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Sample records for cap alpha deuterium

  1. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

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    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  2. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

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    Nelson, W.D. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  3. Increased 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in idiopathic hirsutism

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    Serafini, P.; Lobo, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    In vitro, genital skin 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity (5..cap alpha..-RA) was measured in ten hirsute women with normal androgen levels (idiopathic hirsutism (IH)) and in ten hirsute women with elevated androgen levels (polycystic ovary syndrome (PCO)) in order to determine the influence of secreted androgens on 5..cap alpha..-RA. In vitro 5..cap alpha..-RA was assessed by incubations of skin with /sup 14/C-testosterone (T) for 2 hours, after which steroids were separated and the radioactivity of dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and 5..cap alpha..-androstane 3..cap alpha..-17..beta..-estradiol (3..cap alpha..-diol) in specific eluates were determined. All androgens were normal in IH with the exception of higher levels of 3..cap alpha..-diol glucuronide which were similar to the levels of PCO. The conversion ratio (CR) of T to DHT in IH and PCO were similar, yet significantly greater than the CR of control subjects. The CR of T to 3..cap alpha..-diol in IH and PCO were similar, yet higher than in control subjects. Serum androgens showed no correlation with 5..cap alpha..-RA, while the CR of T to DHT showed a significant positive correlation with the Ferriman and Gallwey score. The increased 5..cap alpha..-RA in IH appears to be independent of serum androgen levels and is, therefore, an inherent abnormality. The term idiopathic is a misnomer, because hirsutism in these patients may be explained on the basis of increased skin 5..cap alpha..-RA.

  4. Neutron transition multipole moment for /sup 88/Sr(. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. ')/sup 88/Sr (2/sup +/, 1. 84 MeV)

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    Datta, S.K.; Ray, S.; Majumdar, H.; Ghosh, S.K.; Samanta, C.; Dasgupta, P.; Chintalapudi, S.N.; Banerjee, S.R.

    1989-04-01

    The neutron transition multipole moment, M/sub n/, for (0/sup +/..-->..2/sup +/, 1.84 MeV) transition is inferred by measuring the (..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..') angular distribution at E/sub ..cap alpha../ = 50 MeV and comparing it with a microscopic distorted-wave Born approximation calculation. Proton transition densities are taken from electron scattering data. M/sub n//M/sub p/ is found to be substantially less than N/Z in agreement with the (p,p') result.

  5. Functional unfolding of alpha1-antitrypsin probed by hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Je-Hyun; Yang, Won Suk; Lee, Cheolju; Yu, Myeong-Hee

    2009-05-01

    The native state of alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha(1)AT), a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) family, is considered a kinetically trapped folding intermediate that converts to a more stable form upon complex formation with a target protease. Although previous structural and mutational studies of alpha(1)AT revealed the structural basis of the native strain and the kinetic trap, the mechanism of how the native molecule overcomes the kinetic barrier to reach the final stable conformation during complex formation remains unknown. We hypothesized that during complex formation, a substantial portion of the molecule undergoes unfolding, which we dubbed functional unfolding. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange coupled with ESI-MS was used to analyze this serpin in three forms: native, complexing, and complexed with bovine beta-trypsin. Comparing the deuterium content at the corresponding regions of these three samples, we probed the unfolding of alpha(1)AT during complex formation. A substantial portion of the alpha(1)AT molecule unfolded transiently during complex formation, including not only the regions expected from previous structural studies, such as the reactive site loop, helix F, and the following loop, but also regions not predicted previously, such as helix A, strand 6 of beta-sheet B, and the N terminus. Such unfolding of the native interactions may elevate the free energy level of the kinetically trapped native serpin sufficiently to cross the transition state during complex formation. In the current study, we provide evidence that protein unfolding has to accompany functional execution of the protein molecule.

  6. Increased concentration of. cap alpha. - and. gamma. -endorphin in post mortem hypothalamic tissue of schizophrenic patients

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    Wiegant, V.M.; Verhoef, C.J.; Burbach, J.P.H.; de Wied, D.

    1988-01-01

    The concentrations of ..cap alpha..-, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-endorphin were determined by radioimmunoassay in HPLC fractionated extracts of post mortem hypothalamic tissue obtained from schizophrenic patients and controls. The hypothalamic concentration of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphin was significantly higher in patients than in controls. No difference was found in the concentration of ..beta..-endorphin, the putative precursor of ..cap alpha..- and ..gamma..-endorphins. These results suggest a deviant metabolism of ..beta..-endorphin in the brain of schizophrenic patients. Whether this phenomenon is related to the psychopathology, or is a consequence of ante mortem farmacotherapy, remains to be established.

  7. Introduction of the human pro. cap alpha. 1(I) collagen gene into pro. cap alpha. 1(I)-deficient Mov-13 mouse cells leads to formation of functional mouse-human hybrid type I collagen

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    Schnieke, A.; Dziadek, M.; Bateman, J.; Mascara, T.; Harbers, K.; Gelinas, R.; Jaenisch, R.

    1987-02-01

    The Mov-13 mouse strain carries a retroviral insertion in the pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene that prevents transcription of the gene. Cell lines derived from homozygous embryos do not express type I collagen although normal amounts of pro..cap alpha..2 mRNA are synthesized. The authors have introduced genomic clones of either the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) collagen gene into homozygous cell lines to assess whether the human or mouse pro..cap alpha..1(I) chains can associate with the endogenous mouse pro..cap alpha..2(I) chain to form stable type I collagen. The human gene under control of the simian virus 40 promoter was efficiently transcribed in the transfected cells. Protein analyses revealed that stable heterotrimers consisting of two human ..cap alpha..1 chains and one mouse ..cap alpha..2 chain were formed and that type I collagen was secreted by the transfected cells at normal rates. However, the electrophoretic migration of both ..cap alpha..1(I) and ..cap alpha..2(I) chains in the human-mouse hybrid molecules were retarded, compared to the ..cap alpha..(I) chains in control mouse cells. Inhibition of the posttranslational hydroxylation of lysine and proline resulted in comigration of human and mouse ..cap alpha..1 and ..cap alpha..2 chains, suggesting that increased posttranslational modification caused the altered electrophoretic migration in the human-mouse hybrid molecules. Amino acid sequence differences between the mouse and human ..cap alpha.. chains may interfere with the normal rate of helix formation and increase the degree of posttranslational modifications similar to those observed in patients with lethal perinatal osteogenesis imperfecta. The Mov-13 mouse system should allow the authors to study the effect specific mutations introduced in transfected pro..cap alpha..1(I) genes have on the synthesis, assembly, and function of collagen I.

  8. Identification and subcellular localization of a 21-kilodalton molecule using affinity-purified antibodies against. cap alpha. -transforming growth factor

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    Hazarika, P.; Pardue, R.L.; Earls, R.; Dedman, J.R.

    1987-04-07

    Monospecific antibodies were generated against each of six different peptide sequences derived from rat and human ..cap alpha..-transforming growth factor (..cap alpha..-TGF). The affinity-purified antibody to the 17 amino acid carboxyl-terminal portion of the molecule proved most useful in detecting ..cap alpha..-TGF. When used in a peptide-based radioimmunoassay, it was possible to measure nanogram quantities of native ..cap alpha..-TGF in conditioned cell culture media. When used to analyze cell lysate, these antibodies specifically recognized a 21-kilodalton protein species. Indirect immunofluorescence localization procedures revealed a high concentration of ..cap alpha..-TCF in a perinuclear ring with a diffuse cytoplasmic distribution. These results suggest that a precursor form of ..cap alpha..-TGF has a cellular role beyond that of an autocrine growth factor.

  9. Mapping of the mouse actin capping protein {alpha} subunit genes and pseudogenes

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    Hart, M.C.; Korshunova, Y.O.; Cooper, J.A. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Capping protein (CP), a heterodimer of {alpha} and {beta} subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three {alpha} isoforms ({alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}3) produced from different genes, whereas lower organisms have only one gene and one isoform. We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the a subunits of mouse CP and found three {alpha}1 genes, two of which are pseudogenes, and a single gene for both {alpha}2 and {alpha}3. Their chromosomal locations were identified by interspecies backcross mapping. The {alpha}1 gene (Cappa1) mapped to Chromosome 3 between D3Mit11 and D3Mit13. The {alpha}1 pseudogenes (Cappa1-ps1 and Cappa1-ps2) mapped to Chromosomes 1 and 9, respectively. The {alpha}2 gene (Cappa2) mapped to Chromosome 6 near Ptn. The {alpha}3 gene (Cappa3) also mapped to Chromosome 6, approximately 68 cM distal from Cappa2 near Kras2. One mouse mutation, de, maps in the vicinity of the {alpha}1 gene. No known mouse mutations map to regions near the {alpha}2 or {alpha}3 genes. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. lambda. -. cap alpha. interaction and structure of hypernucleus /sub. lambda. //sup 13/C

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    Kong Lingjiang; Mo Dungoug; Liu Xianhui

    1985-02-01

    Using the phenemenological ..lambda..-..cap alpha.. interaction potential and ..cap alpha..-independent particle model of core nucleus /sup 12/C, the energies of the ground state and the first excited state of hypernucleus /sub ..lambda..//sup 13/C are calculated in the frame of resonance group method. Similarly using the empirical ..lambda..-N potential and the single particle shell model, the spectra of /sub ..lambda..//sub 13/C are calculated. Then the structure of /sub ..lambda..//sup 13/C is analyzed and discussed.

  11. Nickel doping effect on resistance to movement of edge dislocations in. cap alpha. -Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brovkov, V.A.; Dudarev, E.F. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Sibirskij Fiziko-Tekhnicheskij Inst.)

    1984-03-01

    Microplastic deformation of ..cap alpha..-Fe polycrystals and Fe-Ni solid solutions is studied. Data on the concentration and temperature dependences of resistance to movement of edge dislocation at the expense of elastic interaction with atoms of the doping element are obtained.

  12. Phosphoinositide binding regulates alpha-actinin CH2 domain structure: analysis by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Full, Stephen J; Deinzer, Max L; Ho, P Shing; Greenwood, Jeffrey A

    2007-12-01

    alpha-Actinin is an actin bundling protein that regulates cell adhesion by directly linking actin filaments to integrin adhesion receptors. Phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-diphosphate (PtdIns (4,5)-P(2)) and phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate (PtdIns (3,4,5)-P(3)) bind to the calponin homology 2 domain of alpha-actinin, regulating its interactions with actin filaments and integrin receptors. In this study, we examine the mechanism by which phosphoinositide binding regulates alpha-actinin function using mass spectrometry to monitor hydrogen-deuterium (H/D) exchange within the calponin homology 2 domain. The overall level of H/D exchange for the entire protein showed that PtdIns (3,4,5)-P(3) binding alters the structure of the calponin homology 2 domain increasing deuterium incorporation, whereas PtdIns (4,5)-P(2) induces changes in the structure decreasing deuterium incorporation. Analysis of peptic fragments from the calponin homology 2 domain showed decreased local H/D exchange within the loop region preceding helix F with both phosphoinositides. However, the binding of PtdIns (3,4,5)-P(3) also induced increased exchange within helix E. This suggests that the phosphate groups on the fourth and fifth position of the inositol head group of the phosphoinositides constrict the calponin homology 2 domain, thereby altering the orientation of actin binding sequence 3 and decreasing the affinity of alpha-actinin for filamentous actin. In contrast, the phosphate group on the third position of the inositol head group of PtdIns (3,4,5)-P(3) perturbs the calponin homology 2 domain, altering the interaction between the N and C terminus of the full-length alpha-actinin antiparallel homodimer, thereby disrupting bundling activity and interaction with integrin receptors.

  13. Reconstruction of spin-tensor of 4. 43 MeV state density matrix of the /sup 12/C nucleus in the /sup 12/C(. cap alpha. ,. cap alpha. sub(1). gamma. sub(4,43))/sup 12/C reaction at Esub(. cap alpha. )=25 MeV

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    Gurevich, G.S.; Lebedev, V.M.; Orlova, N.V.; Spasskij, A.V.; Teplov, I.B.; Shakhvorostova, G.V.; Belkina, M.R. (Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Yadernoj Fiziki)

    1984-01-01

    The results of measuring double differential cross sections of the reaction of inelastic scattering 24.8 MeV ..cap alpha..-particles sup(12)C(..cap alpha.., ..cap alpha..sub(1)..gamma..sub(4.43))sup(12)C in different planes of ..gamma..-quantum escape relatively to the plane of the reaction phisub(..gamma..)=30, 60 and 90 deg are presented. Non-monochromaticity of the beam made up 1%. Functions of angular correlation of the reaction are measured for four angles THETAsub(..cap alpha..)=21, 39, 59 and 135 deg corresponding to maxima of differential cross section in angular distribution of inelastically scattered ..cap alpha..-particles and for THETAsub(..cap alpha..)=89 deg corresponding to the minimum of angular distribution. The results of measurements permit to reconstruct all the components of irreducible spin-tensors of the matrix of state density 4.43 MeV (2/sup +/) formed in this reaction. The values of populations of substates by the projection of the spin of this state are obtained. The analysis of the obtained results testify to the fact that mechanism of inelastic scattering is not reduced to impulse approximation and mechanisms associated with delay in interaction do not make noticeable contribution for the given angles of ..cap alpha..-particle escape.

  14. Role of DNA polymerase. cap alpha. in chromosomal aberration production by ionizing radiation

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    Bender, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    Aphidicolin is a tetracyclic diterpinoid fungal antibiotic which inhibits DNA synthesis in eukaryotic cells by interfering specifically with DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.., apparently by binding to and inactivating the DNA-polymerase ..cap alpha.. complex. We have shown that aphidicolin, like other inhibitors of DNA synthesis, both induces chromosomal aberrations in human peripheral lymphocytes, and, as a post-treatment, interacts synergistically with x rays to produce greatly enhanced aberration yields. The present experiments explore the effects of aphidicolin in human lymphocytes in the post-DNA-synthetic G/sub 2/ phase of the cell cycle. These experiments utilized labeling with tritiated thymidine to positively identify cells in the S phase at the time of treatment, and used serial colcemid collections and fixations to determine aberration yields over as much of the G/sub 2/ phase as feasible. Because DNA polymerase ..cap alpha.. is the only DNA synthetic or repair enzyme known to be affected by aphidicolin, we infer that this enzyme is directly involved in the repair of DNA lesions which can result in visible chromosomal aberrations. (DT)

  15. Accumulation of glycation products in. cap alpha. -H pig lens crystallin and its bearing to diabetic cataract genesis

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    Vidal, P.; Cabezas-Cerrato, J.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of /sup 11/C-glucose in native pig crystalline by in vitro incubation was found, after subsequent dialysis, to affect all 5 classes of crystallin separated by Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Though the radioactivity of the ..cap alpha..-H fraction was three times greater than that of any of the others, autoradiographs of SDS-PAGE gels showed /sup 11/C-glucose adducts to be present in all soluble protein subunits, without there being any evidence of preferential glycation of the ..cap alpha..-H subunits. The concentration of stable glycation products in the ..cap alpha..-H chromatographic fraction of soluble crystallins is suggested to be due the addition of glycated material to this fraction as result of glycation-induced hyperaggregation, and not because the ..cap alpha..-H subunits were especially susceptible to glycation.

  16. Pressor effect for ethanol and absence of its. cap alpha. -blocking activity in the SHR

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    Abdel-Rahman, A.R.A.; Iams, S.G.; Wooles, V.R.

    1986-03-01

    In a previous study the authors have suggested ethanol (ETOH) has an ..cap alpha..-blocking activity in anesthetized Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. The present investigation shows that ETOH (1 g/Kg, i.v.) has a pressor and tachycardic effect in SHR, SD and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. However, quantitative differences existed between ..delta.. MAP, but not ..delta.. HR, among the 3 strains; the biggest rise occurred in the SHR and the least in SD. It is not yet clear whether the significantly higher MAP in the SHR contributes to the significantly larger ..delta.. MAP in response to ETOH. Nonetheless, MAP was similar in WKY and SD in spite of a larger ..delta.. MAP after ETOH in the former. Furthermore, both SD and WKY rats showed a significant and parallel rightward shift of the phenylephrine (PE) pressor response curve after ETOH (more in SD than WKY) suggesting an ..cap alpha..-blocking activity for ethanol and confirming their previous findings in SD rats. This suggestion was further supported by the absence of any shift in the angiotensin II (AII) dose-response curves. On the other hand, neither PE nor AII pressor responsiveness was influenced by ETOH in the SHR suggesting an absence of ..cap alpha..-blocking activity for ETOH in this strain. Finally, no change occurred in the baroreflex control of HR in SHR as compared to an impairment of this function in WKY and SD rats. This may relate at least in part, to the already depressed baroreflex function in the SHR.

  17. Very low levels of 6-keto-prostaglandin F /sub 1//sub. cap alpha. / in human plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siess, W.; Dray, F.

    1982-03-01

    Two stable derivatives of PGI/sub 2/, its nonenzymatic hydrolysis product (6-keto-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../) and an enzymatic metabolite (6, 15-diketo-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../) were determined in human plasma and urine. These compounds were measured by RIA after separation on rp-HPLC. Previous purification of the samples on rp=HPLC markedly enhanced the specificity of the RIA determinations of those compounds in plasma and urine. The PGI/sub 2/ derivative 6-keto-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ was detected in both plasma (4.7 +/- 3.2 pg/ml, mean +/- S.D., n = 34) and urine (166 +/- 61 pg/ml, n = 9). No gender differences of the plasma or urinary levels of 6-keto-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ were found. The PGI/sub 2/ metabolite 6, 15-diketo-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ was not measurable in plasma or urine (<1 and <10 pg/ml, respectively, n = 4). Thus this compound may not be a major endogenous metabolite of PGI/sub 2/ in man. When (/sup 3/H)PGI/sub 2/ was added to citrated blood immediately after venipuncture, it was recovered entirely as (/sup 3/H)6-keto-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ after rp-HPLC. Therefore any circulating PGI/sub 2/ would be measured as 6-keto-PGF/sub 1//sub ..cap alpha../ by our method. The results obtained suggest that PGI/sub 2/ could be present in human venous blood under physiological conditions, but only in very low concentrations.

  18. Measurements of neutral density profiles using a deuterium Balmer-alpha diagnostic in the C-2 FRC plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Deepak K.; Deng, B. H.; Knapp, K.; Sun, X.; Thompson, M. C.

    2012-01-01

    In C-2 field-reversed configuration (FRC) device, low neutral density outside the FRC separatrix is required to minimize the charge exchange loss of fast particles. Titanium gettering is used in C-2 to reduce the wall recycling and keep the neutral density low in plasma edge. The measurements of neutral density radial profile are desirable to understand the plasma recycling and the effects of titanium gettering. These measurements are also needed to study the interaction of neutral beams with FRC plasma and confinement of fast ions. Diagnostic based on absolute deuterium Balmer-alpha (D-alpha) radiation measurements is developed and deployed on C-2 device to measure the radial profile of neutral density. Simultaneous measurements of electron density and temperature are done using CO 2 interferometer, Thomson scattering, and triple probes diagnostics along with absolute D-alpha radiation. Abel inversion was performed to get the time dependent radial profile of the local D-alpha emission density. Neutral density profiles are obtained under different machine conditions of titanium deposition.

  19. Diffraction efficiency and relative intensity of various x-ray analyzing crystals at Cu/sub K. cap alpha. / and Sn/sub K. cap alpha. / wavelengths and with two surface conditions

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    Sellick, B.O. Sr.

    1978-04-01

    Crystals used for x-ray analysis come in many useful planes and 2d spacings with great variation in diffraction efficiency. This report compares the diffraction efficiency of 13 different crystals at two wavelengths, Cu/sub K..cap alpha../ and Sn/sub K..cap alpha../, and with two surface conditions, first with a cleaved or polished surface and second with a ground or sandblasted surface for enhanced diffraction. It is not obvious from published information how to select a crystal for best detection efficiency for a given plane or 2d spacing. The information in this report should help users select a crystal for a specific application.

  20. Gating at the mouth of the acetylcholine receptor channel: energetic consequences of mutations in the alphaM2-cap.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pallavi A Bafna

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Gating of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors from a C(losed to an O(pen conformation is the initial event in the postsynaptic signaling cascade at the vertebrate nerve-muscle junction. Studies of receptor structure and function show that many residues in this large, five-subunit membrane protein contribute to the energy difference between C and O. Of special interest are amino acids located at the two transmitter binding sites and in the narrow region of the channel, where CO gating motions generate a lowhigh change in the affinity for agonists and in the ionic conductance, respectively. We have measured the energy changes and relative timing of gating movements for residues that lie between these two locations, in the C-terminus of the pore-lining M2 helix of the alpha subunit ('alphaM2-cap'. This region contains a binding site for non-competitive inhibitors and a charged ring that influences the conductance of the open pore. alphaM2-cap mutations have large effects on gating but much smaller effects on agonist binding, channel conductance, channel block and desensitization. Three alphaM2-cap residues (alphaI260, alphaP265 and alphaS268 appear to move at the outset of channel-opening, about at the same time as those at the transmitter binding site. The results suggest that the alphaM2-cap changes its secondary structure to link gating motions in the extracellular domain with those in the channel that regulate ionic conductance.

  1. Unusual coordination of the. cap alpha. -dioxime ligand in bis(camphorquinone dioximato)nickel(II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, M.S. (Iowa State Univ. Ames); Angelici, R.J.; Powell, D.; Jacobson, R.A.

    1978-10-25

    The complex was prepared by refluxing a methanol solution of Ni(NO/sub 3/)/sub 3/ . 6H/sub 2/O and dimethyl glyoximatic acid for 10m; refluxing for an additional 2h after the addition of sodium methoxide in methanol, filtering while warm, followed by evaporation of the solution under vacuum. X-ray diffraction study of a single crystal placed it in the orthorhombic space group P2,2,2, with a = 13.175(1), b = 13,652(2), c = 12.031(3)A; z = 4, and P/sub calcd./ = 1.378 g/cc. The nickel atom was found to be in an almost square-planar configuration. The HCQD/sup -/ ligand coordinates to the N via N and O donor atoms rather than the common N-N coordination characteristic of other ..cap alpha..-dioxime ligands. Bond lengths and bond angles are also included.

  2. Confined trapped-alpha behavior in TFTR deuterium-tritium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Budny, R.V.; Redi, M.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; White, R.B.; Petrov, M.P.; Gorelenkov, N.N.

    1997-10-01

    Confined trapped-alpha energy spectra and differential radial density profiles in TFTR D-T plasmas are obtained with the Pellet Charge-eXchange (PCX) diagnostic which measures high energy (E α = 0.5--3.5 MeV), trapped alphas (v parallel /v = - 0.048) at a single time slice (Δt ∼ 1 msec) with a spatial resolution of Δr ∼ 5 cm. Tritons produced in D-D plasmas and RF-driven ion tails (H, 3 He or T) were also observed and energetic tritium ion tail measurements will be discussed. PCX alpha and triton energy spectra extending up to their birth energies were measured in the core of MHD-quiescent discharges where the expected classical slowing down and pitch angle scattering effects are not complicated by stochastic ripple diffusion and sawtooth activity. Both the shape of the measured alpha and triton energy distributions and their density ratios are in good agreement with TRANSP predictions, indicating that the PCX measurements are consistent with classical thermalization of the fusion-generated alphas and tritons. From calculations, these results set an upper limit on possible anomalous radial diffusion for trapped alphas of D α ≤ 0.01 m 2 s -1 . Outside the core, where the trapped alphas are influenced by stochastic ripple diffusion effects, the PCX measurements are consistent with the functional dependence of the Goldston-White-Boozer stochastic ripple threshold on the alpha energy and the q-profile. In the presence of strong sawtooth activity, the PCX diagnostic observes significant redistribution of the alpha signal radial profile wherein alphas are depleted in the core and redistributed to well outside the q = 1 radius, but apparently not beyond the energy-dependent stochastic ripple loss boundary

  3. Inhibition of DNA replication, DNA repair synthesis, and DNA polymerases. cap alpha. and delta by butylphenyl deoxyguanosine triphosphate

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    Dreslor, S.L.; Frattini, M.G.

    1987-05-01

    Semiconservative DNA replication in growing mammalian cells and ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA repair synthesis in nongrowing mammalian cells are mediated by one or both of the aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerases, ..cap alpha.. and/or delta. They have studied the inhibition of replication and repair synthesis in permeable human cells by N/sup 2/ (p-n-butylphenyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate (BuPh dGTP), an agent which inhibits polymerase ..cap alpha.. strongly and polymerase delta weakly. Both processes are inhibited by BuPh-dGTP in competition with dGTP. The K/sub i/'s are, for replication, 2-3 ..mu..M and, for repair synthesis, 3-4 ..mu..M, consistent with the involvement of the same DNA polymerase in both processes. Inhibition of isolated human polymerase ..cap alpha.. by BuPh-dGTP is also competitive with dGTP, but the K/sub i/ is approximately 10 nM, several hundred-fold lower than the K/sub i/'s of replication and repair synthesis. Isolated polymerase delta is inhibited by BuPh-dGTP at doses similar to those which inhibit replication and repair synthesis, however, attempts to determine the K/sub i/ of polymerase delta were hampered by the finding that the dependence of delta activity on deoxyribunucleotide concentration is parabolic at low doses. This behavior differs from the behavior of polymerase ..cap alpha.. and of cellular DNA replication and repair synthesis, all of which show a simple, hyperbolic relationship between activity and deoxyribonucleotide concentration. Thus, inhibition of DNA replication and UV induced DNA repair synthesis by BuPh dGTP is quantitatively similar to DNA polymerase delta, but some other characteristics of the cellular processes are more similar to those of polymerase ..cap alpha...

  4. High secondary [alpha]-deuterium kinetic isotope effect in the acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asperger, S. (Research Center of the Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Zagreb (Croatia)); Kukric, Z.; Sutic, D. (Sarajevo Univ. (Yugoslavia). Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics); Saunders, W.H. Jr. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-02-01

    Acetolysis and formolysis of dideuterioferrocenylmethyl benzoate exhibit large secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and an abnormal temperature dependence. In the presence of LiClO[sub 4], which prevents the reversion from solvent-separated to contact ion-pairs, K[sub H]/K[sub D] at 25 [sup o]C amount to 1.53 [+-] 0.02 (acetolysis) and 1.48 [+-] 0.03 (formolysis). In the presence of LiClO[sub 4] the ratios of Arrhenius pre-exponential factors, A[sub H]/A[sub D], are significantly less than unity and amount to 0.49 [+-] 0.01 (acetolysis) and 0.38 [+-] 0.04 (formolysis). In the absence of LiClO[sub 4] the A[sub H]/A[sub D] ratios are much smaller (0.02 both in acetolysis and formolysis). We suggest that these surprisingly low values result from a change in rate-determining step over the temperature range, from formation of the solvent-separated ion-pair at low temperatures to reaction of the dissociated carbocation with solvent at the highest temperatures. Whether tunnelling plays any role in these solvolyses is discussed. (Author).

  5. Characterization of D-enzyme (4-. cap alpha. -glucanotransferase) in Arabidopsis leaf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, T.P.; Preiss, J.

    1988-01-01

    Two major forms of D-enzyme (4-..cap alpha..-glucanotransferase, EC 2.4.1.25) were successfully separated from most of the amylase activity using FPLC-Mono Q column chromatography. Transfer of a maltosyl group was observed upon the incubation of D-enzyme with maltotriose and D-(U-/sup 14/C)glucose. About 4.5% of the radioactivity was transferred to maltotriose in 2 hours. End product analysis showed the accumulation of glucose and maltopentaose from maltotriose within the first 10 minutes of the reaction. Several other maltodextrins were also observed with longer incubation times, although maltose was never produced. A quantitative measurement of maltodextrin production from the reaction of (/sup 14/C)maltotriose with D-enzyme showed that the quantity of maltotriose decreased from 100% to 31% after 3 hours incubation, while glucose, maltotetraose, maltopentaose, maltohexaose, maltoheptaose, maltooctaose, and higher maltodextrins increased in amount. Glucose is the major product throughout the course of the reaction of D-enzyme with maltotriose. Maltotriose, in addition to glucose, are the major products in the reaction of D-enzyme with maltodextrins with a chain length greater than maltotriose. This study confirms the existence of a transglycosylase that disproportionates amaltotriose and higher maltodextrins by transferring maltosyl or maltodextrinyl groups between maltodextrins resulting in the production of glucose and different maltodextrins, but not maltose.

  6. Toxin a from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with therminal Gal. cap alpha. 1-3Gal. beta. 1-4GlcNaC sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.; Wilkins, T.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Toxin A is one of two clostridial toxins implicated as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis in patients undergoing postoperative antibiotic therapy. Evidence that the carbohydrate binding determinant for this toxin is a glycoconjugate(s) with non-reducing Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc has recently been reported. Specific agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes by Toxin A is inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin and prevented by pretreatment of cells with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin layer chromatography and the chromatogram overlaid with purified /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected following autoradiography. The major toxin-binding glycolipids were identified as pentasaccharide- and decasaccharide-ceramides expressing terminal Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc sequences. Treatment of the toxin-binding glycolipids with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase abolished binding. Forsmann glycolipid, globoside, Gal..cap alpha..1-4 Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer, and Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer did not bind the toxin. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate specificity of the toxin for the non-reducing terminal sequence, Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc.

  7. H/sub. cap alpha. / monitors for the Advanced Limiter Test-II (ALT-II) on TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T.

    1988-05-01

    The H/sub ..cap alpha../ monitor system installed on TEXTOR in conjunction with the Advanced Limiter Test-II (ALT-II) toroidal belt pump limiter is introduced. The monitors are used to study edge particle fluxes and recycling, correlations to confinement properties of core and edge plasma with ALT-II, and also high-power auxiliary heating (/approximately/5 MW) during long-pulse (/approximately/4-s) operation of TEXTOR. A model of the edge particle flux based on the H/sub ..cap alpha../ measurements is presented. The ALT-II experiments are to be carried out in various phases. Here we discuss the results obtained from the monitor system during the initial phase of operations following the installation of the ALT-II limiter, with ohmic heating only. 15 refs., 21 figs.

  8. Stereospecific synthesis of 16. cap alpha. -hydroxy-17-oxo steroids by controlled alkaline hydrolysis of corresponding 16-bromo 17-ketones and its reaction mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Numazawa, M. (Tohoku Coll. of Pharmacy, Sendai, Japan); Nagaoka, M.; Osawa, Y.

    1982-10-08

    Synthesis of 16..cap alpha..-hydroxy-17-oxo steroids and 3..beta..,16..cap alpha..-dihydroxy-5-17-oxoandrosten-3-yl sulfate from 16..cap alpha..-bromo-17-oxo steroids and the reaction mechanism of the controlled alkaline hydrolysis are described. Treatment of the bromo ketones with NaOH in aqueous DMF gave the 16..cap alpha..-hydroxy 17-ketones stereoselectively in 95% yield without formation of other ketols. The sodium salt of 3-sulfate was also obtained in one step in 85% yield from the corresponding bromo ketone. Isotope-labeling experiments and time-course studies showed that equilibration between the 15-bromo epimers occurs by the reaction mechanism described in this report. The 16..beta..-morpholino derivaive obtained by reaction with morpholine was shown to be an isomerized product of the 16..cap alpha.. isomer which is produced also by S/sub N/2 displacement of the 16..beta..-bromine. The mechanism of ketol rearrangement to the 17..beta..-hydroxy-16-oxo compound was found to involve a hydration to the carbonyl function. The new hydration dehydration mechanism is proposed for the ketol rearrangement.

  9. Primary structure of the. cap alpha. -subunit of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. II. Isolation, reverse transcription, and cloning of messenger RNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Broude, N.E.; Arsenyan, S.G.; Grishin, A.V.; Dzhandzhugazyan, K.N.; Modyanov, N.N.

    1986-10-01

    The messenger RNA coding the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase has been isolated from the outer medullary layer of porcine kidneys. The mRNA gives a specific hybridization band in the 25S-26S region with three oligonucleotide probes synthesized on the basis of information on the structure of three peptides isolated from a tryptic hydrolyzate of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase. The translation of the mRNA in Xenopus laevis oocytes followed by immunochemical identification of the products of synthesis confirmed the presence of the mRNA of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/,K/sup +/-ATPase in an enriched fraction of poly(A/sup +/)-RNA. This preparation has been used for the synthesis of cloning of double-stranded cDNA.

  10. Synthesis of. cap alpha. - and. beta. - Nor - lapachones, its properties in acid media and its reaction with N-bromosuccinamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, A.V.; Pinto, M.doC.R.; de Oliveira, C.G.T. (Rio de Janeiro Univ. (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais; Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica)

    1982-03-01

    ..cap alpha..-nor-lapachone 4 and ..beta..-nor-lapachone 5 are obtained from nor-lapachol 6 by cyclization reactions using hydrochloric acid in AcOH for the first one and sulfuric acid for the latter. The compounds 4 and 5 are obtained in high yields. On the acid conditions the isomers are interchangeable, this approach is described in scheme II. Chemical reactions have been done with the derivatives 4 and 5 with N-bromosuccinamide, in carbon tetracloride and benzene. These two isomers have shown different chemical behavior, and this difference could be related to the quinoidal structure. Thus, in Cl/sub 4/, 4 reacted with one equivalent of NBS giving the expected product 8 (allyclic bromination). The ..beta..-isomer 5 furnished the product II and required two equivalents of the NBS for complete consumption of the starting material. Using benzene, as solvent, it is observed an anomalous behaviour in the reaction. Schemes IV and VI show the proposed mechanisms for the reaction products according to the hitherto evidence.

  11. Bioconversion of. cap alpha. -(/sup 14/C)Zearalenol and. beta. -(/sup 14/C)Zearalenol into (/sup 14/C)Zearalenone by Fusarium roseum Gibbosum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, K.E.; Hagler, W.M. Jr.; Hamilton, P.B.

    1984-06-01

    Cultures of Fusarium roseum Gibbosum on rice were treated with (/sup 14/C)zearalenone, ..cap alpha..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol, or ..beta..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol to determine whether a precursor-product relationship exists among these closely related fungal metabolites. Culture extracts were purified by silica gel column chromatography and fractionated by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and the level of radioactivity was determined. Within 7 days, the ..beta..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol was converted to zearalenone, and no residual ..beta..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol was detectable. Most of the ..cap alpha..-(/sup 14/C)zearalenol added was also converted into zearalenone within 14 days. In cultures treated with (/sup 14/C)zearalenone, no radioactivity was noted in any other components.

  12. Human placental Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: cDNA cloning, tissue expression, DNA polymorphism, and chromosomal localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chehab, F.F.; Kan, Y.W.; Law, M.L.; Hartz, J.; Kao, F.T.; Blostein, R.

    1987-11-01

    A 2.2-kilobase clone comprising a major portion of the coding sequence of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit was cloned from human placenta and its sequence was identical to that encoding the ..cap alpha.. subunit of human kidney and HeLa cells. Transfer blot analysis of the mRNA products of the Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase gene from various human tissues and cell lines revealed only one band (approx. = 4.7 kilobases) under low and high stringency washing conditions. The levels of expression in the tissues were intestine > placenta > liver > pancreas, and in the cell lines the levels were human erythroleukemia > butyrate-induced colon > colon > brain > HeLa cells. mRNA was undetectable in reticulocytes, consistent with the authors failure to detect positive clones in a size-selected ( > 2 kilobases) lambdagt11 reticulocyte cDNA library. DNA analysis revealed by a polymorphic EcoRI band and chromosome localization by flow sorting and in situ hybridization showed that the ..cap alpha.. subunit is on the short is on the short arm (band p11-p13) of chromosome 1.

  13. Deuterium and tritium labeling with the zinc-sodium iodide method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turecek, F. (Jaroslav Heyrovsky Inst. of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Prague, Czechoslovakia); Veres, K.; Kocovsky, P.; Pouzar, V.; Fajkos, J.

    1983-07-01

    Primary and secondary hydroxyl groups can be replaced by deuterium or tritium when the corresponding sulfonate esters are reduced with zinc, sodium iodide, and deuterium or tritium oxide in 1,2-dimethoxyethane. The method tolerates a variety of other reducible functionalities, namely, ..cap alpha..,..beta..-enone, ketone, and ester. The labeling can be conducted with a high regiospecificity in the presence of enolizable hydrogens. The method is less satisfactory for a stereospecific replacement of secondary hydroxyl groups, yielding mixtures of stereoisomers and olefins as byproducts. The distribution of the stereoisomers depends on the rate of configurational inversion in the intermediary iodides arising by displacement of the original tosyloxy group. Deuterium NMR spectra and their use in the configurational assignment are discussed.

