode and graphene oxide/carbon black...

  5. Digital multimeter-based immunosensing strategy for sensitive monitoring of biomarker by coupling an external capacitor with an enzymatic catalysis. (United States)

    Tang, Dianping; Zhang, Bing; Liu, Bingqian; Chen, Guonan; Lu, Minghua


    A new digital multimeter (DMM)-based immunosensing system was designed for quantitative monitoring of biomarker (prostate-specific antigen, PSA used in this case) by coupling with an external capacitor and an enzymatic catalytic reaction. The system consisted of a salt bridge-linked reaction cell and a capacitor/DMM-joined electronic circuit. A sandwich-type immunoreaction with target PSA between the immobilized primary antibody and glucose oxidase (GOx)-labeled detection antibody was initially carried out in one of the two half-cells. Accompanying the sandwiched immunocomplex, the conjugated GOx could catalyze the oxidation of glucose, simultaneously resulting in the conversion of [Fe(CN)6](3-) to [Fe(CN)6](4-). The difference in the concentrations of [Fe(CN)6](3-)/[Fe(CN)6](4-) in two half-cells automatically produced a voltage that was utilized to charge an external capacitor. With the closing circuit switch, the capacitor discharged through the DMM, which could provide a high instantaneous current. Under the optimal conditions, the resulting currents was indirectly proportional to the concentration of target PSA in the dynamic range of 0.05-7 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit (LOD) of 6 pg mL(-1). The reproducibility, precision, and selectivity were acceptable. In addition, the methodology was validated by analyzing 12 clinical serum specimens, receiving a good accordance with the referenced values for the detection of PSA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inkjet-printed thin film radio-frequency capacitors based on sol-gel derived alumina dielectric ink

    KAUST Repository

    McKerricher, Garret


    There has been significant interest in printing radio frequency passives, however the dissipation factor of printed dielectric materials has limited the quality factor achievable. Al2O3 is one of the best and widely implemented dielectrics for RF passive electronics. The ability to spatially pattern high quality Al2O3 thin films using, for example, inkjet printing would tremendously simplify the incumbent fabrication processes – significantly reducing cost and allowing for the development of large area electronics. To-date, particle based Al2O3 inks have been explored as dielectrics, although several drawbacks including nozzle clogging and grain boundary formation in the films hinder progress. In this work, a particle free Al2O3 ink is developed and demonstrated in RF capacitors. Fluid and jetting properties are explored, along with control of ink spreading and coffee ring suppression. The liquid ink is heated to 400 °C decomposing to smooth Al2O3 films ~120 nm thick, with roughness of <2 nm. Metal-insulator-metal capacitors, show high capacitance density >450 pF/mm2, and quality factors of ~200. The devices have high break down voltages, >25 V, with extremely low leakage currents, <2×10−9 A/cm2 at 1 MV/cm. The capacitors compare well with similar Al2O3 devices fabricated by atomic layer deposition.

  7. A Simultaneous Biogeography based Optimal Placement of DG Units and Capacitor Banks in Distribution Systems with Nonlinear Loads (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hassan; Ghaffarzadeh, Navid


    This paper uses a new algorithm namely biogeography based optimization (BBO) intended for the simultaneous placement of the distributed generation (DG) units and the capacitor banks in the distribution network. The procedure of optimization has been conducted in the presence of nonlinear loads (a cause of harmonic injection). The purpose of simultaneous optimal placement of the DG and the capacitor is the reduction of active and reactive losses. The difference in the values of loss reduction at different levels of the load have been included in the objective function and the considered objective function includes the constraints of voltage, size and the number of DG units and capacitor banks and the allowable range of the total harmonic distortion (THD) of the total voltage in accordance with the IEEE 519 standards. In this paper the placement has been performed on two load types ie constant and mixed power, moreover the effects of load models on the results and the effects of optimal placement on reduction of the THD levels have also been analyzed. The mentioned cases have been studied on a 33 bus radial distribution system.

  8. High-resolution 1 MS/s sub-2 radix split-capacitor SAR ADC (United States)

    Cao, Chao; Zhu, Zhangming


    This paper proposes a high-resolution successive-approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with sub-2 radix split-capacitor array architecture. The built-in redundancy of sub-2 radix architecture provides additional information in the digital calibration based on offset double injection. The calibration method is simple in structure and fast in convergence. The correction of errors in each bit is independent of those in the previous bit. A split-capacitor array is used to reduce the total capacitance especially in a high-resolution SAR ADC. An offset signal is injected by the switching scheme of capacitor array to minimize the hardware overhead. The prototype of 0.18 μm CMOS process obtains 14.46 bit ENOB and 95.65 dB SFDR after calibration. With calibration, the INL and DNL are ‑0.813/0.938 and ‑0.625/0.688, respectively.

  9. Zero-Voltage Switching PWM Strategy Based Capacitor Current-Balancing Control for Half-Bridge Three-Level DC/DC Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Deng, Fujin; Zhang, Qi


    The current imbalance among the two input capacitors is one of the important issues of the half-bridge threelevel (HBTL) DC/DC converter, which would affect system performance and reliability. In this paper, a zero-voltage switching (ZVS) pulse-wide modulation (PWM) strategy including two operation...... modes is proposed. Based on the proposed ZVS PWM strategy, a capacitor current-balancing control is proposed for the HBTL DC/DC converter, where the currents on the two input capacitors can be kept balanced by alternating the two operation modes of the proposed ZVS PWM strategy. Therefore, the proposed...... control strategy can improve the performance and reliability of the converter in the aspect of balancing the thermal stresses and lifetimes among the two input capacitors. Finally, simulation and experimental studies are conducted and results verify the proposed control strategy....

  10. 2014 NEPP Tasks Update for Ceramic and Tantalum Capacitors (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.


    Presentation describes recent development in research on MnO2, wet, and polymer tantalum capacitors. Low-voltage failures in multilayer ceramic capacitors and techniques to reveal precious metal electrode (PME) and base metal electrode (BME) capacitors with cracks are discussed. A voltage breakdown technique is suggested to select high quality low-voltage BME ceramic capacitors.

  11. High Power Electric Double-Layer Capacitors based on Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids and Nanostructured Carbons (United States)

    Perez, Carlos R.

    The efficient storage of electrical energy constitutes both a fundamental challenge for 21st century science and an urgent requirement for the sustainability of our technological civilization. The push for cleaner renewable forms of energy production, such as solar and wind power, strongly depends on a concomitant development of suitable storage methods to pair with these intermittent sources, as well as for mobile applications, such as vehicles and personal electronics. In this regard, Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors (supercapacitors) represent a vibrant area of research due to their environmental friendliness, long lifetimes, high power capability, and relative underdevelopment when compared to electrochemical batteries. Currently supercapacitors have gravimetric energies one order of magnitude lower than similarly advanced batteries, while conversly enjoying a similar advantage over them in terms of power. The challenge is to increase the gravimentric energies and conserve the high power. On the material side, research focuses on highly porous supports and electrolytes, the critical components of supercapacitors. Through the use of electrolyte systems with a wider electrochemical stability window, as well as properly tailored carbon nanomaterials as electrodes, significant improvements in performance are possible. Room Temperature Ionic Liquids and Carbide-Derived Carbons are promising electrolytes and electrodes, respectively. RTILs have been shown to be stable at up to twice the voltage of organic solvent-salt systems currently employed in supercapacitors, and CDCs are tunable in pore structure, show good electrical conductivity, and superior demonstrated capability as electrode material. This work aims to better understand the interplay of electrode and electrolyte parameters, such as pore structure and ion size, in the ultimate performance of RTIL-based supercapacitors in terms of power, energy, and temperature of operation. For this purpose, carbon

  12. Single-Phase LLCL-Filter-based Grid-Tied Inverter with Low-Pass Filter Based Capacitor Current Feedback Active damper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Yuan; Wu, Weimin; Li, Yun


    The capacitor-current-feedback active damping method is attractive for high-order-filter-based high power grid-tied inverter when the grid impedance varies within a wide range. In order to improve the system control bandwidth and attenuate the high order grid background harmonics by using the qua...

  13. Ferroelectric Fractional-Order Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Agambayev, Agamyrat


    Poly(vinylidene fluoride)-based polymers and their blends are used to fabricate electrostatic fractional-order capacitors. This simple but effective method allows us to precisely tune the constant phase angle of the resulting fractional-order capacitor by changing the blend composition. Additionally, we have derived an empirical relation between the ratio of the blend constituents and the constant phase angle to facilitate the design of a fractional order capacitor with a desired constant phase angle. The structural composition of the fabricated blends is investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques.

  14. A CMOS DCCII with a Grounded Capacitor Based Cascadable All-Pass Filter Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Metin


    Full Text Available The differential current conveyor (DCCII is a versatile current-mode active element, which has a current differencing capability. In this study, a new CMOS DCCII implementation is introduced. As an application example, a novel voltage-mode (VM first-order all-pass filter (APF is presented. The proposed VM APF employs two resistors, grounded capacitor and has high-input impedance for cascadability. Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the operation of the circuit.

  15. Nano-structured variable capacitor based on P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer and carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Lakbita, I.; El-Hami, K.


    A newly organic capacitor was conceived with a variable capacitance using the inverse piezoelectric effect. The device consists of two parallel plates of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), known for their large surface area, high sensitivity and high electric conductivity, separated by a thin film of a dielectric layer of Polyinylidene fluoride and trifluoroehtylene (P(VDF-TrFE)) promising material for piezoelectric and ferroelectric properties. The obtained architecture is the CNT/PVDF-TrFE/CNT capacitor device. In this study, an ultra-thin film of P(VDF-TrFE) (54/46) with thickness of 20 nm was elaborated on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) by spin-coating. The morphology of the ultra-thin film and the mechanical behavior of CNT/P(VDF-TrFE)/CNT system were studied using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) combined with a lock-in amplifier in contact mode. All changes in applied voltage induce a change in thin film thickness according to the inverse piezoelectric effect that affect, consequently the capacitance. The results showed that the ratio of capacitance change ΔC to initial capacitance C0 is ΔC/C0=5%. This value is sufficient to use P(VDF-TrFE) as variable organic capacitor.

  16. Dynamic characteristics of the blisk with synchronized switch damping based on negative capacitor (United States)

    Liu, J.; Li, L.; Huang, X.; Jezequel, L.


    In this paper, we propose a method to suppress the vibration of the integral bladed disk ('blisk' for short) in aero-engines using synchronized switch damping based on negative capacitor (SSDNC). Different from the classical piezoelectric shunt damping, SSDNC is a type of nonlinear piezoelectric damping. A multi-harmonic balance method combined with the alternating frequency/time method (MHBM-AFT) is used to predict and further analyze the dynamic characteristics of the electromechanical system, and an arc-length continuation technique is used to improve the convergence of the method. In order to validate the algorithm as well as to recognize the characteristics of the system with SSDNC, a two degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) system with SSDNC is studied at first. The nonlinear complex modal information is calculated and compared with those of the corresponding system with a linear RL shunt circuit. The results indicate that the natural frequencies and modal damping ratio do not change with the modal amplitude, which means that SSDNC has the same modal damping corresponding to different system energy levels. In addition, SSDNC can improve the damping level of all the modes nearly without affecting the natural frequencies of the system. Then, the forced response of the blisk with SSDNC in the frequency domain is calculated and analyzed, including a tuned blisk, which is excited by the traveling wave excitation with a single harmonic and multi-harmonic, and a mistuned blisk, which is excited by traveling wave excitation with a single harmonic and multi-harmonic. We present two advantages of the SSDNC technique when compared with piezoelectric shunt damping. First, SSDNC can suppress the vibration of the blisk under a multi-harmonic wideband the traveling wave, and second, the vibration suppression performance of SSDNC is insensitive to the mistuning of mechanical parameters of the blisk. The results will be of great significance in overcoming the problem of the amplitude

  17. Towards A Model-Based Prognostics Methodology For Electrolytic Capacitors: A Case Study Based On Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper presents a model-driven methodology for predict- ing the remaining useful life of electrolytic capacitors. This methodology adopts a Kalman filter...

  18. Towards A Model-based Prognostics Methodology for Electrolytic Capacitors: A Case Study Based on Electrical Overstress Accelerated Aging (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction methodology for elec- trolytic capacitors is presented. This methodology adopts a Kalman filter approach in conjunction with an...

  19. Miniaturized optical sensors based on lens arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Steen Grüner; Jakobsen, M.L.; Larsen, H.E.


    A suite of optical sensors based on the use of lenticular arrays for probing mechanical deflections will be displayed. The optical systems are well suited for miniaturization, and utilize speckles as the information-carriers. This implementation allows for acquiring directional information...

  20. Hydraulic Capacitor Analogy (United States)

    Baser, Mustafa


    Students have difficulties in physics because of the abstract nature of concepts and principles. One of the effective methods for overcoming students' difficulties is the use of analogies to visualize abstract concepts to promote conceptual understanding.2,3 According to Iding,4 analogies are consistent with the tenets of constructivist learning theories, which claim that learners should be actively involved and new concepts should be based on learners' previous experiences. When analogies are used during the teaching-learning process, they may promote students' understanding of abstract science concepts.5 This paper suggests a capacitor analogy that aims to foster students' conceptual understanding of capacitors in a slightly different way than Greenslade's analogy.6

  1. Analysis and development of fourth order LCLC resonant based capacitor charging power supply for pulse power applications. (United States)

    Naresh, P; Hitesh, C; Patel, A; Kolge, T; Sharma, Archana; Mittal, K C


    A fourth order (LCLC) resonant converter based capacitor charging power supply (CCPS) is designed and developed for pulse power applications. Resonant converters are preferred t utilize soft switching techniques such as zero current switching (ZCS) and zero voltage switching (ZVS). An attempt has been made to overcome the disadvantages in 2nd and 3rd resonant converter topologies; hence a fourth order resonant topology is used in this paper for CCPS application. In this paper a novel fourth order LCLC based resonant converter has been explored and mathematical analysis carried out to calculate load independent constant current. This topology provides load independent constant current at switching frequency (fs) equal to resonant frequency (fr). By changing switching condition (on time and dead time) this topology has both soft switching techniques such as ZCS and ZVS for better switching action to improve the converter efficiency. This novel technique has special features such as low peak current through switches, DC blocking for transformer, utilizing transformer leakage inductance as resonant component. A prototype has been developed and tested successfully to charge a 100 μF capacitor to 200 V.

  2. Electrically Variable or Programmable Nonvolatile Capacitors (United States)

    Shangqing, Liu; NaiJuan, Wu; Ignatieu, Alex; Jianren, Li


    Electrically variable or programmable capacitors based on the unique properties of thin perovskite films are undergoing development. These capacitors show promise of overcoming two important deficiencies of prior electrically programmable capacitors: Unlike in the case of varactors, it is not necessary to supply power continuously to make these capacitors retain their capacitance values. Hence, these capacitors may prove useful as components of nonvolatile analog and digital electronic memories. Unlike in the case of ferroelectric capacitors, it is possible to measure the capacitance values of these capacitors without changing the values. In other words, whereas readout of ferroelectric capacitors is destructive, readout of these capacitors can be nondestructive. A capacitor of this type is a simple two terminal device. It includes a thin film of a suitable perovskite as the dielectric layer, sandwiched between two metal or metal oxide electrodes (for example, see Figure 1). The utility of this device as a variable capacitor is based on a phenomenon, known as electrical-pulse-induced capacitance (EPIC), that is observed in thin perovskite films and especially in those thin perovskite films that exhibit the colossal magnetoresistive (CMR) effect. In EPIC, the application of one or more electrical pulses that exceed a threshold magnitude (typically somewhat less than 1 V) gives rise to a nonvolatile change in capacitance. The change in capacitance depends on the magnitude duration, polarity, and number of pulses. It is not necessary to apply a magnetic field or to cool the device below (or heat it above) room temperature to obtain EPIC. Examples of suitable CMR perovskites include Pr(1-x)Ca(x)MnO3, La(1-x)S-r(x)MnO3,and Nb(1-x)Ca(x)MnO3. Figure 2 is a block diagram showing an EPIC capacitor connected to a circuit that can vary the capacitance, measure the capacitance, and/or measure the resistance of the capacitor.

  3. An all-solid-state electrochemical double-layer capacitor based on a plastic crystal electrolyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali eaabouimrane


    Full Text Available A plastic crystal, solid electrolyte was prepared by mixing tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate salt, (C4H94NPF6, (10 molar % with succinonitrile, SCN, (N C−CH2−CH2−C N, [SCN-10%TBA-PF6]. The resultant waxy material shows a plastic crystalline phase that extend from -36 °C up to its melting at 23 °C. It shows a high ionic conductivity reaching 4 × 10−5 S/cm in the plastic crystal phase (15 °C and ~ 3 × 10−3 S/cm in the molten state (25 °C. These properties along with the high electrochemical stability rendered the use of this material as an electrolyte in an electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC. The EDLC was assembled and its performance was tested by cyclic voltammetry, AC impedance spectroscopy and galvanostatic charge-discharge methods. Specific capacitance values in the range of 4-7 F/g. (of electrode active material were obtained in the plastic crystal phase at 15 °C, that although compare well with those reported for some polymer electrolytes, can be still enhanced with further development of the device and its components, and only demonstrate their great potential use for capacitors as a new application.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Tykhovod


    Full Text Available For dynamic processes modeling in magnetic and electrical systems of transformers and other electromagnetic devices the effective method of electrical and magnetic circuits in united arrangement is used. The scheme of such circuits is termed as the magnetoelectric equivalent circuit of the electromagnetic device. The classical magnetoelectric equivalent circuit of electromagnetic devices denotes that the magnetic fluxes are flowing in magnetic branches, and the electric currents are flowing in electrical branches. The equivalent circuit choice essentially influences upon the efficiency of modeling. In this paper the original magnetoelectric equivalent circuit using concepts «magnetic currents» and «magnetic capacitors» (Shakirov method is considered. The computing process realized according to such model is unstable. Therefore the given method can’t be recommended for transient analyses in nonlinear magnetoelectric circuits. Modeling modification of Shakirov magnetoelectric equivalent circuit is offered with the purpose of efficiency improvement. «Magnetic currents» and «magnetic capacitors» with differential capacitance are used in the offered magnetoelectric equivalent circuit. The computing process according to such model has the best stability and fast operation than the computing process according to another magnetoelectric equivalent circuits. The merit of such method is possibility of joining-up magnetic resistance elements to equivalent circuit. The resistances of ones could be chosen taking into consideration the equivalence of losses in magnetic resistors end magnetic system. Modeling of transients at switch on regime of the power transformer is given as an example.

  5. Microphone array based novel infant deafness detector. (United States)

    Agnihotri, Chinmayee; Thiyagarajan, S; Kalyansundar, Archana


    This work focuses on an infant deafness detector unit, using the concept of microphone array. This instrument is based on the principle of evoked acoustic emissions (OAEs). The key feature of the microphone array is its ability to increase signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and reproducibility of the OAE responses. These further significantly contribute to improve the sensitivity and specificity of the overall system. Low level sound pressure values are recorded by the sensitive microphones in microphone array unit and processed using TI's DSP6416. The sound stimulus transmitted to human ear is generated and controlled by the 6416 DSP (Digital signal processor). Hardware circuit details and the algorithm used in signal processing are discussed in this paper. Standard averaging technique is used in the implemented algorithm. The final result speaks about the hearing capacity of a patient. The proof that the usage of microphone arrays leads to better SNR values than using a single microphone in an OAE probe, is successfully carried out in this work.

  6. Use DAS algorithm to break through the device limitations of switched-capacitor-based DAC in an ADC consisting of pipelined SAR and TDC (United States)

    Fu, Zhongyi; Tang, Xian; Pun, Kong-Pang


    Switched capacitors are widely used in integrated circuits for discrete-time signal processing. Metal-Insulator-Metal (MIM) capacitors and MOSFET switches are commonly used for switched-capacitor circuits. They impose limitations in the power consumption and the bandwidth of the circuits. For instance, the switched-capacitor digital-to-analog converter (DAC) is the critical circuit block that determines the performance in a successive approximation register (SAR) analog-to-digital converters (ADC). In this paper, a design using the detect-and-skip (DAS) algorithm to break through the device limitations of switched-capacitor-based DACs is analyzed in a coarse-fine SAR ADC architecture. When it is shown that compared with the state-of-the-art Vcm-based capacitive DAC (CDAC), the DAS algorithm reduces 55% of the energy and extends the valid bandwidth from 2 MHz to 16 MHz with a 6-bit resolution under the same setting and technology. Besides, a time-to-digital converter (TDC)-assisted pipelined SAR ADC architecture using the DAS algorithm is proposed. Implemented in a 180 nm CMOS process, the 10-bit 10-MS/s prototype measures an energy efficiency of 57.8 fJ/conv.-step.

  7. Design and development of repetitive capacitor charging power supply based on series-parallel resonant converter topology. (United States)

    Patel, Ankur; Nagesh, K V; Kolge, Tanmay; Chakravarthy, D P


    LCL resonant converter based repetitive capacitor charging power supply (CCPS) is designed and developed in the division. The LCL converter acts as a constant current source when switching frequency is equal to the resonant frequency. When both resonant inductors' values of LCL converter are same, it results in inherent zero current switching (ZCS) in switches. In this paper, ac analysis with fundamental frequency approximation of LCL resonant tank circuit, frequency dependent of current gain converter followed by design, development, simulation, and practical result is described. Effect of change in switching frequency and resonant frequency and change in resonant inductors ratio on CCPS will be discussed. An efficient CCPS of average output power of 1.2 kJ/s, output voltage 3 kV, and 300 Hz repetition rate is developed in the division. The performance of this CCPS has been evaluated in the laboratory by charging several values of load capacitance at various repetition rates. These results indicate that this design is very feasible for use in capacitor-charging applications. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  8. EMI performance comparison of two-level and three-level inverters in small dc-link capacitors based motor drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, S.


    The size of passive components in an adjustable speed drive can be reduced by using small dc-link capacitors. The EMI filter in the drive also consists of passive components. The size of the filter can be reduced by using a three-level inverter, which can have low output voltage distortion. However......, the three-level inverter based on small dc-link capacitors requires a PWM strategy to maintain neutral-point voltage balance. In this paper, the common mode voltage, which is the determining factor for the EMI filter size, is analyzed for a virtual-vector-based PWM strategy. The common mode voltage....... Results show that the conducted emission from the three-level inverter is lower than that of the two-level inverter. Thus, a three-level inverter requires a smaller EMI filter in motor drives with small dc-link capacitors....

  9. Copper vanadate nanowires-based MIS capacitors: Synthesis, characterization, and their electrical charge storage applications

    KAUST Repository

    Shahid, Muhammad


    Copper vanadate (CVO) nanowires were grown on Si/SiO2 substrates by thermal annealing technique. A thin film of a CVO precursor at 550 C under an ambient atmosphere could also be prepared. The electrical properties of the nanowires embedded in the dielectrical layer were examined by capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. The C-V curves for Au/CVO nanowires embedded in an hafnium oxide layer/SiO2/p-Si capacitor at 298 K showed a clockwise hysteresis loop when the gate bias was swept cyclically. The hysteresis characteristics were studied further at different frequencies, which clearly indicated that the traps in the nanowires have a large charging-discharging time and thus the as-synthesized nanowires can be utilized for electrical charge storage devices. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

  10. Development of an Intelligent Capacitive Mass Sensor Based on Co-axial Cylindrical Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir ABU AL AISH


    Full Text Available The paper presents a linear, robust and intelligent capacitive mass sensor made of a co-axial cylindrical capacitor. It is designed such that the mass under measurement is directly proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The average value of the output voltage of a capacitance to voltage converter is proportional to the capacitance of the sensor. The output of the converter is measured and displayed, as mass, with the help of microcontroller. The results are free from the effect of stray capacitances which cause errors at low values of capacitances. Developed sensor is linear, free from errors due to temperature and highly flexible in design. The proto-type of the mass sensor can weigh up to 4 kilogram only.

  11. Lenticular arrays based on liquid crystals (United States)

    Urruchi Del Pozo, V.; Algorri Genaro, J. F.; Sánchez-Pena, J. M.; Geday, M. A.; Arregui, X. Q.; Bennis, N.


    Lenticular array products have experienced a growing interest in the last decade due to the very wide range of applications they can cover. Indeed, this kind of lenses can create different effects on a viewing image such as 3D, flips, zoom, etc. In this sense, lenticular based on liquid crystals (LC) technology is being developed with the aim of tuning the lens profiles simply by controlling the birefringence electrically. In this work, a LC lenticular lens array has been proposed to mimic a GRIN lenticular lens array but adding the capability of tuning their lens profiles. Comb control electrodes have been designed as pattern masks for the ITO on the upper substrate. Suitable high resistivity layers have been chosen to be deposited on the control electrode generating an electric field gradient between teeth of the same electrode. Test measurements have allowed us to demonstrate that values of phase retardations and focal lengths, for an optimal driving waveform, are fairly in agreement. In addition, results of focusing power of tuneable lenses were compared to those of conventional lenses. The behaviour of both kinds of lenses has revealed to be mutually similar for focusing collimated light and for refracting images.

  12. Active damping of LLCL-filter resonance based on LC-trap voltage and capacitor current feedback

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Min; Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang


    of the equivalent impedance with and without the delay effect of an LLCL-filter based grid-connected inverter. Their corresponding equivalent circuits for the purpose of resonance damping are given to identify whether the feedback coefficient should be negative or positive for the different state-feedback methods....... In this paper, different feedback coefficients like the proportional, derivative, integral, high pass and low pass feedback coefficients of the filter capacitor current and the LC-trap circuit voltage are investigated for damping the filter resonance. Active damping methods are analyzed by using the concept....... Then the stability of the different methods and the design of the feedback coefficient are analyzed and compared using root loci. Finally, experimental results are presented to validate the theoretical analysis....

  13. Vertically arrays of Si-LaNiO3/BiFeO3/Au core-shell nano-capacitors for prominent coupled electro-optic effect (United States)

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder


    The current study delivers the first assessment of well-separated cone shaped n-type epitaxial BiFe0.9Mn0.1O3 (n-BFMO) shells integrated on LaNiO3 (LNO) buffered vertical arrays of p-type nanoporous Si nanowire cores as an absorber for high efficiency and sustainable all- oxide photovoltaic devices. The photovoltaic effect of the LNO/n-BFMO/Au radial heterojunction is investigated by registering the current-voltage curves under AM 1.5 (100 mW cm-2) illumination conditions at various ferroelectric polarization states of BFMO. The as-deposited LNO/BFMO/Au nanowire arrays fabricated by scalable Pulsed Laser deposition are completely self-polarized and produced a remarkably large open circuit photovoltage up to 0.53 V under zero poling condition. The direction of photocurrent and photovoltage is reversibly switchable in response to ferroelectric polarization switching. The short circuit photocurrent "ISC" and open circuit voltage "VOC" depict a hysteresis loop which is more or less identical to that of ferroelectric polarization and thus can be utilized as a nondestructive optical readout of the ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. By introducing special architecture for the BFO based photovoltaic device, a photoconversion efficiency ˜0.3% and External Quantum Efficiency ˜11% are achieved at zero polarization state, which can further be enhanced and modulated to ˜0.6% and 14%, respectively, at the negative poling state of BFMO.

  14. Spin scan tomographic array-based imager. (United States)

    Hovland, Harald


    This work presents a novel imaging device based on tomographic reconstruction. Similar in certain aspects to the earlier presented tomographic scanning (TOSCA) principle, it provides several important enhancements. The device described generates a stream of one-dimensional projections from a linear array of thin stripe detectors onto which the (circular) image of the scene is rotated. A two-dimensional image is then reproduced from the one-dimensional signals using tomographic processing techniques. A demonstrator is presented. Various aspects of the design and construction are discussed, and resulting images and movies are presented.

  15. Abductive Inference using Array-Based Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jeppe Revall; Falster, Peter; Møller, Gert L.

    The notion of abduction has found its usage within a wide variety of AI fields. Computing abductive solutions has, however, shown to be highly intractable in logic programming. To avoid this intractability we present a new approach to logicbased abduction; through the geometrical view of data...... employed in array-based logic we embrace abduction in a simple structural operation. We argue that a theory of abduction on this form allows for an implementation which, at runtime, can perform abductive inference quite efficiently on arbitrary rules of logic representing knowledge of finite domains....

  16. Effect of the structure on luminescent characteristics of SRO-based light emitting capacitors (United States)

    Palacios-Huerta, L.; Cabañas-Tay, S. A.; Luna-López, J. A.; Aceves-Mijares, M.; Coyopol, A.; Morales-Sánchez, A.


    In this paper, we study the structural, optical and electro-optical properties of silicon rich oxide (SRO) films, with 6.2 (SRO30) and 7.3 at.% (SRO20) of silicon excess thermally annealed at different temperatures and used as an active layer in light emitting capacitors (LECs). A typical photoluminescence (PL) red-shift is observed as the silicon content and annealing temperature are increased. Nevertheless, when SRO30 films are used in LECs, a resistance switching (RS) behavior from a high current state (HCS) to a low conduction state (LCS) is observed, enhancing the intense blue electroluminescence (EL). This RS produces a long spectral blue-shift (˜227 nm) between the EL and PL band, and it is related to structural defects created by a high current flow through preferential conductive paths breaking off Si-Si bonds from very small silicon nanoparticles (Si-nps) (Eδ (Si ↑ Si ≡ Si) centers). LECs with SRO20 films do not present the RS behavior and only exhibit a slight shift between PL and EL, both in red spectra. The carrier transport in these LEC devices is analyzed as being trap assisted tunnelling and Poole-Frenkel through a quasi ‘continuum’ of defect traps and quantum dots for the conduction mechanism in SRO30 and SRO20 films, respectively. The results prove the feasibility of obtaining light emitting devices by using simple panel structures with Si-nps embedded in the dielectric layer.

  17. Comprehensive dielectric performance of bismuth acceptor doped BaTiO3 based nanocrystal thin film capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, SY; Zhang, HN; Sviridov, L; Huang, LM; Liu, XH; Samson, J; Akins, D; Li, J; O' Brien, S


    We present a novel approach to preparing bismuth acceptor doped barium titanate nanocrystal formulations that can be deposited in conjunction with polymers in order to prepare a thin film nanocomposite dielectric that exhibits desirable capacitor characteristics. Exploring the limits of dielectric function in nanocomposites is an important avenue of materials research, while paying strict attention to the overall device quality, namely permittivity, loss and equivalent series resistance (ESR). Pushing capacitor function to higher frequencies, a desirable goal from an electrical engineering point of view, presents a new set of challenges in terms of minimizing interfacial, space charge and polarization effects within the dielectric. We show the ability to synthesize BaTi0.96Bi0.04O3 or BaTi0.97Bi0.03O3 depending on nominal molar concentrations of bismuth at the onset. The low temperature solvothermal route allows for substitution at the titanium site (strongly supported by Rietveld and Raman analysis). Characterization is performed by XRD with Rietveld refinement, Raman Spectroscopy, SEM and HRTEM. A mechanism is proposed for bismuth acceptor substitution, based on the chemical reaction of the alkoxy-metal precursors involving nucleophilic addition. Dielectric analysis of the nanocrystal thin films is performed by preparing nanocrystal/PVP 2-2 nanocomposites (no annealing) and comparing BaTi0.96Bi0.04O3 and BaTi0.97Bi0.03O3 with undoped BaTiO3. Improvements of up to 25% in capacitance (permittivity) are observed, with lower loss and dramatically improved ESR, all to very high frequency ranges (>10 MHz).

  18. Harmonic analysis of DC capacitor current in sinusoidal and space ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The voltage ripple and power loss in the DC-capacitor of a voltage source inverter depend on the harmonic currents flowing through the capacitor. This paper presents a double Fourier series based analysis of the harmonic contents of the DC capacitor current in a three-level neutral-point clamped (NPC) inverter, modulated ...

  19. Array processors based on Gaussian fraction-free method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, S.; Sedukhin, S. [Aizu Univ., Aizuwakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan); Sedukhin, I.


    The design of algorithmic array processors for solving linear systems of equations using fraction-free Gaussian elimination method is presented. The design is based on a formal approach which constructs a family of planar array processors systematically. These array processors are synthesized and analyzed. It is shown that some array processors are optimal in the framework of linear allocation of computations and in terms of number of processing elements and computing time. (author)

  20. An ether-functionalised cyclic sulfonium based ionic liquid as an electrolyte for electrochemical double layer capacitors (United States)

    Neale, Alex R.; Murphy, Sinead; Goodrich, Peter; Schütter, Christoph; Hardacre, Christopher; Passerini, Stefano; Balducci, Andrea; Jacquemin, Johan


    A novel cyclic sulfonium cation-based ionic liquid (IL) with an ether-group appendage and the bis{(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl}imide anion was synthesised and developed for electrochemical double layer capacitor (EDLC) testing. The synthesis and chemical-physical characterisation of the ether-group containing IL is reported in parallel with a similarly sized alkyl-functionalised sulfonium IL. Results of the chemical-physical measurements demonstrate how important transport properties, i.e. viscosity and conductivity, can be promoted through the introduction of the ether-functionality without impeding thermal, chemical or electrochemical stability of the IL. Although the apparent transport properties are improved relative to the alkyl-functionalised analogue, the ether-functionalised sulfonium cation-based IL exhibits moderately high viscosity, and poorer conductivity, when compared to traditional EDLC electrolytes based on organic solvents (propylene carbonate and acetonitrile). Electrochemical testing of the ether-functionalised sulfonium IL was conducted using activated carbon composite electrodes to inspect the performance of the IL as a solvent-free electrolyte for EDLC application. Good cycling stability was achieved over the studied range and the performance was comparable to other solvent-free, IL-based EDLC systems. Nevertheless, limitations of the attainable performance are primarily the result of sluggish transport properties and a restricted operative voltage of the IL, thus highlighting key aspects of this field which require further attention.

  1. Graphene-based liquid crystal microlens arrays (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Yong; Luo, Jun; Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng


    In this paper, we design and fabricate a kind of liquid crystal microlens arrays (LCMAs) with patterned electrodes made of monolayer graphene, which is grown on copper sheet by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene is the first two-dimensional atomic crystal. It uniquely combines extreme mechanical strength, high optically transmittance from visible light to infrared spectrum, and excellent electrical conductivity. These properties make it highly attractive for various applications in photonic devices that require conductive but transparent thin films. The graphene-based LCMAs have shown excellent optical performances in the tests. By adjusting the voltage signal loaded over the graphene-based LCMAs, the point spread functions (PSF) and focusing images of incident laser beams with different wavelengths, could be obtained. At the same time, we also get the focusing images of the common ITO-based LCMAs under the same experimental conditions to discuss the advantages and disadvantages between them. Further, the graphene-based LCMAs are also used in visible imaging. During the imaging tests, the graphene electrodes in the LCMAs work well.

  2. Array-based techniques for fingerprinting medicinal herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue Charlie


    Full Text Available Abstract Poor quality control of medicinal herbs has led to instances of toxicity, poisoning and even deaths. The fundamental step in quality control of herbal medicine is accurate identification of herbs. Array-based techniques have recently been adapted to authenticate or identify herbal plants. This article reviews the current array-based techniques, eg oligonucleotides microarrays, gene-based probe microarrays, Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH-based arrays, Diversity Array Technology (DArT and Subtracted Diversity Array (SDA. We further compare these techniques according to important parameters such as markers, polymorphism rates, restriction enzymes and sample type. The applicability of the array-based methods for fingerprinting depends on the availability of genomics and genetics of the species to be fingerprinted. For the species with few genome sequence information but high polymorphism rates, SDA techniques are particularly recommended because they require less labour and lower material cost.

  3. A market based active/reactive dispatch including transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks using Simulated Annealing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Mario Helder [Departamento de Engenharia Electrotecnica, Instituto Politecnico de Tomar, Quinta do Contador, Estrada da Serra, 2300 Tomar (Portugal); Saraiva, Joao Tome [INESC Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Campus da FEUP, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)


    This paper describes an optimization model to be used by System Operators in order to validate the economic schedules obtained by Market Operators together with the injections from Bilateral Contracts. These studies will be performed off-line in the day before operation and the developed model is based on adjustment bids submitted by generators and loads and it is used by System Operators if that is necessary to enforce technical or security constraints. This model corresponds to an enhancement of an approach described in a previous paper and it now includes discrete components as transformer taps and reactor and capacitor banks. The resulting mixed integer formulation is solved using Simulated Annealing, a well known metaheuristic specially suited for combinatorial problems. Once the Simulated Annealing converges and the values of the discrete variables are fixed, the resulting non-linear continuous problem is solved using Sequential Linear Programming to get the final solution. The developed model corresponds to an AC version, it includes constraints related with the capability diagram of synchronous generators and variables allowing the computation of the active power required to balance active losses. Finally, the paper includes a Case Study based on the IEEE 118 bus system to illustrate the results that it is possible to obtain and their interest. (author)

  4. Poly(Acrylic acid–Based Hybrid Inorganic–Organic Electrolytes Membrane for Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiam-Wen Liew


    Full Text Available Nanocomposite polymer electrolyte membranes (NCPEMs based on poly(acrylic acid(PAA and titania (TiO2 are prepared by a solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity of NCPEMs increases with the weight ratio of TiO2.The highest ionic conductivity of (8.36 ± 0.01 × 10−4 S·cm−1 is obtained with addition of 6 wt % of TiO2 at ambient temperature. The complexation between PAA, LiTFSI and TiO2 is discussed in Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR studies. Electrical double layer capacitors (EDLCs are fabricated using the filler-free polymer electrolyte or the most conducting NCPEM and carbon-based electrodes. The electrochemical performances of fabricated EDLCs are studied through cyclic voltammetry (CV and galvanostatic charge-discharge studies. EDLC comprising NCPEM shows the specific capacitance of 28.56 F·g−1 (or equivalent to 29.54 mF·cm−2 with excellent electrochemical stability.

  5. Integrated on-chip solid state capacitor based on vertically aligned carbon nanofibers, grown using a CMOS temperature compatible process (United States)

    Saleem, Amin M.; Andersson, Rickard; Desmaris, Vincent; Enoksson, Peter


    Complete miniaturized on-chip integrated solid-state capacitors have been fabricated based on conformal coating of vertically aligned carbon nanofibers (VACNFs), using a CMOS temperature compatible microfabrication processes. The 5 μm long VACNFs, operating as electrode, are grown on a silicon substrate and conformally coated by aluminum oxide dielectric using atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The areal (footprint) capacitance density value of 11-15 nF/mm2 is realized with high reproducibility. The CMOS temperature compatible microfabrication, ultra-low profile (less than 7 μm thickness) and high capacitance density would enables direct integration of micro energy storage devices on the active CMOS chip, multi-chip package and passives on silicon or glass interposer. A model is developed to calculate the surface area of VACNFs and the effective capacitance from the devices. It is thereby shown that 71% of surface area of the VACNFs has contributed to the measured capacitance, and by using the entire area the capacitance can potentially be increased.

  6. Insights into the effects of solvent properties in graphene based electric double-layer capacitors with organic electrolytes (United States)

    Zhang, Shuo; Bo, Zheng; Yang, Huachao; Yang, Jinyuan; Duan, Liangping; Yan, Jianhua; Cen, Kefa


    Organic electrolytes are widely used in electric double-layer capacitors (EDLCs). In this work, the microstructure of planar graphene-based EDLCs with different organic solvents are investigated with molecular dynamics simulations. Results show that an increase of solvent polarity could weaken the accumulation of counter-ions nearby the electrode surface, due to the screen of electrode charges and relatively lower ionic desolvation. It thus suggests that solvents with low polarity could be preferable to yield high EDL capacitance. Meanwhile, the significant effects of the size and structure of solvent molecules are reflected by non-electrostatic molecule-electrode interactions, further influencing the adsorption of solvent molecules on electrode surface. Compared with dimethyl carbonate, γ-butyrolactone, and propylene carbonate, acetonitrile with relatively small-size and linear structure owns weak non-electrostatic interactions, which favors the easy re-orientation of solvent molecules. Moreover, the shift of solvent orientation in surface layer, from parallel orientation to perpendicular orientation relative to the electrode surface, deciphers the solvent twin-peak behavior near negative electrode. The as-obtained insights into the roles of solvent properties on the interplays among particles and electrodes elucidate the solvent influences on the microstructure and capacitive behavior of EDLCs using organic electrolytes.

  7. Bionic ommatidia based on microlens array (United States)

    Hao, Liu; Sihai, Chen; Shan, Dong; Xinjian, Yi


    A simple method is reported to manufacture a planar compound eye using a microlens array. The compound eye, inspired by insects, consists of a microlens array and a waveguide coupled with it. A microlens array with lenses of 50 μm in diameter is fabricated by melting AZ1500 photoresist and then transferring it onto SU-8. With the self-focus method applied, a waveguide array is formed, and each is exactly coupled to a lens. The formation of the waveguide is simulated using finite difference time domain (FDTD) arithmetic, resembling the ommatidia produced in our experiment. The ommatidia is also testified to astrict beam, just as the natural compound eyes do.

  8. Towards Prognostics of Electrolytic Capacitors (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A remaining useful life prediction algorithm and degradation model for electrolytic capacitors is presented. Electrolytic capacitors are used in several applications...

  9. Fabrication of PVDF-TrFE based bilayered PbTiO{sub 3}/PVDF-TrFE films capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nurbaya, Z., E-mail: [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Razak School of Engineering and Advanced Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 54100 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Wahid, M. H.; Rozana, M. D. [Faculty of Applied Sciences, Department of Polymer, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); Annuar, I. [UiTM Sarawak Kampus Kota Samarahan, Jalan Meranek, 94300 Sarawak (Malaysia); Alrokayan, S. A. H.; Khan, H. A. [Department of Biochemistry, College of Science, Bldg. 5, King Saud University (KSU) P.O: 2454 Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Rusop, M., E-mail: [NANO-ElecTronic Centre (NET), Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia); NANO-Sci Tech Centre (NST), Institute of Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)


    Development of high performance capacitor is reaching towards new generation where the ferroelectric materials take places as the active dielectric layer. The motivation of this study is to produce high capacitance device with long life cycle. This was configured by preparing bilayered films where lead titanate as an active dielectric layer and stacked with the top dielectric layer, poly(vinyledenefluoride-trifluoroethylene). Both of them are being referred that have one in common which is ferroelectric behavior. Therefore the combination of ceramic and polymer ferroelectric material could perform optimum dielectric characteristic for capacitor applications. The fabrication was done by simple sol-gel spin coating method that being varied at spinning speed property for polymer layers, whereas maintaining the ceramic layer. The characterization of PVDF-TrFE/PbTiO3 was performed according to metal-insulator-metal stacked capacitor measurement which includes structural, dielectric, and ferroelectric measurement.

  10. DC-Link Capacitor Voltage Regulation for Three-Phase Three-Level Inverter-Based Shunt Active Power Filter with Inverted Error Deviation Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yap Hoon


    Full Text Available A new control technique known as inverted error deviation (IED control is incorporated into the main DC-link capacitor voltage regulation algorithm of a three-level neutral-point diode clamped (NPC inverter-based shunt active power filter (SAPF to enhance its performance in overall DC-link voltage regulation so as to improve its harmonics mitigation performances. In the SAPF controller, DC-link capacitor voltage regulation algorithms with either the proportional-integral (PI or fuzzy logic control (FLC technique have played a significant role in maintaining a constant DC-link voltage across the DC-link capacitors. However, both techniques are mostly operated based on a direct voltage error manipulation approach which is insufficient to address the severe DC-link voltage deviation that occurs during dynamic-state conditions. As a result, the conventional algorithms perform poorly with large overshoot, undershoot, and slow response time. Therefore, the IED control technique is proposed to precisely address the DC-link voltage deviation. To validate effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed algorithm, simulation work in MATLAB-Simulink and experimental implementation utilizing a TMS320F28335 Digital Signal Processor (DSP are performed. Moreover, conventional algorithms with PI and FLC techniques are tested too for comparison purposes. Both simulation and experimental results are presented, confirming the improvement achieved by the proposed algorithm in terms of accuracy and dynamic response in comparison to the conventional algorithms.

  11. A Close Loop Low-Power and High Speed 130 nm CMOS Sample and Hold Circuit Based on Switched Capacitor for ADC Module (United States)

    Nasir, Z.; Ruslan, S. H.


    A sample and hold (S/H) block is typically used as an analogue to digital interface in the analogue to digital converter (ADC) system. Since ADC is widely used in processing signals, the power consumption of the ADC must be lowered to conserve energy. Therefore the S/H circuit must be of a low powered too. Sampling phase and hold phase are the two phases of the operation cycle of the S/H circuit. Switched capacitor (SC) techniques have been developed in order to allow the integration on a single silicon chip of both digital and analogue functions. By controlling switches around the SC, the SC circuit works by passing charge into and out of a capacitor. SC circuits are suitable for on chip implementations because they replace a resistor with switches and capacitors. In this research, a closed-loop sample and hold circuit based on SC is designed and simulated with Cadence EDA tools. The schematic, layout, and simulation of the circuit is done using generic Silterra 130 nm technology file. All the analysis is done using Virtuoso Analog Design Environment. Layout and schematic are drawn using Virtuoso Schematic Editor and Virtuoso Layout Editor, Calibre is used for post layout simulation. The closed loop S/H circuit based on SC is successfully designed and able to sample and hold the analogue input waveform. The power consumption of the circuit is 0.919 mW and the propagation delay is 64.96 ps.

  12. A Cell-to-Cell Equalizer Based on Three-Resonant-State Switched-Capacitor Converters for Series-Connected Battery Strings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunlong Shang


    Full Text Available Due to the low cost, small size, and ease of control, the switched-capacitor (SC battery equalizers are promising among active balancing methods. However, it is difficult to achieve the full cell equalization for the SC equalizers due to the inevitable voltage drops across Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET switches. Moreover, when the voltage gap among cells is larger, the balancing efficiency is lower, while the balancing speed becomes slower as the voltage gap gets smaller. In order to soften these downsides, this paper proposes a cell-to-cell battery equalization topology with zero-current switching (ZCS and zero-voltage gap (ZVG among cells based on three-resonant-state SC converters. Based on the conventional inductor-capacitor (LC converter, an additional resonant path is built to release the charge of the capacitor into the inductor in each switching cycle, which lays the foundations for obtaining ZVG among cells, improves the balancing efficiency at a large voltage gap, and increases the balancing speed at a small voltage gap. A four-lithium-ion-cell prototype is applied to validate the theoretical analysis. Experiment results demonstrate that the proposed topology has good equalization performances with fast equalization, ZCS, and ZVG among cells.

  13. Direct Mismatch Characterization of femto-Farad Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham


    Reducing the capacitance of programmable capacitor arrays, commonly used in analog integrated circuits, is necessary for low-energy applications. However, limited mismatch data is available for small capacitors. We report mismatch measurement for a 2fF poly-insulator-poly (PIP) capacitor, which is the smallest reported PIP capacitor to the best of the authors’ knowledge. Instead of using complicated custom onchip circuitry, direct mismatch measurement is demonstrated and verified using Monte Carlo Simulations and experimental measurements. Capacitive test structures composed of 9 bit programmable capacitor arrays (PCAs) are implemented in a low-cost 0:35m CMOS process. Measured data is compared to mismatch of large PIP capacitors, theoretical models, and recently published data. Measurement results indicate an estimated average relative standard deviation of 0.43% for the 2fF unit capacitor, which is better than the reported mismatch of metal-oxide-metal (MOM) fringing capacitors implemented in an advanced 32nm CMOS process.

  14. Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Coprime Array Using Compressive Sensing Based Array Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aihua Liu


    Full Text Available A method of direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation using array interpolation is proposed in this paper to increase the number of resolvable sources and improve the DOA estimation performance for coprime array configuration with holes in its virtual array. The virtual symmetric nonuniform linear array (VSNLA of coprime array signal model is introduced, with the conventional MUSIC with spatial smoothing algorithm (SS-MUSIC applied on the continuous lags in the VSNLA; the degrees of freedom (DoFs for DOA estimation are obviously not fully exploited. To effectively utilize the extent of DoFs offered by the coarray configuration, a compressing sensing based array interpolation algorithm is proposed. The compressing sensing technique is used to obtain the coarse initial DOA estimation, and a modified iterative initial DOA estimation based interpolation algorithm (IMCA-AI is then utilized to obtain the final DOA estimation, which maps the sample covariance matrix of the VSNLA to the covariance matrix of a filled virtual symmetric uniform linear array (VSULA with the same aperture size. The proposed DOA estimation method can efficiently improve the DOA estimation performance. The numerical simulations are provided to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  15. Lead chalcogenides based IR photosensitive array detectors with coordinate addressing (United States)

    Agranov, G. A.; Novoselov, S. K.; Stepanov, R. M.; Doon, A. Z.; Pashkevich, A. V.; Ivanov, A. I.; Nemchuk, I. K.; Nesterov, V. K.; Skoriukin, V. E.


    Coordinate addressed photodetector arrays based on thin films of lead chalcogenides and operating in different wavebands of the infrared spectral regions are described. The arrays feature high sensitivity, close to BLIP mode, wide dynamic range, and low heat dissipation. Their advantages include random access, element block selection, image scaling, and on chip data encoding. Different design configurations with elements from 128 by 128 to 512 by 512 are discussed and experimental parameters and characteristics of the experimental arrays are presented.

  16. Humidity Testing of PME and BME Ceramic Capacitors with Cracks (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.; Herzberger, Jaemi


    Cracks in ceramic capacitors are one of the major causes of failures during operation of electronic systems. Humidity testing has been successfully used for many years to verify the absence of cracks and assure quality of military grade capacitors. Traditionally, only precious metal electrode (PME) capacitors were used in high reliability applications and the existing requirements for humidity testing were developed for this type of parts. With the advance of base metal electrode (BME) capacitors, there is a need for assessment of the applicability of the existing techniques for the new technology capacitors. In this work, variety of different PME and BME capacitors with introduced cracks were tested in humid environments at different voltages and temperatures. Analysis of the test results indicates differences in the behavior and failure mechanisms for BME and PME capacitors and the need for different testing conditions.

  17. Entropy characterisation of overstressed capacitors for lifetime prediction (United States)

    Cuadras, Angel; Romero, Ramon; Ovejas, Victoria J.


    We propose a method to monitor the ageing and damage of capacitors based on their irreversible entropy generation rate. We overstressed several electrolytic capacitors in the range of 33 μF-100 μF and monitored their entropy generation rate S˙ (t). We found a strong relationship between capacitor degradation and S˙ (t). Therefore, we proposed a threshold for S˙ (t) as an indicator of capacitor time-to-failure. This magnitude is related to both capacitor parameters and to a damage indicator such as entropy. Our method goes beyond the typical statistical laws for lifetime prediction provided by manufacturers. We validated the model as a function of capacitance, geometry, and rated voltage. Moreover, we identified different failure modes, such as heating, electrolyte dry-up and gasification from the dependence of S˙ (T) with temperature, T. Our method was implemented in cheap electrolytic capacitors but can be easily applied to any type of capacitor, supercapacitor, battery, or fuel cell.