  14. Internode length in Pisum. Gene na may block gibberellin synthesis between ent-7. cap alpha. -hydroxykaurenoic acid and biggerellin A/sub 12/-aldehyde. [Pisum sativum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingram, T.J.; Reid, J.B.

    1987-04-01

    The elongation response of the gibberellin (GA) deficient genotypes na, ls, and lh of peas (Pisum sativum L.) to a range of GA-precursors was examined. Plants possessing gene na did not respond to precursors in the GA biosynthetic pathway prior to GA/sub 12/-aldehyde. In contrast, plants possessing lh and ls responded as well as wild-type plants (dwarfed with AMO-1618) to these compounds. The results suggest that GA biosynthesis is blocked prior to ent-kaurene in the lh and ls mutants and between ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxykaurenoic acid and GA/sub 12/-aldehyde in the na mutant. Feeds of ent(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid and (/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a range of genotypes supported the above conclusions. The na line WL1766 was shown by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to metabolize(/sup 2/H)GA/sub 12/-aldehyde to a number of (/sup 2/H)C/sub 19/-GAs including GA/sub 1/. However, there was no indication in na genotypes for the metabolism of ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to these GAs. In contrast, the expanding shoot tissue of all Na genotypes examined metabolized ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid to radioactive compounds that co-chromatographed with GA/sub 1/, GA/sub 8/, GA/sub 20/, and GA/sub 29/. However, insufficient material was present for unequivocal identification of the metabolites. The radioactive profiles from HPLC of extracts of the node treated with ent-(/sup 3/H)kaurenoic acid were similar for both Na and na plants and contained ent-16..cap alpha..,17-dihydroxykaurenoic acid and ent-6..cap alpha..,7..cap alpha..,16..beta..,17-tetrahydroxykaurenoic acid (both characterized by GC-MS), suggesting that the metabolites arose from side branches of the main GA-biosynthetic pathway. Thus, both Na and na plants appear capable of ent-7..cap alpha..-hydroxylation.

  15. Structure-function relationships in the Na,K-ATPase. cap alpha. subunit: site-directed mutagenesis of glutamine-111 to arginine and asparagine-122 to aspartic acid generates a ouabain-resistant enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, E.M.; Lingrel, J.B.

    1988-11-01

    Na,K-ATPases from various species differ greatly in their sensitivity to cardiac glycosides such as ouabain. The sheep and human enzymes are a thousand times more sensitive than the corresponding ones from rat and mouse. To define the region of the ..cap alpha..1 subunit responsible for this differential sensitivity, chimeric cDNAs of sheep and rat were constructed and expressed in ouabain-sensitive HeLa cells. The construct containing the amino-terminal half of the rat ..cap alpha..1 subunit coding region and carboxyl-terminal half of the sheep conferred the ouabain-resistant phenotype to HeLa cells while the reverse construct did not. This indicates that the determinants involved in ouabain sensitivity are located in the amino-terminal half of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit. By use of site-directed mutagenesis, the amino acid sequence of the first extracellular domain (H1-H2) of the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit was changed to that of the rat. When expressed in HeLa cells, this mutated sheep ..cap alpha..1 construct, like the rat/sheep chimera, was able to confer ouabain resistance to these cells. Furthermore, similar results were observed when HeLa cells were transfected with a sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNA containing only two amino acid substitutions. The resistant cells, whether transfected with the rat ..cap alpha..1 cDNA, the rat/sheep chimera, or the mutant sheep ..cap alpha..1 cDNAs, exhibited identical biochemical characteristics including ouabain-inhibitable cell growth, /sup 86/Rb/sup +/ uptake, and Na,K-ATPase activity. These results demonstrate that the presence of arginine and aspartic acid on the amino end and carboxyl end, respectively, of the H1-H2 extracellular domain of the Na,K-ATPase ..cap alpha.. subunit together is responsible for the ouabain-resistant character of the rat enzyme and the corresponding residues in the sheep ..cap alpha..1 subunit (glutamine and asparagine) are somehow involved in ouabain binding.

  16. Effect of. cap alpha. -,. beta. -adrenergic receptor agonists and antagonists of the efflux of /sup 22/Na and uptake of /sup 42/K by rat brain cortical slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillis, J.W.; Wu, P.H.; Thierry, D.L.

    1982-03-18

    The effects of norepinephrine on ion fluxes in rat brain cortical slices have now been ascertained. /sup 22/Na efflux and /sup 42/K influx are enhanced by norepinephrine. The increase in ion fluxes can be blocked by ouabain, phentolamine and propranolol, suggesting that the catecholamine activates a membrane sodium pump by a receptor-mediated step. The facilitation of /sup 22/Na efflux is stereospecific as demonstrated by the very weak action of D-norepinephrine at 10/sup -5/ M concentration. Various ..cap alpha..-adrenergic and ..beta..-adrenergic receptor agonists, including oxymetazoline, naphazoline, clonidine, tramazoline, methoxamine, phenylephrine, L-isoproterenol and methoxyphenamine are potent stimulants of the sodium pump as demonstrated by their enhancement of ion fluxes in rat brain cortical slices. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that norepinephrine hyperpolarizes central neurons by activating an ouabain-sensitive, receptor-mediated sodium pump.

  17. Synthesis of deuterium labeled NMDA receptor inhibitor-20-Oxo-5 beta-[9,12,12-H-2(3)]pregnan-3 alpha-yl-L-glutamyl 1-ester

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kapras, Vojtěch; Slavíčková, Alena; Šťastná, Eva; Vyklický ml., Ladislav; Valeš, Karel; Chodounská, Hana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 77, č. 3 (2012), s. 282-287 ISSN 0039-128X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06077; GA MZd(CZ) NS10365; GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0517 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : NMDA receptor * neuroprotection * deuterium labeling Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.803, year: 2012

  18. Absorption and transport of deuterium-substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopherol in human lipoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traber, M.G.; Ingold, K.U.; Burton, G.W.; Kayden, H.J.

    1988-08-01

    Oral administration of a single dose of tri- or hexadeuterium substituted 2R,4'R,8'R-alpha-tocopheryl acetate (d3- or d6-alpha-T-Ac) to humans was used to follow the absorption and transport of vitamin E in plasma lipoproteins. Three hr after oral administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (15 mg) to 2 subjects, plasma levels of d3-alpha-T were detectable; these increased up to 10 hr, reached a plateau at 24 hr, then decreased. Following administration of d6-alpha-T-Ac (15-16 mg) to 2 subjects, the percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol in chylomicrons increased more rapidly than the corresponding percentage in whole plasma. Chylomicrons and plasma lipoproteins were isolated from 2 additional subjects following administration of d3-alpha-T-Ac (140 or 60 mg). The percentage of deuterated tocopherol relative to the total tocopherol increased most rapidly in chylomicrons, then in very low density lipoproteins (VLDL), followed by essentially identical increases in low and high density lipoproteins (LDL and HDL, respectively) and lastly, in the red blood cells. This pattern of appearance of deuterated tocopherol is consistent with the concept that newly absorbed vitamin E is secreted by the intestine into chylomicrons; subsequently, chylomicron remnants are taken up by the liver from which the vitamin E is secreted in VLDL. The metabolism of VLDL in the circulation results in the simultaneous delivery of vitamin E into LDL and HDL.

  19. Deuterium isotope separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    Deuterium-containing molecules are separated and enriched by exposing commercially available ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane or propylene to the radiation of tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose these compounds into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms. The deuterium containing molecules can be easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. (author)

  20. Fine target of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Diaz, J.; Granados Gonzalez, C. E.; Gutierrez Bernal, R.

    1959-01-01

    A fine target of deuterium on a tantalum plate by the absorption method is obtained. In order to obtain the de gasification temperature an induction generator of high frequency is used and the deuterium pass is regulated by means of a palladium valve. Two vacuum measures are available, one to measure the high vacuum in the de gasification process of the tantalum plate and the other, for low vacuum, to measure the deuterium inlet in the installation and the deuterium pressure change in the installation after the absorption in the tantalum plate. A target of 48 μ gr/cm 2 thick is obtained. (Author) 1 refs

  1. Confinement and heating of a deuterium-tritium plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.L.; Ashcroft, D.; Barnes, C.W.; Barnes, G.; Batha, S.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Cheng, C.Z.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Darrow, D.S.; DeLooper, J.; Duong, H.; Dudek, L.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ernst, D.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, N.; Fu, G.Y.; Furth, H.P.; Gentile, C.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Herrmann, H.W.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kugel, H.; Lam, N.T.; LaMarche, P.H.; Loughlin, M.J.; LeBlanc, B.; Leonard, M.; Levinton, F.M.; Machuzak, J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Martin, A.; Mazzucato, E.; Majeski, R.; Marmar, E.; McChesney, J.; McCormack, B.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; McKee, G.; Meade, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Muelle

    1994-05-30

    The Tomamak Fusion Test reactor has performed initial high-power experiments with the plasma fueled with nominally equal densities of deuterium and tritium. Compared to pure deuterium plasmas, the energy stored in the electron and ions increased by [similar to]20%. These increases indicate improvements in confinement associated with the use of tritium and possibly heating of electrons by [alpha] particles created by the D-T fusion reactions.

  2. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... p020041. Accessed Nov. 11, 2014. Cervical cap About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  3. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things That Help Feelings Expert Answers Q&A Movies & More for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes ... Because the cap has to be placed properly, women who use one should be comfortable feeling for ...

  4. Cervical Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weeks after delivery Can be inserted hours before sex and remain in place for up to 48 hours Doesn't require a partner's cooperation Poses few if any side effects The cervical cap isn't appropriate for everyone, ...

  5. Deuterium exchange in sesamol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.K.; Vaidya, N.A.; Morton, G.H.

    1982-01-01

    Trifluoroacetic acid-catalyzed exchange of sesamol in 2 H 2 O results in rapid exchange of H-6 and slower exchange of H-2. The deuterium atoms introduced are retained during conversion to the methyl and allyl ethers. (author)

  6. Influence of the mycotoxins alpha- and beta-zearalenol (ZOL) on regulators of cap-dependent translation control in pig endometrial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollenhaupt, K; Jonas, L; Tiemann, U; Tomek, W

    2004-12-01

    The molecular mechanisms that control the mycotoxin-mediated effects in porcine endometrial cells are far from being completely understood. Recent results show that they could inhibit cell proliferation. Therefore, the present study investigated the effects of the mycotoxins alpha-zearalenol (alpha-ZOL) and beta-zearalenol (beta-ZOL) on a cellular level. Mainly, the abundance and phosphorylation state (activity) of the cell cycle-dependent kinases MAPK and Akt (PKB) and their potential targets eIF4E (eukaryotic initiation factor 4E) and 4E-BP1 (4E binding protein, eIF4E repressor protein) were investigated. The results show that alpha-ZOL has apparently only a slight influence on the phosphorylation state of MAP kinases, Akt and on eIF4E and 4E-BP1. In contrast, their phosphorylation was strongly reduced in beta-ZOL-treated cells in a concentration-dependent manner. Therefore, our results indicate that beta-ZOL potentially not only influences transcription but also effects gene expression on translational level. The effect of alpha- and beta-ZOL on endometrial cell proliferation and their toxicology are discussed.

  7. Deuterium-tritium experiments on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretz, N.L.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Barnes, C.W.; Barnes, G.; Batha, S.; Bateman, G.; Beer, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Brunkhorst, C.; Budny, R.; Bush, C.E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Carnevale, H.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Cheng, C.; Chrzanowski, J.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Cropper, M.; Darrow, D.S.; Daugert, R.; DeLooper, J.; Dorland, W.; Dudek, L.; Duong, H.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ernst, D.; Evensen, H.; Fisch, N.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredd, E.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, R.; Fu, G.; Fujita, T.; Furth, H.P.; Garzotto, V.; Gentile, C.; Gilbert, J.; Giola, J.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G.R.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Heidbrink, W.; Herrmann, H.W.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Hsuan, H.; Hughes, M.; Hulse, R.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D.L.; Jobes, F.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Kalish, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kesner, J.; Kugel, H.; Labik, G.; Lam, N.T.; LaMarche, P.H.; Lawson, E.; LeBlanc, B.; Levine, J.; Levinton, F.M.; Loesser, D.; Long, D.; Loughlin, M.J.; Machuzak, J.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.K.; Marmar, E.; Marsala, R.; Martin, A.; Martin, G.; Mauel, M.; Mazzucato, E.; McCarthy, M.P.; McChesney, J.; McCormack, B.; McCune, D.C.; McGuire, K.M.; McKee, G.; Meade, D.M.; Medley, S.S.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Mirnov, S.V.; Mueller, D.; Murakami, M.; Murphy, J.A.; Nagy, A.; Navratil, G.A.; Nazikian, R.; Newman, R.; Norris, M.; OConnor, T.; Oldaker, M.; Ongena, J.; Osakabe, M.; Owens, D.K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Parks, P.; Paul, S.F.; Pearson, G.; Perry, E.; Persing, R.; Petrov, M.; Phillips, C.K.; Phillips, M.; Pitcher, S.; Pysher, R.; Qualls, A.L.; Raftapoulos, S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Ramsey, A.; Rasmunsen, D.A.; Redi, M.H.; Renda, G.; Rewoldt, G.; Roberts, D.; Rogers, J.; Rossmassler, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbaugh, S.A.; Sasao, M.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G.L.; Scillia, R.; Scott, S.D.; Semenov, I.; Senko, T.

    1995-09-01

    A peak fusion power production of 9.3{plus_minus}0.7 MW has been achieved on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in deuterium plasmas heated by co and counter injected deuterium and tritium neutral beams with a total power of 33.7 MW. The ratio of fusion power output to heating power input is 0.27. At the time of the highest neutron flux the plasma conditions are: {ital T}{sub {ital e}}(0)=11.5 keV, {ital T}{sub {ital i}}(0)=44 keV, {ital n}{sub {ital e}}(0)=8.5{times}10{sup 19} m{sup {minus}3}, and {l_angle}{ital Z}{sub eff}{r_angle}=2.2 giving {tau}{sub {ital E}}=0.24 s. These conditions are similar to those found in the highest confinement deuterium plasmas. The measured D-T neutron yield is within 7% of computer code estimates based on profile measurements and within experimental uncertainties. These plasmas have an inferred central fusion alpha fraction of 0.2% and central fusion power density of 2 MW/m{sup 3} similar to that expected in a fusion reactor. Even though the alpha velocity exceeds the Alfven velocity throughout the time of high neutron output in most high power plasmas, MHD activity is similar to that in comparable deuterium plasmas and Alfven wave activity is low. The measured loss rate of energetic alpha particles is about 3% of the total as expected from alphas which are born on unconfined orbits. Compared to pure deuterium plasmas with similar externally applied conditions, the stored energy in electrons and ions is about 25% higher indicating improvements in confinement associated with D-T plasmas and consistent with modest electron heating expected from alpha particles. ICRF heating of D-T plasmas using up to 5.5 MW has resulted in 10 keV increases in central ion and 2.5 keV increases in central electron temperatures in relatively good agreement with code predictions. In these cases heating on the magnetic axis at 2{Omega}{sub {ital T}} gave up to 80% of the ICRF energy to ions. {copyright} {ital 1995 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Measurement of strong interaction parameters in antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Augsburger, M A; Borchert, G L; Chatellard, D; Egger, J P; El-Khoury, P; Gorke, H; Gotta, D; Hauser, P R; Indelicato, P J; Kirch, K; Lenz, S; Siems, T; Simons, L M

    1999-01-01

    In the PS207 experiment at CERN, X-rays from antiprotonic hydrogen and deuterium have been measured at low pressure. The strong interaction shift and the broadening of the K/sub alpha / transition in antiprotonic hydrogen were $9 determined. Evidence was found for the individual hyperfine components of the protonium ground state. (7 refs).

  9. Synthesis of specifically deuterium-labelled pregnanolone and pregnanediol sulphates for metabolic studies in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, T A; Sjövall, J; Herz, J E

    1975-10-01

    A synthesis is reported of 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-pregnan-20-one sulphate and the disulphate and 3-monosulphate of 5alpha-pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol, labelled specifically with deuterium in high isotopic purity for metabolic studies in humans. Base-catalyzed equilibration of 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-25R-spirostan-12-one (hemcogenin, II) with deuterium oxide, followed by removal of the 12-keto group and degradation of the sapogenin side-chain afforded 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-[11,11-2H2]pregn-16-en-20-one (VII). Further deuterium atoms were introduced at the 3alpha and 20beta positions by reductions with sodium borodeuteride and lithium aluminum deuteride, respectively. These reactions led to 3beta-hydroxy-5alpha-[3alpha,11,11-2H3]pregnan-20-one (X; isotopic purity 87.2%) and 5alpha-[3alpha,11,11,20beta-2H4]pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol (XIV; isotopic purity 83.9%). The 3-sulphate of the pregnanolone and the 3,20-disulphate of the pregnanediol were prepared directly form the free alcohols, while the 3-monosulphate of the pregnanediol was obtained via 5alpha-[3alpha,11,11,20beta-2H4]pregnane-3beta,20alpha-diol 20-acetate (XVII).

  10. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  11. Predicting big bang deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hata, N.; Scherrer, R.J.; Steigman, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, T.P. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States)

    1996-02-01

    We present new upper and lower bounds to the primordial abundances of deuterium and {sup 3}He based on observational data from the solar system and the interstellar medium. Independent of any model for the primordial production of the elements we find (at the 95{percent} C.L.): 1.5{times}10{sup {minus}5}{le}(D/H){sub {ital P}}{le}10.0{times}10{sup {minus}5} and ({sup 3}He/H){sub {ital P}}{le}2.6{times}10{sup {minus}5}. When combined with the predictions of standard big bang nucleosynthesis, these constraints lead to a 95{percent} C.L. bound on the primordial abundance deuterium: (D/H){sub best}=(3.5{sup +2.7}{sub {minus}1.8}){times}10{sup {minus}5}. Measurements of deuterium absorption in the spectra of high-redshift QSOs will directly test this prediction. The implications of this prediction for the primordial abundances of {sup 4}He and {sup 7}Li are discussed, as well as those for the universal density of baryons. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Astronomical Society.}

  12. Deuterium-hydrogen monothermal exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rae, H.K.

    1975-01-01

    A monothermal exchange process of extracting deuterium from ammonia synthesis gas is described. This process comprises passing the gas through an exchage liquid stream consisting of a liquid amine having up to five carbon atoms per molecule to cause deuterium to be transferred from the synthesis gas to the exchange liquid, and removing a stream of exchange liquid enriched in deuterium therefrom. (Patent Office Record)

  13. Capping protein binding to S100B: implications for the tentacle model for capping the actin filament barbed end.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wear, Martin A; Cooper, John A

    2004-04-02

    S100B binds tightly to a 12-amino acid peptide derived from heterodimeric capping protein. In native intact capping protein, this sequence is in the C terminus of the alpha-subunit, which is important for capping the actin filament. This C-terminal region is proposed to act as a flexible "tentacle," extending away from the body of capping protein in order to bind actin. To this hypothesis, we analyzed the interaction between S100B and capping protein in solution. The C-terminal 28 amino acids of the alpha-subunit, the proposed tentacle, bound to S100B as a free synthetic peptide or a glutathione S-transferase fusion (K(d) approximately 0.4-1 microm). In contrast, S100B did not bind to whole native capping protein or functionally affect its capping activity. S100B does not bind, with any significant affinity, to the proposed alpha-tentacle sequence of whole native capping protein in solution. In the NMR structure of S100B complexed with the alpha-subunit-derived 12-amino acid peptide, the hydrophobic side of a short alpha-helix in the peptide, containing an important tryptophan residue, contacts S100B. In the x-ray structure of native capping protein, the corresponding sequence of the alpha-subunit C terminus, including Trp(271), interacts closely with the body of the protein. Therefore, our results suggest the alpha-subunit C terminus is not mobile as predicted by the tentacle model. Addition of non-ionic detergent allowed whole capping protein to bind weakly to S100B, indicating that the alpha-subunit C terminus can be mobilized from the surface of the capping protein molecule, presumably by weakening the hydrophobic binding at the contact site.

  14. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) KidsHealth / For Parents / Cradle Cap (Infantile Seborrheic Dermatitis) What's in this article? About Cradle Cap Causes ...

  15. Photodisintegration of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, K.Y.; Utsunomiya, H.; Goko, S.

    2004-01-01

    Photodisintegration cross sections were measured for deuterium with Laser Compton scattering γ beams at E γ = 2.3 - 4.6 MeV. The present data made it possible to experimentally evaluate R(E) = N a συ for the p(n, γ)D reaction with 6% uncertainty in the energy region to big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). The result confirms the past theoretical evaluation and the recent calculation based on the effective field theory. The reaction rate for the p(n, γ)D reaction is presented for the BBN in the precision era. (author)

  16. Further development of deuterium NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-azzawi, N.A.Y.

    1983-01-01

    In this work dichlorotris (triphenylphosphine) ruthenium (11) (RuCl 2 (PPh 3 ) 3 ) coupled with the deuterium source D 2 O was used as a catalyst for the study of the isotopic exchange reaction in alcohols and amines deuterium labelling of several primary and secondary alcohols have been made, and the position of labelling in the molecule was established by comparison of the 1 H NMR and 2 H NMR spectra while the relative distribution of deuterium was obtained from 2 H NMR spectrum. An oxidation-reduction mechanism was proposed for the hydrogen-deuterium exchange process, since in case of secondary alcohol the anticipated intermediate product (Ketone) was separated and identified. The relative distribution of deuterium was found to be time-dependent. Moreover the labelling in the B. Position was found to increase up on the addition of sodium hydroxide to the reaction mixture. 80 tabs.; 290 figs.; 124 refs

  17. Reduction of 1,4-dien-3-one steroids with LiAl2H4 or NaB2H4: stereospecific deuterium-labeling at the c-1alpha position of a 4-en-3-one steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numazawa, Mitsuteru; Handa, Wakako

    2006-04-01

    Reduction of a double bond at C-1 of 1,4-dien-3-one steroids 7 and 8 with LiAl2H4 in THF or NaB2H4 in MeOH and H2O gave stereospecifically [1alpha-2H]-labeled 4-en-3-one steroids 9 and 10, respectively. When the deuterated solvents, MeO2H and 2H2O, were used for the reaction of steroid 8 with NaB2H4, [1alpha,2xi-2H2]-labeled compound 10 was produced. This indicates that the reaction proceeds through the initial hydride attack at the C-1alpha position, followed by ketonization of the 2-en-3-ol intermediate.

  18. Injection of Deuterium Pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S. A.

    1984-01-01

    A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Some details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated...... to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 500 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet...

  19. Monte Carlo alpha deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talley, T.L.; Evans, F.

    1988-01-01

    Prior work demonstrated the importance of nuclear scattering to fusion product energy deposition in hot plasmas. This suggests careful examination of nuclear physics details in burning plasma simulations. An existing Monte Carlo fast ion transport code is being expanded to be a test bed for this examination. An initial extension, the energy deposition of fast alpha particles in a hot deuterium plasma, is reported. The deposition times and deposition ranges are modified by allowing nuclear scattering. Up to 10% of the initial alpha particle energy is carried to greater ranges and times by the more mobile recoil deuterons. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Catalyzed deuterium fueled tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Catalyzed deuterium fuel presents several advantages relative to D-T. These are, freedom from tritium breeding, high charged particle power fraction and lowered neutron energy deposition in the blanket. Higher temperature operation, lower power densities and increased confinement are simultaneously required. However, the present study has developed designs which have capitalized upon the advantages of catalyzed deuterium to overcome the difficulties associated with the fuel while obtaining high efficiency

  1. Interstellar deuterium chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.D.; Rice, E.

    1981-01-01

    An interstellar reaction scheme of the type described by E. Iglesias has been extended to include deuterium chemistry and also isomeric forms of some molecules. The role of isomeric forms of the intermediates CNH 2 + and HCNH + in the production of interstellar HCN and HNC is considered. The lowest triplet states of these ions probably play an important part in determining the proportions of HCN and HNC produced. The results of numerical integration of the 108 coupled kinetic equations involved in the extended scheme are presented as time-dependent plots of concentrations of the different chemical species. Calculated concentrations at a molecular cloud age of 10 Ma (1 Ma = 10 6 years) are within the experimental uncertainties for 11 of the 14 species for which suitable observational data are available. Predicted values of HX/DX ratios fall into three broad groups around 10 2 , 10 3 and the accepted cosmic H/D/ ratio, 10 5 , and observations are broadly in agreement. Some reported enrichments that are higher than the predicted figures may arise from the use of data for optically thick molecular lines. Some previously unpublished observations of DNC and HN 13 C illustrate doubts associated with optically thick lines. (author)

  2. Deuterium exchange between hydrofluorocarbons and amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, W.B.; Bigeleisen, J.; Tuccio, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    The invention consists of a process for obtaining a compound enriched in deuterium which comprises the known method of exposing a gaseous hydrofluorocarbon to infrared laser radiation of a predetermined frequency to selectively cause a chemical reaction involving hydrofluorocarbon molecules containing deuterium without substantially affecting hydrofluorocarbon molecules not containing deuterium, thereby producing, as reaction products, a compound enriched in deuterium and hydrofluorocarbon depleted in deuterium; combined with a new method, which comprises enriching the deuterium content of the depleted hydrofluorocarbon by contacting the depleted hydrofluorocarbon with an alkali metal amide and an amine having a concentration of deuterium at least that which will yield an increase in deuterium concentration of the hydrofluorocarbon upon equilibration, whereby the amine becomes depleted in deuterium

  3. Characterization of a deuterium-deuterium plasma fusion neutron generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, R. F.; Pienaar, J.; Hogenbirk, E.; Masson, D.; Nolte, R.; Zimbal, A.; Röttger, S.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; Bruno, G.

    2018-01-01

    We characterize the neutron output of a deuterium-deuterium plasma fusion neutron generator, model 35-DD-W-S, manufactured by NSD/Gradel-Fusion. The measured energy spectrum is found to be dominated by neutron peaks at 2.2 MeV and 2.7 MeV. A detailed GEANT4 simulation accurately reproduces the measured energy spectrum and confirms our understanding of the fusion process in this generator. Additionally, a contribution of 14 . 1 MeV neutrons from deuterium-tritium fusion is found at a level of 3 . 5%, from tritium produced in previous deuterium-deuterium reactions. We have measured both the absolute neutron flux as well as its relative variation on the operational parameters of the generator. We find the flux to be proportional to voltage V 3 . 32 ± 0 . 14 and current I 0 . 97 ± 0 . 01. Further, we have measured the angular dependence of the neutron emission with respect to the polar angle. We conclude that it is well described by isotropic production of neutrons within the cathode field cage.

  4. Problems connected with the use of oligonucleotide probes with a high degree of degeneracy. Identification of mRNA and of cDNA clones corresponding to the gene of the. cap alpha. -subunit of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrukhin, K.E.; Grishin, A.V.; Arsenyan, S.G.; Broude, N.E.; Grinkevich, V.A.; Filippova, L.Yu.; Severtsova, I.V.; Modyanov, N.N.

    1986-10-01

    To identify and search for nucleotide sequences containing the structural part of the gene of the ..cap alpha..-subunit of Na/sup +/, K/sup +/-ATPase, 17-membered oligonucleotide probes corresponding to the peptide Lys-Asp-Ala-Phe-Gln-Asn have been synthesized. It has been shown that, with a 64-fold degeneracyd, the 17-membered probe is suitable only for the identification of a specific sequence in mRNA. To search for clones containing cDNA fragments, preliminary fractionation of the probes with the aid of HPLC or the resynthesis of groups of oligonucleotides with a lower degeneracy is necessary.

  5. Deuterium distribution regularities in precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurdean, V.; Feurdean, Lucia

    1999-01-01

    Deuterium measurements from precipitations were initiated by dr. L. Blaga in Natural Isotopic Abundances Department of ITIM since 1971. Systematic measurements of deuterium content and quantities of precipitations were carried on after 1975. Deuterium measurements from precipitations evidenced the succession of minimum values corresponding to cold seasons and maximum values corresponding to warm seasons. Other minimum and maximum values having lower amplitude than those corresponding to seasons are recorded for each season, too. As a rule, minimum values recorded during the summer months are the consequence of the penetration of cold air masses and maximum values recorded during the winter months are the consequence of penetration of the warm air masses. For the northwestern part of Romania including the Cluj-Napoca area, the winter precipitations come prevalently from the northwestern direction (from Greenland and North of Atlantic Ocean). The maximum values of deuterium content recorded during winter months are due to the displacements of warm and humid air masses from southwestern Europe (Mediterranean Sea). During long-time, (over 22 years) the monthly mean values of deuterium concentrations from precipitations for each year show amplitude variation of the minimum and maximum values. These maximum and minimum values, respectively, are oscillatory with a variable period of a few years (from 2 to 6 years). The variation of the oscillation period suggests at least two causes having different and fixed periodicity. The determinations of deuterium concentration from precipitations reveal the existence of natural isotopic label process for all waters natural. This phenomenon is adequate for the use of deuterium as a natural tracer in hydrologic studies. The isotopic hydrology adds new information to the hydrologic data base. The correlation between isotopic data base for precipitations and meteorological information will provide a new method for long term weather

  6. Wildcat: A commercial deuterium-deuterium tokamak reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, K.; Baker, C.C.; Barry, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    WILDCAT is a conceptual design of a catalyzed deuterium-deuterium tokamak commercial fusion reactor. WILDCAT utilizes the beneficial features of no tritium breeding, while not extrapolating unnecessarily from existing deuterium-tritium (D-T) designs. The reactor is larger and has higher magnetic fields and plasma pressures than typical D-T devices. It is more costly, but eliminates problems associated with tritium breeding and has tritium inventories and throughputs approximately two orders of magnitude less than typical D-T reactors. There are both a steady-state version with Alfven-wave current drive and a pulsed version. Extensive comparison with D-T devices has been made, and cost and safety analyses have been included. All of the major reactor systems have been worked out to a level of detail appropriate to a complete conceptual design

  7. Deuterium trapping in liquid lithium irradiated by deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, A.; Moshkunov, K.; Vizgalov, I.; Gasparyan, Yu.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid lithium was irradiated by deuterium plasma to a low fluence of 10 22 –10 23 D/m 2 , cooled down to room temperature, and then slowly heated. The temperature and release rate were measured during heating. Two plateaus on the temperature–time dependence were observed at 180 °C and 660 °C. The first one corresponds to melting of Li and the second one – either to melting or to decomposition of solid LiD. Features of deuterium release in TDS were interpreted in terms of decomposition of lithium deuterides formed during plasma irradiation

  8. Monte Carlo alpha calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brockway, D.; Soran, P.; Whalen, P.

    1985-01-01

    A Monte Carlo algorithm to efficiently calculate static alpha eigenvalues, N = ne/sup ..cap alpha..t/, for supercritical systems has been developed and tested. A direct Monte Carlo approach to calculating a static alpha is to simply follow the buildup in time of neutrons in a supercritical system and evaluate the logarithmic derivative of the neutron population with respect to time. This procedure is expensive, and the solution is very noisy and almost useless for a system near critical. The modified approach is to convert the time-dependent problem to a static ..cap alpha../sup -/eigenvalue problem and regress ..cap alpha.. on solutions of a/sup -/ k/sup -/eigenvalue problem. In practice, this procedure is much more efficient than the direct calculation, and produces much more accurate results. Because the Monte Carlo codes are intrinsically three-dimensional and use elaborate continuous-energy cross sections, this technique is now used as a standard for evaluating other calculational techniques in odd geometries or with group cross sections.

  9. Spin exchange in polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Przewoski, B. von; Meyer, H.O.; Balewski, J.; Doskow, J.; Ibald, R.; Pollock, R.E.; Rinckel, T.; Wellinghausen, A.; Whitaker, T.J.; Daehnick, W.W.; Haeberli, W.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Lorentz, B.; Rathmann, F.; Pancella, P.V.; Saha, Swapan K.; Thoerngren-Engblom, P.

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the vector and tensor polarization of an atomic deuterium target as a function of the target density. The polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell. For this experiment, the atomic beam source was operated without rf transitions, in order to avoid complications from the unknown efficiency of these transitions. In this mode, the atomic beam is vector and tensor polarized and both polarizations can be measured simultaneously. We used a 1.2-cm-diam and 27-cm-long storage cell, which yielded an average target density between 3 and 9x10 11 at/cm 3 . We find that the tensor polarization decreases with increasing target density while the vector polarization remains constant. The data are in quantitative agreement with the calculated effect of spin exchange between deuterium atoms at low field

  10. Deuterium retention in liquid lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, M.J.; Doerner, R.P.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Conn, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of deuterium retention in samples of lithium exposed in the liquid state to deuterium plasma are reported. Retention was measured as a function of plasma ion dose in the range 6x10 19 -4x10 22 D atoms and exposure temperature between 523 and 673 K using thermal desorption spectrometry. The results are consistent with the full uptake of all deuterium ions incident on the liquid metal surface and are found to be independent of the temperature of the liquid lithium over the range explored. Full uptake, consistent with very low recycling, continues until the sample is volumetrically converted to lithium deuteride. This occurs for exposure temperatures where the gas pressure during exposure was both below and slightly above the corresponding decomposition pressure for LiD in Li. (author)

  11. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    A method of separating deuterium, i.e., heavy hydrogen, from certain naturally occurring sources using tuned infrared lasers to selectively decompose specified classes of organic molecules (i.e., RX) into enriched molecular products containing deuterium atoms is described. The deuterium containing molecules are easily separated from the starting material by absorption, distillation or other simple chemical separation techniques and methods. After evaporation such deuterium containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content or pyrolyzed to form hydrogen gas with an enriched deuterium content. The undecomposed molecules and the other reaction products which are depleted of their deuterium containing species can be catalytically treated, preferably using normal water, to restore the natural abundance of deuterium and such restored molecules can then be recycled

  12. Results from deuterium-tritium tokamak confinement experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    1997-02-01

    Recent scientific and technical progress in magnetic fusion experiments has resulted in the achievement of plasma parameters (density and temperature) which enabled the production of significant bursts of fusion power from deuterium-tritium fuels and the first studies of the physics of burning plasmas. The key scientific issues in the reacting plasma core are plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and the confinement and loss of energetic fusion products from the reacting fuel ions. Progress in the development of regimes of operation which have both good confinement and are MHD stable have enabled a broad study of burning plasma physics issues. A review of the technical and scientific results from the deuterium-tritium experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is given with particular emphasis on alpha-particle physics issues.