  18. High performance sodium-ion hybrid capacitor based on Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 nanostructures (United States)

    Babu, Binson; Shaijumon, M. M.


    Hybrid Na-ion capacitors bridge the performance gap between Na-ion batteries and supercapacitors and offer excellent energy and power characteristics. However, designing efficient anode and cathode materials with improved kinetics and long cycle life is essential for practical implementation of this technology. Herein, layered sodium titanium oxide hydroxide, Na2Ti2O4(OH)2, synthesized through hydrothermal technique, is studied as efficient anode material for hybrid Na-ion capacitor. Half-cell electrochemical studies vs. Na/Na+ showed excellent performance for Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 electrode, with ∼57.2% of the total capacity (323.3 C g-1 at 1.0 mV s-1) dominated by capacitive behavior and the remaining due to Na-intercalation. The obtained values are in good agreement with Trasatti plots indicating the potential of this material as efficient anode for hybrid Na-ion capacitor. Further, a full cell Na-ion capacitor is fabricated with Na2Ti2O4(OH)2 as anode and chemically activated Rice Husk Derived Porous Carbon (RHDPC-KOH) as cathode by using organic electrolyte. The hybrid device, operated at a maximum cell voltage of 4 V, exhibits stable electrochemical performance with a maximum energy density of ∼65 Wh kg-1 (at 500 W kg-1, 0.20 A g-1) and with more than ∼ 93% capacitive retention after 3000 cycles.

  19. A parallel A/D converter array structure with common reference processing unit (United States)

    Chen, Keping; Svensson, Christer


    A successive-approximation A/D converter array with a parallel architecture is proposed. The circuit is realized using a switched-capacitor technique. The architecture of the array is based on a common-reference processing unit and multichannel parallel-input, signal processing units. The latter, which are the main part of the array, are insensitive to the capacitor ratio mismatch and the gain of the amplifiers. The linearity of the array is insensitive to parasitic capacitors and offset of the amplifiers. The conversion time is linearly proportional to the number of bits required. Due to the small number of components needed and the simplicity of the circuit realization, the proposed A/D solution is suitable for VLSI implementation. A typical application would be in a small sensor system, where a sensor array, parallel A/D converters, and parallel digital processors are integrated in a single chip.

  20. Metal-ferroelectric-metal capacitor based persistent memory for electronic product code class-1 generation-2 uhf passive radio-frequency identification tag (United States)

    Yoon, Bongno; Sung, Man Young; Yeon, Sujin; Oh, Hyun S.; Kwon, Yoonjoo; Kim, Chuljin; Kim, Kyung-Ho


    With the circuits using metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitor, rf operational signal properties are almost the same or superior to those of polysilicon-insulator-polysilicon, metal-insulator-metal, and metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. In electronic product code global class-1 generation-2 uhf radio-frequency identification (RFID) protocols, the MFM can play a crucial role in satisfying the specifications of the inventoried flag's persistence times (Tpt) for each session (S0-S3, SL). In this paper, we propose and design a new MFM capacitor based memory scheme of which persistence time for S1 flag is measured at 2.2 s as well as indefinite for S2, S3, and SL flags during the period of power-on. A ferroelectric random access memory embedded RFID tag chip is fabricated with an industry-standard complementary MOS process. The chip size is around 500×500 μm2 and the measured power consumption is about 10 μW.

  1. Active damping technique for small DC-link capacitor based drive system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Henriksen, Bjarne


    A detailed model of Adjustable Speed Drive (ASD) is discussed, which yield a general rule for active damping in a small DC link based drive. A desired value of input LC resonance damping coefficient can be achieved by changing gain parameters. The modified state space matrix due to active damping...... terms is also presented. The performance of the active damping is evaluated based on experimental results. A simple model is presented which can be used to measure the damping factor provided by the system parameters only....

  2. Capacitor discharge engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume III: Capacitor Discharge Engineering covers the production and practical application of capacitor dischargers for the generation and utilization of high speed pulsed of energy in different forms. This nine-chapter volume discusses the principles of electric current, voltage, X-rays, gamma rays, heat, beams of electrons, neutrons and ions, magnetic fields, sound, and shock waves in gases and liquids. Considerable chapters consider the applications of capacitor discharges, such as impulse hardening of steel, ultrapulse welding of precision parts, X-ray flash t

  3. A Broadband Metasurface-Based Terahertz Flat-Lens Array

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiu


    A metasurface-based terahertz flat-lens array is proposed, comprising C-shaped split-ring resonators exhibiting locally engineerable phase discontinuities. Possessing a high numerical aperture, the planar lens array is flexible, robust, and shows excellent focusing characteristics in a broadband terahertz frequency. It could be an important step towards the development of planar terahertz focusing devices for practical applications.

  4. Transmission Line Resonator Segmented with Series Capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade


    Transmission line resonators are often used as coils in high field MRI. Due to distributed nature of such resonators, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the resonator. The equations for optimal...... values of evenly distributed capacitors are presented. The performances of the segmented resonator and a regular transmission line resonator are compared....

  5. Operation's Concept for Array-Based Deep Space Network (United States)

    Bagri, Durgadas S.; Statman, Joseph I.; Gatti, Mark S.


    The Array-based Deep Space Network (DSNArray) will be a part of more than 10(exp 3) times increase in the downlink/telemetry capability of the Deep space Network (DSN). The key function of the DSN-Array is to provide cost-effective, robust Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) services to the space missions of NASA and its international partners. It provides an expanded approach to the use of an array-based system. Instead of using the array as an element in the existing DSN, relying to a large extent on the DSN infrastructure, we explore a broader departure from the current DSN, using fewer elements of the existing DSN, and establishing a more modern Concept of Operations. This paper gives architecture of DSN-Array and its operation's philosophy. It also describes customer's view of operations, operations management and logistics - including maintenance philosophy, anomaly analysis and reporting.

  6. Graphene Based Ultra-Capacitors for Safer, More Efficient Energy Storage (United States)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Mackey, Paul J.; Zide, Carson J.


    Current power storage methods must be continuously improved in order to keep up with the increasingly competitive electronics industry. This technological advancement is also essential for the continuation of deep space exploration. Today's energy storage industry relies heavily on the use of dangerous and corrosive chemicals such as lithium and phosphoric acid. These chemicals can prove hazardous to the user if the device is ruptured. Similarly they can damage the environment if they are disposed of improperly. A safer, more efficient alternative is needed across a wide range of NASA missions. One solution would a solid-state carbon based energy storage device. Carbon is a safer, less environmentally hazardous alternative to current energy storage materials. Using the amorphous carbon nanostructure, graphene, this idea of a safer portable energy is possible. Graphene was electrochemically produced in the lab and several coin cell devices were built this summer to create a working prototype of a solid-state graphene battery.

  7. Flexible Ultrahigh-Temperature Polymer-Based Dielectrics with High Permittivity for Film Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zejun Pu


    Full Text Available In this report, flexible cross-linked polyarylene ether nitrile/functionalized barium titanate(CPEN/F-BaTiO3 dielectrics films with high permittivitywere prepared and characterized. The effects of both the F-BaTiO3 and matrix curing on the mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of the CPEN/F-BaTiO3 dielectric films were investigated in detail. Compared to pristine BaTiO3, the surface modified BaTiO3 particles effectively improved their dispersibility and interfacial adhesion in the polymer matrix. Moreover, the introduction of F-BaTiO3 particles enhanced dielectric properties of the composites, with a relatively high permittivity of 15.2 and a quite low loss tangent of 0.022 (1 kHz when particle contents of 40 wt % were utilized. In addition, the cyano (–CN groups of functional layer also can serve as potential sites for cross-linking with polyarylene ether nitrile terminated phthalonitrile (PEN-Ph matrix and make it transform from thermoplastic to thermosetting. Comparing with the pure PEN-ph film, the latter results indicated that the formation of cross-linked network in the polymer-based system resulted in increased tensile strength by ~67%, improved glass transition temperature (Tg by ~190 °C. More importantly, the CPEN/F-BaTiO3 composite films filled with 30 wt % F-BaTiO3 particles showed greater energy density by nearly 190% when compared to pure CPEN film. These findings enable broader applications of PEN-based composites in high-performance electronics and energy storage devices materials used at high temperature.

  8. Negative Resistance Circuit for Damping an Array of Coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamaševičius, Arūnas; Adomaitienė, Elena; Bumelienė, Skaidra


    An analog circuit, based on a negative impedance converter and a capacitor, for damping oscillations in an array of mean-field coupled neuronal FitzHugh–Nagumo (FHN) type oscillators is described. The circuit is essentially a two-terminal feedback controller. When coupled to an array of the FHN o...

  9. Capacitor Current Feedback-Based Active Resonance Damping Strategies for Digitally-Controlled Inductive-Capacitive-Inductive-Filtered Grid-Connected Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorzadeh, Iman; Askarian Abyaneh, Hossein; Savaghebi, Mehdi


    passive (resistive) resonance damping solutions, due to their additional power losses, active damping (AD) techniques are often applied with proper control algorithms in order to damp the LCL filter resonance and stabilize the system. Among these techniques, the capacitor current feedback (CCF) AD has...... attracted considerable attention due to its effective damping performance and simple implementation. This paper thus presents a state-of-the-art review of resonance and stability characteristics of CCF-based AD approaches for a digitally-controlled LCL filter-based grid-connected inverter taking...

  10. A SVPWM based on fluctuate capacitor voltage in 3L-NPC back-to-back converter applied to wind energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Quan; Wang, Qunjing; Chen, Zhe


    ' voltage, will cause variations of the voltage vector and the dwell time distribution in the synthesizing algorithm. In this paper a novel space vector PWM (SVPWM) for back-to-back 3L-NPC converter when unbalanced neutral point potential occurring is proposed. An error factor based on the difference...... between the fluctuate voltage of upper and lower capacitors is extracted. Based on this error factor the duty-time of every active voltage vector is calculated. In order to validate the model and the control strategy proposed in this paper, a 2MW 3L-NPC converter used in wind energy has been simulated....

  11. An array-based study of increased system lifetime probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten


    Society's increased dependence on electronic systems calls for highly reliable power supplies comprised of multiple converters working in parallel. This paper describes a redundancy control scheme, based on the array technology that increases the overall reliability quite considerably and thereby...

  12. An array-based study of increased system lifetime probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesgaard, Carsten


    Society's increased dependence on electronic systems calls for highly reliable power supplies comprised of multiple converters working in parallel. This paper describes a redundancy control scheme, based on the array technology that increases the overall reliability quite considerably and thereby...

  13. Semiconductor Nanomembrane based Flight Sensors and Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Phase I program would develop and demonstrate semiconductor nanomembrane (NM) based flight sensors and arrays on flexible substrates, using SOI (Silicon on...

  14. Polymer-based sensor array for phytochemical detection (United States)

    Weerakoon, Kanchana A.; Hiremath, Nitilaksha; Chin, Bryan A.


    Monitoring for the appearance of volatile organic compounds emitted by plants which correspond to time of first insect attack can be used to detect the early stages of insect infestation. This paper reports a chemical sensor array consisting of polymer based chemiresistor sensors that could detect insect infestation effectively. The sensor array consists of sensors with micro electronically fabricated interdigitated electrodes, and twelve different types of electro active polymer layers. The sensor array was cheap, easy to fabricate, and could be used easily in agricultural fields. The polymer array was found to be sensitive to a variety of volatile organic compounds emitted by plants including γ-terpinene α-pinene, pcymene, farnesene, limonene and cis-hexenyl acetate. The sensor array was not only able to detect but also distinguish between these compounds. The twelve sensors produced a resistance change for each of the analytes detected, and each of these responses together produced a unique fingerprint, enabling to distinguish among these chemicals.

  15. Tube-Super Dielectric Materials: Electrostatic Capacitors with Energy Density Greater than 200 J·cm−3 (United States)

    Cortes, Francisco Javier Quintero; Phillips, Jonathan


    The construction and performance of a second generation of super dielectric material based electrostatic capacitors (EC), with energy density greater than 200 J·cm−3, which rival the best reported energy density of electric double layer capacitors (EDLC), also known as supercapacitors, are reported. The first generation super dielectric materials (SDM) are multi-material mixtures with dielectric constants greater than 1.0 × 105, composed of a porous, electrically insulating powder filled with a polarizable, ion-containing liquid. Second-generation SDMs (TSDM), introduced here, are anodic titania nanotube arrays filled with concentrated aqueous salt solutions. Capacitors using TiO2 based TSDM were found to have dielectric constants at ~0 Hz greater than 107 in all cases, a maximum operating voltage of greater than 2 volts and remarkable energy density that surpasses the highest previously reported for EC capacitors by approximately one order of magnitude. A simple model based on the classic ponderable media model was shown to be largely consistent with data from nine EC type capacitors employing TSDM. PMID:28793561

  16. Tube-Super Dielectric Materials: Electrostatic Capacitors with Energy Density Greater than 200 J·cm−3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Quintero Cortes


    Full Text Available The construction and performance of a second generation of super dielectric material based electrostatic capacitors (EC, with energy density greater than 200 J·cm−3, which rival the best reported energy density of electric double layer capacitors (EDLC, also known as supercapacitors, are reported. The first generation super dielectric materials (SDM are multi-material mixtures with dielectric constants greater than 1.0 × 105, composed of a porous, electrically insulating powder filled with a polarizable, ion-containing liquid. Second-generation SDMs (TSDM, introduced here, are anodic titania nanotube arrays filled with concentrated aqueous salt solutions. Capacitors using TiO2 based TSDM were found to have dielectric constants at ~0 Hz greater than 107 in all cases, a maximum operating voltage of greater than 2 volts and remarkable energy density that surpasses the highest previously reported for EC capacitors by approximately one order of magnitude. A simple model based on the classic ponderable media model was shown to be largely consistent with data from nine EC type capacitors employing TSDM.

  17. Matching Properties of Femtofarad and Sub-Femtofarad MOM Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham


    Small metal-oxide-metal (MOM) capacitors are essential to energy-efficient mixed-signal integrated circuit design. However, only few reports discuss their matching properties based on large sets of measured data. In this paper, we report matching properties of femtofarad and sub-femtofarad MOM vertical-field parallel-plate capacitors and lateral-field fringing capacitors. We study the effect of both the finger-length and finger-spacing on the mismatch of lateral-field capacitors. In addition, we compare the matching properties and the area efficiency of vertical-field and lateral-field capacitors. We use direct mismatch measurement technique, and we illustrate its feasibility using experimental measurements and Monte Carlo simulations. The test-chips are fabricated in a 0.18 \\\\mutext{m} CMOS process. A large number of test structures is characterized (4800 test structures), which improves the statistical reliability of the extracted mismatch information. Despite conventional wisdom, extensive measurements show that vertical-field and lateral-field MOM capacitors have the same matching properties when the actual capacitor area is considered. Measurements show that the mismatch depends on the capacitor area but not on the spacing; thus, for a given mismatch specification, the lateral-field MOM capacitor can have arbitrarily small capacitance by increasing the spacing between the capacitor fingers, at the expense of increased chip area.

  18. Design and Control of a Multiple Input DC/DC Converter for Battery/Ultra-capacitor Based Electric Vehicle Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik; Li, Zhihao; Onar, Omer


    Battery/Ultra-capacitor based electrical vehicles (EV) combine two energy sources with different voltage levels and current characteristics. This paper focuses on design and control of a multiple input DC/DC converter, to regulate output voltage from different inputs. The proposed multi......-input converter is capable of bi-directional operation and is responsible for power diversification and optimization. A fixed switching frequency strategy is considered to control its operating modes. A portion of New York City Cycle that includes these operation modes is used to perform the analyses....

  19. An ASI Suppression Scheme Based on Array Synthesis (United States)

    Zhu, Jinhua; Liu, Peixi; Luo, Wu


    An adjacent satellite interference (ASI) suppression scheme based on transmitting antennas array synthesis is proposed in this paper. The scheme ensures the ASI under the upper bound specified by international regulations, and simultaneously maximize the main-axis radiated power. Specifically, the interference suppression problem is converted into a uniform linear array (ULA) synthesis problem, and then solved by two algorithms. Numerical results are presented to illustrate the performance of the scheme.

  20. Capacitor discharge pulse analysis.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Michael Sean; Griffiths, Stewart K.; Tanner, Danelle Mary


    Capacitors used in firing sets and other high discharge current applications are discharge tested to verify performance of the capacitor against the application requirements. Parameters such as capacitance, inductance, rise time, pulse width, peak current and current reversal must be verified to ensure that the capacitor will meet the application needs. This report summarizes an analysis performed on the discharge current data to extract these parameters by fitting a second-order system model to the discharge data and using this fit to determine the resulting performance metrics. Details of the theory and implementation are presented. Using the best-fit second-order system model to extract these metrics results in less sensitivity to noise in the measured data and allows for direct extraction of the total series resistance, inductance, and capacitance.

  1. Nonvolatile Resistance Random Access Memory Devices Based on ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Wen Ji


    Full Text Available In this paper, a nonvolatile resistance random access memory (RRAM device based on ZnO nanorod arrays has been fabricated and characterized. Vertically aligned ZnO nanorod layers (NRLs were deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO electrodes using a hydrothermal process/ chemical bath deposition (CBD. It can be found the Ag/ZnO NRL/ITO capacitor exhibits bipolar resistive switching behavior. The resistive switching behavior may be related to the oxygen vacancies and/or zinc interstitials confined on the surface of the ZnO NRs, giving rise to the formation of straight and extensible conducting path along each ZnO NR. Furthermore, superior stability in resistive switching characteristics was also observed. Both growing times and annealing times were investigated and annealing was done in oxygen for 3, 6 and 9 minutes at different temperatures. For ZnO nanorods that had been annealed for 6 minutes the forming voltage was about 6.06V, the Set voltage was about 3.25V and the Reset voltage was -2.78V. The original resistance was 7×106Ω. The resistance in the low-resistance state was 108Ω and in the high-resistance state was 2016Ω, the resistance ratio was 18.7.

  2. Electric Double Layer Capacitor (EDLC) based Mismatching Losses Reduction under Fast-Shaded Conditions of PV Modules (United States)

    Syafaruddin; Tanaka, Yasuyuki; Karatepe, Engin; Hiyama, Takashi

    Fast-moving irradiance condition is one of problems that need to be solved in the non-stationary conventional maximum power point (MPP) trackers of PV system. Under sudden irradiance changes, the output power is changed drastically that leads to the shifting in MPP voltage. Conventional MPP algorithms may start continuously to search for finding the optimum point. However, suddenly another shadow can occur prior to complete removing of previous shadow. Continuing the tracking process under this condition will cause to lose energy. This paper presents the electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) as the power compensation method for improving the maximum power transfer of PV system under short-term period of shading. Several scenarios are tested in this work by measurement the percentage of power compensation, for instance the effect of capacitor size to the period of shading, the effects of shading period to the level shading intensity and cell temperature. This paper is directly purposed to reduce the power losses for moving objects powered by solar energy, such as solar car and solar boat systems.

  3. Vision communications based on LED array and imaging sensor (United States)

    Yoo, Jong-Ho; Jung, Sung-Yoon


    In this paper, we propose a brand new communication concept, called as "vision communication" based on LED array and image sensor. This system consists of LED array as a transmitter and digital device which include image sensor such as CCD and CMOS as receiver. In order to transmit data, the proposed communication scheme simultaneously uses the digital image processing and optical wireless communication scheme. Therefore, the cognitive communication scheme is possible with the help of recognition techniques used in vision system. By increasing data rate, our scheme can use LED array consisting of several multi-spectral LEDs. Because arranged each LED can emit multi-spectral optical signal such as visible, infrared and ultraviolet light, the increase of data rate is possible similar to WDM and MIMO skills used in traditional optical and wireless communications. In addition, this multi-spectral capability also makes it possible to avoid the optical noises in communication environment. In our vision communication scheme, the data packet is composed of Sync. data and information data. Sync. data is used to detect the transmitter area and calibrate the distorted image snapshots obtained by image sensor. By making the optical rate of LED array be same with the frame rate (frames per second) of image sensor, we can decode the information data included in each image snapshot based on image processing and optical wireless communication techniques. Through experiment based on practical test bed system, we confirm the feasibility of the proposed vision communications based on LED array and image sensor.

  4. Memory cell operation based on small Josephson junctions arrays (United States)

    Braiman, Y.; Nair, N.; Rezac, J.; Imam, N.


    In this paper we analyze a cryogenic memory cell circuit based on a small coupled array of Josephson junctions. All the basic memory operations (e.g., write, read, and reset) are implemented on the same circuit and different junctions in the array can in principle be utilized for these operations. The presented memory operation paradigm is fundamentally different from conventional single quantum flux operation logics (SFQ). As an example, we demonstrate memory operation driven by a SFQ pulse employing an inductively coupled array of three Josephson junctions. We have chosen realistic Josephson junction parameters based on state-of-the-art fabrication capabilities and have calculated access times and access energies for basic memory cell operations. We also implemented an optimization procedure based on the simulated annealing algorithm to calculate the optimized and typical values of access times and access energies.

  5. Dimensional stability and electrochemical behaviour of ZrO2 incorporated electrospun PVdF-HFP based nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolyte for Li-ion capacitors (United States)

    Solarajan, Arun Kumar; Murugadoss, Vignesh; Angaiah, Subramania


    Different weight percentages of ZrO2 (0, 3, 5, 7 and 10 wt%) incorporated electrospun PVDF-HFP nanocomposite polymer membranes (esCPMs) were prepared by electrospinning technique. They were activated by soaking in 1 M LiPF6 containing 1:1 volume ratio of EC : DMC (ethylene carbonate:dimethyl carbonate) to get electrospun nanocomposite polymer membrane electrolytes (esCPMEs). The influence of ZrO2 on the physical, mechanical and electrochemical properties of esCPM was studied in detail. Finally, coin type Li-ion capacitor cell was assembled using LiCo0.2Mn1.8O4 as the cathode, Activated carbon as the anode and the esCPME containing 7 wt% of ZrO2 as the separator, which delivered a discharge capacitance of 182.5 Fg-1 at the current density of 1Ag-1 and retained 92% of its initial discharge capacitance even after 2,000 cycles. It revealed that the electrospun PVdF-HFP/ZrO2 based nanocomposite membrane electrolyte could be used as a good candidate for high performance Li-ion capacitors.

  6. A Ferrite LTCC-Based Monolithic SIW Phased Antenna Array

    KAUST Repository

    Nafe, Ahmed


    In this work, we present a novel configuration for realizing monolithic SIW-based phased antenna arrays using Ferrite LTCC technology. Unlike the current common schemes for realizing SIW phased arrays that rely on surface-mount component (p-i-n diodes, etc) for controlling the phase of the individual antenna elements, here the phase is tuned by biasing of the ferrite filling of the SIW. This approach eliminates the need for mounting of any additional RF components and enables seamless monolithic integration of phase shifters and antennas in SIW technology. As a proof of concept, a two-element slotted SIW-based phased array is designed, fabricated and measured. The prototype exhibits a gain of 4.9 dBi at 13.2 GHz and a maximum E-plane beam-scanning of 28 degrees using external windings for biasing the phase shifters. Moreover, the array can achieve a maximum beam-scanning of 19 degrees when biased with small windings that are embedded in the package. This demonstration marks the first time a fully monolithic SIW-based phased array is realized in Ferrite LTCC technology and paves the way for future larger-size implementations.

  7. ZnO Nanowire Array-Based Optoelectronic Devices


    Wang, Guoping


    ZnO nanowire array-based optoelectronic devices are discussed in this dissertation. ZnO has a wide band gap of 3.37 eV and a large exciton binding energy of 60 meV at room temperature, which make it a promising candidate for optoelectronic devices such as blue-light emitting diodes, ultraviolet laser diodes and photodiodes. Recently, there have been tremendous interests in ZnO nanowire arrays. It is well known that one of the biggest challenges toward good ZnO-based optoelectronic devices is ...

  8. Low Power Systolic Array Based Digital Filter for DSP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthick


    Full Text Available Main concepts in DSP include filtering, averaging, modulating, and correlating the signals in digital form to estimate characteristic parameter of a signal into a desirable form. This paper presents a brief concept of low power datapath impact for Digital Signal Processing (DSP based biomedical application. Systolic array based digital filter used in signal processing of electrocardiogram analysis is presented with datapath architectural innovations in low power consumption perspective. Implementation was done with ASIC design methodology using TSMC 65 nm technological library node. The proposed systolic array filter has reduced leakage power up to 8.5% than the existing filter architectures.

  9. Polymer based micro-array sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sharpe, R.B.A.; Rensing, P.A.; Heck, G.T. van; Allard, B.A.M.; Koetse, M.M.; Meulendijks, N.N.M.M.; Kruijt, P.G.M.; Tijdink, M.W.W.J.; Zwart, R.M. de; Veen, S.J.J.F. van; Schoo, H.F.M.


    The introduction in the market of ubiquitous sensing applications relies heavily on the availability of affordable sensors. Key in the cost of a sensor is its modus of manufacture. In this paper a sensing scheme is presented, in which the signal transduction is based on an induced change in the

  10. Influence of temperature on the dielectric nonlinearity of BaTiO{sub 3}-based multi-layer ceramic capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok-Hyun, E-mail:; Kim, Mi-Yang [LCR Materials Group, Corporate R& D Institute, Samsung Electro-Mechanics Co., Ltd., Suwon, Gyunggi-Do 443-743 (Korea, Republic of)


    Temperature dependence of the dielectric nonlinearity was investigated for the BaTiO{sub 3} multilayer ceramic capacitor. The decrease in temperature caused a significant increase in the degree of dielectric nonlinearity. The Preisach analysis shows that such effect corresponds to a decrease in reversible and a significant increase in irreversible domain wall contribution to polarization. The magnitude of spontaneous polarization (P{sub S}) was increased with decreasing temperature. It can be associated with phase transition from pseudo-cubic to monoclinic and its resultant change in the polar direction, which was observed through transmission electron microscopy. These results demonstrate that the increase in P{sub S} with the decrease in temperature inhibits domain wall motion in low driving field as it is anticipated to increase the degree of intergranular constraints during domain wall motion. But it results in a more steep increase in the dielectric constants beyond the threshold field where domain wall motion can occur.

  11. Model Based Reconstruction of UT Array Data (United States)

    Calmon, P.; Iakovleva, E.; Fidahoussen, A.; Ribay, G.; Chatillon, S.


    Beyond the detection of defects, their characterization (identification, positioning, sizing) is one goal of great importance often assigned to the analysis of NDT data. The first step of such analysis in the case of ultrasonic testing amounts to image in the part the detected echoes. This operation is in general achieved by considering time of flights and by applying simplified algorithms which are often valid only on canonical situations. In this communication we present an overview of different imaging techniques studied at CEA LIST and based on the exploitation of direct models which enable to address complex configurations and are available in the CIVA software plat-form. We discuss in particular ray-model based algorithms, algorithms derived from classical synthetic focusing and processing of the full inter-element matrix (MUSIC algorithm).

  12. Increasing Electric Field Strength of Polymer Capacitors (Preprint) (United States)


    AFRL-RX-WP-JA-2017-0496 INCREASING ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH OF POLYMER CAPACITORS (PREPRINT) Fahima Ouchen KBRWyle James Grote...COVERED (From - To) 31 October 2017 Interim 24 January 2014 – 30 September 2017 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INCREASING ELECTRIC FIELD STRENGTH OF...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) Increased electric field breakdown in several polymer-based capacitor dielectrics, including biaxially oriented

  13. Analytical evaluation of DC capacitor RMS current and voltage ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The sizing of the DC-link capacitor in a three-level inverter is based on the RMS current flowing through it. This paper analyses the DC-link capacitor RMS current in a neutral-point clamped (NPC) inverter and expresses the same as a function of modulation index, line-side current amplitude and power factor. Analytical ...

  14. Fiber-array based optogenetic prosthetic system for stimulation therapy (United States)

    Gu, Ling; Cote, Chris; Tejeda, Hector; Mohanty, Samarendra


    Recent advent of optogenetics has enabled activation of genetically-targeted neuronal cells using low intensity blue light with high temporal precision. Since blue light is attenuated rapidly due to scattering and absorption in neural tissue, optogenetic treatment of neurological disorders may require stimulation of specific cell types in multiple regions of the brain. Further, restoration of certain neural functions (vision, and auditory etc) requires accurate spatio-temporal stimulation patterns rather than just precise temporal stimulation. In order to activate multiple regions of the central nervous system in 3D, here, we report development of an optogenetic prosthetic comprising of array of fibers coupled to independently-controllable LEDs. This design avoids direct contact of LEDs with the brain tissue and thus does not require electrical and heat isolation, which can non-specifically stimulate and damage the local brain regions. The intensity, frequency, and duty cycle of light pulses from each fiber in the array was controlled independently using an inhouse developed LabView based program interfaced with a microcontroller driving the individual LEDs. While the temporal profile of the light pulses was controlled by varying the current driving the LED, the beam profile emanating from each fiber tip could be sculpted by microfabrication of the fiber tip. The fiber array was used to stimulate neurons, expressing channelrhodopsin-2, in different locations within the brain or retina. Control of neural activity in the mice cortex, using the fiber-array based prosthetic, is evaluated from recordings made with multi-electrode array (MEA). We also report construction of a μLED array based prosthetic for spatio-temporal stimulation of cortex.

  15. Small Area Array-Based LED Luminaire Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Yuan


    This report contains a summary of technical achievements during a three-year project to demonstrate high efficiency LED luminaire designs based on small area array-based gallium nitride diodes. Novel GaN-based LED array designs are described, specifically addressing the thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements for the incorporation of such arrays into viable solid-state LED luminaires. This work resulted in the demonstration of an integrated luminaire prototype of 1000 lumens cool white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 89.4 lm/W at CCT of 6000oK and CRI of 73; and performance of 903 lumens warm white light output with reflector shaped beams and efficacy of 63.0 lm/W at CCT of 2800oK and CRI of 82. In addition, up to 1275 lumens cool white light output at 114.2 lm/W and 1156 lumens warm white light output at 76.5 lm/W were achieved if the reflector was not used. The success to integrate small area array-based LED designs and address thermal, optical, electrical and mechanical requirements was clearly achieved in these luminaire prototypes with outstanding performance and high efficiency.

  16. Characterization of diffusivity based on spherical array processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Melanie; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    The purpose of this study is to assess the diffuse field conditions in a reverberant space using a sound field reconstruction method based on spherical microphone array measurements. Spherical microphone arrays are particularly well suited for applications in non-anechoic enclosures, where...... in such an environment. This initial investigation shows the validity of the suggested processing and reveals interesting perspectives for future work. Ultimately, the aim is to define a proper and reliable measure of the diffuse sound field conditions in a reverberation chamber, with the prospect of improving...

  17. Optical carbon dioxide sensor based on fluorescent capillary array (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Wen, Zhihui; Yang, Bo; Yang, Xuefeng

    A novel carbon dioxide (CO2) gas sensor based on capillary array is presented. The capillary array is composed of 51 capillaries and modified by fluorescent dye 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS, PTS-) and tetraoctylammonium cation (TOA+) doped porous ethyl cellulose. A Y-fiber is used to transmit exciting light and fluorescence. A fiber optic pigtail-contained spectrophotometer is used to collect and deal with optical signals. Due to its structural features, each capillary has the two rolling-up layers of inner and outer sensing films, which make the 2 cm long capillary array has large sensing area about 12.81 cm2 and the fluorescence signal easily be collected. The sensing probe has advantages such as small volume, compact structure and large sensing area. The results demonstrate that the sensor has a linear response in the CO2 volume ratio range from 0 to 10%.

  18. Tin Oxide Nanorod Array-Based Electrochemical Hydrogen Peroxide Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jinping


    Full Text Available Abstract SnO2 nanorod array grown directly on alloy substrate has been employed as the working electrode of H2O2 biosensor. Single-crystalline SnO2 nanorods provide not only low isoelectric point and enough void spaces for facile horseradish peroxidase (HRP immobilization but also numerous conductive channels for electron transport to and from current collector; thus, leading to direct electrochemistry of HRP. The nanorod array-based biosensor demonstrates high H2O2 sensing performance in terms of excellent sensitivity (379 μA mM−1 cm−2, low detection limit (0.2 μM and high selectivity with the apparent Michaelis–Menten constant estimated to be as small as 33.9 μM. Our work further demonstrates the advantages of ordered array architecture in electrochemical device application and sheds light on the construction of other high-performance enzymatic biosensors.

  19. Dielectric-elastomer-based fabrication method for varifocal microlens array. (United States)

    Wang, Lihui; Hayakawa, Tomohiko; Ishikawa, Masatoshi


    We report on a method to fabricate a varifocal microlens array that employs a dielectric elastomer (DE) sandwiched between two electrodes as the lens material. The microlens array is patterned on the electrode plates, and when the electrodes are subjected to a controllable operating voltage, the DE material is "squeezed" by the Maxwell force to deform the lens array pattern, thus resulting in curvature deformation yielding a tunable lens profile. The tunable focal length performance ranges from 950 mm to infinity. When compared with liquid-filled lenses, solid-based varifocal lenses are more robust to thermal expansion, gravity, and vibrational motion. Our approach can be utilized in applications such as machine vision systems.

  20. Lifetime Estimation of Electrolytic Capacitors in Fuel Cell Power Converter at Various Confidence Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    based lifetime expectancy of the individual capacitor and the capacitor bank is estimated in a fuel cell backup power converter operating in both standby mode and operation mode. The lifetime prediction of the capacitor banks at different confidence levels is also obtained....

  1. Degradation Effect on Reliability Evaluation of Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor in Backup Power Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede


    be further extended to lower stress levels. Then, in a case study of a fuel cell backup power application, the mission profile based lifetime expectancy of the individual capacitor and the capacitor bank is estimated in terms of the standby mode and operation mode. The lifetime prediction of the capacitor...... banks can be obtained and compared with and without the degradation effect....

  2. New CMOS-based Resistor-less Current-mode First-order All-pass Flter Using Only Ten Transistors and One External Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lahiri


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new, compact CMOS realization of current-mode (CM first-order all-pass filter (APF using no external resistors. The circuit is created using only ten transistors and one external capacitor. The circuit uses lower number of transistors as compared to previously reported CM APFs using active building block (ABB based approach. A comparison with previously reported CM APFs in terms of number of transistors and current consumption has been provided. As a design example, a 512 kHz pole-frequency (at typical process and 27ºC CM APF is designed in 40nm CMOS technology and validated through SPICE simulations.

  3. Battery Management System—Balancing Modularization Based on a Single Switched Capacitor and Bi-Directional DC/DC Converter with the Auxiliary Battery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Daowd


    Full Text Available Lithium-based batteries are considered as the most advanced batteries technology, which can be designed for high energy or high power storage systems. However, the battery cells are never fully identical due to the fabrication process, surrounding environment factors and differences between the cells tend to grow if no measures are taken. In order to have a high performance battery system, the battery cells should be continuously balanced for maintain the variation between the cells as small as possible. Without an appropriate balancing system, the individual cell voltages will differ over time and battery system capacity will decrease quickly. These issues will limit the electric range of the electric vehicle (EV and some cells will undergo higher stress, whereby the cycle life of these cells will be shorter. Quite a lot of cell balancing/equalization topologies have been previously proposed. These balancing topologies can be categorized into passive and active balancing. Active topologies are categorized according to the active element used for storing the energy such as capacitor and/or inductive component as well as controlling switches or converters. This paper proposes an intelligent battery management system (BMS including a battery pack charging and discharging control with a battery pack thermal management system. The BMS user input/output interfacing. The battery balancing system is based on battery pack modularization architecture. The proposed modularized balancing system has different equalization systems that operate inside and outside the modules. Innovative single switched capacitor (SSC control strategy is proposed to balance between the battery cells in the module (inside module balancing, IMB. Novel utilization of isolated bidirectional DC/DC converter (IBC is proposed to balance between the modules with the aid of the EV auxiliary battery (AB. Finally an experimental step-up has been implemented for the validation of the

  4. Conformal transistor arrays based on solution-processed organic crystals. (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhang, Bing; Tang, Qingxin; Ding, Xueyan; Wang, Shuya; Zhou, Yuying; Tong, Yanhong; Liu, Yichun


    Conformal transistor array based on solution-processed organic crystals, which can provide sensory and scanning features for monitoring, biofeedback, and tracking of physiological function, presents one of the most promising technologies for future large-scale low-cost wearable and implantable electronics. However, it is still a huge challenge for the integration of solution-processed organic crystals into conformal FETs owing to a generally existing swelling phenomenon of the elastic materials and the lack of the corresponding device fabrication technology. Here, we present a promising route to fabricate a conformal field-effect transistor (FET) array based on solution-processed TIPS-pentacene single-crystal micro/nanowire array. By simply drop-casting the organic solution on an anti-solvent photolithography-compatible electrode with bottom-contact coplanar configuration, the transistor array can be formed and can conform onto uneven objects. Excellent electrical properties with device yield as high as 100%, field-effect mobility up to 0.79 cm 2 V -1 s -1 , low threshold voltage, and good device uniformity are demonstrated. The results open up the capability of solution-processed organic crystals for conformal electronics, suggesting their substantial promise for next-generation wearable and implantable electronics.

  5. Planar Thinned Arrays: Optimization and Subarray Based Adaptive Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Lombardo


    Full Text Available A new approach is presented for the optimized design of a planar thinned array; the proposed strategy works with single antenna elements or with small sets of different subarray types, properly located on a planar surface. The optimization approach is based on the maximization of an objective function accounting for side lobe level and considering a fixed number of active elements/subarrays. The proposed technique is suitable for different shapes of the desired output array, allowing the achievement of the desired directivity properties on the corresponding antenna pattern. The use of subarrays with a limited number of different shapes is relevant for industrial production, which would benefit from reduced design and manufacturing costs. The resulting modularity allows scalable antenna designs for different applications. Moreover, subarrays can be arranged in a set of subapertures, each connected to an independent receiving channel. Therefore, adaptive processing techniques could be applied to cope with and mitigate clutter echoes and external electromagnetic interferences. The performance of adaptive techniques with subapertures taken from the optimized thinned array is evaluated against assigned clutter and jamming scenarios and compared to the performance achievable considering a subarray based filled array with the same number of active elements.

  6. Analog Optical Computing Based on Dielectric Meta-reflect-array

    CERN Document Server

    Chizari, Ata; Jamali, Mohammad Vahid; Salehi, Jawad A


    In this paper, we realize the concept of analog computing using an array of engineered gradient dielectric meta-reflect-array. The proposed configuration consists of individual subwavelength silicon nanobricks in combination with fused silica spacer and silver ground plane realizing a reflection beam with full phase coverage $2\\pi$ degrees as well as amplitude range $0$ to $1$. Spectrally overlapping electric and magnetic dipole resonances, such high-index dielectric metasurfaces can locally and independently manipulate the amplitude and phase of the incident electromagnetic wave. This practically feasible structure overcomes substantial limitations imposed by plasmonic metasurfaces such as absorption losses and low polarization conversion efficiency in the visible range. Using such CMOS-compatible and easily integrable platforms promises highly efficient ultrathin planar wave-based computing systems which circumvent the drawbacks of conventional bulky lens-based signal processors. Based on these key properti...

  7. Evaluation of Commercial Automotive-Grade BME Capacitors (United States)

    Liu, Donhang


    Three Ni-BaTiO3 ceramic capacitor lots with the same specification (chip size, capacitance, and rated voltage) and the same reliability level, made by three different manufacturers, were degraded using highly accelerated life stress testing (HALST) with the same temperature and applied voltage conditions. The reliability, as characterized by mean time to failure (MTTF), differed by more than one order of magnitude among the capacitor lots. A theoretical model based on the existence of depletion layers at grain boundaries and the entrapment of oxygen vacancies has been proposed to explain the MTTF difference among these BME capacitors. It is the conclusion of this model that reliability will not be improved simply by increasing the insulation resistance of a BME capacitor. Indeed, Ni-BaTiO3 ceramic capacitors with a smaller degradation rate constant K will always give rise to a longer reliability life.

  8. Optical carbon dioxide sensor based on fluorescent capillary array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    Full Text Available A novel carbon dioxide (CO2 gas sensor based on capillary array is presented. The capillary array is composed of 51 capillaries and modified by fluorescent dye 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (HPTS, PTS− and tetraoctylammonium cation (TOA+ doped porous ethyl cellulose. A Y-fiber is used to transmit exciting light and fluorescence. A fiber optic pigtail-contained spectrophotometer is used to collect and deal with optical signals. Due to its structural features, each capillary has the two rolling-up layers of inner and outer sensing films, which make the 2 cm long capillary array has large sensing area about 12.81 cm2 and the fluorescence signal easily be collected. The sensing probe has advantages such as small volume, compact structure and large sensing area. The results demonstrate that the sensor has a linear response in the CO2 volume ratio range from 0 to 10%. Keywords: Carbon dioxide chemical sensor, Fluorescence sensor, Capillary array

  9. Microcantilever array instrument based on optical fiber and performance analysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Guangping; Wu, Lin; Li, Chao; Wu, Shangquan; Zhang, Qingchuan


    We developed a microcantilever array biosensor instrument based on optical readout from a microcantilever array in fluid environment. The microcantilever signals were read out sequentially by laser beams emitted from eight optical fibers. The optical fibers were coupled to lasers, while the other ends of the fibers were embedded in eight V-grooves with 250 μm pitch microfabricated from a Si wafer. Aspherical lens was used to keep the distance between lasers. A programmable logic controller was used to make the system work stably. To make sure that the output of lasers was stable, a temperature controller was set up for each laser. When the deflection signal was collected, lasers used here were set to be on for at least 400 ms in each scanning cycle to get high signal-to-noise ratio deflection curves. A test was performed by changing the temperature of the liquid cell holding a microcantilever array to verify the consistent response of the instrument to the cantilever deflections. The stability and conformance of the instrument were demonstrated by quantitative detection of mercury ions in aqueous solution and comparison detection of clenbuterol by setting test and reference cantilevers. This microcantilever array detection instrument can be applied to highly sensitive detection of chemical and biological molecules in fluid environment.

  10. An optomechatronic curvature measurement array based on fiber Bragg gratings (United States)

    Chang, Hsing-Cheng; Chang, I.-Nan; Chen, Ya-Hui; Lin, Shyan-Lung; Hung, San-Shan; Lin, Jung-Chih; Liu, Wen-Fung


    This study investigated an optomechatronic array-integrated signal processing module and a human-machine interface based on fiber Bragg grating sensing elements embedded in an elastic support matrix that involves using a self-located electromagnetic mechanism for curvature sensing and solid contour reconstruction. Using bilinear interpolation and average calculation methods, the smooth and accurate surface contours of convex and concave lenses are reconstructed in real-time. The elastic supporting optical sensing array is self-balanced to reduce operational errors. Compared with our previous single-head sensor, the sensitivity of the proposed array is improved by more than 15%. In the curvature range from -20.15 to +27.09 m-1, the sensitivities are 3.53 pm m for the convex measurement and 2.15 pm m for the concave measurement with an error rate below 8.89%. The curvature resolutions are 0.283 and 0.465 m-1 for convex and concave lenses, respectively. This array could be applied in the curvature measurement of solar collectors to monitor energy conversion efficiency or could be used to monitor the wafer-level thin-film fabrication process.

  11. Physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays (United States)

    Candy, James V; Clague, David S; Lee, Christopher L; Rudd, Robert E; Burnham, Alan K; Tringe, Joseph W


    A method of using physics-based signal processing algorithms for micromachined cantilever arrays. The methods utilize deflection of a micromachined cantilever that represents the chemical, biological, or physical element being detected. One embodiment of the method comprises the steps of modeling the deflection of the micromachined cantilever producing a deflection model, sensing the deflection of the micromachined cantilever and producing a signal representing the deflection, and comparing the signal representing the deflection with the deflection model.

  12. Model-based processing for underwater acoustic arrays

    CERN Document Server

    Sullivan, Edmund J


    This monograph presents a unified approach to model-based processing for underwater acoustic arrays. The use of physical models in passive array processing is not a new idea, but it has been used on a case-by-case basis, and as such, lacks any unifying structure. This work views all such processing methods as estimation procedures, which then can be unified by treating them all as a form of joint estimation based on a Kalman-type recursive processor, which can be recursive either in space or time, depending on the application. This is done for three reasons. First, the Kalman filter provides a natural framework for the inclusion of physical models in a processing scheme. Second, it allows poorly known model parameters to be jointly estimated along with the quantities of interest. This is important, since in certain areas of array processing already in use, such as those based on matched-field processing, the so-called mismatch problem either degrades performance or, indeed, prevents any solution at all. Third...

  13. Capacitor assembly and related method of forming (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Tan, Daniel Qi; Sullivan, Jeffrey S.


    A capacitor assembly is disclosed. The capacitor assembly includes a housing. The capacitor assembly further includes a plurality of capacitors disposed within the housing. Furthermore, the capacitor assembly includes a thermally conductive article disposed about at least a portion of a capacitor body of the capacitors, and in thermal contact with the capacitor body. Moreover, the capacitor assembly also includes a heat sink disposed within the housing and in thermal contact with at least a portion of the housing and the thermally conductive article such that the heat sink is configured to remove heat from the capacitor in a radial direction of the capacitor assembly. Further, a method of forming the capacitor assembly is also presented.

  14. Pulsar Timing Array Based Search for Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in the Square Kilometer Array Era (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.


    The advent of next generation radio telescope facilities, such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), will usher in an era where a pulsar timing array (PTA) based search for gravitational waves (GWs) will be able to use hundreds of well timed millisecond pulsars rather than the few dozens in existing PTAs. A realistic assessment of the performance of such an extremely large PTA must take into account the data analysis challenge posed by an exponential increase in the parameter space volume due to the large number of so-called pulsar phase parameters. We address this problem and present such an assessment for isolated supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) searches using a SKA era PTA containing 1 03 pulsars. We find that an all-sky search will be able to confidently detect nonevolving sources with a redshifted chirp mass of 1 010 M⊙ out to a redshift of about 28 (corresponding to a rest-frame chirp mass of 3.4 ×1 08 M⊙). We discuss the important implications that the large distance reach of a SKA era PTA has on GW observations from optically identified SMBHB candidates. If no SMBHB detections occur, a highly unlikely scenario in the light of our results, the sky-averaged upper limit on strain amplitude will be improved by about 3 orders of magnitude over existing limits.

  15. Pulsar Timing Array Based Search for Supermassive Black Hole Binaries in the Square Kilometer Array Era. (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D


    The advent of next generation radio telescope facilities, such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA), will usher in an era where a pulsar timing array (PTA) based search for gravitational waves (GWs) will be able to use hundreds of well timed millisecond pulsars rather than the few dozens in existing PTAs. A realistic assessment of the performance of such an extremely large PTA must take into account the data analysis challenge posed by an exponential increase in the parameter space volume due to the large number of so-called pulsar phase parameters. We address this problem and present such an assessment for isolated supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) searches using a SKA era PTA containing 10^{3} pulsars. We find that an all-sky search will be able to confidently detect nonevolving sources with a redshifted chirp mass of 10^{10}  M_{⊙} out to a redshift of about 28 (corresponding to a rest-frame chirp mass of 3.4×10^{8}  M_{⊙}). We discuss the important implications that the large distance reach of a SKA era PTA has on GW observations from optically identified SMBHB candidates. If no SMBHB detections occur, a highly unlikely scenario in the light of our results, the sky-averaged upper limit on strain amplitude will be improved by about 3 orders of magnitude over existing limits.

  16. High-performance flexible supercapacitor based on porous array electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shieh, Jen-Yu; Tsai, Sung-Ying; Li, Bo-Yan [Institute of Electro-Optical and Materials Science, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China); Yu, Hsin Her, E-mail: [Department of Biotechnology, National Formosa University, 64 Wenhua Road, Huwei, Yunlin 63208, Taiwan (China)


    In this study, an array of polystyrene (PS) spheres was synthesized by a dispersion-polymerization technique as a template onto which a porous polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microarray structure was fabricated by soft lithography. A conducting layer was coated on the surface of the microarray after a suspension of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) mixed with graphene (G) had been poured into the porous array. A PDMS-based porous supercapacitor was assembled by sandwiching a separator between two porous electrodes filled with a H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) gel electrolyte. The specific capacitance, electrochemical properties, and cycle stability of the porous electrode supercapacitors were explored. The porous PDMS-electrode-based supercapacitor exhibited high specific capacitance and good cycle stability, indicating its enormous potential for future applications in wearable and portable electronic products. - Highlights: • Porous electrode was prepared using an array of polystyrene spheres as template. • The porous electrodes provided increased contact area with the electrolyte. • A gel electrolyte averted problems with leakage and poor interfacial contact. • A larger separator pore size effectively reduced the internal resistance, iR{sub drop}. • Porous PDMS supercapacitor showed superior flexibility and cycling stability.

  17. PATL: A RFID Tag Localization based on Phased Array Antenna. (United States)

    Qiu, Lanxin; Liang, Xiaoxuan; Huang, Zhangqin


    In RFID systems, how to detect the position precisely is an important and challenging research topic. In this paper, we propose a range-free 2D tag localization method based on phased array antenna, called PATL. This method takes advantage of the adjustable radiation angle of the phased array antenna to scan the surveillance region in turns. By using the statistics of the tags' number in different antenna beam directions, a weighting algorithm is used to calculate the position of the tag. This method can be applied to real-time location of multiple targets without usage of any reference tags or additional readers. Additionally, we present an optimized weighting method based on RSSI to increase the locating accuracy. We use a Commercial Off-the-Shelf (COTS) UHF RFID reader which is integrated with a phased array antenna to evaluate our method. The experiment results from an indoor office environment demonstrate the average distance error of PATL is about 21 cm and the optimized approach achieves an accuracy of 13 cm. This novel 2D localization scheme is a simple, yet promising, solution that is especially applicable to the smart shelf visualized management in storage or retail area.

  18. Electrically tunable terahertz metamaterials based on graphene stacks array (United States)

    Liu, Hanqing; Liu, Peiguo; Bian, Li-an; Liu, Chenxi; Zhou, Qihui; Chen, Yuwei


    With the ability of tuning chemical potential via gate voltage, the permittivity of graphene stack can be dynamically adjusted over a wide range. In this paper, we design electrically tunable metamaterials based on the graphene/Al2O3 stacks array, which can achieve a good modulation of resonant frequency and peak value in terahertz region. Due to the enlargement of plasmonic resonance response and the broaden distribution of electric field, our proposed structures perform a better tunability compared with traditional metamaterials loaded monolayer graphene. Since the dipole-dipole coupling between adjacent stacks strengthens immensely as reduces the filling factor of array, the modulated capacity could be further improved. It is found that for oblique incidence, the transmission property is also sensitive to the chemical potential of graphene as well as the polarization direction of incident terahertz wave. These results could be very instructive for the potential applications in voltage-sensitive devices, tunable sensors and photovoltaic switches.

  19. Study of LCP based flexible patch antenna array

    KAUST Repository

    Ghaffar, Farhan A.


    Wrapping of a two element LCP based patch antenna array is studied in this work. For the first time, the designed array is bent in both E and H planes to observe the effect on the radiation and impedance performance of the antenna. The 38 GHz simulation results reveal better performance for H plane bending as compared to E plane bending. A 100 um thick substrate is used for the design which is best suited for flexible antenna applications. Gain variations of 1.1 dB and 1.4 dB are observed for the two orientations while a significantly increased impedance bandwidth of 3 % is obtained with H plane wrapping. The design is highly suitable for broadband micro-cellular backhaul applications. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. Implementation of Low-Noise Switched-Capacitor Integrators with Small Capacitors (United States)

    Nicodimus, Retdian; Takagi, Shigetaka

    A technique to reduce noise transfer functions (NTF) of switched-capacitor (SC) integrators without changing their signal transfer functions (STF) is proposed. The proposed technique based on a simple reconnection scheme of multiple sampling capacitors. It can be implemented into any SC integrators as long as they have a transfer delay. A design strategy is also given to reduce the effect of parasitic capacitors. An SC integrator with a small total capacitance and a low noise transfer gain based on the proposed technique is also proposed. For a given design example, the total capacitance and the simulated noise transfer gain of the proposed SC integrator are 37% and 90% less than the conventional one.

  1. Pseudo-capacitor device for aqueous electrolytes (United States)

    Prakash, J.; Thackeray, M.M.; Dees, D.W.; Vissers, D.R.; Myles, K.M.


    A pseudo-capacitor having a high energy storage capacity develops a double layer capacitance as well as a Faradaic or battery-like redox reaction, also referred to as pseudo-capacitance. The Faradaic reaction gives rise to a capacitance much greater than that of the typical ruthenate oxide ultracapacitor which develops only charge separation-based double layer capacitance. The capacitor employs a lead and/or bismuth/ruthenate and/or iridium system having the formula A{sub 2}[B{sub 2{minus}x}Pb{sub x}]O{sub 7{minus}y}, where A=Pb, Bi, and B=Ru, Ir, and Ocapacitor. The amount of expensive ruthenate and iridium can be substantially reduced in the pseudo-capacitor by increasing the lead content while improving energy storage capacity. 8 figs.

  2. Practical Considerations of the Start-up Procedure for an Active Capacitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haoran; Wang, Qian; Geng, Tao


    Capacitive DC links provide the only low-impedance current path connected with an input source during the start-up of many voltage source converters. A soft-start circuit is usually implemented to limit the inrush current. A two-terminal active capacitor is recently proposed which can directly...... replace conventional passive capacitors in DC links, with reduced cost or size for a given application. The active capacitor has the same level of convenience with two power terminals only as a passive capacitor. This paper proposes two start-up schemes for the active capacitor to overcome the drawbacks...... of existing methods previously widely used for passive capacitors. One scheme is based on a trade-off design between the start-up performance and the component sizing of the active capacitor. The other scheme is based on either an additional bypass switch together with the existing soft-start circuit...

  3. PZT Network and Phased Array Lamb Wave Based SHM Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, C [Academia da Forca Aerea, Granja do Marques, 2715-021 Pero Pinheiro (Portugal); Rocha, B; Suleman, A, E-mail: [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, PO Box 3055, Stn.CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)


    With the application of newer materials, such as composite materials, and growing complexity and capacity of current aircraft structures, reliably and completely assess the condition of the total structures in real time is then of growing and utmost importance. PZT Network and Phased Array, Lamb wave based Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) systems were developed to be applied to thin panels. The selection of transducers, their size and selected locations for their installation are described. The development and selection of the signal generation and data acquisition systems is also presented in detail. The requirements conducing to the development and selection of these systems are laid and particularly the selection of the actuation signal applied is justified. The development of a damage detection algorithm based in the comparison of the current structural state to a reference state is described, to detect damage reflected Lamb waves. Such method was implemented in software and integrated in the SHM system developed. Subsequently the detection algorithm, based in discrete signals correlation, was further improved by incorporating statistical methods. For phased arrays, a novel damage location algorithm is presented based on the individual sensors response. A visualization method based concurrently in the statistical methods developed and superposition of the different results obtained from a test set was implemented. These tests conducted to the successful and repeatable detection of 1mm damages in a multiple damaged plate with great confidence. Finally, a brief comparison and a hybrid system implementation is presented.

  4. Capacitor Current Feedback-Based Active Resonance Damping Strategies for Digitally-Controlled Inductive-Capacitive-Inductive-Filtered Grid-Connected Inverters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Lorzadeh


    Full Text Available Inductive-capacitive-inductive (LCL-type line filters are widely used in grid-connected voltage source inverters (VSIs, since they can provide substantially improved attenuation of switching harmonics in currents injected into the grid with lower cost, weight and power losses than their L-type counterparts. However, the inclusion of third order LCL network complicates the current control design regarding the system stability issues because of an inherent resonance peak which appears in the open-loop transfer function of the inverter control system near the control stability boundary. To avoid passive (resistive resonance damping solutions, due to their additional power losses, active damping (AD techniques are often applied with proper control algorithms in order to damp the LCL filter resonance and stabilize the system. Among these techniques, the capacitor current feedback (CCF AD has attracted considerable attention due to its effective damping performance and simple implementation. This paper thus presents a state-of-the-art review of resonance and stability characteristics of CCF-based AD approaches for a digitally-controlled LCL filter-based grid-connected inverter taking into account the effect of computation and pulse width modulation (PWM delays along with a detailed analysis on proper design and implementation.

  5. Fractal Structures For Mems Variable Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.


    In accordance with the present disclosure, one embodiment of a fractal variable capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure, wherein the capacitor body has an upper first metal plate with a fractal shape separated by a vertical distance from a lower first metal plate with a complementary fractal shape; and a substrate above which the capacitor body is suspended.

  6. Polyvinylidene fluoride film as a capacitor dielectric (United States)

    Dematos, H. V.


    Thin strips of polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF) with vacuum deposited electrodes were made into capacitors by conventional winding and fabrication techniques. These devices were used to identify and evaluate the performance characteristics offered by the PVDF in metallized film capacitors. Variations in capacitor parameters with temperature and frequence were evaluated and compared with other dielectric films. Their impact on capacitor applications is discussed.

  7. An Approach to Solid-State Electrical Double Layer Capacitors Fabricated with Graphene Oxide-Doped, Ionic Liquid-Based Solid Copolymer Electrolytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. A. Fattah


    Full Text Available Solid polymer electrolyte (SPE composed of semi-crystalline poly (vinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene [P(VdF-HFP] copolymer, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis (trifluoromethyl sulphonyl imide [EMI-BTI] and graphene oxide (GO was prepared and its performance evaluated. The effects of GO nano-filler were investigated in terms of enhancement in ionic conductivity along with the electrochemical properties of its electrical double layer capacitors (EDLC. The GO-doped SPE shows improvement in ionic conductivity compared to the P(VdF-HFP-[EMI-BTI] SPE system due to the existence of the abundant oxygen-containing functional group in GO that assists in the improvement of the ion mobility in the polymer matrix. The complexation of the materials in the SPE is confirmed in X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA studies. The electrochemical performance of EDLC fabricated with GO-doped SPE is examined using cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge techniques. The maximum specific capacitance obtained is 29.6 F∙g−1, which is observed at a scan rate of 3 mV/s in 6 wt % GO-doped, SPE-based EDLC. It also has excellent cyclic retention as it is able keep the performance of the EDLC at 94% even after 3000 cycles. These results suggest GO doped SPE plays a significant role in energy storage application.

  8. Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polyaniline Arrays Coated Graphene Aerogel Electrodes (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Xi, Yunlong; Li, Junzhi; Wei, Guodong; Klyui, N. I.; Han, Wei


    Flexible supercapacitors(SCs) made by reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based aerogel usually suffer from the low energy density, short cycle life and bad flexibility. In this study, a new, synthetic strategy was developed for enhancing the electrochemical performances of rGO aerogel-based supercapacitor via electrodeposition polyaniline arrays on the prepared ultralight rGO aerogel. The novel hybrid composites with coated polyaniline (PANI) arrays growing on the rGO surface can take full advantage of the rich open-pore and excellent conductivity of the crosslinking framework structure of 3D rGO aerogel and high capacitance contribution from the PANI. The obtained hybrid composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 432 F g-1 at the current density of 1 A g-1, robust cycling stability to maintain 85% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles and high energy density of 25 W h kg-1. Furthermore, the flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor have superior flexibility and outstanding stability under different bending states from the straight state to the 90° status. The high-performance flexible all-solid-state SCs together with the lighting tests demonstrate it possible for applications in portable electronics.

  9. Flexible Supercapacitors Based on Polyaniline Arrays Coated Graphene Aerogel Electrodes. (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Xi, Yunlong; Li, Junzhi; Wei, Guodong; Klyui, N I; Han, Wei


    Flexible supercapacitors(SCs) made by reduced graphene oxide (rGO)-based aerogel usually suffer from the low energy density, short cycle life and bad flexibility. In this study, a new, synthetic strategy was developed for enhancing the electrochemical performances of rGO aerogel-based supercapacitor via electrodeposition polyaniline arrays on the prepared ultralight rGO aerogel. The novel hybrid composites with coated polyaniline (PANI) arrays growing on the rGO surface can take full advantage of the rich open-pore and excellent conductivity of the crosslinking framework structure of 3D rGO aerogel and high capacitance contribution from the PANI. The obtained hybrid composites exhibit excellent electrochemical performance with a specific capacitance of 432 F g(-1) at the current density of 1 A g(-1), robust cycling stability to maintain 85% after 10,000 charge/discharge cycles and high energy density of 25 W h kg(-1). Furthermore, the flexible all-solid-state supercapacitor have superior flexibility and outstanding stability under different bending states from the straight state to the 90° status. The high-performance flexible all-solid-state SCs together with the lighting tests demonstrate it possible for applications in portable electronics.

  10. Fractal Structures For Fixed Mems Capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Elshurafa, Amro M.


    An embodiment of a fractal fixed capacitor comprises a capacitor body in a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) structure. The capacitor body has a first plate with a fractal shape separated by a horizontal distance from a second plate with a fractal shape. The first plate and the second plate are within the same plane. Such a fractal fixed capacitor further comprises a substrate above which the capacitor body is positioned.

  11. Mutual capacitor and its applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun Li


    Full Text Available This study presents a new ac circuit element – the mutual capacitor, being a dual of the mutual inductor, which is also a new ac transformer. This element is characteristic of the mutual-capacitance coupling of a multi-capacitance system. A unity-coupled mutual capacitor works as an ideal current or voltage transformer, and incidentally acts as waveform separating when inductor employed or waveform converting from square-wave to quasi-sine or waveform filtering, between ports. As a transformer, the mutual capacitor is easy to design, easy for heat cooling, more accurate for current or voltage transformation, dissipating less energy as well as saving materials, suitable for high-power and high-voltage applications. Experiments to demonstrate performances of unity-coupled mutual capacitors are also given.

  12. High Energy Density Capacitors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Capacitor size and reliability are often limiting factors in pulse power, high speed switching, and power management and distribution (PMAD) systems. T/J...

  13. Hermetically Sealed Aluminum Electrolytic Capacitor (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S.; Liu, Yanming; Elias, William


    Aluminum electrolytic capacitors are presently not allowed on NASA missions because they outgas water and organic vapors, as well as H2. As a consequence, for some applications, much larger and heavier packages of tantalum capacitors must be used. A hermetically sealed aluminum capacitor has been developed. This contains a nongassing electrolyte that was developed for this application so internal pressure would remain low. Capacitors rated from 250 V to 540 V have been operated under full load for thousands of hours at 85 and 105 C with good electrical performance and absence of gas generation. Electrolyte chemistry and seal engineering will be discussed, as well as the extension of this design concept to lower voltage ratings.

  14. A Paper-Based Electrochromic Array for Visualized Electrochemical Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengling Zhang


    Full Text Available We report a battery-powered, paper-based electrochromic array for visualized electrochemical sensing. The paper-based sensing system consists of six parallel electrochemical cells, which are powered by an aluminum-air battery. Each single electrochemical cell uses a Prussian Blue spot electrodeposited on an indium-doped tin oxide thin film as the electrochromic indicator. Each electrochemical cell is preloaded with increasing amounts of analyte. The sample activates the battery for the sensing. Both the preloaded analyte and the analyte in the sample initiate the color change of Prussian Blue to Prussian White. With a reaction time of 60 s, the number of electrochemical cells with complete color changes is correlated to the concentration of analyte in the sample. As a proof-of-concept analyte, lactic acid was detected semi-quantitatively using the naked eye.

  15. Efficiency Improvement of Capacitor Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. P. Kashcheev


    Full Text Available A system of modernized capacitor ball-cleaning that prevents formation of depositions on internal capacitor tube surface has been developed in the paper.The system has been introduced at the Minsk TPP-4 (Power Block No.5. The paper presupposes that the economic effect will be nearly 0.43 million US dollars per year at one poer block with turbine Т-250/300-240.

  16. Radiation effects in polycarbonate capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujisić Miloš


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine the influence of neutron and gamma irradiation on the dissipation factor and capacitance of capacitors with polycarbonate dielectrics. The operation of capacitors subject to extreme conditions, such as the presence of ionizing radiation fields, is of special concern in military industry and space technology. Results obtained show that the exposure to a mixed neutron and gamma radiation field causes a decrease of capacitance, while the loss tangent remains unchanged.

  17. Wideband Array Signal Detection Algorithm Based on Power Focusing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Bin


    Full Text Available Aiming at the requirement of real-time signal detection in the passive surveillance system, a wideband array signal detection algorithm is proposed based on the concept of power focusing. By making use of the phase difference of the signal received by a uniform linear array, the algorithm makes the power of the received signal focused in the Direction Of Arrival (DOA with improved cascade FFT. Subsequently, the probability density function of the output noise at each angle is derived. Furthermore, a Constant False Alarm Rate (CFAR test statistic and the corresponding detection threshold are constructed. The theoretical probability of detection is also derived for different false alarm rate and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR. The proposed algorithm is computationally efficient, and the detection process is independent of the prior information. Meanwhile, the results can act as the initial value for other algorithms with higher precision. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm achieves good performance for weak signal detection.

  18. Design and implementation of a reconfigurable mixed-signal SoC based on field programmable analog arrays (United States)

    Liu, Lintao; Gao, Yuhan; Deng, Jun


    This work presents a reconfigurable mixed-signal system-on-chip (SoC), which integrates switched-capacitor-based field programmable analog arrays (FPAA), analog-to-digital converter (ADC), digital-to-analog converter, digital down converter , digital up converter, 32-bit reduced instruction-set computer central processing unit (CPU) and other digital IPs on a single chip with 0.18 μm CMOS technology. The FPAA intellectual property could be reconfigured as different function circuits, such as gain amplifier, divider, sine generator, and so on. This single-chip integrated mixed-signal system is a complete modern signal processing system, occupying a die area of 7 × 8 mm 2 and consuming 719 mW with a clock frequency of 150 MHz for CPU and 200 MHz for ADC/DAC. This SoC chip can help customers to shorten design cycles, save board area, reduce the system power consumption and depress the system integration risk, which would afford a big prospect of application for wireless communication. Project supported by the National High Technology and Development Program of China (No. 2012AA012303).

  19. Lithium-Sulfur Capacitors. (United States)

    Kim, Mok-Hwa; Kim, Hyun-Kyung; Xi, Kai; Kumar, R Vasant; Jung, Dae Soo; Kim, Kwang-Bum; Roh, Kwang Chul


    Although many existing hybrid energy storage systems demonstrate promising electrochemical performances, imbalances between the energies and kinetics of the two electrodes must be resolved to allow their widespread commercialization. As such, the development of a new class of energy storage systems is a particular challenge, since future systems will require a single device to provide both a high gravimetric energy and a high power density. In this context, we herein report the design of novel lithium-sulfur capacitors. The resulting asymmetric systems exhibited energy densities of 23.9-236.4 Wh kg-1 and power densities of 72.2-4097.3 W kg-1, which are the highest reported values for an asymmetric system to date. This approach involved the use of a pre-lithiated anode and a hybrid cathode material exhibiting anion adsorption-desorption in addition to the electrochemical reduction and oxidation of sulfur at almost identical rates. This novel strategy yielded both high energy and power densities, and therefore establishes a new benchmark for hybrid systems.

  20. Resolution comparison between integral-imaging-based hologram synthesis methods using rectangular and hexagonal lens arrays. (United States)

    Chen, Ni; Yeom, Jiwoon; Jung, Jae-Hyun; Park, Jae-Hyeung; Lee, Byoungho


    We compare the resolution of the hologram reconstruction synthesis methods based on integral imaging using rectangular and hexagonal lens arrays. By using a hexagonal lens array instead of conventional rectangular lens array, the three-dimensional objects are sampled with hexagonal grids. Due to more efficient sampling of the hexagonal grid, the resolution of the reconstructed object is higher compared with the case of using rectangular lens array. We analyze the resolution enhancement of the hologram reconstruction quantitatively and verify it experimentally.

  1. The data array, a tool to interface the user to a large data base (United States)

    Foster, G. H.


    Aspects of the processing of spacecraft data is considered. Use of the data array in a large address space as an intermediate form in data processing for a large scientific data base is advocated. Techniques for efficient indexing in data arrays are reviewed and the data array method for mapping an arbitrary structure onto linear address space is shown. A compromise between the two forms is given. The impact of the data array on the user interface are considered along with implementation.

  2. Broadband image sensor array based on graphene-CMOS integration (United States)

    Goossens, Stijn; Navickaite, Gabriele; Monasterio, Carles; Gupta, Shuchi; Piqueras, Juan José; Pérez, Raúl; Burwell, Gregory; Nikitskiy, Ivan; Lasanta, Tania; Galán, Teresa; Puma, Eric; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Koppens, Frank


    Integrated circuits based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS) are at the heart of the technological revolution of the past 40 years, enabling compact and low-cost microelectronic circuits and imaging systems. However, the diversification of this platform into applications other than microcircuits and visible-light cameras has been impeded by the difficulty to combine semiconductors other than silicon with CMOS. Here, we report the monolithic integration of a CMOS integrated circuit with graphene, operating as a high-mobility phototransistor. We demonstrate a high-resolution, broadband image sensor and operate it as a digital camera that is sensitive to ultraviolet, visible and infrared light (300-2,000 nm). The demonstrated graphene-CMOS integration is pivotal for incorporating 2D materials into the next-generation microelectronics, sensor arrays, low-power integrated photonics and CMOS imaging systems covering visible, infrared and terahertz frequencies.

  3. An infrared light polarized beam splitter based on graphene array (United States)

    Chen, Dingbo; Yang, Junbo; Zhang, Jingjing; Wu, Wenjun; Huang, Jie; Zhang, Feifei; Wang, Hongqing


    Metamaterials have attracted a lot of attention in the past decade, because of its remarkable properties in electronics and photonics. Recently, a new kind of two-dimensional metamaterial named metasurface have led the research front. Metasurfaces show up excellent optical properties by patterning planar nanostructures. Novel optical phenomena based on graphene include ultra-thin focusing, anomalous reflection or refraction strong spin-orbit and so on. In this work, we have designed a novel infrared light polarized beam splitter by combining the 2D array of graphene with a subwavelength-thickness optical cavity, which demonstrated great splitting effect in infrared wavelength. Our demonstration pave a novel way for the infrared light polarized beam splitting.

  4. Vertically integrated nanogenerator based on ZnO nanowire arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Aifang; Li, Hongyu; Tang, Haoying; Liu, Tengjiao; Jiang, Peng [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No.11, Beiyitiao Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [National Center for Nanoscience and Technology, No.11, Beiyitiao Zhongguancun, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332-0245 (United States)


    We report a technique to construct a vertically integrated nanogenerator (VI-NG) based on ZnO nanowire (NW) arrays. The VI-NG consists of nine single NGs connected mixed parallel and serial by a layer-by-layer stacking. For the single layer NG, the peak output voltage and current are 0.045 V and 2.5 nA, respectively. The VI-NG produces an output power density of 2.8 nW/cm{sup 2} with a peak output voltage of 0.15 V and output current of 7.2 nA. The vertical integration of the multi-NG provides a feasible technique for effectively converting mechanical energies to electricity from environment. (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Establishment of an AAV reverse infection-based array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Dong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of a convenient high-throughput gene transduction approach is critical for biological screening. Adeno-associated virus (AAV vectors are broadly used in gene therapy studies, yet their applications in in vitro high-throughput gene transduction are limited. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We established an AAV reverse infection (RI-based method in which cells were transduced by quantified recombinant AAVs (rAAVs pre-coated onto 96-well plates. The number of pre-coated rAAV particles and number of cells loaded per well, as well as the temperature stability of the rAAVs on the plates, were evaluated. As the first application of this method, six serotypes or hybrid serotypes of rAAVs (AAV1, AAV2, AAV5/5, AAV8, AAV25 m, AAV28 m were compared for their transduction efficiencies using various cell lines, including BHK21, HEK293, BEAS-2BS, HeLaS3, Huh7, Hepa1-6, and A549. AAV2 and AAV1 displayed high transduction efficiency; thus, they were deemed to be suitable candidate vectors for the RI-based array. We next evaluated the impact of sodium butyrate (NaB treatment on rAAV vector-mediated reporter gene expression and found it was significantly enhanced, suggesting that our system reflected the biological response of target cells to specific treatments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study provides a novel method for establishing a highly efficient gene transduction array that may be developed into a platform for cell biological assays.

  6. Establishment of an AAV reverse infection-based array. (United States)

    Dong, Xiaoyan; Tian, Wenhong; Wang, Gang; Dong, Zheyue; Shen, Wei; Zheng, Gang; Wu, Xiaobing; Xue, Jinglun; Wang, Yue; Chen, Jinzhong


    The development of a convenient high-throughput gene transduction approach is critical for biological screening. Adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are broadly used in gene therapy studies, yet their applications in in vitro high-throughput gene transduction are limited. We established an AAV reverse infection (RI)-based method in which cells were transduced by quantified recombinant AAVs (rAAVs) pre-coated onto 96-well plates. The number of pre-coated rAAV particles and number of cells loaded per well, as well as the temperature stability of the rAAVs on the plates, were evaluated. As the first application of this method, six serotypes or hybrid serotypes of rAAVs (AAV1, AAV2, AAV5/5, AAV8, AAV25 m, AAV28 m) were compared for their transduction efficiencies using various cell lines, including BHK21, HEK293, BEAS-2BS, HeLaS3, Huh7, Hepa1-6, and A549. AAV2 and AAV1 displayed high transduction efficiency; thus, they were deemed to be suitable candidate vectors for the RI-based array. We next evaluated the impact of sodium butyrate (NaB) treatment on rAAV vector-mediated reporter gene expression and found it was significantly enhanced, suggesting that our system reflected the biological response of target cells to specific treatments. Our study provides a novel method for establishing a highly efficient gene transduction array that may be developed into a platform for cell biological assays.

  7. A new look towards BAC-based array CGH through a comprehensive comparison with oligo-based array CGH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalken Jack A


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, two main technologies are used for screening of DNA copy number; the BAC (Bacterial Artificial Chromosome and the recently developed oligonucleotide-based CGH (Chromosomal Comparative Genomic Hybridization arrays which are capable of detecting small genomic regions with amplification or deletion. The correlation as well as the discriminative power of these platforms has never been compared statistically on a significant set of human patient samples. Results In this paper, we present an exhaustive comparison between the two CGH platforms, undertaken at two independent sites using the same batch of DNA from 19 advanced prostate cancers. The comparison was performed directly on the raw data and a significant correlation was found between the two platforms. The correlation was greatly improved when the data were averaged over large chromosomic regions using a segmentation algorithm. In addition, this analysis has enabled the development of a statistical model to discriminate BAC outliers that might indicate microevents. These microevents were validated by the oligo platform results. Conclusion This article presents a genome-wide statistical validation of the oligo array platform on a large set of patient samples and demonstrates statistically its superiority over the BAC platform for the Identification of chromosomic events. Taking advantage of a large set of human samples treated by the two technologies, a statistical model has been developed to show that the BAC platform could also detect microevents.

  8. Magnetic Emissions Reduction by Varying Secondary Side Capacitor for Ferrite Geometry based Series-Parallel Topology Wireless Power Transfer to Vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik


    Magnetic fields in surroundings of wireless power transfer system depends upon the two coil currents, distance from the coils and space angle between the two coil fields in steady state conditions. Increase in value of the secondary capacitor leads to a phase shift between the two currents and as...

  9. A Multibeam Antenna Array Based on Printed Rotman Lens


    Wang Zongxin; Xiang Bo; Yang Fei


    A compact printable multibeam antenna array is studied in this paper. The antenna system is composed of a printed Rotman lens and an antipodal dual elliptically tapered slot antenna array; both of the two components are studied, respectively, at first, and then integrated on a single printed circuit board to make up the integrated unit of the multibeam antenna array. Measured results of all components are presented.

  10. Coupled-oscillator based active-array antennas

    CERN Document Server

    Pogorzelski, Ronald J


    Describing an innovative approach to phased-array control in antenna design This book explores in detail phased-array antennas that use coupled-oscillator arrays, an arrangement featuring a remarkably simple beam steering control system and a major reduction in complexity compared with traditional methods of phased-array control. It brings together in one convenient, self-contained volume the many salient research results obtained over the past ten to fifteen years in laboratories around the world, including the California Institute of Technology's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

  11. The two capacitor problem revisited: simple harmonic oscillator model approach

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Keeyung


    The well-known two-capacitor problem, in which exactly half the stored energy disappears when a charged capacitor is connected to an identical capacitor is discussed based on the mechanical harmonic oscillator model approach. In the mechanical harmonic oscillator model, it is shown first that \\emph {exactly half} the work done by a constant applied force is dissipated irrespective of the form of dissipation mechanism when the system comes to a new equilibrium after a constant force is abruptly applied. This model is then applied to the energy loss mechanism in the capacitor charging problem or the two-capacitor problem. This approach allows a simple explanation of the energy dissipation mechanism in these problems and shows that the dissipated energy should always be \\emph {exactly half} the supplied energy whether that is caused by the Joule heat or by the radiation. This paper which provides a simple treatment of the energy dissipation mechanism in the two-capacitor problem is suitable for all undergraduate...

  12. An innovative concept of use of redox-active electrolyte in asymmetric capacitor based on MWCNTs/MnO2 and Fe2O3 thin films (United States)

    Chodankar, Nilesh R.; Dubal, Deepak P.; Lokhande, Abhishek C.; Patil, Amar M.; Kim, Jin H.; Lokhande, Chandrakant D.


    In present investigation, we have prepared a nanocomposites of highly porous MnO2 spongy balls and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in thin film form and tested in novel redox-active electrolyte (K3[Fe(CN)6] doped aqueous Na2SO4) for supercapacitor application. Briefly, MWCNTs were deposited on stainless steel substrate by “dip and dry” method followed by electrodeposition of MnO2 spongy balls. Further, the supercapacitive properties of these hybrid thin films were evaluated in hybrid electrolyte ((K3[Fe(CN)6 doped aqueous Na2SO4). Thus, this is the first proof-of-design where redox-active electrolyte is applied to MWCNTs/MnO2 hybrid thin films. Impressively, the MWCNTs/MnO2 hybrid film showed a significant improvement in electrochemical performance with maximum specific capacitance of 1012 Fg−1 at 2 mA cm−2 current density in redox-active electrolyte, which is 1.5-fold higher than that of conventional electrolyte (Na2SO4). Further, asymmetric capacitor based on MWCNTs/MnO2 hybrid film as positive and Fe2O3 thin film as negative electrode was fabricated and tested in redox-active electrolytes. Strikingly, MWCNTs/MnO2//Fe2O3 asymmetric cell showed an excellent supercapacitive performance with maximum specific capacitance of 226 Fg−1 and specific energy of 54.39 Wh kg−1 at specific power of 667 Wkg−1. Strikingly, actual practical demonstration shows lightning of 567 red LEDs suggesting “ready-to sell” product for industries. PMID:27982087

  13. Flexible long-chain-linker constructed Ni-based metal-organic frameworks with 1D helical channel and their pseudo-capacitor behavior studies (United States)

    Wang, Kuaibing; Wang, Zikai; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Xueqin; Tao, Yuehong; Wu, Hua


    Two novel and isostructural Ni-based MOFs with topological symbol of 422·54·62, namely [Ni2(TATB)2(L)2(H2O)], have successfully synthesized, where L is the flexibly N-donor bid (1,10-bisimidazoledecane) or btd (1,10-bistriazoledecane) linker and TATB is the deprotonation mode from 4,4‧,4″-s-triazine-2,4,6-triyl-tribenzoic acid (H3TATB). Two types of left- and right-handed helical channels with mean diameter of 11 Å results in large void space in 3D network. When directly use as electrode materials, the as-synthesized Ni-MOFs single-crystal electrodes behave as pseudo-capacitor and deliver high gravimetric capacitance with superior energy deliverable ability and cycling stability. For example, the maximum gravimetric capacitance is 705 F g-1 with the energy density of 29.6 Wh kg-1 at a current density of 1 A g-1. Even after 5000 continuous cycles, the capacitance retention maintains at 92.1%. The good electrochemical performance should be ascribed to the 1D helical channels facilitating the diffusion of OH-. Furthermore, the low bulk solution (0.46 and 0.50 Ω) and charge-transfer resistances accelerate the contact between OH- and active species in the electrode, and consequently result in efficiency Faradaic reaction. This work opens a new way for the directly application of 3D topological MOFs single-crystal with novel interior structures especially porous and channel-like architectures in electronic energy storage field.

  14. Application of monolithic CMOS switched-capacitor filters and amplifiers for signal processing (United States)

    Hampel, D.; Bradshaw, J. L.


    A custom monolithic CMOS array was designed and integrated for use in meeting the analog conditioning requirements for microsignal processors. These processors are used in 'smart' sensors for the purposes of detection and classification. Constrained by very low power dissipation requirements, this array provides a variety of bandpass and low-pass filter functions and programmable CMOS operational amplifiers for AGC amplification for signals in the audio region. Specifically, the custom chip contains 12 poles based on switched-capacitor techniques partitioned into a six-pole low-pass filter ladder configuration, and three two-pole bandpass and low-pass state variable filter configurations. The amplifiers were used in conjunction with an associated microprocessor for software-controlled AGC. A mask change can provide for different capacitor ratios, and hence, frequency responses. Also, the switch clock rates can be used to vary the filter characteristics. Operating from a single +5 V supply, this standard process chip dissipates about 2 mW, and meets all predicted performance characteristics.

  15. Prototype amorphous silicon array based radiotherapy portal imager (United States)

    Drake, Douglas G.; Jaffray, David A.; Wong, John W.


    The trend toward highly conformal radiation fields in the treatment of cancer has increased the need for accurate verification of field placement.Conventionally, the placement has ben verified on a weekly basis using a film radiograph, or more recently electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs). Fluoroscopic EPIDs consisting of a phosphor screen, one or more mirrors, lens, and camera provide reasonable performance but suffer from the poor collection efficiency and bulky nature of their optical components. Large area a-Si:H arrays provide an ideal replacement for the optical subsystem of fluoroscopic EPIDs. The purpose of this work is to (1) characterize the performance and logistics of a prototype a-Si:H array and (2) determine the metal plate/phosphor screen combination which will maximize the system's detective quantum efficiency (DQE) for megavoltage imaging. The prototype imager is based on a 10 X 10 cm2 a-Si:H array consisting of 128 X 128 sensor elements coupled to a Gd2O2S:Tb screen and 0.5 mm Al plate. The charge signal collected in each diode is digitized to 16 bits at frame rates of up to 25 frames/sec. Dark current and readout noise were determined under controlled conditions. The optical collection efficiency of the photodiodes and the escape fraction of optical quanta from the screen were estimated from the literature. X-ray quantum absorption efficiency, number of optical quanta from the screen were estimated from the literature. X-ray quantum absorption efficiency, number of optical quanta produced, and the Poisson excess associated with energy absorption and conversion in the plate/screen system were calculated using EGS4 Monte Carlo simulations. Using these results, the imaging system performance is estimated using the approach of Cunningham et al for both a 6 MV x-ray spectrum and a 60Co spectrum. For both the 6 MV and 60Co beams, the predicted system gain was approximately 60 percent of the measured value. For a 6 MV beam, the system DQE (f equals

  16. Impact of frequency modulation ratio on capacitor cells balancing in phase-shifted PWM based chain-link STATCOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrouzian, Ehsan; Bongiorno, Massimo; Teodorescu, Remus


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of switching harmonics on the instantaneous power that flows in the cells of a chain-link based STATCOM when using Phase-Shifted PWM. Two different cases are investigated for the converter cells: low, and high switching frequency. It is shown...

  17. MEMS fabrication and frequency sweep for suspending beam and plate electrode in electrostatic capacitor (United States)

    Zhu, Jianxiong; Song, Weixing


    We report a MEMS fabrication and frequency sweep for a high-order mode suspending beam and plate layer in electrostatic micro-gap semiconductor capacitor. This suspended beam and plate was designed with silicon oxide (SiO2) film which was fabricated using bulk silicon micromachining technology on both side of a silicon substrate. The designed semiconductor capacitors were driven by a bias direct current (DC) and a sweep frequency alternative current (AC) in a room temperature for an electrical response test. Finite element calculating software was used to evaluate the deformation mode around its high-order response frequency. Compared a single capacitor with a high-order response frequency (0.42 MHz) and a 1 × 2 array parallel capacitor, we found that the 1 × 2 array parallel capacitor had a broader high-order response range. And it concluded that a DC bias voltage can be used to modulate a high-order response frequency for both a single and 1 × 2 array parallel capacitors.

  18. Impact of Switching Harmonics on Capacitor Cells Balancing in Phase-Shifted PWM-Based Cascaded H-Bridge STATCOM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrouzian, Ehsan; Bongiorno, Massimo; Teodorescu, Remus


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact of switching harmonics on the instantaneous power distribution in the cells of a cascaded H-bridge-based STATCOM when using phase-shifted pulse width modulation. The case of high- and low-switching frequency for the converter cells...... control loops. It is also shown that the selected frequency modulation ratio affects the active power distribution among the cells. In particular, the selection of a noninteger frequency modulation ratio helps in providing a more uniform power distribution among cells of the same phase leg, thus...

  19. Model-based Processing of Microcantilever Sensor Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tringe, J W; Clague, D S; Candy, J V; Sinensky, A K; Lee, C L; Rudd, R E; Burnham, A K


    We have developed a model-based processor (MBP) for a microcantilever-array sensor to detect target species in solution. We perform a proof-of-concept experiment, fit model parameters to the measured data and use them to develop a Gauss-Markov simulation. We then investigate two cases of interest, averaged deflection data and multi-channel data. For this evaluation we extract model parameters via a model-based estimation, perform a Gauss-Markov simulation, design the optimal MBP and apply it to measured experimental data. The performance of the MBP in the multi-channel case is evaluated by comparison to a ''smoother'' (averager) typically used for microcantilever signal analysis. It is shown that the MBP not only provides a significant gain ({approx} 80dB) in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), but also consistently outperforms the smoother by 40-60 dB. Finally, we apply the processor to the smoothed experimental data and demonstrate its capability for chemical detection. The MBP performs quite well, apart from a correctable systematic bias error.

  20. Fuel cells, batteries and super-capacitors stand-alone power systems management using optimal/flatness based-control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benaouadj, M.; Aboubou, A.; Bahri, M.; Boucetta, A. [MSE Laboratory, Mohamed khiderBiskra University (Algeria); Ayad, M. Y., E-mail: [R& D, Industrial Hybrid Vehicle Applications (France)


    In this work, an optimal control (under constraints) based on the Pontryagin’s maximum principle is used to optimally manage energy flows in a basic PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) fuel cells system associated to lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors through a common DC bus having a voltage to stabilize using the differential flatness approach. The adaptation of voltage levels between different sources and load is ensured by use of three DC-DC converters, one boost connected to the PEM fuel cells, while the two others are buck/boost and connected to the lithiumion batteries and supercapacitors. The aim of this paper is to develop an energy management strategy that is able to satisfy the following objectives: Impose the power requested by a habitat (representing the load) according to a proposed daily consumption profile, Keep fuel cells working at optimal power delivery conditions, Maintain constant voltage across the common DC bus, Stabilize the batteries voltage and stored quantity of charge at desired values given by the optimal control. Results obtained under MATLAB/Simulink environment prove that the cited objectives are satisfied, validating then, effectiveness and complementarity between the optimal and flatness concepts proposed for energy management. Note that this study is currently in experimentally validation within MSE Laboratory.

  1. Novel Power Flow Problem Solutions Method’s Based on Genetic Algorithm Optimization for Banks Capacitor Compensation Using an Fuzzy Logic Rule Bases for Critical Nodal Detections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasri Abdelfatah


    Full Text Available The Reactive power flow’s is one of the most electrical distribution systems problem wich have great of interset of the electrical network researchers, it’s  cause’s active power transmission reduction, power losses decreasing, and  the drop voltage’s increase. In this research we described the efficiency of the FLC-GAO approach to solve the optimal power flow (OPF combinatorial problem. The proposed approach employ tow algorithms, Fuzzy logic controller (FLC algorithm for critical nodal detection and gentic algorithm  optimization (GAO algorithm for optimal seizing capacitor.GAO method is more efficient in combinatory problem solutions. The proposed approach has been examined and tested on the standard IEEE 57-bus the resulats show the power loss minimization denhancement, voltage profile, and stability improvement. The proposed approach results have been compared to those that reported in the literature recently. The results are promising and show the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed approach.

  2. Evolutionary insights from suffix array-based genome sequence ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    grams; pattern matching; suffix arrays; suffix trees; short peptide ... Gene and protein sequence analyses, central components of studies in modern biology are easily amenable to string matching and pattern recognition algorithms.

  3. DOA Estimation of Cylindrical Conformal Array Based on Geometric Algebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minjie Wu


    Full Text Available Due to the variable curvature of the conformal carrier, the pattern of each element has a different direction. The traditional method of analyzing the conformal array is to use the Euler rotation angle and its matrix representation. However, it is computationally demanding especially for irregular array structures. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm by combining the geometric algebra with Multiple Signal Classification (MUSIC, termed as GA-MUSIC, to solve the direction of arrival (DOA for cylindrical conformal array. And on this basis, we derive the pattern and array manifold. Compared with the existing algorithms, our proposed one avoids the cumbersome matrix transformations and largely decreases the computational complexity. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available In this paper, a method was presented based on Discrete Imperialistic Competition Algorithm (DICA for optimal placement of Distributed Generation (DG and shunt capacitors. In this paper a new assimilation mechanism in introduced for DICA. Developments of various technologies of distributed generation and their cost-effectiveness have increased the use of these resources. Shunt capacitors, as reactive power compensators, are also the equipment that inject reactive power to distribution network in order to improve voltage profile release a part of the network capacity and also reduce the losses. The objective function was defined based on the reduction of active power losses. The performance of the proposed method tested on two, 33-bus and 69-bus IEEE standard systems. In spite of the objective function defined based on active losses reduction, the results demonstrated that, voltage profile improved and reactive losses greatly reduced after optimal DG and capacitor allocation.

  5. Microchip-Embedded Capacitors for Implantable Neural Stimulators (United States)

    Auciello, Orlando

    Miniaturization of microchips for implantation in the human body (e.g., microchip for the artificial retina to restore sight to people blinded by retina photoreceptors degeneration) requires the integration of high-capacitance (≥ 10 μF) energy-storage capacitors into the microchip. These capacitors would be based on high-dielectric constant layers, preferably made of materials that are bioinert (not affected by human body fluids) and are biocompatible (do not elicit adverse reactions in the human body). This chapter focuses on reviewing the work being done at Argonne National Laboratory (Materials Science Division and Center for Nanoscale Materials) to develop high-capacitance microchip-embedded capacitors based on novel high-K dielectric layers (TiAlOx or TiO2/Al2O3 superlattices). The microchip-embedded capacitor provides energy storage and electromagnetic signal coupling needed for neural stimulations. Advances in neural prostheses such as artificial retinas and cochlear implants require miniaturization of device size to minimize tissue damage and improve device/tissue interfaces in the human body. Therefore, development of microchip-embedded capacitors is critical to achieve full-implantable biomedical device miniaturization.

  6. Optical Doppler tomography based on a field programmable gate array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Henning Engelbrecht; Nilsson, Ronnie Thorup; Thrane, Lars


    We report the design of and results obtained by using a field programmable gate array (FPGA) to digitally process optical Doppler tomography signals. The processor fits into the analog signal path in an existing optical coherence tomography setup. We demonstrate both Doppler frequency and envelope...

  7. A Macintosh based data system for array spectrometers (Poster) (United States)

    Bregman, J.; Moss, N.

    An interactive data aquisition and reduction system has been assembled by combining a Macintosh computer with an instrument controller (an Apple II computer) via an RS-232 interface. The data system provides flexibility for operating different linear array spectrometers. The standard Macintosh interface is used to provide ease of operation and to allow transferring the reduced data to commercial graphics software.

  8. Multi beam imaging array based on leaky lens antennas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruni, S.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.; Bekers, D.J.


    This paper proposes a novel imaging architecture suited for use in the mm and the submm wave regimes. The structure is composed by a one dimensional array of radiators in order to enhance the image acquisition time with respect to single element detection. Moreover each of the antenna elements

  9. Screen printed thick film based pMUT arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Tobias; Pedersen, T; Thomsen, Erik Vilain


    This article reports on the fabrication and characterization of lambda-pitched piezoelectric micromachined ultrasound transducer (pMUT) arrays fabricated using a unique process combining conventional silicon technology and low cost screen printing of thick film PZT. The pMUTs are designed as 8...

  10. A novel offset cancellation based on parasitic-insensitive switched-capacitor sensing circuit for the out-of-plane single-Gimbaled decoupled CMOS-MEMS gyroscope. (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Hui; Huang, Han-Pang


    This paper presents a novel parasitic-insensitive switched-capacitor (PISC) sensing circuit design in order to obtain high sensitivity and ultra linearity and reduce the parasitic effect for the out-of-plane single-gimbaled decoupled CMOS-MEMS gyroscope (SGDG). According to the simulation results, the proposed PISC circuit has better sensitivity and high linearity in a wide dynamic range. Experimental results also show a better performance. In addition, the PISC circuit can use signal processing to cancel the offset and noise. Thus, this circuit is very suitable for gyroscope measurement.

  11. Uplink Array Demonstration with Ground-Based Calibration (United States)

    D'Addario, L.; Proctor, R.; Trinh, J.; Sigman, E.; Yamamoto, C.


    A set of small, separately steerable reflector antennas has been used as a transmitting phased array for the purpose of demonstrating techniques that can be used in a larger array to serve the future uplink transmission needs of NASA's Deep Space Network. We envision an operational array with 100 or more antennas that could generate the order of 1 TW of effective isotropic radiated power (EIRP). The demonstration is a small-scale version of this with five antennas and about 1 MW of EIRP. Each antenna has a 1.2-m-diameter aperture and a 2-W power amplifier, and the array operates in the 14.0- to 14.5-GHz communication satellite band. The main technical challenge for an uplink array is to ensure that the carrier phases of the signals from all antenna elements are aligned when the signals arrive at the receiver on a distant spacecraft. This requires a method of phase calibration. In the demonstration, we have shown that active receivers attached to the Earth near the array can be used as calibration targets. Measurements made at these receivers have been successfully used to calculate the phase adjustment needed at each antenna to achieve the desired alignment, even though the destination spacecraft is in a direction and at a distance very different from that of the calibrator. When the calculated adjustments are applied at the antennas, the combined power at a spacecraft has been shown to be within 1 dB of that expected for perfect alignment. Commercial satellites in geostationary Earth orbit were used for these tests. Other objectives of the demonstration, all successfully accomplished, include: (1) Show that a new and simple electronics architecture, specifically designed for phase and delay stability, can implement all functions of NASA deep space uplinks at low cost, supporting mass production for large arrays. (2) Show that phase alignment can be maintained for at least a few hours without recalibration. In fact, stability over several days has been demonstrated

  12. Fiber grating sensing interrogation based on an InGaAs photodiode linear array. (United States)

    Li, Guoyu; Guo, Tuan; Zhang, Hao; Gao, Hongwei; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Bo; Yuan, Shuzhong; Kai, Guiyun; Dong, Xiaoyi


    We present a new method of the fiber grating sensing interrogation technique by utilizing an indium gallium arsenide photodiode linear array and blazed fiber Bragg gratings. An interrogation system based on an InGaAs photodiode linear array is designed, and the system performance is analyzed. The interrogation system shows a good prospect for smart sensing.

  13. On-line monitoring system of PV array based on internet of things technology (United States)

    Li, Y. F.; Lin, P. J.; Zhou, H. F.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, L. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Su, F. P.


    The Internet of Things (IoT) Technology is used to inspect photovoltaic (PV) array which can greatly improve the monitoring, performance and maintenance of the PV array. In order to efficiently realize the remote monitoring of PV operating environment, an on-line monitoring system of PV array based on IoT is designed in this paper. The system includes data acquisition, data gateway and PV monitoring centre (PVMC) website. Firstly, the DSP-TMS320F28335 is applied to collect indicators of PV array using sensors, then the data are transmitted to data gateway through ZigBee network. Secondly, the data gateway receives the data from data acquisition part, obtains geographic information via GPS module, and captures the scenes around PV array via USB camera, then uploads them to PVMC website. Finally, the PVMC website based on Laravel framework receives all data from data gateway and displays them with abundant charts. Moreover, a fault diagnosis approach for PV array based on Extreme Learning Machine (ELM) is applied in PVMC. Once fault occurs, a user alert can be sent via E-mail. The designed system enables users to browse the operating conditions of PV array on PVMC website, including electrical, environmental parameters and video. Experimental results show that the presented monitoring system can efficiently real-time monitor the PV array, and the fault diagnosis approach reaches a high accuracy of 97.5%.

  14. Saturated virtual fluorescence emission difference microscopy based on detector array (United States)

    Liu, Shaocong; Sun, Shiyi; Kuang, Cuifang; Ge, Baoliang; Wang, Wensheng; Liu, Xu


    Virtual fluorescence emission difference microscopy (vFED) has been proposed recently to enhance the lateral resolution of confocal microscopy with a detector array, implemented by scanning a doughnut-shaped pattern. Theoretically, the resolution can be enhanced by around 1.3-fold compared with that in confocal microscopy. For further improvement of the resolving ability of vFED, a novel method is presented utilizing fluorescence saturation for super-resolution imaging, which we called saturated virtual fluorescence emission difference microscopy (svFED). With a point detector array, matched solid and hollow point spread functions (PSF) can be obtained by photon reassignment, and the difference results between them can be used to boost the transverse resolution. Results show that the diffraction barrier can be surpassed by at least 34% compared with that in vFED and the resolution is around 2-fold higher than that in confocal microscopy.

  15. Advanced materials based on carbon nanotube arrays, yarns and papers (United States)

    Bradford, Phlip David

    Carbon nanotubes have hundreds of potential applications but require innovative processing techniques to manipulate the microscopic carbon dust into useful devices and products. This thesis describes efforts to process carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using novel methods with the goals of: (1) improving the properties of energy absorbing and composite carbon nanotube materials and (2) increasing understanding of fundamental structure-property relationships within these materials. Millimeter long CNTs, in the form of arrays, yarns and papers, were used to produce energy absorbing foams and high volume fraction CNT composites. Vertically aligned CNT arrays were grown on silicon substrates using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of ethylene gas over iron nano-particles. The low density, millimeter thick arrays were tested under compression as energy absorbing foams. With additional CVD processing steps, it was possible to tune the compressive properties of the arrays. After the longest treatment, the compressive strength of the arrays was increased by a factor of 35 with a density increase of only six fold, while also imparting recovery from compression to the array. Microscopy revealed that the post-synthesis CVD treatment increased the number of CNT walls through an epitaxial type radial growth on the surface of the as-grown tubes. The increase in tube radius and mutual support between nanotubes explained the increases in compressive strength while an increase in nanotube roughness was proposed as the morphological change responsible for recovery in the array. Carbon nanotube yarns were used as the raw material for macroscopic textile preforms with a multi-level hierarchical carbon nanotube (CNT) structure: nanotubes, bundles, spun single yarns, plied yarns and 3-D braids. In prior tensile tests, composites produced from the 3-D braids exhibited unusual mechanical behavior effects. The proposed physical hypotheses explained those effects by molecular level interactions and

  16. Fast fabrication of curved microlens array using DMD-based lithography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Zhang


    Full Text Available Curved microlens array is the core element of the biologically inspired artificial compound eye. Many existing fabrication processes remain expensive and complicated, which limits a broad range of application of the artificial compound eye. In this paper, we report a fast fabrication method for curved microlens array by using DMD-based maskless lithography. When a three-dimensional (3D target curved profile is projected into a two-dimensional (2D mask, arbitrary curved microlens array can be flexibly and efficiently obtained by utilizing DMD-based lithography. In order to verify the feasibility of this method, a curved PDMS microlens array with 90 micro lenslets has been fabricated. The physical and optical characteristics of the fabricated microlens array suggest that this method is potentially suitable for applications in artificial compound eye.

  17. Characterization of Tantalum Polymer Capacitors (United States)

    Spence, Penelope


    Overview Reviewed data Caution must be taken when accelerating test conditions Data not useful to establish an acceleration model Introduction of new failure mechanism skewing results Evidence of Anti-Wear-Out De-doping of polymer Decreased capacitance Increased ESR Not dielectric breakdown Needs further investigation Further investigation into tantalum polymer capacitor technology Promising acceleration model for Manufacturer A Possibility for use in high-reliability space applications with suitable voltage derating.