  13. Results from deuterium-tritium tokamak confinement experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    1997-02-01

    Recent scientific and technical progress in magnetic fusion experiments has resulted in the achievement of plasma parameters (density and temperature) which enabled the production of significant bursts of fusion power from deuterium-tritium fuels and the first studies of the physics of burning plasmas. The key scientific issues in the reacting plasma core are plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability, and the confinement and loss of energetic fusion products from the reacting fuel ions. Progress in the development of regimes of operation which have both good confinement and are MHD stable have enabled a broad study of burning plasma physics issues. A review of the technical and scientific results from the deuterium-tritium experiments on the Joint European Torus (JET) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is given with particular emphasis on alpha-particle physics issues

  14. On the habitability of universes without stable deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Fred C.; Grohs, Evan

    2017-05-01

    In both stars and in the early universe, the production of deuterium is the first step on the way to producing heavier nuclei. If the strong force were slightly weaker, then deuterium would not be stable, and many authors have noted that nuclesynthesis would be compromised so that helium production could not proceed through standard reaction chains. Motivated by the possibility that other regions of space-time could have different values for the fundamental constants, this paper considers stellar evolution in universes without stable deuterium and argues that such universes can remain habitable. Even in universes with no stellar nucleosynthesis, stars can form and will generate energy through gravitational contraction. Using both analytic estimates and a state-of-the-art stellar evolution code, we show that such stars can be sufficiently luminous and long-lived to support life. Stars with initial masses that exceed the Chandrasekhar mass cannot be supported by degeneracy pressure and will explode at the end of their contraction phase. The resulting explosive nucleosynthesis can thus provide the universe with some heavy elements. We also explore the possibility that helium can be produced in stellar cores through a triple-nucleon reaction that is roughly analogous to the triple-alpha reaction that operates in our universe. Stars burning hydrogen through this process are somewhat hotter than those in our universe, but otherwise play the same role. Next we show that with even trace amounts (metallicity Z ∼10-10) of heavy elements - produced through the triple-nucleon process or by explosive nucleosynthesis - the CNO cycle can operate and allow stars to function. Finally, we consider Big Bang Nucleosynthesis without stable deuterium and find that only trace amounts of helium are produced, with even smaller abundances of other nuclei. With stars evolving through gravitational contraction, explosive nucleosynthesis, the triple-nucleon reaction, and the CNO cycle

  15. Solid deuterium centrifuge pellet injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foster, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    Pellet injectors are needed to fuel long pulse tokamak plasmas and other magnetic confinement devices. For this purpose, an apparatus has been developed that forms 1.3-mm-diam pellets of frozen deuterium at a rate of 40 pellets per second and accelerates them to a speed of 1 km/s. Pellets are formed by extruding a billet of solidified deuterium through a 1.3-mm-diam nozzle at a speed of 5 cm/s. The extruding deuterium is chopped with a razor knife, forming 1.3-mm right circular cylinders of solid deuterium. The pellets are accelerated by synchronously injecting them into a high speed rotating arbor containing a guide track, which carries them from a point near the center of rotation to the periphery. The pellets leave the wheel after 150 0 of rotation at double the tip speed. The centrifuge is formed in the shape of a centrifugal catenary and is constructed of high strength KEVLAR/epoxy composite. This arbon has been spin-tested to a tip speed of 1 km/s

  16. Microtubule's conformational cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.

    1999-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow elongation of the unstable microtubule lattice remain unclear. It is usually thought that the GDP-liganded tubulin lattice is capped by a small layer of GTP- or GDP-P(i)-liganded molecules, the so called "GTP-cap". Here, we point-out that the elastic properties...

  17. Synthesis of deuterium labelled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappon, V.J.; Halstead, G.W.; Theis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The preparations of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen and [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen are described. The deuterium was incorporated into the aromatic ring of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen which is a metabolically stable position. [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen was synthesized by the same route using [ 2 H 3 ]-CH 3 I instead of CH 3 I for use as a GC/MS internal standard in stable isotope labelled bioavailability studies. (author)

  18. Preparations for deuterium tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D.; Barnes, G. [and others

    1994-04-01

    The final hardware modifications for tritium operation have been completed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). These activities include preparation of the tritium gas handling system, installation of additional neutron shielding, conversion of the toroidal field coil cooling system from water to a Fluorinet{sup {trademark}} system, modification of the vacuum system to handle tritium, preparation and testing of the neutral beam system for tritium operation and a final deuterium-deuterium (D-D) run to simulate expected deuterium-tritium (D-T) operation. Testing of the tritium system with low concentration tritium has successfully begun. Simulation of trace and high power D-T experiments using D-D have been performed. The physics objectives of D-T operation are production of {approximately} 10 megawatts (MW) of fusion power, evaluation of confinement and heating in deuterium-tritium plasmas, evaluation of {alpha}-particle heating of electrons, and collective effects driven by alpha particles and testing of diagnostics for confined {alpha}-particles. Experimental results and theoretical modeling in support of the D-T experiments are reviewed.

  19. Preparations for deuterium--tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawryluk, R.J.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.L.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Aschroft, D.; Barnes, C.W.; Barnes, G.; Batchelor, D.B.; Bateman, G.; Batha, S.; Baylor, L.A.; Beer, M.; Bell, M.G.; Biglow, T.S.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Bonoli, P.; Bretz, N.L.; Brunkhorst, C.; Budny, R.; Burgess, T.; Bush, H.; Bush, C.E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Carnevale, H.; Chang, Z.; Chen, L.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chrzanowski, J.; Collazo, I.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Cowley, S.; Cropper, M.; Darrow, D.S.; Daugert, R.; DeLooper, J.; Duong, H.; Dudek, L.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ernst, D.; Faunce, J.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredd, E.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, N.; Fu, G.Y.; Furth, H.P.; Garzotto, V.; Gentile, C.; Gettelfinger, G.; Gilbert, J.; Gioia, J.; Goldfinger, R.C.; Golian, T.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gouge, M.J.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L.R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hermann, H.W.; Hill, K.W.; Hirshman, S.; Hoffman, D.J.; Hosea, J.; Hulse, R.A.; Hsuan, H.; Ja

    1994-05-01

    The final hardware modifications for tritium operation have been completed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Fusion Technol. [bold 21], 1324 (1992)]. These activities include preparation of the tritium gas handling system, installation of additional neutron shielding, conversion of the toroidal field coil cooling system from water to a Fluorinert[sup TM] system, modification of the vacuum system to handle tritium, preparation, and testing of the neutral beam system for tritium operation and a final deuterium--deuterium (D--D) run to simulate expected deuterium--tritium (D--T) operation. Testing of the tritium system with low concentration tritium has successfully begun. Simulation of trace and high power D--T experiments using D--D have been performed. The physics objectives of D--T operation are production of [approx]10 MW of fusion power, evaluation of confinement, and heating in deuterium--tritium plasmas, evaluation of [alpha]-particle heating of electrons, and collective effects driven by alpha particles and testing of diagnostics for confined [alpha] particles. Experimental results and theoretical modeling in support of the D--T experiments are reviewed.

  20. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for separating and enriching deuterium containing molecules comprising the steps of: providing a source of organic molecules containing a normal abundance of deuterium atoms, the organic molecules having a structural formula RX, in which R is an organic radical selected from ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl and 3-cyclopentenyl, and in which X is selected from F, Cl, Br and OH, and wherein R represents 3-cyclopentenyl, X may additionally represent H; exposing the molecules to the radiation of at least one pulsed infrared laser source which has been specifically tuned and focussed to selectively decompose RX molecules containing deuterium to form an enriched olefin specie containing deuterium, and HX; and separating the deuterium enriched olefin specie from the undecomposed deuterium depleted RX molecules and HX. (author)

  1. Method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1980-01-01

    A method of deuterium isotope separation and enrichment using infrared laser technology in combination with chemical processes for treating and recycling the unreacted and deuterium-depleted starting materials is described. Organic molecules of the formula RX (where R is an ethyl, isopropyl, t-butyl, or cyclopentenyl group and X is F, Cl, Br or OH) containing a normal abundance of hydrogen and deuterium are exposed to intense laser infrared radiation. An olefin containing deuterium (olefin D) will be formed, along with HX. The enriched olefin D can be stripped from the depleted stream of RX and HX, and can be burned to form enriched water or pyrolyzed to produce hydrogen gas with elevated deuterium content. The depleted RX is decomposed to olefins and RX, catalytically exchanged with normal water to restore the deuterium content to natural levels, and recombined to form RX which can be recycled. (LL)

  2. Deuterium Labelling of L-Tyrosine with Raney Alloys in Alkaline Deuterium Oxide Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuzuki, Hirohisa; Mukumoto, Mamoru; Udagawa, Jun; Mataka, Shuntaro; Tashiro, Masashi

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of deuteriated L-tyrosines with Raney alloys in alkaline deuterium oxide solutions, involving reductive debromination of brominated L-tyrosines and hydrogen-deuterium (H-D) exchange of L-tyrosines, without causing racemization, is presented.

  3. Study of the /sup 50/V nucleus with the (/sup 3/He,d), (/sup 3/He,. cap alpha. ), (/sup 3/He,p), and (/sup 3/He,p. gamma. ) reactions. [Angular distribution, 13 and 22 MeV, analog states, DWBA, J,. pi. , spectroscopic factors, angular momentum, transitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J W

    1971-06-01

    The nucleus /sup 50/V with a ground-state configuration (..pi..f/sub 7/2/)/sup 3/(..nu..f/sub 7/2/)/sup -1/ was studied with the /sup 49/Ti(/sup 3/He,d)/sup 50/V, /sup 51/V)/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..)/sup 50/V, and /sup 48/Ti(/sup 3/He,p)/sup 50/V, and /sup 48/Ti(/sup 3/He,p..gamma..)/sup 50/V reactions induced by the /sup 3/He/sup + +/ beam from the tandem Van de Graaff at the Argonne National Laboratory. The angular distributions from (/sup 3/He,d), (/sup 3/He,..cap alpha..), and (/sup 3/He,p) reactions induced by 22-MeV /sup 3/He were studied with overall energy resolution widths of 20, 30, and 42 keV, respectively. The reactions (/sup 3/He,p) and (/sup 3/He,p..gamma..) were also studied at an incident energy of 13 MeV to obtain the ..gamma.. decay of /sup 50/V levels (including two 0/sup +/ isobaric analog states) in which the neutron-proton pair is transferred with zero angular momentum. The angular distributions of the charged-particle reactions were analyzed with the distorted-wave Born approximation (DWBA), and spectroscopic factors have been extracted for the one-nucleon transfer reactions. The two-nucleon transfer reaction (/sup 3/He,p) was analyzed with the DWBA on the assumption that the neutron-proton pair is transferred as a deuteron. The angular momentum L/sub np/ of the transferred deuteron is established for most of the levels, and the possibility that several levels might have spin and parity 1/sup +/ is discussed.

  4. Spin-polarized deuterium in magnetic traps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koelman, J.M.V.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Verhaar, B.J.; Walraven, J.T.M.

    1987-01-01

    We have calculated the spin-exchange two-body rate constants associated with the population dynamics of the hyperfine levels of atomic deuterium as a function of magnetic field in the Boltzmann zero-temperature limit. Results indicate that a gas of low-field--seeking deuterium atoms trapped in a static magnetic field minimum decays rapidly into an ultrastable gas of doubly spin-polarized deuterium. We also discuss the temperature dependence of various effects

  5. Fusion power production from TFTR plasmas fueled with deuterium and tritium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachan, J. D.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J. L.; Ashcroft, D.; Barnes, Cris W.; Barnes, G.; Batha, S.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Bretz, N. L.; Budny, R.; Bush, C. E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Cheng, C. Z.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Darrow, D. S.; DeLooper, J.; Duong, H.; Dudek, L.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ernst, D.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, N.; Fu, G. Y.; Furth, H. P.; Gentile, C.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G. R.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Heidbrink, W.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hill, K. W.; Hosea, J.; Hsuan, H.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D. L.; Jobes, F. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Johnson, L. C.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kugel, H.; Lam, N. T.; LaMarche, P. H.; Loughlin, M. J.; LeBlanc, B.; Leonard, M.; Levinton, F. M.; Machuzak, J.; Mansfield, D. K.; Martin, A.; Mazzucato, E.; Majeski, R.; Marmar, E.; McChesney, J.; McCormack, B.; McCune, D. C.; McGuire, K. M.; McKee, G.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Murakami, M.; Nagy, A.; Nazikian, R.; Newman, R.; Nishitani, T.; Norris, M.; O’Connor, T.; Oldaker, M.; Osakabe, M.; Owens, D. K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Pearson, G.; Perry, E.; Petrov, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Pitcher, S.; Ramsey, A. T.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Redi, M. H.; Roberts, D.; Rogers, J.; Rossmassler, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sasao, M.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G. L.; Scott, S. D.; Sissingh, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Snipes, J. A.; Stevens, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B. C.; Synakowski, E.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Terry, J. L.; Thompson, M. E.; Tuszewski, M.; Vannoy, C.; von Halle, A.; von Goeler, S.; Voorhees, D.; Walters, R. T.; Wieland, R.; Wilgen, J. B.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Wong, K. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Yamada, M.; Young, K. M.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; Zweben, S. J.

    1994-05-01

    Peak fusion power production of 6.2 ± 0.4 MW has been achieved in TFTR plasmas heated by deuterium and tritium neutral beams at a total power of 29.5 MW. These plasmas have an inferred central fusion alpha particle density of 1.2 x 1017 m ₋3 without the appearance of either disruptive magnetohydrodynamics events or detectable changes in Alfvén wave activity. The measured loss rate of energetic alpha particles agreed with the approximately 5% losses expected from alpha particles which are born on unconfined orbits.

  6. Physics of high performance deuterium-tritium plasmas in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGuire, K.M.; Batha, S.

    1996-11-01

    During the past two years, deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used to study fusion power production, isotope effects associated with tritium fueling, and alpha-particle physics in several operational regimes. The peak fusion power has been increased to 10.7 MW in the supershot mode through the use of increased plasma current and toroidal magnetic field and extensive lithium wall conditioning. The high-internal-inductance (high-I i ) regime in TFTR has been extended in plasma current and has achieved 8.7 MW of fusion power. Studies of the effects of tritium on confinement have now been carried out in ohmic, NBI- and ICRF- heated L-mode and reversed-shear plasmas. In general, there is an enhancement in confinement time in D-T plasmas which is most pronounced in supershot and high-I i discharges, weaker in L-mode plasmas with NBI and ICRF heating and smaller still in ohmic plasmas. In reversed-shear discharges with sufficient deuterium-NBI heating power, internal transport barriers have been observed to form, leading to enhanced confinement. Large decreases in the ion heat conductivity and particle transport are inferred within the transport barrier. It appears that higher heating power is required to trigger the formation of a transport barrier with D-T NBI and the isotope effect on energy confinement is nearly absent in these enhanced reverse-shear plasmas. Many alpha-particle physics issues have been studied in the various operating regimes including confinement of the alpha particles, their redistribution by sawteeth, and their loss due to MHD instabilities with low toroidal mode numbers. In weak-shear plasmas, alpha-particle destabilization of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode has been observed

  7. Transport of deuterium, tritium and helium in a tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potters, J.H.H.M.

    1984-02-01

    A one-dimensional numerical model for determining steady-state radial profiles of the densities of the particles, including neutrals, in a multispecies toroidal plasma is described. For prescribed temperature profiles, the coupled momentum and particle balances of the ions are solved numerically with a newly developed compact finite difference scheme for a non-equidistant mesh. Neutral densities are obtained by solving the Boltzmann equations, using a collocation method. The model is applied to deuterium-tritium plasmas without and with a helium admixture. For the charged particles, Pfirsch-Schlueter transport, including the highly collisional extension, and either of two anomalous transport models are adopted. For equal densities of deuterons and tritons in the plasma centre, the neutral tritium density in front of the wall is found to be 1.3 to 1.6 times higher than that of deuterium, depending on the plasma density, the temperature profile and the transport model. Secondly, it is found that pumping neutral helium, originating from fusion alpha particles, out of a cold plasma/gas blanket surrounding the hot plasma is not feasible, as the helium gas density, corresponding to a relative abundance of alpha-particles in the plasma core below 10%, is very low. Although depending strongly on the ion transport model and being increased by elastic collisions between neutral helium and charged hydrogen isotopes, the neutral helium enrichment ratio is always much less than unity. (Auth.)

  8. Deuterium measurement by emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, E.G.; Heilig, K.; Dumke, I.

    1978-01-01

    The method makes it possible to determine the relative deuterium content of enriched water samples. For this, the relative intensities of the Hα and Dα lines are measured which are emitted by a high-frequency discharge in water vapour. Although the method is not as exact as mass spectrometry, it has the following advantages: - Easy sample preparation (no reduction necessary); - samples of highly different enrichment can be measured one after the other without the danger of memory effects; - much lower apparatus and cost expenditure. The necessary sample size is about the same in both methods. (orig.) [de

  9. Deuterium exchange between fluoroform and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1981-01-01

    The selective multiphoton dissociation of fluoroform by IR laser results in the dissociation of deuterium-bearing molecules, thereby leading to the separation of hydrogen isotopes. The deuterium exchange between depleted fluroform and natural water has been investigated and the separation factors for this exchange have been calculated over a wide range of temperature. (author)

  10. Methods of synthesis of deuterium labelled lipids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bragina, N.A.; Chupin, V.V.

    1997-01-01

    Methods for synthesis of deuterium-labelled hydrophobic and hydrophilic lipid molecules and ways of obtaining selectively and completely deuterized phospholipids and their analogues are considered. The deuterium-labelled lipids are used for studies on structural organization and functioning of biological membranes, including studies with the NMP and neutron-diffraction methods of lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions

  11. Deuterium abundance, from ultraviolet to visible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebrard, Guillaume

    2000-01-01

    In the frame of the standard Big Bang model, the primordial abundance of deuterium is the most sensitive to the baryonic density of the Universe. It was synthesized only during the primordial nucleosynthesis few minutes after the Big Bang and no other standard mechanism is able to produce any further significant amount. On the contrary, since deuterium is burned up within stars, its abundance D/H decreases along cosmic evolution. Thus, D/H measurements constrain Big Bang and galactic chemical evolution models. There are three samples of deuterium abundances: primordial, proto-solar and interstellar. Each of them is representative of a given epoch, respectively about 15 Gyrs past, 4.5 Gyrs past and present epoch. Although the evolution of the deuterium abundance seems to be qualitatively understood, the measurements show some dispersion. Present thesis works are linked to deuterium interstellar abundance measurements. Such measurements are classically obtained from spectroscopic observations of the hydrogen and deuterium Lyman series in absorption in the ultraviolet spectral range, using space observatories. Results presented here were obtained with the Hubble Space Telescope and FUSE, which has recently been launched. Simultaneously, a new way to observe deuterium has been proposed, in the visible spectral range from ground-based telescopes. This has led to the first detections and the identification of the deuterium Balmer series, in emission in HII regions, using CFHT and VLT telescopes. (author) [fr

  12. Deuterium-tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.; Adler, J.H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.L.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D.

    1994-09-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) experimental program on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is underway and routine tritium operations have been established. The technology upgrades made to the TFTR facility have been demonstrated to be sufficient for supporting both operations and maintenance for an extended D-T campaign. To date fusion power has been increased to ∼9 MW and several physics results of importance to the D-T reactor regime have been obtained: electron temperature, ion temperature, and plasma stored energy all increase substantially in the D-T regime relative to the D-D regime at the same neutral beam power and comparable limiter conditioning; possible alpha electron heating is indicated and energy confinement improvement with average ion mass is observed; and alpha particle losses appear to be classical with no evidence of TAE mode activity up to the PFUS ∼6 MW level. Instability in the TAE mode frequency range has been observed at PFUS > 7 MW and its effect on performance in under investigation. Preparations are underway to enhance the alpha particle density further by increasing fusion power and by extending the neutral beam pulse length to permit alpha particle effects of relevance to the ITER regime to be more fully explored

  13. Deuterium-tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosea, J.; Adler, J.H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Anderson, J.L.; Barnes, C.W. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1994-11-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) experimental program on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is underway and routine tritium operations have been established. The technology upgrades made to the TFTR facility have been demonstrated to be sufficient for supporting both operations and maintenance for an extended D-T campaign. To date fusion power has been increased to {approximately}9 MW and several physics results of importance to the D-T reactor regime have been obtained: electron temperature, ion temperature, and plasma stored energy all increase substantially in the D-T regime relative to the D-D regime at the same neutral beam power and comparable limiter conditioning; possible alpha electron heating is indicated and energy confinement improvement with average ion mass is observed; and alpha particle losses appear to be classical with no evidence of TAE mode activity up to the P{sub FUS} {approximately}6 MW level. Instability in the TAE mode frequency range has been observed at P{sub FUS} > 7 MW and its effect on performance is under investigation. Preparations are underway to enhance the alpha particle density further by increasing fusion power and by extending the neutral beam pulse length to permit alpha particle effects of relevance to the ITER regime to be more fully explored.

  14. Deuterium-tritium experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosea, J.; Adler, J.H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J.L.; Anderson, J.W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D. [and others

    1994-09-01

    The deuterium-tritium (D-T) experimental program on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is underway and routine tritium operations have been established. The technology upgrades made to the TFTR facility have been demonstrated to be sufficient for supporting both operations and maintenance for an extended D-T campaign. To date fusion power has been increased to {approx}9 MW and several physics results of importance to the D-T reactor regime have been obtained: electron temperature, ion temperature, and plasma stored energy all increase substantially in the D-T regime relative to the D-D regime at the same neutral beam power and comparable limiter conditioning; possible alpha electron heating is indicated and energy confinement improvement with average ion mass is observed; and alpha particle losses appear to be classical with no evidence of TAE mode activity up to the PFUS {approx}6 MW level. Instability in the TAE mode frequency range has been observed at PFUS > 7 MW and its effect on performance in under investigation. Preparations are underway to enhance the alpha particle density further by increasing fusion power and by extending the neutral beam pulse length to permit alpha particle effects of relevance to the ITER regime to be more fully explored.

  15. Alpha Particle Physics Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budny, R.V.; Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Nazikian, R.; Zweben, S.J.; et al.

    1998-12-14

    Alpha particle physics experiments were done on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) during its deuterium-tritium (DT) run from 1993-1997. These experiments utilized several new alpha particle diagnostics and hundreds of DT discharges to characterize the alpha particle confinement and wave-particle interactions. In general, the results from the alpha particle diagnostics agreed with the classical single-particle confinement model in magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) quiescent discharges. Also, the observed alpha particle interactions with sawteeth, toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), and ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) waves were roughly consistent with theoretical modeling. This paper reviews what was learned and identifies what remains to be understood.

  16. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled fluphenazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, H U; Hawes, E M; Midha, K K

    1984-01-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of fluphenazine has been labeled with two, four, and six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate ester or imide. The gamma-carbon of the propyl group was labeled with two deuterium atoms by reduction of 10- (2-methoxycarbonylethyl) -2-trifluoromethyl-10H-phenothiazine, while four deuterium atoms were incorporated into the piperazine ring by reduction of 10-[3-(3,5-dioxo-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2-trifluoromethyl-10H-pheno thiazine. The latter reduction gave the d4-labeled N-deshydroxyethyl metabolite of fluphenazine.

  17. Effect of deposited tungsten on deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharapov, V.M.; Gavrilov, L.E. [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Kulikauskas, V.S.

    1998-01-01

    Usually ion or plasma beam is used for the experiment with beryllium which simulates the interaction of plasma with first wall in fusion devices. However, the use of thermal or subthermal atoms of hydrogen isotopes seems to be useful for that purpose. Recently, the authors have studied the deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium. The experimental setup is shown, and is explained. By means of elastic recoil detection (ERD) technique, it was shown that in the exposure to D atoms at 740 K, deuterium is distributed deeply into the bulk, and is accumulated up to higher concentration than the case of the exposure to molecular deuterium. The depth and concentration of deuterium distribution depend on the exposure time, and those data are shown. During the exposure to atomic deuterium, oxide film grew on the side of a sample facing plasma. In order to understand the mechanism of deuterium trapping, the experiment was performed using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and residual gas analysis (RGA). The influence that the tungsten deposit from the heated cathode exerted to the deuterium accumulation in beryllium in contact with atomic deuterium was investigated. These results are reported. (K.I.)

  18. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.; Richard, J.; Godbillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dicolofenac sodium labelled with deuterium in the phenylacetic ring was prepared from [ 2 H 5 ]-bromobenzene in a six-step reaction. It was found to be suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in man. (Author)

  19. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 142 NIST Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  20. Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 142 Energy Levels of Hydrogen and Deuterium (Web, free access)   This database provides theoretical values of energy levels of hydrogen and deuterium for principle quantum numbers n = 1 to 200 and all allowed orbital angular momenta l and total angular momenta j. The values are based on current knowledge of the revelant theoretical contributions including relativistic, quantum electrodynamic, recoil, and nuclear size effects.

  1. Deuterium Abundance in the Local ISM and Possible Spatial Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L.

    1998-01-01

    Excellent HST/GHRS spectra of interstellar hydrogen and deuterium Lyman-(alpha) absorption toward nearby stars allow us to identify systematic errors that have plagued earlier work and to measure accurate values of the D/H ratio in local interstellar gas. Analysis of 12 sightlines through the Local Interstellar Cloud leads to a mean value of D/H = (1.50 +/- 0.10) x 10(exp -5) with all data points lying within +/- l(delta) of the mean. Whether or not the D/H ratio has different values elsewhere in the Galaxy and beyond is a very important open question that will be one of the major objectives of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) mission.

  2. Structural dynamics of soluble chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC1 examined by amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoychev, Stoyan H; Nathaniel, Christos; Fanucchi, Sylvia; Brock, Melissa; Li, Sheng; Asmus, Kyle; Woods, Virgil L; Dirr, Heini W

    2009-09-08

    Chloride intracellular channel protein 1 (CLIC1) functions as an anion channel in plasma and nuclear membranes when its soluble monomeric form converts to an integral-membrane form. The transmembrane region of CLIC1 is located in its thioredoxin-like domain 1, but the mechanism whereby the protein converts to its membrane conformation has yet to be determined. Since channel formation in membranes is enhanced at low pH (5 to 5.5), a condition that is found at the surface of membranes, the structural dynamics of soluble CLIC1 was studied at pH 7 and at pH 5.5 in the absence of membranes by amide hydrogen-deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (DXMS). Rapid hydrogen exchange data indicate that CLIC1 displays a similar core structure at these pH values. Domain 1 is less stable than the all-helical domain 2, and, while the structure of domain 1 remains intact, its conformational flexibility is further increased in an acidic environment (pH 5.5). In the absence of membrane, an acidic environment appears to prime the solution structure of CLIC1 by destabilizing domain 1 in order to lower the activation energy barrier for its conversion to the membrane-insertion conformation. The significantly enhanced H/D-exchange rates at pH 5.5 displayed by two segments (peptides 11-31 and 68-82) could be due to the protonation of acidic residues in salt bridges. One of these segments (peptide 11-31) includes part of the transmembrane region which, in the solution structure, consists of helix alpha1. This helix is intrinsically stable and is most likely retained in the membrane conformation. Strand beta2, another element of the transmembrane region, displays a propensity to form a helical structure and has putative N- and C-capping motifs, suggesting that it too most likely forms a helix in a lipid bilayer.

  3. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  4. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langton, C

    2005-01-01

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  5. Deuterium retention in tungsten and tungsten-tantalum alloys exposed to high-flux deuterium plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zayachuk, Y.; Hoen, M. H. J. 't; van Emmichoven, P. A. Zeijlma; Uytdenhouwen, I.; Van Oost, G.

    2012-01-01

    A direct comparison of deuterium retention in samples of tungsten and two grades of tungsten-tantalum alloys-W-1% Ta and W-5% Ta, exposed to deuterium plasmas (ion flux similar to 10(24) m(-2) s(-1), ion energy at the biased target similar to 50 eV) at the plasma generator Pilot-PSI was performed

  6. Comparison of alpha decay and alpha transfer reactions in the lead region. [R matrix theory, absolute alpha widths, cross sections, 93 MeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DeVries, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Data were taken for five transitions in the lead region allowing a quantitative comparison with corresponding alpha-decay data via R-matrix theory using the same target + alpha nuclear potential. Good agreement between the absolute reduced widths determined from the two sets of data suggests that in transfer reactions, as in alpha decay, an alpha particle in its ground state is transferred in a one-step process. In a separate analysis, elastic and total reaction cross sections for the systems ..cap alpha.. + /sup 208/Pb, /sup 209/Bi were analyzed to obtain a limited set of potentials which, in turn, were used to calculate absolute alpha widths. Existing shell model calculations give ..gamma../sub ..cap alpha..//sup 2/ values three orders of magnitude smaller.

  7. Deuterium excess anomaly of precipitation in Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuells, C. J.; Ritter, M.

    2010-12-01

    The isotopic composition of precipitation and melt-water lakes in Svalbard was studied. The IAEA precipitation record of monthly precipitation data from Ny Alesund reveals a much stronger and regular seasonal variability of deuterium excess compared to oxygen-18 and deuterium. The seasonal amplitude of deuterium excess in Ny Alesund is more pronounced than in stations of similar latitude in Greenland and Iceland. Ratios of 18O/16O and 2H/H vary between single events and do not show a clear seasonal pattern. These principle observations have been applied to the investigation of melt-water lakes in Svalbard using the stable isotopes of water. For each melt-water lake samples have been taken of the uppermost layer of the surrounding snow pack, of melt-water inflow(s), the lake water itself and the existing outflow. Samples have been analyzed for 18O/16O and 2H/H with laser ring-down spectrometry. Based on observed topological and geomorphometric data the mean residence time was estimated indicating turnover within days to few weeks. Kinetic isotope fractionation by evaporation was observed only in the inflow of the lowest lake. The isotopic data from melt-water lakes reflects the deuterium excess anomaly observed in the precipitation data from Svalbard. The hydrological input to the melt-water lakes from snow-melt and groundwater could be identified. While the hydrological regime of most lakes is dominated by melt-water, significant groundwater inflow could be detected in specific lakes. In this environment the investigation of hydrological processes and properties of hydrological systems can be improved by using the information content of deuterium excess seasonality. Deuterium excess results from ocean-atmosphere interactions and reflects moisture conditions and temperature gradients during evaporation in the source region of atmospheric moisture. In high-latitude environments deuterium excess seasonality and variability contains information about changes in

  8. Method of deuterium isotope separation using ethylene and ethylene dichloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1982-01-01

    Compounds enriched in deuterium may be obtained from ethylene, vinyl chloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, or propylene by laser isotope separation. Normal molecules of these organic compounds are exposed to infrared laser radiation of a suitable wavelength. Substantially all of the deuterium-containing molecules exposed to the laser can be selectively dissociated and the deuterium-containing products separated from the starting material and other reaction products. The deuterium-containing molecules can be burned to form water with an enriched deuterium content, or pyrolized to form hydrogen gas enriched in deuterium

  9. Deuterium enrichment of interstellar dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Ankan; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen

    2016-07-01

    High abundance of some abundant and simple interstellar species could be explained by considering the chemistry that occurs on interstellar dusts. Because of its simplicity, the rate equation method is widely used to study the surface chemistry. However, because the recombination efficiency for the formation of any surface species is highly dependent on various physical and chemical parameters, the Monte Carlo method is best suited for addressing the randomness of the processes. We carry out Monte-Carlo simulation to study deuterium enrichment of interstellar grain mantle under various physical conditions. Based on the physical properties, various types of clouds are considered. We find that in diffuse cloud regions, very strong radiation fields persists and hardly a few layers of surface species are formed. In translucent cloud regions with a moderate radiation field, significant number of layers would be produced and surface coverage is mainly dominated by photo-dissociation products such as, C, CH_3, CH_2D, OH and OD. In the intermediate dense cloud regions (having number density of total hydrogen nuclei in all forms ˜2 × 10^4 cm^{-3}), water and methanol along with their deuterated derivatives are efficiently formed. For much higher density regions (˜10^6 cm^{-3}), water and methanol productions are suppressed but surface coverage of CO, CO_2, O_2, O_3 are dramatically increased. We find a very high degree of fractionation of water and methanol. Observational results support a high fractionation of methanol but surprisingly water fractionation is found to be low. This is in contradiction with our model results indicating alternative routes for de-fractionation of water.

  10. Revealing water's secrets: deuterium depleted water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharuk, Vladyslav V; Kavitskaya, Alina A; Romanyukina, Iryna Yu; Loboda, Oleksandr A

    2013-06-17

    The anomalous properties of water have been of great interest for generations of scientists. However the impact of small amount of deuterium content which is always present in water has never been explored before. For the first time the fundamental properties of deuterium depleted (light) water at 4°C and 20°C are here presented. The obtained results show the important role of the deuterium in the properties of bulk water. At 4°C the lowest value of the kinematic viscosity (1.46 mm2/s) has been found for 96.5 ppm D/H ratio. The significant deviation in surface tension values has been observed in deuterium depleted water samples at the both temperature regimes. The experimental data provides direct evidence that density, surface tension and viscosity anomalies of water are caused by the presence of variable concentration of deuterium which leads to the formation of water clusters of different size and quantity. The investigated properties of light water reveal the origin of the water anomalies. The new theoretical model of cluster formation with account of isotope effect is proposed.

  11. Deuterium desorption from tungsten using laser heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H. Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Retention and desorption of hydrogenic species need to be accurately modeled to predict the tritium inventory of next generation fusion devices, which is needed both for tritium fuel recovery and for tritium safety concerns. In this paper, experiments on thermal desorption of deuterium from intrinsic polycrystalline tungsten defects using laser heating are compared to TMAP-7 modeling. The samples during deuterium plasma exposure were at a temperature of 373K for this benchmark study with ion fluence of 0.7–1.0 ×1024Dm−2. Following plasma exposure, a fiber laser (λ= 1100nm heated the samples to peak surface temperatures ranging from ∼500 to 1400K with pulse widths from 10ms to 1s, and 1 to 10 pulses applied to each sample. The remaining deuterium retention was measured using temperature programmed desorption (TPD. Results show that > 95% of deuterium is desorbed when the peak surface temperature reached ∼950K for > 1s. TMAP-7 is used to predict deuterium desorption from tungsten for a range of surface temperatures and heating durations, and is compared to previous work on desorption from beryllium codeposits.

  12. Hydrogen/deuterium transfer in coal liquefaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronauer, D.C.; McNeil, R.I.; Young, D.C.; Ruberto, R.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reactions have been made with deuterium-labelled solvent (d 4 - and d 12 -tetralin) and both Powhatan bituminous (Pittsburgh Seam) coal and model compounds under coal liquefaction conditions to study hydrogen transfer mechanisms. Powhatan coal liquefies quickly. Hydrogen transfer from the solvent to the reaction products continues throughout the heating period (up to 60 min). Significant hydrogen/deuterium exchange occurs and this strongly affects the distribution of deuterium in the products and also affects the extent of conversion as measured by the amount of THF-insoluble material. Increased deuteration of the solvent leads to decreased conversion. This exchange is enhanced by heavy aromatic species and by the presence of mineral matter and unconverted coal solids. (author)

  13. Deuterium Fractionation just after the Star Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, D.; Sakai, N.; Yamamoto, S.

    2013-10-01

    We have recently conducted a five-point strip observation of the DCO+, H13CO+, DNC, HN13C, and N2H+ lines toward low mass Class I protostar L1551 IRS5, and have evaluated the deuterium fractionation ratios DCO+/HCO+ and DNC/HNC. The DCO+/HCO+ ratio is found to be lower toward the protostar position than those toward the adjacent positions. On the other hand, the DNC/HNC ratio does not show such a decrease toward the protostar position. This suggests that the deuterium fractionation ratio of the neutral species is conserved after the star formation. If so, the deuterium fractionation of the neutral species can be used as a novel tracer to investigate the initial condition of the star formation process.

  14. Deuterium NMR, induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.R.

    1982-01-01

    Induced and intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were studied. Induced cholesteric lyomesophases based on potassium laurate (KL) system, with small amounts of cholesterol added, were studied by deuterium NMR and by polarizing microscopy. Order profiles obtained from deuterium NMR of KL perdenderated chains in both induced cholesteric and normal mesophases were compared. The intrinsic cholesteric lyotropic mesophases were based on the amphiphile potassium N-lauroyl serinate (KLNS) in the resolved levo form. The study of the type I intrinsic cholesteric mesophase was made by optical microscopy under polarized light and the type II intrinsic cholesteric lyomesophase was characterized by deuterium NMR. The new texture was explained by the use of the theory of disclinations developed for thermotropic liquid crystals, specially for cholesteric type. (M.J.C.) [pt

  15. Continuum emission from irradiated solid deuterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forrest, J.A.; Brooks, R.L.; Hunt, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    A new emission feature from the spectrum of irradiated solid deuterium has been observed in the very near-infrared spectral region. Experiments from three laboratories, using different excitation conditions, have confirmed the observation. Comparison of the timing and temperature dependence...... of the spectral feature to the information previously available from electron spin resonance studies of solid deuterium, points to atomic association as the underlying cause. We shall show the connection of this emission to the occurrence of thermal spikes and optical flashes, previously observed in solid...

  16. Deuterium electrodisintegration at high recoil momentum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenholen, G.