  18. Electro-chemical capacitor developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, T.C.; Kramer, W.E.; Wright, R.B. [Lockheed-Martin Idaho Technologies Co. (United States)


    A number of promising materials have been identified for use as electrochemical capacitor (ultracapacitor) electrodes. These include carbon, conducting polymers, metal nitrides, and metal oxides in combinations with aqueous and organic electrolytes. Carbon materials (particles, fibers, foams, and composites) have been investigated more than other active electrode materials for a number of reasons. Carbon can be easily activated and formed into electrodes exhibiting high specific capacity (100-300F/g) and low electronic resistivity (0.01ohm-cm). (author)

  19. Plasmonic library based on substrate-supported gradiential plasmonic arrays. (United States)

    Müller, Mareen B; Kuttner, Christian; König, Tobias A F; Tsukruk, Vladimir V; Förster, Stephan; Karg, Matthias; Fery, Andreas


    We present a versatile approach to produce macroscopic, substrate-supported arrays of plasmonic nanoparticles with well-defined interparticle spacing and a continuous particle size gradient. The arrays thus present a "plasmonic library" of locally noncoupling plasmonic particles of different sizes, which can serve as a platform for future combinatorial screening of size effects. The structures were prepared by substrate assembly of gold-core/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-shell particles and subsequent post-modification. Coupling of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) could be avoided since the polymer shell separates the encapsulated gold cores. To produce a particle array with a broad range of well-defined but laterally distinguishable particle sizes, the substrate was dip-coated in a growth solution, which resulted in an overgrowth of the gold cores controlled by the local exposure time. The kinetics was quantitatively analyzed and found to be diffusion rate controlled, allowing for precise tuning of particle size by adjusting the withdrawal speed. We determined the kinetics of the overgrowth process, investigated the LSPRs along the gradient by UV-vis extinction spectroscopy, and compared the spectroscopic results to the predictions from Mie theory, indicating the absence of local interparticle coupling. We finally discuss potential applications of these substrate-supported plasmonic particle libraries and perspectives toward extending the concept from size to composition variation and screening of plasmonic coupling effects.

  20. Capacitor-type micrometeoroid detectors (United States)

    Wortman, J. J.; Griffis, D. P.; Bryan, S. R.; Kinard, W.


    The metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) capacitor micrometeroid detector consists of a thin dielectric capacitor fabricated on a silicon wafer. In operation, the device is charged to a voltage level sufficiently near breakdown that micrometeoroid impacts will cause dielectric deformation or heating and subsequent arc-over at the point of impact. Each detector is capable of recording multiple impacts because of the self-healing characteristics of the device. Support instrumentation requirements consist of a voltage source and pulse counters that monitor the pulse of recharging current following every impact. An investigation has been conducted in which 0.5 to 5 micron diameter carbonized iron spheres traveling at velocities of 4 to 10 Km/sec were impacted on to detectors with either a dielectric thickness of 0.4 or 1.0 micron. This study demonstrated that an ion microprobe tuned to sufficiently high resolution can detect Fe remaining on the detector after the impact. Furthermore, it is also possible to resolve Fe ion images free of mass interferences from Si, for example, giving its spatial distribution after impact. Specifically this technique has shown that significant amounts of impacting particles remain in the crater and near it which can be analyzed for isotopic content. Further testing and calibration could lead to quantitive analysis. This study has shown that the capacitor type micrometeroid detector is capable of not only time and flux measurements but can also be used for isotopic analysis.

  1. TiO2 coated Si nanowire electrodes for electrochemical double layer capacitors in room temperature ionic liquid (United States)

    Konstantinou, F.; Shougee, A.; Albrecht, T.; Fobelets, K.


    Three TiO2 deposition processes are used to coat the surface of Si nanowire array electrodes for electrochemical double layer capacitors in room temperature ionic liquid [Bmim][NTF2]. The fabrication processes are based on wet chemistry only and temperature treatments are kept below 450 °C. Successful TiO2 coatings are found to be those that are carried out at low pressure and with low TiO2 coverage to avoid nanowires breakage. The best TiO2 coated Si nanowire array electrode in [Bmim][NTF2] showed energy densities of 0.9 Wh·kg-1 and power densities of 2.2 kW·kg-1 with a nanowire length of ~10 µm.

  2. High Sensitivity Indium Phosphide Based Avalanche Photodiode Focal Plane Arrays Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — nLight has demonstrated highly-uniform APD arrays based on the highly sensitive InGaAs/InP material system. These results provide great promise for achieving the...

  3. Comprehensive characterization of genomic aberrations in gangliogliomas by CGH, array-based CGH and interphase FISH.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoischen, A.; Ehrler, M.; Fassunke, J.; Simon, M.; Baudis, M.; Landwehr, C.; Radlwimmer, B.; Lichter, P.; Schramm, J.; Becker, A.J.; Weber, R.G.


    Gangliogliomas are generally benign neuroepithelial tumors composed of dysplastic neuronal and neoplastic glial elements. We screened 61 gangliogliomas [World Health Organization (WHO) grade I] for genomic alterations by chromosomal and array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH).

  4. A Magnesium-Activated Carbon Hybrid Capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, HD; Shterenberg, I; Gofer, Y; Doe, RE; Fischer, CC; Ceder, G; Aurbach, D


    Prototype cells of hybrid capacitor were developed, comprising activated carbon (AC) cloth and magnesium (Mg) foil as the positive and negative electrodes, respectively. The electrolyte solution included ether solvent (TBF) and a magnesium organo-halo-aluminate complex 0.25 M Mg2Cl3+-Ph2AlCl2-. In this solution Mg can be deposited/dissolved reversibly for thousands of cycles with high reversibility (100% cycling efficiency). The main barrier for integrating porous AC electrodes with this electrolyte solution was the saturation of the pores with the large ions in the AC prior to reaching the potential limit. This is due to the existence of bulky Mg and Al based ionic complexes consisting Cl, alkyl or aryl (R), and THF ligands. This problem was resolved by adding 0.5 M of lithium chloride (LiCl), thus introducing smaller ionic species to the solution. This Mg hybrid capacitor system demonstrated a stable cycle performance for many thousands of cycles with a specific capacitance of 90 Fg(-1) for the AC positive electrodes along a potential range of 2.4 V. (C) 2014 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  5. Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids for Electrochemical Capacitors (United States)

    Fireman, Heather; Yowell, Leonard; Moloney, Padraig G.; Arepalli, Sivaram; Nikolaev, P.; Huffman, C.; Ready, Jud; Higgins, C.D.; Turano, S. P.; Kohl, P.A.; hide


    A document discusses room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) used as electrolytes in carbon-nanotube-based, electrochemical, double-layer capacitors. Unlike the previous electrolyte (EtNB4 in acetonitrile), the RTIL used here does not produce cyanide upon thermal decomposition and does not have a moisture sensitivity.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. Badi; D. Starikov; C. Boney; A. Bensaoula; D. Johnstone


    This project fabricates long-life boron nitride/boron oxynitride thin film -based capacitors for advanced SiC power electronics with a broad operating temperature range using a physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. The use of vapor deposition provides for precise control and quality material formation.

  7. Memristor based crossbar memory array sneak path estimation

    KAUST Repository

    Naous, Rawan


    Gateless Memristor Arrays have the advantage of offering high density systems however; their main limitation is the current leakage or the sneak path. Several techniques have been used to address this problem, mainly concentrating on spatial and temporal solutions in setting a dynamic threshold. In this paper, a novel approach is used in terms of utilizing channel estimation and detection theory, primarily building on OFDM concepts of pilot settings, to actually benefit from prior read values in estimating the noise level and utilizing it to further enhance the reliability and accuracy of the read out process.

  8. Capacitor discharges, magnetohydrodynamics, X-rays, ultrasonics

    CERN Document Server

    Früngel, Frank B A


    High Speed Pulse Technology, Volume 1: Capacitor Discharges - Magnetohydrodynamics - X-Rays - Ultrasonics deals with the theoretical and engineering problems that arise in the capacitor discharge technique.This book discusses the characteristics of dielectric material, symmetrical switch tubes with mercury filling, and compensation conductor forms. The transformed discharge for highest current peaks, ignition transformer for internal combustion engines, and X-ray irradiation of subjects in mechanical motion are also elaborated. This text likewise covers the transformed capacitor discharge in w

  9. The tantalum-cased tantalum capacitor (United States)

    Moynihan, J. D.


    Tantalum-cased tantalum capacitors were tested with regard to temperature stability, capacitance ratio, surge current capabilities, shock, vibration, and thermal shock. They were found to be superior to the conventional wet slug tantalum capacitor cased in silver, since they are more resistant to sulfuric acid. The tantalum-cased tantalum capacitors are widely accepted for use in critical electronic equipment because of their excellent performance and reliability.

  10. Monolithic integrated switched-capacitor filters. I (United States)

    Rienecker, W.


    The historical background of switched-capacitor filters is reviewed, and advanced design techniques for such filters are considered with reference to filter implementation in integrated systems. It is shown that basic equivalences between the components of time-invariant and time-variant networks make it possible to construct switched-capacitor filters that imitate classic filter types. Some examples of commercial switched-capacitor filters show the advantages of this technology.

  11. Capacitors with low equivalent series resistance (United States)

    Fleig, Patrick Franz (Inventor); Lakeman, Charles D. E. (Inventor); Fuge, Mark (Inventor)


    An electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) in a coin or button cell configuration having low equivalent series resistance (ESR). The capacitor comprises mesh or other porous metal that is attached via conducting adhesive to one or both the current collectors. The mesh is embedded into the surface of the adjacent electrode, thereby reducing the interfacial resistance between the electrode and the current collector, thus reducing the ESR of the capacitor.

  12. Extending the Linear Modulation Range to the Full Base Speed Using a Single DC-Link Multilevel Inverter With Capacitor-Fed H-Bridges for IM Drives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahul, Arun; Pramanick, Sumit; Kaarthik, R. Sudharshan


    In this paper, a new space vector pulse width modulation method to extend the linear modulation range of a cascaded five level inverter topology with a single dc supply is presented. Using this method, the inverter can be controlled linearly and the peak phase fundamental output voltage...... of the inverter can be increased from 0.577 to 0.637Vdc without increasing the dc bus voltage and without exceeding the induction motor voltage rating. This new technique makes use of cascaded inverter pole voltage redundancy and property of the space vector structure for its operation. Using this, the induction...... motor drive can be operated till the full speed range (0-50 Hz) with the elimination of lower order harmonics in the phase voltage and phase current. The five-level topology presented in this paper is realized by cascading a two-level inverter and two full bridge modules with floating capacitors...

  13. Energy storage mechanism in aqueous fiber-shaped Li-ion capacitors based on aligned hydrogenated-Li4Ti5O12 nanowires. (United States)

    Zhao, Hao; Ma, Xiangwen; Bai, Jinglong; Yang, Zhenyu; Sun, Gengzhi; Zhang, Zhenxing; Pan, Xiaojun; Lan, Wei; Zhou, Jin Yuan; Xie, Erqing


    It is reported that Li ions can contribute a lot to the capacitance of aqueous Li-ion capacitors (LICs), which might be due to the intercalation/de-intercalation processes of Li(+) ions that also occur at the anodes. However the energy storage mechanism in the aqueous LIC system still requires further proof. In this work, a type of aqueous fiber-shaped LIC has been designed and developed using hydrogenated Li4Ti5O12 (H-LTO) anodes, active carbon (AC) cathodes, and LiCl/PVA gel electrolytes with a double-helical structure. The obtained single LTO wire electrode exhibits a high specific capacitance in volume (34.1 F cm(-3)) and superior cycling stabilities (∼100% over 100 000 cycles), both of which are due to the formed amorphous layers at the surface of the electrodes. Moreover, it is found via sweep voltammetry analysis that most of the energy stored in an aqueous fiber-shaped capacitor electrode is attributed to the Li ions' intercalation, whose content exceeds 85% at a low scan rate and gradually decreases with increasing scan rate; while the energy stored by the double electric layers remains almost unchanged with different scan rates. Furthermore, the well-matched wearable fiber-shaped LICs show high capacitive behaviors (18.44 μW h cm(-2)) and superior static/dynamic cycling stabilities. This research would provide some insight into the charge storage mechanism in electrodes in the aqueous system, and give more suggestions to develop high-energy-density fiber-shaped energy storage devices.

  14. Fabrication and evaluation of an improved polymer-based cochlear electrode array for atraumatic insertion. (United States)

    Gwon, Tae Mok; Min, Kyou Sik; Kim, Jin Ho; Oh, Seung Ha; Lee, Ho Sun; Park, Min-Hyun; Kim, Sung June


    An atraumatic cochlear electrode array has become indispensable to high-performance cochlear implants such as electric acoustic stimulation (EAS), wherein the preservation of residual hearing is significant. For an atraumatic implantation, we propose and demonstrate a new improved design of a cochlear electrode array based on liquid crystal polymer (LCP), which can be fabricated by precise batch processes and a thermal lamination process, in contrast to conventional wire-based cochlear electrode arrays. Using a thin-film process of LCP-film-mounted silicon wafer and thermal press lamination, we devise a multi-layered structure with variable layers of LCP films to achieve a sufficient degree of basal rigidity and a flexible tip. A peripheral blind via and self-aligned silicone elastomer molding process can reduce the width of the array. Measuring the insertion and extraction forces in a human scala tympani model, we investigate five human temporal bone insertion trials and record electrically evoked auditory brainstem responses (EABR) acutely in a guinea pig model. The diameters of the finalized electrode arrays are 0.3 mm (tip) and 0.75 mm (base). The insertion force with a displacement of 8 mm from a round window and the maximum extraction force are 2.4 mN and 34.0 mN, respectively. The electrode arrays can be inserted from 360° to 630° without trauma at the basal turn. The EABR data confirm the efficacy of the array. A new design of LCP-based cochlear electrode array for atraumatic implantation is fabricated. Verification indicates that foretells the development of an atraumatic cochlear electrode array and clinical implant.

  15. Chip-based microtrap arrays for cold polar molecules (United States)

    Hou, Shunyong; Wei, Bin; Deng, Lianzhong; Yin, Jianping


    Compared to the atomic chip, which has been a powerful platform to perform an astonishing range of applications from rapid Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) production to the atomic clock, the molecular chip is only in its infant stages. Recently a one-dimensional electric lattice was demonstrated to trap polar molecules on a chip. This excellent work opens up the way to building a molecular chip laboratory. Here we propose a two-dimensional (2D) electric lattice on a chip with concise and robust structure, which is formed by arrays of squared gold wires. Arrays of microtraps that originate in the microsize electrodes offer a steep gradient and thus allow for confining both light and heavy polar molecules. Theoretical analysis and numerical calculations are performed using two types of sample molecules, N D3 and SrF, to justify the possibility of our proposal. The height of the minima of the potential wells is about 10 μm above the surface of the chip and can be easily adjusted in a wide range by changing the voltages applied on the electrodes. These microtraps offer intriguing perspectives for investigating cold molecules in periodic potentials, such as quantum computing science, low-dimensional physics, and some other possible applications amenable to magnetic or optical lattice. The 2D adjustable electric lattice is expected to act as a building block for a future gas-phase molecular chip laboratory.

  16. Accommodating Thickness in Origami-Based Deployable Arrays (United States)

    Zirbel, Shannon A.; Magleby, Spencer P.; Howell, Larry L.; Lang, Robert J.; Thomson, Mark W.; Sigel, Deborah A.; Walkemeyer, Phillip E.; Trease, Brian P.


    The purpose of this work is to create deployment systems with a large ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter. Deployment from a compact form to a final flat state can be achieved through origami-inspired folding of panels. There are many models capable of this motion when folded in a material with negligible thickness; however, when the application requires the folding of thick, rigid panels, attention must be paid to the effect of material thickness not only on the final folded state, but also during the folding motion (i.e., the panels must not be required to flex to attain the final folded form). The objective is to develop new methods for deployment from a compact folded form to a large circular array (or other final form). This paper describes a mathematical model for modifying the pattern to accommodate material thickness in the context of the design, modeling, and testing of a deployable system inspired by an origami six-sided flasher model. The model is demonstrated in hardware as a 1/20th scale prototype of a deployable solar array for space applications. The resulting prototype has a ratio of stowed-to-deployed diameter of 9.2 (or 1.25 m deployed outer diameter to 0.136 m stowed outer diameter).

  17. Evaluation of Polymer Hermetically Sealed Tantalum Capacitors (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.


    Polymer cathode tantalum capacitors have lower ESR (equivalent series resistance) compared to other types of tantalum capacitors and for this reason have gained popularity in the electronics design community. Their use allows improved performance of power supply systems along with substantial reduction of size and weight of the components used. However, these parts have poor thermal stability and can degrade in humid environments. Polymer hermetically sealed (PHS) capacitors avoid problems related to environmental degradation of molded case parts and can potentially replace current wet and solid hermetically sealed capacitors. In this work, PHS capacitors manufactured per DLA LAM DWG#13030 are evaluated for space applications. Several lots of capacitors manufactured over period from 2010 to 2014 were tested for the consistency of performance, electrical and thermal characteristics, highly accelerated life testing, and robustness under reverse bias and random vibration conditions. Special attention was given to analysis of leakage currents and the effect of long-term high temperature storage on capacitors in as is condition and after hermeticity loss. The results show that PHS capacitors might be especially effective for low-temperature applications or for system requiring a cold start-up. Additional screening and qualification testing have been recommended to assure the necessary quality of capacitors for space projects.

  18. Carbons, ionic liquids and quinones for electrochemical capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul eDiaz


    Full Text Available Carbons are the main electrode materials used in electrochemical capacitors, which are electrochemical energy storage devices with high power densities and long cycling lifetimes. However, increasing their energy density will improve their potential for commercial implementation. In this regard, the use of high surface area carbons and high voltage electrolytes are well known strategies to increase the attainable energy density, and lately ionic liquids have been explored as promising alternatives to current state of the art acetonitrile-based electrolytes. Also, in terms of safety and sustainability ionic liquids are attractive electrolyte materials for electrochemical capacitors. In addition, it has been shown that the matching of the carbon pore size with the electrolyte ion size further increases the attainable electric double layer (EDL capacitance and energy density.The use of pseudocapacitive reactions can significantly increase the attainable energy density, and quinonic-based materials offer a potentially sustainable and cost effective research avenue for both the electrode and the electrolyte. This perspective will provide an overview of the current state of the art research on electrochemical capacitors based on combinations of carbons, ionic liquids and quinonic compounds, highlighting performances and challenges and discussing possible future research avenues. In this regard, current interest is mainly focused on strategies which may ultimately lead to commercially competitive sustainable high performance electrochemical capacitors for different applications including those requiring mechanical flexibility and biocompatibility.

  19. Capacitor Voltages Measurement and Balancing in Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converters Utilizing a Single Voltage Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farivar, Glen; Ghias, Amer M. Y. M.; Hredzak, Branislav


    This paper proposes a new method for measuring capacitor voltages in multilevel flying capacitor (FC) converters that requires only one voltage sensor per phase leg. Multiple dc voltage sensors traditionally used to measure the capacitor voltages are replaced with a single voltage sensor at the ac...

  20. Measurement of Tank Cooling Airflow Based on Array Sensors (United States)

    Zhou, Hui; Han, Yan; Wang, Jianguo; Zhang, Pizhuang


    Researching on the cooling airflow characters of tank will be helpful for optimizing the design of cooling system, and will be of great importance to improve the performance of armoured vehicles. According to the test requirements of tank under the actual working conditions, we studied and designed the proposed cooling airflow measurement system. The most important thing was that we finished the assembly of array sensors without any damage to tank. In addition, according to national standard we set the quantity and locations of the sensors, which was on the premise of avoiding the influence to airway. In this paper, there was description of cooling airflow signal processing; and there was analysis of air pressure distribution which was presented simultaneously by three-dimensional surface graph and plane graph at the exhaust port of tank engine compartment according to fitting algorithm.

  1. Ultrasonic array for obstacle detection based on CDMA with Kasami codes. (United States)

    Diego, Cristina; Hernández, Alvaro; Jiménez, Ana; Alvarez, Fernando J; Sanz, Rebeca; Aparicio, Joaquín


    This paper raises the design of an ultrasonic array for obstacle detection based on Phased Array (PA) techniques, which steers the acoustic beam through the environment by electronics rather than mechanical means. The transmission of every element in the array has been encoded, according to Code Division for Multiple Access (CDMA), which allows multiple beams to be transmitted simultaneously. All these features together enable a parallel scanning system which does not only improve the image rate but also achieves longer inspection distances in comparison with conventional PA techniques.

  2. Estimation of surface impedance at oblique incidence based on sparse array processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Antoine Philippe André; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Brunskog, Jonas


    on spherical array measurements. The sound field measured by the array is mainly composed of an incident and a reflected wave, so it can be represented as a spatially sparse problem. This makes it possible to use compressive sensing in order to enhance the resolution and the quality of the estimation......A method is proposed to estimate the surface impedance of a large absorptive panel from free-field measurements with a spherical microphone array. The method relies on the reconstruction of the pressure and the particle velocity on the studied surface using an equivalent source method based...

  3. Polarization rotator of arbitrary angle based on simple slot-array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Liu


    Full Text Available A novel polarization rotator of arbitrary angle was proposed and realized based on simple slot arrays. To achieve the rotation of an arbitrary angle α, the slots on the first layer have to be at an angle of α to the slots on the second layer. Consequently, 90° rotation can be realized using two perpendicularly oriented slot arrays, which overturns the conventional notion of that perpendicular slot arrays are not possible to pass electromagnetic wave. In addition, such structure provides the same bandwidth comparing to its counterpart utilized for frequency selective surface (FSS. Furthermore, such structure is much easier to be fabricated compared to the substrate integrated waveguide (SIW array. Moreover, low insertion loss can be achieved based on metallic material.

  4. Acoustical source mapping based on deconvolution approaches for circular microphone arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiana Roig, Elisabet; Jacobsen, Finn


    Recently, the aeroacoustic community has examined various methods based on deconvolution to improve the visualization of acoustic fields scanned with planar arrays of microphones. These methods are based on the assumption that the beamforming map in an observation plane parallel to the array can...... be approximated by a convolution of the actual sources and the beamformer’s point spread-function, i.e., the beamformer’s response to a point source. By deconvolving the resulting map, the resolution is improved and the side-lobes effect is reduced or even eliminated compared to conventional beamforming. Even...... though these methods are originally designed for planar sparse arrays, they can be adapted to uniform circular arrays for mapping the sound over 360º. Such geometry has the advantage that the beamforming response has always the same shape around the focusing direction, or in other words...

  5. Polymer-based disposable microneedle array with insertion assisted by vibrating motion


    Lee, F.-W.; Hung, W.-H.; Ma, C.-W.; Yang, Y.-J.


    This work presents a disposable polymer-based microneedle array that carries out insertions by mimicking the vibrating motion of a mosquito's proboscis. The proposed device, which comprises a 10:1 high-aspect-ratio parylene microneedle array and a chamber structure, was monolithically realized using a novel fabrication process. The vibrating motion of the microneedles was generated using a piezoelectric actuator. This device can be potentially applied to extract and colle...

  6. A Quantitative Tool for Producing DNA-Based Diagnostic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom J. Whitaker


    The purpose of this project was to develop a precise, quantitative method to analyze oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on an array to enable a systematic approach to quality control issues affecting DNA microarrays. Two types of ODN's were tested; ODN's formed by photolithography and ODN's printed onto microarrays. Initial work in Phase I, performed in conjunction with Affymetrix, Inc. who has a patent on a photolithographic in situ technique for creating DNA arrays, was very promising but did seem to indicate that the atomization process was not complete. Soon after Phase II work was under way, Affymetrix had further developed fluorescent methods and indicated they were no longer interested in our resonance ionization technique. This was communicated to the program manager and it was decided that the project would continue and be focused on printed ODNs. The method being tested is called SIRIS, Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy. SIRIS has been shown to be a highly sensitive, selective, and quantitative tool for atomic species. This project was aimed at determining if an ODN could be labeled in such a way that SIRIS could be used to measure the label and thus provide quantitative measurements of the ODN on an array. One of the largest problems in this study has been developing a method that allows us to know the amount of an ODN on a surface independent of the SIRIS measurement. Even though we could accurately determine the amount of ODN deposited on a surface, the amount that actually attached to the surface is very difficult to measure (hence the need for a quantitative tool). A double-labeling procedure was developed in which 33P and Pt were both used to label ODNs. The radioactive 33P could be measured by a proportional counter that maps the counts in one dimension. This gave a good measurement of the amount of ODN remaining on a surface after immobilization and washing. A second label, Pt, was attached to guanine nucleotides in the

  7. System-Level Performance of Antenna Arrays in CDMA-Based Cellular Mobile Radio Systems (United States)

    Czylwik, Andreas; Dekorsy, Armin


    Smart antennas exploit the inherent spatial diversity of the mobile radio channel, provide an antenna gain, and also enable spatial interference suppression leading to reduced intracell as well as intercell interference. Especially, for the downlink of future CDMA-based mobile communications systems, transmit beamforming is seen as a well-promising smart antenna technique. The main objective of this paper is to study the performance of diverse antenna array topologies when applied for transmit beamforming in the downlink of CDMA-based networks. In this paper, we focus on uniform linear array (ULA) and uniform circular array (UCA) topologies. For the ULA, we consider three-sector base stations with one linear array per sector. While recent research on downlink beamforming is often restricted to one single cell, this study takes into account the important impact of intercell interference on the performance by evaluating complete networks. Especially, from the operator perspective, system capacity and system coverage are very essential parameters of a cellular system so that there is a clear necessity of intensive system level investigations. Apart from delivering assessments on the performance of the diverse antenna array topologies, in the paper also different antenna array parameters, such as element spacing and beamwidth of the sector antennas, are optimized. Although we focus on the network level, fast channel fluctuations are taken into account by including them analytically into the signal-to-interference calculation.

  8. System-Level Performance of Antenna Arrays in CDMA-Based Cellular Mobile Radio Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekorsy Armin


    Full Text Available Smart antennas exploit the inherent spatial diversity of the mobile radio channel, provide an antenna gain, and also enable spatial interference suppression leading to reduced intracell as well as intercell interference. Especially, for the downlink of future CDMA-based mobile communications systems, transmit beamforming is seen as a well-promising smart antenna technique. The main objective of this paper is to study the performance of diverse antenna array topologies when applied for transmit beamforming in the downlink of CDMA-based networks. In this paper, we focus on uniform linear array (ULA and uniform circular array (UCA topologies. For the ULA, we consider three-sector base stations with one linear array per sector. While recent research on downlink beamforming is often restricted to one single cell, this study takes into account the important impact of intercell interference on the performance by evaluating complete networks. Especially, from the operator perspective, system capacity and system coverage are very essential parameters of a cellular system so that there is a clear necessity of intensive system level investigations. Apart from delivering assessments on the performance of the diverse antenna array topologies, in the paper also different antenna array parameters, such as element spacing and beamwidth of the sector antennas, are optimized. Although we focus on the network level, fast channel fluctuations are taken into account by including them analytically into the signal-to-interference calculation.

  9. Cryogenic Capacitors for Low-Temperature Power Systems Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TRS Technologies proposes to develop low-temperature multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) capable of operating at cyrogenic temperatures (<77K). These capacitors...

  10. Microprocessor Controlled Capacitor Bank Switching System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this work, analysis and development of a microprocessor controlled capacitor bank switching system for deployment in a smart distribution network was carried out. This system was implemented by the use of discreet components such as resistors, capacitors, transistor, diode, automatic voltage regulator, with the ...

  11. Ultra-thin multilayer capacitors.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renk, Timothy Jerome; Monson, Todd C.


    The fabrication of ultra-thin lanthanum-doped lead zirconium titanate (PLZT) multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) using a high-power pulsed ion beam was studied. The deposition experiments were conducted on the RHEPP-1 facility at Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of this work was to increase the energy density of ceramic capacitors through the formation of a multilayer device with excellent materials properties, dielectric constant, and standoff voltage. For successful device construction, there are a number of challenging requirements including achieving correct stoichiometric and crystallographic composition of the deposited PLZT, as well as the creation of a defect free homogenous film. This report details some success in satisfying these requirements, although 900 C temperatures were necessary for PLZT perovskite phase formation. These temperatures were applied to a previously deposited multi-layer film which was then post-annealed to this temperature. The film exhibited mechanical distress attributable to differences in the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) of the various layers. This caused significant defects in the deposited films that led to shorts across devices. A follow-on single layer deposition without post-anneal produced smooth layers with good interface behavior, but without the perovskite phase formation. These issues will need to be addressed in order for ion beam deposited MLCCs to become a viable technology. It is possible that future in-situ heating during deposition may address both the CTE issue, and result in lowered processing temperatures, which in turn could raise the probability of successful MLCC formation.

  12. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan S.; Celaya, Jose Ramon; Biswas, Gautam; Goebel, Kai


    This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions. Electrolytic capacitors have higher failure rates than other components in electronic systems like power drives, power converters etc. Our current work focuses on developing first-principles-based degradation models for electrolytic capacitors under varying electrical and thermal stress conditions. Prognostics and health management for electronic systems aims to predict the onset of faults, study causes for system degradation, and accurately compute remaining useful life. Accelerated life test methods are often used in prognostics research as a way to model multiple causes and assess the effects of the degradation process through time. It also allows for the identification and study of different failure mechanisms and their relationships under different operating conditions. Experiments are designed for aging of the capacitors such that the degradation pattern induced by the aging can be monitored and analyzed. Experimental setups and data collection methods are presented to demonstrate this approach.

  13. Physical Origin of Transient Negative Capacitance in a Ferroelectric Capacitor (United States)

    Chang, Sou-Chi; Avci, Uygar E.; Nikonov, Dmitri E.; Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A.


    Transient negative differential capacitance, the dynamic reversal of transient capacitance in an electrical circuit, is of highly technological and scientific interest since it probes the foundation of ferroelectricity. We study a resistor-ferroelectric capacitor (R -FEC) network through a series of coupled equations based on Kirchhoff's law, electrostatics, and Landau theory. We show that transient negative capacitance (NC) in a R -FEC circuit originates from the mismatch in switching rate between the free charge on the metal plate and the bound charge in a ferroelectric (FE) capacitor during the polarization switching. This transient free charge-polarization mismatch is driven by the negative curvature of the FE free-energy landscape, and it is also analytically shown that a free-energy profile with a negative curvature is the only physical system that can describe transient NC in a R -FEC circuit. Furthermore, transient NC induced by the free charge-polarization mismatch is justified by its dependence on both external resistance and the intrinsic FE viscosity coefficient. The depolarization effect on FE capacitors emphasizes the importance of negative curvature to transient NC and also implies that transient and steady-state NC cannot be observed in a FE capacitor simultaneously. Finally, using the transient NC measurements, a procedure to experimentally determine the viscosity coefficient is presented to provide more insight into the relation between transient NC and the FE free-energy profile.

  14. All-printed capacitors with continuous solution dispensing technology (United States)

    Ge, Yang; Plötner, Matthias; Berndt, Andreas; Kumar, Amit; Voit, Brigitte; Pospiech, Doris; Fischer, Wolf-Joachim


    Printed electronics have been introduced into the commercial markets in recent years. Various printing technologies have emerged aiming to process printed electronic devices with low cost, environmental friendliness, and compatibility with large areas and flexible substrates. The aim of this study is to propose a continuous solution dispensing technology for processing all-printed thin-film capacitors on glass substrates using a leading-edge printing instrument. Among all printing technologies, this study provides concrete proof of the following outstanding advantages of this technology: high tolerance to inks, high throughput, low cost, and precise pattern transfers. Ag nanoparticle ink based on glycol ethers was used to print the electrodes. To obtain dielectric ink, a copolymer powder of poly(methyl methacrylate-co-benzoylphenyl methacrylate) containing crosslinkable side groups was dissolved in anisole. Various layouts were designed to support multiple electronic applications. Scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy were used to investigate the all-printed capacitor layers formed using the proposed process. Additionally, the printed capacitors were electrically characterized under direct current and alternating current. The measured electrical properties of the printed capacitors were consistent with the theoretical results.

  15. A Microsystem for Magnetic Immunoassay Based on Planar Microcoil Array. (United States)

    Zheng, Yushan; Shang, Nan; Haddad, Pierre S; Sawan, Mohamad


    This work focuses on the circuit and system implementation of a microsystem platform for magnetic immunoassay, which is a novel type of diagnostic method using magnetic beads as labels. Three main challenges facing this work-design of a high performance sensor, packaging technique and design of integrated circuits are discussed. Planar microcoil array are exploited as sensor of magnetic beads, whereas ultra thin bottom microplate in traditional ELISA is used for the assay. Main circuits blocks include bidirectional current supply circuit, magnetic field sensing circuit and on-chip temperature sensor. Experiments using mouse IgG with different densities were performed on the proposed platform, results show that a minimum density of 100 pg/mL can be detected, which is a comparable sensitivity to conventional optical ELISA, and a quantitative relationship can be acquired in the range from 1 ng/ml to 1 ug/ml, thus this platform is suitable for quantitative analysis in practical health and environment application and has potential for medical diagnostics, food pathogen detection or water analysis.

  16. Editor's highlight: Evaluation of a Microelectrode Array-based ... (United States)

    Thousands of compounds in the environment have not been characterized for developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) hazard. To address this issue, methods to screen compounds rapidly for DNT hazard evaluation are necessary and are being developed for key neurodevelopmental processes. In order to develop an assay for network formation, the current study evaluated effects of a training set of chemicals on network ontogeny by measuring spontaneous electrical activity in neural networks grown on microelectrode arrays (MEA). Rat (0-24 h old) primary cortical cells were plated in 48 well MEA plates and exposed to six compounds: acetaminophen, bisindolylmaleimide-1 (Bis-1), domoic acid, mevastatin, sodium orthovanadate, and loperamide for a period of 12 days. Spontaneous network activity was recorded on days 2, 5, 7, 9, and 12 and viability was assessed using the Cell Titer Blue® assay on day 12. Network activity (e.g. mean firing rate (MFR), burst rate (BR), etc), increased between days 5 and 12. Random Forest analysis indicated that across all compounds and times, temporal correlation of firing patterns (r), MFR, BR, #of active electrodes and % of spikes in a burst were the most influential parameters in separating control from treated wells. All compounds except acetaminophen (≤ 30 µM) caused concentration-related effects on one or more of these parameters. Domoic acid and sodium orthovanadate altered several of these parameters in the absence of cytotoxicity. Although

  17. Online Calibration for LTE-Based Antenna Array System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyunghoon Kim


    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel calibration method that equalizes the impulse responses of all the Radio Frequency (RF modules of an antenna array system operating in Long-Term Evolution (LTE evolved NodeB (eNB. The proposed technique utilizes the Zadoff-Chu (Z-C sequence of the Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS and Sounding Reference Signal (SRS that are available in every LTE data frame for downlink and uplink, respectively, for estimating and compensating the differences in the impulse responses among the RF modules. The proposed calibration method is suitable for wide bandwidth signal environments of LTE because it equalizes the impulse response of each RF module, which is ultimately equivalent to compensate the phase and amplitude differences among RF modules for the entire frequency band. In addition, the proposed method is applicable while the target eNB is transmitting or receiving a data stream. From various experimental tests obtained from a test-bed implemented with 2 RF modules, it has been verified that the proposed method provides a reliable calibration for Release 10 Time Division Duplex (TDD LTE signals. Phase errors after the calibration in our test-bed have been found to be about 2.418° and 2.983° for downlink and uplink, respectively.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Optical packet switching is considered as the future of data transfer technologyin combination with middle-aged electronics. The biggest challenge encountered in optical packet switching is the lack of optical buffers for storing the contending packets. Therefore, for the contention resolution of packets, a temporary storage in terms of fiber delay lines is used. This task is accomplished by an optical packet switch. In this paper, a design modification in the AWGR (Arrayed Waveguide Grating Router is presented for improving the switch performance. The power budget analysis of the switch is also presented to estimate the sufficient power level of the switch. The obtained results clearly reveal that the architecture presented in this paper can be operated in micro-watts in comparison to the earlier optical switch which operates in milli watts regime. Finally, simulation results are presented to obtain packet loss probability and average delay. Even at the higher load of 0.6, the switch presented in this paper provides a very low loss probability (10^6 and delay remain within 2 slots.

  19. Nanostructured Electrode Materials for Electrochemical Capacitor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hojin Choi


    Full Text Available The advent of novel organic and inorganic nanomaterials in recent years, particularly nanostructured carbons, conducting polymers, and metal oxides, has enabled the fabrication of various energy devices with enhanced performance. In this paper, we review in detail different nanomaterials used in the fabrication of electrochemical capacitor electrodes and also give a brief overview of electric double-layer capacitors, pseudocapacitors, and hybrid capacitors. From a materials point of view, the latest trends in electrochemical capacitor research are also discussed through extensive analysis of the literature and by highlighting notable research examples (published mostly since 2013. Finally, a perspective on next-generation capacitor technology is also given, including the challenges that lie ahead.

  20. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode (United States)

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.


    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  1. A Systolic Array-Based FPGA Parallel Architecture for the BLAST Algorithm (United States)

    Guo, Xinyu; Wang, Hong; Devabhaktuni, Vijay


    A design of systolic array-based Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) parallel architecture for Basic Local Alignment Search Tool (BLAST) Algorithm is proposed. BLAST is a heuristic biological sequence alignment algorithm which has been used by bioinformatics experts. In contrast to other designs that detect at most one hit in one-clock-cycle, our design applies a Multiple Hits Detection Module which is a pipelining systolic array to search multiple hits in a single-clock-cycle. Further, we designed a Hits Combination Block which combines overlapping hits from systolic array into one hit. These implementations completed the first and second step of BLAST architecture and achieved significant speedup comparing with previously published architectures. PMID:25969747

  2. Gallium arsenide quantum well-based far infrared array radiometric imager (United States)

    Forrest, Kathrine A.; Jhabvala, Murzy D.


    We have built an array-based camera (FIRARI) for thermal imaging (lambda = 8 to 12 microns). FIRARI uses a square format 128 by 128 element array of aluminum gallium arsenide quantum well detectors that are indium bump bonded to a high capacity silicon multiplexer. The quantum well detectors offer good responsivity along with high response and noise uniformity, resulting in excellent thermal images without compensation for variation in pixel response. A noise equivalent temperature difference of 0.02 K at a scene temperature of 290 K was achieved with the array operating at 60 K. FIRARI demonstrated that AlGaAS quantum well detector technology can provide large format arrays with performance superior to mercury cadmium telluride at far less cost.

  3. The effect of calcination temperature on the capacitive properties of WO3-based electrochemical capacitors synthesized via a sol-gel method (United States)

    Susanti, Diah; Wibawa, Rizky Narendra Dwi; Tananta, Lucky; Purwaningsih, Hariyati; Fajarin, Rindang; Kusuma, George Endri


    Electrochemical capacitor (EC) is a promising energy storage device which can be hybridized with other energy conversion or energy storage devices. One type of ECs is pseudocapacitor made of metal oxides. WO3 is an inexpensive semiconductor metal oxide which has many applications. However the application of WO3 as an EC material was rarely reported. Therefore in this research EC was prepared from WO3 nanomaterial synthesized by a sol-gel process. The WO3 gel was spin-coated on graphite substrates and calcined at various temperatures of 300°C, 400°C, 500°C and 600°C for 1 h. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) measurements were used to observe the capacitive property of the WO3 samples. SEM, XRD, FTIR and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analyses were used to characterize the material structures. WO3 calcined at 400°C was proved to have the highest capacitance of 233.63 F·g-1 (1869 mF·cm-2) at a scan rate of 2 mV·s-1 in 1 mol/L H2SO4 between potentials -0.4 and 0.4 V vs. SCE. Moreover it also showed the most symmetric CV curves as the indication of a good EC. Hence WO3 calcined at 400°C is a potential candidate for EC material of pseudocapacitor type.

  4. Phenotypic diversity, population structure and stress protein-based capacitoring in populations of Xeropicta derbentina, a heat-tolerant land snail species. (United States)

    Di Lellis, Maddalena A; Sereda, Sergej; Geißler, Anna; Picot, Adrien; Arnold, Petra; Lang, Stefanie; Troschinski, Sandra; Dieterich, Andreas; Hauffe, Torsten; Capowiez, Yvan; Mazzia, Christophe; Knigge, Thomas; Monsinjon, Tiphaine; Krais, Stefanie; Wilke, Thomas; Triebskorn, Rita; Köhler, Heinz-R


    The shell colour of many pulmonate land snail species is highly diverse. Besides a genetic basis, environmentally triggered epigenetic mechanisms including stress proteins as evolutionary capacitors are thought to influence such phenotypic diversity. In this study, we investigated the relationship of stress protein (Hsp70) levels with temperature stress tolerance, population structure and phenotypic diversity within and among different populations of a xerophilic Mediterranean snail species (Xeropicta derbentina). Hsp70 levels varied considerably among populations, and were significantly associated with shell colour diversity: individuals in populations exhibiting low diversity expressed higher Hsp70 levels both constitutively and under heat stress than those of phenotypically diverse populations. In contrast, population structure (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene) did not correlate with phenotypic diversity. However, genetic parameters (both within and among population differences) were able to explain variation in Hsp70 induction at elevated but non-pathologic temperatures. Our observation that (1) population structure had a high explanatory potential for Hsp70 induction and that (2) Hsp70 levels, in turn, correlated with phenotypic diversity while (3) population structure and phenotypic diversity failed to correlate provides empirical evidence for Hsp70 to act as a mediator between genotypic variation and phenotype and thus for chaperone-driven evolutionary capacitance in natural populations.

  5. Reduction of magnetic emission by increasing secondary side capacitor for ferrite geometry based series-series topology for wireless power transfer to vehicles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batra, Tushar; Schaltz, Erik; Ahn, Seungyoung


    Magnetic fields emitted by wireless power transfer to vehicles can potentially affect living organisms. As a result, minimizing the magnetic emissions without compromising with the power transferred is one of the most significant challenges in the success of this technology. Active and passive sh...... of analytical expressions and later substantiated with simulations. At the end, it is also shown that resonance in the system is still intact with this new design methodology....... shielding methods are used for screening of the magnetic fields of this system. In this paper, a new active shielding design method for series-series topology of this technology has been presented. In this method, the secondary capacitor value is increased to reduce phase angle between the primary...... and secondary currents from the standard design. Therefore, a part of the secondary magnetic flux comes in phase opposition with the primary flux and the resultant field is reduced. Operation point is shifted with the new design from the maximum power transfer resonance point and hence the reflected resistance...

  6. Experimental and modeling study of the capacitance-voltage characteristics of metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitor based on pentacene/parylene

    KAUST Repository

    Wondmagegn, Wudyalew T.


    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of metal-insulator- semiconductor (MIS) capacitors consisting of pentacene as an organic semiconductor and parylene as the dielectric have been investigated by experimental, analytical, and numerical analysis. The device simulation was performed using two-dimensional drift-diffusion methods taking into account the Poole-Frenkel field-dependent mobility. Pentacene bulk defect states and fixed charge density at the semiconductor/insulator interface were incorporated into the simulation. The analysis examined pentacene/parylene interface characteristics for various parylene thicknesses. For each thickness, the corresponding flat band voltage extracted from the C-V plot of the MIS structure was more negative than - 2.4 V. From the flat band voltage the existence of a significant mismatch between the work functions of the gate electrode and pentacene active material has been identified. Experimental and simulation results suggest the existence of interface charge density on the order of 3 × 1011 q/cm2 at the insulator/semiconductor interface. The frequency dispersion characteristics of the device are also presented and discussed. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  7. Physics of Failure Models for Capacitor Degradation in DC-DC Converters (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper proposes a combined energy-based model with an empirical physics of failure model for degradation analysis and prognosis of electrolytic capacitors in...

  8. Patterning pallet arrays for cell selection based on high-resolution measurements of fluorescent biosensors. (United States)

    Shadpour, Hamed; Zawistowski, Jon S; Herman, Annadele; Hahn, Klaus; Allbritton, Nancy L


    Pallet arrays enable cells to be separated while they remain adherent to a surface and provide a much greater range of cell selection criteria relative to that of current technologies. However there remains a need to further broaden cell selection criteria to include dynamic intracellular signaling events. To demonstrate the feasibility of measuring cellular protein behavior on the arrays using high resolution microscopy, the surfaces of individual pallets were modified to minimize the impact of scattered light at the pallet edges. The surfaces of the three-dimensional pallets on an array were patterned with a coating such as fibronectin using a customized stamping tool. Micropatterns of varying shape and size were printed in designated regions on the pallets in single or multiple steps to demonstrate the reliability and precision of patterning molecules on the pallet surface. Use of a fibronectin matrix stamped at the center of each pallet permitted the localization of H1299 and mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells to the pallet centers and away from the edges. Compared to pallet arrays with fibronectin coating the entire top surface, arrays with a central fibronectin pattern increased the percentage of cells localized to the pallet center by 3-4-fold. Localization of cells to the pallet center also enabled the physical separation of cells from optical artifacts created by the rough pallet side walls. To demonstrate the measurement of dynamic intracellular signaling on the arrays, fluorescence measurements of high spatial resolution were performed using a RhoA GTPase biosensor. This biosensor utilized fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) to measure localized RhoA activity in cellular ruffles at the cell periphery. These results demonstrated the ability to perform spatially resolved measurements of fluorescence-based sensors on the pallet arrays. Thus, the patterned pallet arrays

  9. Microstrip Resonator for High Field MRI with Capacitor-Segmented Strip and Ground Plane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy; Boer, Vincent; Petersen, Esben Thade


    ) segmenting stripe and ground plane of the resonator with series capacitors. The design equations for capacitors providing symmetric current distribution are derived. The performance of two types of segmented resonators are investigated experimentally. To authors’ knowledge, a microstrip resonator, where both......High field MRI coils are often based on transmission line resonators. Due to relatively short wavelength of RF fields, such coils produce uneven field patterns. Here we show, that it is possible to manipulate magnetic field patterns of microstrip resonators in both planes (sagittal and transverse......, strip and ground plane are capacitor-segmented, is shown here for the first time....

  10. Growth and characterization of transparent Pb(Zi ,Ti)O3 capacitor on glass substrate (United States)

    Uprety, K. K.; Ocola, L. E.; Auciello, O.


    (Pb)(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 (PZT) films were fabricated on LaNiO3 (LNO)/In2O3 90%SnO210% (ITO) layered transparent electrodes on glass substrates using chemical solution deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of semitransparent Pd/PZT/LNO/ITO and transparent ITO/LNO/PZT/LNO/ITO capacitors fabricated on glass substrates were studied. X-ray diffraction revealed an improved crystalline structure of PZT on ITO-buffered glass substrates by interposing a LNO layer between PZT and ITO. Atomic force microscopy showed a smoother surface topography for the LNO/ITO layered electrode on glass, as compared to that of the single ITO layer on glass. The remnant polarization (Pr) of the Pd/PZT/LNO/ITO/glass capacitors and transparent ITO/LNO/PZT/LNO/ITO/glass capacitors was estimated from P-E hysteresis loops. The Pd/PZT/LNO/ITO capacitors on glass revealed significant improvement in the Pr as compared to PZT film based capacitors with ITO electrodes only. Excellent optical transmittance was observed for the whole capacitor structure. The importance of a high performance transparent capacitor is that this structure may enable high efficiency transparent electronic devices such as solar energy storage, photovoltaic, and intelligent windows, among others.

  11. Multicoil resonance-based parallel array for smart wireless power delivery. (United States)

    Mirbozorgi, S A; Sawan, M; Gosselin, B


    This paper presents a novel resonance-based multicoil structure as a smart power surface to wirelessly power up apparatus like mobile, animal headstage, implanted devices, etc. The proposed powering system is based on a 4-coil resonance-based inductive link, the resonance coil of which is formed by an array of several paralleled coils as a smart power transmitter. The power transmitter employs simple circuit connections and includes only one power driver circuit per multicoil resonance-based array, which enables higher power transfer efficiency and power delivery to the load. The power transmitted by the driver circuit is proportional to the load seen by the individual coil in the array. Thus, the transmitted power scales with respect to the load of the electric/electronic system to power up, and does not divide equally over every parallel coils that form the array. Instead, only the loaded coils of the parallel array transmit significant part of total transmitted power to the receiver. Such adaptive behavior enables superior power, size and cost efficiency then other solutions since it does not need to use complex detection circuitry to find the location of the load. The performance of the proposed structure is verified by measurement results. Natural load detection and covering 4 times bigger area than conventional topologies with a power transfer efficiency of 55% are the novelties of presented paper.

  12. Luminescence Imaging Strategies for Drone-Based PV Array Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas; Mantel, Claire


    ) acquisition under natural light conditions during several times of the day, under high sun irradiation, to unveil the sunlight noise characteristics towards an InGaAs detector. In order to bring more freedom to a drone-based inspection, we also show the preliminary results of a laser-line based...

  13. Luminescence Imaging Strategies for Drone-Based PV Array Inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas; Mantel, Claire


    The goal of this work is to develop outdoor defect detection imaging and understand fully its challenges and limitations. The imaging is based on luminescence strategies that will be used for fast and accurate UAV-based inspection system for PV power plants. We studied electroluminescence (EL...

  14. Pitch and TDOA-Based Localization of Acoustic Sources with Distributed Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin Weiss; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    In this paper, a method for acoustic source localization using distributed microphone arrays based on time-differences of arrival (TDOAs) is presented. The TDOAs are used to estimate the location of an acoustic source using a recently proposed method, based on a 4D parameter space defined by the ...

  15. Irregular Polyomino-Shaped Subarrays for Space-Based Active Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Mailloux


    Full Text Available This paper presents new results showing the application of polyomino-based subarrays to limited field of view and wideband, wide-angle scanning. This technology can reduce the number of phase controls in arrays used for limited sector coverage or the number of time delay devices for wideband radar or communications, and so can reduce the cost of space-based active arrays. We concentrate on the wideband application. Results are presented by comparing the gain and peak sidelobe results of irregular polyomino subarray-based arrays with those of rectangular subarrays. It is shown that using irregular polyomino subarrays can result in a major decrease in sidelobes while presenting, in most cases, only a few tenths of a dB gain reduction compared to rectangular subarrays.

  16. Optical waveguide sensor based on silica nanotube arrays for label-free biosensing. (United States)

    Fan, Yong; Ding, Yu; Ma, Hui; Teramae, Norio; Sun, Shuqing; He, Yonghong


    Label-free biosensing based on optical waveguide spectroscopy of silica nanotube (SNT) arrays is realized with high sensitivity. The SNT arrays fabricated using a porous anodic alumina (PAA) template assisted by surface sol-gel (SSG) method showed a high value of 552 reciprocal refractive index unit as the sensing figure of merit by exchanging the sensing environment with water and ethanol. A standard biotin-streptavidin affinity model was tested using the SNT arrays which support a TM1 mode and the fundamental response of the system was investigated. Results show that the response of the SNT arrays for adsorption of streptavidin is higher than the one using substrate without removing the PAA template due to the larger surface area and the stronger electromagnetic field. The limit of detection (LOD) of the SNT arrays for detection of streptavidin was estimated as 93 pM, with the detection time of 40 min. Additionally, the Fresnel calculations suggested higher potential sensitivity of the current system compared to that of the conventional SPR sensors. Thus, the SNT arrays may be used as a versatile platform for high-sensitive label-free optical biosensing due to the high performance and the large potential of the surface functionality. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Addictions biology: haplotype-based analysis for 130 candidate genes on a single array. (United States)

    Hodgkinson, Colin A; Yuan, Qiaoping; Xu, Ke; Shen, Pei-Hong; Heinz, Elizabeth; Lobos, Elizabeth A; Binder, Elizabeth B; Cubells, Joe; Ehlers, Cindy L; Gelernter, Joel; Mann, John; Riley, Brien; Roy, Alec; Tabakoff, Boris; Todd, Richard D; Zhou, Zhifeng; Goldman, David


    To develop a panel of markers able to extract full haplotype information for candidate genes in alcoholism, other addictions and disorders of mood and anxiety. A total of 130 genes were haplotype tagged and genotyped in 7 case/control populations and 51 reference populations using Illumina GoldenGate SNP genotyping technology, determining haplotype coverage. We also constructed and determined the efficacy of a panel of 186 ancestry informative markers. An average of 1465 loci were genotyped at an average completion rate of 91.3%, with an average call rate of 98.3% and replication rate of 99.7%. Completion and call rates were lowered by the performance of two datasets, highlighting the importance of the DNA quality in high throughput assays. A comparison of haplotypes captured by the Addictions Array tagging SNPs and commercially available whole-genome arrays from Illumina and Affymetrix shows comparable performance of the tag SNPs to the best whole-genome array in all populations for which data are available. Arrays of haplotype-tagged candidate genes, such as this addictions-focused array, represent a cost-effective approach to generate high-quality SNP genotyping data useful for the haplotype-based analysis of panels of genes such as these 130 genes of interest to alcohol and addictions researchers. The inclusion of the 186 ancestry informative markers allows for the detection and correction for admixture and further enhances the utility of the array.

  18. Study of ageing mechanisms of organic electrolyte super-capacitors based on activated carbons; Recherche des causes du vieillissement de supercondensateurs a electrolyte organique a base de carbones actives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azais, Ph.


    The energy which is stored in electrochemical capacitors is proportional to the square of voltage. Consequently, the most attractive super-capacitors are those which operate in organic electrolyte medium, with an electrolyte potential window which theoretically can easily reach more than 3 V. However, even using lower values of voltage, there is a remarkable fading of the electrochemical characteristics with operating time, that is mainly characterized by capacitance loss and resistance increase. On a commercial point of view, these capacitors must be improved in order to reach the expected criterion of long operating life. In the presented work, we will determine some reasons of super-capacitors ageing in organic electrolyte (1 M solution of Et{sub 4}N{sup +} BF{sub 4}{sup -} in acetonitrile) and we will propose a treatment of activated carbon which noticeably improves the performance. A prolonged charging of electrochemical capacitors at 2.5 V, so called floating, results in gases formation and to a noticeable mass uptake of the electrodes. XPS and NMR analysis performed on carefully washed electrodes demonstrated the existence of decomposition products from the electrolyte, which are trapped in the pores of the activated carbon. These products block the pores, limiting the ions access to the active surface that causes the decay of electrochemical performances. Electrolyte decomposition is especially very high when the electrodes are constituted of carbons with a rich surface functionality, i.e. surface oxygenated groups and free radicals. Therefore, activated carbons have been submitted to thermal treatment, both in nitrogen and hydrogen atmosphere, allowing the oxygenated surface functionality to be noticeably depressed. Super-capacitors built with the treated materials have been submitted to floating during more than 2000 hours. Extremely good electrochemical performance are preserved with the electrodes obtained from activated carbons treated under hydrogen

  19. Nonaqueous Electrolyte Development for Electrochemical Capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Xu; S. P. Ding; T. R. Jow


    The objectives of this project were to demonstrate and develop new nonaqueous electrolytes that enable the development of high power (in excess of 2 kW/kg) and high energy (in excess of 8 Wh/kg) capacitors. Electrochemical capacitors are attractive to use because of their long cycle life and inherent high-power (or fast charge/discharge) capabilities. To realize the inherent high-power nature of the capacitor, the resistance of the capacitor needs to be low. The main focus of this project is on the ionic part of capacitor resistance, which is largely determined by the electrolyte, especially the electrolyte's conductivity. To achieve the objectives of this project, two approaches were used. The first was to search for the proper solvent mixtures within the commercially available quaternary ammonium salts such as tetraethyl ammonium tetrafluoroborate (Et4NBF4) or tetraethyl ammonium hexafluorophosphate (Et4NPF6). The second approach was to use the commonly available solvent system s but develop new salts. Substantial advances were made in quaternary ammonium salts and solvent systems were identified that can withstand high voltage operations. However, improvement in the salt alone is not sufficient. Improvements in the low-temperature stability of a capacitor rely not only on the salts but also on the solvents. Likewise, the high-temperature stability of the capacitor will depend not only on the salts but also on the solvents and carbon electrode materials.

  20. An Array-based Approach to Modelling Production Management System Architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falster, Peter


    Several proposals to a conceptual framework for production management architecture are briefly reviewed. It is suggested that an array-based approach and a classic engineering-economic model, is used as tools for a conceptualisation of ideas. Traditional architectural design is usually based...... on a geometrical thinking. Accordingly, elements from measurement and array theory are introduced, but in a more abstract way than traditionally connected with 3D-geometry. The paper concludes that a few set of concepts, like products, resources, activities, events, stages, etc. can be synthesized and analogies...... and symmetries between production engineering and software engineering can be established....

  1. Conductance based characterization of structure and hopping site density in 2D molecule-nanoparticle arrays (United States)

    McCold, Cliff E.; Fu, Qiang; Howe, Jane Y.; Hihath, Joshua


    Composite molecule-nanoparticle hybrid systems have recently emerged as important materials for applications ranging from chemical sensing to nanoscale electronics. However, creating reproducible and repeatable composite materials with precise properties has remained one of the primary challenges to the implementation of these technologies. Understanding the sources of variation that dominate the assembly and transport behavior is essential for the advancement of nanoparticle-array based devices. In this work, we use a combination of charge-transport measurements, electron microscopy, and optical characterization techniques to determine the role of morphology and structure on the charge transport properties of 2-dimensional monolayer arrays of molecularly-interlinked Au nanoparticles. Using these techniques we are able to determine the role of both assembly-dependent and particle-dependent defects on the conductivities of the films. These results demonstrate that assembly processes dominate the dispersion of conductance values, while nanoparticle and ligand features dictate the mean value of the conductance. By performing a systematic study of the conductance of these arrays as a function of nanoparticle size we are able to extract the carrier mobility for specific molecular ligands. We show that nanoparticle polydispersity correlates with the void density in the array, and that because of this correlation it is possible to accurately determine the void density within the array directly from conductance measurements. These results demonstrate that conductance-based measurements can be used to accurately and non-destructively determine the morphological and structural properties of these hybrid arrays, and thus provide a characterization platform that helps move 2-dimensional nanoparticle arrays toward robust and reproducible electronic systems.Composite molecule-nanoparticle hybrid systems have recently emerged as important materials for applications ranging from

  2. Space-based aperture array for ultra-long wavelength radio astronomy (United States)

    Rajan, Raj Thilak; Boonstra, Albert-Jan; Bentum, Mark; Klein-Wolt, Marc; Belien, Frederik; Arts, Michel; Saks, Noah; van der Veen, Alle-Jan


    The past decade has seen the advent of various radio astronomy arrays, particularly for low-frequency observations below 100 MHz. These developments have been primarily driven by interesting and fundamental scientific questions, such as studying the dark ages and epoch of re-ionization, by detecting the highly red-shifted 21 cm line emission. However, Earth-based radio astronomy observations at frequencies below 30 MHz are severely restricted due to man-made interference, ionospheric distortion and almost complete non-transparency of the ionosphere below 10 MHz. Therefore, this narrow spectral band remains possibly the last unexplored frequency range in radio astronomy. A straightforward solution to study the universe at these frequencies is to deploy a space-based antenna array far away from Earths' ionosphere. In the past, such space-based radio astronomy studies were principally limited by technology and computing resources, however current processing and communication trends indicate otherwise. Furthermore, successful space-based missions which mapped the sky in this frequency regime, such as the lunar orbiter RAE-2, were restricted by very poor spatial resolution. Recently concluded studies, such as DARIS (Disturbuted Aperture Array for Radio Astronomy In Space) have shown the ready feasibility of a 9 satellite constellation using off the shelf components. The aim of this article is to discuss the current trends and technologies towards the feasibility of a space-based aperture array for astronomical observations in the Ultra-Long Wavelength (ULW) regime of greater than 10 m i.e., below 30 MHz. We briefly present the achievable science cases, and discuss the system design for selected scenarios such as extra-galactic surveys. An extensive discussion is presented on various sub-systems of the potential satellite array, such as radio astronomical antenna design, the on-board signal processing, communication architectures and joint space-time estimation of the

  3. Toward new gas-analytical multisensor chips based on titanium oxide nanotube array. (United States)

    Fedorov, Fedor; Vasilkov, Michail; Lashkov, Andrey; Varezhnikov, Alexey; Fuchs, Dirk; Kübel, Christian; Bruns, Michael; Sommer, Martin; Sysoev, Victor


    Reliable environmental monitoring requires cost effective but highly sensitive and selective gas sensors. While the sensitivity of the sensors is improved by reducing the characteristic dimensions of the gas-sensing material, the selectivity is often approached by combining the sensors into multisensor arrays. The development of scalable methods to manufacture such arrays based on low-dimensional structures offers new perspectives for gas sensing applications. Here we examine an approach to produce multisensor array chips based on the TiO x nanotube layers segmented by multiple Pt strip electrodes. We study the sensitivity and selectivity of the developed chip at operating temperatures up to 400 °C towards organic vapors in the ppm range. The results indicate that the titania nanotubes are a promising material platform for novel cost-effective and powerful gas-analytical multisensor units.

  4. Multidirectional flexible force sensors based on confined, self-adjusting carbon nanotube arrays (United States)

    Lee, J.-I.; Pyo, Soonjae; Kim, Min-Ook; Kim, Jongbaeg


    We demonstrate a highly sensitive force sensor based on self-adjusting carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays. Aligned CNT arrays are directly synthesized on silicon microstructures by a space-confined growth technique which enables a facile self-adjusting contact. To afford flexibility and softness, the patterned microstructures with the integrated CNTs are embedded in polydimethylsiloxane structures. The sensing mechanism is based on variations in the contact resistance between the facing CNT arrays under the applied force. By finite element analysis, proper dimensions and positions for each component are determined. Further, high sensitivities up to 15.05%/mN of the proposed sensors were confirmed experimentally. Multidirectional sensing capability could also be achieved by designing multiple sets of sensing elements in a single sensor. The sensors show long-term operational stability, owing to the unique properties of the constituent CNTs, such as outstanding mechanical durability and elasticity.

  5. Luminescence imaging strategies for drone-based PV array inspection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benatto, Gisele Alves dos Reis; Riedel, Nicholas; Mantel, Claire


    The goal of this work is to perform outdoor defect detection imaging that will be used in a fast, accurate and automatic drone-based survey system for PV power plants. The imaging development focuses on techniques that do not require electrical contact, permitting automatic drone inspections...

  6. Microfluidic pump based on arrays of rotating magnetic microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Beld, Wesley Theodorus Eduardus; de Weerd, Eddy L; Abelmann, Leon; Bomer, Johan G.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.; Fujii, T.; Hibara, A.; Takeuchi, S.; Fukuba, T.


    We demonstrate a novel, flexible and biocompatible method to pump liquid through microchannels without the use of an external pump. The pumping principle is based on the rotation of superparamagnetic microspheres around permalloy disks, driven by an external in-plane rotating magnetic field. By

  7. Ultrabroadband Phased-Array Receivers Based on Optical Techniques (United States)


    this fiber pickup. This source of loss was only recently discovered to be a limiting factor in the system sensitivity and plans are being developed...area behind the antenna to allow for this integration. Additionally, use of optical modulators to encode the signals based on lithium niobate require a

  8. Coating based Fiber Bragg Grating humidity sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Boersma, A.; Jansen, T.H.


    A coating based FBG humidity sensor is developed for distributed humidity sensing. The sensitivity of the coated FBG is optimized by varying the chemical composition and the thickness of the coating. A sensitivity of ~2 pm/%RH and a rapid response are demonstrated. The composition of the coating can

  9. Mapping of bionic array electric field focusing in plasmid DNA-based gene electrotransfer. (United States)

    Browne, C J; Pinyon, J L; Housley, D M; Crawford, E N; Lovell, N H; Klugmann, M; Housley, G D


    Molecular medicine through gene therapy is challenged to achieve targeted action. This is now possible utilizing bionic electrode arrays for focal delivery of naked (plasmid) DNA via gene electrotransfer. Here, we establish the properties of array-based electroporation affecting targeted gene delivery. An array with eight 300 μm platinum ring electrodes configured as a cochlear implant bionic interface was used to transduce HEK293 cell monolayers with a plasmid-DNA green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene construct. Electroporation parameters were pulse intensity, number, duration, separation and electrode configuration. The latter determined the shape of the electric fields, which were mapped using a voltage probe. Electrode array-based electroporation was found to require ~100 × lower applied voltages for cell transduction than conventional electroporation. This was found to be due to compression of the field lines orthogonal to the array. A circular area of GFP-positive cells was created when the electrodes were ganged together as four adjacent anodes and four cathodes, whereas alternating electrode polarity created a linear area of GFP-positive cells. The refinement of gene delivery parameters was validated in vivo in the guinea pig cochlea. These findings have significant clinical ramifications, where spatiotemporal control of gene expression can be predicted by manipulation of the electric field via current steering at a cellular level.

  10. Arrayed liquid crystal microlens based on graphene electrode for imaging application (United States)

    Hu, Wei; Chen, Cheng; Wu, Yong; Luo, Jun; Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Xie, Changsheng


    In this paper, an arrayed liquid crystal (LC) microlens (ALCM) based on graphene electrode instead of common indium tin oxide (ITO) electrode material is designed and fabricated, and the corresponding testing results have been obtained and presented. The graphene film used as patterned electrode in the project is grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) over copper foils, which demonstrate the properties of low sheet resistance and high transmittance of more than 90% in current stage. The key fabrication of the arrayed LC microlens based on graphene electrode includes the graphene transfering, ultraviolet lithography, ICP etching, liquid crystalline polymer encapsulation, etc. In the test of the arrayed LC microlens, the point spread functions (PSF) of incident laser beams with different wavelengths, such as red laser of ~600nm wavelength, and green laser of ~532nm wavelength, have been obtained. In addition, the arrayed LC microlenses are also used in visible light imaging. During the imaging tests, each microlens in the arrayed LC microlens can perform imaging process, independently.

  11. Mini array of quantum Hall devices based on epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, S.; Lebedeva, N. [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Micronova, Tietotie 3, Espoo (Finland); Hämäläinen, J.; Iisakka, I.; Immonen, P.; Manninen, A. J.; Satrapinski, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)


    Series connection of four quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices based on epitaxial graphene films was studied for realization of a quantum resistance standard with an up-scaled value. The tested devices showed quantum Hall plateaux R{sub H,2} at a filling factor v = 2 starting from a relatively low magnetic field (between 4 T and 5 T) when the temperature was 1.5 K. The precision measurements of quantized Hall resistance of four QHE devices connected by triple series connections and external bonding wires were done at B = 7 T and T = 1.5 K using a commercial precision resistance bridge with 50 μA current through the QHE device. The results showed that the deviation of the quantized Hall resistance of the series connection of four graphene-based QHE devices from the expected value of 4×R{sub H,2} = 2 h/e{sup 2} was smaller than the relative standard uncertainty of the measurement (<1 × 10{sup −7}) limited by the used resistance bridge.

  12. A bead-based suspension array for the serological detection of Trichinella in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wal, van der F.J.; Achterberg, R.P.; Kant, A.; Maassen, C.B.M.


    The feasibility of using bead-based suspension arrays to detect serological evidence of Trichinella in pigs was assessed. Trichinella spiralis excretory–secretory antigen was covalently coupled to paramagnetic beads and used to bind serum antibodies, which were subsequently detected using anti-swine

  13. Coupling of organotypic brain slice cultures to silicon-based arrays of electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jahnsen, Henrik; Kristensen, Bjarne Winther; Thiébaud, P


    such hippocampal rat brain slice cultures on biocompatible silicon-based chips with arrays of electrodes with a histological organization comparable to that of conventional brain slice cultures grown by the roller drum technique and on semiporous membranes. Intracellular and extracellular recordings from neurons...

  14. Pseudo-Coherence-Based MVDR Beamformer for Speech Enhancement with Ad Hoc Microphone Arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavakoli, Vincent Mohammad; Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll


    Speech enhancement with distributed arrays has been met with various methods. On the one hand, data independent methods require information about the position of sensors, so they are not suitable for dynamic geometries. On the other hand, Wiener-based methods cannot assure a distortionless output...

  15. Impedance estimation of a finite absorber based on spherical array measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richard, Antoine Philippe André; Fernandez Grande, Efren; Brunskog, Jonas


    A method to characterize the surface impedance of materials is presented. The estimation is based on pressure measurements with a spherical microphone array. These measurements are used to reconstruct the sound pressure and particle velocity on the sample’s surface, from which the material’s impe...

  16. High performance surface plasmon resonance sensor based on two dimensional ultra-thin metal nanoslit arrays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sieben-Xu, L.; Offermans, P.; Brom-Verheyden, G.; Brongersma, S.H.; Crego Calama, M.


    We present a high performance surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensor based on two dimensional (2D) ultra-thin (40 nm) gold nanoslit arrays. These structures were designed to exhibit narrow linewidth (FWHM) and high transmission SPR under non-polarized illumination. In addition, we show the influence

  17. Prognostic impact of array-based genomic profiles in esophageal squamous cell cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carneiro, Ana; Isinger, Anna; Karlsson, Anna


    applied array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) to obtain a whole genome copy number profile relevant for identifying deranged pathways and clinically applicable markers. METHODS: A 32 k aCGH platform was used for high resolution mapping of copy number changes in 30 stage I-IV ESCC. Potential...

  18. A Time Delay Estimation Method Based on Wavelet Transform and Speech Envelope for Distributed Microphone Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YIN, F.


    Full Text Available A time delay estimation method based on wavelet transform and speech envelope is proposed for distributed microphone arrays. This method first extracts the speech envelopes of the signals processed with multi-level discrete wavelet transform, and then makes use of the speech envelopes to estimate a coarse time delay. Finally it searches for the accurate time delay near the coarse time delay by the cross-correlation function calculated in time domain. The simulation results illustrate that the proposed method can accurately estimate the time delay between two distributed microphone array signals.

  19. Optically Controlled Reconfigurable Antenna Array Based on E-Shaped Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arismar Cerqueira Sodré Junior


    Full Text Available This work presents the development of optically controlled reconfigurable antenna arrays. They are based on two patch elements with E-shaped slots, a printed probe, and a photoconductive switch made from an intrinsic silicon die. Numerical simulations and experiments have been shown to be in agreement, and both demonstrate that the frequency response of the antenna arrays can be efficiently reconfigured over two different frequency ISM bands, namely, 2.4 and 5 GHz. A measured gain of 12.5 dBi has been obtained through the use of two radiating elements printed in a low-cost substrate and a dihedral corner reflector.

  20. Improved efficient perovskite solar cells based on Ta-doped TiO2 nanorod arrays. (United States)

    Cui, Qian; Zhao, Xiaochong; Lin, Hong; Yang, Longkai; Chen, Hong; Zhang, Yan; Li, Xin


    Organometal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) are nowadays regarded as a rising star in photovoltaics. In particular, PSCs incorporating oriented TiO2 nanorod (NR) arrays as the electron transport layer (ETL) have attracted significant attention owing to TiO2 NR's superior electron transport abilities and its potential in long-term stable PSCs. In addition to improve the electron-transport ability of TiO2 NRs, the tuning of the band alignments between the TiO2 NR array and the perovskite layer is also crucial for achieving efficient solar cells. This work describes a facile, one-step, solvothermal method for the preparation of tantalum (Ta) doped TiO2 NR arrays for efficient PSCs. It is shown that the trace doping with Ta tunes the electronic structure of TiO2 NRs by a synergistic effect involving the lower 5d orbitals of the doped Ta5+ ions and the reduced oxygen vacancies. The synergistic tuning of the electronic structure improves the band alignment at the TiO2 NR/perovskite interface and boosts the short-circuit current and the fill factor. By using the optimized doped TiO2 NR array as the ETL, a record efficiency of 19.11% was achieved, which is the highest among one-dimensional-array based PSCs.

  1. Simulation Based Investigation of Focusing Phased Array Ultrasound in Dissimilar Metal Welds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Hee Kim


    Full Text Available Flaws at dissimilar metal welds (DMWs, such as reactor coolant systems components, Control Rod Drive Mechanism (CRDM, Bottom Mounted Instrumentation (BMI etc., in nuclear power plants have been found. Notably, primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC in the DMWs could cause significant reliability problems at nuclear power plants. Therefore, phased array ultrasound is widely used for inspecting surface break cracks and stress corrosion cracks in DMWs. However, inspection of DMWs using phased array ultrasound has a relatively low probability of detection of cracks, because the crystalline structure of welds causes distortion and splitting of the ultrasonic beams which propagates anisotropic medium. Therefore, advanced evaluation techniques of phased array ultrasound are needed for improvement in the probability of detection of flaws in DMWs. Thus, in this study, an investigation of focusing and steering phased array ultrasound in DMWs was carried out using a time reversal technique, and an adaptive focusing technique based on finite element method (FEM simulation. Also, evaluation of focusing performance of three different focusing techniques was performed by comparing amplitude of phased array ultrasonic signals scattered from the targeted flaw with three different time delays.

  2. A Thermal Runaway Failure Model for Low-Voltage BME Ceramic Capacitors with Defects (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander


    Reliability of base metal electrode (BME) multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) that until recently were used mostly in commercial applications, have been improved substantially by using new materials and processes. Currently, the inception of intrinsic wear-out failures in high quality capacitors became much greater than the mission duration in most high-reliability applications. However, in capacitors with defects degradation processes might accelerate substantially and cause infant mortality failures. In this work, a physical model that relates the presence of defects to reduction of breakdown voltages and decreasing times to failure has been suggested. The effect of the defect size has been analyzed using a thermal runaway model of failures. Adequacy of highly accelerated life testing (HALT) to predict reliability at normal operating conditions and limitations of voltage acceleration are considered. The applicability of the model to BME capacitors with cracks is discussed and validated experimentally.

  3. Contribution to dimensioning a pack of super-capacitors for 12/42 V application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafik, F.; Karmous, M. [Ecole d' Ingenieurs de l' Arc Jurassien, CH (Switzerland); Gualous, H.; Berthon, A. [Universite de Franche-Comte, Lab. en Electronique, Electrotechnique et Systemes (L2ES), UTBM, 90 - Belfort (France); Gallay, R. [Maxwell Technologies, CH (Switzerland)


    Increase power demands on automotive are making current 12/14 V electrical systems inadequate. The total power demand will triple in some cars from 800 W today to an average of 2500 W and into kW range for peak demand in the future. Super-capacitor can be used for energy storage and for peak power requirement in order to increase the efficiency and the life cycle of the system. However, the sizing of energy storage with super-capacitors is very important for embedded applications, because of the weight and the volume of the system. This paper presents a sizing method of a pack of super-capacitors. The proposed method is based on the power and energy demand. In order to validate this method, a model of the Maxwell cell BCAP0010 of super-capacitors is presented and implemented in the SIMPLORER software. (authors)

  4. Array-based profiling of ragweed and mugwort pollen allergens. (United States)

    Gadermaier, G; Wopfner, N; Wallner, M; Egger, M; Didierlaurent, A; Regl, G; Aberger, F; Lang, R; Ferreira, F; Hawranek, T


    Ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) and mugwort (Artemisia vulgaris) pollen is the main cause of allergic reactions in late summer and autumn. The differential diagnosis between ragweed and mugwort pollen allergy is a frequent problem encountered by allergologists in areas where both plants are present due to shared antigenic structures and overlapping flowering seasons. To evaluate the sensitization pattern of weed allergic patients towards a large panel of purified allergens in the microarray format and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Eight ragweed and six mugwort pollen allergens were purified from natural source or expressed as recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli. Allergens were spotted on protein microarray slides or coated onto ELISA plates. Sera from 19 ragweed and/or mugwort allergic individuals were used to determine the reactivity towards single molecules in both assays. All ragweed allergic individuals were sensitized to Amb a 1, among them 30% were monosensitized to the major ragweed allergen. Art v 1 and Art v 3 were recognized by 89% of mugwort pollen-allergic patients. Extensive cross-reactivity was observed for both patient groups mainly involving the pan-allergens profilin and nonspecific lipid transfer proteins. Comparable IgE profiles were obtained with both allergen microarray and ELISA methods. Molecule-based diagnosis provides essential information for the differential diagnosis between ragweed and mugwort pollen allergy and for the selection of the appropriate allergen source for specific immunotherapy.

  5. Partial differential equation-based localization of a monopole source from a circular array. (United States)

    Ando, Shigeru; Nara, Takaaki; Levy, Tsukassa


    Wave source localization from a sensor array has long been the most active research topics in both theory and application. In this paper, an explicit and time-domain inversion method for the direction and distance of a monopole source from a circular array is proposed. The approach is based on a mathematical technique, the weighted integral method, for signal/source parameter estimation. It begins with an exact form of the source-constraint partial differential equation that describes the unilateral propagation of wide-band waves from a single source, and leads to exact algebraic equations that include circular Fourier coefficients (phase mode measurements) as their coefficients. From them, nearly closed-form, single-shot and multishot algorithms are obtained that is suitable for use with band-pass/differential filter banks. Numerical evaluation and several experimental results obtained using a 16-element circular microphone array are presented to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  6. Development of ISFET array-based microsystems for bioelectrochemical measurements of cell populations. (United States)

    Martinoia, S; Rosso, N; Grattarola, M; Lorenzelli, L; Margesin, B; Zen, M


    Monitoring the bioelectrochemical activity of living cells with sensor array-based microsystems represents an emerging technique in a large area of biomedical applications, ranging from basic research to various fields of pharmacological analyses. The main appeal is the ability of these miniaturised microsystems to perform, in real time, non-invasive in-vitro investigations of the physiological state of a cell population. In this paper, we present two different microsystems designed for multisite monitoring of the physiological state of a cell population. The first microsystem, intended for cellular metabolism monitoring, consists of an array of 12 spatially distributed ISFETs to detect small pH variations induced by the cell population. The second microsystem consists of an array of 40 ISFETs and 20 gold microelectrodes and it has been designed to monitor the electrical activity of neurons. This is achieved by direct coupling of the neuronal culture with the ISFET sensitive layer and by utilising gold microelectrodes for neuronal electrical stimulation.

  7. Dispersion-based imaging for structural health monitoring using sparse and compact arrays (United States)

    Quaegebeur, N.; Masson, P.; Langlois-Demers, D.; Micheau, P.


    In this paper, a technique called 'excitelet' is presented for the imaging of damage in structures using the correlation of the signals measured at elements of piezoceramic arrays with dispersed versions of the excitation signal. This approach is presented as an extension of classical imaging techniques and takes advantage of the chirplet-based matching pursuit algorithm. The applicability for sparse and compact arrays is investigated experimentally on an aluminum plate and comparison with the existing embedded ultrasonic structural radar (EUSR) algorithm is performed for A0 and S0 modes for three frequency ranges of interest. Significant improvement of imaging quality is demonstrated with respect to imaging techniques using time-of-flight (ToF) and group velocity considerations for both sparse and compact piezoceramic array arrangements.

  8. Design of a reconfigurable optical add/drop multiplexer based on tunable Fabry-Perot array (United States)

    Ye, Jiansen; Wang, Xin; Li, Zhuo; Yang, Yang; Xu, Rui; Shi, Rui


    With the development of optical fiber communication, dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) system is important for the rapid management of multi-wavelength in the core node of the optical transmission network. In this paper, a reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexer (ROADM) based on the tunable Fabry-Perot (F-P) array is proposed. An optical switch with high isolation and low crosstalk is designed by using the characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P array. The principle, structure, and function of the tunable F-P array are introduced. The characteristics of filtering and tuning for the F-P filter are also calculated, and the factor for the isolation, crosstalk, response time and insertion loss are analyzed. A single physical channel ROADM with 16 signal channels, which operates in C-band, is designed and optimized by simulation.

  9. A simple laser locking system based on a field-programmable gate array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Nils Byg; Birkmose, Danny Matthiesen; Trelborg, Kristian


    such locking systems. We have developed a frequency stabilization system based on a field-programmable gate array, with emphasis on hardware simplicity, which offers a user-friendly alternative to commercial and previous home-built solutions. Frequency modulation, lock-in detection and a proportional-integral......Frequency stabilization of laser light is crucial in both scientific and industrial applications. Technological developments now allow analog laser stabilization systems to be replaced with digital electronics such as field-programmable gate arrays, which have recently been utilized to develop......-derivative controller are programmed on the field-programmable gate array and only minimal additional components are required to frequency stabilize a laser. The locking system is administered from a host-computer which provides comprehensive, long-distance control through a versatile interface. Various measurements...

  10. 3D Imaging Algorithm for Down-Looking MIMO Array SAR Based on Bayesian Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaozhen Ren


    Full Text Available Down-looking MIMO array SAR can reconstruct 3D images of the observed area in the inferior of the platform of the SAR and has wide application prospects. In this paper, a new strategy based on Bayesian compressive sensing theory is proposed for down-looking MIMO array SAR imaging, which transforms the cross-track imaging process of down-looking MIMO array SAR into the problem of sparse signal reconstruction from noisy measurements. Due to account for additive noise encountered in the measurement process, high quality image can be achieved. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method can provide better resolution and lower sidelobes compared to the conventional method.

  11. Advancement of High Power Quasi-CW Laser Diode Arrays For Space-based Laser Instruments (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, nathaniel R.; Baggott, Renee S.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.


    Space-based laser and lidar instruments play an important role in NASA s plans for meeting its objectives in both Earth Science and Space Exploration areas. Almost all the lidar instrument concepts being considered by NASA scientist utilize moderate to high power diode-pumped solid state lasers as their transmitter source. Perhaps the most critical component of any solid state laser system is its pump laser diode array which essentially dictates instrument efficiency, reliability and lifetime. For this reason, premature failures and rapid degradation of high power laser diode arrays that have been experienced by laser system designers are of major concern to NASA. This work addresses these reliability and lifetime issues by attempting to eliminate the causes of failures and developing methods for screening laser diode arrays and qualifying them for operation in space.

  12. Formation of Au nanoparticle arrays on hydrogel two-dimensional patterns based on poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (United States)

    Tsukuda, Satoshi; Okamoto, Kazumasa; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Kozawa, Takahiro; Omata, Takahisa


    In this study, we demonstrated the formation of Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays on two-dimensional gel patterns based on poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), which were fabricated by electron beam (EB) lithography. Au NPs were preferentially formed on PVP patterns by photoreduction in HAuCl4-containing MeOH solutions without any surface treatment. The number density of the Au NPs was highly controlled by changing the UV irradiation time; therefore, increasing the UV irradiation time produced Au NP arrays with highly packed Au NPs on the PVP patterns. The size of the cross-linking networks of PVP, which depended on the cross-linking density induced by EB irradiation, plays a very important role in the formation of Au NPs in the Au ion-containing solution under UV irradiation. We discussed the difference in the fabricated Au NP arrays at different EB exposure doses in terms of the interaction between the gel networks and the Au NPs formed.

  13. Conducted noise analysis and protection of 45 kJ/s, ±50 kV capacitor charging power supply when interfaced with repetitive Marx based pulse power system. (United States)

    Naresh, P; Patel, Ankur; Sharma, Archana


    Pulse power systems with highly dynamic loads like klystron, backward wave oscillator (BWO), and magnetron generate highly dynamic noise. This noise leads to frequent failure of controlled switches in the inverter stage of charging power supply. Designing a reliable and compatible power supply for pulse power applications is always a tricky job when charging rate is in multiples of 10 kJ/s. A ±50 kV and 45 kJ/s capacitor charging power supply based on 4th order LCLC resonant topology has been developed for a 10 Hz repetitive Marx based system. Conditions for load independent constant current and zero current switching (ZCS) are derived mathematically. Noise generated at load end due to dynamic load is tackled effectively and reduction in magnitude noise voltage is achieved by providing shielding between primary and secondary of high voltage high frequency transformer and with LCLC low pass filter. Shielding scales down the ratio between coupling capacitance (Cc) and the collector-emitter capacitance of insulated gate bi-polar transistor switch, which in turn reduces the common mode noise voltage magnitude. The proposed 4th order LCLC resonant network acts as a low pass filter for differential mode noise in the reverse direction (from load to source). Power supply has been tested repeatedly with 5 Hz repetition rate with repetitive Marx based system connected with BWO load working fine without failure of single switch in the inverter stage.

  14. Conducted noise analysis and protection of 45 kJ/s, ±50 kV capacitor charging power supply when interfaced with repetitive Marx based pulse power system (United States)

    Naresh, P.; Patel, Ankur; Sharma, Archana


    Pulse power systems with highly dynamic loads like klystron, backward wave oscillator (BWO), and magnetron generate highly dynamic noise. This noise leads to frequent failure of controlled switches in the inverter stage of charging power supply. Designing a reliable and compatible power supply for pulse power applications is always a tricky job when charging rate is in multiples of 10 kJ/s. A ±50 kV and 45 kJ/s capacitor charging power supply based on 4th order LCLC resonant topology has been developed for a 10 Hz repetitive Marx based system. Conditions for load independent constant current and zero current switching (ZCS) are derived mathematically. Noise generated at load end due to dynamic load is tackled effectively and reduction in magnitude noise voltage is achieved by providing shielding between primary and secondary of high voltage high frequency transformer and with LCLC low pass filter. Shielding scales down the ratio between coupling capacitance (Cc) and the collector-emitter capacitance of insulated gate bi-polar transistor switch, which in turn reduces the common mode noise voltage magnitude. The proposed 4th order LCLC resonant network acts as a low pass filter for differential mode noise in the reverse direction (from load to source). Power supply has been tested repeatedly with 5 Hz repetition rate with repetitive Marx based system connected with BWO load working fine without failure of single switch in the inverter stage.

  15. Capacitor blocks for linear transformer driver stages. (United States)

    Kovalchuk, B M; Kharlov, A V; Kumpyak, E V; Smorudov, G V; Zherlitsyn, A A


    In the Linear Transformer Driver (LTD) technology, the low inductance energy storage components and switches are directly incorporated into the individual cavities (named stages) to generate a fast output voltage pulse, which is added along a vacuum coaxial line like in an inductive voltage adder. LTD stages with air insulation were recently developed, where air is used both as insulation in a primary side of the stages and as working gas in the LTD spark gap switches. A custom designed unit, referred to as a capacitor block, was developed for use as a main structural element of the transformer stages. The capacitor block incorporates two capacitors GA 35426 (40 nF, 100 kV) and multichannel multigap gas switch. Several modifications of the capacitor blocks were developed and tested on the life time and self breakdown probability. Blocks were tested both as separate units and in an assembly of capacitive module, consisting of five capacitor blocks. This paper presents detailed design of capacitor blocks, description of operation regimes, numerical simulation of electric field in the switches, and test results.

  16. Capturing and Reproducing Spatial Audio Based on a Circular Microphone Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasios Alexandridis


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a real-time method for capturing and reproducing spatial audio based on a circular microphone array. Following a different approach than other recently proposed array-based methods for spatial audio, the proposed method estimates the directions of arrival of the active sound sources on a per time-frame basis and performs source separation with a fixed superdirective beamformer, which results in more accurate modelling and reproduction of the recorded acoustic environment. The separated source signals are downmixed into one monophonic audio signal, which, along with side information, is transmitted to the reproduction side. Reproduction is possible using either headphones or an arbitrary loudspeaker configuration. The method is compared with other recently proposed array-based spatial audio methods through a series of listening tests for both simulated and real microphone array recordings. Reproduction using both loudspeakers and headphones is considered in the listening tests. As the results indicate, the proposed method achieves excellent spatialization and sound quality.

  17. Preliminary Concept of Operations for the Deep Space Array-Based Network (United States)

    Bagri, D. S.; Statman, J. I.


    The Deep Space Array-Based Network (DSAN) will be an array-based system, part of a greater than 1000 times increase in the downlink/telemetry capability of the Deep Space Network. The key function of the DSAN is provision of cost-effective, robust telemetry, tracking, and command services to the space missions of NASA and its international partners. This article presents an expanded approach to the use of an array-based system. Instead of using the array as an element in the existing Deep Space Network (DSN), relying to a large extent on the DSN infrastructure, we explore a broader departure from the current DSN, using fewer elements of the existing DSN, and establishing a more modern concept of operations. For example, the DSAN will have a single 24 x 7 monitor and control (M&C) facility, while the DSN has four 24 x 7 M&C facilities. The article gives the architecture of the DSAN and its operations philosophy. It also briefly describes the customer's view of operations, operations management, logistics, anomaly analysis, and reporting.

  18. Spectrum Sensing Using Co-Prime Array Based Modulated Wideband Converter. (United States)

    Lv, Wanghan; Wang, Huali; Mu, Shanxiang


    As known to us all, it is challenging to monitor wideband signals in frequency domain due to the restriction of hardware. Several practical sampling schemes, such as multicoset sampling and the modulated wideband converter (MWC), have been proposed. In this work, a co-prime array (CA) based modulated wideband converter (MWC) spectrum sensing method is suggested. Our proposed method has the same sampling principle as the MWC but has some advantages compared to MWC. Firstly, CA-based MWC is an array-based MWC system. Each sensor is usually corrupted by independent noise for an array system which can be used for noise averaging, while all channels in conventional MWC have the same receiving noise. Secondly, by incorporating the co-prime array, we can estimate the power spectrum of signal directly employing its second-order statistical properties. Moreover, the system minimal sampling rate can be reduced further because of the reduction of sampling channels. Simulation results show that our method has better performance than traditional methods.

  19. Development of Capacitors for Power Electronics in Hybrid Vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balachandran, U. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    The purpose of this CRADA is to develop a fabrication process to reduce the manufacturing cost for a very compact, high temperature, film-on-foil high energy-density PLZT (Pb-La-Zr- Ti-O) capacitor. Motivation for this CRADA is derived from the DOE’s Office of Vehicle Technologies (OVT) program, which seeks to advance technologies to improve vehicle fuel efficiency in the mid-term and facilitate the transition to electric drive vehicles over the longterm. The objective of Argonne’s work is to develop and characterize high-performance capacitors on base-metal foils. The PLZT film-on-foil prepared using a spin-coating technique

  20. Characterization of electronic structures from CdS/Si nanoheterostructure array based on silicon nanoporous pillar array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yong, E-mail: [Department of Physics and Solar Energy Research Center, Pingdingshan University, Pingdingshan 467000 (China); Song, Xiao Yan [Department of Mathematics and Information Science, North China University of Water Resources and Electric Power, Zhengzhou 450045 (China); Song, Yue Li; Ji, Peng Fei; Zhou, Feng Qun; Tian, Ming Li; Huang, Hong Chun [Department of Physics and Solar Energy Research Center, Pingdingshan University, Pingdingshan 467000 (China); Li, Xin Jian [Department of Physics and Laboratory of Material Physics, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)


    Highlights: • CdS/Si nanoheterostructure array has been fabricated through a CBD method. • The electronic properties have been investigated by the I–V and C–V techniques. • The onset voltages, characteristic frequency and built-in potential are investigated. • The electronic structures can be tuned through the annealing treatments. - Abstract: The electronic properties of heterostructures are very important to its applications in the field of optoelectronic devices. Understanding and control of electronic properties are very necessary. CdS/Si nanoheterostructure array have been fabricated through growing CdS nanocrystals on the silicon nanoporous pillar array using a chemical bath deposition method. The electronic properties of CdS nanoheterostructure array have been investigated by the current–voltage, complex impedance spectroscopy and capacitance–voltage techniques. The onset voltages, characteristic frequency and built-in potential are gradually increased with increasing the annealing temperature. It is indicated that the electronic structures of CdS/Si nanoheterostructure array can be tuned through the annealing treatments.

  1. 700-MHz switched-capacitor analog waveform sampling circuit (United States)

    Haller, Gunther M.; Wooley, Bruce A.


    Analog switched-capacitor memory circuits are suitable for use in a wide range of applications where analog waveforms must be captured or delayed, such as the recording of pulse echo events and pulse shapes. Analog sampling systems based on switched-capacitor techniques offer performance superior to that of flash A/D converters and charge-coupled devices with respect to cost, density, dynamic range, sampling speed, and power consumption. This paper proposes an architecture with which sampling frequencies of several hundred megahertz can be achieved using conventional CMOS technology. Issues concerning the design and implementation of an analog memory circuit based on the proposed architecture are presented. An experimental two-channel memory with 32 sampling cells in each channel has been integrated in a 2-micron CMOS technology with poly-to-poly capacitors. The measured nonlinearity of this prototype is 0.03% for a 2.5 V input range, and the memory cell gain matching is 0.01% rms. The dynamic range of the memory exceeds 12 b for a sampling frequency of 700 MHz. The power dissipation for one channel operated from a single + 5 V supply is 2 mW.

  2. Detecting and Estimating Contamination of Human DNA Samples in Sequencing and Array-Based Genotype Data


    Jun, Goo; Flickinger, Matthew; Hetrick, Kurt N.; Romm, Jane M.; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Boehnke, Michael; Kang, Hyun Min


    DNA sample contamination is a serious problem in DNA sequencing studies and may result in systematic genotype misclassification and false positive associations. Although methods exist to detect and filter out cross-species contamination, few methods to detect within-species sample contamination are available. In this paper, we describe methods to identify within-species DNA sample contamination based on (1) a combination of sequencing reads and array-based genotype data, (2) sequence reads al...

  3. C-scan transmission ultrasound based on a hybrid microelectronic sensor array and its physical performance (United States)

    Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Rich, David; Lasser, Marvin E.; Kula, John; Zhao, Hui; Lasser, Bob; Freedman, Matthew T.


    A C-scan through-transmission ultrasound system has been constructed based on a patented hybrid microelectronic array that is capable of generating ultrasound images with fluoroscopic presentation. To generate real-time images, ultrasound is introduced into the object under study with a large unfocused plane wave source. The resultant pressure wave strikes the object and is attenuated and scattered. The device detects scattered as well as attenuated ultrasound energy which allows the use of an acoustic lens to focus on detected energy from an object plane. The acoustic lens collects the transmitted energy and focuses it onto the ultrasound sensitive array. The array is made up to two components, a silicon detector/readout array and a piezoelectric material that is deposited onto the array through semiconductor processing. The array is 1 cm on a side consisting of 128x128 pixel elements with 85micrometers pixel spacing. The energy that strikes the piezoelectric material is converted to an analog voltage that is digitized and processed by low cost commercial video electronics. The images generated by the device appear with no speckle artifact with fluoroscopy-like presentation. The images show no obvious geometrical distortion. The experimental results indicated that the system has a spatial resolution of 0.32 mm. It can resolve 3mm objects with low differential contrast and an attenuation coefficient difference less than 0.07 dB/cm/MHz. Phase contrast of the objects are also clearly measurable. A presentation of a C- scan image guided breast biopsy was demonstrated. In addition, punctured needle tracks in a tumor was clearly observed. This implies the potential of observing the spiculation of masses in vivo.

  4. The Impact of Grid Unbalances on the Reliability of DC-link Capacitors in a Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Davari, Pooya; Kumar, Dinesh


    and ripple currents are presented. The relationship between the DC-link capacitor lifetime and the level of unbalances and loads are discussed based on a 7.5 kW motor drive system. The results serve as a guideline to size the DC-link capacitors to be robust enough at the presence of grid unbalance conditions.......DC-link capacitor is one of the reliability-critical components in motor drive applications, which contributes to a considerable cost, size and failure. Its reliability performance depends on both inherent physical strength and external loading. The grid unbalances could alter the electro......-thermal stresses of key components in a motor drive. Therefore, this digest investigates the impact of grid voltage amplitude and phase unbalances on the lifetime of DC-link capacitors used in a standard three-phase motor drive. The theoretical stress models and experimental measurements of the capacitor voltages...

  5. A coherent through-wall MIMO phased array imaging radar based on time-duplexed switching (United States)

    Chen, Qingchao; Chetty, Kevin; Brennan, Paul; Lok, Lai Bun; Ritchie, Matthiew; Woodbridge, Karl


    Through-the-Wall (TW) radar sensors are gaining increasing interest for security, surveillance and search and rescue applications. Additionally, the integration of Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO) techniques with phased array radar is allowing higher performance at lower cost. In this paper we present a 4-by-4 TW MIMO phased array imaging radar operating at 2.4 GHz with 200 MHz bandwidth. To achieve high imaging resolution in a cost-effective manner, the 4 Tx and 4 Rx elements are used to synthesize a uniform linear array (ULA) of 16 virtual elements. Furthermore, the transmitter is based on a single-channel 4-element time-multiplexed switched array. In transmission, the radar utilizes frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) waveforms that undergo de-ramping on receive to allow digitization at relatively low sampling rates, which then simplifies the imaging process. This architecture has been designed for the short-range TW scenarios envisaged, and permits sufficient time to switch between antenna elements. The paper first outlines the system characteristics before describing the key signal processing and imaging algorithms which are based on traditional Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) processing. These techniques are implemented in LabVIEW software. Finally, we report results from an experimental campaign that investigated the imaging capabilities of the system and demonstrated the detection of personnel targets. Moreover, we show that multiple targets within a room with greater than approximately 1 meter separation can be distinguished from one another.

  6. PV Array Driven Adjustable Speed Drive for a Lunar Base Heat Pump (United States)

    Domijan, Alexander, Jr.; Buchh, Tariq Aslam


    A study of various aspects of Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD) is presented. A summary of the relative merits of different ASD systems presently in vogue is discussed. The advantages of using microcomputer based ASDs is now widely understood and accepted. Of the three most popular drive systems, namely the Induction Motor Drive, Switched Reluctance Motor Drive and Brushless DC Motor Drive, any one may be chosen. The choice would depend on the nature of the application and its requirements. The suitability of the above mentioned drive systems for a photovoltaic array driven ASD for an aerospace application are discussed. The discussion is based on the experience of the authors, various researchers and industry. In chapter 2 a PV array power supply scheme has been proposed, this scheme will have an enhanced reliability in addition to the other known advantages of the case where a stand alone PV array is feeding the heat pump. In chapter 3 the results of computer simulation of PV array driven induction motor drive system have been included. A discussion on these preliminary simulation results have also been included in this chapter. Chapter 4 includes a brief discussion on various control techniques for three phase induction motors. A discussion on different power devices and their various performance characteristics is given in Chapter 5.

  7. Millimeter Wave Multi-user Performance Evaluation Based on Measured Channels with Virtual Antenna Array Channel Sounder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mbugua, Allan Wainaina; Fan, Wei; Ji, Yilin


    Virtual antenna arrays are versatile and costeffective tools for millimeter-wave (mm-wave) channel characterization. Massive sampling of the channel in space with virtual antenna arrays enables high spatial resolution in channel sounding. In this paper a uniform cubic array (UCuA) is used...... rectangular array (URA) which acts as the base station (BS) and with users under LOS and OLOS conditions. Results show interference suppression with zero forcing beamforming (ZF-BF) performs well even in critical multi-user scenarios based on the measured channels, i.e. a scenario with closely spaced users...

  8. Powering microbial electrolysis cells by capacitor circuits charged using microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.


    A microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) was powered by a capacitor based energy storage circuit using energy from a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to increase MEC hydrogen production rates compared to that possible by the MFC alone. To prevent voltage reversal, MFCs charged the capacitors in a parallel configuration, and then the capacitors were discharged in series to boost the voltage that was used to power the MECs. The optimal capacitance for charging was found to be ∼0.01 F for each MFC. The use of the capacitor charging system increased energy recoveries from 9 to 13%, and hydrogen production rates increased from 0.31 to 0.72 m3 m-3-day-1, compared to coupled systems without capacitors. The circuit efficiency (the ratio of the energy that was discharged to the MEC to the energy provided to the capacitor from the MFCs) was ∼90%. These results provide an improved method for linking MFCs to MECs for renewable hydrogen gas production. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. A Ground-Based Near Infrared Camera Array System for UAV Auto-Landing in GPS-Denied Environment


    Yang, Tao; Li, Guangpo; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yanning; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Zhuoyue; Li, Zhi


    This paper proposes a novel infrared camera array guidance system with capability to track and provide real time position and speed of a fixed-wing Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) during a landing process. The system mainly include three novel parts: (1) Infrared camera array and near infrared laser lamp based cooperative long range optical imaging module; (2) Large scale outdoor camera array calibration module; and (3) Laser marker detection and 3D tracking module. Extensive automatic landing exp...

  10. Limits in point to point resolution of MOS based pixels detector arrays (United States)

    Fourches, N.; Desforge, D.; Kebbiri, M.; Kumar, V.; Serruys, Y.; Gutierrez, G.; Leprêtre, F.; Jomard, F.


    In high energy physics point-to-point resolution is a key prerequisite for particle detector pixel arrays. Current and future experiments require the development of inner-detectors able to resolve the tracks of particles down to the micron range. Present-day technologies, although not fully implemented in actual detectors, can reach a 5-μm limit, this limit being based on statistical measurements, with a pixel-pitch in the 10 μm range. This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the building blocks for use in pixel arrays enabling accurate tracking of charged particles. Basing us on simulations we will make here a quantitative evaluation of the physical and technological limits in pixel size. Attempts to design small pixels based on SOI technology will be briefly recalled here. A design based on CMOS compatible technologies that allow a reduction of the pixel size below the micrometer is introduced here. Its physical principle relies on a buried carrier-localizing collecting gate. The fabrication process needed by this pixel design can be based on existing process steps used in silicon microelectronics. The pixel characteristics will be discussed as well as the design of pixel arrays. The existing bottlenecks and how to overcome them will be discussed in the light of recent ion implantation and material characterization experiments.

  11. Cell culture arrays using magnetic force-based cell patterning for dynamic single cell analysis. (United States)

    Ino, Kosuke; Okochi, Mina; Konishi, Nao; Nakatochi, Masahiro; Imai, Rentaro; Shikida, Mitsuhiro; Ito, Akira; Honda, Hiroyuki


    In order to understand the behavior of individual cells, single cell analyses have attracted attention since most cell-based assays provide data with values averaged across a large number of cells. Techniques for the manipulation and analysis of single cells are crucial for understanding the behavior of individual cells. In the present study, we have developed single cell culture arrays using magnetic force and a pin holder, which enables the allocation of the magnetically labeled cells on arrays, and have analyzed their dynamics. The pin holder was made from magnetic soft iron and contained more than 6000 pillars on its surface. The pin holder was placed on a magnet to concentrate the magnetic flux density above the pillars. NIH/3T3 fibroblasts that were labeled with magnetite cationic liposomes (MCLs) were seeded into a culture dish, and the dish was placed over the pin holder with the magnet. The magnetically labeled cells were guided on the surface where the pillars were positioned and allocated on the arrays with a high resolution. Single-cell patterning was achieved by adjusting the number of cells seeded, and the target cell was collected by a micromanipulator after removing the pin holder with the magnet. Furthermore, change in the morphology of magnetically patterned cells was analyzed by microscopic observation, and cell spreading on the array was observed with time duration. Magnetic force-based cell patterning on cell culture arrays would be a suitable technique for the analysis of cell behavior in studies of cell-cell variation and cell-cell interactions.