    1996-01-01

    The availability of continuous electron beams made it possible to carry out various deuterium electro-disintegration experiments in kinematical domains corresponding to a high recoil momentum. Three such experiments are discussed: 1) the left-right asymmetry with respect to the direction of the momentum transfer has been measured with good precision; 2) cross sections have been obtained in a kinematical region well above the quasi-elastic peak; 3) data have been taken in quasi-elastic kinematics that can be used to study high-momentum components in the deuterium wave function [ru

  17. Deuterium separation factors in ammonia-hydrogen exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Sadhukhan, H.K.; Raman, S.; Srisaila, S.; Kalsi, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    Deuterium separation factors for the exchange between ammonia and hydrogen involving all the isotopic forms of these molecules at equilibrium have been calculated as function of temperature and deuterium concentration, using recent spectroscopic data. Wide range of temperature and deuterium concentration has been covered. These calculated values are in excellent agreement with the experimental measurements reported by different workers. (author)

  18. Experimental studies of very cold neutrons passing through solid deuterium

    CERN Document Server

    Serebrov, A P; Lasakov, M S; Mityukhlyaev, V A; Pirozhkov, A N; Potapov, I A; Varlamov, V E; Vasilev, A V; Zakharov, A A; Young, A R

    2001-01-01

    The studies of spectral dependence of neutron passing thorough solid deuterium has been carried out with a vertical beam of very cold neutrons with the wave length of lambda approx 40-150 A. The work results show the dependence of observed neutron scattering sections on the way of preparation of a solid deuterium sample and on ortho-para composition of deuterium

  19. Interaction of melittin with mixed phospholipid membranes composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine studied by deuterium NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dempsey, C.; Bitbol, M.; Watts, A. (Oxford Univ. (England))

    1989-08-08

    The interaction of bee venom melittin with mixed phospholipid bilayers composed of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine deuterated in the {alpha}- and {beta}-methylenes of the choline head group (DMPC-d{sub 4}) and dimyristoylphosphatidylserine deuterated in the {alpha}-methylene and {beta}-CH positions of the serine head group (DMPS-d{sub 3}) was studied in ternary mixtures by using deuterium NMR spectroscopy. The changes in the deuterium quadrupole splittings of the head-group deuteriomethylenes of DMPC-d{sub 4} induced by DMPS in binary mixtures were systematically reversed by increasing concentrations of melittin, so that at a melittin concentration of 4 mol % relative to total lipid the deuterium NMR spectrum from DMPC-d{sub 4} in the ternary mixture was similar to the spectrum from pure DMPC-d{sub 4} bilayers. The absence of deuterium NMR signals arising from melittin-bound DMPS in ternary mixtures containing DMPS-d{sub 3} indicates that the reversal by melittin of the effects of DMPS on the quadrupole splittings of DMPC-d{sub 4} results from the response of the choline head group to the net surface charge rather than from phase separation of melittin-DMPS complexes. The similarity in the effects of the two cationic but otherwise dissimilar peptides indicates that the DMPS head group responds to the surface charge resulting from the presence in the bilayer of charged amphiphiles, in a manner analogous to the response of the choline head group of phosphatidylcholine to the bilayer surface charge. The presence of DMPS greatly stabilized DMPC bilayers with respect to melittin-induced micellization, indicating that the latter effect of melittin may not be important for the hemolytic activity of the peptide.

  20. Sterol synthesis. A novel reductive rearrangement of an alpha,beta-unsaturated steroidal epoxide; a new chemical synthesis of 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta, 15alpha-diol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, E J; Schroepfer, G J

    1977-04-01

    Reduction of 3beta-benzoyloxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-7-ene with either lithium triethylboro-hydride or lithium aluminum hydride (4 molar excess) gave 5-alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol in high yield. Reduction of the epoxy ester with lithium triethylborodeuteride or lithium aluminum deuteride (4 molar excess) gave [7alpha-2-H]-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol. Reduction of 2beta-benzoyloxy-14alpha,15alpha-epoxy-5alpha-cholest-7-ene with a large excess (24 molar excess) of lithium aluminum hydride gave, in addition to the expected 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol, a significant yield (33%) of 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-o1. Reduction of the epoxy ester with a large excess (24 molar excess) of lithium aluminum deuteride gave [7alpha-2H]-5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta,15alpha-diol and 5alpha-cholest-8(14)-en-3beta-o1 which contained two atoms of stably bound deuterium.

  1. Alpha-cyclodextrins reversibly capped with disulfide bonds

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumprecht, Lukáš; Buděšínský, Miloš; Bouř, Petr; Kraus, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 10 (2010), s. 2254-2260 ISSN 1144-0546 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400550810 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : cyclodextrin s * disulfide bond * dynamic covalent bond Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.631, year: 2010

  2. ATLAS end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Three scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Phyiscs at Novossibirsk with one of the end-caps of the ATLAS detector. The end-caps will be used to detect particles produced in the proton-proton collisions at the heart of the ATLAS experiment that are travelling close to the axis of the two beams.

  3. Coherent ρ production from polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankfurt, L.; Sargsian, M.; Sargsian, M.

    1996-01-01

    We discuss the coherent leptoproduction of vector mesons from polarized deuterium as a tool to investigate the evolution of small size quark-gluon configurations. Kinematic regions are determined where the final state interaction of the initially produced quark-gluon wave packet contributes dominantly to the production cross section. Two methods for an investigation of color coherence effects are suggested. (author)

  4. The use of deuterium in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Sutton, J.; Marsac, J.

    1981-03-01

    Whenever a corporal function experiences a disturbance reflected either by changes in metabolic activity or modifications of the importance of pools of certain molecules the possibility exists of making use of isotopes in diagnosis. This paper discusses the use of deuterium to measure total body water and extravascular water in the lungs, and gives examples of clinical applications

  5. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled prochlorperazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawes, E M; Gurnsey, T S; Shetty, H U; Midha, K K

    1983-06-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of prochlorperazine was labeled with two, four, or six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate amide. The isotopic purity of the products after correcting for chlorine isotopes was greater than 95.7%.

  6. Deuterium in New Zealand rivers and streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, M.K.; Cox, M.A.; James, M.R.; Lyon, G.

    1983-07-01

    Over 750 deuterium measurements on rivers and streams in New Zealand are reported. Monthly samples were collected for periods of several years from a number of representative rivers. These show irregular storm-to-storm as well as seasonal deuterium variations. The seasonal variations range from as low as 1 per mille for lake-fed rivers to 8-10 per mille for rivers with large spring snow-melt contributions. Variations in mean annual ΔD values are believed to reflect changes in climatic variables; the present data will be used to compare with future changes. The bulk of the data are single samples; these show a geographic variation related to the altitude, latitude and climatic character of the catchments, with the highest deuterium contents (ΔD = -20 per mille) occurring in the far north, and lowest contents (-80 per mille) in the inland Otago region. Regression equations derived for the ΔD dependence on altitude (h) and latitude (l), are ΔD = -0.0169 h - 30.2 and westerly influence. Eastern climatic zones have lower deuterium contents because of rainout effects on the axial ranges. Contours of constant

  7. Deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, T.J.; Bennett, A.; Herbst, E.

    1989-01-01

    The time-dependent gas-phase chemistry of deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds ranging in temperature between 10 and 70 K was investigated using a pseudo-time-dependent model similar to that of Brown and Rice (1986). The present approach, however, considers much more complex species, uses more deuterium fractionation reactions, and includes the use of new branching ratios for dissociative recombinations reactions. Results indicate that, in cold clouds, the major and most global source of deuterium fractionation is H2D(+) and ions derived from it, such as DCO(+) and H2DO(+). In warmer clouds, reactions of CH2D(+), C2HD(+), and associated species lead to significant fractionation even at 70 K, which is the assumed Orion temperature. The deuterium abundance ratios calculated at 10 K are consistent with those observed in TMC-1 for most species. However, a comparison between theory and observatiom for Orion, indicates that, for species in the ambient molecular cloud, the early-time results obtained with the old dissociative recombination branching ratios are superior if a temperature of 70 K is utilized. 60 refs

  8. Deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millar, T. J.; Bennett, A.; Herbst, Eric

    1989-05-01

    The time-dependent gas-phase chemistry of deuterium fractionation in dense interstellar clouds ranging in temperature between 10 and 70 K was investigated using a pseudo-time-dependent model similar to that of Brown and Rice (1986). The present approach, however, considers much more complex species, uses more deuterium fractionation reactions, and includes the use of new branching ratios for dissociative recombinations reactions. Results indicate that, in cold clouds, the major and most global source of deuterium fractionation is H2D(+) and ions derived from it, such as DCO(+) and H2DO(+). In warmer clouds, reactions of CH2D(+), C2HD(+), and associated species lead to significant fractionation even at 70 K, which is the assumed Orion temperature. The deuterium abundance ratios calculated at 10 K are consistent with those observed in TMC-1 for most species. However, a comparison between theory and observatiom for Orion, indicates that, for species in the ambient molecular cloud, the early-time results obtained with the old dissociative recombination branching ratios are superior if a temperature of 70 K is utilized.

  9. Total cross section results for deuterium electrodisintegration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skopik, D.M.; Murphy, J.J. II; Shin, Y.M.

    1976-01-01

    Theoretical total cross sections for deuterium electrodisintegration are presented as a function of incident electron energy. The cross section has been calculated using virtual photon theory with Partovi's photodisintegration calculation for E/subx/ > 10 MeV and effective range theory for E/subx/ 2 H(e, n) reaction in Tokamak reactors

  10. Good Regulatory Lags for Price Cap and Rolling Cap contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Jose Luis Lima R; Andres Gomez Lobo

    2004-01-01

    Price caps are a popular form of monopoly price regulation. One of its disadvantages is the perverse incentives that regulated firms might have to scamp on cost reducing effort during the last years before a price review. In order to avoid this problem a “rolling cap†contract was introduced in the United Kingdom that overcomes this last problem. In spite of their popularity, there is scant research on the optimal regulatory lag (number of years between price reviews) of a price cap or rol...

  11. Dynamics and ligand-induced conformational changes in human prolyl oligopeptidase analyzed by hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tsirigotaki, Alexandra; Elzen, van, Roos; Veken, van der, Pieter; Lambeir, Anne-Marie; Economou, Anastassios

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Prolyl oligopeptidase (PREP) is conserved in many organisms across life. It is involved in numerous processes including brain function and neuropathology, that require more than its strict proteolytic role. It consists of a seven-bladed beta-propeller juxtaposed to a catalytic alpha/beta-hydrolase domain. The conformational dynamics of PREP involved in domain motions and the gating mechanism that allows substrate accessibility remain elusive. Here we used Hydrogen Deuterium eXchange...

  12. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise

    Contect We describe how we developed a monitoring system for community acquired pneumonia (CAP) at North Zealand Regional hospital. We serve 310.000 inhabitants and annually around 3200 patients with CAP are admitted. As part of a program of clinical pathways for common conditions, a pathway...... nurses and two senior doctors. Direct observations of the clinical processes revealed problems of coordination, complex disease trajectories that did not fit with the pneumonia pathway, unclear guidelines and variation in their interpretation. Intervention We designed a measurement system to monitor...... with CAP. We started with 34 audit variables. Through repeated cycles of testing, feedback and discussions, we reduced the number of indicators to 22 and time per audit from 20 to 10 minutes. Strategy for change To link the monitoring system with our patient pathway for CAP we established an improvement...

  13. Deuterium-depleted water. Romanian achievements and perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ion; Saros-Rogobete, Irina; Titescu, Gheorghe

    2001-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water has an isotopic content smaller than 145 ppm D/(D+H) which is the natural isotopic content of water. Beginning with 1996 ICSI Rm. Valcea, deuterium-depleted water producer, co-operated with Romanian specialized institutes for biological effect's evaluation of deuterium-depleted water. These investigations lead to the following conclusions: - Deuterium-depleted water caused a tendency towards the increase of the basal tonus, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictor effects of phenylefrine, noradrenaline and angiotensin; the increase of the basal tonus and vascular reactivity produced by the deuterium-depleted water persist after the removal of the vascular endothelium; - Animals treated with deuterium-depleted water showed an increase of the resistance both to sublethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses, suggesting a radioprotective action; - Deuterium-depleted water stimulates immune defence reactions and increases the numbers of polymorphonuclear neutrophils; - Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with deuterium-depleted water fecundated solutions confirmed favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in subsequent growth stages; - It was studied germination, growth and quantitative character's variability in plants; one can remark the favourable influence of deuterium-depleted water on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages; - The deuterium depletion in seawater produces the diminution of the water spectral energy related to an increased metabolism of Tetraselmis Suecica. (authors)

  14. Electrochemically induced nuclear fusion of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorne, J.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper cold fusion of deuterium by electrolysis of heavy water onto a palladium (or titanium) cathode is reported. Contrary to the assumption of Fleishmann and Pons that electrochemically compressed D + exists inside the palladium cathode, the observations of Jones et al. can be partially explained by the simultaneous presence of deuteride D - and the highly mobile positive deuterium ion D + . The opposite charges reduce the intranuclear distance and enhance the tunneling fusion rate. Furthermore, alloying of lithium with palladium can stabilize a negatively charged deuteride ion due to the salinelike character of lithium deuteride. The enormous pressure (or fugacity), achieved by the applied electrochemical potential (10 30 atm), is a virtual pressure that would have existed in equilibrium with palladium deuteride (PdD x ). It is speculated that nuclear fusion occurs at the surface, and the PdD x serves as a reservoir for the supply of deuteride ions

  15. Double recharge of pions on a deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichitiu, F.; Falomkin, I.V.; Shcherbakov, Yu.A.

    1987-01-01

    Assumptions on the dibaryon nature of the existing narrow resonances below the threshold of the NΔ-state with masses 1935, 1965, 2015 MeV are considered. New proposals on construction of the particle systematics with a new particle (R-particle of mass 1025 MeV, J=1/2, T=3/2) are used to draw a conclusion that double charge exchange is possible on deuterium and helium-3 if dibaryons or new R-particles are born in the final state. Attention is paid to a possible decay of these particles through a weak channel. A search for double charge exchange of pions on hydrogen and deuterium using a laser-illuminated streamer chamber of high pressure is proposed

  16. Emission of Secondary Electrons from Solid Deuterium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, H.

    1975-01-01

    An experimental facility was built where films of solid deuterium of known thickness could be made and where they could be irradiated with pulsed beams of electrons (up to 3 keV) and light ions (up to 10 keV). Studies of secondary electron emission were made and the secondary electron emission...... coefficient ϵ was measured for deuterium for various angles of incidence at electron energies of 0.5–3.0 keV. For normal incidence ϵ is quite small; it is well below one for all particle energies. It is seen that the angular dependence of ϵ is given by , where θ is the angle of incidence....

  17. Deuterium Liner and Multiparameter Investigation of the Inverse Z-Pinch Formation Process

    CERN Document Server

    Bystritskii, Vyach M; Grebenyuk, V M; Parzhitsky, S S; Penkov, F M; Stolupin, V A; Boznyak, J; Gula, E; Dudkin, G N; Nechaev, B A; Padalko, V M; Mesyats, G A; Ratakhin, N A; Sorokin, S A

    2001-01-01

    A description of the methods and results of the measurements of the ion energy distribution of the deuterium liner accelerated in the inverse Z-pinch configuration are presented - the liner plasma is radially accelerated from the outward small radius. The knowledge of the experiment deuteron energy distribution is crucially important for correct interpretation of the results on the study of the dd-reaction at infralow collision energies using the liner plasma. Experiments were fulfilled in the HCEI (Tomsk, Russia) at a nanosecond pulsed high current generator (I=950 kA, pulse duration \\tau=80 ns). The hollow deuterium liner of 20 mm length was accelerated from the initial radius of \\sim 15 mm to 45 mm. Measurement of the liner characteristics was produced by means of the light detectors (detection of H_\\alpha and H_\\beta deuterium lines) and magnetic B-dot probes, placed on the various radii of the expanding liner. Besides, the measurement of the neutron radiation intensity due to reaction d+d\\to^{3}He+n was ...

  18. The hydrogen-deuterium exchange of macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, C.J.

    1982-06-01

    An infra red spectroscopic technique has been developed which allows the hydrogen-deuterium exchange between a polymer and absorbed heavy water to be monitored with the polymer in contact with liquid heavy water. This method extends the existing methods to the highest possible internal water concentration. The results of Moore on the hydrogen-deuterium exchange of poly(N-t-butylacrylamide) have been extended to the lower homologues of the series. The rate and extent of the exchange of these polymers is dependent upon the pH of the conditioning solution in which the polymer is exposed prior to the exchange study. The exchange is acid and base catalysed with the latter only apparent in the lower homologues. The features of the acid catalysed exchange have been tentatively explained in terms of the mobility of the hydrogen ion in the polymer matrix, whilst the restricted base exchange is attributed to the lack of hydration stabilisation of the intermediate ion complex of the base catalysed mechanism. The hydrogen-deuterium exchange properties of nylon, silk and cellulose have also been studied and these polymers show far less sensitivity to the pH of the conditioning treatment. The results are discussed. (author)

  19. Suppression of deuterium-induced blistering in pre-damaged tungsten exposed to short-duration deuterium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiu-Li; Zhang, Ying; Cheng, Long; Shi, Li-Qun; De Temmerman, Gregory; Yuan, Yue; Liu, Hui-Ping; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2018-03-01

    Effects of pre-damage by 500 keV argon ion implantation on deuterium-induced blistering in tungsten has been investigated. After low-energy (40 eV) and high-flux (∼1024 D/m2s) deuterium plasma exposure with short exposure duration (100 s), a large increase of deuterium retention is found in the pre-damaged tungsten, while surface blistering is significantly suppressed as compared to the un-damaged one. According to elastic recoil detection analysis, a local deuterium concentration peak is observed at a depth of ∼100 nm for the un-damaged tungsten, which is supposed to be related to the surface blistering with nanometer size. Comparison of deuterium retention in the near surface (within 300 nm) and in the bulk suggests that deuterium inward diffusion is more significant in the pre-damaged tungsten. It is speculated that the creation of deuterium trap-sites and enhancement of deuterium inward diffusion give rise to an increase of critical deuterium concentration for blistering and contribute to the suppressed deuterium-induced blistering on pre-damaged tungsten under the present exposure conditions.

  20. Multiple deuterium occupancy of vacancies in Pd and related metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordlander, P.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet; Besenbacher, F.

    1989-01-01

    The binding energies of up to six deuterium atoms into monovacancies of Pd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Nb, and Mo have been calculated using the effective-medium theory. For all metals it is found that at least six D atoms can be accommodated in the vacancy. Of the systems studied the deuterium-deuterium intera......The binding energies of up to six deuterium atoms into monovacancies of Pd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Nb, and Mo have been calculated using the effective-medium theory. For all metals it is found that at least six D atoms can be accommodated in the vacancy. Of the systems studied the deuterium......-deuterium interaction is found to be least repulsive for Pd. This multiple occupancy of the vacancy defect can have potentially significant implications for the recently proposed fusion of D atoms in Pd....

  1. NATURE MANAGEMENT, LANDSCAPE AND THE CAP

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, Floor M.; Godeschalk, Frans E.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of nature management, landscape and environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has gained momentum with the CAP reforms adopted in June 2003. The report explores instruments and approaches that contribute to the inte-gration of nature conservation and landscape concerns into the CAP. A broader use of the CAP instruments might help to achieve nature types in the Netherlands.

  2. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting-Against-Beta...... in publicly traded stocks versus wholly-owned private companies, we find that the former performs the best, suggesting that Buffett's returns are more due to stock selection than to his effect on management. These results have broad implications for market efficiency and the implementability of academic...

  3. Deuterium ion irradiation damage and deuterium trapping mechanism in candidate stainless steel material (JPCA2) for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashizuka, Norihiro; Kurita, Takaaki; Yoshida, Naoaki; Fujiwara, Tadashi; Muroga, Takeo

    1987-01-01

    An improved austenitic stainless steel (JPCA), a candidate material for fusion reactor, is irradiated at room temperature with deuterium ion beams. Desorption spectra of deuterium gas is measured at various increased temperatures and defects formed under irradiation are observed by transmission electron microscopy to determine the mechanism of the thermal release of deuteriums and the characteristics of irradiation-induced defects involved in the process. In the deuterium deportion spectra observed, five release stages are found to exist at 90 deg C, 160 deg C, 220 deg C, 300 deg C and 400 deg C, referred to as Stage I, II, III, IV and V, respectively. Stage I is interpreted as representing the release of deuteriums trapped in point defects (presumably vacancies) formed under irradiation. The energy of desorption from the trapping sites is estimated at 0.8 eV. Stage II is concluded to be associated with the release of deuteriums trapped in a certain kind of existing defects. Stage III involves the release of deuteriums that are trapped in dislocations, dislocation loops or dislocated portions of stacking fault tetrahedra. This release occurs significantly in processed materials and other materials irradiated with high energy ion beams that may cause cascade damage. Stage IV is interpreted in terms of thermal decomposition of small deuterium clusters. Stage V is associated with the decomposition of rather large deuterium clusters grown on the {111} plane. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Deuterium Enrichment in Stratospheric Molecular Hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahn, T.; Eiler, J.; McCarthy, M. C.; Boering, K. A.; Wennberg, P.; Atlas, E.; Donnelly, S.; Schauffler, S.

    2002-12-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H2) is the second most abundant reduced gas in the atmosphere (after methane) with a globally averaged mixing ratio of ~ 530 ppbv. Its largest source is believed to be photochemical oxidation of methane (C H4) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs); other recognized sources include biomass burning, fossil fuel burning, nitrogen fixation, and ocean degassing. As with other atmospheric trace gases, the stable isotopic content of H2 has the potential to help quantify various aspects of its production and destruction. The average deuterium content of H2 (expressed as δDH2) is enriched by ~110 ‰ relative to Vienna Standard Mean Ocean Water while CH4 in the troposphere, the precursor for photochemical H2 production, is depleted by ~ 90 ‰ relative to V-SMOW and similar values are expected for NMHCs. Both natural and anthropogenic combustion sources of H2 have been shown to be depleted in deuterium by 200 to 300 ‰ (Gerst and Quay, 2001; Rahn et al., 2002), and the ocean and N2 fixation sources are expected to be in near thermodynamic equilibrium with local H2O and should have deuterium levels of ~-700 ‰ (Rahn et al., 2002). In order to offset these deuterium depleted sources and account for the observed tropospheric δDH2, the balancing loss processes must discriminate against reaction with HD and/or the total fractionation associated with CH4 oxidation and the subsequent reactions leading to H2 must favor production of deuterated H2. We have analyzed a suite of stratospheric air samples in order to investigate the photochemical processes influencing the deuterium content of H2. While the mixing ratio of H2 is nearly constant, the deuterium content increases such that δD=440 ‰ in samples with a stratospheric mean age of ~6 years. The constant mixing ratio results from the fact that production due to CH4 oxidation and loss due to H2 oxidation are approximately equal. The observed trend in δD of stratospheric H2 can only be accounted for by an

  5. Subsurface deuterium bubble formation in W due to low-energy high flux deuterium plasma exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jia, Y. Z.; Liu, W.; Xu, B.; Qu, S. L.; Shi, L. Q.; Morgan, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    The deuterium (D) bubbles formed in W exposed to high flux D plasma were researched by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. After D plasma exposure at 500 K and 1000 K, a layer of nano-sized bubbles were homogenously distributed in W subsurface region. The D bubbles

  6. Deuterium labelled lipophylic steroid analogues. Useful hydrogen-deuterium exchange in the course of Wittig reaction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chodounská, Hana

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 108, S2 (2014), s128 ISSN 0009-2770. [Conference on Isoprenoids /22./. 07.09.2014-10.09.2014, Praha] R&D Projects: GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020028; GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/1464 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : hydrogen - deuterium exchange * Wittig reaction Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  7. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Acter, Thamina; Zherebker, Alexander; Ahmed, Arif; Kim, Sunghwan; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-03-30

    The isotopic exchange approach is in use since the first observation of such reactions in 1933 by Lewis. This approach allows the investigation of the pathways of chemical and biochemical reactions, determination of structure, composition, and conformation of molecules. Mass spectrometry has now become one of the most important analytical tools for the monitoring of the isotopic exchange reactions. Investigation of conformational dynamics of proteins, quantitative measurements, obtaining chemical, and structural information about individual compounds of the complex natural mixtures are mainly based on the use of isotope exchange in combination with high resolution mass spectrometry. The most important reaction is the Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange, which is mainly performed in the solution. Recently we have developed the approach allowing performing of the Hydrogen/Deuterium reaction on-line directly in the ionization source under atmospheric pressure. Such approach simplifies the sample preparation and can accelerate the exchange reaction so that certain hydrogens that are considered as non-labile will also participate in the exchange. The use of in-ionization source H/D exchange in modern mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of molecules serves as the basic theme in this review. We will focus on the mechanisms of the isotopic exchange reactions and on the application of in-ESI, in-APCI, and in-APPI source Hydrogen/Deuterium exchange for the investigation of petroleum, natural organic matter, oligosaccharides, and proteins including protein-protein complexes. The simple scenario for adaptation of H/D exchange reactions into mass spectrometric method is also highlighted along with a couple of examples collected from previous studies. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Synthesis of deuterium labelled cocaine and pseudococaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, J.F.; Raney, H.T.; Cooper, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Cocaine and pseudococaine were mass-labelled with deuterium at various positions on the tropane ring. The synthetic procedures followed were adaptations of those previously published for the unlabelled compounds. The isotopic purity was greater than 95% for 2-[ 2 H]-, 4,4-[ 2 H2]-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-[ 2 H6]-cocaine and 3-[ 2 H]-, 4,4-[ 2 H2]-, and 1,5,6,6,7,7-[ 2 H6]-pseudococaine, while that of 3-[ 2 H]-cocaine exceeded 90%. (author)

  9. Novel PEFC Application for Deuterium Isotope Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisayoshi Matsushima

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC with a Nafion membrane for isotopic separation of deuterium (D was investigated. Mass analysis at the cathode side indicated that D diffused through the membrane and participated in an isotope exchange reaction. The exchange of D with protium (H in H2O was facilitated by a Pt catalyst. The anodic data showed that the separation efficiency was dependent on the D concentration in the source gas, whereby the water produced during the operation of the PEFC was more enriched in D as the D concentration of the source gas was increased.

  10. Apparatus and process for deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergenc, M.S.

    1976-01-01

    The deuterium exchange plant is combined with an absorption refrigeration plant in order to improve the exchange process and to produce refrigeration. The refrigeration plant has a throttling means for expanding and cooling a portion of the liquid exchange medium separated in the exchange plant as well as an evaporator, in which the said liquid exchange medium is brought into heat exchange with a cold consumer device, absorption means for forming a solution of the used exchange medium and fresh water and a pump for pumping the solution into the exchange plant

  11. Surface melting of deuterium hydride thick films

    OpenAIRE

    Zeppenfeld, P.; Bienfait, M.; Feng Chuan Liu,; Vilches, O.E.; Coddens, G.

    1990-01-01

    Quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been used to measure, below the bulk melting temperature, the thickness and the diffusion coefficient of the mobile surface layer of 8 and 10 layer thick films of deuterium hydride (HD) condensed on MgO(100). The measurements show that the close-packed surface of solid HD surface melts gradually, with the thickness of the melted layer increasing from 0.5 to 6 molecular layers as the temperature rises from 4 K to 0.05 K below the bulk melting temperature. T...

  12. APT analyses of deuterium-loaded Fe/V multi-layered films

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, R.

    2009-04-01

    Interaction of hydrogen with metallic multi-layered thin films remains as a hot topic in recent days Detailed knowledge on such chemically modulated systems is required if they are desired for application in hydrogen energy system as storage media. In this study, the deuterium concentration profile of Fe/V multi-layer was investigated by atom probe tomography (APT) at 60 and 30 K. It is firstly shown that deuterium-loaded sample can easily react with oxygen at the Pd capping layer on Fe/V and therefore, it is highly desired to avoid any oxygen exposure after D(2) loading before APT analysis. The analysis temperature also has an impact on D concentration profile. The result taken at 60 K shows clear traces of surface segregation of D atoms towards analysis surface. The observed diffusion profile of D allows us to estimate an apparent diffusion coefficient D. The calculated D at 60 K is in the order of 10(-17) cm(2)/s, deviating 6 orders of magnitude from an extrapolated value. This was interpreted with alloying, D-trapping at defects and effects of the large extension to which the extrapolation was done. A D concentration profile taken at 30 K shows nosegregation anymore and a homogeneous distribution at C(D) = 0.05(2) D/Me, which is in good accordance with that measured in the corresponding pressure-composition isotherm. (C) 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Evaluation of management alternatives for LWR hulls and caps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudon, L.; Mehling, O.; Cecille, L.; Thiels, G.; Kowa, S.

    1993-01-01

    Hulls and caps resulting from the reprocessing of LWR spent fuels represent one of the major sources of alpha-bearing solid waste generated during the nuclear fuel cycle. The Commission of the European Communities has undertaken considerable R and D efforts on the development of advanced treatment and conditioning methods for this type of waste. In view of the encouraging results achieved, the Commission launched a theoretical assessment study on cladding waste management. Six practical or potential schemes were identified and elaborated: direct cementation, decontamination prior to cementation, rolling before cementation, rolling followed by embedding in graphite, compaction, and melting in a cold crucible. The economic aspects of each management option were also investigated. This included the assessment of the plant (treatment, conditioning and interim storage), transport and disposal costs. Further consideration will be required to define the best management option for 'cap' wastes. Transport and disposal costs will also require further analysis from an industrial standpoint

  14. On-tissue Direct Monitoring of Global Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange by MALDI Mass Spectrometry: Tissue Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (TDXMS)*

    OpenAIRE

    Quanico, Jusal; Franck, Julien; Salzet, Michel; Fournier, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometric (H/DXMS) methods for protein structural analysis are conventionally performed in solution. We present Tissue Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (TDXMS), a method to directly monitor deuterium uptake on tissue, as a means to better approximate the deuterium exchange behavior of proteins in their native microenvironment. Using this method, a difference in deuterium uptake behavior was observed when the same proteins were monitored in solution and...

  15. Spin-polarized deuterium : stabilization in magnetic traps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelman, J.M.V.A.; Stoof, H.T.C.; Verhaar, B.J.; Walraven, J.T.M.

    1987-01-01

    We report on a calculation of the spin-exchange two-body rate constants associated with the population dynamics of the hyperfine levels of atomic deuterium as a function of magnetic field in the Boltzmann zero temperature limit. We find that a gas of low field seeking deuterium atoms trapped in a

  16. Sputtering of solid deuterium by He-ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Stenum, B.; Pedrys, R.

    2001-01-01

    Sputtering of solid deuterium by bombardment of 3He+ and 4He+ ions was studied. Some features are similar to hydrogen ion bombardment of solid deuterium, but for the He-ions a significant contribution of elastic processes to the total yield can be identified. The thin-film enhancement is more...... pronounced than that for hydrogen projectiles in the same energy range....

  17. Exchange of bonded hydrogen in amorphous silicon by deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abeles, B.; Yang, L.; Leta, D.P.; Majkrazak, C.

    1987-01-01

    The authors show that bonded hydrogen in a-Si:H is readily exchanged by atomic deuterium when exposed to a deuterium plasma discharge. The effective diffusion coefficient for the D, H exchange, 10 -14 cm 2 /sec at 160 0 C, is comparable to that of interstitial hydrogen in c-Si

  18. On the preparation of polymeric deuterium containing compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunjappu, J.T.; Rao, K.N.

    1984-01-01

    Methods for preparing deuterium containing polymers are discussed. Relative merits of each method are brought forth. Experimental conditions for its preparation from deuterodiazomethane are described. Also, the syntheses of various deutero intermediates like perdeuteroacetyl methyl urea and perdeuteronitrosomethyl urea are incorporated. The methods used for estimating the deuterium content in the various deutero compounds are described. (author)

  19. Method of producing deuterium-oxide-enriched water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandel, H.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for producing deuterium-oxide-enriched water (e.g., as a source of deuterium-rich gas mixtures) are disclosed wherein the multiplicity of individual cooling cycles of a power plant are connected in replenishment cascade so that fresh feed water with a naturally occurring level of deuterium oxide is supplied to replace the vaporization losses, sludge losses and withdrawn portion of water in a first cooling cycle, the withdrawn water being fed as the feed water to the subsequent cooling cycle or stage and serving as the sole feed-water input to the latter. At the end of the replenishment-cascade system, the withdrawn water has a high concentration of deuterium oxide and may serve as a source of water for the production of heavy water or deuterium-enriched gas by conventional methods of removing deuterium oxide or deuterium from the deuterium-oxide-enriched water. Each cooling cycle may form part of a thermal or nuclear power plant in which a turbine is driven by part of the energy and air-cooling of the water takes place in the atmosphere, e.g., in a cooling tower

  20. Deuteration of triborane(7) adducts with anhydrous deuterium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, A.R.; Kodama, G.

    1977-01-01

    A hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction between triborane(7) adducts and deuterium chloride is reported which involves all the hydrogen atoms in the B 3 H 7 moiety and proceeds rapidly even at low temperatures. The exchange reaction is reported to proceed much faster in dichloromethane solution than in tetrahydrofuran

  1. Capping Drugs: Development of Prodrugs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 2. Capping Drugs: Development of Prodrugs. H Surya Prakash Rao. General Article Volume 8 Issue 2 February 2003 pp 19-27. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/02/0019-0027 ...

  2. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  3. Ex-vacuo nuclear reaction analysis of deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.R.; Doyle, B.L.

    1989-01-01

    A novel technique for performing in-air d( 3 He, p) nuclear reaction analysis of deuterium using external 3 He ion beams ranging in energy from 0.3-2.0 MeV is presented. Variable on-target beam energies for the depth profiling of deuterium are obtained by varying the transmission distance of the external 3 He beam in air. The ex-vacuo nuclear reaction analysis (XNRA) apparatus is described, and unique aspects and limitations of in-air depth profiling of deuterium using the d( 3 He, p) reaction are discussed. Example analyses where XNRA has been used for the multidimensional measurement of deuterium in fusion reactor components are presented in order to illustrate the advantages of XNRA for deuterium. These advantages include nondestructive analysis of large targets, efficient depth profiling via variable air gap energy tuning, and rapid analysis of numerous samples in the absence of vacuum cycling. (orig.)

  4. Influence of tungsten microstructure and ion flux on deuterium plasma-induced surface modifications and deuterium retention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buzi, L.; De Temmerman, G.; Unterberg, B.; M. Reinhart,; Dittmar, T.; Matveev, D.; Linsmeier, C.; Breuer, U.; Kreter, A.; Van Oost, G.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of surface temperature, particle flux density and material microstructure on the surface morphology and deuterium retention was studied by exposing tungsten targets (20 μm and 40 μm grain size) to deuterium plasma at the same particle fluence (1026 m−2) and

  5. CAP binding proteins associated with the nucleus.

    OpenAIRE

    Patzelt, E; Blaas, D; Kuechler, E

    1983-01-01

    Cap binding proteins of HeLa cells were identified by photo-affinity labelling using the cap analogue gamma-[32P]-[4-(benzoyl-phenyl)methylamido]-7-methylguanosine-5'- triphosphate. Photoreaction with whole cell homogenates resulted in specific labelling of five major polypeptides. The small molecular weight polypeptide appeared to be identical to the 24 000 to 26 000 dalton cap binding protein previously identified in initiation factors. A cap binding protein of 37 000 dalton was found in in...

  6. Deuterium enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photochemically induced exchange with deuterium-rich cosmic ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandford, S. A.; Bernstein, M. P.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Zare, R. N.

    2000-01-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) coronene (C24H12) frozen in D2O ice in a ratio of less than 1 part in 500 rapidly exchanges its hydrogen atoms with the deuterium in the ice at interstellar temperatures and pressures when exposed to ultraviolet radiation. Exchange occurs via three different chemical processes: D atom addition, D atom exchange at oxidized edge sites, and D atom exchange at aromatic edge sites. Observed exchange rates for coronene (C24H12)-D2O and d12-coronene (C24D12)-H2O isotopic substitution experiments show that PAHs in interstellar ices could easily attain the D/H levels observed in meteorites. These results may have important consequences for the abundance of deuterium observed in aromatic materials in the interstellar medium and in meteorites. These exchange mechanisms produce deuteration in characteristic molecular locations on the PAHs that may distinguish them from previously postulated processes for D enrichment of PAHs.

  7. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...

  8. Investigation of coal hydrogenation using deuterium as an isotopic tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skowronski, R.P.; Heredy, L.A.; Rutlo, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    Mechanisms of coal hydrogenation were investigated by using a deuterium tracer method. This method makes it possible to determine which structural positions in the coal react with hydrogen during liquefaction. A hydrogenation index (HI) and exchange index (EI) were formulated to measure the amount of deuterium incorporated due to hydrogenation and exchange reactions, respectively. In the coal-deuterium system, deuterium incorporation was found to vary both with product fraction and with structural position. In contrast, the deuterium contents of the fractions from donor solvent experiments were essentially uniform. The donor solvent experiments did, however, show preferential deuterium incorporation with respect to structural position. Important information with regard to the reaction mechanisms in the donor solvent system was obtained by analyzing the spent solvent mixture that was recovered from the reaction products. The results indicate that not only hydrogen donation but also hydrogen exchange involving the α-positions of tetralin can have a significant role in stabilizing the fragments that form during the thermal decomposition of the coal. In addition, evidence was obtained that there is also a direct route for deuterium incorporation into the coal products from the gas phase without the participation of tetralin

  9. Point design for deuterium-deuterium compact reversed-field pinch reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dabiri, A.E.; Dobrott, D.R.; Gurol, H.; Schnack, D.D.