  12. Development of HgCdTe large format MBE arrays and noise-free high speed MOVPE EAPD arrays for ground based NIR astronomy (United States)

    Finger, G.; Baker, I.; Downing, M.; Alvarez, D.; Ives, D.; Mehrgan, L.; Meyer, M.; Stegmeier, J.; Weller, H. J.


    Large format near infrared HgCdTe 2Kx2K and 4Kx4K MBE arrays have reached a level of maturity which meets most of the specifications required for near infrared (NIR) astronomy. The only remaining problem is the persistence effect which is device specific and not yet fully under control. For ground based multi-object spectroscopy on 40 meter class telescopes larger pixels would be advantageous. For high speed near infrared fringe tracking and wavefront sensing the only way to overcome the CMOS noise barrier is the amplification of the photoelectron signal inside the infrared pixel by means of the avalanche gain. A readout chip for a 320x256 pixel HgCdTe eAPD array will be presented which has 32 parallel video outputs being arranged in such a way that the full multiplex advantage is also available for small sub-windows. In combination with the high APD gain this allows reducing the readout noise to the subelectron level by applying nondestructive readout schemes with subpixel sampling. Arrays grown by MOVPE achieve subelectron readout noise and operate with superb cosmetic quality at high APD gain. Efforts are made to reduce the dark current of those arrays to make this technology also available for large format focal planes of NIR instruments offering noise free detectors for deep exposures. The dark current of the latest MOVPE eAPD arrays is already at a level adequate for noiseless broad and narrow band imaging in scientific instruments.

  13. Wind speed and direction measurement based on arc ultrasonic sensor array signal processing algorithm. (United States)

    Li, Xinbo; Sun, Haixin; Gao, Wei; Shi, Yaowu; Liu, Guojun; Wu, Yue


    This article investigates a kind of method to measure the wind speed and the wind direction, which is based on arc ultrasonic sensor array and combined with array signal processing algorithm. In the proposed method, a new arc ultrasonic array structure is introduced and the array manifold is derived firstly. On this basis, the measurement of the wind speed and the wind direction is analyzed and discussed by means of the basic idea of the classic MUSIC (Multiple Signal Classification) algorithm, which achieves the measurements of the 360° wind direction with resolution of 1° and 0-60m/s wind speed with resolution of 0.1m/s. The implementation of the proposed method is elaborated through the theoretical derivation and corresponding discussion. Besides, the simulation experiments are presented to show the feasibility of the proposed method. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed method has superiority on anti-noise performance and improves the wind measurement accuracy. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Quantitative detection of well-based DNA array using switchable lanthanide luminescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karhunen, Ulla, E-mail: [Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Tykistökatu 6A, Sixth Floor, FI-20520 Turku (Finland); Soikkeli, Minna; Lahdenperä, Susanne; Soukka, Tero [Division of Biotechnology, University of Turku, Tykistökatu 6A, Sixth Floor, FI-20520 Turku (Finland)


    Highlights: ► Oligonucleotide hybridization switches on lanthanide luminescence. ► The binary probe technology enables wash-free nucleic acid array. ► Detection of both synthetic targets and PCR-amplified E. coli DNA is demonstrated. -- Abstract: In this report a novel wash-free method for multiplexed DNA detection is demonstrated employing target specific probe pairs and switchable lanthanide luminescence technology on a solid-phase array. Four oligonucleotide capture probes, conjugated at 3′ to non-luminescent lanthanide ion carrier chelate, were immobilized as a small array on the bottom of a microtiter plate well onto which a mix of corresponding detection probes, conjugated at 5′ to a light absorbing antenna ligand, were added. In the presence of complementary target nucleic acid both the spotted capture probe and the liquid-phase detection probe hybridize adjacently on the target. Consequently the two non-luminescent label molecules self-assemble and form a luminescent mixed lanthanide chelate complex. Lanthanide luminescence is thereafter measured without a wash step from the spots by scanning in time-resolved mode. The homogeneous solid-phase array-based method resulted in quantitative detection of synthetic target oligonucleotides with 0.32 nM and 0.60 nM detection limits in a single target and multiplexed assay, respectively, corresponding to 3× SD of the background. Also qualitative detection of PCR-amplified target from Escherichia coli is described.

  15. Ontology-based, Tissue MicroArray oriented, image centered tissue bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viti Federica


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tissue MicroArray technique is becoming increasingly important in pathology for the validation of experimental data from transcriptomic analysis. This approach produces many images which need to be properly managed, if possible with an infrastructure able to support tissue sharing between institutes. Moreover, the available frameworks oriented to Tissue MicroArray provide good storage for clinical patient, sample treatment and block construction information, but their utility is limited by the lack of data integration with biomolecular information. Results In this work we propose a Tissue MicroArray web oriented system to support researchers in managing bio-samples and, through the use of ontologies, enables tissue sharing aimed at the design of Tissue MicroArray experiments and results evaluation. Indeed, our system provides ontological description both for pre-analysis tissue images and for post-process analysis image results, which is crucial for information exchange. Moreover, working on well-defined terms it is then possible to query web resources for literature articles to integrate both pathology and bioinformatics data. Conclusions Using this system, users associate an ontology-based description to each image uploaded into the database and also integrate results with the ontological description of biosequences identified in every tissue. Moreover, it is possible to integrate the ontological description provided by the user with a full compliant gene ontology definition, enabling statistical studies about correlation between the analyzed pathology and the most commonly related biological processes.

  16. SCRLH-TL Based Sequential Rotation Feed Network for Broadband Circularly Polarized Antenna Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. F. Zong


    Full Text Available In this paper, a broadband circularly polarized (CP microstrip antenna array using composite right/left-handed transmission line (SCRLH-TL based sequential rotation (SR feed network is presented. The characteristics of a SCRLH-TL are initially investigated. Then, a broadband and low insertion loss 45º phase shifter is designed using the SCRLH-TL and the phase shifter is employed in constructing a SR feed network for CP antenna array. To validate the design method of the SR feed network, a 2×2 antenna array comprising sequentially rotated coupled stacked CP antenna elements is designed, fabricated and measured. Both the simulated and measured results indicate that the performances of the antenna element are further enhanced when the SR network is used. The antenna array exhibits the VSWR less than 1.8 dB from 4 GHz to 7 GHz and the 3 dB axial ratio (AR from 4.4 GHz to 6.8 GHz. Also, high peak gain of 13.7 dBic is obtained. Besides, the normalized radiation patterns at the operating frequencies are symmetrical and the side lobe levels are low at φ=0º and φ=90º.

  17. High Numerical Aperture Hexagonal Stacked Ring-Based Bidirectional Flexible Polymer Microlens Array. (United States)

    Ahmed, Rajib; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider


    Flexible imprinted photonic nanostructures that are able to diffract/focus narrow-band light have potential applications in optical lenses, filters, tunable lasers, displays, and biosensing. Nanophotonic structures through holography and roll-to-roll printing may reduce fabrication complexities and expenses and enable mass production. Here, 3D photonic nanostructures of a stacked ring array were imprinted on acrylate polymer (AP) over poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate through holography and lift-off processes to create a microlens array (MLA). The surface structure of the array consisted of circular nonostepped pyramids, and repeated patterns were in hexagonal arrangements. Stacked-ring-based MLA (SMLA) on a flexible AP-PET substrate showed efficient bidirectional light focusing and maximum numerical aperture (NA = 0.60) with a reasonable filling factor. The nanostructures produced a well-ordered hexagonally focused diffraction pattern in the far field, and power intensities were measured through angle-resolved experiments. The variation of nanostep dimensions (width and height) and the number of steps resulted in different photonic bandgaps, and the arrays produced distance-dependent narrow-band light focusing. The validation of the SMLA was demonstrated through the text, image, and hologram projection experiments. It is anticipated that imprinted bidirectional SMLA over flexible substrates may find applications in optical systems, displays, and portable sensors.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sexton, L.; Serkiz, S.; Siegfried, M.


    Proportional counters (PCs) are a type of gas-filled radiation detection device capable of distinguishing between a wide range of radiation types and energies. In this application, however, these devices are limited by high power consumption and high bias potentials required to operate in the proportional detection regime. Previous work performed with a single carbon nanotube (CNT) anode has shown that nanoscale-based PCs can operate at bias potentials of 10V rather than the 1000V range required for PCs. ''Proof of concept'' experiments with a single CNT as the anode exhibit a small detection volume and consequently required long count times (24 hrs). To make this a practical detector technology (i.e., decrease the count time), the effective detection volume has to be increased. Experimental data and electric field modeling show that if the pitch (spacing between individual nanotubes) of the arrays is too small, the electric field of the individual nanostructure will collapse and the nanoscale array will behaved as a single macro-scale field with the associated high bias potential required to reach the proportional region. Electric-field modeling of the affect of nanostructure pitch on the electric field distribution of these arrays predicted that a pitch of about two-and-a-times the height of the nanostructure was required to retain the nanoscale electric field. In this work, we report on the fabrication and electrical property testing of nanoscale arrays with a range of controlled pitches.

  19. Detecting and estimating contamination of human DNA samples in sequencing and array-based genotype data. (United States)

    Jun, Goo; Flickinger, Matthew; Hetrick, Kurt N; Romm, Jane M; Doheny, Kimberly F; Abecasis, Gonçalo R; Boehnke, Michael; Kang, Hyun Min


    DNA sample contamination is a serious problem in DNA sequencing studies and may result in systematic genotype misclassification and false positive associations. Although methods exist to detect and filter out cross-species contamination, few methods to detect within-species sample contamination are available. In this paper, we describe methods to identify within-species DNA sample contamination based on (1) a combination of sequencing reads and array-based genotype data, (2) sequence reads alone, and (3) array-based genotype data alone. Analysis of sequencing reads allows contamination detection after sequence data is generated but prior to variant calling; analysis of array-based genotype data allows contamination detection prior to generation of costly sequence data. Through a combination of analysis of in silico and experimentally contaminated samples, we show that our methods can reliably detect and estimate levels of contamination as low as 1%. We evaluate the impact of DNA contamination on genotype accuracy and propose effective strategies to screen for and prevent DNA contamination in sequencing studies. Copyright © 2012 The American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A distributed monitoring system for photovoltaic arrays based on a two-level wireless sensor network (United States)

    Su, F. P.; Chen, Z. C.; Zhou, H. F.; Wu, L. J.; Lin, P. J.; Cheng, S. Y.; Li, Y. F.


    In this paper, a distributed on-line monitoring system based on a two-level wireless sensor network (WSN) is proposed for real time status monitoring of photovoltaic (PV) arrays to support the fine management and maintenance of PV power plants. The system includes the sensing nodes installed on PV modules (PVM), sensing and routing nodes installed on combiner boxes of PV sub-arrays (PVA), a sink node and a data management centre (DMC) running on a host computer. The first level WSN is implemented by the low-cost wireless transceiver nRF24L01, and it is used to achieve single hop communication between the PVM nodes and their corresponding PVA nodes. The second level WSN is realized by the CC2530 based ZigBee network for multi-hop communication among PVA nodes and the sink node. The PVM nodes are used to monitor the PVM working voltage and backplane temperature, and they send the acquired data to their PVA node via the nRF24L01 based first level WSN. The PVA nodes are used to monitor the array voltage, PV string current and environment irradiance, and they send the acquired and received data to the DMC via the ZigBee based second level WSN. The DMC is designed using the MATLAB GUIDE and MySQL database. Laboratory experiment results show that the system can effectively acquire, display, store and manage the operating and environment parameters of PVA in real time.

  1. Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array (United States)

    Neumann, Rodrigo F.; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias


    The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the ``Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry'' technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale.The investigation and control of liquid flow at the nanometer scale is a key area of applied research with high relevance to physics, chemistry, and biology. We introduce a method and a device that allows the spatial resolution of liquid flow by integrating an array of graphene-based magnetic (Hall) sensors that is used for tracking the movement of magnetic nanoparticles immersed in a liquid under investigation. With a novel device concept based on standard integration processes and experimentally verified material parameters, we numerically simulate the performance of a single sensor pixel, as well as the whole sensor array, for tracking magnetic nanoparticles having typical properties. The results demonstrate that the device enables (a) the detection of individual

  2. Frequency and 2D Angle Estimation Based on a Sparse Uniform Array of Electromagnetic Vector Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwong Sam


    Full Text Available We present an ESPRIT-based algorithm that yields extended-aperture two-dimensional (2D arrival angle and carrier frequency estimates with a sparse uniform array of electromagnetic vector sensors. The ESPRIT-based frequency estimates are first achieved by using the temporal invariance structure out of the two time-delayed sets of data collected from vector sensor array. Each incident source's coarse direction of arrival (DOA estimation is then obtained through the Poynting vector estimates (using a vector cross-product estimator. The frequency and coarse angle estimate results are used jointly to disambiguate the cyclic phase ambiguities in ESPRIT's eigenvalues when the intervector sensor spacing exceeds a half wavelength. Monte Carlo simulation results verified the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  3. Growth of ZnO nanotube arrays and nanotube based piezoelectric nanogenerators

    KAUST Repository

    Xi, Yi


    We present a systematic study of the growth of hexagonal ZnO nanotube arrays using a solution chemical method by varying the growth temperature (<100 °C), time and solution concentration. A piezoelectric nanogenerator using the as-grown ZnO nanotube arrays has been demonstrated for the first time. The nanogenerator gives an output voltage up to 35 mV. The detailed profile of the observed electric output is understood based on the calculated piezoelectric potential in the nanotube with consideration of the Schottky contact formed between the metal tip and the nanotube; and the mechanism agrees with that proposed for nanowire based nanogenerator. Our study shows that ZnO nanotubes can also be used for harvesting mechanical energy. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  4. AGV trace sensing and processing technology based on RGB color sensor array (United States)

    Xu, Kebao; Zhu, Ping; Wang, Juncheng; Yun, Yuliang


    AGV(Automatic Guided Vehicle) is widely used in manufacturing factories, harbors, docks and logistics fields, because of its accurate automatic tracking. An AGV tracking method of detecting trace color based on RGB color sensor is provided here. DR, DG, DB values of trace color are obtained by color sensor, with which hue value denoting trace color characteristic can be calculated. Combined with graph theory algorithm, hue value can be used as a parameter for tracking deviation and branch identification to implement shortest path tracking. In addition, considering discreteness and uncertainty of single sensor in detecting trace information, sensor array is adopted for information fusion to achieve accurate tracking. Compared to tracking trace by single intensity sensor, AGV tracking based on RGB color sensor array has much better trace tracking and branch identification performances on complex roads.

  5. Geometric Correction of Airborne Linear Array Image Based on Bias Matrix (United States)

    Wang, M.; Hu, J.; Zhou, M.; Li, J. M.; Zhang, Z.


    As the linear array sensor has great potential in disaster monitoring, geological survey, the quality of the image geometric correction should be guaranteed. The primary focus of this paper is to present a new method correcting airbone linear image based on the bias matrix,which is bulit by describing and analysing the errors of airbone linear image included the misalignment. The bias matrix was considered as additional observations to the traditional geometric correction model in our method. And by using control points which have both image coordinate and object coordinate, the solving equation from geometric correction model can be established and the bias matrix can be calculated by adjustment strategy. To avoid the singularity problem in the calculating process, this paper uses quaternion to describe the image's attitude and rotation instead of traditional calculating method which is structured by the Euler angle. Finally, geometric correction of airborne linear array image with high accuracy based on bias matrix can be achieved.

  6. 2-D DOA Estimation of LFM Signals Based on Dechirping Algorithm and Uniform Circle Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Cui


    Full Text Available Based on Dechirping algorithm and uniform circle array(UCA, a new 2-D direction of arrival (DOA estimation algorithm of linear frequency modulation (LFM signals is proposed in this paper. The algorithm uses the thought of Dechirping and regards the signal to be estimated which is received by the reference sensor as the reference signal and proceeds the difference frequency treatment with the signal received by each sensor. So the signal to be estimated becomes a single-frequency signal in each sensor. Then we transform the single-frequency signal to an isolated impulse through Fourier transform (FFT and construct a new array data model based on the prominent parts of the impulse. Finally, we respectively use multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm and rotational invariance technique (ESPRIT algorithm to realize 2-D DOA estimation of LFM signals. The simulation results verify the effectiveness of the algorithm proposed.

  7. Modeling of systems wireless data transmission based on antenna arrays in underwater acoustic channels (United States)

    Fedosov, V. P.; Lomakina, A. V.; Legin, A. A.; Voronin, V. V.


    In this paper the system of wireless transmission of data based on the use an adaptive algorithm for processing spatial-time signals using antenna arrays is presented. In the transmission of data in a multipath propagation of signals have been used such technologies as a MIMO (Multiple input-Multiple output) and OFDM (Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing) to solve the problem of increasing the maximum speed of data transfer and the low probability of errors. The adaptation process is based on the formation of the directional pattern equivalent to the amplitude antenna array in the signal arrival direction with the highest capacity on one of propagation paths in the channel. The simulation results showed that the use of an adaptive algorithm on the reception side can significantly reduce the probability of bit errors, thus to increase throughput in an underwater acoustic data channel.

  8. Design of Large Thinned Arrays Using Different Biogeography-Based Optimization Migration Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios K. Goudos


    Full Text Available Array thinning is a common discrete-valued combinatorial optimization problem. Evolutionary algorithms are suitable techniques for above-mentioned problem. Biogeography-Based Optimization (BBO, which is inspired by the science of biogeography, is a stochastic population-based evolutionary algorithm (EA. The original BBO uses a linear migration model to describe how species migrate from one island to another. Other nonlinear migration models have been proposed in the literature. In this paper, we apply BBO with four different migration models to five different large array design cases. Additionally we compare results with five other popular algorithms. The problems dimensions range from 150 to 300. The results show that BBO with sinusoidal migration model generally performs better than the other algorithms. However, these results are considered to be indicative and do not generally apply to all optimization problems in antenna design.

  9. A DP based scheme for real-time reconfiguration of solar cell arrays exposed to dynamic changing inhomogeneous illuminations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shi, Liping; Brehm, Robert


    The overall energy conversion efficiency of solar cell arrays is highly effected by partial shading effects. Especially for solar panel arrays installed in environments which are exposed to inhomogeneous dynamic changing illuminations such as on roof tops of electrical vehicles the overall system...... efficiency is drastically reduced. Dynamic real-time reconfiguration of the solar panel array can reduce effects on the output efficiency due to partial shading. This results in a maximized power output of the panel array when exposed to dynamic changing illuminations. The optimal array configuration...... with respect to shading patterns can be stated as a combinatorial optimization problem and this paper proposes a dynamic programming (DP) based algorithm which finds the optimal feasible solution to reconfigure the solar panel array for maximum efficiency in real-time with linear time complexity. It is shown...

  10. Spectral Entropy Based Neuronal Network Synchronization Analysis Based on Microelectrode Array Measurements. (United States)

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Välkki, Inkeri; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Leone, Chiara; Lenk, Kerstin; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Hyttinen, Jari A K


    Synchrony and asynchrony are essential aspects of the functioning of interconnected neuronal cells and networks. New information on neuronal synchronization can be expected to aid in understanding these systems. Synchronization provides insight in the functional connectivity and the spatial distribution of the information processing in the networks. Synchronization is generally studied with time domain analysis of neuronal events, or using direct frequency spectrum analysis, e.g., in specific frequency bands. However, these methods have their pitfalls. Thus, we have previously proposed a method to analyze temporal changes in the complexity of the frequency of signals originating from different network regions. The method is based on the correlation of time varying spectral entropies (SEs). SE assesses the regularity, or complexity, of a time series by quantifying the uniformity of the frequency spectrum distribution. It has been previously employed, e.g., in electroencephalogram analysis. Here, we revisit our correlated spectral entropy method (CorSE), providing evidence of its justification, usability, and benefits. Here, CorSE is assessed with simulations and in vitro microelectrode array (MEA) data. CorSE is first demonstrated with a specifically tailored toy simulation to illustrate how it can identify synchronized populations. To provide a form of validation, the method was tested with simulated data from integrate-and-fire model based computational neuronal networks. To demonstrate the analysis of real data, CorSE was applied on in vitro MEA data measured from rat cortical cell cultures, and the results were compared with three known event based synchronization measures. Finally, we show the usability by tracking the development of networks in dissociated mouse cortical cell cultures. The results show that temporal correlations in frequency spectrum distributions reflect the network relations of neuronal populations. In the simulated data, CorSE unraveled the

  11. Operation's concept for Deep Space Array-based Network (DSAN) for NASA (United States)

    Bagri, D. S.; Statman, J. I.


    The Deep Space Array-based Network (DSAN) is part of >1000 times increases in the downlink/telemetry capability of the Deep Space Network. The key function of the DSAN is provision of cost-effective, robust, Telemetry, Tracking and Command (TT&C) services to the space missions of NASA and its international parameters. This paper presents the architecture of DSAN and its operations philosophy. It also briefly describes customer's view of operations, operations management, logistics, anomaly analysis and reporting.

  12. Optimization of Fixed Microphone Array in High Speed Train Noises Identification Based on Far-Field Acoustic Holography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujia Wang


    Full Text Available Acoustical holography has been widely applied for noise sources location and sound field measurement. Performance of the microphones array directly determines the sound source recognition method. Therefore, research is very important to the performance of the microphone array, its array of applications, selection, and how to design instructive. In this paper, based on acoustic holography moving sound source identification theory, the optimization method is applied in design of the microphone array, we select the main side lobe ratio and the main lobe area as the optimization objective function and then put the optimization method use in the sound source identification based on holography, and finally we designed this paper to optimize microphone array and compare the original array of equally spaced array with optimization results; by analyzing the optimization results and objectives, we get that the array can be achieved which is optimized not only to reduce the microphone but also to change objective function results, while improving the far-field acoustic holography resolving effect. Validation experiments have showed that the optimization method is suitable for high speed trains sound source identification microphone array optimization.

  13. Sigma Delta Signal Processing on Via-Configurable Arrays (United States)


    Sigma Delta Signal Processing on Via-Configurable Arrays Jim Kemerling Triad Semiconductor, Inc. Winston-Salem, NC 27103 Abstract: Sigma -Delta...Mask Programmable Analog Array; Mixed-Signal ASIC; Sigma Delta Modulation; Structured Array; Switched Capacitor Circuits; Via-Configurable Array... phase of the input signal at the rate determined by the M output. Figure 9 shows the simulation results and Figure 10 shows the tiles used in the

  14. Diagonal rejection-based minimum variance distortionless response for fiber underwater acoustic array (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Zou, Ling; Zhou, Bin


    The high mounting precision of the fiber underwater acoustic array leads to an array manifold without perturbation. Besides, the targets are either static or slowly moving in azimuth in underwater acoustic array signal processing. Therefore, the covariance matrix can be estimated accurately by prolonging the observation time. However, this processing is limited to poor bearing resolution due to small aperture, low SNR and strong interferences. In this paper, diagonal rejection (DR) technology for Minimum Variance Distortionless Response (MVDR) was developed to enhance the resolution performance. The core idea of DR is rejecting the main diagonal elements of the covariance matrix to improve the output signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR). The definition of SINR here implicitly assumes independence between the spatial filter and the received observations at which the SINR is measured. The power of noise converges on the diagonal line in the covariance matrix and then it is integrated into the output beams. With the diagonal noise rejected by a factor smaller than 1, the array weights of MVDR will concentrate on interference suppression, leading to a better resolution capability. The algorithm was theoretically proved with optimal rejecting coefficient derived under both infinite and finite snapshots scenarios. Numerical simulations were conducted with an example of a linear array with eight elements half-wavelength spaced. Both resolution and Direction-of-Arrival (DOA) performances of MVDR and DR-based MVDR (DR-MVDR) were compared under different SNR and snapshot numbers. A conclusion can be drawn that with the covariance matrix accurately estimated, DR-MVDR can provide a lower sidelobe output level and a better bearing resolution capacity than MVDR without harming the DOA performance.

  15. Tracking antenna architectures based on an integrated mixer microstrip patch array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sanjeev


    The object of this work is to design, develop and characterize both theoretically and experimentally a compact integrated mixer microstrip patch antenna which exhibits a low level of cross-polarization. Modelling of this antenna using various CAD techniques and supporting measurements has led to a clearer understanding of its operation and the optimization of its design. The attractiveness of such a frequency scaleable design lies in the inherent simplicity and ease with which it can be used to produce an intermediate frequency (IF) signal with minimum circuit complexity and low cross-polar levels. The operation of the integrated mixer antenna circuit is exploited under the phenomenon of injection locking for its potential for direct phase modulation and detection. It leads to new vistas of study such as IF phase-shifterless beam steering. Here the desired phased shift is derived through injection locking and achieved solely by the DC bias control, thus eliminating the need for phase shifters and feed networks. A self-tracking integrated mixer array has also been described which uses an in-band pilot carrier signal for self-calibration. By minor alteration of the integrated antenna topology, a minimum complexity variant of a heterodyne retrodirective array has then been realized. These tracking antenna architectures minimize the problems of cost, complexity and size limitations associated with conventional phased arrays. These are designed for emerging commercial applications and are resolutions of some trade-offs that balance performance, cost and reliability. Theoretical and experimental results are presented to show their performances and, in addition, the practical requirements relevant to these are also addressed. The results indicate that these tracking antenna architectures based on an integrated mixer microstrip patch array could form a synergistic link with other emerging technologies and can be to some extent embodied in future phased array designs

  16. The status of lightweight photovoltaic space array technology based on amorphous silicon solar cells (United States)

    Hanak, Joseph J.; Kaschmitter, Jim


    Ultralight, flexible photovoltaic (PV) array of amorphous silicon (a-Si) was identified as a potential low cost power source for small satellites. A survey was conducted of the status of the a-Si PV array technology with respect to present and future performance, availability, cost, and risks. For existing, experimental array blankets made of commercial cell material, utilizing metal foil substrates, the Beginning of Life (BOL) performance at Air Mass Zero (AM0) and 35 C includes total power up to 200 W, power per area of 64 W/sq m and power per weight of 258 W/kg. Doubling of power per weight occurs when polyimide substrates are used. Estimated End of Life (EOL) power output after 10 years in a nominal low earth orbit would be 80 pct. of BOL, the degradation being due to largely light induced effects (-10 to -15 pct.) and in part (-5 pct.) to space radiation. Predictions for the year 1995 for flexible PV arrays, made on the basis of published results for rigid a-Si modules, indicate EOL power output per area and per weight of 105 W/sq m and 400 W/kg, respectively, while predictions for the late 1990s based on existing U.S. national PV program goals indicate EOL values of 157 W/sq m and 600 W/kg. Cost estimates by vendors for 200 W ultralight arrays in volume of over 1000 units range from $100/watt to $125/watt. Identified risks include the lack of flexible, space compatible encapsulant, the lack of space qualification effort, recent partial or full acquisitions of US manufacturers of a-Si cells by foreign firms, and the absence of a national commitment for a long range development program toward developing of this important power source for space.

  17. Colorimetric sensor arrays based on pattern recognition for the detection of nitroaromatic molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei; Dong, Xiao [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Qiu, Lili, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Yan, Zequn [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Meng, Zihui, E-mail: [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); Xue, Min [School of Chemical Engineering and the Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing, 100081 (China); He, Xuan; Liu, Xueyong [Institute of Chemical Materials, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang, Sichuan, 621900 (China)


    Graphical abstract: A colorimetric sensor array based on four kinds molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) was explored for the selective visual detection of TNT, 2,6-DNT, 2,4-DNT and 4-MNT. The color of individual sensor changed with the increasing concentration of the analytes, and a cross-responsive platform was evaluated by a “radar” pattern. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA), a separate response region contained 95.25% of significant characteristics for the detection of nitroaromatics was generated, which also promised high potential for the customized visual detection system of other harmful chemicals. - Highlights: • Nitroaromatics were visually detected by molecularly imprinted photonic crystal. • The adsorption capacity was calculated. • The cross responsive platform of sensor array was established and discussed. • The discrimination capability was promoted by principal component analysis. • This system had high potential to be used in other customed visual detection. - Abstract: This research demonstrated that, in a colorimetric sensor array, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT), 2,6-dinitrotoluene (2,6-DNT), 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT) and 4-nitrotoluene (4-MNT) were identifiable through a unique pattern in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner. The adsorption capacity of the molecularly imprinted colloidal particles (MICs) for their corresponding templates was 0.27 mmol TNT/g, 0.22 mmol 2,6-DNT/g, 0.31 mmol 2,4-DNT/g and 0.16 mmol 4-MNT/g, respectively. Every optical sensor utilized in the arrays contained three-dimensional molecularly imprinted photonic crystal (MIPC) sensor with different imprinted templates. The intelligent materials can display different colors from green to red to 20 mM corresponding nitroaromatics with varying diffraction red shifts of 84 nm (TNT), 46 nm (2,6-DNT), 54 nm (2,4-DNT) and 35 nm (4-MNT), respectively. With the assistance of principal component analysis (PCA) and rational design

  18. Simulation-Based Approach for Site-Specific Optimization of Hydrokinetic Turbine Arrays (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, F.; Chawdhary, S.; Yang, X.; Khosronejad, A.; Angelidis, D.


    A simulation-based approach has been developed to enable site-specific optimization of tidal and current turbine arrays in real-life waterways. The computational code is based on the St. Anthony Falls Laboratory Virtual StreamLab (VSL3D), which is able to carry out high-fidelity simulations of turbulent flow and sediment transport processes in rivers and streams taking into account the arbitrary geometrical complexity characterizing natural waterways. The computational framework can be used either in turbine-resolving mode, to take into account all geometrical details of the turbine, or with the turbines parameterized as actuator disks or actuator lines. Locally refined grids are employed to dramatically increase the resolution of the simulation and enable efficient simulations of multi-turbine arrays. Turbine/sediment interactions are simulated using the coupled hydro-morphodynamic module of VSL3D. The predictive capabilities of the resulting computational framework will be demonstrated by applying it to simulate turbulent flow past a tri-frame configuration of hydrokinetic turbines in a rigid-bed turbulent open channel flow as well as turbines mounted on mobile bed open channels to investigate turbine/sediment interactions. The utility of the simulation-based approach for guiding the optimal development of turbine arrays in real-life waterways will also be discussed and demonstrated. This work was supported by NSF grant IIP-1318201. Simulations were carried out at the Minnesota Supercomputing Institute.

  19. Development of the smartphone-based colorimetry for multi-analyte sensing arrays. (United States)

    Hong, Jong Il; Chang, Byoung-Yong


    Here we report development of a smartphone app (application) that digitizes the colours of a colorimetric sensor array. A conventional colorimetric sensor array consists of multiple paper-based sensors, and reports the detection results in terms of colour change. Evaluation of the colour changes is normally done by the naked eye, which may cause uncertainties due to personal subjectivity and the surrounding conditions. Solutions have been particularly sought in smartphones as they are capable of spectrometric functions. Our report specifically focuses on development of a practical app for immediate point-of-care (POC) multi-analyte sensing without additional devices. First, the individual positions of the sensors are automatically identified by the smartphone; second, the colours measured at each sensor are digitized based on a correction algorithm; and third, the corrected colours are converted to concentration values by pre-loaded calibration curves. All through these sequential processes, the sensor array taken in a smartphone snapshot undergoes laboratory-level spectrometry. The advantages of inexpensive and convenient paper-based colorimetry and the ubiquitous smartphone are tied to achieve a ready-to-go POC diagnosis.

  20. MIEC (mixed-ionic-electronic-conduction)-based access devices for non-volatile crossbar memory arrays (United States)

    Shenoy, Rohit S.; Burr, Geoffrey W.; Virwani, Kumar; Jackson, Bryan; Padilla, Alvaro; Narayanan, Pritish; Rettner, Charles T.; Shelby, Robert M.; Bethune, Donald S.; Raman, Karthik V.; BrightSky, Matthew; Joseph, Eric; Rice, Philip M.; Topuria, Teya; Kellock, Andrew J.; Kurdi, Bülent; Gopalakrishnan, Kailash


    Several attractive applications call for the organization of memristive devices (or other resistive non-volatile memory (NVM)) into large, densely-packed crossbar arrays. While resistive-NVM devices frequently possess some degree of inherent nonlinearity (typically 3-30× contrast), the operation of large (\\gt 1000×1000 device) arrays at low power tends to require quite large (\\gt 1e7) ON-to-OFF ratios (between the currents passed at high and at low voltages). One path to such large nonlinearities is the inclusion of a distinct access device (AD) together with each of the state-bearing resistive-NVM elements. While such an AD need not store data, its list of requirements is almost as challenging as the specifications demanded of the memory device. Several candidate ADs have been proposed, but obtaining high performance without requiring single-crystal silicon and/or the high processing temperatures of the front-end-of-the-line—which would eliminate any opportunity for 3D stacking—has been difficult. We review our work at IBM Research—Almaden on high-performance ADs based on Cu-containing mixed-ionic-electronic conduction (MIEC) materials [1-7]. These devices require only the low processing temperatures of the back-end-of-the-line, making them highly suitable for implementing multi-layer cross-bar arrays. MIEC-based ADs offer large ON/OFF ratios (\\gt 1e7), a significant voltage margin {{V}m} (over which current \\lt 10 nA), and ultra-low leakage (\\lt 10 pA), while also offering the high current densities needed for phase-change memory and the fully bipolar operation needed for high-performance RRAM. Scalability to critical lateral dimensions \\lt 30 nm and thicknesses \\lt 15 nm, tight distributions and 100% yield in large (512 kBit) arrays, long-term stability of the ultra-low leakage states, and sub-50 ns turn-ON times have all been demonstrated. Numerical modeling of these MIEC-based ADs shows that their operation depends on C{{u}+} mediated hole

  1. Push-broom imaging spectrometer based on planar lightwave circuit MZI array (United States)

    Yang, Minyue; Li, Mingyu; He, Jian-Jun


    We propose a large aperture static imaging spectrometer (LASIS) based on planar lightwave circuit (PLC) MZI array. The imaging spectrometer works in the push-broom mode with the spectrum performed by interferometry. While the satellite/aircraft is orbiting, the same source, seen from the satellite/aircraft, moves across the aperture and enters different MZIs, while adjacent sources enter adjacent MZIs at the same time. The on-chip spectrometer consists of 256 input mode converters, followed by 256 MZIs with linearly increasing optical path delays and a detector array. Multiple chips are stick together to form the 2D image surface and receive light from the imaging lens. Two MZI arrays are proposed, one works in wavelength ranging from 500nm to 900nm with SiON(refractive index 1.6) waveguides and another ranging from 1100nm to 1700nm with SOI platform. To meet the requirements of imaging spectrometer applications, we choose large cross-section ridge waveguide to achieve polarization insensitive, maintain single mode propagation in broad spectrum and increase production tolerance. The SiON on-chip spectrometer has a spectral resolution of 80cm-1 with a footprint of 17×15mm2 and the SOI based on-chip spectrometer has a resolution of 38cm-1 with a size of 22×19mm2. The spectral and space resolution of the imaging spectrometer can be further improved by simply adding more MZIs. The on-chip waveguide MZI array based Fourier transform imaging spectrometer can provide a highly compact solution for remote sensing on unmanned aerial vehicles or satellites with advantages of small size, light weight, no moving parts and large input aperture.

  2. Wide Temperature DC Link Capacitors for Aerospace Power Electronics Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will develop advanced DC link capacitors using flexible ultrathin glass dielectric materials. The glass capacitor will be able to be operated in a broad...

  3. A strategy for selective detection based on interferent depleting and redox cycling using the plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Feng [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Yan Jiawei, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lu Miao [Pen-Tung Sah Micro-Nano Technology Research Center, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Zhou Yongliang; Yang Yang; Mao Bingwei [State Key Laboratory for Physical Chemistry of Solid Surfaces and Department of Chemistry, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China)


    Highlights: > A novel strategy based on a combination of interferent depleting and redox cycling is proposed for the plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes. > The strategy break up the restriction of selectively detecting a species that exhibits reversible reaction in a mixture with one that exhibits an irreversible reaction. > The electrodes enhance the current signal by redox cycling. > The electrodes can work regardless of the reversibility of interfering species. - Abstract: The fabrication, characterization and application of the plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes for selective detection are demonstrated. The electrodes, fabricated by lithographic microfabrication technology, are composed of a planar film electrode and a 32 x 32 recessed microdisk array electrode. Different from commonly used redox cycling operating mode for array configurations such as interdigitated array electrodes, a novel strategy based on a combination of interferent depleting and redox cycling is proposed for the electrodes with an appropriate configuration. The planar film electrode (the plane electrode) is used to deplete the interferent in the diffusion layer. The recessed microdisk array electrode (the microdisk array), locating within the diffusion layer of the plane electrode, works for detecting the target analyte in the interferent-depleted diffusion layer. In addition, the microdisk array overcomes the disadvantage of low current signal for a single microelectrode. Moreover, the current signal of the target analyte that undergoes reversible electron transfer can be enhanced due to the redox cycling between the plane electrode and the microdisk array. Based on the above working principle, the plane-recessed microdisk array electrodes break up the restriction of selectively detecting a species that exhibits reversible reaction in a mixture with one that exhibits an irreversible reaction, which is a limitation of single redox cycling operating mode. The advantages of the

  4. Electric field mapping inside metallized film capacitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis Achton; Popok, Vladimir; Pedersen, Kjeld


    Failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) is an important step in the reliability assessment process of electric components. It provides knowledge of the physics of failure of a component that has been subjected to a given stress profile. This knowledge enables improvement of the component robustness...... of the metallization stripes had lost contact to the end-spray. Thus, it is shown that the surface electric potential distributions on micro-sectioned film capacitors can be obtained through KPFM analysis. We have, from KPFM measurements, shown that the degraded capacitors under investigation had suffered from...

  5. Clocking Scheme for Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper


    A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed.......A novel clocking scheme for switched-capacitor (SC) circuits is presented. It can enhance the understanding of SC circuits and the errors caused by MOSFET (MOS) switches. Charge errors, and techniques to make SC circuits less sensitive to them are discussed....

  6. The Paradox of Two Charged Capacitors

    CERN Document Server

    Singal, Ashok K


    It is shown that the famous paradox of two charged capacitors is successfully resolved if one properly considers all the energy changes in the system when some of the charges are transferred from one capacitor to the other. It happens so even when the connecting wire has an identically zero resistance, giving rise to no Ohmic losses in the wire. It is shown that in such a case the "missing energy" goes into the kinetic energy of conducting charges. It is shown that radiation plays no significant role in resolving the paradox. The problem can also be formulated and successfully resolved in an alternate form, without involving connecting wires in a circuit.

  7. Development and characterization of a multi-layer magnetorheological elastomer isolator based on a Halbach array (United States)

    Przybylski, Michal; Sun, Shuaishuai; Li, Weihua


    Most existing vibration isolators and dampers based on magnetorheological (MR) materials need electrical power to feed magnetic coils to stimulate the MR material, so if there is a loss of power, such as during a strong earthquake or system failure, they are unable to protect the structure. This paper outlines the design and test of a controllable multilayered magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator based on a circular dipolar Halbach array; which is a set of magnets that generates a strong and uniform magnetic field. Combining an MRE layered isolator system with the Halbach array allows for constant vibration isolation with very low power consumption, where the power generated is only used to adjust the Halbach position. When this system was tested it successfully altered the lateral stiffness and damping force by 81.13% and 148.72%, respectively. This paper also includes an extended analysis of the magnetic field generated by the circular dipolar Halbach array and a discussion of the improvements that may potentially improve the range of magnetic fields generated.

  8. Probe selection algorithm for oligonucleotide array-based medium-resolution genotyping. (United States)

    Zhou, Y; Peng, S; Gao, H; Cheng, J


    Medium-resolution genotyping has the goal of distinguishing different subgroups instead of each element in a group. An oligonucleotide array provides an inexpensive, high-throughput method to identify differences in DNA sequence among individuals, which is fundamental for genotyping. As the cost and difficulty of designing and fabricating the oligonucleotide array dramatically increase with the number of probes used, it is therefore important to have a design with a minimum number of probes meeting the requirement of medium-resolution genotyping. The first algorithm for designing and selecting probes for oligonucleotide array-based medium-resolution typing is reported. The goal in deriving the algorithm was to select a minimum number of probes from a large probe set on the premise of minimum loss of resolution. The algorithm, which was based on entropy, conditional entropy and mutual information theory, was used to select the minimum number of probes from a large probe set. The algorithm was tested on a human leukocyte antigen (HLA) sequence data set Thirty probes were selected from 390 probes for HLA-A, and 60 probes were selected from 767 probes for HLA-B. Although the number of probes was reduced by almost ten times, the distinguishability was reduced only a little, by 0.45% (from 99.90% to 99.45%) for HLA-A and 0.27% (from 99.84% to 99.57%) for HLA-B, respectively. This is a satisfactory and practical result.

  9. UV-enhanced CO sensing using Ga2O3-based nanorod arrays at elevated temperature (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jan; Gao, Haiyong; Gao, Pu-Xian


    Monitoring and control of the gaseous combustion process are critically important in advanced energy systems such as power plants, gas turbines, and automotive engines. However, very limited gas sensing solutions are available in the market for such applications due to the inherent high temperature of the combustion gaseous atmosphere. In this study, we fabricated and demonstrated high-performance metal oxide based nanorod array sensors assisted with ultra-violet (UV) illumination for in situ and real-time high-temperature gas detection. Without UV-illumination, it was found that surface decoration of either 5 nm LSFO or 1 nm Pt nanoparticles can enhance the sensitivity over CO at 500 °C by an order of magnitude. Under the 254 nm UV illumination, the CO gas-sensing performance of Ga2O3-based nanorod array sensors was further enhanced with the sensitivity boosted by 125% and the response time reduced by 30% for the La0.8Sr0.2FeO3(LSFO)-decorated sample. The UV-enhanced detection of CO might be due to the increased population of photo-induced electron-hole pairs, whereas for LSFO-decorated nanorod array sensor under UV illumination, the enhancement is through a combination of the sensitizing effect and photocurrent effect.

  10. ZnO nano-array-based EGFET biosensor for glucose detection (United States)

    Qi, Junjie; Zhang, Huihui; Ji, Zhaoxia; Xu, Minxuan; Zhang, Yue


    Electrochemical biosensors are normally based on enzymatic catalysis of a reaction that produces or consumes electrons and the sensing membranes dominate the performance. In this work, ZnO nano-array-based EGFETs were fabricated for pH and glucose detection. The ZnO nano-arrays prepared via low-temperature hydrothermal method were well-aligned, with an average length of 2 μm and diameter of 100-150 nm, and have a typical hexagonal wurtzite structure. The sensor performed with a sensitivity of 45 mV/pH and response time of about 6-7 s from pH = 4-12. UV irradiation can improve the Vref response as a result of the formation of a depletion region at the surface of ZnO nanomaterials. Due to its high specific surface area, the ZnO nano-array EGFET sensor showed a sensitivity of -0.395 mV/μM to the glucose detection in a concentration range between 20 and 100 μM. These EGFET glucose biosensors demonstrate a low detectable concentration (20 μM) with good linearity, therefore may be used to detect glucose in saliva and tears at much lower concentrations than that in blood.

  11. Feasibility of microelectrode array (MEA) based on silicone-polyimide hybrid for retina prosthesis. (United States)

    Kim, Eui Tae; Kim, Cinoo; Lee, Seung Woo; Seo, Jong-Mo; Chung, Hum; Kim, Sung June


    To adopt micropatterning technology in manufacturing silicone elastomer-based microelectrode arrays for retinal stimulation, a silicone-polyimide hybrid microelectrode array was proposed and tested in vivo. Gold microelectrodes were created by semiconductor manufacturing technology based on polyimide and were hybridized with silicone elastomer by spin coating. The stability of the hybrid between the two materials was flex and blister tested. The feasibility of the hybrid electrode was evaluated in the rabbit eye by reviewing optical coherence tomography (OCT) findings after suprachoroidal implantation. The flex test showed no dehiscence between the two materials for 24 hours of alternative flexion and extension from -45.0 degrees to +45.0 degrees . During the blister test, delamination was observed at 8.33 +/- 1.36 psi of pressure stress; however, this property was improved to 11.50 +/- 1.04 psi by oxygen plasma treatment before hybridization. OCT examination revealed that the implanted electrodes were safely located in the suprachoroidal space during the 4-week follow-up period. The silicone-polyimide hybrid microelectrode array showed moderate physical properties, which are suitable for in vivo application. Appropriate pretreatment before hybridization improved electrode stability. In vivo testing indicated that this electrode is suitable as a stimulation electrode in artificial retina.

  12. FPGA-Based Communications Receivers for Smart Antenna Array Embedded Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Millar


    Full Text Available Field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs are drawing ever increasing interest from designers of embedded wireless communications systems. They outpace digital signal processors (DSPs, through hardware execution of a wide range of parallelizable communications transceiver algorithms, at a fraction of the design and implementation effort and cost required for application-specific integrated circuits (ASICs. In our study, we employ an Altera Stratix FPGA development board, along with the DSP Builder software tool which acts as a high-level interface to the powerful Quartus II environment. We compare single- and multibranch FPGA-based receiver designs in terms of error rate performance and power consumption. We exploit FPGA operational flexibility and algorithm parallelism to design eigenmode-monitoring receivers that can adapt to variations in wireless channel statistics, for high-performing, inexpensive, smart antenna array embedded systems.

  13. Black GE based on crystalline/amorphous core/shell nanoneedle arrays (United States)

    Javey, Ali; Chueh, Yu-Lun; Fan, Zhiyong


    Direct growth of black Ge on low-temperature substrates, including plastics and rubber is reported. The material is based on highly dense, crystalline/amorphous core/shell Ge nanoneedle arrays with ultrasharp tips (.about.4 nm) enabled by the Ni catalyzed vapor-solid-solid growth process. Ge nanoneedle arrays exhibit remarkable optical properties. Specifically, minimal optical reflectance (<1%) is observed, even for high angles of incidence ( and for relatively short nanoneedle lengths (.about.1 .mu.m). Furthermore, the material exhibits high optical absorption efficiency with an effective band gap of .about.1 eV. The reported black Ge can have important practical implications for efficient photovoltaic and photodetector applications on nonconventional substrates.

  14. Broadband, wide-angle and tunable terahertz absorber based on cross-shaped graphene arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Binggang; Gu, Mingyue; Xiao, Sanshui


    Tunable terahertz absorbers composed of periodically cross-shaped graphene arrays with the ability to achieve nearunity absorbance are proposed and studied. Our results demonstrate that the bandwidth of absorption rate above 90% can reach up to 1.13 terahertz by use of a single layer of cross......-shaped graphene arrays. By simply stacking the double layer cross-shaped graphene with careful design, the working bandwidth can be broadened compared with the single-layer graphene-based absorber. The proposed absorbers have the properties of being polarization insensitive and having large angle tolerance......, and the tunability of the Fermi level in graphene allows us to realize tunable terahertz absorbers with potential interest in integrated terahertz optoelectronic devices....

  15. FPGA-based Low Latency Inverse QRD Architecture for Adaptive Beamforming in Phased Array Radars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Irfan


    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to facilitate the adaptive beamforming which is one of the most challenging task in phased array radars receivers. Recursive least square (RLS is considered as the most well suited adaptive algorithm for the applications where beamforming is mandatory, because of its good numerical properties and convergence rate. In this paper, some RLS variants are discussed and the most numerically suitable algorithm Inverse QRD is selected for efficient adaptive beamforming. A novel architecture for IQRD RLS is also presented, which offers low latency and low area occupation for Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA implementation. This approach reduces the computations by utilizing the standard pipelining methodology. Hence, efficient adder and multipliers and LUT based solution for square root and division, has highly enhanced the performance of the algorithm. The proposed IQRD RLS architecture has been coded in Verilog and analyze its performance in terms of throughput, hardware resources and efficiency.

  16. Membrane Material-Based Rigid Solar Array Design and Thermal Simulation for Stratospheric Airships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangwen Sun


    Full Text Available In order to improve effective utilization of rigid solar array used in stratospheric airships here, the flexible connection design and light laminated design were introduced to rigid solar array. Based on the analysis of the design scheme, firstly, the equivalent coefficient of thermal conductivity was calculated by the theoretical formula. Subsequently, the temperature variation characteristics of the solar cell module were accurately modeled and simulated by using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Compared to the results of test samples, the solar cell module described here guaranteed effective output as well as good heat insulating ability, effectively improving the feasibility of the stratospheric airship design. In addition, the simulation model can effectively simulate the temperature variation characteristics of the solar cell, which, therefore, provides technical support for the engineering application.

  17. Research on scene-based Narcissus correction algorithm in infrared focal plane arrays (United States)

    Cao, Yang; Jin, Wei-qi; Liu, Chong-liang; Liu, Xiu; Li, Fu-wen; Chen, Wei-li


    Cooled infrared focal plane array (Cooled IRFPA) has been applied widely in military and civil fields. In the cooled focal plane array detector infrared imaging systems, narcissus as a unique defect has a degenerate effect on the image quality of cooled infrared imaging systems, such as blocky, annular or "corner heat" fixed pattern noise in infrared images. Therefore, the correction of narcissus effect using image processing method is important to infrared imaging systems. Through analyzing manifestation of narcissus effect by statistical approach, a cooled infrared imaging system model considering narcissus effect is established, by which a self-adaptive narcissus correction algorithm based on scene statistic and radial compute is presented. From the simulation and the experiment on an actual cooled IRFPA module, this algorithm is proved very effective on correcting narcissus effect and improving image quality. Moreover, the peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) also increases obviously.