    1984-01-01

    A deuterium-deuterium (D-D) reversed-field pinch (RFP) reactor may be made comparable in size and cost to a deuterium-tritium (D-T) reactor at the expense of high-thermal heat load to the first wall. This heat load is the result of the larger percentage of fusion power in charged particles in the D-D reaction as compared to the D-T reaction. The heat load may be reduced by increasing the reactor size and hence the cost. In addition to this ''degraded'' design, the size may be kept small by means of a higher heat load wall, or by means of a toroidal divertor, in which case most of the heat load seen by the wall is in the form of radiation. Point designs are developed for these approaches and cost studies are performed and compared with a D-T reactor. The results indicate that the cost of electricity of a D-D RFP reactor is about20% higher than a D-T RFP reactor. This increased cost could be offset by the inherent safety features of the D-D fuel cycle

  10. Color transparency in the deuterium: experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voutier, E.; Pastor, A.; Russew, Th.; Breton, V.; Mathiot, J.F.; Laget, J.M.; Marchand, C.; Marroncle, J.

    1996-01-01

    The description of exclusive reactions at high momentum transfer relies on the Hard Scattering Picture of Quantum Chromodynamics. Particularly, the electromagnetic interaction with a nucleon at high enough Q 2 is predicted to select small transverse size components of the valence wave function. The evolution of these small components in a nuclear medium is characterized by a reduced interaction significant of the occurrence of color transparency. The present report is a feasibility study of a color transparency experiment in the deuterium in the context of the ELFE/DESY project. It is shown that the availability of such an electron facility allows uniquely to study accurately color transparency and therefore contributes to the understanding of the non-perturbative mechanisms of Quantum Chromodynamics. (authors)

  11. Deuterium pellet injection in the TFR Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazare, O.

    1985-07-01

    Injecting fresh fuel deep inside the plasma of a thermonuclear reactor appears to be necessary; the only way to do that is to inject fast solid deuterium pellets. The existing theoretical, technical and experimental aspects of this method are presented. The experiments on TFR have confirmed that injecting pellets is technically feasible; a new kind of injector is presented. The injection does not degrade stability nor confinement of the plasma. The study of the transient phenomena occuring during the injection has proved to be an efficient way to investigate particles and energy transport in the discharge; in particular, a fast transport phenomenon, similar to those occuring during disruptions, has been studied in details. Conclusions about disruptions are drawn. (Ref 101) [fr

  12. Stable Oxygen-18 and Deuterium Isotopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sascha

    The application of stable Oxygen-18 (18O) and Deuterium (2H) isotopes, as a tracer for fluxes between different compartments of the water cycle was subject of the present PhD-thesis. During a three year period, temporal data from a wide range of water cycle constituents was collected from...... the Skjern River catchment, Denmark. The presented applications focused on studying the isotopic 'input signal' to the hydrosphere in the form of precipitation, the isotopic 'output signal' with its related dynamic processes at a coastal saltwater-freshwater interface (groundwater isotopes) and the temporal...... development within a given lowland headwater catchment (stream water isotopes). Based on our investigations on the precipitation isotopic composition a local meteoric water line (LMWL) was constructed and expressed as: δ2H=7.4 δ18O + 5.36‰. Moreover, we showed that under maritime temperature climate influence...

  13. Deuterium permeation through Flibe facing materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukada, S.; Anderl, R.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    Experiment of deuterium permeation through Ni facing with purified Flibe is being carried out under the Japan-US joint research project (JUPITER-II). The experiment has been proceeding in the following phases; (i) fabrication and assembly of a dual-probe permeation apparatus, (ii) a single-probe Ni/D 2 , permeation experiment without Flibe, (iii) a dual-probe Ar/Ni/D 2 permeation experiment without Flibe, (iv) Flibe chemical purification by HF/H 2 gas bubbling, (v) physical purification by Flibe transport through a porous Ni filter, (vi) Ar/Ni/Flibe/Ni/D 2 permeation experiment using the dual Ni probe, and (vii) Ar/Ni/Flibe/Ni/HT permeation experiment. The present paper describe results until the Ar/Ni/Flibe/Ni/D 2 permeation experiment in detail. (author)

  14. Deuterium depleted water. Romanian achievements and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Steflea, Dumitru; Titescu, Gheorghe; Tamaian, Radu

    2002-01-01

    The deuterium depleted water (DDW) is microbiologically pure distilled water with a deuterium content lower than that of natural waters which amounts to 140 - 150 ppm D/(D+H); variations depend on geographical zone and altitude. The procedure of obtaining DDW is based on isotopic separation of natural water by vacuum distillation. Isotope concentration can be chosen within 20 to 120 ppm D/(D+H). The ICSI at Rm. Valcea has patented the procedure and equipment for the production of DDW. According to the document SF-01-2002/INC-DTCI - ICSI Rm. Valcea, the product has a D/(D+H) isotope concentration of 25 ± 5. Studies and research for finding the effects and methods of application in different fields were initiated and developed in collaboration with different institutes in Romania. The following important results obtained so far could be mentioned: - absence of toxicity upon organisms; - activation of vascular reactivity; - enhancement of defence capacity of the organism through non-specific immunity activation; - increase of salmonid reproduction capacity and enhancement of the adaptability of alevins to the environmental conditions; - radioprotective effect to ionizing radiation; - maintaining meat freshness through osmotic shock; - stimulation of growth of aquatic macrophytes; - enhancement of culture plant development in certain ontogenetic stages. Mostly, the results and practical applications of the research were patented and awarded with gold medals at international invention fairs. At present, research-development programmes are undergoing to find active biological features of DDW in fighting cancer, on one hand, and its applicability as food additive of pets or performing animals, on the other hand

  15. Electromigration of hydrogen and deuterium in vanadium, niobium, and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, C.L.

    1977-10-01

    The electric mobility and effective valence of hydrogen and deuterium in vanadium, niobium, tantalum and three niobium-tantalum alloys were measured. A resistance technique was used to directly determine the electric mobility of hydrogen and deuterium at 30 0 C while a steady-state method was used to measure the effective valence. The use of mass spectrographic techniques on a single specimen which contained both hydrogen and deuterium greatly increased the precision with which the isotope effect in the effective valence could be measured

  16. Preparation of deuterium-labeled rutin by hydrogen exchange reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, K.; Miyamoto, T.

    1981-01-01

    Preparation of deuterium-labeled rutin by hydrogen exchange reaction under alkaline condition is described. Hydrogens at positions 2',5' and 6' of rutin were replaced with deuteriums only on heating, while hydrogens at positions 6 and 8 were readily replaced at room temperature. On the basis of these findings rutin-2',5',6',6,8-d 5 was first prepared and then treated with alkaline water at room temperature to obtain rutin labeled with deuteriums at positions 2',5' and 6'. (author)

  17. Process for the production of high purity deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrathoon, R.

    1977-01-01

    A process for the electrolysis of heavy water which results in the production of high purity deuterium without periodic replenishment of the electrolyte with additional deuterated compounds is defined. Electrolysis is effected through the use of an inexpensive cation-action permselective membrane which is essentially a solid polymer electrolyte and which is capable of automatically separating the evolved deuterium and oxygen gas. This cation-active permselective membrane does not introduce any intrinsic impurities or tritium contamination in the generated deuterium gas, does not require periodic revitalization with deuterated compounds or other chemical compounds, and is characterized by an unusually high electrical efficiency

  18. Viscosity and attenuation of sound wave in high density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1985-01-01

    The penetration of low frequency sound wave into the fuel deuterium is discussed as for laser fusion. The sound velocity and the attenuation constant due to viscosity are calculated for high density (n = 10 24 -- 10 27 cm -3 , T = 10 -1 -- 10 4 eV) deuterium. The shear viscosity of free electron gas and the bulk viscosity due to ion-ion interaction mainly contribute to the attenuation of sound wave. The sound wave of the frequency below 10 10 Hz can easily penetrate through the compressed fuel deuterium of diameter 1 -- 10 3 μm. (author)

  19. NMR structural characterization of the N-terminal domain of the adenylyl cyclase-associated protein (CAP) from Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mavoungou, Chrystelle [Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry (Germany); Israel, Lars [Ludwig Maximilians-University, Adolf Butenandt Institute, Cell Biology (Germany); Rehm, Till; Ksiazek, Dorota; Krajewski, Marcin; Popowicz, Grzegorz [Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry (Germany); Noegel, Angelika A. [University of Cologne, Institute for Biochemistry (Germany); Schleicher, Michael [Ludwig Maximilians-University, Adolf Butenandt Institute, Cell Biology (Germany); Holak, Tad A. [Max Planck Institute for Biochemistry (Germany)

    2004-05-15

    Cyclase-associated proteins (CAPs) are highly conserved, ubiquitous actin binding proteins that are involved in microfilament reorganization. The N-termini of CAPs play a role in Ras signaling and bind adenylyl cyclase; the C-termini bind to G-actin. We report here the NMR characterization of the amino-terminal domain of CAP from Dictyostelium discoideum (CAP(1-226)). NMR data, including the steady state {sup 1}H-{sup 15}N heteronuclear NOE experiments, indicate that the first 50 N-terminal residues are unstructured and that this highly flexible serine-rich fragment is followed by a stable, folded core starting at Ser 51. The NMR structure of the folded core is an {alpha}-helix bundle composed of six antiparallel helices, in a stark contrast to the recently determined CAP C-terminal domain structure, which is solely built by {beta}-strands.

  20. Structural basis for capping protein sequestration by myotrophin (V-1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Adam; Fujiwara, Ikuko; Hammer, John A; Tjandra, Nico

    2010-08-13

    Capping protein (CP) is a ubiquitously expressed, heterodimeric 62-kDa protein that binds the barbed end of the actin filament with high affinity to block further filament elongation. Myotrophin (V-1) is a 13-kDa ankyrin repeat-containing protein that binds CP tightly, sequestering it in a totally inactive complex in vitro. Here, we elucidate the molecular interaction between CP and V-1 by NMR. Specifically, chemical shift mapping and intermolecular paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiments reveal that the ankyrin loops of V-1, which are essential for V-1/CP interaction, bind the basic patch near the joint of the alpha tentacle of CP shown previously to drive most of the association of CP with and affinity for the barbed end. Consistently, site-directed mutagenesis of CP shows that V-1 and the strong electrostatic binding site for CP on the barbed end compete for this basic patch on CP. These results can explain how V-1 inactivates barbed end capping by CP and why V-1 is incapable of uncapping CP-capped actin filaments, the two signature biochemical activities of V-1.

  1. D-T seeded, deuterium-layered, tritium self-sufficient pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, C.K.; Miley, G.H.; Lee, D.; Powell, C.

    1978-01-01

    Parametric studies are presented for a layered-pellet design for inertial fusion that consists of a D-T core surrounded by a D-layer and an appropriate tamper. This pellet is designed to minimize ignition requirements by providing for shock heating of the small D-T core; the surrounding deuterium layer is subsequently ignited by burn propagation through a matchhead effect, i.e., by fusion-born alpha particle heating. A design is also sought which supplies maximum tritium from the D-D burn in order to obtain reduced breeding requirements, i.e., gain flexibility in the reaction vessel and blanket design. Optimum performance is found for radii of the core and the deuterium layers of approx. 150μ and 400μ, respectively, with the tamping factor of 3. Results indicate that (a) a pellet energy multiplication over 1500 with a 2-MJ input energy is possible, and (b) sufficient tritium is supplied from the D-D burn to compensate for tritium consumed by the D-T core

  2. Pneumatic injector of deuterium macroparticles for TORE-SUPRA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinyar, I.V.; Umov, A.P.; Lukin, A.Ya.; Skoblikov, S.V.; Reznichenko, P.V.; Krasil'nikov, I.A.

    2006-01-01

    The pneumatic injector for periodic injection of fuel-solid-deuterium pellets into the plasma of the TORE-SUPRA tokamak in a steady-state mode is described. The deuterium pellet injection with an unlimited duration is ensured by a screw extruder in which gaseous deuterium is frozen and squeezed outwards in the form of a rod with a rectangular cross section. A cutter installed on the injector's barrel cuts a cylinder with a diameter of 2 mm and a length of 1.0-3.5 mm out from this rod. The movement of the cutter is controlled by a pulsed electromagnetic drive at a pulse repetition rate of 10 Hz. In the injector's barrel, a compressed gas accelerates a deuterium pellet to a velocity of 100-650 m/s [ru

  3. Deuterium (2H) Distribution in surface and groundwaters in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, E.; Azevedo, C.T.

    1980-01-01

    Evaporation and condensation processes cause variation in the relative concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes. In the case of hydrogen, variations of the order of 350 0 /oo were observed in deuterium concentrations in natural waters. In heavy water production plants, wherever possible, water with high deuterium content should be used in the first stages of the enrichment process. Taking this into consideration, work was carried out on the systematic collection of samples from surface and groundwaters for the analysis of deuterium all over Brasil. Deuterium concentration values were obtained in 458 samples collected at different regions and at different times. This project was developed together with others of hydrological interest, the final objective of which was not to cover all characteristic regions of the country. (Author) [pt

  4. Laser driven source of spin polarized atomic deuterium and hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poelker, M.; Coulter, K.P.; Holt, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Optical pumping of potassium atoms in the presence of a high magnetic field followed by spin exchange collisions with deuterium (hydrogen) is shown to yield a high flux of spin polarized atomic deuterium (hydrogen). The performance of the laser driven source has been characterized as a function of deuterium (hydrogen) flow rate, potassium density, pump laser power, and magnetic field. Under appropriate conditions, the authors have observed deuterium atomic polarization as high as 75% at a flow rate 4.2x10 17 atoms/second. Preliminary results suggest that high nuclear polarizations are obtained in the absence of weak field rf transitions as a result of a spin temperature distribution that evolves through frequent H-H (D-D) collisions

  5. Cytology is advanced by studying effects of deuterium environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, S.; Crespi, H. L.; Flaumenhaft, E.; Katz, J. J.

    1967-01-01

    Research of deuterium effects on biological systems shows deuteriation is not incompatible with life. With the successful cultivation of deuteriated bacteria, work is now being done on extraction of deuterio-compounds from bacteria.

  6. Deuterium retention in ITER-grade austenitic stainless steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemanič, Vincenc; Žumer, Marko; Zajec, Bojan

    2008-11-01

    In view of the construction of ITER, it is essential to confirm that the retention of tritium by the large interior surface area of stainless steel will not become an issue for safety or operating inventory reasons. Retention of deuterium in ITER-grade austenitic stainless steel samples was studied during t = 24 h exposures to pure gaseous deuterium at p = 0.01 mbar and 0.1 mbar and T = 100 °C, 250 °C and 400 °C, respectively. The required high sensitivity for distinguishing hydrogen isotopes involved in the process (H2, HD and D2) was gained after suppression of the native hydrogen concentration by a thermal treatment at T = 400 °C for t = 200 h. The quantity of retained deuterium was determined by measuring the absolute pressure change during the deuterium exposure and subsequent mass spectrometry revealing an intense isotope exchange reaction. The retained amount of 2.6 × 1016 D cm-2 was the highest at T = 400 °C and p = 0.1 mbar and noticeably less at lower deuterium pressure and temperature. Our results, when compared with similar tritium exposures, do not exceed the limits set in the generic safety analysis for the ITER. They manifest that an extremely high sensitivity for deuterium absorption and release can be gained with a precise pressure measuring technique, otherwise attributed exclusively to tritium scintillation methods.

  7. Coulomb correction to elastic. alpha. -. alpha. scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, P.K.; Jana, A.K.; Haque, N.; Talukdar, B. (Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan-731235, West Bengal, India (IN))

    1991-02-01

    The elastic {alpha}-{alpha} scattering is treated within the framework of a generalized phase-function method (GPFM). This generalization consists in absorbing the effect of Coulomb interaction in the comparison functions for developing the phase equation. Based on values of scattering phase shifts computed by the present method, it is concluded that the GPFM provides an uncomplicated approach to rigorous Coulomb correction in the {alpha}-{alpha} scattering.

  8. Intrahepatic expression of interferon alpha & interferon alpha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kemrilib

    Alpha m-RNA while 30% only expressed Interferon Alpha Receptor m-RNA. Responders and non-responders to Interferon therapy ... expression of IFN Alpha Receptor mRNA. Regardless of the response to interferon, histological .... generation reverse hybridisation, line probe assay. (Inno-LiPA HCV II; Innogenetics, Ghent,.

  9. Deuterium fluoride laser technology and demonstrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Gerald; Graves, Bruce R.; Patterson, Stanley P.; Wank, Robert H.

    2004-09-01

    Deuterium fluoride (DF) lasers have been under development since about 1970. Their intrinsic ability to store high levels of energy internally plus their ability to quickly dispose of waste heat by the convective flow of exhaust gases make this type of laser attractive to the Army for producing high power levels for an air and missile defense weapon system. This paper reviews the basic principles of a DF laser, the chemistry and spectroscopy associated with producing an excited DF lasing molecule, and the generation of a high power laser beam. This paper also reviews the development history of DF lasers and early lethality demonstrations. This includes a detailed discussion of the Army"s recent Tactical High Energy Laser (THEL) Demonstrator, its architecture and successes during engagements of in-flight rockets and artillery projectiles. The Army is moving forward in developing a new generation, high power DF laser weapon system, the Mobile Tactical High Energy Laser (MTHEL). This system will provide our soldiers protection in the future against a variety of airborne threats.

  10. Isotopic exchange of deuterium in zeolites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, J.; Kubelkova, L.; Jiru, P.

    1981-01-01

    The information obtainable from the study of deuterium isotope exchange in zeolites by i.r. and m.s. methods is discussed. The conditions necessary for high sensitivity determination of OH groups by gas-phase analysis are mentioned together with a determination of the hydroxyl number in the 3 types of OH groups found in HNaY zeolite by solid-phase analysis. The advantage of the i.r. method in the study of hydroxyl heterogeneity in isotopic exchange is compared with the limited success of the m.s. method. The evaluation of the rates of homo- and hetero-exchange and their dependences on cationic exchange, stabilization and the pretreatment of Msup(n+)HY zeolites are shown. The activation of hydrogen molecules seems to be the slowest step in the exchange which proceeds by a single-step mechanism. The OH groups alone do not activate hydrogen molecules as opposed to Lewis sites formed by dehydroxylation and cations and/or metal particles in suitable concentrations at suitable locations. (author)

  11. What controls deuterium excess in global precipitation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pfahl

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The deuterium excess (d of precipitation is widely used in the reconstruction of past climatic changes from ice cores. However, its most common interpretation as moisture source temperature cannot directly be inferred from present-day water isotope observations. Here, we use a new empirical relation between d and near-surface relative humidity (RH together with reanalysis data to globally predict d of surface evaporation from the ocean. The very good quantitative agreement of the predicted hemispherically averaged seasonal cycle with observed d in precipitation indicates that moisture source relative humidity, and not sea surface temperature, is the main driver of d variability on seasonal timescales. Furthermore, we review arguments for an interpretation of long-term palaeoclimatic d changes in terms of moisture source temperature, and we conclude that there remains no sufficient evidence that would justify to neglect the influence of RH on such palaeoclimatic d variations. Hence, we suggest that either the interpretation of d variations in palaeorecords should be adapted to reflect climatic influences on RH during evaporation, in particular atmospheric circulation changes, or new arguments for an interpretation in terms of moisture source temperature will have to be provided based on future research.

  12. Equations of state for hydrogen and deuterium.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerley, Gerald Irwin (Kerley Technical Services, Appomattox, VA)

    2003-12-01

    This report describes the complete revision of a deuterium equation of state (EOS) model published in 1972. It uses the same general approach as the 1972 EOS, i.e., the so-called 'chemical model,' but incorporates a number of theoretical advances that have taken place during the past thirty years. Three phases are included: a molecular solid, an atomic solid, and a fluid phase consisting of both molecular and atomic species. Ionization and the insulator-metal transition are also included. The most important improvements are in the liquid perturbation theory, the treatment of molecular vibrations and rotations, and the ionization equilibrium and mixture models. In addition, new experimental data and theoretical calculations are used to calibrate certain model parameters, notably the zero-Kelvin isotherms for the molecular and atomic solids, and the quantum corrections to the liquid phase. The report gives a general overview of the model, followed by detailed discussions of the most important theoretical issues and extensive comparisons with the many experimental data that have been obtained during the last thirty years. Questions about the validity of the chemical model are also considered. Implications for modeling the 'giant planets' are also discussed.

  13. Physicochemical Processes on Ice Dust Towards Deuterium Enrichment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naoki

    2017-06-01

    Water and some organic molecules were found to be deuterium enriched toward various astronomical targets. Understanding the deuterium-fractionation process pertains directly to know how and when molecules are created. Although gas phase chemistry is certainly important for deuterium enrichment, the role of physicochemical processes on the dust surfaces should be also considered. In fact, the extreme deuterium enrichment of formaldehyde and methanol requires the dust grain-surface process. In this context, we have performed a series of experiments on the formation of deuterated species of water and simple organic molecules. From the results of these experiments and related works, I will discuss the key processes for the deuterium enrichment on dust. For deuterium chemistry, another important issue is the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H_{2}, which is closely related to the formation of H_{2}D^{+} and thus the deuterium fractionation of molecules in the gas phase. Because the radiative nuclear spin conversion of H_{2} is forbidden, the ortho-para conversion is very slow in the gas phase. In contrast, it was not obvious how the nuclear spins behave on cosmic dust. Therefore, it is desirable to understand how the OPR of H_{2} is determined on the dust surfaces. We have tackled this issue experimentally. Using experimental techniques of molecular beam, photostimulated-desorption, and resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization, we measured the OPRs of H_{2} photodesorbed from amorphous solid water at around 10 K, which is an ice dust analogue. It was first demonstrated that the rate of spin conversion from ortho to para drastically increases from 2.4 × 10^{-4} to 1.7 × 10^{-3} s^{-1} within the very narrow temperature window of 9.2 to16 K. The observed strong temperature cannot be explained by solely state-mixing models ever proposed but by the energy dissipation model via two phonon process. I will present our recent experiments regarding this.

  14. Diffusion of muonic deuterium and hydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, D.J.; Chen, G.F.; Guss, P.; Hancock, A.D.; Kraiman, J.B.; Siegel, R.T.; Vulcan, W.F.; Viel, D.W.; Welsh, R.E. [College of William and Mary in Virginia, Williamsburg, Virginia 23185 (United States); Petitjean, C.; Zehnder, A. [Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Breunlich, W.H.; Cargnelli, M.; Kammel, P.; Scrinzi, A.; Marton, J.; Zmeskal, J. [Institut fuer Mittelenergiephysik, Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Reidy, J.J.; Woolverton, H.L. [University of Mississippi, University, Mississippi 38667 (United States); Hartmann, F.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Adamczak, A. [Institute for Nuclear Physics, PL-31-342 Cracow (Poland); Markushin, V.E. [Russian Scientific Center, Kurchatov Institute, RU-123182 Moscow (Russia); Melezhik, V.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, RU-141980 Dubna (Russia)

    1997-01-01

    Diffusion of muonic deuterium {mu}d and muonic hydrogen {mu}p atoms produced following the stopping of negative muons in D{sub 2} or H{sub 2} at 300 K was studied at pressures of 47{endash}750 mbar (H{sub 2}) and 94{endash}1520 mbar (D{sub 2}) in two distinct target geometries. Time intervals were recorded between entry of negative muons into the gas and arrival of each resulting {mu}d or {mu}p atom at one of 50 foils immersed in the gas, and spaced regularly along the muon beam axis. The results of such measurements were fitted to time distributions generated by Monte Carlo methods, using theoretical scattering predictions and empirically chosen forms for the initial energy distributions of the muonic atoms in the 1S state. Results indicate muonic atom energy distributions which (a) are different for {mu}d and {mu}p and (b) vary with pressure. The best-fit energy distributions have mean energies ranging from 1.5 eV for {mu}d at 94 mbar to {ge}9 eV for {mu}p at 750 mbar. The data are also sensitive to scattering cross sections for {mu}d and {mu}p, and are consistent with current theoretical calculations for the {mu}d+D{sub 2} cross sections. In the case of {mu}p+H{sub 2} scattering, the experimental data suggest discrepancies with the theoretical predictions. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  15. Stabilization of atomic hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walraven, J.T.M.

    1982-01-01

    This thesis deals with the first of a series of experiments done at the University of Amsterdam to study the properties of spin polarized atomic hydrogen (spa H) and deuterium (spa D) at very low temperatures (T approximately 0.3 K) and in high magnetic fields (B approximately 10 T). The experiments show that spa H and spa D may be subjected to experimental investigation like any normal (i.e. stable) gas. Chapter 2 deals with the experimental apparatus and in particular the development of a reliable method to cool atomic hydrogen to very low temperatures which turned out to be decisive for the experiments. An account of the first experiments with spa H can be found in chapter 3. These experiments showed that spa H can be stabilized for extended periods of time (at low temperature and in high magnetic fields) by covering all surfaces with a superfluid film of 4 He. The gas was detected by triggering recombination by locally breaking the helium film and measuring the heat of recombination. This method turned out to be very sensitive and easy to implement. In chapter 4 the physical picture of the gas is discussed. This includes a discussion of the density profile and the phenomenon of thermal leakage from the open structured sample cell. The density profile may be used to detect Bose-Einstein condensation. A second series of experiments is discussed in chapter 5. These measurements were aimed at achieving high densities and to study the limiting processes. They demonstrate that spa H behaves as a gas. Recombination measurements with spa D at low temperatures are discussed in chapter 6 and show that recombination predominantly occurs on the surface of the helium film. (Auth.)

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Behavior of Oleic Acid Capped Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiedan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO nanosheets were prepared by modified Hummers and Offeman methods. Furthermore, oleic acid (OA capped graphene oxide (OACGO nanosheets were prepared and characterized by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. At the same time, the friction and wear properties of OA capped graphite powder (OACG, OACGO, and oleic acid capped precipitate of graphite (OACPG as additives in poly-alpha-olefin (PAO were compared using four-ball tester and SRV-1 reciprocating ball-on-disc friction and wear tester. By the addition of OACGO to PAO, the antiwear ability was improved and the friction coefficient was decreased. Also, the tribological mechanism of the GO was investigated.

  17. Selected bibliography on deuterium isotope effects and heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Donde, M.M.

    1983-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a great deal of interest in using deuterium and heavy water not only in nuclear industry but also in various fields of basic as well as applied research in physics, chemistry and biology. As a result, the literature is being enriched with a large number of research papers and technical reports published each year. Thus, to enable the scientists to have an easy reference to these works, an endeavour has been made in this selected bibliography, to enlist the publications related to these fields. Since the interest is concerned mainly with heavy water production processes, deuterium isotope effects etc., several aspects (e.g. nuclear) of deuterium have not been covered here. The material in this bibliography which cites 2388 references has been classified under six broad headings, viz. (1) Production of heavy water, (2) Study of deuterium isotope effects, (3) Analysis and Properties of heavy water, (4) Laser Separation of deuterium, (5) Isotopic exchange reactions, and (6) Miscellaneous. The sources of information used for this compilation are chemical abstracts, nuclear science abstracts, INIS Atomindex and also some scattered search through journals and reports available in the B.A.R.C. library. However, in spite of sincere attempts for a wide coverage, no claim is being made towards the exhaustiveness of this bibliography. (author)

  18. Deuterium-tritium plasmas in novel regimes in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, M.G.; Beer, M.

    1997-02-01

    Experiments in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have explored several novel regimes of improved tokamak confinement in deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas, including plasmas with reduced or reversed magnetic shear in the core and high-current plasmas with increased shear in the outer region (high-l i ). New techniques have also been developed to enhance the confinement in these regimes by modifying the plasma-limiter interaction through in-situ deposition of lithium. In reversed-shear plasmas, transitions to enhanced confinement have been observed at plasma currents up to 2.2 MA (q a ∼ 4.3), accompanied by the formation of internal transport barriers, where large radial gradients develop in the temperature and density profiles. Experiments have been performed to elucidate the mechanism of the barrier formation and its relationship with the magnetic configuration and with the heating characteristics. The increased stability of high-current, high-l i plasmas produced by rapid expansion of the minor cross-section, coupled with improvement in the confinement by lithium deposition has enabled the achievement of high fusion power, up to 8.7 MW, with D-T neutral beam heating. The physics of fusion alpha-particle confinement has been investigated in these regimes, including the interactions of the alphas with endogenous plasma instabilities and externally applied waves in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies. In D-T plasmas with q 0 > 1 and weak magnetic shear in the central region, a toroidal Alfven eigenmode instability driven purely by the alpha particles has been observed for the first time. The interactions of energetic ions with ion Bernstein waves produced by mode-conversion from fast waves in mixed-species plasmas have been studied as a possible mechanism for transferring the energy of the alphas to fuel ions

  19. Review of deuterium--tritium results from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, K. M.; Adler, H.; Alling, P.; Ancher, C.; Anderson, H.; Anderson, J. L.; Anderson, J W.; Arunasalam, V.; Ascione, G.; Ashcroft, D.; Barnes, C. W.; Barnes, G.; Batha, S.; Bateman, G.; Beer, M; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Bretz, N. L.; Brunkhorst, C.; Budny, R.; Bush, C. E.; Camp, R.; Caorlin, M.; Carnevale, H.; Cauffman, S.; Chang, Z.; Chang, C. S.; Cheng, C. Z.; Chrzanowski, J.; Collins, J.; Coward, G.; Cropper, M.; Darrow, D. S; Daugert, R.; DeLooper, J.; Dendy, R.; Dorland, W.; Dudek, L.; Duong, H.; Durst, R.; Efthimion, P. C.; Ernst, D.; Evenson, H.; Fisch, N.; Fisher, R.; Fonck, R. J.; Fredd, E.; Fredrickson, E.; Fromm, N.; Fu, G. Y.; Fujita, T.; Furth, H. P.; Garzotto, V.; Gentile, C.; Gilbert, J.; Gioia, J.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grek, B.; Grisham, L. R.; Hammett, G.; Hanson, G. R.; Hawryluk, R. J.; Heidbrink, W.; Herrmann, H. W.; Hill, K. W.; Hosea, J.; Hsuan, H.; Hughes, M.; Hulse, R.; Janos, A.; Jassby, D. L.; Jobes, F. C.; Johnson, D. W.; Johnson, L. C.; Kalish, M.; Kamperschroer, J.; Kesner, J.; Kugel, H.; Labik, G.; Lam, N. T.; LaMarche, P. H.; Lawson, E.; LeBlanc, B.; Levine, J.; Levinton, F. M.; Loesser, D.; Long, D.; Loughlin, M. J.; Machuzak, J.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D. K.; Marmar, E. S.; Marsala, R.; Martin, A.; Martin, G.; Mazzucato, E.; Mauel, M.; McCarthy, M. P.; McChesney, J.; McCormack, B.; McCune, D. C.; McKee, G.; Meade, D. M.; Medley, S. S.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mirnov, S. V.; Mueller, D.; Murakami, M.; Murphy, J. A.; Nagy, A.; Navratil, G. A.; Nazikian, R.; Newman, R.; Norris, M.; O`Connor, T.; Oldaker, M.; Ongena, J.; Osakabe, M.; Owens, D. K.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Parks, P.; Paul, S. F.; Pearson, G.; Perry, E.; Persing, R.; Petrov, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Phillips, M.; Pitcher, S.; Pysher, R.; Qualls, A. L.; Raftopoulos, S.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Ramsey, A.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Redi, M. H.; Renda, G.; Rewoldt, G.; Roberts, D.; Rogers, J.; Rossmassler, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ruskov, E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sasao, M.; Schilling, G.; Schivell, J.; Schmidt, G.; Scillia, R.; Scott, S. D.; Semenov, I.; Senko, T.; Sesnic, S.; Sissingh, R.; Skinner, C. H.; Snipes, J.; Stencel, J.; Stevens, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stratton, B. C.; Strachan, J. D.; Stodiek, W.; Swanson, J.; Synakowski, E.; Takahashi, H.; Tang, W.; Taylor, G.; Terry, J.; Thompson, M. E.; Tighe, W.; Timberlake, J. R.; Tobita, K.; Towner, H. H.; Tuszewski, M.; Halle, A. Von; Vannoy, C.; Viola, M.; Goeler, S. Von; Voorhees, D.; Walters, R. T.; Wester, R.; White, R.; Wieland, R.; Wilgen, J. B.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Winston, J.; Wright, K.; Wong, K. L.; Woskov, P.; Wurden, G. A.; Yamada, M.; Yoshikawa, S.; Young, K. M.; Zarnstorff, M. C.; Zavereev, V.; Zweben, S. J.

    1995-01-01

    The first magnetic fusion experiments to study plasmas using nearly equal concentrations of deuterium and tritium have been carried out on TFTR. At present the maximum fusion power of 10.7 MW, using 39.5 MW of neutral-beam heating, in a supershot discharge and 6.7 MW in a high-βp discharge following a current rampdown. The fusion power density in a core of the plasma is ≈ 2.8 MW m₋3, exceeding that expected in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) at 1500 MW total fusion power. The energy confinement time, τE, is observed to increase in D–T, relative to D plasmas, by 20% and the ni (0) Ti(0) τE product by 55%. The improvement in thermal confinement is caused primarily by a decrease in ion heat conductivity in both supershot and limiter-H-mode discharges. Extensive lithium pellet injection increased the confinement time to 0.27 s and enabled higher current operation in both supershot and high-βp discharges. Ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) heating of a D–T plasma, using the second harmonic of tritium, has been demonstrated. First measurements of the confined alpha particles have been performed and found to be in good agreement with TRANSP simulations. Initial measurements of the alpha ash profile have been compared with simulations using particle transport coefficients from He gas puffing experiments. The loss of alpha particles to a detector at the bottom of the vessel is well described by the first-orbit loss mechanism. No loss due to alpha-particle-driven instabilities has yet been observed. D–T experiments on TFTR will continue to explore the assumptions of the ITER design and to examine some of the physics issues associated with an advanced tokamak reactor.

  20. Durability of Capped Wood Plastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Mankowski; Mark J. Manning; Damien P. Slowik

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers of wood plastic composites (WPCs) have recently introduced capped decking to their product lines. These new materials have begun to take market share from the previous generation of uncapped products that possessed a homogenous composition throughout the thickness of their cross-section. These capped offerings have been introduced with claims that the...

  1. Does uncertainty justify intensity emission caps?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quirion, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    Environmental policies often set 'relative' or 'intensity' emission caps, i.e. emission limits proportional to the polluting firm's output. One of the arguments put forth in favour of relative caps is based on the uncertainty on business-as-usual output: if the firm's production level is higher than expected, so will be business-as-usual emissions, hence reaching a given level of emissions will be more costly than expected. As a consequence, it is argued, a higher emission level should be allowed if the production level is more important than expected. We assess this argument with a stochastic analytical model featuring two random variables: the business-as-usual emission level, proportional to output, and the slope of the marginal abatement cost curve. We compare the relative cap to an absolute cap and to a price instrument, in terms of welfare impact. It turns out that in most plausible cases, either a price instrument or an absolute cap yields a higher expected welfare than a relative cap. Quantitatively, the difference in expected welfare is typically very small between the absolute and the relative cap but may be significant between the relative cap and the price instrument. (author)

  2. Hybrid revenue caps and incentive regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lantz, Bjoern [School of Business, Economics and Law, Gothenburg University, Box 610, 40530 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2008-05-15

    This paper analyzes the incentive effects of a hybrid revenue cap on a regulated monopolistic firm using non-discriminatory two-part pricing. It is shown that the fixed and the variable part of the cap have different meanings in terms of regulation - the fixed part of a hybrid revenue cap should be used to control the profit level of the regulated firm while the variable part should be used to control the social efficiency level. Since detailed information about the firm's cost function is required to determine the revenue cap parameters, the overall conclusion is that revenue caps are a rather bad idea in the area of incentive regulation. (author)

  3. Ion Mobility Spectrometry-Hydrogen Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry of Anions: Part 3. Estimating Surface Area Exposure by Deuterium Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakinejad, Mahdiar; Ghassabi Kondalaji, Samaneh; Donohoe, Gregory C.; Valentine, Stephen J.

    2016-03-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen deuterium exchange (HDX), collision cross section (CCS) measurement, and molecular dynamics simulation (MDS) techniques were utilized to develop and compare three methods for estimating the relative surface area exposure of separate peptide chains within bovine insulin ions. Electrosprayed [M - 3H]3- and [M - 5H]5- insulin ions produced a single conformer type with respective collision cross sections of 528 ± 5 Å2 and 808 ± 2 Å2. [M - 4H]4- ions were comprised of more compact (Ω = 676 ± 3 Å2) and diffuse (i.e., more elongated, Ω = 779 ± 3 Å2) ion conformer types. Ions were subjected to HDX in the drift tube using D2O as the reagent gas. Collision-induced dissociation was used to fragment mobility-selected, isotopically labeled [M - 4H]4- and [M - 5H]5- ions into the protein subchains. Deuterium uptake levels of each chain can be explained by limited inter-chain isotopic scrambling upon collisional activation. Using nominal ion structures from MDS and a hydrogen accessibility model, the deuterium uptake for each chain was correlated to its exposed surface area. In separate experiments, the per-residue deuterium content for the protonated and deprotonated ions of the synthetic peptide KKDDDDDIIKIIK were compared. The differences in deuterium content indicated the regional HDX accessibility for cations versus anions. Using ions of similar conformational type, this comparison highlights the complementary nature of HDX data obtained from positive- and negative-ion analysis.

  4. Process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, E.; Desai, A.; Ilgner, H.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the production of hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas is described in which the enriched condensate obtained from the production of a hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas mixture is collected and subjected to a direct exchange of isotopes with the feedsteam admitted to the process. Such condensate can be brought into direct exchange of isotopes with the gas water vapor mixture within the process, viz. ahead of the CO conversion section. The exchange of isotopes may be performed according to the counter-current principle. If it is intended to maintain in the hydrogen/deuterium-containing gas a certain definite content of water vapor whose phase condition is superior to the condition achieved when using normal cooling water, this gas, at least 0.6 kg/m 3 of gas, is subjected to an exchange of isotopes with the water fed additionally into the process

  5. Deuterium Enrichment of PAHs by VUV Irradiation of Interstellar Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Gillette, J. Seb; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory results demonstrate that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) rapidly exchange their hydrogen atoms with those of nearby molecules when they are frozen into low-temperature ices and exposed to vacuum ultraviolet radiation. As a result, PAHs quickly become deuterium-enriched when VUV irradiated in D-containing ices. This mechanism has important consequences for several astrophysical issues owing to the ubiquitous nature of PAHs in the interstellar medium. For example, this process may explain the deuterium enrichments found in PAHs in meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. These results also provide general predictions about the molecular siting of the deuterium on aromatic materials in meteorites if this process produced a significant fraction of their D-enrichment.

  6. Effect of periodic deuterium ion irradiation on deuterium retention and blistering in Tungsten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oya

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of periodic irradiation on Deuterium (D retention and blistering in Tungsten (W was investigated. W samples were exposed to D plasma at a fixed fluence while varying the irradiation cycle number (1-shot, 2-shots and 3-shots. Exposure energy and flux were ∼50eV and ∼1 ×1022 D m−2 s−1, respectively. Sample temperatures were 537K and 643K. At 573K, D retention and blister density decreased with increasing number of irradiation cycle. In contrast at 643K, D retention showed no dependence on number of irradiation cycle. Therefore, sample temperature during irradiation is an important parameter in comparing the results of continuous and periodic irradiation, especially in studies involving extremely-high-flux (>1024 D m−2 s−1 irradiation and fluence dependency of D retention.

  7. A Dosimetry Study of Deuterium-Deuterium Neutron Generator-based In Vivo Neutron Activation Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Daniel; Liu, Yingzi; Mostafaei, Farshad; Blake, Scott; Nie, Linda H

    2015-12-01

    A neutron irradiation cavity for in vivo neutron activation analysis (IVNAA) to detect manganese, aluminum, and other potentially toxic elements in human hand bone has been designed and its dosimetric specifications measured. The neutron source is a customized deuterium-deuterium neutron generator that produces neutrons at 2.45 MeV by the fusion reaction 2H(d, n)3He at a calculated flux of 7 × 10(8) ± 30% s(-1). A moderator/reflector/shielding [5 cm high density polyethylene (HDPE), 5.3 cm graphite and 5.7 cm borated (HDPE)] assembly has been designed and built to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the hand irradiation cavity and to reduce the extremity dose and effective dose to the human subject. Lead sheets are used to attenuate bremsstrahlung x rays and activation gammas. A Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6) was used to model the system and calculate extremity dose. The extremity dose was measured with neutron and photon sensitive film badges and Fuji electronic pocket dosimeters (EPD). The neutron ambient dose outside the shielding was measured by Fuji NSN3, and the photon dose was measured by a Bicron MicroREM scintillator. Neutron extremity dose was calculated to be 32.3 mSv using MCNP6 simulations given a 10-min IVNAA measurement of manganese. Measurements by EPD and film badge indicate hand dose to be 31.7 ± 0.8 mSv for neutrons and 4.2 ± 0.2 mSv for photons for 10 min; whole body effective dose was calculated conservatively to be 0.052 mSv. Experimental values closely match values obtained from MCNP6 simulations. These are acceptable doses to apply the technology for a manganese toxicity study in a human population.

  8. A dosimetry study of deuterium-deuterium neutron generator-based in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, Daniel A.

    A neutron irradiation cavity for in vivo Neutron Activation Analysis (IVNAA) to detect manganese, aluminum, and other potentially toxic elements in human hand bone has been designed and its dosimetric specifications measured. The neutron source is a customized deuterium-deuterium neutron generator which produces neutrons at 2.45 MeV by the fusion reaction 2H(d, n)3He at a calculated flux of 7 x 108 +/-30% s-1. A moderator/reflector/shielding (5 cm high density polyethylene (HDPE), 5.3 cm graphite & 5.7 cm borated HDPE) assembly has been designed and built to maximize the thermal neutron flux inside the hand irradiation cavity and to reduce the extremity dose and effective dose to the human subject. Lead sheets are used to attenuate bremsstrahlung x rays and activation gammas. A Monte Carlo simulation (MCNP6) was used to model the system and calculate extremity dose. The extremity dose was measured with neutron and photon sensitive film badges and Fuji electronic pocket dosimeter (EPD). The neutron ambient dose outside the shielding was measured by Fuji NSN3, and photon dose by a Bicron MicroREM scintillator. Neutron extremity dose was calculated to be 32.3 mSv using MCNP6 simulations given a 10 min IVNAA measurement of manganese. Measurements by EPD and film badge indicate hand dose to be 31.7 +/- 0.8 mSv for neutron and 4.2 +/- 0.2 mSv for photon for 10 mins; whole body effective dose was calculated conservatively to be 0.052 mSv. Experimental values closely match values obtained from MCNP6 simulations. These are acceptable doses to apply the technology for a manganese toxicity study in a human population.

  9. A GREAT search for Deuterium in Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Michael

    2013-10-01

    Comets are understood to be the most pristine bodies in the Solar System. Their compositions reflect the chemical state of materials at the very earliest evolutionary stages of the protosolar nebula and, as such, they provide detailed insight into the physical and chemical processes operating in planet-forming disks. Isotopic fractionation ratios of the molecular ices in the nucleus are regarded as signatures of formation processes. These ratios provide unique information on the natal heritage of those ices, and can also test the proposal that Earth's water and other volatiles were delivered by cometary bombardment. Measurement of deuterium fractionation ratios is thus a major goal in contemporary cometary science and the D/H ratio of water - the dominant volatile in comets - holds great promise for testing the formation history of cometary matter. The D/H ratio in cometary water has been measured in only eight comets. Seven were from the Oort Cloud reservoir and the D/H ratio was about twice that of the Earth's oceans. However, the recent Herschel measurement of HDO/H2O in 103P/Hartley-2 (the first from the Kuiper Belt) was consistent with exogenous delivery of Earth's water by comets. Outstanding questions remain: are cometary HDO/H2O ratios consistent with current theories of nebular chemical evolution or with an interstellar origin? Does the HDO/H2O ratio vary substantially among comet populations? Hartley-2 is the only Kuiper Belt comet with measured HDO/H2O, are there comets with similar ratios in the Oort cloud? These questions can only be addressed by measuring HDO/H2O ratios in many more suitable bright comets. We therefore propose to measure the D/H ratio in water in a suitable target-of-opportunity comet by performing observations of HDO and OH with the GREAT spectrometer on SOFIA. A multi-wavelength, ground-based observing campaign will also be conducted in support of the airborne observations.

  10. The structural basis of serpin polymerization studied by hydrogen/deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Yuko; Kuri, Barbara; Sengupta, Tanusree; Wintrode, Patrick L

    2008-11-07

    The serpinopathies are a group of inherited disorders that share as their molecular basis the misfolding and polymerization of serpins, an important class of protease inhibitors. Depending on the identity of the serpin, conditions arising from polymerization include emphysema, thrombosis, and dementia. The structure of serpin polymers is thus of considerable medical interest. Wild-type alpha(1)-antitrypsin will form polymers upon incubation at moderate temperatures and has been widely used as a model system for studying serpin polymerization. Using hydrogen/deuterium exchange and mass spectrometry, we have obtained molecular level structural information on the alpha(1)-antitrypsin polymer. We found that the flexible reactive center loop becomes strongly protected upon polymerization. We also found significant increases in protection in the center of beta-sheet A and in helix F. These results support a model in which linkage between serpins is achieved through insertion of the reactive center loop of one serpin into beta-sheet A of another. We have also examined the heat-induced conformational changes preceding polymerization. We found that polymerization is preceded by significant destabilization of beta-sheet C. On the basis of our results, we propose a mechanism for polymerization in which beta-strand 1C is displaced from the rest of beta-sheet C through a binary serpin/serpin interaction. Displacement of strand 1C triggers further conformational changes, including the opening of beta-sheet A, and allows for subsequent polymerization.

  11. Deuterium/hydrogen natural isotopic abundance in fruit juices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berdea, P.; Cuna, Stela; Palibroda, N.; Mihalca, R.; Sorea, Dana

    1998-01-01

    Stable isotopic analyses of various elements such as carbon, hydrogen and oxygen are currently applied for the authentification of naturalness of fruit juices. Deuterium is particularly of interest because of the wide variation of its abundance. Due to evaporation-transpiration the deuterium content of the water in fruit juices is enriched compared to local ground water. In the case of our investigation on apple, another fractionation, originating in technological process, was observed. The concentrated juice water is enriched by 6 o / oo as compared to natural fruit juice water. (authors)

  12. Transport of recycled deuterium to the plasma core in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Jassby, D.L.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stotler, D.P.; Strachan, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    The authors report a study of the fueling of the plasma core by recycling in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). They have analyzed discharges fueled by deuterium recycled from the limiter and tritium-only neutral beam injection. In these plasmas, the DT neutron rate provides a measure of the deuterium influx into the core plasma. They find a reduced influx with plasmas using lithium pellet conditioning and with plasmas of reduced major (and minor) radius. Modeling with the DEGAS neutrals code shows that the dependence on radius can be related to the penetration of neutrals through the scrape-off layer

  13. Carbon and deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance in solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shattuck, Thomas Wayne [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1976-07-01

    In Chapter I we present the results on a study of cross polarization dynamics, between protons and carbon-13 in adamantane, by the direct observation of the dilute, carbon-13, spins. These dynamics are an important consideration in the efficiency of proton enhancement double-resonance techniques and they also provide good experimental models for statistical theories of cross relaxation. In order to test these theories we present a comparison of the experimental and theoretical proton dipolar fluctuation correlation time τc, which is experimentally 110 ± 15 μsec and theoretically 122 μsec for adamantane. These double resonance considerations provide the background for extensions to deuterium and double quantum effects discussed in Chapter II. In Chapter II an approach to high resolution nmr of deuterium in solids is described. The m = 1 → -1 transition is excited by a double quantum process and the decay of coherence Q(τ) is monitored. Fourier transformation yields a deuterium spectrum devoid of quadrupole splittings and broadening. If the deuterium nuclei are dilute and the protons are spin decoupled, the double-quantum spectrum is a high resolution one and yields information on the deuterium chemical shifts Δω. The relationship Q(τ) ~ cos 2Δωτ is checked and the technique is applied to a single crystal of oxalic acid dihydrate enriched to ~ 10% in deuterium. The carboxyl and the water deuterium shifts are indeed resolved and the anisotropy of the carboxyl shielding tensor is estimated to be Δσ = 32 ± 3 ppm. A complete theoretical analysis is presented. The extension of cross relaxation techniques, both direct and indirect, to proton-deuterium double resonance is also described. The m = 1 → -1 double quantum transition and the m = ± 1 → 0 single quantum transitions may all be polarized and we present the derivation of the Hartmann-Hahn cross polarization conditions for each case. In addition the dynamics of the double quantum process

  14. Production of secondary Deuterium in the atmosphere at various latitudes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papini, P. [Florence Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Florence (Italy); Grimani, C. [Perugia Univ. (Italy)]|[INFN, Perugia (Italy); Stephens, S.A. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay (International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements)

    1995-09-01

    Secondary deuterium in the atmosphere are produced in interactions by primary cosmic rays. The shape of their energy spectrum depends on the primary cosmic ray spectrum incident at the top of the atmosphere. At high energies, the spectral shape depends on the primary spectrum of helium and heavy nuclei. However, at very low energies, specially below the geomagnetic cut-off, the spectral shape depends on the evaporation and recoil processes and hence almost independent of the spectral shape of the primary radiation. It is undertaken a calculation of the secondary deuterium spectrum at small atmospheric depths at various latitudes and the results will be presented.

  15. Transport of Recycled Deuterium to the Plasma Core in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Jassby, D.L.; Park, H.; Skinner, C.H.; et al

    1997-10-01

    We report a study of the fueling of the plasma core by recycling in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [Phys. Plasmas 2, 2176 (1995)]. We have analyzed discharges fueled by deuterium recycled from the limiter and tritium-only neutral beam injection. In these plasmas, the DT neutron rate provides a measure of the deuterium influx into the core plasma. We find a reduced influx with plasmas using lithium pellet conditioning and with plasmas of reduced major (and minor) radius. Modeling with the DEGAS neutrals code shows that the dependence on radius can be related to the penetration of neutrals through the scrape-off layer.

  16. Transport of recycled deuterium to the plasma core in TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H.; Bell, M.G.; Budny, R.V.; Jassby, D.L.; Park, H.; Ramsey, A.T.; Stotler, D.P.; Strachan, J.D.

    1997-10-01

    The authors report a study of the fueling of the plasma core by recycling in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). They have analyzed discharges fueled by deuterium recycled from the limiter and tritium-only neutral beam injection. In these plasmas, the DT neutron rate provides a measure of the deuterium influx into the core plasma. They find a reduced influx with plasmas using lithium pellet conditioning and with plasmas of reduced major (and minor) radius. Modeling with the DEGAS neutrals code shows that the dependence on radius can be related to the penetration of neutrals through the scrape-off layer.

  17. Antiproton annihilation at rest in nitrogen and deuterium gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riedlberger, J.; Amsler, C.; Doser, M.; Straumann, U.; Truol, P.; Bailey, D.; Barlag, S.; Gastaldi, U.; Landua, R.; Sabev, C.; Duch, K.D.; Heel, M.; Kalinowsky, H.; Kayser, F.; Klempt, E.; May, B.; Schreiber, O.; Weidenauer, P.; Ziegler, M.; Dahme, W.; Feld-Dahme, F.; Schaefer, U.

    1989-01-01

    Results on antiproton absorption at rest in gaseous nitrogen and deuterium are presented from an analysis of approximately 10 6 events each taken with a magnetic spectrometer. Inclusive features such as pion and proton multiplicities and spectra are presented. Data relating to absorption modes requiring more than one nucleon, such as the Λ yield, the Λ spectrum, and the exclusive deuterium channels bar pd→π - p, ΛK + π - are discussed. The fully reconstructable channels bar pd→π + π - π - p,π + π + π - π - π - p also show a high-energy proton tail unaccounted for by single nucleon rescattering mechanisms

  18. Edge of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2016-04-01

    On the night of 4 December 2013, a sequence of polar cap patches was captured by an all-sky airglow imager (ASI) in Longyearbyen, Norway (78.1°N, 15.5°E). The 630.0 nm airglow images from the ASI of 4 second exposure time, oversampled the emission of natural lifetime (with quenching) of at least ˜30 sec, introduce no observational blurring effects. By using such high-quality ASI images, we succeeded in visualizing an asymmetry in the gradients between the leading/trailing edges of the patches in a 2-D fashion. The gradient in the leading edge was found to be 2-3 times steeper than that in the trailing edge. We also identified fingerlike structures, appearing only along the trailing edge of the patches, whose horizontal scale size ranged from 55 to 210 km. These fingers are considered to be manifestations of plasma structuring through the gradient-drift instability (GDI), which is known to occur only along the trailing edge of patches. That is, the current 2-D observations visualized, for the first time, how GDI stirs the patch plasma and such a mixing process makes the trailing edge more gradual. This result strongly implies a close connection between the GDI-driven plasma stirring and the asymmetry in the large-scale shape of patches and then suggests that the fingerlike structures can be used as markers to estimate the fine-scale structure in the plasma flow within patches.

  19. Determination of gluconeogenesis in man by the use of deuterium-NMR-spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Rosian, E

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is the quantification of the deuterium--distribution in human glucose by the use of the deuterium NMR spectroscopy of deuteriated water. The glucose production in human organism is composed of gluconeogenesis and glycolysis. The quantification of the part of gluconeogenesis on the total glucose production was determined by the use of deuterium NMR spectroscopy. (boteke)

  20. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugeki, Ryuji; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of...

  1. Medical Malpractice Damage Caps and Provider Reimbursement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedson, Andrew I

    2017-01-01

    A common state legislative maneuver to combat rising healthcare costs is to reform the tort system by implementing caps on noneconomic damages awardable in medical malpractice cases. Using the implementation of caps in several states and large database of private insurance claims, I estimate the effect of damage caps on the amount providers charge to insurance companies as well as the amount that insurance companies reimburse providers for medical services. The amount providers charge insurers is unresponsive to tort reform, but the amount that insurers reimburse providers decreases for some procedures. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Stable isotope studies on steroid metabolism and kinetics: Sulfates of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnane derivatives in human pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, R.A.; Baillie, T.A.; Axelson, M.; Cronholm, T.; Sjoevall, K.S.; Sjoevall, J.

    1990-01-01

    The metabolism and production rates of 3 alpha-hydroxy-5 alpha-pregnan-20-one sulfate and the 3-sulfate and 3,20-disulfate of 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha,20 alpha-diol in pregnant women were studied. The steroid sulfates were labeled with deuterium in the 3 beta,11,11- or 3 beta,11,11,20 beta-positions and were injected intravenously. The deuterium content of steroids in the monosulfate and disulfate fraction of plasma collected at different times after the injection was determined by capillary column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The injected steroid sulfates underwent oxidoreduction at C-20 and 16 alpha-hydroxylation. In addition, the 3-sulfate of 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha,20 alpha-diol became hydroxylated at C-21. The pregnanediol and pregnanetriol monosulfates were also converted to disulfates. No evidence was obtained for a metabolic sequence involving hydrolysis, oxidoreduction, and resulfation at the C-3 position. Production rates and rates of metabolic transformations were determined using different one- and two-pool models. The production rate of the pregnanolone/pregnanediol monosulfate couple was 0.08 to 0.5 mmol/24 h, the variability probably depending both on individual factors and stage of pregnancy. The half-life time for oxidation and reduction at C-20 was 0.1 to 0.4 hours, reduction being the faster process. The half-life time for the turnover of the steroid skeleton was 1.3 to 3.3 hours. The injected steroid monosulfates were 16 alpha-hydroxylated at a rate of 1 to 8 mumol/24 h. A significant fraction of these 16 alpha-hydroxylated steroid sulfates, 0.5 to 25 mumol/24 h, was formed from other, probably unconjugated, precursors. The 16 alpha-hydroxylated steroid monosulfates underwent rapid oxidoreduction at C-20. The 3-sulfate of 5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha,20 alpha-diol was hydroxylated at C-21

  4. Deuterium absorption property of Al/Zr-V/Mo multifilms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Haifeng; Peng Shuming; Zhang Xiaohong; Long Xinggui; Yang Benfu

    2005-01-01

    Deuterium absorption property of Al/Zr-V/Mo multifilms was studied experimentally to explore the effect of Al film. There is only one desorption peak at 320 degree C for Al film, two desorption peaks at 220 degree C and 350 degree C for Zr-V film. When the average thickness of Al film is less than 0.6 μm, the desorption property of Al/Zr-V multifilms is just as Zr-V film, when it is more than 0.6 μm, just as Al film. Deuterium absorption by Al/Zr-V multifilms decreases as the thickness of Al film increases until 0.7 μm, then the deuterium absorption no longer changes significantly. The Al film of multifilms cracks on desorbing, so the absorption rate varies as Zr-V film when the thickness of Al film is less than 0.6 μ. When the thickness of Al film is more than 0.6 μm, the deuterium absorption rate of multifilm does not change with the thickness of Al film. (author)

  5. Use of 60 ppm deuterium depleted water in companionship animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balint, Emilia; Manolescu, N.; Cranganu, D.; Militaru, Manuela; Pop, Aneta; Codreanu, M.; Panait, Marieta; Lastofka, D.

    2004-01-01

    There are presented the results of studies on the effects of deuterium depleted water in companionship animals. Based on these results, a new product was realized, 'Aqua Forte' that is a deuterium depleted potable water (60 ppm deuterium) with beneficial effects in animal's health maintaining. Aqua forte has prophylactic properties (in preventing diseases related to immune system) and therapeutic properties, as adjuvant in various therapeutic programs. The mechanism of action takes place at the cellular metabolism level by replacing the constitutional and free water of 150 ppm deuterium, this resulting in the stimulation of the immune cellular system and also of resistance at the onset of some pathological states. The non-specific stimulation implies performing both the humoral mediated immune reactions and of those cellularly mediated. Aqua forte is recommended in: - the feeding of the young weaned animals, the action being of growth stimulation, and increasing of the resistance against some diseases specific to the age; - as an adjuvant in some chronic diseases (hepatitis, pancreatitis, dermatological diseases, osteoarthropaties, hepato-renal syndrome, renal insufficiency, after surgical interventions, in antitumoral therapy); - in the feeding of the old animals for the quality of life improvement. (authors)

  6. Hydrogen and deuterium incorporation in glow discharge amorphous silicon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, K.M.H.; Pruppers, M.J.M.; Habraken, F.H.P.M.; Bezemer, J.; Weg, W.F. van der

    1985-01-01

    The incorporation of hydrogen in glow discharge a-Si:H is investigated with an isotope method. During deposition D2 or H2 is added to the silane. Although for low silane flow the incorporation of deuterium is affected by isotope exchange this process plays a minor role for high silane flow. At these

  7. Heterogeneous Catalysis: Deuterium Exchange Reactions of Hydrogen and Methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirich, Anne; Miller, Trisha Hoette; Klotz, Elsbeth; Mattson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Two gas phase deuterium/hydrogen exchange reactions are described utilizing a simple inexpensive glass catalyst tube containing 0.5% Pd on alumina through which gas mixtures can be passed and products collected for analysis. The first of these exchange reactions involves H[subscript 2] + D[subscript 2], which proceeds at temperatures as low as 77…

  8. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange in bulk LiBH4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgschulte, A.; Zuttel, A.; Hug, P.; Racu, A. M.; Schoenes, J.

    2008-01-01

    Because of its apparent simplicity, diffusion of hydrogen in solids can be regarded as a general model system for diffusion. However, only rudimentary knowledge exists for the dynamics of hydrogen in complex hydrides. Insight into the specific diffusion process is given by hydrogen-deuterium

  9. Laser separation of hydrogen isotopes: Tritium-from-deuterium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnotta, F.; Herman, I.P.; Aldridge, F.T.; Maienschein, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    Single-step enrichment factors exceeding 15,000 have been observed in the removal of tritium-from-deuterium by 12 μm laser multiple-photon dissociation of chloroform. The photochemistry and photophysics of this process is discussed along with prospects for implementation of this method in practical heavy water reactor detritiation. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  10. Pulsating deuterium-lithium nuclear power station II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, A.G.

    1975-01-01

    A progressive version of the nuclear fusion reactor proposed by the same author in the German patent application 2400274 is dealt with. In the present paper a coaxial condenser of special construction is used in relation to the fusion plasma column. Furthermore, the deuterium gas bubble curtain for shockwave attenuation is produced via vertical holes in the electrode supports. (GG/LH) [de

  11. Synthesis of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone sulfates labeled with deuterium

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, Ivan; Bičíková, M.; Hill, M.; Hampl, R.; Buděšínský, Miloš; Pouzar, Vladimír

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 97, - (2003), s. s248 ISSN 0009-2770. [Conference on Isoprenoids /20./. 12.09.2003-18.09.2003, Liberec] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/02/1440 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : labeling deuterium Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  12. Trapping of deuterium in krypton-implanted nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, R.C.; McManus, S.P.; Rehn, L.E.; Baldo, P.

    1986-01-01

    Krypton ions with energy 600 keV were implanted in nickel to fluences of 2 x 10 16 cm -2 under three different conditions. Deuterium was subsequently introduced into the implanted regions by electrolysis at room temperature. After the diffusible deuterium was permitted to escape, the 2 H( 3 He, 1 H) 4 He nuclear reaction was used to analyze for the trapped deuterium during an isochronal annealing program. The region implanted at 100 0 C with no higher temperature anneal had the largest number of traps; the region implanted at 100 0 C and annealed for 100 min at 500 0 C had considerably less; the region implanted at 500 0 C had the least. Electron diffraction patterns confirmed the existence of solid crystalline krypton in all three regions. Transmission electron microscope studies revealed precipitates with an average diameter of 8 nm in the region implanted at 500 0 C. The two regions implanted at 100 0 C contained smaller precipitates. Trap binding enthalpies were obtained by math modeling. In addition to the traps with binding enthalpy of 0.55 eV reported earlier by other investigators for helium implanted in nickel, a smaller number of traps with binding enthalpies up to 0.83 eV were also found. The trapping of deuterium by various types of imperfections, including the solid krypton precipitates, is discussed

  13. Some methods for labelling organic compounds by deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustapha, C.

    1988-01-01

    The rapid growth of knowledge in the fields of biochemistry, physiology, and molecular biology reflects to a considerable degree the utilization of stable isotopes (specially deuterium) in the study of chemical reactions and fragmentation mechanisms in mass spectrometry, as well as in the pharmacological and biological studies. Organic compounds maybe labelled by deuterium through classic organic reactions by using special deuterated solvents and reagents. This article discusses some reactions, with examples on how to prepare labelled compounds with high isotopic purety. These reactions are: exchange reactions in acid and alkaline media (the exchange in the chromatographic column in liquid and gas phases, the exchange in homogenous medium), reduction reactions of functional groups as well as saturation of the double bounds by deuterium using hydrogenation catalystes, electrochemical reactions using KOLBE, and photochemical reactions. This article also deals with spectroscopic properties of deuterium and the methods which are used to identify its compounds such as infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, and mass spectroscopy. 37 refs., 2 figs

  14. Annihilation of antiprotons stopped in liquid hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalkarov, O.D.; Kerbikov, B.O.; Markushin, V.E.

    1976-01-01

    Detailed analysis is given of stopping antiproton annihilation in liquid hydrogen and deuterium. Connection between capture schedule and properties of bound states in nucleon-antinucleon system is established. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data which appeared in 1971-75

  15. Lattice dynamics of solid deuterium by inelastic neutron scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mourits; Bjerrum Møller, Hans

    1971-01-01

    The dispersion relations for phonons in solid ortho-deuterium have been measured at 5 °K by inelastic neutron scattering. The results are in good agreement with recent calculations in which quantum effects are taken into account. The data have been fitted to a third-neighbor general force model...

  16. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta

    2013-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation tightly regulates specific binding of effector proteins that control many diverse biological functions of cells (e. g. signaling, migration and proliferation). p140Cap is an adaptor protein, specifically expressed in brain, testis and epithelial cells, that undergoes...

  18. Recessed floating pier caps for highway bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Presented are alternate designs for two existing bridges in Virginia - one with steel beams and the other with prestressed concrete beams - whereby the pier caps are recessed within the depth of the longitudinal beams. The purpose of this recession i...

  19. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) contains over 100 data sets pertaining to permafrost and frozen ground topics. It also contains detailed...

  20. The ATLAS TRT end-cap detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ATLAS TRT Collaboration; Abat, E.; Addy, T. N.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Alison, J.; Anghinolfi, F.; Arik, E.; Arik, M.; Atoian, G.; Auerbach, B.; Baker, O. K.; Banas, E.; Baron, S.; Bault, C.; Becerici, N.; Beddall, A.; Beddall, A. J.; Bendotti, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bertelsen, H.; Bingul, A.; Blampey, H.; Bocci, A.; Bochenek, M.; Bondarenko, V. G.; Bychkov, V.; Callahan, J.; Capeáns Garrido, M.; Cardiel Sas, L.; Catinaccio, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chandler, T.; Chritin, R.; Cwetanski, P.; Dam, M.; Danielsson, H.; Danilevich, E.; David, E.; Degenhardt, J.; Di Girolamo, B.; Dittus, F.; Dixon, N.; Dobos, D.; Dogan, O. B.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Dressnandt, N.; Driouchi, C.; Ebenstein, W. L.; Eerola, P.; Egede, U.; Egorov, K.; Evans, H.; Farthouat, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fowler, A. J.; Fratina, S.; Froidevaux, D.; Fry, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Ghodbane, N.; Godlewski, J.; Goulette, M.; Gousakov, I.; Grigalashvili, N.; Grishkevich, Y.; Grognuz, J.; Hajduk, Z.; Hance, M.; Hansen, F.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, P. H.; Hare, G. A.; Harvey, A., Jr.; Hauviller, C.; High, A.; Hulsbergen, W.; Huta, W.; Issakov, V.; Istin, S.; Jain, V.; Jarlskog, G.; Jeanty, L.; Kantserov, V. A.; Kaplan, B.; Kapliy, A. S.; Katounine, S.; Kayumov, F.; Keener, P. T.; Kekelidze, G. D.; Khabarova, E.; Khristachev, A.; Kisielewski, B.; Kittelmann, T. H.; Kline, C.; Klinkby, E. B.; Klopov, N. V.; Ko, B. R.; Koffas, T.; Kondratieva, N. V.; Konovalov, S. P.; Koperny, S.; Korsmo, H.; Kovalenko, S.; Kowalski, T. Z.; Krüger, K.; Kramarenko, V.; Kudin, L. G.; LeBihan, A.-C.; LeGeyt, B. C.; Levterov, K.; Lichard, P.; Lindahl, A.; Lisan, V.; Lobastov, S.; Loginov, A.; Loh, C. W.; Lokwitz, S.; Long, M. C.; Lucas, S.; Lucotte, A.; Luehring, F.; Lundberg, B.; Mackeprang, R.; Maleev, V. P.; Manara, A.; Mandl, M.; Martin, A. J.; Martin, F. F.; Mashinistov, R.; Mayers, G. M.; McFarlane, K. W.; Mialkovski, V.; Mills, B. M.; Mindur, B.; Mitsou, V. A.; Mjörnmark, J. U.; Morozov, S. V.; Morris, E.; Mouraviev, S. V.; Muir, A. M.; Munar, A.; Nadtochi, A. V.; Nesterov, S. Y.; Newcomer, F. M.; Nikitin, N.; Novgorodova, O.; Novodvorski, E. G.; Ogren, H.; Oh, S. H.; Oleshko, S. B.; Olivito, D.; Olszowska, J.; Ostrowicz, W.; Passmore, M. S.; Patrichev, S.; Penwell, J.; Perez-Gomez, F.; Peshekhonov, V. D.; Petersen, T. C.; Petti, R.; Placci, A.; Poblaguev, A.; Pons, X.; Price, M. J.; hne, O. Rø; Reece, R. D.; Reilly, M. B.; Rembser, C.; Romaniouk, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rust, D.; Ryabov, Y. F.; Ryjov, V.; Söderberg, M.; Savenkov, A.; Saxon, J.; Scandurra, M.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scherzer, M. I.; Schmidt, M. P.; Schmitt, C.; Sedykh, E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Shin, T.; Shmeleva, A.; Sivoklokov, S.; Smirnov, S. Yu; Smirnova, L.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, P.; Sosnovtsev, V. V.; Sprachmann, G.; Subramania, S.; Suchkov, S. I.; Sulin, V. V.; Szczygiel, R. R.; Tartarelli, G.; Thomson, E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tipton, P.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Berg, R.; Vassilakopoulos, V. I.; Vassilieva, L.; Wagner, P.; Wall, R.; Wang, C.; Whittington, D.; Williams, H. H.; Zhelezko, A.; Zhukov, K.

    2008-10-01

    The ATLAS TRT end-cap is a tracking drift chamber using 245,760 individual tubular drift tubes. It is a part of the TRT tracker which consist of the barrel and two end-caps. The TRT end-caps cover the forward and backward pseudo-rapidity region 1.0 < |η| < 2.0, while the TRT barrel central η region |η| < 1.0. The TRT system provides a combination of continuous tracking with many measurements in individual drift tubes (or straws) and of electron identification based on transition radiation from fibers or foils interleaved between the straws themselves. Along with other two sub-system, namely the Pixel detector and Semi Conductor Tracker (SCT), the TRT constitutes the ATLAS Inner Detector. This paper describes the recently completed and installed TRT end-cap detectors, their design, assembly, integration and the acceptance tests applied during the construction.

  1. Deuterium removal from radiation damage in tungsten by isotopic exchange with hydrogen atomic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorodnikova, O. V.; Markelj, S.; Efimov, V. S.; Gasparyan, Yu M.

    2016-09-01

    The tungsten samples were pre-irradiated with self-ions to create radiation-induced defects and then exposed to the deuterium atomic beam. The deuterium removal was studied by isotopic exchange with atomic hydrogen beam. Modification of the deuterium depth profile in self-ion irradiated tungsten under isotopic exchange up to a depth of 6 μm was measured in- situ by nuclear reaction analysis. The total deuterium retention after isotopic exchange was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy. It is shown that the efficiency of the deuterium removal increases with increasing of the hydrogen incident flux, incident energy and temperature of the tungsten sample.

  2. Corrective action program (CAP) in United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Koji; Kobayashi, Masahide

    2008-01-01

    The Corrective Action Process (CAP) is one of the most important key issues on the Nuclear Reactor Safety. The experiences on the nuclear power plant operations, including safety culture, maintenance, and so on, should be continuously evaluated and influenced to the KAIZEN (improvement) of the NPP operations. The review of the CAP system in US will be useful for the NPP safety in Japan. (author)

  3. Development of Approaches for Deuterium Incorporation in Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Barbara R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Soon after the discovery of deuterium, efforts to utilize this stable isotope of hydrogen for labeling of plants began and have proven successful for natural abundance to 20% enrichment. However, isotopic labeling with deuterium (2H) in higher plants at the level of 40% and higher is complicated by both physiological responses, particularly water exchange through transpiration, and inhibitory effects of D2O on germination, rooting, and growth. The highest incorporation of 40 50% had been reported for photoheterotrophic cultivation of the duckweed Lemna. Higher substitution is desirable for certain applications using neutron scattering and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques. 1H2H-NMR and mass spectroscopy are standard methods frequently used for determination of location and amount of deuterium substitution. The changes in infrared (IR) absorption observed for H to D substitution in hydroxyl and alkyl groups provide rapid initial evaluation of incorporation. Short-term experiments with cold-tolerant annual grasses can be carried out in enclosed growth containers to evaluate incorporation. Growth in individual chambers under continuous air perfusion with dried sterile-filtered air enables long-term cultivation of multiple plants at different D2O concentrations. Vegetative propagation from cuttings extends capabilities to species with low germination rates. Cultivation in 50% D2O of annual ryegrass and switchgrass following establishment of roots by growth in H2O produces samples with normal morphology and 30 40 % deuterium incorporation in the biomass. Winter grain rye (Secale cereale) was found to efficiently incorporate deuterium by photosynthetic fixation from 50% D2O but did not incorporate deuterated phenylalanine-d8 from the growth medium.