  18. Location and determination of steps of capacitors in shunt for distribution power lines; Localizacion y determinacion de pasos de capacitores en derivacion para lineas de distribucion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pampin Vergara, Gabriela; Sarmiento Uruchurtu, Hector [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)


    A methodology is presented to determine the optimal location of the capacitor banks in shunt for distribution networks. The proposed tool allows knowing the bank type to install (fixed, disconnect able or of pass), as well as the electrical parameters of the feeder and the economic benefit that the banks of capacitors represent, with a minimum of input data. Its development in a spreadsheet allows the analysis of numerous alternatives in an easy way. The method is based on that the structure of the feeders of distribution is, generally, of radial type, with which, and by means of an iterative process, the optimal location of the capacitor banks in shunt is looked for. The type of bank is determined based of the demand, as well as the number of steps. The results of the analysis in feeders of the network of the central area are shown. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia para determinar la localizacion optima de los bancos de capacitores en derivacion en redes de distribucion. La herramienta propuesta permite conocer el tipo de banco a instalar (fijo, desconcectable o de paso), asi como los parametros electricos del alimentador y el beneficio economico que representan los bancos de capacitores, con un minimo de datos de entrada. Su desarrollo en una hoja de calculo permite el analisis de numerosas alternativas de manera facil. El metodo se basa en que la estructura de los alimentadores de distribucion es, por lo general, de tipo radial, con lo cual, y por medio de un proceso iterativo, se busca la localizacion optima de los bancos de capacitores en derivacion. Se determina el tipo de banco en funcion de la demanda, asi como el numero de pasos. Se muestran resultados del analisis en alimentadores de la red del area central.

  19. Design and Characterization of Vertical Mesh Capacitors in Standard CMOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kåre Tais


    This paper shows how good RF capacitors can be made in a standard digital CMOS process. The capacitors which are also well suited for binary weighted switched capacitor banks show very good RF performance: Q-values of 57 at 4.0 GHz, a density of 0.27 fF/μ2, 2.2 μm wide shielded unit capacitors, 6...

  20. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan


    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  1. Ultraviolet photodetectors and imaging arrays based on III-V nitride heterostructures (United States)

    Brown, Jeffrey David


    The III-V nitride class of compound semiconductors has received much attention in the last decade. These materials have a wide, direct bandgap, making them a prime candidate for optoelectronic devices in the blue, green, and ultraviolet spectral regions. These materials exhibit impressive optical, electrical, and thermal properties, even though there are fundamental materials issues that are thus far unresolved. This work explores the application of III-V nitride semiconductors to optical detectors in the ultraviolet region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy was used to synthesize thin film p-i-n photodiode structures on double side polished sapphire substrates; these films were characterized for optical, electrical and structural properties. The grown structures were designed to respond to a predetermined region of the UV spectrum when illuminated from the substrate side. These structures were fabricated into devices using generally accepted techniques for dry etching and p and n-contact metallizations. Test devices were characterized using tools developed by the author. These devices demonstrated as high as 80% quantum efficiency and extremely low dark currents; resulting in spectral detectivities as large as 6 * 1013 cmHz1/2W-1. Devices were designed and demonstrated for a series of detection regions ranging from 365 nm to 250 nm. Photolithography masks were designed to allow the fabrication of photodiode arrays that would hybridize to commercially available CMOS based readout integrated circuits (ROICs), used routinely for infrared photodiode imaging. Photodiode arrays were fabricated and indium bumps were deposited onto the diode contacts and the ROICs to provide electrical connection. The hybrid detector arrays were placed in leadless chip carriers, wirebonded, and connected to commercially available drive and readout circuitry. Images of UV scenes were focused onto the arrays using fused quartz lenses. These images and movies

  2. High-efficiency perovskite solar cells based on anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Yan, E-mail: [School of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, East China University of Science & Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China); Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Wu, Jiamin; Gao, Di [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States)


    Perovskite solar cells (PSCs) based on one-dimensional anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays were prepared by using a two-step deposition method to fill the arrays of TiO{sub 2} nanotubes in different lengths with perovskite. The photovoltaic performance of PSCs was found to be significantly dependent on the length of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes, and the power conversion efficiency decreased as the length of the TiO{sub 2} nanotubes increased from ~ 0.40 μm to ~ 0.65 and then to ~ 0.93 μm. The PSC fabricated with ~ 0.40 μm-long anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays yielded a power conversion efficiency of 11.3% and a fill factor of 0.68 under illumination of 100 mW/cm{sup 2} AM 1.5G simulated sunlight, which is significantly higher than previously reported solar cells based on 1-D TiO{sub 2} nanostructures. Incident photon-to-current efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements indicated that longer TiO{sub 2} nanotubes led to higher recombination losses of charge carriers, possibly due to poor filling of the nanotube arrays with perovskite. - Highlights: • 1D anatase TiO{sub 2} nanotubes were used to fabricate perovskite solar cells. • The best efficiency of 11.3% was achieved with ~ 0.40 μm-long TiO{sub 2} nanotubes. • The efficiency of the devices decreased with increasing TiO{sub 2} nanotube lengths.

  3. Iodine encapsulation in CNTs and its application for electrochemical capacitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taniguchi, Y.; Ishii, Y.; Al-zubaidi, A.; Kawasaki, S., E-mail: [Nagoya Institute of Technology, Gokiso, Showa, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan); Rashid, M.; Syakirin, A. [Universiti Teknologi MARA (UiTM), 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor (Malaysia)


    We report the experimental results for new type electrochemical capacitor using iodine redox reaction in single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). It was found that the energy density of the present redox capacitor using SWCNTs is almost three times larger than that of the normal electric double layer capacitor.

  4. Optimal capacitor placement and sizing using combined fuzzy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The location of the nodes where the capacitors should be placed is decided by a set of rules given by the Fuzzy Expert System (FES). Capacitor location problem is a highly nonlinear problem and hence FES method is chosen. Then the sizing of the capacitors is modeled as an optimization problem and the objective ...

  5. Performance of Narrowband Signal Detection under Correlated Rayleigh Fading Based on Synthetic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Broumandan


    design parameters of probability of detection (Pd and probability of false alarm (Pfa. An optimum detector based on Estimator-Correlator (EC is developed, and its performance is compared with that of suboptimal Equal-Gain (EG combiner in different channel correlation scenarios. It is shown that in moderate channel correlation scenarios the detection performance of EC and EG is identical. The sensitivity of the proposed method to knowledge of motion parameters is also investigated. An extensive set of measurements based on CDMA-2000 pilot signals using the static antenna and synthetic array are used to experimentally verify these theoretical findings.

  6. Rapid Prototyping of Field Programmable Gate Array-Based Discrete Cosine Transform Approximations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor W. Fox


    Full Text Available A method for the rapid design of field programmable gate array (FPGA-based discrete cosine transform (DCT approximations is presented that can be used to control the coding gain, mean square error (MSE, quantization noise, hardware cost, and power consumption by optimizing the coefficient values and datapath wordlengths. Previous DCT design methods can only control the quality of the DCT approximation and estimates of the hardware cost by optimizing the coefficient values. It is shown that it is possible to rapidly prototype FPGA-based DCT approximations with near optimal coding gains that satisfy the MSE, hardware cost, quantization noise, and power consumption specifications.

  7. Failure mode analysis of silicon-based intracortical microelectrode arrays in non-human primates (United States)

    Barrese, James C.; Rao, Naveen; Paroo, Kaivon; Triebwasser, Corey; Vargas-Irwin, Carlos; Franquemont, Lachlan; Donoghue, John P.


    Objective. Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) using chronically implanted intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) have the potential to restore lost function to people with disabilities if they work reliably for years. Current sensors fail to provide reliably useful signals over extended periods of time for reasons that are not clear. This study reports a comprehensive retrospective analysis from a large set of implants of a single type of intracortical MEA in a single species, with a common set of measures in order to evaluate failure modes. Approach. Since 1996, 78 silicon MEAs were implanted in 27 monkeys (Macaca mulatta). We used two approaches to find reasons for sensor failure. First, we classified the time course leading up to complete recording failure as acute (abrupt) or chronic (progressive). Second, we evaluated the quality of electrode recordings over time based on signal features and electrode impedance. Failure modes were divided into four categories: biological, material, mechanical, and unknown. Main results. Recording duration ranged from 0 to 2104 days (5.75 years), with a mean of 387 days and a median of 182 days (n = 78). Sixty-two arrays failed completely with a mean time to failure of 332 days (median = 133 days) while nine array experiments were electively terminated for experimental reasons (mean = 486 days). Seven remained active at the close of this study (mean = 753 days). Most failures (56%) occurred within a year of implantation, with acute mechanical failures the most common class (48%), largely because of connector issues (83%). Among grossly observable biological failures (24%), a progressive meningeal reaction that separated the array from the parenchyma was most prevalent (14.5%). In the absence of acute interruptions, electrode recordings showed a slow progressive decline in spike amplitude, noise amplitude, and number of viable channels that predicts complete signal loss by about eight years. Impedance measurements showed

  8. The Impact of Grid Unbalances on the Reliability of DC-link Capacitors in a Motor Drive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huai; Davari, Pooya; Kumar, Dinesh


    DC-link capacitor is one of the reliability-critical components in motor drive applications, which contributes to a considerable cost, size and failure. Its reliability performance depends on both inherent physical strength and external loading. The grid unbalances could alter the electro...... and ripple currents are presented. The relationship between the DC-link capacitor lifetime and the level of unbalances and loads are discussed based on a 7.5 kW motor drive system. The results serve as a guideline to size the DC-link capacitors to be robust enough at the presence of grid unbalance conditions....

  9. Surface-plasmon-enhanced photoluminescence of quantum dots based on open-ring nanostructure array (United States)

    Kannegulla, Akash; Liu, Ye; Cheng, Li-Jing


    Enhanced photoluminescence (PL) of quantum dots (QD) in visible range using plasmonic nanostructures has potential to advance several photonic applications. The enhancement effect is, however, limited by the light coupling efficiency to the nanostructures. Here we demonstrate experimentally a new open-ring nanostructure (ORN) array 100 nm engraved into a 200 nm thick silver thin film to maximize light absorption and, hence, PL enhancement at a broadband spectral range. The structure is different from the traditional isolated or through-hole split-ring structures. Theoretical calculations based on FDTD method show that the absorption peak wavelength can be adjusted by their period and dimension. A broadband absorption of about 60% was measured at the peak wavelength of 550 nm. The emission spectrum of CdSe/ZnS core-shell quantum dots was chosen to match the absorption band of the ORN array to enhance its PL. The engraved silver ORN array was fabricated on a silver thin film deposited on a silicon substrate using focus ion beam (FIB) patterning. The device was characterized by using a thin layer of QD water dispersion formed between the ORN substrate and a cover glass. The experimental results show the enhanced PL for the QD with emission spectrum overlapping the absorption band of ORN substrate and quantum efficiency increases from 50% to 70%. The ORN silver substrate with high absorption over a broadband spectrum enables the PL enhancement and will benefit applications in biosensing, wavelength tunable filters, and imaging.

  10. Solar array design based on shadow analysis for increasing net energy collection in a competition vehicle (United States)

    Osorio-Gómez, Gilberto; Mejía-Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Suárez-Castañeda, Nicolás; Gil-Herrera, Ana; Barrera-Velásquez, Jorge


    Photovoltaic (PV) applications such as in the architectural, automotive, and aerospace industries face design contradictions because they are expected to produce a lot of energy but are constrained by available area, surface shape, incident irradiance, shadows, and other aspects that have a negative influence on the energy produced by the solar panel. Solar competition vehicles are some of these challenging PV applications. The design of such solar arrays needs to consider efficiency evaluation in order to optimize space; it is difficult not to install solar modules in areas impacted by shadows. A design procedure for a solar array configuration based on shadow analysis for competition vehicles is presented. The principle is that shadows in moving objects can be simulated, since the vehicle, the earth and the sun are are moving in semipredictable patterns, thus net energy collection can be forecast. The case study presented is the solar array design of a vehicle that participated in the World Solar Challenge 2013. The obtained results illustrate how the employment of the procedure gives insights on important aspects to consider and also delivers qualitative and quantitative information for decision making. In addition, the experience in competition highlights some issues to be considered, modified, or improved in further vehicle designs.

  11. Optofluidic laser array based on stable high-Q Fabry-Pérot microcavities. (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Chunhua; Zhang, Tingting; Chen, Jingdong; Liu, Shaoding; Fan, Xudong


    We report the development of an optofluidic laser array fabricated on a chip using stable plano-concave Fabry-Pérot (FP) microcavities, which are far less susceptible to optical misalignment during device assembly than the commonly used plano-plano FP microcavities. The concave mirrors in our FP microcavities were created by first generating an array of microwells of a few micrometers in depth and a few tens of micrometers in diameter on a fused silica chip using a CO2 laser, followed by coating of distributed Bragg reflection (DBR) layers. The plano-concave FP microcavity had a Q-factor of 5.6 × 10(5) and finesse of 4 × 10(3), over 100 times higher than those for the FP microcavities in existing optofluidic lasers. 1 mM R6G dye in ethanol was used to test the plano-concave FP microcavities, showing an ultralow lasing threshold of only 90 nJ mm(-2), over 10 times lower than that in the corresponding unstable plano-plano FP microcavities formed by the same DBR coatings on the same chip. Simultaneous laser emission from the optofluidic laser array on the chip and single-mode lasing operation were also demonstrated. Our work will lead to the development of optofluidic laser-based biochemical sensors and novel on-chip photonic devices with extremely low lasing thresholds (nJ mm(-2)) and mode volumes (fL).

  12. A Robust MEMS Based Multi-Component Sensor for 3D Borehole Seismic Arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsson Geophysical Services


    The objective of this project was to develop, prototype and test a robust multi-component sensor that combines both Fiber Optic and MEMS technology for use in a borehole seismic array. The use such FOMEMS based sensors allows a dramatic increase in the number of sensors that can be deployed simultaneously in a borehole seismic array. Therefore, denser sampling of the seismic wave field can be afforded, which in turn allows us to efficiently and adequately sample P-wave as well as S-wave for high-resolution imaging purposes. Design, packaging and integration of the multi-component sensors and deployment system will target maximum operating temperature of 350-400 F and a maximum pressure of 15000-25000 psi, thus allowing operation under conditions encountered in deep gas reservoirs. This project aimed at using existing pieces of deployment technology as well as MEMS and fiber-optic technology. A sensor design and analysis study has been carried out and a laboratory prototype of an interrogator for a robust borehole seismic array system has been assembled and validated.

  13. Rapid Characterization of Bacterial Electrogenicity Using a Single-Sheet Paper-Based Electrofluidic Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Gao


    Full Text Available Electrogenicity, or bacterial electron transfer capacity, is an important application which offers environmentally sustainable advances in the fields of biofuels, wastewater treatment, bioremediation, desalination, and biosensing. Significant boosts in this technology can be achieved with the growth of synthetic biology that manipulates microbial electron transfer pathways, thereby potentially significantly improving their electrogenic potential. There is currently a need for a high-throughput, rapid, and highly sensitive test array to evaluate the electrogenic properties of newly discovered and/or genetically engineered bacterial species. In this work, we report a single-sheet, paper-based electrofluidic (incorporating both electronic and fluidic structure screening platform for rapid, sensitive, and potentially high-throughput characterization of bacterial electrogenicity. This novel screening array uses (i a commercially available wax printer for hydrophobic wax patterning on a single sheet of paper and (ii water-dispersed electrically conducting polymer mixture, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:polystyrene sulfonate, for full integration of electronic and fluidic components into the paper substrate. The engineered 3-D, microporous, hydrophilic, and conductive paper structure provides a large surface area for efficient electron transfer. This results in rapid and sensitive power assessment of electrogenic bacteria from a microliter sample volume. We validated the effectiveness of the sensor array using hypothesis-driven genetically modified Pseudomonas aeruginosa mutant strains. Within 20 min, we observed that the sensor platform successfully measured the electricity-generating capacities of five isogenic mutants of P. aeruginosa while distinguishing their differences from genetically unmodified bacteria.

  14. Implementation of High Time Delay Accuracy of Ultrasonic Phased Array Based on Interpolation CIC Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peilu Liu


    Full Text Available In order to improve the accuracy of ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay, analyzing the original interpolation Cascade-Integrator-Comb (CIC filter, an 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm was proposed, so that interpolation and multichannel decomposition can simultaneously process. Moreover, we summarized the general formula of arbitrary multiple interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm and established an ultrasonic phased array focusing time delay system based on 8× interpolation CIC filter parallel algorithm. Improving the algorithmic structure, 12.5% of addition and 29.2% of multiplication was reduced, meanwhile the speed of computation is still very fast. Considering the existing problems of the CIC filter, we compensated the CIC filter; the compensated CIC filter’s pass band is flatter, the transition band becomes steep, and the stop band attenuation increases. Finally, we verified the feasibility of this algorithm on Field Programming Gate Array (FPGA. In the case of system clock is 125 MHz, after 8× interpolation filtering and decomposition, time delay accuracy of the defect echo becomes 1 ns. Simulation and experimental results both show that the algorithm we proposed has strong feasibility. Because of the fast calculation, small computational amount and high resolution, this algorithm is especially suitable for applications with high time delay accuracy and fast detection.

  15. Metamaterial-based theoretical description of light scattering by metallic nano-hole array structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Mahi R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Najiminaini, Mohamadreza; Carson, Jeffrey J. L. [Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Balakrishnan, Shankar [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, St. Joseph' s Health Care, 268 Grosvenor Street, London N6A 4V2 (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London N6A 3K7 (Canada)


    We have experimentally and theoretically investigated the light-matter interaction in metallic nano-hole array structures. The scattering cross section spectrum was measured for three samples each having a unique nano-hole array radius and periodicity. Each measured spectrum had several peaks due to surface plasmon polaritons. The dispersion relation and the effective dielectric constant of the structure were calculated using transmission line theory and Bloch's theorem. Using the effective dielectric constant and the transfer matrix method, the surface plasmon polariton energies were calculated and found to be quantized. Using these quantized energies, a Hamiltonian for the surface plasmon polaritons was written in the second quantized form. Working with the Hamiltonian, a theory of scattering cross section was developed based on the quantum scattering theory and Green's function method. For both theory and experiment, the location of the surface plasmon polariton spectral peaks was dependant on the array periodicity and radii of the nano-holes. Good agreement was observed between the experimental and theoretical results. It is proposed that the newly developed theory can be used to facilitate optimization of nanosensors for medical and engineering applications.

  16. An Optimal DEM Reconstruction Method for Linear Array Synthetic Aperture Radar Based on Variational Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Jun


    Full Text Available Downward-looking Linear Array Synthetic Aperture Radar (LASAR has many potential applications in the topographic mapping, disaster monitoring and reconnaissance applications, especially in the mountainous area. However, limited by the sizes of platforms, its resolution in the linear array direction is always far lower than those in the range and azimuth directions. This disadvantage leads to the blurring of Three-Dimensional (3D images in the linear array direction, and restricts the application of LASAR. To date, the research on 3D SAR image enhancement has focused on the sparse recovery technique. In this case, the one-to-one mapping of Digital Elevation Model (DEM brakes down. To overcome this, an optimal DEM reconstruction method for LASAR based on the variational model is discussed in an effort to optimize the DEM and the associated scattering coefficient map, and to minimize the Mean Square Error (MSE. Using simulation experiments, it is found that the variational model is more suitable for DEM enhancement applications to all kinds of terrains compared with the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMPand Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator (LASSO methods.

  17. Growth and characterization of transparent Pb(Zi, Ti)O{sub 3} capacitor on glass substrate.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uprety, K. K.; Ocola, L. E.; Auciello, O.


    (Pb)(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3} (PZT) films were fabricated on LaNiO{sub 3} (LNO)/In{sub 2}O{sub 3} 90%SnO{sub 2}10% (ITO) layered transparent electrodes on glass substrates using chemical solution deposition. The structural, electrical, and optical properties of semitransparent Pd/PZT/LNO/ITO and transparent ITO/LNO/PZT/LNO/ITO capacitors fabricated on glass substrates were studied. X-ray diffraction revealed an improved crystalline structure of PZT on ITO-buffered glass substrates by interposing a LNO layer between PZT and ITO. Atomic force microscopy showed a smoother surface topography for the LNO/ITO layered electrode on glass, as compared to that of the single ITO layer on glass. The remnant polarization (P{sub r}) of the Pd/PZT/LNO/ITO/glass capacitors and transparent ITO/LNO/PZT/LNO/ITO/glass capacitors was estimated from P-E hysteresis loops. The Pd/PZT/LNO/ITO capacitors on glass revealed significant improvement in the P{sub r} as compared to PZT film based capacitors with ITO electrodes only. Excellent optical transmittance was observed for the whole capacitor structure. The importance of a high performance transparent capacitor is that this structure may enable high efficiency transparent electronic devices such as solar energy storage, photovoltaic, and intelligent windows, among others.

  18. Effects of Radiation on Capacitor Dielectrics (United States)

    Bouquet, F. L.; Somoano, R. B.; Frickland, P. O.


    Data gathered on key design parameters. Report discusses study of electrical and mechanical properties of irradiated polymer dielectric materials. Data compiled for use by designers of high-energy-density capacitors that operate in presence of ionizing radiation. Study focused on polycarbonates, polyetheretherketones, polymethylpentenes, polyimides (including polyetherimide), polyolefins, polysulfones (including polyethersulfone and polyphenylsulfone), and polyvinylidene fluorides.

  19. Dualband MW/LW Strained Layer Superlattice Focal Plane Arrays For Satellite-Based Wildfire Detection Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dualband focal plane arrays (FPAs) based on gallium-free Type-II strained layer superlattice (SLS) photodiodes have recently experienced significant advances. We...

  20. Laboratory testing of high energy density capacitors for electric vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, A.F.


    Laboratory tests of advanced, high energy density capacitors in the Battery Test Laboratory of the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory have been performed to investigate their suitability for load-leveling the battery in an electric vehicle. Two types of devices were tested -- 3 V, 70 Farad, spiral wound, carbon-based, single cell devices and 20 V, 3. 5 Farad, mixed-oxide, multi-cell bipolar devices. The energy density of the devices, based on energy stored during charge to the rated voltage, was found to be 1--2 Wh/kg, which agreed well with that claimed by the manufacturers. Constant power discharge tests were performed at power densities up to 1500 W/kg. Discharges at higher power densities could have been performed had equipment been available to maintain constant power during discharges of less than one second. It was found that the capacitance of the devices were rate dependent with the rate dependency of the carbon-based devices being higher than that of the mixed-oxide devices. The resistance of both types of devices were relatively low being 20--30 milliohms. Testing done in the study showed that the advanced high energy density capacitors can be charged and discharged over cycles (PSFUDS) which approximate the duty cycle that would be encountered if the devices are used to load-level the battery in an electric vehicle. Thermal tests of the advanced capacitors in an insulated environment using the PSFUDS cycle showed the devices do not overheat with their temperatures increasing only 4--5{degrees}C for tests that lasted 5--7 hours. 7 refs., 33 figs., 11 tabs.

  1. Flow-through nanohole array based sensor implemented on analogue smartphone components (United States)

    Gomez-Cruz, Juan; Nair, Srijit; Ascanio, Gabriel; Escobedo, Carlos


    Mobile communications have massively populated the consumer electronics market over the past few years and it is now ubiquitous, providing a timeless opportunity for the development of smartphone-based technologies as point-of-care (POC) diagnosis tools1 . The expectation for a fully integrated smartphone-based sensor that enables applications such as environmental monitoring, explosive detection and biomedical analysis has increased among the scientific community in the past few years2,3. The commercialization forecast for smartphone-based sensing technologies is very promising, but reliable, miniature and cost-effective sensing platforms that can adapt to portable electronics in still under development. In this work, we present an integrated sensing platform based on flow-through metallic nanohole arrays. The nanohole arrays are 260 nm in diameter and 520 nm in pitch, fabricated using Focused Ion Beam (FIB) lithography. A white LED resembling a smartphone flash LED serves as light source to excite surface plasmons and the signal is recorded via a Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) module. The sensing abilities of the integrated sensing platform is demonstrated for the detection of (i) changes in bulk refractive index (RI), (ii) real-time monitoring of surface modification by receptor-analyte system of streptavidin-biotin.

  2. 2017 NEPP Tasks Update for Ceramic and Tantalum Capacitors (United States)

    Teverovsky, Alexander A.


    This presentation gives an overview of current NEPP tasks on ceramic and tantalum capacitors and plans for the future. It includes tasks on leakage currents, gas generation and case deformation in wet tantalum capacitors; ESR degradation and acceleration factors in MnO2 and polymer cathode capacitors. Preliminary results on the effect of moisture on degradation of reverse currents in MnO2 tantalum capacitors are discussed. Latest results on mechanical characteristics of MLCCs and modeling of degradation of leakage currents in BME capacitors with defects are also presented.

  3. Off-Grid Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on Joint Spatial Sparsity for Distributed Sparse Linear Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Liang


    Full Text Available In the design phase of sensor arrays during array signal processing, the estimation performance and system cost are largely determined by array aperture size. In this article, we address the problem of joint direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation with distributed sparse linear arrays (SLAs and propose an off-grid synchronous approach based on distributed compressed sensing to obtain larger array aperture. We focus on the complex source distribution in the practical applications and classify the sources into common and innovation parts according to whether a signal of source can impinge on all the SLAs or a specific one. For each SLA, we construct a corresponding virtual uniform linear array (ULA to create the relationship of random linear map between the signals respectively observed by these two arrays. The signal ensembles including the common/innovation sources for different SLAs are abstracted as a joint spatial sparsity model. And we use the minimization of concatenated atomic norm via semidefinite programming to solve the problem of joint DOA estimation. Joint calculation of the signals observed by all the SLAs exploits their redundancy caused by the common sources and decreases the requirement of array size. The numerical results illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach.

  4. Off-grid direction of arrival estimation based on joint spatial sparsity for distributed sparse linear arrays. (United States)

    Liang, Yujie; Ying, Rendong; Lu, Zhenqi; Liu, Peilin


    In the design phase of sensor arrays during array signal processing, the estimation performance and system cost are largely determined by array aperture size. In this article, we address the problem of joint direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation with distributed sparse linear arrays (SLAs) and propose an off-grid synchronous approach based on distributed compressed sensing to obtain larger array aperture. We focus on the complex source distribution in the practical applications and classify the sources into common and innovation parts according to whether a signal of source can impinge on all the SLAs or a specific one. For each SLA, we construct a corresponding virtual uniform linear array (ULA) to create the relationship of random linear map between the signals respectively observed by these two arrays. The signal ensembles including the common/innovation sources for different SLAs are abstracted as a joint spatial sparsity model. And we use the minimization of concatenated atomic norm via semidefinite programming to solve the problem of joint DOA estimation. Joint calculation of the signals observed by all the SLAs exploits their redundancy caused by the common sources and decreases the requirement of array size. The numerical results illustrate the advantages of the proposed approach.

  5. Parallel array and mixture-based synthetic combinatorial chemistry: tools for the next millennium. (United States)

    Houghten, R A


    Technological advances continue to be a central driving force in the acceleration of the drug discovery process. Combinatorial chemistry methods, developed over the past 15 years, represent a paradigm shift in drug discovery. Initially viewed as a curiosity by the pharmaceutical industry, combinatorial chemistry is now recognized as an essential tool that decreases the time of discovery and increases the throughput of chemical screening by as much as 1000-fold. The use of parallel array synthesis approaches and mixture-based combinatorial libraries for drug discovery is reviewed.

  6. Boronate-Modified Interdigitated Electrode Array for Selective Impedance-Based Sensing of Glycated Hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonyasit, Yuwadee; Laiwattanapaisal, Wanida; Chailapakul, Orawon


    -aminophenylboronic acid (APBA), which selectively binds HbA1c via cis-diol interactions. Impedance sensing was demonstrated to be highly responsive to the clinically relevant HbA1c levels (0.1%-8.36%) with a detection limit of 0.024% (3σ). The specificity of the assay was evaluated with non-glycated hemoglobin (Hb......An impedance-based label-free affinity sensor was developed for the recognition of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Interdigitated gold microelectrode arrays (IDA) were first modified with a self-assembled monolayer of cysteamine followed by cross-linking with glutaraldehyde and subsequent binding of 3...

  7. Model-based compressed sensing of fiber Bragg grating arrays in the frequency domain (United States)

    Werzinger, Stefan; Gottinger, Michael; Gussner, Sandra; Bergdolt, Sven; Engelbrecht, Rainer; Schmauss, Bernhard


    We propose a model-based compressed sensing (MBCS) of FBG arrays (FBGA), interrogated with wavelength scanning incoherent optical frequency domain reflectometry. This method measures the frequency response of a FBGA with an electrical vector network analyzer combined with a tunable laser. Instead of the usual inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT), we apply a direct estimation of the grating reflectivities with a simple frequency domain model. A reconstruction of 10 gratings spaced by 20 cm is demonstrated. MBCS allows to reduce the number of measurement frequencies from 120 to 8, compared to an IDFT, while using a bandwidth of just 500 MHz.

  8. Sparsity-based super-resolution and phase-retrieval in waveguide arrays. (United States)

    Shechtman, Yoav; Small, Eran; Lahini, Yoav; Verbin, Mor; Eldar, Yonina C; Silberberg, Yaron; Segev, Mordechai


    We present a scheme for recovering the complex input field launched into a waveguide array, from partial measurements of its output intensity, given advance knowledge that the input is sparse. In spite of the fact that in general the inversion problem is ill-conditioned, we demonstrate experimentally and in simulations that the prior knowledge of sparsity helps overcome the loss of information. Our method is based on GESPAR, a recently proposed efficient phase retrieval algorithm. Possible applications include optical interconnects and quantum state tomography, and the ideas are extendable to other multiple input and multiple output (MIMO) communication schemes.

  9. Voice preprocessing system incorporating a real-time spectrum analyzer with programmable switched-capacitor filters (United States)

    Knapp, G.


    As part of a speaker verification program for BISS (Base Installation Security System), a test system is being designed with a flexible preprocessing system for the evaluation of voice spectrum/verification algorithm related problems. The main part of this report covers the design, construction, and testing of a voice analyzer with 16 integrating real-time frequency channels ranging from 300 Hz to 3 KHz. The bandpass filter response of each channel is programmable by NMOS switched capacitor quad filter arrays. Presently, the accuracy of these units is limited to a moderate precision by the finite steps of programming. However, repeatability of characteristics between filter units and sections seems to be excellent for the implemented fourth-order Butterworth bandpass responses. We obtained a 0.1 dB linearity error of signal detection and measured a signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 70 dB. The proprocessing system discussed includes preemphasis filter design, gain normalizer design, and data acquisition system design as well as test results.

  10. High performance electronics based on aligned arrays of single walled carbon nanotubes (United States)

    Kocabas, Coskun

    This dissertation describes a new approach for generating large area homogenous parallel array of single walled carbon nanotubes. The approach uses guided growth, by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), of SWNTs on single crystal quartz substrates. The anisotropic interaction associated with lattice structure of the quartz between SWNT and quartz surface guides SWNT during the deposition process. We have optimized CVD conditions that can produce arrays of individual single walled carbon nanotubes in horizontal configurations with perfect linear shapes, to within experimental uncertainties, and with levels of alignment >99.9%. We took the method one step further by printing these SWNT arrays on unusual substrate such as plastic. Using the developed printing technique, we can fabricate multilayer superstructures of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) on a wide range of substrates. In order to understand charge transport through SWNT networks, we studied the scaling behaviours SWNT transistors by systematically varying degrees of alignment and coverage in transistors with a range of channel lengths and orientations perpendicular and parallel to the direction of alignment. We have modelled our experimental results using a first principles stick-percolation based transport model which provides a simple framework to interpret the sometimes counter-intuitive transport parameters measured in these devices. We have used dense, perfectly aligned arrays of long, perfectly linear SWNTs as an effective thin film semiconductor suitable for integration into transistors and other classes of electronic devices. These types of devices show excellent electric performance with mobilities and scaled transconductances approaching ˜2,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 and ˜3,000 S m-1, respectively. MOS and CMOS logic gates and mechanically flexible transistors on plastic were also demonstrated. Finally we have studied the high frequency performance of transistors that use aligned SWNT arrays. For the

  11. A New Approach in the Simplification of a Multiple-Beam Forming Network Based on CORPS Using Compressive Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Arce


    Full Text Available This research paper deals with a innovative way to simplify the design of beam-forming networks (BFNs for multibeam steerable antenna arrays based on coherently radiating periodic structures (CORPS technology using the noniterative matrix pencil method (MPM. This design approach is based on the application of the MPM to linear arrays fed by CORPS-BFN configurations to further reduce the complexity of the beam-forming network. Two 2-beam design configurations of CORPS-BFN for a steerable linear array are analyzed and compared using this compressive method. Simulation results show the effectiveness and advantages of applying the MPM on BFNs based on CORPS exploiting the nonuniformity of the antenna elements. Furthermore, final results show that the integration of CORPS-BFN and MPM reduces the entire antenna system including the antenna array and the beam-forming network subsystem resulting in a substantial simplification in such systems.

  12. Data base on batteries, power-conditioning equipment, and photovoltaic arrays. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podder, A; Kapner, M; Morse, T


    The objective of this study was to compile an up-to-date comprehensive data base for research, design, and development of photovoltaic systems, primarily in the areas of applications and battery technology, and secondarily in the area of power conditioning and photovoltaic array technology. This volume contains the data base used to develop the end-use scenarios and identify the R and D needed for batteries to be used in photovoltaic power systems. In addition to its specific application to the present study, this data base is intended to provide state-of-the-art information to manufacturers of the various components of photovoltaic power systems, system designers, and researchers in this field. An extensive literature search was conducted to obtain technical data on batteries, power conditioners, and photovoltaic arrays. The data obtained from published technical literature and direct communication with manufacturers and developers are compiled. Principles of operation, types of systems, performance characteristics, test data, and cost data are included for each of the components. (WHK)

  13. [Micro-array based technologies to study the proteome: technological progress and applications]. (United States)

    Mortuaire, G; Marchetti, P; Formstecher, P; Danzé, P M


    Since these twenty last years, there is an increasing interest for large-scale analysis of biological function. In the field of transcriptome, the emergence of microarray-based technologies and the design of DNA biochips allow high-throughput studies of RNA expression in cell and tissue at a given moment. In the field of proteome, methods of reference are still the 2D electrophoresis followed by analysis with mass spectrometry. Technological progress makes it possible to apply microarray methods to proteomics study : they are protein biochips or protein arrays. Expression analysis of proteins in a cell or a tissue in simultaneous and highly parallel way give further information for large-scale studies of signaling pathway. Numerous applications of protein microarray-based assays are described in basic biological research and in medical research to identify diagnostic biomarkers of inflammatory and cancerous pathologies and to find out news drugs and new therapeutic targets. This review summarizes concrete applications of microarray-based technology in the field of proteome, describes fundamental technical stages in protein array development and highlights critical points which will be useful to improve this emerging proteomic method.

  14. Graphene-based liquid-crystal microlens arrays for synthetic-aperture imaging (United States)

    Wu, Yong; Hu, Wei; Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Xin, Zhaowei; Wei, Dong; Zhang, Xinyu; Liao, Jing; Wang, Haiwei; Xie, Changsheng


    In this paper, a new kind of liquid-crystal microlens array with graphene electrodes controlled electrically are designed and fabricated successfully. The graphene-based liquid-crystal microlens arrays (GLCMAs) exhibit excellent beam focusing performances in both the visible and near infrared (NIR) wavelength regions and also synthetic aperture imaging function. The graphene films used to fabricate the electrodes of the GLCMAs are grown by chemical vapor deposition over copper foils, demonstrating several characters of low sheet resistance and high transmittance in both wavelength ranges above. The key processes for shaping the GLCMAs include: transferring graphene films from copper foils to wafers selected, conventional UV-photolithography, ICP etching, and liquid-crystal encapsulation. Through performing common optical measurements, the point spread functions of incident lasers with different wavelength, such as red lasers of ∼600 nm, green lasers of ∼532 nm, and NIR lasers of ∼980 nm, have been obtained. Several key parameters including focal spots size, average normalized light intensity, focal length, average deviation rate and contrast ratio have been acquired and analyzed. A particular synthetic-aperture imaging based on the GLCMA is realized so as to certify a fact that a single target pattern can be constructed effectively based on some sub-aperture patterns with several tens or hundreds of micrometer scale, and thus highlight a way to fast process partial or small-zoned patterns for enhancing the detection efficiency of special targets.

  15. Numerical investigation of phase change materials thermal capacitor for pipe flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurnia Jundika Candra


    Full Text Available This study addresses the performance of phase change material as thermal capacitor. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD model is developed to take into account the conjugate heat transfer between water as the heat transfer fluid (HTF and PCM as thermal capacitor. A pulsating inlet temperature with constant inlet velocity is prescribed to represent temperature variation. The performance of thermal capacitor is evaluated by closely monitoring outlet temperature and comparing it with inlet temperature to examine the reduction in temperature fluctuation. To intensify heat transfer between HTF and PCM, extended surfaces (fins are installed on PCM side. The results indicate that PCM thermal capacitor can reduce temperature fluctuation by ∼ 1 °C. This reduction can be improved further when extended surface is installed with ∼ 1.5 °C reduction in temperature fluctuation is achieved. Moreover, it is found that the maximum temperature is delayed at the outlet due to slow conjugate heat transfer between HTF and PCM. Inlet velocity is found to have considerable influence of the temperature fluctuation reduction: Slower inlet velocity results in a better temperature fluctuation reduction. This study is expected to serve as a guideline in designing PCM-based thermal capacitor.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Zalizny


    Full Text Available The existing protection and diagnostics systems are unable to detect the power capacitor abnormal heating caused by the development of its malfunctions. A diagnosis technique is presented that provides discovering such a heating at its early manifestation. The technique includes algorithms and an apparatus component in a form of a digital device, and it is based on continuous measuring of a capacitor body surface temperature, ambient temperature, voltages and currents from the power source. On the basis of measured values the active power losses in the capacitor and the temperature of the hottest point of its dielectric were calculated. Thereafter, the calculated average daily values of the temperature was analyzed, and, should the tendency of permanent increase of these values is detected, the diagnosis alarms of danger levels of abnormal heating are formed, viz. a low level, an average level, a high level and a very high level. The presented algorithms have been developed heuristically. Their final formation is possible only after years of operation of the proposed diagnosis system applied to the real objects. Because of application of the diagnosis system the probability of capacitor units’ failure will be lower and thus the dependability of the power supply may be higher. The implementation of the developed system will reduce the probability of sudden failure of capacitor units, and, correspondingly, will increase the reliability of the electricity supply system of an enterprise.

  17. Sound shielding by a piezoelectric membrane and a negative capacitor with feedback control. (United States)

    Sluka, Tomás; Kodama, Hidekazu; Fukada, Eiichi; Mokrý, Pavel


    The design and realization of an adaptive sound-shielding system based on a method to control the effective elastic stiffness of piezoelectric materials are presented in this paper. In this system, the sound-shielding effect is achieved by a sound reflection from the piezoelectric curved membrane fixed in rigid frame and connected to an active analog circuit that behaves as a negative capacitor. The acoustic transmission loss through the curved membrane was measured for the incident sound of frequency 1.6 kHz and of acoustic pressure level 80 dB. When the negative capacitor in the system was properly adjusted, the acoustic pressure level of the transmitted sound was reduced from the initial 60 dB to 15 dB by the action of the negative capacitor. Then the system was exposed to naturally changing operational conditions, and their effect on sound-shielding efficiency was studied. It is shown that the acoustic transmission loss of the system dropped by 35 dB within 30 min from the moment of negative capacitor adjustment. Therefore, a self-adjustment of the system has been implemented by appending an additional digital control circuit to the negative capacitor. It is shown that the aforementioned deteriorating effect has been eliminated by the adjusting action of the control circuit. The long-time sustainable value of 60 dB in the acoustic transmission loss of the adaptive sound shielding system has been achieved.

  18. Arrayed liquid rotor electret power generator systems


    Boland, J. S.; Messenger, J. D. M.; Lo, H. W.; Tai, Y.C.


    We report our work on liquid rotor electret power generators (LEPG), LEPG devices are essentially fixed-charged, Teflon-electret capacitors with air-filled gaps and liquid droplets that move by vibration. As the liquid moves into and out of the gaps, a net voltage is generated across the capacitor as image charges on the electrodes redistribute according to the position of the droplets. In this work, we also study serial and parallel arrays of LEPG power generators to increase power output. P...

  19. On the interference rejection capabilities of triangular antenna array for cellular base stations

    KAUST Repository

    Atat, Rachad


    In this paper, we present the performance analysis of the triangular antenna arrays in terms of the interference rejection capability. In this context, we derive an expression to calculate the spatial interference suppression coefficient for the triangular antenna array with variable number of antenna elements. The performance of the triangular antenna array has been compared with the circular antenna array with respect to interference suppression performance, steering beam pattern, beamwidth and directivity. Simulation results show that the triangular array with large number of elements produces a sharper beamwidth and better interference suppression performance than the circular antenna array. © 2012 IEEE.

  20. MicroArray Facility: a laboratory information management system with extended support for Nylon based technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beaudoing Emmanuel


    Full Text Available Abstract Background High throughput gene expression profiling (GEP is becoming a routine technique in life science laboratories. With experimental designs that repeatedly span thousands of genes and hundreds of samples, relying on a dedicated database infrastructure is no longer an option. GEP technology is a fast moving target, with new approaches constantly broadening the field diversity. This technology heterogeneity, compounded by the informatics complexity of GEP databases, means that software developments have so far focused on mainstream techniques, leaving less typical yet established techniques such as Nylon microarrays at best partially supported. Results MAF (MicroArray Facility is the laboratory database system we have developed for managing the design, production and hybridization of spotted microarrays. Although it can support the widely used glass microarrays and oligo-chips, MAF was designed with the specific idiosyncrasies of Nylon based microarrays in mind. Notably single channel radioactive probes, microarray stripping and reuse, vector control hybridizations and spike-in controls are all natively supported by the software suite. MicroArray Facility is MIAME supportive and dynamically provides feedback on missing annotations to help users estimate effective MIAME compliance. Genomic data such as clone identifiers and gene symbols are also directly annotated by MAF software using standard public resources. The MAGE-ML data format is implemented for full data export. Journalized database operations (audit tracking, data anonymization, material traceability and user/project level confidentiality policies are also managed by MAF. Conclusion MicroArray Facility is a complete data management system for microarray producers and end-users. Particular care has been devoted to adequately model Nylon based microarrays. The MAF system, developed and implemented in both private and academic environments, has proved a robust solution for

  1. High-Directivity Antenna Array Based on Artificial Electromagnetic Metamaterials with Low Refractive Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigang Xiao


    Full Text Available Planar metamaterials (MTMs with low refractive index are proposed as a cover in a high-gain patch antenna array configuration. This MTMs array antenna has the following features: the number of array elements significantly decreases compared with the conventional array; the elements spacing is larger than a wave length by far; the feeding network is simpler. MTMs are made of two layers of periodic square metallic grids and placed above the feeding array. With the same aperture size, the directivity of MTMs-cover antenna array is higher than the conventional antenna array. The simulation results show that an array of 2 × 2 patch elements integrated with MTMs yields about 26 dB of directivity which is higher than that of conventional 8 × 8 patch array. Furthermore, on the condition of the same aperture size, an array patch with 4 × 4 elements integrated with the MTMs-cover has an equivalent gain compared with the conventional patch array with 16 × 16 array elements. Obviously, the former has a simpler feeding network and higher aperture efficiency. The experimental work has verified that the 2 × 2 array case and the measured results have good agreement with the simulation.

  2. A Formaldehyde Sensor Based on Molecularly-Imprinted Polymer on a TiO₂ Nanotube Array. (United States)

    Tang, Xiaohui; Raskin, Jean-Pierre; Lahem, Driss; Krumpmann, Arnaud; Decroly, André; Debliquy, Marc


    Today, significant attention has been brought to the development of sensitive, specific, cheap, and reliable sensors for real-time monitoring. Molecular imprinting technology is a versatile and promising technology for practical applications in many areas, particularly chemical sensors. Here, we present a chemical sensor for detecting formaldehyde, a toxic common indoor pollutant gas. Polypyrrole-based molecularly-imprinted polymer (PPy-based MIP) is employed as the sensing recognition layer and synthesized on a titanium dioxide nanotube array (TiO₂-NTA) for increasing its surface-to-volume ratio, thereby improving the sensor performance. Our sensor selectively detects formaldehyde in the parts per million (ppm) range at room temperature. It also shows a long-term stability and small fluctuation to humidity variations. These are attributed to the thin fishnet-like structure of the PPy-based MIP on the highly-ordered and vertically-aligned TiO₂-NTA.

  3. Design of Tunnel Magnetoresistive-Based Circular MFL Sensor Array for the Detection of Flaws in Steel Wire Rope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xiucheng


    Full Text Available Tunnel magnetoresistive (TMR devices have superior performances in weak magnetic field detection. In this study, TMR devices were first employed to form a circular magnetic flux leakage (MFL sensor for slight wire rope flaw detection. Two versions of this tailor-made circular TMR-based sensor array were presented for the inspection of wire ropes with the diameters of 14 mm and 40 mm, respectively. Helmholtz-like coils or a ferrite magnet-based magnetizer was selected to provide the proper magnetic field, in order to meet the technical requirements of the TMR devices. The coefficient of variance in the flaw detection performance of the sensor array elements was experimentally estimated at 4.05%. Both versions of the MFL sensor array were able to detect multiple single-broken wire flaws in the wire ropes. The accurate axial and circumferential positions of these broken wire flaws were estimated from the MFL scanning image results. In addition, the proposed TMR-based sensor array was applied to detect the MFL signal induced by slight surface wear defects. A mutual correlation analysis method was used to distinguish the signals caused by the lift-off fluctuation from the MFL scanning image results. The MFL sensor arrays presented in this study provide inspiration for the designing of tailor-made TMR-based circular sensor arrays for cylindrical ferromagnetic structural inspections.

  4. A two-stage noise source identification technique based on a farfield random parametric array. (United States)

    Bai, Mingsian R; Chen, You Siang; Lo, Yi-Yang


    A farfield random array is implemented for noise source identification. Microphone positions are optimized, with the aid of the simulated annealing method. A two-stage localization and separation algorithm is devised on the basis of the equivalent source method (ESM). In the localization stage, the active source regions are located by using the delay-and-sum method, followed by a parametric localization procedure, stochastic maximum likelihood algorithm. Multidimensional nonlinear optimization is exploited in the bearing estimation process. In the separation stage, source amplitudes are extracted by formulating an inverse problem based on the preceding source bearings identified. The number of equivalent sources is selected to be less than that of microphones to render an overdetermined problem which can be readily solved by using the Tikhonov regularization. Alternatively, the separation problem can be augmented into an underdetermined problem which can be solved by using the compressive sensing technique. Traditionally, farfield arrays only give a relative distribution of source field. However, by using the proposed method, the acoustic variables including sound pressure, particle velocity, sound intensity, and sound power can be calculated based on ESM. Numerical and experimental results of several objective and subjective tests are presented.

  5. Enhanced Sensitivity of Surface Acoustic Wave-Based Rate Sensors Incorporating Metallic Dot Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Wang


    Full Text Available A new surface acoustic wave (SAW-based rate sensor pattern incorporating metallic dot arrays was developed in this paper. Two parallel SAW delay lines with a reverse direction and an operation frequency of 80 MHz on a same X-112°Y LiTaO3 wafer are fabricated as the feedback of two SAW oscillators, and mixed oscillation frequency was used to characterize the external rotation. To enhance the Coriolis force effect acting on the SAW propagation, a copper (Cu dot array was deposited along the SAW propagation path of the SAW devices. The approach of partial-wave analysis in layered media was referred to analyze the response mechanisms of the SAW based rate sensor, resulting in determination of the optimal design parameters. To improve the frequency stability of the oscillator, the single phase unidirectional transducers (SPUDTs and combed transducer were used to form the SAW device to minimize the insertion loss and accomplish the single mode selection, respectively. Excellent long-term (measured in hours frequency stability of 0.1 ppm/h was obtained. Using the rate table with high precision, the performance of the developed SAW rate sensor was evaluated experimentally; satisfactory detection sensitivity (16.7 Hz∙deg∙s−1 and good linearity were observed.

  6. The research on multi-projection correction based on color coding grid array (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Han, Cheng; Bai, Baoxing; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Yunxiu


    There are many disadvantages such as lower timeliness, greater manual intervention in multi-channel projection system, in order to solve the above problems, this paper proposes a multi-projector correction technology based on color coding grid array. Firstly, a color structured light stripe is generated by using the De Bruijn sequences, then meshing the feature information of the color structured light stripe image. We put the meshing colored grid intersection as the center of the circle, and build a white solid circle as the feature sample set of projected images. It makes the constructed feature sample set not only has the perceptual localization, but also has good noise immunity. Secondly, we establish the subpixel geometric mapping relationship between the projection screen and the individual projectors by using the structure of light encoding and decoding based on the color array, and the geometrical mapping relation is used to solve the homography matrix of each projector. Lastly the brightness inconsistency of the multi-channel projection overlap area is seriously interfered, it leads to the corrected image doesn't fit well with the observer's visual needs, and we obtain the projection display image of visual consistency by using the luminance fusion correction algorithm. The experimental results show that this method not only effectively solved the problem of distortion of multi-projection screen and the issue of luminance interference in overlapping region, but also improved the calibration efficient of multi-channel projective system and reduced the maintenance cost of intelligent multi-projection system.

  7. A MEMS-based solid propellant microthruster array for space and military applications (United States)

    Chaalane, A.; Chemam, R.; Houabes, M.; Yahiaoui, R.; Metatla, A.; Ouari, B.; Metatla, N.; Mahi, D.; Dkhissi, A.; Esteve, D.


    Since combustion is an easy way to achieve large quantities of energy from a small volume, we developed a MEMS based solid propellant microthruster array for small spacecraft and micro-air-vehicle applications. A thruster is composed of a fuel chamber layer, a top-side igniter with a micromachined nozzle in the same silicon layer. Layers are assembled by adhesive bonding to give final MEMS array. The thrust force is generated by the combustion of propellant stored in a few millimeter cube chamber. The micro-igniter is a polysilicon resistor deposited on a low stress SiO2/SiNx thin membrane to ensure a good heat transfer to the propellant and thus a low electric power consumption. A large range of thrust force is obtained simply by varying chamber and nozzle geometry parameters in one step of Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE). Experimental tests of ignition and combustion employing home made (DB+x%BP) propellant composed of a DoubleBase and Black-Powder. A temperature of 250 °C, enough to propellant initiation, is reached for 40 mW of electric power. A combustion rate of about 3.4 mm/s is measured for DB+20%BP propellant and thrust ranges between 0.1 and 3,5 mN are obtained for BP ratio between 10% and 30% using a microthruster of 100 μm of throat wide.

  8. R dump converter without DC link capacitor for an 8/6 SRM: experimental investigation. (United States)

    Kavitha, Pasumalaithevan; Umamaheswari, Bhaskaran


    The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of 8/6 switched reluctance motor (SRM) when excited with sinusoidal voltage. The conventional R dump converter provides DC excitation with the help of capacitor. In this paper the converter used is the modified R dump converter without DC link capacitor providing AC or sinusoidal excitation. Torque ripple and speed ripple are investigated based on hysteresis current control. Constant and sinusoidal current references are considered for comparison in both DC and AC excitation. Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations are made to bring out the merits and demerits of AC versus DC excitation. It is shown that the constructionally simple SRM can be favorably controlled with simple R dump converter with direct AC excitation without need for DC link capacitor. A 4-phase 8/6 0.5 kW SRM is used for experimentation.