  4. A nucleation theory of cell surface capping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutsias, E.A.; Wester, M.J.; Perelson, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    We propose a new theory of cell surface capping based on the principles of nucleation. When antibody interacts with cell surface molecules, the molecules initially form small aggregates called patches that later coalesce into a large aggregate called a cap. While a cap can form by patches being pulled together by action of the cell''s cytoskeleton, in the case of some molecules, disruption of the cytoskeleton does not prevent cap formation. Diffusion of large aggregates on a cell surface is slow, and thus we propose that a cap can form solely through the diffusion of small aggregates containing just one or a few cell surface molecules. Here we consider the extreme case in which single molecules are mobile, but aggregates of all larger sizes are immobile. We show that a set of patches in equilibrium with a open-quotes seaclose quotes of free cell surface molecules can undergo a nucleation-type phase transition in which the largest patch will bind free cell surface molecules, deplete the concentration of such molecules in the open-quotes seaclose quotes and thus cause the other patches to shrink in size. We therefore show that a cap can form without patches having to move, collide with each other, and aggregate

  5. Direct depth distribution measurement of deuterium in bulk tungsten exposed to high-flux plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Taylor

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding tritium retention and permeation in plasma-facing components is critical for fusion safety and fuel cycle control. Glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GD-OES is shown to be an effective tool to reveal the depth profile of deuterium in tungsten. Results confirm the detection of deuterium. A ∼46 μm depth profile revealed that the deuterium content decreased precipitously in the first 7 μm, and detectable amounts were observed to depths in excess of 20 μm. The large probing depth of GD-OES (up to 100s of μm enables studies not previously accessible to the more conventional techniques for investigating deuterium retention. Of particular applicability is the use of GD-OES to measure the depth profile for experiments where high deuterium concentration in the bulk material is expected: deuterium retention in neutron irradiated materials, and ultra-high deuterium fluences in burning plasma environment.

  6. Orientation in metal-catalyzed hydrogen exchange between alkanes, naphthalene, or biphenyl and deuterium or deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, M.A.; Moyes, R.B.; Wells, P.B.; Garnett, J.L.

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen isotope exchange between deuterium gas and protium in hexane, pentane, 2-methyl-butane, 2-methylpentane, 3-methylpentane, 2,3-dimethylbutane, and 2,4-dimethylpentane has been catalyzed by clean platinum films (70--100 0 C). A selection of these reactions has been catalyzed by films of rhodium and iridium (typically -13 to -35 0 C). In all cases, multiple exchange occurred. Product analysis by mass and proton NMR spectroscopy showed that exchange in methylene and methine groups was more rapid than that in methyl groups. A similar orientation effect was observed in reactions over platinum powder but not over platinum-alumina. For exchange between deuterium oxide and hexane catalyzed by platinum films at 200 0 C, the rate of exchange in methyl groups exceeded that in methylene groups. It is proposed that preferential exchange in methylene and methine groups is normal behavior during alkane exchange with molecular deuterium over these platinum metals when their surfaces (i) are initially clean or (ii) contain several adjacent sites which are unperturbed by the presence of any electronegative adsorbed species. Preferential exchange in the methyl groups of hexane results from contamination of the surface by adsorbed D 2 O, OD, or O; this may be a geometric effect or an electronic effect, depending on the magnitude of the surface coverage of water, which is unknown. Orientation in the exchange between deuterium gas and naphthalene or biphenyl catalyzed by films of platinum and iridium does not differ from that observed in exchanges where the isotope source is deuterium oxide or deuterated solvent, but the M value calculated for exchange in naphthalene is higher than that previously reported

  7. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  8. A thermoelectric cap for seafloor hydrothermal vents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Yu; Wu, Shi-jun; Yang, Can-jun

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a thermoelectric cap (TC) to harvest hydrothermal energy. • The TC was deployed at a hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, Taiwan. • The TC monitored the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the field test. • The TC could make the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids a viable power source. - Abstract: Long-term in situ monitoring is crucial to seafloor scientific investigations. One of the challenges of operating sensors in seabed is the lifespan of the sensors. Such sensors are commonly powered by batteries when other alternatives, such as tidal or solar energy, are unavailable. However, the batteries have a limited lifespan and must be recharged or replaced periodically, which is costly and impractical. A thermoelectric cap, which harvests the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids through a conduction pipe and converts the heat to electrical energy by using thermoelectric generators, was developed to avoid these inconveniences. The thermoelectric cap was combined with a power and temperature measurement system that enables the thermoelectric cap to power a light-emitting diode lamp, an electronic load (60 Ω), and 16 thermocouples continuously. The thermoelectric cap was field tested at a shallow hydrothermal vent site near Kueishantao islet, which is located offshore of northeastern Taiwan. By using the thermal gradient between hydrothermal fluids and seawater, the thermoelectric cap obtained a sustained power of 0.2–0.5 W during the field test. The thermoelectric cap successfully powered the 16 thermocouples and recorded the temperature of the hydrothermal fluids during the entire field test. Our results show that the thermal energy of hydrothermal fluids can be an alternative renewable power source for oceanographic research.

  9. Deuterium absorption and material phase characteristics of Zr2Fe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nobile, A.; Mosley, W.C.; Holder, J.S.; Brooks, K.N.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of polished surfaces, electron probe microanalysis, and X-ray powder diffractometry indicated the presence of a continuous Zr 2 Fe phase with secondary phases of ZrFe 2 , Zr 5 FeSn, α-Zr, and Zr 6 Fe 3 O. A statistically-designed experiment to determine the effects of temperature, time, and vacuum quality On activation of St 198 revealed that when activated at low temperature (350 degrees C) deuterium absorption rate was slower when the vacuum quality was pwr (2.5 Pa vs. 3x10 -4 Pa). However, at higher activation temperature (500 degrees C), deuterium absorption rate was fast and was independent of vacuum quality. Deuterium pressure-composition-temperature (P-C-T) data are reported for St 198 in the temperature range 200--500 degrees C. The P-C-T data over the full range of deuterium loading and at temperatures of 350 degrees C and below is described by: K 0e -(ΔH α /RT)=PD 2 q 2 /(q*-q) 2 where ΔHα and K 0 have values of 101.8 kJ·mole -1 and 3.24x10 -8 Pa -1 , and q* is 15.998 kPa·L -1 ·g -1 . At higher temperatures, one or more secondary reactions in the solid phase occur that slowly consume D 2 from the gas phase. XRD suggests these reactions to be: 2 Zr 2 FeD x → x ZrD 2 + x/3 ZrFe 2 + (2 - 2/3x) Zr 2 Fe and Zr 2 FeD x + (2 -1/2x) D 2 → ZrD 2 + Fe, where 0 < x < 3. Reaction between gas phase deuterium and Zr2FC formed in the first reaction accounts for the observed consumption of deuterium from the gas phase by this reaction

  10. Hydrogen and deuterium NMR of solids by magic angle spinning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eckman, Richard Raymond [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-10-01

    The nuclear magnetic resonance of solids has long been characterized by very large spectral broadening which arises from internuclear dipole-dipole coupling or the nuclear electric quadrupole interaction. These couplings can obscure the smaller chemical shift interaction and make that information unavailable. Two important and difficult cases are that of hydrogen and deuterium. For example, the homonuclear dipolar broadening, HD, for hydrogen is usually several tens of kilohertz. For deuterium, HD is relatively small; however, the quadrupole interaction causes a broadening which can be hundreds of kilohertz in polycrystalline or amorphous solids. The development of cross polarization, heteronuclear radiofrequency decoupling, and coherent averaging of nuclear spin interactions has provided measurement of chemical shift tensors in solids. Recently, double quantum NMR and double quantum decoupling have led to measurement of deuterium and proton chemical shift tensors, respectively. A general problem of these experiments is the overlapping of the tensor powder pattern spectra of magnetically distinct sites which cannot be resolved. In this work, high resolution NMR of hydrogen and deuterium in solids is demonstrated. For both nuclei, the resonances are narrowed to obtain liquid-like isotropic spectra by high frequency rotation of the sample about an axis inclined at the magic angle, βm = Arccos(3-1/2), with respect to the direction of the external magnetic field. Two approaches have been developed for each nucleus. For deuterium, the powder spectra were narrowed by over three orders of magnitude by magic angle rotation with precise control of β. A second approach was the observation of deuterium double quantum transitions under magic angle rotation. For hydrogen, magic angle rotation alone could be applied to obtain the isotropic spectrum when HD was small. This often occurs naturally when the nuclei are semi-dilute or involved in

  11. 75 FR 49527 - Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as... Adjustment Assistance on June 24, 2010, applicable to workers of Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot..., Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot Group, formerly known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

  12. On-tissue Direct Monitoring of Global Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange by MALDI Mass Spectrometry: Tissue Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (TDXMS)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanico, Jusal; Franck, Julien

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometric (H/DXMS) methods for protein structural analysis are conventionally performed in solution. We present Tissue Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (TDXMS), a method to directly monitor deuterium uptake on tissue, as a means to better approximate the deuterium exchange behavior of proteins in their native microenvironment. Using this method, a difference in deuterium uptake behavior was observed when the same proteins were monitored in solution and on tissue. The higher maximum deuterium uptake at equilibrium for all proteins analyzed in solution suggests a more open conformation in the absence of interacting partners normally observed on tissue. We also demonstrate a difference in the deuterium uptake behavior of a few proteins across different morphological regions of the same tissue section. Modifications of the total number of hydrogens exchanged, as well as the kinetics of exchange, were both observed. These results provide information on the implication of protein interactions with partners as well as on the conformational changes related to these interactions, and illustrate the importance of examining protein deuterium exchange behavior in the presence of its specific microenvironment directly at the level of tissues. PMID:27512083

  13. On-tissue Direct Monitoring of Global Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange by MALDI Mass Spectrometry: Tissue Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (TDXMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quanico, Jusal; Franck, Julien; Salzet, Michel; Fournier, Isabelle

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometric (H/DXMS) methods for protein structural analysis are conventionally performed in solution. We present Tissue Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry (TDXMS), a method to directly monitor deuterium uptake on tissue, as a means to better approximate the deuterium exchange behavior of proteins in their native microenvironment. Using this method, a difference in deuterium uptake behavior was observed when the same proteins were monitored in solution and on tissue. The higher maximum deuterium uptake at equilibrium for all proteins analyzed in solution suggests a more open conformation in the absence of interacting partners normally observed on tissue. We also demonstrate a difference in the deuterium uptake behavior of a few proteins across different morphological regions of the same tissue section. Modifications of the total number of hydrogens exchanged, as well as the kinetics of exchange, were both observed. These results provide information on the implication of protein interactions with partners as well as on the conformational changes related to these interactions, and illustrate the importance of examining protein deuterium exchange behavior in the presence of its specific microenvironment directly at the level of tissues. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. In-vessel tritium inventory in ITER evaluated by deuterium retention in carbon dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; Yoshida, H.; Hirohata, Y.; Yamauchi, Y.; Akiba, M.; Suzuki, S.

    2005-01-01

    In order to estimate the in-vessel tritium inventory in carbon dust in ITER, deuterium gas absorption and deuterium ion irradiation experiments were conducted for a carbon dust prepared by using electron beam evaporation of graphite. The amount of deuterium retained after the deuterium gas absorption was very low, with an atomic ratio of D/C=10 -3 . The amount of deuterium retained after the deuterium ion irradiation was very similar to that for graphite. The deuterium concentration becomes close to zero if the wall temperature in the divertor wall region is higher than 1000 K. Co-deposited carbon dust was prepared by using a deuterium arc discharge apparatus with carbon electrodes at different gas pressure and substrate temperature. The co-deposited carbon dust had the largest deuterium concentration. In ITER conditions with a gas pressure of 1 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K, the deuterium concentration becomes approximately D/C=0.2. In DT discharges, the tritium concentration becomes T/C=0.1. This value is presumed to be the highest concentration in carbon dust in ITER. The present result shows that the accumulation speed of the in-vessel tritium inventory is lower than that predicted so far. (author)

  15. In-vessel tritium inventory in ITER evaluated by deuterium retention of carbon dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hino, T.; Yoshida, H.; Hirohata, Y.; Yamauchi, Y.; Akiba, Masato; Suzuki, Satoshi

    2005-01-01

    In order to estimate in-vessel tritium inventory of carbon dust, deuterium gas absorption and deuterium ion irradiation experiments were conducted for a carbon dust prepared by using electron beam evaporation for graphite. The retained amount of deuterium after the deuterium gas absorption was very low, D/C=10 -3 in the atomic ratio. The retained amount of deuterium after the deuterium ion irradiation was very similar with that for graphite. The deuterium concentration becomes close to zero if the wall temperature at divertor wall region is higher than 1000 K. Co-deposited carbon dust was prepared by using a deuterium arc discharge apparatus with carbon electrodes at different gas pressure and substrate temperature. The co-deposited carbon dust had a largest deuterium concentration. In the ITER condition with gas pressure of 1 Pa and wall temperature of 573 K, the deuterium concentration in the atomic ratio becomes approximately D/C=0.2. In DT discharge, the tritium concentration in the atomic ratio becomes T/C=0.1. This value is presumed to be a highest concentration of carbon dust in ITER. The present result shows that the accumulation speed of in-vessel tritium inventory is lower than that predicted so far. (author)

  16. Study of the microstructure evolution of zirconium alloy during deuterium absorption at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cheng; Yang, Yun; Zhang, Yin; Liu, Jingru; You, Li; Song, Xiping

    2017-09-01

    In the exploration of fusion power, zirconium alloy has been viewed as a potential deuterium storage material to store and deliver deuterium fuel into fusion reactors, due to its large deuterium storage capacity, low deuterium desorption pressure and fast deuterium absorption kinetics. But it often cracks after deuterium absorption. In this study, the microstructure and deuterium absorption kinetic of β-Zr in various deuteriding conditions (pressure, time and temperature) were investigated. The results showed that, with the increase of deuteriding pressures from 1 bar to 3 bar at 1173 K, the deuteride content and the deuteride morphology changed significantly. During deuterium absorption at 3 bar, the surface deuteride layer was formed first, and then the inner deuteride network was gradually developed with the time. There existed an apparent deuterium concentration gradient from surface to center. With the increase of deuteriding temperatures from 973 K to 1173 K, the deuteride content decreased. The kinetic of deuterium absorption at 1173 K was found to be affected by the deuteriding pressures. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results showed that ε deuterides nucleated and grew at the interface of δ deuterides, and small bands with different crystal orientation were found within the ε deuterides. The γ deuterides were found at 3 bar, within which twins and tweed structure were observed. An orientation relationship of δ//ε, {111}δ//{111}ε between δ and ε deuterides was also determined by TEM analysis.

  17. Counter-diffusion and -permeation of deuterium and hydrogen through metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kizu, Kaname; Tanabe; Tetsuo [Nagoya Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The first experiments for counter-diffusion and -permeation of deuterium and hydrogen through palladium were performed. Deuterium permeation rates against D{sub 2} pressure were measured under the condition where hydrogen permeated to opposite direction by supplying H{sub 2} gas at the permeated side of D{sub 2}. It was found that not a small amount of deuterium was clearly permeated even if the deuterium pressure was much smaller than the hydrogen pressure. Deuterium permeation rate was gradually reduced by increasing the counter H permeation. The deuterium permeation rate under the counter H permeation is well represented by a simple model in which the ratio of the deuterium permeation rates with and without the counter H permeation was proportional to the fractional concentration of deuterium in the bulk. As increasing the hydrogen counter flow, however, the deuterium permeation rate deviates from the model. This means that adsorption (absorption) of D{sub 2} from gas phase is inhibited and surface recombination of deuterium is blocked by hydrogen. (author)

  18. Spin exchange optical pumping of hydrogen and deuterium nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.W.; Walker, T.

    1995-01-01

    The prospects for the direct production of a nuclear polarized atomic hydrogen or deuterium target by the use of spin exchange optical pumping is analyzed in both a low and a high magnetic field. In a low magnetic field it is found that the optical pumping cell wall coatings must have relaxation times that correspond to thousands of wall collisions if one is to produce a highly polarized target. In a high magnetic field it is found that wall coatings must have relaxation times that correspond to only a few hundred wall collisions in order to produce a highly polarized atomic hydrogen target but must have relaxation times that correspond to thousands of wall collisions to produce a highly polarized atomic deuterium target. ((orig.))

  19. Achievements and perspectives of deuterium-depleted water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefanescu, Ioan; Titescu, Gheorghe.; Tamaian, Radu

    2002-01-01

    Deuterium-depleted water (DDW) means water with an isotopic deuterium content smaller than 145 ppm. DDW is a non-toxic product. The researches carried out were turned out as many patents. The investigations led to the conclusion that DDW cause a tendency towards the increase of the basal tone, accompanied by the intensification of the vasoconstrictive effects. Animals treated with DDW showed an increase of the resistance both to sub lethal and to lethal gamma radiation doses. DDW stimulates immunodefence reactions. Investigations regarding artificial reproduction of fish with DDW fecundated solutions confirmed the favourable influence in embryo growth stage and resistance in next growth stages. One can remark the favourable influence of DDW on biological process in plants in various ontogenetic stages. (authors)

  20. Warm water deuterium fractionation in IRAS 16293-2422

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Magnus Vilhelm; Jørgensen, Jes Kristian; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2013-01-01

    observations reveal the physical and chemical structure of water vapor close to the protostars on solar-system scales. The red-shifted absorption detected toward source B is indicative of infall. The excitation temperature is consistent with the picture of water ice evaporation close to the protostar. The low......Context. Measuring the water deuterium fractionation in the inner warm regions of low-mass protostars has so far been hampered by poor angular resolution obtainable with single-dish ground- and space-based telescopes. Observations of water isotopologues using (sub)millimeter wavelength...... interferometers have the potential to shed light on this matter. Aims: To measure the water deuterium fractionation in the warm gas of the deeply-embedded protostellar binary IRAS 16293-2422. Methods: Observations toward IRAS 16293-2422 of the 53,2 - 44,1 transition of H218O at 692.07914 GHz from Atacama Large...

  1. Deuterium retention in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, Hai-Shan; Xu, Yu-Ping; Sun, Ning-Bo; Zhang, Ying-Chun; Oya, Yasuhisa; Zhao, Ming-Zhong; Mao, Hong-Min; Ding, Fang; Liu, Feng; Luo, Guang-Nan

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate D retention in electrodeposition W coatings. • W coatings are exposed to D plasmas in the EAST tokamak. • A cathodic current density dependence on D retention is found. • Electrodeposition W exhibits lower D retention than VPS-W. - Abstract: Molten salt electrodeposition is a promising technology to manufacture the first wall of a fusion reactor. Deuterium (D) retention behavior in molten salt electrodeposition tungsten (W) coatings has been investigated by D-plasma exposure in the EAST tokamak and D-ion implantation in an ion beam facility. Tokamak exposure experiments demonstrate that coatings prepared with lower current density exhibit less D retention and milder surface damage. Deuterium-ion implantation experiments indicate the D retention in the molten salt electrodeposition W is less than that in vacuum plasma spraying W and polycrystalline W.

  2. Techniques for determining total body water using deuterium oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Phillip A.

    1990-01-01

    The measurement of total body water (TBW) is fundamental to the study of body fluid changes consequent to microgravity exposure or treatment with microgravity countermeasures. Often, the use of radioactive isotopes is prohibited for safety or other reasons. It was selected and implemented for use by some Johnson Space Center (JCS) laboratories, which permitted serial measurements over a 14 day period which was accurate enough to serve as a criterion method for validating new techniques. These requirements resulted in the selection of deuterium oxide dilution as the method of choice for TBW measurement. The development of this technique at JSC is reviewed. The recommended dosage, body fluid sampling techniques, and deuterium assay options are described.

  3. Ion irradiated graphite exposed to fusion-relevant deuterium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deslandes, Alec; Guenette, Mathew C.; Corr, Cormac S.; Karatchevtseva, Inna; Thomsen, Lars; Ionescu, Mihail; Lumpkin, Gregory R.; Riley, Daniel P.

    2014-01-01

    Graphite samples were irradiated with 5 MeV carbon ions to simulate the damage caused by collision cascades from neutron irradiation in a fusion environment. The ion irradiated graphite samples were then exposed to a deuterium plasma in the linear plasma device, MAGPIE, for a total ion fluence of ∼1 × 10 24 ions m −2 . Raman and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy were used to characterize modifications to the graphitic structure. Ion irradiation was observed to decrease the graphitic content and induce disorder in the graphite. Subsequent plasma exposure decreased the graphitic content further. Structural and surface chemistry changes were observed to be greatest for the sample irradiated with the greatest fluence of MeV ions. D retention was measured using elastic recoil detection analysis and showed that ion irradiation increased the amount of retained deuterium in graphite by a factor of four

  4. Catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS): Descriptive analysis of 500 patients from the International CAPS Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Pintó, Ignasi; Moitinho, Marta; Santacreu, Irene; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Erkan, Doruk; Espinosa, Gerard; Cervera, Ricard

    2016-12-01

    To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of patients with catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) from the "CAPS Registry". The demographic, clinical and serological features of 500 patients included in the website-based "CAPS Registry" were analyzed. Frequency distribution and measures of central tendency were used to describe the cohort. Comparison between groups regarding qualitative variables was undertaken by chi-square or Fisher exact test while T-test for independent variables was used to compare groups regarding continuous variables. 500 patients (female: 343 [69%]; mean age 38±17) accounting for 522 episodes of CAPS were included in the analysis. Forty percent of patients had an associated autoimmune disease, mainly systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) (75%). The majority of CAPS episodes were triggered by a precipitating factor (65%), mostly infections (49%). Clinically, CAPS was characterized by several organ involvement affecting kidneys (73%), lungs (60%), brain (56%), heart (50%), and skin (47%). Lupus anticoagulant, IgG anticardiolipin and IgG anti-β2-glycprotein antibodies were the most often implicated antiphospholipid antibodies (83%, 81% and 78% respectively). Mortality accounted for 37% of episodes of CAPS. Several clinical differences could be observed based on the age of presentation and its association to SLE. Those cases triggered by a malignancy tended to occur in older patients, while CAPS episodes in young patients were associated with an infectious trigger and peripheral vessels involvement. Additionally, CAPS associated with SLE were more likely to have severe cardiac and brain involvement leading to a higher mortality (48%). Although the presentation of CAPS is characterized by multiorgan thrombosis and failure, clinical differences among patients exist based on age and underlying chronic diseases, e.g. malignancy and SLE. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  6. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  7. Deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope dilution spaces in normal adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, W.; Cochran, W.; Lee, L.; Klish, W.; Klein, P.

    1986-01-01

    In light of the limited series of published comparison the authors have determined the deuterium and oxygen-18 isotope dilution spaces in 10 normal subjects, 5 males and 5 females. Labeled water was administered orally at doses of 40 mg deuterium oxide and 60 mg oxygen-18 per kg of body weight. One predose blood sample and six hourly postdose blood samples were collected from each subject. Aliquots of plasma water were reduced directly to hydrogen gas with zinc shot in individual quartz reaction vessels and 2 H/ 1 H isotope ratios were determined by gas-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (GIRMS). 18 O/ 16 O isotope ratios were determined after plasma samples were equilibrated with CO 2 in an isotope exchange system. Both 2 H- and 18 O-labeled water attained isotopic equilibrium in plasma within 3 hr after administration. The deuterium dilution spaces in males and females were 56.4 +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD) and 55.9 +/- 0.9% of body weight, respectively, while the 18 O dilution spaces constituted 54.1 +/- 1.85% and 53.30 +/- 1.30%. The deuterium spaces were larger than the 18 O spaces by 4.55 +/- 0.56% in men and 4.78 +/- 1.63% in women and were significant at P < 0.01. These results compare with values of 3.81 +/- 2.66% for males (n = 6) and 1.10 +/- 2.67% for females (n = 2) previously reported by Schoeller et al

  8. In situ sampling for pressure tube deuterium concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrington, A.J.; Kittmer, C.A.

    1988-01-01

    The present method of assessing the useful life of pressure tubes in CANDU (CANada Deuterium Uranium) reactors requires the periodic removal and examination of a tube. Special tooling was developed at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) to obtain a sample of material from a pressure tube without removing the tube from the reactor. The sampling tool concept has been successfully used by Ontario Hydro during scheduled outages at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station (PNGS). (author)

  9. One Percent Determination of the Primordial Deuterium Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Steidel, Charles C.

    2018-03-01

    We report a reanalysis of a near-pristine absorption system, located at a redshift {z}abs}=2.52564 toward the quasar Q1243+307, based on the combination of archival and new data obtained with the HIRES echelle spectrograph on the Keck telescope. This absorption system, which has an oxygen abundance [O/H] = ‑2.769 ± 0.028 (≃1/600 of the solar abundance), is among the lowest metallicity systems currently known where a precise measurement of the deuterium abundance is afforded. Our detailed analysis of this system concludes, on the basis of eight D I absorption lines, that the deuterium abundance of this gas cloud is {log}}10({{D}}/{{H}})=-4.622+/- 0.015, which is in very good agreement with the results previously reported by Kirkman et al., but with an improvement on the precision of this single measurement by a factor of ∼3.5. Combining this new estimate with our previous sample of six high precision and homogeneously analyzed D/H measurements, we deduce that the primordial deuterium abundance is {log}}10{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=-4.5974+/- 0.0052 or, expressed as a linear quantity, {10}5{({{D}}/{{H}})}{{P}}=2.527+/- 0.030; this value corresponds to a one percent determination of the primordial deuterium abundance. Combining our result with a big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) calculation that uses the latest nuclear physics input, we find that the baryon density derived from BBN agrees to within 2σ of the latest results from the Planck cosmic microwave background data. Based on observations collected at the W.M. Keck Observatory which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  10. Laser-driven polarized sources of hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.; Holt, R.J.; Green, M.C.; Kowalczyk, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which operates on the principle of spin exchange optical pumping is described. The advantages of this method over conventional polarized sources for internal target experiments are presented. Technological difficulties which prevent ideal source operation are outlined along with proposed solutions. At present, the laser-driven polarized hydrogen source delivers 8 /times/ 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization (P/sub z/) of 24%. 9 refs., 2 figs

  11. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.

    1996-01-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ( 13 C-labelled PCB congeners, 13 C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D 9 -clenbuterol, D 3 -clenbuterol, D 3 -zeramol and D 3 -dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG)

  12. Design of a cryogenic deuterium gas target for neutron therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, F.T.; Waterman, F.M.; Forsthoff, H.; Skaggs, L.S.; Vander Arend, P.C.; Stoy, S.

    1976-01-01

    A cryogenic deuterium gas target operating at 80 0 K and 10 atm pressure has been designed for use with a small cyclotron; the D(d,n) reaction is used to produce a neutron beam suitable for radiation therapy. The target is cooled by circulation of the gas in a closed loop between the target and an external heat exchanger immersed in liquid nitrogen

  13. Deuterium ingress at rolled joints in Embalse nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos Nervi, J. E.; Schroeter, F.

    2013-01-01

    Deuterium ingress model at the Rolled Joint has been extensively used for CANDU Nuclear Power Plants Operators in the Life Management of the Pressure Tubes. The importance of understanding the model is vital to avoid delayed hydride cracking at the Rolled Joint. This work reports the first step on develop the model presented on literature to be used in Argentinean CANDU 6, Embalse Nuclear Power Plant. (author)

  14. Sputtering of Thick Deuterium Films by KeV Electrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thestrup Nielsen, Birgitte; Svendsen, Winnie Edith; Schou, Jørgen

    1994-01-01

    Sputtering of thick films of solid deuterium up to several μm by keV electrons is reported for the first time. The sputtering yield increases within a narrow range of thicknesses around 1.6 μm by about 2 orders of magnitude for 1.5 keV electrons. A similar behavior has not been observed for ion...... bombardment. The yield enhancement is accompanied by an increasing electron accumulation in the film....

  15. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full...... as a strong ice wave. The ice cap leads to low transmission of energy into the crust such that charges need be larger than in conventional onshore experiments to obtain reliable seismic signals. The strong reflection coefficient at the base of the ice generates strong multiples which may mask for secondary...... phases. This effect may be crucial for acquisition of reflection seismic profiles on ice caps. Our experience shows that it is essential to use optimum depth for the charges and to seal the boreholes carefully....

  16. Microtubule dynamics: Caps, catastrophes, and coupled hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Holy, T.E.; Leibler, S.

    1996-01-01

    individual tubulin dimers, an ignored. In this cap model, GTP hydrolysis is assumed to be stochastic and uncoupled to microtubule growth. Different rates of hydrolysis are assumed for GTP in the cap's interior and for GTP at its boundary with hydrolyzed parts of the microtubule. Expectation values...... and probability distributions relating to available experimental data are derived. Caps are found to be short and the total rate of hydrolysis at a microtubule end is found to be dynamically coupled to growth. The so-called catastrophe rate is a simple function of the microtubule growth rare and fits experimental...... of microtubule growth before dilution. The GTP content of microtubules is found and its rare of hydrolysis is determined under the circumstances created in an experiment designed to measure this GTP content. It is concluded that this experiment's failure to register any GTP content is consistent with the model...

  17. Results of neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina; Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Skakov, Mazhyn; Zaurbekova, Zhanna; Lyublinski, Igor; Vertkov, Alexey; Mazzitelli, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1M research reactor are described. • At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10 9 exp(−144/RT). • The T 2 molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise. - Abstract: This paper describes the results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The neutron flux at the reactor core center at 2 MW was 5 10 −13 cm −2 s −1 . The efficiency coefficients of helium and tritium release from lithium saturated with deuterium were calculated. The tritium interaction with lithium atoms (formation and dissociation of lithium tritide) has an effect on tritium release. An increment of sample’s temperature results in tritium release acceleration due to rising of the dissociation rate of lithium tritide. At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10 9 exp(-144/RT). The T 2 molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise.

  18. Determination of deuterium concentration by falling drop method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Hiroshi; Morishima, Hiroshige; Koga, Taeko; Niwa, Takeo; Fujii, Takashi.

    1976-01-01

    Falling drop method for determination of deuterium concentration in water sample was studied. The principle is the same as that developed by Kirshenbaum, I. in 1932. One drop of water sample falls down through a column filled with o-fluorotoluene at temperature of nearly 25 0 C. The falling time is, instead of using a stop-watch, measured with two light pulses led to a photomultiplier with mirrors, which make two pulse marks on moving chart paper. Distance between the two pulse marks is proportional to falling time. Instead of water filled double chambers of constant temperature equipped with heaters, thermostats and propellers for stirring, the column is dipped in circulating water supplied from a ''Thermoelectric'' made by ''Sharp'' company, which can circulate constant temperature water cooled or heated with thermoelements. Variation of the temperature is about 0.01 0 C. The range of deuterium concentration in our case was 20 -- 60D%. Sensitivity increased as the medium temperature decreased and as deuterium concentration of water sample increased. (auth.)

  19. High resolution deuterium NMR studies of bacterial metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguayo, J.B.; Gamcsik, M.P.; Dick, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    High resolution deuterium NMR spectra were obtained from suspensions of five bacterial strains: Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Deuterium-labeled D-glucose at C-1, C-2, and C-6 was used to monitor dynamically anaerobic metabolism. The flux of glucose through the various bacterial metabolic pathways could be determined by following the disappearance of glucose and the appearance of the major end products in the 2H NMR spectrum. The presence of both labeled and unlabeled metabolites could be detected using 1H NMR spectroscopy since the proton resonances in the labeled species are shifted upfield due to an isotopic chemical shift effect. The 1H-1H scalar coupling observed in both the 2H and 1H NMR spectra was used to assign definitively the resonances of labeled species. An increase in the intensity of natural abundance deuterium signal of water can be used to monitor pathways in which a deuteron is lost from the labeled metabolite. The steps in which label loss can occur are outlined, and the influence these processes have on the ability of 2H NMR spectroscopy to monitor metabolism are assessed

  20. Measurement of the deuterium Balmer series line emission on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C. R.; Xu, Z.; Jin, Z.; Zhang, P. F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Science Island Branch of Graduate School, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Huang, J., E-mail: juan.huang@ipp.ac.cn; Gao, W.; Gao, W.; Chang, J. F.; Xu, J. C.; Duan, Y. M.; Chen, Y. J.; Zhang, L.; Wu, Z. W.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Hou, Y. M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2016-11-15

    Volume recombination plays an important role towards plasma detachment for magnetically confined fusion devices. High quantum number states of the Balmer series of deuterium are used to study recombination. On EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), two visible spectroscopic measurements are applied for the upper/lower divertor with 13 channels, respectively. Both systems are coupled with Princeton Instruments ProEM EMCCD 1024B camera: one is equipped on an Acton SP2750 spectrometer, which has a high spectral resolution ∼0.0049 nm with 2400 gr/mm grating to measure the D{sub α}(H{sub α}) spectral line and with 1200 gr/mm grating to measure deuterium molecular Fulcher band emissions and another is equipped on IsoPlane SCT320 using 600 gr/mm to measure high-n Balmer series emission lines, allowing us to study volume recombination on EAST and to obtain the related line averaged plasma parameters (T{sub e}, n{sub e}) during EAST detached phases. This paper will present the details of the measurements and the characteristics of deuterium Balmer series line emissions during density ramp-up L-mode USN plasma on EAST.

  1. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  2. A nanobody targeting the F-actin capping protein CapG restrains breast cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Impe, Katrien; Bethuyne, Jonas; Cool, Steven; Impens, Francis; Ruano-Gallego, David; De Wever, Olivier; Vanloo, Berlinda; Van Troys, Marleen; Lambein, Kathleen; Boucherie, Ciska; Martens, Evelien; Zwaenepoel, Olivier; Hassanzadeh-Ghassabeh, Gholamreza; Vandekerckhove, Joël; Gevaert, Kris; Fernández, Luis Ángel; Sanders, Niek N; Gettemans, Jan

    2013-12-13

    Aberrant turnover of the actin cytoskeleton is intimately associated with cancer cell migration and invasion. Frequently however, evidence is circumstantial, and a reliable assessment of the therapeutic significance of a gene product is offset by lack of inhibitors that target biologic properties of a protein, as most conventional drugs do, instead of the corresponding gene. Proteomic studies have demonstrated overexpression of CapG, a constituent of the actin cytoskeleton, in breast cancer. Indirect evidence suggests that CapG is involved in tumor cell dissemination and metastasis. In this study, we used llama-derived CapG single-domain antibodies or nanobodies in a breast cancer metastasis model to address whether inhibition of CapG activity holds therapeutic merit. We raised single-domain antibodies (nanobodies) against human CapG and used these as intrabodies (immunomodulation) after lentiviral transduction of breast cancer cells. Functional characterization of nanobodies was performed to identify which biochemical properties of CapG are perturbed. Orthotopic and tail vein in vivo models of metastasis in nude mice were used to assess cancer cell spreading. With G-actin and F-actin binding assays, we identified a CapG nanobody that binds with nanomolar affinity to the first CapG domain. Consequently, CapG interaction with actin monomers or actin filaments is blocked. Intracellular delocalization experiments demonstrated that the nanobody interacts with CapG in the cytoplasmic environment. Expression of the nanobody in breast cancer cells restrained cell migration and Matrigel invasion. Notably, the nanobody prevented formation of lung metastatic lesions in orthotopic xenograft and tail-vein models of metastasis in immunodeficient mice. We showed that CapG nanobodies can be delivered into cancer cells by using bacteria harboring a type III protein secretion system (T3SS). CapG inhibition strongly reduces breast cancer metastasis. A nanobody-based approach offers

  3. Application of a Pyroprobe-Deuterium NMR System: Deuterium Tracing and Mechanistic Study of Upgrading Process for Lignin Model Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben, Haoxi; Jarvis, Mark W.; Nimlos, Mark R.; Gjersing, Erica L.; Sturgeon, Matthew R.; Foust, Thomas D.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Biddy, Mary J.

    2016-04-21

    In this study, a pyroprobe-deuterium (2H) NMR system has been used to identify isotopomer products formed during the deuteration and ring opening of lignin model compounds. Several common model compounds for lignin and its upgraded products, including guaiacol, syringol, toluene, p-xylene, phenol, catechol, cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, and methylcyclopentane, have been examined for selective ring opening. Similar pathways for upgrading of toluene and p-xylene has been found, which will undergo hydrogenation, methyl group elimination, and ring opening process, and benzene, cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane have been found as major intermediates before ring opening. Very interestingly, the 2H NMR analysis for the deuterium-traced ring opening of catechol on Ir/..gamma..-Al2O3 is almost identical to the ring opening process for phenol. The ring opening processes for guaiacol and syringol appeared to be very complicated, as expected. Benzene, phenol, toluene, cyclohexane, and methylcyclohexane have been determined to be the major products.