  9. R Dump Converter without DC Link Capacitor for an 8/6 SRM: Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pasumalaithevan Kavitha


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of 8/6 switched reluctance motor (SRM when excited with sinusoidal voltage. The conventional R dump converter provides DC excitation with the help of capacitor. In this paper the converter used is the modified R dump converter without DC link capacitor providing AC or sinusoidal excitation. Torque ripple and speed ripple are investigated based on hysteresis current control. Constant and sinusoidal current references are considered for comparison in both DC and AC excitation. Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations are made to bring out the merits and demerits of AC versus DC excitation. It is shown that the constructionally simple SRM can be favorably controlled with simple R dump converter with direct AC excitation without need for DC link capacitor. A 4-phase 8/6 0.5 kW SRM is used for experimentation.

  10. R Dump Converter without DC Link Capacitor for an 8/6 SRM: Experimental Investigation (United States)

    Kavitha, Pasumalaithevan; Umamaheswari, Bhaskaran


    The objective of this paper is to investigate the performance of 8/6 switched reluctance motor (SRM) when excited with sinusoidal voltage. The conventional R dump converter provides DC excitation with the help of capacitor. In this paper the converter used is the modified R dump converter without DC link capacitor providing AC or sinusoidal excitation. Torque ripple and speed ripple are investigated based on hysteresis current control. Constant and sinusoidal current references are considered for comparison in both DC and AC excitation. Extensive theoretical and experimental investigations are made to bring out the merits and demerits of AC versus DC excitation. It is shown that the constructionally simple SRM can be favorably controlled with simple R dump converter with direct AC excitation without need for DC link capacitor. A 4-phase 8/6 0.5 kW SRM is used for experimentation. PMID:25642452

  11. Green's function based equivalent circuits for connected arrays in transmission and in reception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavallo, D.; Neto, A.; Gerini, G.


    Connected arrays constitute the only family of antenna arrays for which the spectral Green's Functions have been derived analytically. This formalism is extended here to the receiving case. When the arrays are assumed to be infinitely extended and periodically excited, rigorous equivalent networks

  12. Switched-capacitor elements for VIS-SC-filters with reduced influences of parasitic capacitances (United States)

    Pandel, J.


    A number of switched-capacitor elements for SC-filters based on voltage inverter switches will be described. All of them are insensitive to the main parasitics occurring in MOS integrated circuits, i.e. the parasitic capacitances between the bottom plates of the implemented capacitors and substrate. The reduction of parasitic effects does not lead to an increasing of the very low attenuation sensitivity with respect to element variations when simulating lossless ladder circuits between resistive terminations. Experimental results of a seventh order low-pass filter built with discrete components are in good agreement with theory.

  13. Evaluation and Characterization of Magnets and Capacitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seiber, L.E.; Cunningham, J.P.; Golik, S.S. (ORISE); Armstrong, G. (Maverick Systems)


    Advanced vehicle, fuel cell, hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), and plug in hybrid research and development is conducted by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through its FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (FCVT) program. The mission of this program is to develop more energy efficient and environmentally safe highway transportation technologies. Program activities include research, development, testing, technology validation, and technology transfer. These activities are done at the system and component levels. This report will discuss component level testing of prototype capacitors and magnets. As capacitor and magnet technologies mature, it is important to ascertain the limitations of these new technologies by subjecting the components to standardized tests to evaluate their capabilities. Test results will assist in the determination of their ability to provide improvements in power electronics and motor designs to meet the FCVT goals.

  14. DOA Estimation Based on Real-Valued Cross Correlation Matrix of Coprime Arrays. (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Defu


    A fast direction of arrival (DOA) estimation method using a real-valued cross-correlation matrix (CCM) of coprime subarrays is proposed. Firstly, real-valued CCM with extended aperture is constructed to obtain the signal subspaces corresponding to the two subarrays. By analysing the relationship between the two subspaces, DOA estimations from the two subarrays are simultaneously obtained with automatic pairing. Finally, unique DOA is determined based on the common results from the two subarrays. Compared to partial spectral search (PSS) method and estimation of signal parameter via rotational invariance (ESPRIT) based method for coprime arrays, the proposed algorithm has lower complexity but achieves better DOA estimation performance and handles more sources. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the approach.

  15. DOA Estimation Based on Real-Valued Cross Correlation Matrix of Coprime Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianfeng Li


    Full Text Available A fast direction of arrival (DOA estimation method using a real-valued cross-correlation matrix (CCM of coprime subarrays is proposed. Firstly, real-valued CCM with extended aperture is constructed to obtain the signal subspaces corresponding to the two subarrays. By analysing the relationship between the two subspaces, DOA estimations from the two subarrays are simultaneously obtained with automatic pairing. Finally, unique DOA is determined based on the common results from the two subarrays. Compared to partial spectral search (PSS method and estimation of signal parameter via rotational invariance (ESPRIT based method for coprime arrays, the proposed algorithm has lower complexity but achieves better DOA estimation performance and handles more sources. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of the approach.

  16. Glucose concentration determination based on silica sol-gel encapsulated glucose oxidase optical biosensor arrays. (United States)

    Chang, Gang; Tatsu, Yoshiro; Goto, Tatsushi; Imaishi, Hiromasa; Morigaki, Kenichi


    Optical biosensor arrays for rapidly determining the glucose concentrations in a large number of beverage and blood samples were developed by immobilizing glucose oxidase (GOD) on oxygen sensor layer. Glucose oxidase was first encapsulated in silica based gels through sol-gel approach and then immobilized on 96-well microarrays integrated with oxygen sensing film at the bottom. The oxygen sensing film was made of an organically modified silica film (ORMOSIL) doped with tris(4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline) ruthenium dichloride (Ru(dpp)(3)Cl(2)). The oxidation reaction of glucose by glucose oxidase could be monitored through fluorescence intensity enhancement due to the oxygen consumption in the reaction. The luminescence changing rate evaluated by the dynamic transient method (DTM) was correlated with the glucose concentration with the wide linear range from 0.1 to 5.0mM (Y=13.28X-0.128, R=0.9968) and low detection limit (0.06 mM). The effects of pH and coexisting ions were systemically studied. The results showed that the optical biosensor arrays worked under a wide range of pH value, and normal interfering species such as Na(+), K(+), Cl(-), PO(4)(3-), and ascorbic acid did not cause apparent interference on the measurement. The activity of glucose oxidase was mostly retained even after 2-month storage, indicating their long-term stability. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A novel device based on a fluorescent cross-responsive sensor array for detecting pesticide residue (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Hou, Changjun; Lei, Jincan; Huo, Danqun; Luo, Xiaogang; Dong, Liang


    In this paper, a novel, simple, rapid, and low-cost detection device for pesticide residue was constructed. A sensor array based on a cross-responsive mechanism was designed. The data collection and processing system was used to detect fluorescent signal of the sensor arrays, and to extract unique patterns of the tested pesticide residue. Four selected pesticides, carbendazim, diazine, fenvalerate, and pentachloronitrobenzene, were detected by the proposed device. Unsupervised pattern recognition methods, hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis, were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the methods could 100% discriminate the four pesticide residues. According to the standard regression linear curve of the fluorescence intensity and the concentration of pesticide, the quantitative value of the pesticide was detected, and the device obtained responses at concentrations below 8 ppb, and it has a good linear relationship in the range of 0.01-1 ppm. According to the results, the proposed detection device showed excellent selectivity and discrimination ability for the pesticide residues. However, our preliminary study demonstrated that the proposed detection device has excellent potential application for the safety inspection of food.

  18. Polymer-based disposable microneedle array with insertion assisted by vibrating motion. (United States)

    Lee, F-W; Hung, W-H; Ma, C-W; Yang, Y-J


    This work presents a disposable polymer-based microneedle array that carries out insertions by mimicking the vibrating motion of a mosquito's proboscis. The proposed device, which comprises a 10:1 high-aspect-ratio parylene microneedle array and a chamber structure, was monolithically realized using a novel fabrication process. The vibrating motion of the microneedles was generated using a piezoelectric actuator. This device can be potentially applied to extract and collect blood by puncturing the dermis layer of human skin. The fabricated device is advantageous because of its biocompatibility, simple fabrication process, and low associated costs. Additionally, the graph of the measured extraction flow rate versus the pressure drop that is presented shows an agreement with the results predicted by analytical models. A 40% reduction of insertion force was demonstrated when the microneedle insertion was assisted by actuator-induced vibratory motions. Buckling analyses for estimating the maximum loads that the microneedle can sustain before failure occurs were also evaluated. Finally, the relationship between the insertion force and the vibration frequency was demonstrated in this study.

  19. Image scanning fluorescence emission difference microscopy based on a detector array. (United States)

    Li, Y; Liu, S; Liu, D; Sun, S; Kuang, C; Ding, Z; Liu, X


    We propose a novel imaging method that enables the enhancement of three-dimensional resolution of confocal microscopy significantly and achieve experimentally a new fluorescence emission difference method for the first time, based on the parallel detection with a detector array. Following the principles of photon reassignment in image scanning microscopy, images captured by the detector array were arranged. And by selecting appropriate reassign patterns, the imaging result with enhanced resolution can be achieved with the method of fluorescence emission difference. Two specific methods are proposed in this paper, showing that the difference between an image scanning microscopy image and a confocal image will achieve an improvement of transverse resolution by approximately 43% compared with that in confocal microscopy, and the axial resolution can also be enhanced by at least 22% experimentally and 35% theoretically. Moreover, the methods presented in this paper can improve the lateral resolution by around 10% than fluorescence emission difference and 15% than Airyscan. The mechanism of our methods is verified by numerical simulations and experimental results, and it has significant potential in biomedical applications. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  20. Improving molecular diagnosis of aniridia and WAGR syndrome using customized targeted array-based CGH. (United States)

    Blanco-Kelly, Fiona; Palomares, María; Vallespín, Elena; Villaverde, Cristina; Martín-Arenas, Rubén; Vélez-Monsalve, Camilo; Lorda-Sánchez, Isabel; Nevado, Julián; Trujillo-Tiebas, María José; Lapunzina, Pablo; Ayuso, Carmen; Corton, Marta


    Chromosomal deletions at 11p13 are a frequent cause of congenital Aniridia, a rare pan-ocular genetic disease, and of WAGR syndrome, accounting up to 30% of cases. First-tier genetic testing for newborn with aniridia, to detect 11p13 rearrangements, includes Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification (MLPA) and karyotyping. However, neither of these approaches allow obtaining a complete picture of the high complexity of chromosomal deletions and breakpoints in aniridia. Here, we report the development and validation of a customized targeted array-based comparative genomic hybridization, so called WAGR-array, for comprehensive high-resolution analysis of CNV in the WAGR locus. Our approach increased the detection rate in a Spanish cohort of 38 patients with aniridia, WAGR syndrome and other related ocular malformations, allowing to characterize four undiagnosed aniridia cases, and to confirm MLPA findings in four additional patients. For all patients, breakpoints were accurately established and a contiguous deletion syndrome, involving a large number of genes, was identified in three patients. Moreover, we identified novel microdeletions affecting 3' PAX6 regulatory regions in three families with isolated aniridia. This tool represents a good strategy for the genetic diagnosis of aniridia and associated syndromes, allowing for a more accurate CNVs detection, as well as a better delineation of breakpoints. Our results underline the clinical importance of performing exhaustive and accurate analysis of chromosomal rearrangements for patients with aniridia, especially newborns and those without defects in PAX6 after diagnostic screening.

  1. A large-scale NEMS light-emitting array based on CVD graphene (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsik; Kim, Young Duck; Lee, Changhyuk; Lee, Sunwoo; Seo, Dong-jea; Jerng, Sahng-Kyoon; Chun, Seung-Hyun; Hone, James; Shepard, Kenneth L.


    Graphene has received much interest from optical communities largely owing to its photon-like linear energy band structure called Dirac cone. While majority of the recent research has dealt with plasmon and polariton of the two-dimensional material, a recently reported graphene light emitter could render a new dimension of applications, particularly in high-speed optical communication. Moreover chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth technique for graphene is available today providing means for scalable high quality graphene. The reported graphene emitter provides broadband light emission from visible to mid-infrared which could be instrumental in multi-color display units and optical communications, however a truly large scale implementation has not previously been achieved. Here we demonstrate a CMOS-compatible 262,144 light-emitting pixels array (10 x 10 mm2) based on suspended CVD graphene nano-electro-mechanical systems (GNEMS). A single photoemission area is 19.6 µm2 and a unit pixel is consisting of 512 photoemission devices (16 x 16) where a multiplexer and a digital to analog converter (DAC) are used to control each pixel. This work clearly demonstrates scalability of multi-channel GNEMS light-emitting array, an atomically thin electro-optical module, and further paves a path for its commercial implementation transparent display or high-speed optical communication.

  2. Tunable Absorption System based on magnetorheological elastomers and Halbach array: design and testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bocian, Mirosław; Kaleta, Jerzy; Lewandowski, Daniel, E-mail:; Przybylski, Michał


    Highlights: • Construction of a Tunable Absorption System incorporating MRE has been done. • For system control by magnetic field a double circular Halbach array has been used. • Significant changes of the TSAs natural frequency and damping has been obtained. - Abstract: In this paper, the systematic design, construction and testing of a Tunable Absorption System (TAS) incorporating magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) has been investigated. The TAS has been designed for energy absorption and mitigation of vibratory motions from an impact excitation. The main advantage of the designed TAS is that it has the ability to change and adapt to working conditions. Tunability can be realised through a change in the magnetic field caused by the change of an internal arrangement of permanent magnets within a double dipolar circular Halbach array. To show the capabilities of the tested system, experiments based on an impulse excitation have been performed. Significant changes of the TASs natural frequency and damping characteristics have been obtained. By incorporating magnetic tunability within the TAS a significant qualitative and quantitative change in the devices mechanical properties and performance were obtained.

  3. Metalenses based on the non-parallel double-slit arrays (United States)

    Shao, Hongyan; Chen, Chen; Wang, Jicheng; Pan, Liang; Sang, Tian


    Metalenses based on surface plasmon polaritons have played an indispensable role in ultra-thin devices designing. The amplitude, phase and polarization of electromagnetic waves all can be controlled easily by modifying the metasurface structures. Here we propose and investigate a new type of structure with Babinet-inverted nano-antennas which can provide a series of unit-cells with phase-shifts covering 2π and ensure almost same transmittance simultaneously. As a result, the wavefront can be manipulated by arraying the units in course. Metalenses with the linear asymmetrical double slit unit-cell arrays are designed and the simulative results exhibit their perfect focusing characteristics, including single-focus lenses and multi-focus lenses. The small focus size and high numerical aperture make them stand out from the traditional counterparts in application of precision sensing devices. We expect our designs will provide new insights in the practical applications for metasurfaces in data storages, optical information processing and optical holography.

  4. Wideband RCS Reduction of Microstrip Array Antenna Based on Absorptive Frequency Selective Surface and Microstrip Resonators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Xue


    Full Text Available An approach for wideband radar cross section (RCS reduction of a microstrip array antenna is presented and discussed. The scheme is based on the microstrip resonators and absorptive frequency selective surface (AFSS with a wideband absorptive property over the low band 1.9–7.5 GHz and a transmission characteristic at high frequency 11.05 GHz. The AFSS is designed to realize the out-of-band RCS reduction and preserve the radiation performance simultaneously, and it is placed above the antenna with the operating frequency of 11.05 GHz. Moreover, the microstrip resonators are loaded to obtain the in-band RCS reduction. As a result, a significant RCS reduction from 1.5 GHz to 13 GHz for both types of polarization has been accomplished. Compared with the reference antenna, the simulated results exhibit that the monostatic RCS of the proposed array antenna in x- and y-polarization can be reduced as much as 17.6 dB and 21.5 dB, respectively. And the measured results agree well with the simulated ones.

  5. Wireless Remote Monitoring of Glucose Using a Functionalized ZnO Nanowire Arrays Based Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Willander


    Full Text Available This paper presents a prototype wireless remote glucose monitoring system interfaced with a ZnO nanowire arrays-based glucose sensor, glucose oxidase enzyme immobilized onto ZnO nanowires in conjunction with a Nafion® membrane coating, which can be effectively applied for the monitoring of glucose levels in diabetics. Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM services like General Packet Radio Service (GPRS and Short Message Service (SMS have been proven to be logical and cost effective methods for gathering data from remote locations. A communication protocol that facilitates remote data collection using SMS has been utilized for monitoring a patient’s sugar levels. In this study, we demonstrate the remote monitoring of the glucose levels with existing GPRS/GSM network infra-structures using our proposed functionalized ZnO nanowire arrays sensors integrated with standard readily available mobile phones. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purposes. Such applications can reduce health care costs and allow caregivers to monitor and support to their patients remotely, especially those located in rural areas.

  6. Wireless remote monitoring of glucose using a functionalized ZnO nanowire arrays based sensor. (United States)

    Ali, Syed M Usman; Aijazi, Tasuif; Axelsson, Kent; Nur, Omer; Willander, Magnus


    This paper presents a prototype wireless remote glucose monitoring system interfaced with a ZnO nanowire arrays-based glucose sensor, glucose oxidase enzyme immobilized onto ZnO nanowires in conjunction with a Nafion® membrane coating, which can be effectively applied for the monitoring of glucose levels in diabetics. Global system for mobile communications (GSM) services like general packet radio service (GPRS) and Short Message Service (SMS) have been proven to be logical and cost effective methods for gathering data from remote locations. A communication protocol that facilitates remote data collection using SMS has been utilized for monitoring a patient's sugar levels. In this study, we demonstrate the remote monitoring of the glucose levels with existing GPRS/GSM network infra-structures using our proposed functionalized ZnO nanowire arrays sensors integrated with standard readily available mobile phones. The data can be used for centralized monitoring and other purposes. Such applications can reduce health care costs and allow caregivers to monitor and support to their patients remotely, especially those located in rural areas.

  7. VLSI design of an RSA encryption/decryption chip using systolic array based architecture (United States)

    Sun, Chi-Chia; Lin, Bor-Shing; Jan, Gene Eu; Lin, Jheng-Yi


    This article presents the VLSI design of a configurable RSA public key cryptosystem supporting the 512-bit, 1024-bit and 2048-bit based on Montgomery algorithm achieving comparable clock cycles of current relevant works but with smaller die size. We use binary method for the modular exponentiation and adopt Montgomery algorithm for the modular multiplication to simplify computational complexity, which, together with the systolic array concept for electric circuit designs effectively, lower the die size. The main architecture of the chip consists of four functional blocks, namely input/output modules, registers module, arithmetic module and control module. We applied the concept of systolic array to design the RSA encryption/decryption chip by using VHDL hardware language and verified using the TSMC/CIC 0.35 m 1P4 M technology. The die area of the 2048-bit RSA chip without the DFT is 3.9 × 3.9 mm2 (4.58 × 4.58 mm2 with DFT). Its average baud rate can reach 10.84 kbps under a 100 MHz clock.

  8. Sensor-array-based evaluation and grading of beef taste quality. (United States)

    Han, Yunxiu; Wang, Xiaodan; Cai, Yaoxuan; Li, Zhiyuan; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Hongmei; Jin, Jiahui; Cai, Yingming; Xu, Liping; Zhu, Lingtao


    A sensor array composed of ion electrodes including 2 glass electrodes, 3 liquid-membrane electrodes and 7 insoluble salt electrodes was built. Before detection, the working electrodes were activated as required in activate fluids, and the stability states of sensors were analyzed in deionized water. Beef samples were evaluated after all working electrodes stabilized. The response signals from the samples were recorded by an electrochemical workstation and used as the evaluation results. A beef taste sensory evaluation criterion was built and used into sensory evaluation of beef samples. The samples were scored with quality grades according to this criterion, and the results were compared with the results of the sensor array in evaluation of beef broth samples. The evaluation results were processed by principal component analysis and used to build a beef taste quality evaluation model based on artificial neural networks. Tests show this model has an accuracy of 90% in classification of beef taste quality grades. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Guided Lamb wave based 2-D spiral phased array for structural health monitoring of thin panel structures (United States)

    Yoo, Byungseok


    In almost all industries of mechanical, aerospace, and civil engineering fields, structural health monitoring (SHM) technology is essentially required for providing the reliable information of structural integrity of safety-critical structures, which can help reduce the risk of unexpected and sometimes catastrophic failures, and also offer cost-effective inspection and maintenance of the structures. State of the art SHM research on structural damage diagnosis is focused on developing global and real-time technologies to identify the existence, location, extent, and type of damage. In order to detect and monitor the structural damage in plate-like structures, SHM technology based on guided Lamb wave (GLW) interrogation is becoming more attractive due to its potential benefits such as large inspection area coverage in short time, simple inspection mechanism, and sensitivity to small damage. However, the GLW method has a few critical issues such as dispersion nature, mode conversion and separation, and multiple-mode existence. Phased array technique widely used in all aspects of civil, military, science, and medical industry fields may be employed to resolve the drawbacks of the GLW method. The GLW-based phased array approach is able to effectively examine and analyze complicated structural vibration responses in thin plate structures. Because the phased sensor array operates as a spatial filter for the GLW signals, the array signal processing method can enhance a desired signal component at a specific direction while eliminating other signal components from other directions. This dissertation presents the development, the experimental validation, and the damage detection applications of an innovative signal processing algorithm based on two-dimensional (2-D) spiral phased array in conjunction with the GLW interrogation technique. It starts with general backgrounds of SHM and the associated technology including the GLW interrogation method. Then, it is focused on the

  10. A Ground-Based Near Infrared Camera Array System for UAV Auto-Landing in GPS-Denied Environment. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Li, Guangpo; Li, Jing; Zhang, Yanning; Zhang, Xiaoqiang; Zhang, Zhuoyue; Li, Zhi


    This paper proposes a novel infrared camera array guidance system with capability to track and provide real time position and speed of a fixed-wing Unmanned air vehicle (UAV) during a landing process. The system mainly include three novel parts: (1) Infrared camera array and near infrared laser lamp based cooperative long range optical imaging module; (2) Large scale outdoor camera array calibration module; and (3) Laser marker detection and 3D tracking module. Extensive automatic landing experiments with fixed-wing flight demonstrate that our infrared camera array system has the unique ability to guide the UAV landing safely and accurately in real time. Moreover, the measurement and control distance of our system is more than 1000 m. The experimental results also demonstrate that our system can be used for UAV automatic accurate landing in Global Position System (GPS)-denied environments.

  11. A Ground-Based Near Infrared Camera Array System for UAV Auto-Landing in GPS-Denied Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Yang


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel infrared camera array guidance system with capability to track and provide real time position and speed of a fixed-wing Unmanned air vehicle (UAV during a landing process. The system mainly include three novel parts: (1 Infrared camera array and near infrared laser lamp based cooperative long range optical imaging module; (2 Large scale outdoor camera array calibration module; and (3 Laser marker detection and 3D tracking module. Extensive automatic landing experiments with fixed-wing flight demonstrate that our infrared camera array system has the unique ability to guide the UAV landing safely and accurately in real time. Moreover, the measurement and control distance of our system is more than 1000 m. The experimental results also demonstrate that our system can be used for UAV automatic accurate landing in Global Position System (GPS-denied environments.

  12. Design and fabrication of a flexible MEMS-based electromechanical sensor array for breast cancer diagnosis. (United States)

    Pandya, Hardik J; Park, Kihan; Desai, Jaydev P


    The use of flexible micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based device provides a unique opportunity in bio-medical robotics such as characterization of normal and malignant tissues. This paper reports on design and development of a flexible MEMS-based sensor array integrating mechanical and electrical sensors on the same platform to enable the study of the change in electro-mechanical properties of the benign and cancerous breast tissues. In this work, we present the analysis for the electrical characterization of the tissue specimens and also demonstrate the feasibility of using the sensor for mechanical characterization of the tissue specimens. Eight strain gauges acting as mechanical sensors were fabricated using poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) conducting polymer on poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) as the substrate material. Eight electrical sensors were fabricated using SU-8 pillars on gold (Au) pads which were patterned on the strain gauges separated by a thin insulator (SiO2 1.0μm). These pillars were coated with gold to make it conducting. The electromechanical sensors are integrated on the same substrate. The sensor array covers 180μm × 180μm area and the size of the complete device is 20mm in diameter. The diameter of each breast tissue core used in the present study was 1mm and the thickness was 8μm. The region of interest was 200μm × 200μm. Microindentation technique was used to characterize the mechanical properties of the breast tissues. The sensor is integrated with conducting SU-8 pillars to study the electrical property of the tissue. Through electro-mechanical characterization studies using this MEMS-based sensor, we were able to measure the accuracy of the fabricated device and ascertain the difference between benign and cancer breast tissue specimens.

  13. High power density capacitor and method of fabrication (United States)

    Tuncer, Enis


    A ductile preform for making a drawn capacitor includes a plurality of electrically insulating, ductile insulator plates and a plurality of electrically conductive, ductile capacitor plates. Each insulator plate is stacked vertically on a respective capacitor plate and each capacitor plate is stacked on a corresponding insulator plate in alignment with only one edge so that other edges are not in alignment and so that each insulator plate extends beyond the other edges. One or more electrically insulating, ductile spacers are disposed in horizontal alignment with each capacitor plate along the other edges and the pattern is repeated so that alternating capacitor plates are stacked on alternating opposite edges of the insulator plates. A final insulator plate is positioned at an extremity of the preform. The preform may then be drawn to fuse the components and decrease the dimensions of the preform that are perpendicular to the direction of the draw.

  14. Method of manufacturing a shapeable short-resistant capacitor (United States)

    Taylor, Ralph S.; Myers, John D.; Baney, William J.


    A method that employs a novel combination of conventional fabrication techniques provides a ceramic short-resistant capacitor that is bendable and/or shapeable to provide a multiple layer capacitor that is extremely compact and amenable to desirable geometries. The method allows thinner and more flexible ceramic capacitors to be made. The method includes forming a first thin metal layer on a substrate; depositing a thin, ceramic dielectric layer over the metal layer; depositing a second thin metal layer over the dielectric layer to form a capacitor exhibiting a benign failure mode; and separating the capacitor from the substrate. The method may also include bending the resulting capacitor into a serpentine arrangement with gaps between the layers that allow venting of evaporated electrode material in the event of a benign failure.

  15. 3D inkjet printed radio frequency inductors and capacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Vaseem, Mohammad


    Inkjet printing has emerged as an ideal method for the fabrication of low cost and efficient electronic systems. However, most of the printed designs at present utilize 2D inkjet printing of metallic inks on conventional substrates. In order to have fully printed RF components, the substrate must also be printed. 3D printing of polymers can be an ideal mechanism for printing substrates, however typically such materials cannot handle high sintering temperatures (>150 0C) required for nanoparticles based metallic inks. In this work, an all-inkjet printed process is demonstrated that utilizes 3D inkjet printing of a UV-cured dielectric material in combination with the printing of a particle free conductive silver organo-complex (SOC) ink for realization of inductors and capacitors. The processing temperature does not exceed 80 0C and still state of the art conductivity of 1×107 S/m is achieved. Both the conductive ink and dielectric have roughness values under 500 nm. The inductor and capacitor exhibit quality factors of 8 and 20 respectively in the high MHz and GHz regime.

  16. Optimal Value of Series Capacitors for Uniform Field Distribution in Transmission Line MRI Coils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhurbenko, Vitaliy


    Transmission lines are often used as coils in high field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Due to the distributed nature of transmission lines, coils based on them produce inhomogeneous field. This work investigates application of series capacitors to improve field homogeneity along the coil...

  17. Pre-charging of module capacitors of MMC when the module ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is based on cascade connection of multiple identical modules using IGBTs as switching devices. Module switches of MMC are preferably driven by a source derived from the modulecapacitor. In each MMC module, the control circuit, consisting of gate drivers, is powered from a dc supply derived from the local capacitor.

  18. Smart-phone based computational microscopy using multi-frame contact imaging on a fiber-optic array. (United States)

    Navruz, Isa; Coskun, Ahmet F; Wong, Justin; Mohammad, Saqib; Tseng, Derek; Nagi, Richie; Phillips, Stephen; Ozcan, Aydogan


    We demonstrate a cellphone based contact microscopy platform, termed Contact Scope, which can image highly dense or connected samples in transmission mode. Weighing approximately 76 grams, this portable and compact microscope is installed on the existing camera unit of a cellphone using an opto-mechanical add-on, where planar samples of interest are placed in contact with the top facet of a tapered fiber-optic array. This glass-based tapered fiber array has ~9 fold higher density of fiber optic cables on its top facet compared to the bottom one and is illuminated by an incoherent light source, e.g., a simple light-emitting-diode (LED). The transmitted light pattern through the object is then sampled by this array of fiber optic cables, delivering a transmission image of the sample onto the other side of the taper, with ~3× magnification in each direction. This magnified image of the object, located at the bottom facet of the fiber array, is then projected onto the CMOS image sensor of the cellphone using two lenses. While keeping the sample and the cellphone camera at a fixed position, the fiber-optic array is then manually rotated with discrete angular increments of e.g., 1-2 degrees. At each angular position of the fiber-optic array, contact images are captured using the cellphone camera, creating a sequence of transmission images for the same sample. These multi-frame images are digitally fused together based on a shift-and-add algorithm through a custom-developed Android application running on the smart-phone, providing the final microscopic image of the sample, visualized through the screen of the phone. This final computation step improves the resolution and also removes spatial artefacts that arise due to non-uniform sampling of the transmission intensity at the fiber optic array surface. We validated the performance of this cellphone based Contact Scope by imaging resolution test charts and blood smears.

  19. AoA-Based Local Positioning System Using a Time-Modulated Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Jin Baik


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an angle-of-arrival (AoA-based local positioning system using a time-modulated array (TMA. The proposed system can determine a two-dimensional position using only two TMAs without any synchronization between the two receivers. The hardware for the proposed system consists of two commercial monopole antennas, a self-designed switch, and a well-known software-defined radio receiver. Furthermore, the location can be simply estimated in real time without the need for complicated positioning algorithms such as the MUSIC and ESPRIT algorithms. In order to evaluate the performance of our system, we estimated the position of the wireless node in an office environment. The position was estimated with a mean error of less than 0.1 m. We therefore believe that our system is appropriate for various wireless local positioning applications.

  20. Underwater Target Direction of Arrival Estimation by Small Acoustic Sensor Array Based on Sparse Bayesian Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Wang


    Full Text Available Assuming independently but identically distributed sources, the traditional DOA (direction of arrival estimation method of underwater acoustic target normally has poor estimation performance and provides inaccurate estimation results. To solve this problem, a new high-accuracy DOA algorithm based on sparse Bayesian learning algorithm is proposed in terms of temporally correlated source vectors. In novel method, we regarded underwater acoustic source as a first-order auto-regressive process. And then we used the new algorithm of multi-vector SBL to reconstruct the signal spatial spectrum. Then we used the CS-MMV model to estimate the DOA. The experiment results have shown the novel algorithm has a higher spatial resolution and estimation accuracy than other DOA algorithms in the cases of less array element space and less snapshots.

  1. Nine-channel mid-power bipolar pulse generator based on a field programmable gate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haylock, Ben, E-mail:; Lenzini, Francesco; Kasture, Sachin; Fisher, Paul; Lobino, Mirko [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Queensland Micro and Nanotechnology Centre, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Streed, Erik W. [Centre for Quantum Dynamics, Griffith University, Brisbane (Australia); Institute for Glycomics, Griffith University, Gold Coast (Australia)


    Many channel arbitrary pulse sequence generation is required for the electro-optic reconfiguration of optical waveguide networks in Lithium Niobate. Here we describe a scalable solution to the requirement for mid-power bipolar parallel outputs, based on pulse patterns generated by an externally clocked field programmable gate array. Positive and negative pulses can be generated at repetition rates up to 80 MHz with pulse width adjustable in increments of 1.6 ns across nine independent outputs. Each channel can provide 1.5 W of RF power and can be synchronised with the operation of other components in an optical network such as light sources and detectors through an external clock with adjustable delay.

  2. ZnO nanorods array based field-effect transistor biosensor for phosphate detection. (United States)

    Ahmad, Rafiq; Ahn, Min-Sang; Hahn, Yoon-Bong


    A promising field-effect transistor (FET) biosensor has been fabricated based on pyruvate oxidase (PyO) functionalized ZnO nanorods (ZnO NRs) array grown on seeded SiO 2 /Si substrate. The direct and vertically grown ZnO NRs on the seeded SiO 2 /Si substrate offers high surface area for enhanced PyO immobilization, which further helps to detect phosphate with higher specificity. Under optimum conditions, the fabricated FET biosensor provided a convenient method for phosphate detection with high sensitivity (80.57μAmM -1 cm -2 ) in a wide-linear range (0.1µM-7.0mM). Additionally, it also showed very low effect of electroactive species, stability and good reproducibility. Encouraging results suggest that this approach presents a promising method to be used for field measurements to detect phosphate. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Pinning cluster synchronization in an array of coupled neural networks under event-based mechanism. (United States)

    Li, Lulu; Ho, Daniel W C; Cao, Jinde; Lu, Jianquan


    Cluster synchronization is a typical collective behavior in coupled dynamical systems, where the synchronization occurs within one group, while there is no synchronization among different groups. In this paper, under event-based mechanism, pinning cluster synchronization in an array of coupled neural networks is studied. A new event-triggered sampled-data transmission strategy, where only local and event-triggering states are utilized to update the broadcasting state of each agent, is proposed to realize cluster synchronization of the coupled neural networks. Furthermore, a self-triggered pinning cluster synchronization algorithm is proposed, and a set of iterative procedures is given to compute the event-triggered time instants. Hence, this will reduce the computational load significantly. Finally, an example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Carbazole-based organogel as a scaffold to construct energy transfer arrays with controllable fluorescence emission. (United States)

    Yang, Xinchun; Lu, Ran; Xue, Pengchong; Li, Bin; Xu, Defang; Xu, Tinghua; Zhao, Yingying


    A diaryldiketopyrrolopyrrole derivative functionalized with phenothiazine moieties (DPPP) was synthesized and introduced into the ordered 4-(3,6-di-tert-butyl-9H-carbazol-9-yl)benzamide (TBCB) organogel system. It was found that TBCB-based gel became a scaffold to make DPPP molecules line up along the gel fibers, resulting in new self-assembled arrays, whose XRD patterns were quite different from those of the neat TBCB gel and DPPP crystal. In the composite gel, the occurrence of a partial energy transfer from the excited light-harvesting antenna of TBCB to the DPPP acceptor was confirmed on the basis of time-dependent and time-resolved fluorescence investigations. Remarkably, the composite gel could emit intense red light or purplish white light by tuning the excitation wavelength. Such ordered soft materials with color-tunable emission may possess potential applications in sensor and photonic devices.

  5. A Steel Ball Surface Quality Inspection Method Based on a Circumferential Eddy Current Array Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huayu Zhang


    Full Text Available To efficiently inspect surface defects on steel ball bearings, a new method based on a circumferential eddy current array (CECA sensor was proposed here. The best probe configuration, in terms of the coil quality factor (Q-factor, magnetic field intensity, and induced eddy current density on the surface of a sample steel ball, was determined using 3-, 4-, 5-, and 6-coil probes, for analysis and comparison. The optimal lift-off from the measured steel ball, the number of probe coils, and the frequency of excitation current suitable for steel ball inspection were obtained. Using the resulting CECA sensor to inspect 46,126 steel balls showed a miss rate of ~0.02%. The sensor was inspected for surface defects as small as 0.05 mm in width and 0.1 mm in depth.

  6. Characterization and Optimization Design of the Polymer-based Capacitive Micro-arrayed Ultrasonic Transducer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Yi CHIOU


    Full Text Available The polymer-based capacitive micro-arrayed ultrasonic transducers have been investigated using the finite element analysis. The ANSYS Multiphysics solver with sequential approach and the physics environment files are applied for the solution of the electrostatic-structural coupled-field problem. A 2-D electromechanical model is established to characterize the collapse voltage and the resonant frequency of the P-CMUT. Both the numerical and experimental results were in good agreement. An integrated multi-objective design method involving electrical and mechanical characterization was developed to optimize the geometric parameters of the P-CMUT. The optimization search routine conducted using the genetic algorithm (GA is connected with the ANSYS model to obtain the best design variable. The optimal results show that the proposed approach provides another efficient and versatile numerical tool for multi-objective design and optimization of the P-CMUT.

  7. Hybrid-array-based optoacoustic and ultrasound (OPUS) imaging of biological tissues (United States)

    Deán-Ben, X. L.; Merčep, E.; Razansky, D.


    Hybrid optoacoustic and pulse-echo ultrasound imaging is an attractive multi-modal combination owing to the highly complementary contrast of the two techniques. Efficient hybridization is often hampered by significant dissimilarities between their optimal data acquisition and image formation strategies. Herein, we introduce an approach for combined optoacoustic and ultrasound imaging based on a plano-concave detector array design with a non-uniform pitch distribution. The hybrid design optimized for both modalities allows for maintaining an extended field of view for efficient ultrasound navigation while simultaneously providing broad tomographic coverage for optimal optoacoustic imaging performance. Imaging sessions performed in tissue-mimicking phantoms and healthy volunteers demonstrate that the suggested approach renders an enhanced imaging performance as compared with the previously reported hybrid optoacoustic and ultrasound imaging approaches. Thus, it can greatly facilitate clinical translation of the optoacoustic imaging technology by means of its efficient combination with ultrasonography, a well-established clinical imaging modality.

  8. Flexible Piezoelectric Tactile Sensor Array for Dynamic Three-Axis Force Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Yu


    Full Text Available A new flexible piezoelectric tactile sensor array based on polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF film is proposed for measuring three-axis dynamic contact force distribution. The array consists of six tactile units arranged as a 3 × 2 matrix with spacing 8 mm between neighbor units. In each unit, a PVDF film is sandwiched between four square-shaped upper electrodes and one square-shaped lower electrode, forming four piezoelectric capacitors. A truncated pyramid bump is located above the four piezoelectric capacitors to improve force transmission. A three-axis contact force transmitted from the top of the bump will lead to the four piezoelectric capacitors underneath undergoing different charge changes, from which the normal and shear components of the force can be calculated. A series of dynamic tests have been carried out by exerting sinusoidal forces with amplitudes ranging from 0 to 0.5 N in the x-axis, 0 to 0.5 N in the y-axis, and 0 to 1.5 N in the z-axis, separately. The tactile units show good sensitivities with 14.93, 14.92, and 6.62 pC/N in the x-, y-, and z-axes, respectively. They can work with good linearity, relatively low coupling effect, high repeatability, and acceptable frequency response in the range of 5–400 Hz to both normal and shear load. In addition, dynamic three-axis force measurement has been conducted for all of the tactile units. The average errors between the applied and calculated forces are 10.68% ± 6.84%. Furthermore, the sensor array can be easily integrated onto a curved surface, such as robotic and prosthetic hands, due to its excellent flexibility.

  9. MOSFET and MOS capacitor responses to ionizing radiation (United States)

    Benedetto, J. M.; Boesch, H. E., Jr.


    The ionizing radiation responses of metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) field-effect transistors (FETs) and MOS capacitors are compared. It is shown that the radiation-induced threshold voltage shift correlates closely with the shift in the MOS capacitor inversion voltage. The radiation-induced interface-state density of the MOSFETs and MOS capacitors was determined by several techniques. It is shown that the presence of 'slow' states can interfere with the interface-state measurements.

  10. Characterization of Nonlinear Integrated Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Kolka


    Full Text Available The paper deals with a modified CBCM (Charge-Based Capacitance Measurements method for nonlinear capacitance characterization. The method is characterized by high resolution although it is based on equipment found in any average laboratory. CBCM was originally developed for linear interconnect measurements. The proposed modification uses two DC swept sources to measure the whole nonlinear Q-v characteristic in both polarities without the necessity to switch the measured object. A test-chip implementing the method was designed and manufactured in the 0.35μm CMOS process. Verifica- tion against known capacitances proved the correctness and accuracy of the method. It was successfully used for MOSCAPs characterization.

  11. Nano-based chemical sensor array systems for uninhabited ground and airborne vehicles (United States)

    Brantley, Christina; Ruffin, Paul B.; Edwards, Eugene


    In a time when homemade explosive devices are being used against soldiers and in the homeland security environment, it is becoming increasingly evident that there is an urgent need for high-tech chemical sensor packages to be mounted aboard ground and air vehicles to aid soldiers in determining the location of explosive devices and the origin of bio-chemical warfare agents associated with terrorist activities from a safe distance. Current technologies utilize relatively large handheld detection systems that are housed on sizeable robotic vehicles. Research and development efforts are underway at the Army Aviation & Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) to develop novel and less expensive nano-based chemical sensors for detecting explosives and chemical agents used against the soldier. More specifically, an array of chemical sensors integrated with an electronics control module on a flexible substrate that can conform to and be surface-mounted to manned or unmanned vehicles to detect harmful species from bio-chemical warfare and other explosive devices is being developed. The sensor system under development is a voltammetry-based sensor system capable of aiding in the detection of any chemical agent and in the optimization of sensor microarray geometry to provide nonlinear Fourier algorithms to characterize target area background (e.g., footprint areas). The status of the research project is reviewed in this paper. Critical technical challenges associated with achieving system cost, size, and performance requirements are discussed. The results obtained from field tests using an unmanned remote controlled vehicle that houses a CO2/chemical sensor, which detects harmful chemical agents and wirelessly transmits warning signals back to the warfighter, are presented. Finally, the technical barriers associated with employing the sensor array system aboard small air vehicles will be discussed.

  12. Application of array-based comparative genomic hybridization in clinical research of multiple malformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-qin YOU


    Full Text Available Objective  To analyze the molecular genetics changes of multiple malformations using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH, and evaluate the value of this technique in routine chromosomal karyotype analysis. Methods  Thirty one cases were studied of fetal multiple malformations collected by ultrasound examination from Feb. 2012 to May 2015 in General Hospital of Chinese PLA. The age of gravida ranged from 20 to 37, the gestational time ranged from 21 to 27 weeks. Samples of amniotic fluid and umbilical cord blood were collected, and chromosomal karyotype analysis and aCGH were carried out. Results  All of 31 samples were successfully detected by G-band chromosomal karyotype analysis and aCGH. Among karyotype analysis, 4 samples failed of cultivation, and 1 showed no karyokinesis. Among 26 cases of successful cultivation, 3 were with abnormal karyotype leading to a abnormality rate of 11.54% (3/26. In the aCGH analysis, the chromosomal polymorphism with no pathogenicity of microdeletion and microduplication were detected in 21 cases; 6 cases showed abnormal and the abnormality rate was 19.35% (6/31. Conclusions  Array-based comparative genomic hybridization technique has the advantages of high resolution and wide coverage, may not only make up for the defect of unable to do karyotyping since failed cultivation or lacking cell vigor, but also reveal the microdeletion and microduplication at submicrostructure level, which is favorable for understanding the reason and providing the evidence of fetal malformation. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.09.10

  13. Capturing power at higher voltages from arrays of microbial fuel cells without voltage reversal

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy


    Voltages produced by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) cannot be sustainably increased by linking them in series due to voltage reversal, which substantially reduces stack voltages. It was shown here that MFC voltages can be increased with continuous power production using an electronic circuit containing two sets of multiple capacitors that were alternately charged and discharged (every one second). Capacitors were charged in parallel by the MFCs, but linked in series while discharging to the circuit load (resistor). The parallel charging of the capacitors avoided voltage reversal, while discharging the capacitors in series produced up to 2.5 V with four capacitors. There were negligible energy losses in the circuit compared to 20-40% losses typically obtained with MFCs using DC-DC converters to increase voltage. Coulombic efficiencies were 67% when power was generated via four capacitors, compared to only 38% when individual MFCs were operated with a fixed resistance of 250 Ω. The maximum power produced using the capacitors was not adversely affected by variable performance of the MFCs, showing that power generation can be maintained even if individual MFCs perform differently. Longer capacitor charging and discharging cycles of up to 4 min maintained the average power but increased peak power by up to 2.6 times. These results show that capacitors can be used to easily obtain higher voltages from MFCs, allowing for more useful capture of energy from arrays of MFCs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. A Ferroelectric Ceramic/Polymer Composite-Based Capacitive Electrode Array for In Vivo Recordings. (United States)

    Chen, Changyong; Xue, Miaomiao; Wen, Yige; Yao, Guang; Cui, Yan; Liao, Feiyi; Yan, Zhuocheng; Huang, Long; Khan, Saeed Ahmed; Gao, Min; Pan, Taisong; Zhang, Hulin; Jing, Wei; Guo, Daqing; Zhang, Sanfeng; Yao, Hailiang; Zhou, Xiong; Li, Qiang; Xia, Yang; Lin, Yuan


    A new implantable capacitive electrode array for electrocorticography signal recording is developed with ferroelectric ceramic/polymer composite. This ultrathin and electrically safe capacitive electrode array is capable of attaching to the biological tissue conformably. The barium titanate/polyimide (BaTiO3 /PI) nanocomposite with high dielectric constant is successfully synthesized and employed as the ultrathin dielectric layer of the capacitive BaTiO3 /PI electrode array. The performance of the capacitive BaTiO3 /PI electrode array is evaluated by electrical characterization and 3D finite-element modeling. In vivo, neural experiments on the visual cortex of rats show the reliability of the capacitive BaTiO3 /PI electrode array. This work shows the potentials of capacitive BaTiO3 /PI electrode array in the field of brain/computer interfaces. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Embedded Capacitors in Printed Wiring Board: A Technological Review (United States)

    Alam, Mohammed A.; Azarian, Michael H.; Pecht, Michael G.


    This paper reviews the technology of embedded capacitors, which has gained importance with an increase in the operating frequency and a decrease in the supply voltage of electronic circuits. These capacitors have been found to reduce the number of surface-mount capacitors, which can assist in the miniaturization of printed wiring boards. This paper describes various aspects of embedded capacitors, such as electrical performance, available dielectric materials, manufacturing processes, and reliability. Improvement in electrical performance is explained using a cavity model from the theory of microstrip antennas. The advantages and disadvantages of dielectric materials such as polymers, ceramics, polymer-ceramic composites, and polymer-conductive filler composites are discussed. Various manufacturing techniques that can be used for the fabrication of embedded capacitors are also discussed. Embedded capacitors have many advantages, but failure of an embedded capacitor can lead to board failure since these capacitors are not reworkable. The effect of various environmental stress conditions on the reliability of embedded capacitors is reviewed.

  16. Aging Methodologies and Prognostic Health Management for Electrolytic Capacitors (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Understanding the ageing mechanisms of electronic components critical avionics systems such as the GPS and INAV are of critical importance. Electrolytic capacitors...

  17. Accelerated Aging Experiments for Capacitor Health Monitoring and Prognostics (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This paper discusses experimental setups for health monitoring and prognostics of electrolytic capacitors under nominal operation and accelerated aging conditions....

  18. Assessing copy number from exome sequencing and exome array CGH based on CNV spectrum in a large clinical cohort. (United States)

    Retterer, Kyle; Scuffins, Julie; Schmidt, Daniel; Lewis, Rachel; Pineda-Alvarez, Daniel; Stafford, Amanda; Schmidt, Lindsay; Warren, Stephanie; Gibellini, Federica; Kondakova, Anastasia; Blair, Amanda; Bale, Sherri; Matyakhina, Ludmila; Meck, Jeanne; Aradhya, Swaroop; Haverfield, Eden


    Detection of copy-number variation (CNV) is important for investigating many genetic disorders. Testing a large clinical cohort by array comparative genomic hybridization provides a deep perspective on the spectrum of pathogenic CNV. In this context, we describe a bioinformatics approach to extract CNV information from whole-exome sequencing and demonstrate its utility in clinical testing. Exon-focused arrays and whole-genome chromosomal microarray analysis were used to test 14,228 and 14,000 individuals, respectively. Based on these results, we developed an algorithm to detect deletions/duplications in whole-exome sequencing data and a novel whole-exome array. In the exon array cohort, we observed a positive detection rate of 2.4% (25 duplications, 318 deletions), of which 39% involved one or two exons. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified 3,345 CNVs affecting single genes (18%). We demonstrate that our whole-exome sequencing algorithm resolves CNVs of three or more exons. These results demonstrate the clinical utility of single-exon resolution in CNV assays. Our whole-exome sequencing algorithm approaches this resolution but is complemented by a whole-exome array to unambiguously identify intragenic CNVs and single-exon changes. These data illustrate the next advancements in CNV analysis through whole-exome sequencing and whole-exome array.Genet Med 17 8, 623-629.

  19. Piezoelectric-paint-based two-dimensional phased sensor arrays for structural health monitoring of thin panels (United States)

    Yoo, B.; Purekar, A. S.; Zhang, Y.; Pines, D. J.


    A damage detection method based on an innovative 2D phased sensor array made of piezoelectric paint is proposed for in situ damage detection of a thin isotropic panel using guided Lamb waves. A design analysis of candidate 2D arrays based on spiral, cruciform and circular element layouts is performed. In this study, a 2D phased sensor array with a spiral configuration is fabricated using a piezoelectric composite (piezopaint) patch and used for detecting damages in an aluminum panel. Steered array responses are generated from the raw sensor signals using a directional filtering algorithm based on phased array signal processing. The fundamental flexural (or transverse), A0 mode, of the guided Lamb waves is used though the sensing and analysis technique is not limited to the mode used in this work. To enhance the proposed analysis technique, empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and a Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) are applied. A new damage detection algorithm including threshold setting and damage index (DI) calculation is developed and implemented for detecting damages in the form of holes and a simulated crack. The characteristic damage indices consistently increase as damage size grows.

  20. DOA and Polarization Estimation Using an Electromagnetic Vector Sensor Uniform Circular Array Based on the ESPRIT Algorithm. (United States)

    Wu, Na; Qu, Zhiyu; Si, Weijian; Jiao, Shuhong


    In array signal processing systems, the direction of arrival (DOA) and polarization of signals based on uniform linear or rectangular sensor arrays are generally obtained by rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT). However, since the ESPRIT algorithm relies on the rotational invariant structure of the received data, it cannot be applied to electromagnetic vector sensor arrays (EVSAs) featuring uniform circular patterns. To overcome this limitation, a fourth-order cumulant-based ESPRIT algorithm is proposed in this paper, for joint estimation of DOA and polarization based on a uniform circular EVSA. The proposed algorithm utilizes the fourth-order cumulant to obtain a virtual extended array of a uniform circular EVSA, from which the pairs of rotation invariant sub-arrays are obtained. The ESPRIT algorithm and parameter pair matching are then utilized to estimate the DOA and polarization of the incident signals. The closed-form parameter estimation algorithm can effectively reduce the computational complexity of the joint estimation, which has been demonstrated by numerical simulations.