  4. Deuterium-Tritium Simulations of the Enhanced Reversed Shear Mode in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Manickam, J.; Scott, S.D.; Zarnstorff

    1997-04-01

    The potential performance, in deuterium-tritium plasmas, of a new enhanced con nement regime with reversed magnetic shear (ERS mode) is assessed. The equilibrium conditions for an ERS mode plasma are estimated by solving the plasma transport equations using the thermal and particle dif- fusivities measured in a short duration ERS mode discharge in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [F. M. Levinton, et al., Phys. Rev. Letters, 75, 4417, (1995)]. The plasma performance depends strongly on Zeff and neutral beam penetration to the core. The steady state projections typically have a central electron density of {approx}2:5x10 20 m{sup -3} and nearly equal central electron and ion temperatures of {approx}10 keV. In time dependent simulations the peak fusion power, {approx} 25 MW, is twice the steady state level. Peak performance occurs during the density rise when the central ion temperature is close to the optimal value of {approx} 15 keV. The simulated pressure profiles can be stable to ideal MHD instabilities with toroidal mode number n = 1, 2, 3, 4 and {infinity} for {beta}{sub norm} up to 2.5; the simulations have {beta}{sub norm} {le} 2.1. The enhanced reversed shear mode may thus provide an opportunity to conduct alpha physics experiments in conditions imilar to those proposed for advanced tokamak reactors.

  5. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled compounds for FOTEK project; Syntese af deuterium-maerkede forbindelser til FOeTEK projektet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joergensen, O.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E. [Forskningscenter Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-06-01

    In the FoTech project there have been utilized labelled compounds of stable isotopes as internal standards. Some of these compounds are commercially available ({sup 13}C-labelled PCB congeners, {sup 13}C-labelled diethylstilbestrol for determination of anabolic steroids). Others, like D{sub 9}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-clenbuterol, D{sub 3}-zeramol and D{sub 3}-dimetridazol have been synthesized. General aspects of deuterium compounds labelling are considered. (EG).

  6. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, Barry J; Clarke, Raymond; Huang Chenyu

    2013-01-01

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  7. Experimental pilot plant for tritium and deuterium separation. Future perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, I; Bornea, Anisia; Brad, S; Constantin, N; Cristescu, Ioana; Pearsica, Claudia; Poenariu, V; Sofalca, N; Stefan, L; Zamfirache, M

    1998-01-01

    Experimental Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation at Rm. Valcea has the goal of establishing the technological data required to design and operate an industrial-scale for detritiation of heavy water contaminated by various tritium concentrations. The technology developed at Rm. Valcea is based upon the catalytic isotopic exchange heavy water - deuterium, followed of cryogenic distillation of a mixture between molecular species of hydrogen and its isotopes. In the paper we present the main steps of commissioning and we analyse the plant's performances regarding tritium and deuterium separation. The links between the detritiation plant and a CANDU type reactor are presented. The experimental pilot plant contains five modules that can work independently or coupled between them: a. In the isotopic exchange module the transfer of deuterium and tritium from heavy water into the hydrogen flow is realized by means of a catalytic isotope exchange process at 80 o C. The mixed catalytic packing was made and tested. It contains a catalyst of Pt/C/PTFE type and B7 packing; b. In the preliminary purification module the purification of hydrogen is carried out to remove the oxygen and water, which can affect the good functioning of the cryogenic distillation module; c. In the cryogenic distillation module the mixture of hydrogen isotopes is separated; The deuterium concentration at the bottom of the column is up to 99.9% D/(D+H); The column is filled with ordered package and the condenser's temperature is 22 K; d. In the catalytic burning module, deuterated hydrogen is catalytically combined with oxygen and heavy water results with the concentration of 19.9% D/(D+H). The hydrogen burning takes place on mixed catalytic package with 10% hydrophobe catalyst of Pt/C/PTFE type and 90% package; e. The module of water isotopic distillation under vacuum allows heavy water concentration to raise from 49.9% D/(D+H) to 99.8% D/(D+H) on ordered package.(authors)

  8. Investigation of simultaneous tritium and deuterium transfer in a catalytic isotope exchange column for water detritiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristescu, I.; Tamm, U.; Cristescu, Ioana-R.; Glugla, M.; Caldwell-Nichols, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    A catalytic isotope exchange facility for water detritiation is operated at the Tritium Laboratory Karlsruhe (TLK) in order to investigate the simultaneous transfer of tritium and deuterium between various molecular hydrogen isotopes and deuteriated/tritiated water. Four catalyst-packing combinations from different manufacturers (SCK-CEN Belgium, Mendeleev University Russia, Institute of Cryogenics and Isotopic Technologies (ICIT) Romania-TLK, Showa Eng. Japan) are currently being tested. Experiments have been performed to determine the height equivalent of theoretical plate (HETP) and the mass transfer coefficients during deuterium, tritium or simultaneous deuterium and tritium exchange between deuteriated and tritiated water and gaseous hydrogen isotopes. In the simultaneously tritium and deuterium transfer experiments, both the transfer of tritium and deuterium from liquid to gas and the transfer of tritium from liquid to gas and deuterium in the opposite direction from gas to liquid was investigated

  9. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies utilizing a thermospray mass spectrometer interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.M.

    1988-01-01

    A routine and efficient technique was developed for exchanging acidic hydrogen for deuterium, utilizing a thermospray mass spectrometer interface, to produce deuterium-enriched deuteron-adduct molecular and fragment ions. Samples dissolved in solvents containing acidic deuterium atoms (D 2 O/trifluoroacetic acid-d 1 or ammonium acetate-d 4 ) were introduced via slug injection into the thermospray interface sandwiched between slugs of the deuteriated solvent. At all other times, the carrier solvent system introduced into the mass spectrometer consisted of a non-deuterium-enriched mixture. Deuterium enrichments achieved were greater than 95%. Deuterium-enriched deuteron-adduct molecular and fragment ions enabled the determination of the number of acidic hydrogens and aided in structural elucidation of model compounds of pharmaceutical interest

  10. A hybrid approach to direct pulp capping by using emdogain with a capping material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hezaimi, Khalid; Al-Tayar, Badr Abdullah; Bajuaifer, Yaseer Salim; Salameh, Ziad; Al-Fouzan, Khalid; Tay, Franklin R

    2011-05-01

    This study evaluated the formation of reparative hard tissues in baboon pulps after Emdogain (EMD) application in conjunction with 3 pulp-capping materials. Thirty-two premolars in four 3-year-old baboons were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 pulp-capping materials. A split-mouth design and intra-animal side randomization were applied to 3 experimental groups (calcium hydroxide, ProRoot White mineral trioxide aggregate, white Portland cement) and the control group (no pulp-capping material). In the hybrid EMD approach, a small drop of EMD was placed over the exposure site after arrest of hemorrhage. The designated pulp-capping material was placed over the EMD, followed by placement of resin-modified glass ionomer cement over the set/unset pulp-capping material. The animals were killed after 4 months. Histomorphometric analysis and micro-computed tomography were performed on the retrieved specimens. All groups capped with EMD and 1 of the 3 capping materials exhibited similar reparative tissue thickness (P > .05). Dentin tunnel defects were absent in the mineral trioxide aggregate and Portland cement groups after the use of EMD. However, only a tubular was identified from all specimens. Mineral trioxide aggregate produces a better quality reparative hard tissue response with the adjunctive use of Emdogain, when compared with the use of calcium hydroxide. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. All rights reserved.

  11. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled desipramine through acid-catalyzed exchange reactions and the stability of deuterium labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, Shigeo; Sasaki, Yukihito

    1987-01-01

    Synthesis of three forms of selectively deuterated desipramine with high isotopic purity through acid-catalyzed hydrogen-deuterium exchange reactions and the stability of deuterium labeling are described. Deuterated desipramine labeled at positions 2,4,6 and 8 [DMI-d 4 (I)] was prepared directly by heating desipramine in 10% DCI-D 2 O at 80deg C for 8 hours. Desipramine labeled at all eight aromatic positions (DMI-d 8 ) was synthesized from iminodibenzyl-1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9-d 8 . Desipramine labeled at positions 1,3,7 and 9 [DMI-d 4 (II)] was obtained by the ''back-exchange'' of DMI-d 8 under the protio condition according to the exchange procedure of DMI-d 4 (I). Deuterium atoms labeled at positions 2,4,6 and 8 of desipramine were eliminated rapidly in 1N HCl at 80deg C, but those labeled at positions 1,3,7 and 9 of desipramine were quite chemically stable. (author)

  12. Development of a new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator for prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    A new deuterium-deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been developed by Adelphi Technology for prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), neutron activation analysis (NAA), and fast neutron radiography. The generator makes an excellent fast, intermediate, and thermal neutron source for laboratories and industrial applications that require the safe production of neutrons, a small footprint, low cost, and small regulatory burden. The generator has three major components: a Radio Frequency Induction Ion Source, a Secondary Electron Shroud, and a Diode Accelerator Structure and Target. Monoenergetic neutrons (2.5MeV) are produced with a yield of 10(10)n/s using 25-50mA of deuterium ion beam current and 125kV of acceleration voltage. The present study characterizes the performance of the neutron generator with respect to neutron yield, neutron production efficiency, and the ionic current as a function of the acceleration voltage at various RF powers. In addition the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport (MCNP) simulation code was used to optimize the setup with respect to thermal flux and radiation protection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Evidence for Nuclear Tensor Polarization of Deuterium Molecules in Storage Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van den Brand, J.; Bulten, H.; Zhou, Z.; Unal, O.; van den Brand, J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Botto, T.; Bouwhuis, M.; Heimberg, P.; de Jager, C.; de Lange, D.; Nooren, G.; Papadakis, N.; Passchier, I.; Poolman, H.; Steijger, J.; Vodinas, N.; de Vries, H.; van den Brand, J.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Lang, J.; Alarcon, R.; Dolfini, S.; Ent, R.; Higinbotham, D.

    1997-01-01

    Deuterium molecules were obtained by recombination, on a copper surface, of deuterium atoms prepared in specific hyperfine states. The molecules were stored for about 5ms in an open-ended cylindrical cell, placed in a 23mT magnetic field, and their tensor polarization was measured by elastic scattering of 704MeV electrons. The results of the measurements are consistent with the deuterium molecules retaining the tensor polarization of the initial atoms. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. SAIDE: A Semi-Automated Interface for Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Villar, Maria T.; Miller, Danny E.; Fenton, Aron W.; Artigues, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Deuterium/hydrogen exchange in combination with mass spectrometry (DH MS) is a sensitive technique for detection of changes in protein conformation and dynamics. Since temperature, pH and timing control are the key elements for reliable and efficient measurement of hydrogen/deuterium content in proteins and peptides, we have developed a small, semiautomatic interface for deuterium exchange that interfaces the HPLC pumps with a mass spectrometer. This interface is relatively inexpensive to bui...

  15. Studies of a solid-deuterium source for ultra-cold neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serebrov, A.; Mityukhlyaev, V.; Zakharov, A.; Kharitonov, A.; Shustov, V.; Kuz' minov, V.; Lasakov, M.; Tal' daev, R.; Aldushchenkov, A.; Varlamov, V.; Vasil' ev, A.; Sazhin, M.; Greene, G.; Bowles, T.; Hill, R.; Seestrom, S.; Geltenbort, P

    2000-02-11

    The results of experiments and calculations for a solid-deuterium UCN source are presented. It was experimentally shown that the UCN yield is increased by a factor 3 at the solidification of liquid deuterium and a factor 10 at a temperature 10 K, with respect to the liquid phase. The gain factor for UCN yield with respect to hydrogen gas or deuterium gas at room temperature is equal to 1230.

  16. Studies of a solid-deuterium source for ultra-cold neutrons

    CERN Document Server

    Serebrov, A; Zakharov, A; Kharitonov, A; Shustov, V; Kuz'minov, V; Lasakov, M; Taldaev, R R; Aldushchenkov, A; Varlamov, V; Vasilev, A; Sazhin, M; Greene, G; Bowles, T; Hill, R; Seestrom, S; Geltenbort, P

    2000-01-01

    The results of experiments and calculations for a solid-deuterium UCN source are presented. It was experimentally shown that the UCN yield is increased by a factor 3 at the solidification of liquid deuterium and a factor 10 at a temperature 10 K, with respect to the liquid phase. The gain factor for UCN yield with respect to hydrogen gas or deuterium gas at room temperature is equal to 1230.

  17. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT defic...... epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques....

  18. Alpha clustering in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodgson, P.E.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of nucleon clustering in nuclei are described, with reference to both nuclear structure and nuclear reactions, and the advantages of using the cluster formalism to describe a range of phenomena are discussed. It is shown that bound and scattering alpha-particle states can be described in a unified way using an energy-dependent alpha-nucleus potential. (author)

  19. The Effectiveness of Caps on Political Lobbying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejka, M.; Onderstal, A.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a lobby game, modelled as an all-pay auction in which interest groups submit bids in order to obtain a political prize.The bids are restricted to be below a cap imposed by the government.For both an incomplete and a complete information setting we show the following

  20. Added Mass of a Spherical Cap Body

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimčík, Miroslav; Punčochář, Miroslav; Růžička, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 118, OCT 18 (2014), s. 1-8 ISSN 0009-2509 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD13018 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : spherical cap * added mass * single particle Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.337, year: 2014

  1. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  2. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  3. Neutron production with mixture of deuterium and krypton in Sahand Filippov type plasma focus facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, M.A.; Sobhanian, S.; Rawat, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    This Letter reports the order of magnitude enhancement in neutron yield from Sahand plasma focus device with krypton seeded deuterium operation. The highest average neutron yield of 2.2x10 9 neutrons per shot was achieved at 1.00 Torr deuterium with 3% krypton which is higher than the best average neutron yield of 3.18x10 8 neutrons per shot for pure deuterium operation. Estimation of average neutron energy showed that the maximum and minimum average energies are 2.98±0.6 MeV at 16 kV in 0.25 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr and 2.07±0.2 MeV at 18 kV operation in 0.5 Torr deuterium with 3% Kr, respectively. The anisotropy of neutron emission from Sahand DPF showed that the neutrons are produced mainly by beam-target mechanisms. -- Highlights: → The highest average neutron yield of 2.2x10 9 neutrons per shot was achieved at mixture of deuterium and krypton. → In the krypton seeding of deuterium also anisotropy of neutron emission deuterium is found. → The krypton seeding of deuterium made the neutron emission more reliable over wider operating pressure ranges.

  4. Ab Initio Calculations of Deuterium Isotope Effects on Chemical Shifts of Salt-Bridged Lysines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullah, Saif; Ishimoto, Takayoshi; Williamson, Mike P.

    2011-01-01

    Deuterium isotope effects measure the change in chemical shift on substitution of a proton by deuterium. They have been calculated by direct treatment of the H/D nuclear quantum effect using a multicomponent ab initio molecular orbital method based on a non-Born−Oppenheimer approximation. This me......Deuterium isotope effects measure the change in chemical shift on substitution of a proton by deuterium. They have been calculated by direct treatment of the H/D nuclear quantum effect using a multicomponent ab initio molecular orbital method based on a non-Born−Oppenheimer approximation...

  5. Design of a tensor polarized deuterium target polarized by spin-exchange with optically pumped NA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    A proposed design for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) for nuclear physics studies in an electron storage ring accelerator is presented. The deuterium atoms undergo electron spin exchange with a highly polarized sodium vapor; this polarization is transferred to the deuterium nuclei via the hyperfine interaction. The deuterium nuclei obtain their tensor polarization through repeated electron spin exchange/hyperfine interactions. The sodium vapor polarization is maintained by standard optical pumping techniques. Model calculations are presented in detail leading to a discussion of the expected performance and the technical obstacles to be surmounted in the development of such a target

  6. Production of polarized negative deuterium ion beam with dual optical pumping in KEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinsho, M.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A. [National Lab. for High Energy Physics, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Mori, Y.

    1997-02-01

    To obtain highly nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam, a dual optically pumped polarized negative deuterium ion source has been developed at KEK. It is possible to select a pure nuclear-spin state with this scheme, and negative deuterium ion beam with 100% nuclear-spin vector polarization can be produced in principle. We have obtained about 70% of nuclear-spin vector polarized negative deuterium ion beam so far. This result may open up a new possibilities for the optically pumped polarized ion source. (author)

  7. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook Twitter Home Health Conditions Alpha thalassemia Alpha thalassemia Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Description Alpha thalassemia is a blood disorder that reduces the production ...

  8. Process and device for stage by stage enrichment of deuterium and/or tritium in a material suitable for isotope exchange of deuterium and tritium with hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iniotakis, N.; Decken, C.B. von der.

    1983-01-01

    Water containing deuterium and/or tritium is first introduced into a carrier gas flow and reduced for the stage by stage enrichment of deuterium and/or tritium. A hydrogen partial pressure of a maximum of 100 millibar is set in the carrier gas flow. The carrier gas flow is taken along the primary side of an exchange wall suitable for the permeation of hydrogen, and a further carrier gas flow flows on its secondary side, which contains water or hydrogen. Reaction products formed after isotope exchange of deuterium and/or tritium with hydrogen are removed by the secondary carrier gas flow. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

  10. NAMMA CLOUD MICROPHYSICS (CAPS-PIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Cloud Microphysics (CAPS-PIP) dataset consists of particle size distributions from the Clouds, Aerosol and Preciptaition Spectrometer (CAPS) and the...

  11. Deuterium content of water increases depression susceptibility: the potential role of a serotonin-related mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strekalova, Tatyana; Evans, Matthew; Chernopiatko, Anton; Couch, Yvonne; Costa-Nunes, João; Cespuglio, Raymond; Chesson, Lesley; Vignisse, Julie; Steinbusch, Harry W; Anthony, Daniel C; Pomytkin, Igor; Lesch, Klaus-Peter

    2015-01-15

    Environmental factors can significantly affect disease prevalence, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. The ratio of deuterium to protium in water shows substantial geographical variation, which could affect disease susceptibility. Thus the link between deuterium content of water and depression was investigated, both epidemiologically, and in a mouse model of chronic mild stress. We performed a correlation analysis between deuterium content of tap water and rates of depression in regions of the USA. Next, we used a 10-day chronic stress paradigm to test whether 2-week deuterium-depleted water treatment (91 ppm) affects depressive-like behavior and hippocampal SERT. The effect of deuterium-depletion on sleep electrophysiology was also evaluated in naïve mice. There was a geographic correlation between a content of deuterium and the prevalence of depression across the USA. In the chronic stress model, depressive-like features were reduced in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water, and SERT expression was decreased in mice treated with deuterium-treated water compared with regular water. Five days of predator stress also suppressed proliferation in the dentate gyrus; this effect was attenuated in mice fed with deuterium-depleted water. Finally, in naïve mice, deuterium-depleted water treatment increased EEG indices of wakefulness, and decreased duration of REM sleep, phenomena that have been shown to result from the administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI). Our data suggest that the deuterium content of water may influence the incidence of affective disorder-related pathophysiology and major depression, which might be mediated by the serotoninergic mechanisms. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Optical activity studies of hydrogen-deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.J.

    1990-01-01

    The potassium complexes of racemic and optically active forms of 1,2-propanediaminetriacetatoacetic acid nickel-ate (II) were prepared stoichiometrically by two different experimental procedures. The complexes were characterized by UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and thermal analysis. Circular dichroism and optical rotatory dispersion values were obtained on the optically active complexes. TGA and IR spectroscopy techniques suggest that Δ-K [Ni(R (-)HPDTA)] H 2 O (1)and Λ-K [Ni(S (+)HPDTA)] H 2 O (2) have different configurations in solution than in the solid state. Solid complexes of (1) are theorized to have the nickel (II) ion bound pentadentate to the PDTA ligand and unidentate to a water molecule. The free carboxyl arm of the PDTA ligand is protonated. Dissolution of the complexes results in rotational changes which occur with time. The rate of rotational change has been kinetically measured, which results in three pH dependent rate constants. An isotope effect for such reactions in H 2 O and D 2 O has been measured. The base-catalyzed hydrogen-deuterium exchange of the out-of-plane glycinate rings of (1) and (2) complexes has been determined for three of the four glycinate protons by ORD. The rate of hydrogen-deuterium exchange is extremely slow and consecutive proton exchanges are not independent of one another over sufficiently long periods, such that measurement of α ∞ are calculated by three differing mathematical models and applied to the calculation of the hydrogen-deuterium rate constants

  13. Results of neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tazhibayeva, Irina, E-mail: tazhibayeva@ntsc.kz [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Ponkratov, Yuriy; Kulsartov, Timur; Gordienko, Yuriy; Skakov, Mazhyn; Zaurbekova, Zhanna [Institute of Atomic Energy, National Nuclear Center of RK, Kurchatov (Kazakhstan); Lyublinski, Igor [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); NRNU «MEPhI», Moscow (Russian Federation); Vertkov, Alexey [JSC «Red Star», Moscow (Russian Federation); Mazzitelli, Giuseppe [ENEA, RC Frascati, Frascati (Italy)

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • The results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1M research reactor are described. • At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(−144/RT). • The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise. - Abstract: This paper describes the results on neutron irradiation of liquid lithium saturated with deuterium at the IVG.1 M research reactor. The neutron flux at the reactor core center at 2 MW was 5 10{sup −13} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1}. The efficiency coefficients of helium and tritium release from lithium saturated with deuterium were calculated. The tritium interaction with lithium atoms (formation and dissociation of lithium tritide) has an effect on tritium release. An increment of sample’s temperature results in tritium release acceleration due to rising of the dissociation rate of lithium tritide. At temperatures below 573 K the efficiency coefficient of tritium release is well described by the expression K = 0.015 exp(−14/RT), and above 623 K − K = 10{sup 9} exp(-144/RT). The T{sub 2} molecules contribution into the overall tritium release becomes apparent at temperatures higher than 673 K and increases with the temperature rise.

  14. Equation of state measurements in liquid deuterium to 100 GPa

    CERN Document Server

    Knudson, M D; Bailey, J E; Lemke, R W; Hall, C A; Deeney, C; Asay, J R

    2003-01-01

    Using intense magnetic pressure, a method was developed to launch flyer plates to velocities in excess of 20 km s sup - sup 1. This technique was used to perform plate-impact, shock wave experiments on cryogenic liquid deuterium (LD sub 2) to examine its high-pressure equation of state (EOS). Using an impedance matching method, Hugoniot measurements were obtained in the pressure range of 22-100 GPa. The results of these experiments disagree with the previously reported Hugoniot measurements of LD sub 2 in the pressure range above approx 40 GPa, but are in good agreement with first principles, ab initio models for hydrogen and its isotopes.

  15. The effects of deuterium on static posture control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layne, Charles S.

    1990-01-01

    A significant operational problem impacting upon the Space Shuttle program involves the astronaut's ability to safely egress from the Orbiter during an emergency situation. Following space flight, astronauts display significant movement problems. One variable which may contribute to increased movement ataxia is deuterium (D2O). Deuterium is present in low levels within the Orbiter's water supply but may accumulate to significant physiological levels during lengthy missions. Deuterium was linked to a number of negative physiological responses, including motion sickness, decreased metabolism, and slowing of neural conduction velocity. The effects of D2O on static postural control in response to a range of dosage levels were investigated. Nine sugjects were divided into three groups of three subjects each. The groups were divided into a low, medium, and a high D2O dosage group. The subjects static posture was assessed with the use of the EquiTest systems, a commercially available postural control evaluation system featuring movable force plates and a visual surround that can be servoed to the subject's sway. In addition to the force plate information, data about the degree of subject sway about the hips and shoulders was obtained. Additionally, surface electromyographic (EMG) data from the selected lower limb muscles were collected along with saliva samples used to determine the amount of deuterium enrichment following D2O ingestion. Two baseline testing sessions were performed using the EquiTest testing protocol prior to ingestion of the D2O. Thirty minutes after dosing, subjects again performed the tests. Two more post-dosing tests were run with an interest interval of one hour. Preliminary data anlaysis indicates that only subjects in the igh dose group displayed any significant static postural problems. Future analyses of the sway and EMG is expected to reveal significant variations in the subject's postural control strategy following D2O dosing. While

  16. Diffusion of hydrogen and deuterium in Zr-Al

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knize, R.J.; Cecchi, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Optimization of getter performance necessitates a detailed understanding of the getter operation for a variety of experimental parameters, including pressure, temperature, getter mass, and getter thickness. For pumping at low pressures or during slow desorption, the getter operation will be dependent primarily on surface kinetics, which have been described previously. During pumping at higher pressures or during rapid desorption, bulk diffusion may play an important role. In this paper we present the first measurements of the diffusivities of hydrogen (D/sub H/) and deuterium (D/sub D/) in Zr-Al as determined from detailed analysis of desorption.

  17. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Thermonuclear reaction rates in a deuterium-tritium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckman, L.

    1978-12-01

    In a deuterium-tritium plasma six thermonuclear reactions take place between the deuterons, tritons and the 3 He-particles formed in about half of the d-d-reactions. The rate constants for these six reactions have been calculated from the latest evaluations of the reaction cross sections which were available. In some cases, notably the reactions t+t, t+ 3 He and 3 He+ 3 He, the number of published cross section measurements is small, and the uncertainty in the calculated rate constants consequently large. Analytical expressions for the rate constants as functions of the plasma temperature have been set up. (author)

  19. Rapid deuterium exchange-in time for probing conformational change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharmasiri, K.; Smith, D.L.

    1995-01-01

    Isotopic exchange of protein backbone amide hydrogens has been used extensively as a sensitive probe of protein structure. One of the salient features of hydrogen exchange is the vast range of exchange rates in one protein. Isotopic exchange methods have been used to study the structural features including protein folding and unfolding (1), functionally different forms of proteins (2), protein-protein complexation (3), and protein stability parameter. Many backbone amide protons that are surface accessible and are not involved in hydrogen bonding undergo rapid deuterium exchange. In order to study, fast exchanging amide protons, fast exchange-in times are necessary

  20. Measurement of deuterium mesic atom recharge rate on tritium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balin, D.V.; Volchenkov, V.A.; Vorob'ev, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    The rare of muon exchange between deuterium mesic atoms and tritium proceeding from the ground state of the dμ-atoms is measured with an ionization chamber which detects the charged products of dt- and dd-fusion. The rate reduced to the density of liquid hydrogen is λ dt 0 =(2.8±0.2)10 8 s -1 . An upper limit ≤ 3% for the relative probability of muon exchange from excited states of the dμ-atom is obtained under the following experimental conditions: gas mixture pressure 84.3 atm., tritium content 1.24% and temperature 296 K

  1. Diagnosing radiative shocks from deuterium and tritium implosions on NIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, A; Divol, L; Weber, S; Döppner, T; Kyrala, G A; Kilne, J; Izumi, N; Glenn, S; Ma, T; Town, R P; Bradley, D K; Glenzer, S H

    2012-10-01

    During the recent ignition tuning campaign at the National Ignition Facility, layered cryogenic deuterium and tritium capsules were imploded via x-ray driven ablation. The hardened gated x-ray imager diagnostic temporally and spatially resolves the x-ray emission from the core of the capsule implosion at energies above ~8 keV. On multiple implosions, ~200-400 ps after peak compression a spherically expanding radiative shock has been observed. This paper describes the methods used to characterize the radial profile and rate of expansion of the shock induced x-ray emission.

  2. CMS end-cap yoke at the detector's assembly site.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic flux generated by the superconducting coil in the CMS detector is returned via an iron yoke comprising three end-cap discs at each end (end-cap yoke) and five concentric cylinders (barrel yoke). This picture shows the first of three end-cap discs (red) seen through the outer cylinder of the vacuum tank which will house the superconducting coil.

  3. 42 CFR 418.309 - Hospice cap amount.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) MEDICARE PROGRAM HOSPICE CARE Payment for Hospice Care § 418.309 Hospice cap amount. The hospice cap amount... Medicare beneficiaries who elected to receive hospice care from that hospice during the cap period. For... election to receive hospice care, in accordance with § 418.24, from the hospice during the period beginning...

  4. 47 CFR 61.41 - Price cap requirements generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Price cap requirements generally. 61.41 Section... (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.41 Price cap requirements generally. (a... companies shall not bar a carrier from electing price cap regulation provided the carrier is otherwise...

  5. Bovine serum albumin-catalyzed deprotonation of [1-(13)C]glycolaldehyde: protein reactivity toward deprotonation of the alpha-hydroxy alpha-carbonyl carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Maybelle K; Malabanan, M Merced; Amyes, Tina L; Richard, John P

    2010-09-07

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) in D(2)O at 25 degrees C and pD 7.0 was found to catalyze the deuterium exchange reactions of [1-(13)C]glycolaldehyde ([1-(13)C]GA) to form [1-(13)C,2-(2)H]GA and [1-(13)C,2,2-di-(2)H]GA. The formation of [1-(13)C,2-(2)H]GA and [1-(13)C,2,2-di-(2)H]GA in a total yield of 51 +/- 3% was observed at early reaction times, and at later times, [1-(13)C,2-(2)H]GA was found to undergo BSA-catalyzed conversion to [1-(13)C,2,2-di-(2)H]GA. The overall second-order rate constant for these deuterium exchange reactions [(k(E))(P)] equals 0.25 M(-1) s(-1). By comparison, (k(E))(P) values of 0.04 M(-1) s(-1) [Go, M. K., Amyes, T. L., and Richard, J. P. (2009) Biochemistry 48, 5769-5778] and 0.06 M(-1) s(-1) [Go, M. K., Koudelka, A., Amyes, T. L., and Richard, J. P. (2010) Biochemistry 49, 5377-5389] have been determined for the wild-type- and K12G mutant TIM-catalyzed deuterium exchange reactions of [1-(13)C]GA, respectively, to form [1-(13)C,2,2-di-(2)H]GA. These data show that TIM and BSA exhibit a modest catalytic activity toward deprotonation of the alpha-hydroxy alpha-carbonyl carbon. We suggest that this activity is intrinsic to many globular proteins, and that it must be enhanced to demonstrate meaningful de novo design of protein catalysts of proton transfer at alpha-carbonyl carbon.

  6. Greening CAP payments: a missed opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Alan

    2013-01-15

    At an important point in the current reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a new IIEA policy brief by Professor Alan Matthews, one of the EU’s foremost experts on the topic, considers proposals to green direct farm payments. Professor Matthews argues that proposed greening of direct payments – the key innovation in the current round of CAP Reform – look likely to fail. While greening may survive as a concept, the likely outcome of the negotiations between Agriculture Ministers and the European Parliament will deliver little practical environmental benefit. The paper examines the rationale underpinning greening, arguing that it exists to justify the continuation of a large agricultural budget, explores reasons for the apparent failure of the proposals, and reflects on the implications for future efforts to better integrate environmental objectives into EU agriculture policy. This is the first in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by leading experts in the fields of agriculture, energy, climate change and water.

  7. Alpha Thalassemia (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the body has a problem producing alpha globin Beta thalassemia : when the body has a problem producing beta ... Transfusion Blood Test: Hemoglobin Electrophoresis Sickle Cell Disease Beta Thalassemia Blood All About Genetics Prenatal Genetic Counseling Genetic ...

  8. Experimental Determination of the Possible Deuterium - Deuterium Fusion Reaction Originated in a Single Cavitation Bubble Luminescence System Using CDCL3 and D2 O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbaglia, Mario; Florido, Pablo; Mayer, Roberto; Bonetto, Fabian

    2003-01-01

    We focus this work on the measurement of the possible Deuterium - Deuterium reaction in a SCBL (Single Cavitation Bubble Luminescence) system.We measure the possible reaction at the bubble generation time and at the bubble collapse time. We use a Nd:YAG laser and CDCl 3 and D 2 O as a medium to generate the bubble. Since CDCl 3 accommodation coefficient is best than that of D 2 O, it is expected a greater collapse force than using D 2 O.To benefit the bubble collapse violence, we diminish the temperature of the liquids.To avoid false neutron detection, we developed a measuring system with high background reject using the characteristic experiment times.No neutrons attributable to Deuterium - Deuterium fusion reaction were measured

  9. Effect of noble gas ion pre-irradiation on deuterium retention in tungsten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.; Zhao, Z. H.; De Temmerman, G.; Yuan, Y.; Morgan, T. W.; Guo, L. P.; Wang, B.; Zhang, Y.; Wang, B. Y.; Zhang, P.; Cao, X. Z.; Lu, G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Impurity seeding of noble gases is an effective way of decreasing the heat loads onto the divertor targets in fusion devices. To investigate the effect of noble gases on deuterium retention, tungsten targets have been implanted by different noble gas ions and subsequently exposed to deuterium

  10. Performance of a Polarized Deuterium Internal Target in a Medium-Energy Electron Storage Ring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Z.L.; Ferro Luzzi, M.M.E.; van den Brand, J.F.J.; Bulten, H.J.; Alarcon, R.; van Bommel, R.; Botto, T.; Bouwhuis, M.; Buchholz, M.; Choi, S.; Comfort, J.; Doets, M.; Dolfini, S.; Ent, R.; Gaulard, C.; de Jager, C.W.; Lang, J.; de Lange, D.J.; Miller, M.A.; Passchier, E.; Passchier, I.; Poolman, H.R.; Six, E.; Steijger, J.J.M.; Unal, O.; de Vries, H.

    1996-01-01

    A polarized deuterium target internal to a medium-energy electron storage ring is described in the context of spindependent (e, e′d) and (e ,e′p) experiments. Tensor polarized deuterium was produced in an atomic beam source and injected into a storage cell target. A Breit-Rabi polarimeter was used

  11. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange of Meteoritic Dicarboxylic Acids During Aqueous Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, M.; Huang, Y.

    2002-01-01

    This study examines the extent of hydrogen-deuterium exchange on dicarboxylic acids during aqueous extraction. Deuterium enrichment was observed to be a function of diacid structure as well as delta-D. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  12. Deuterium separation factors for isotopic exchange between hydrogen sulphide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dave, S.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Sadhukhan, H.K.

    1981-01-01

    The overall deuterium separation factors for the hydrogen sulphide-water exchange where all the isotopic species of these molecules are in equilibrium have been calculated both for liquid-gas and gas-gas exchange as functions of temperature and deuterium concentration. (author)

  13. The need for accurate deuterium analysis in a heavy water plant and its achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, R.R.; Pradhan, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    Importance of Mass Spectrometer as an analytical tool for deuterium analysis in heavy water plants is discussed. Some of the important requirements such as memory effect and H 3 + correction are described with reference to the Mass Spectrometer used at HWP (Talcher). For achieving the accuracy required, use of international deuterium standards and error estimation found by intercalibration are discussed. (auth.)

  14. Regio-Selective Intramolecular Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange in Gas-Phase Electron Transfer Dissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamuro, Yoshitomo

    2017-05-01

    Protein backbone amide hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) typically utilizes enzymatic digestion after the exchange reaction and before MS analysis to improve data resolution. Gas-phase fragmentation of a peptic fragment prior to MS analysis is a promising technique to further increase the resolution. The biggest technical challenge for this method is elimination of intramolecular hydrogen/deuterium exchange (scrambling) in the gas phase. The scrambling obscures the location of deuterium. Jørgensen's group pioneered a method to minimize the scrambling in gas-phase electron capture/transfer dissociation. Despite active investigation, the mechanism of hydrogen scrambling is not well-understood. The difficulty stems from the fact that the degree of hydrogen scrambling depends on instruments, various parameters of mass analysis, and peptide analyzed. In most hydrogen scrambling investigations, the hydrogen scrambling is measured by the percentage of scrambling in a whole molecule. This paper demonstrates that the degree of intramolecular hydrogen/deuterium exchange depends on the nature of exchangeable hydrogen sites. The deuterium on Tyr amide of neurotensin (9-13), Arg-Pro-Tyr-Ile-Leu, migrated significantly faster than that on Ile or Leu amides, indicating the loss of deuterium from the original sites is not mere randomization of hydrogen and deuterium but more site-specific phenomena. This more precise approach may help understand the mechanism of intramolecular hydrogen exchange and provide higher confidence for the parameter optimization to eliminate intramolecular hydrogen/deuterium exchange during gas-phase fragmentation.

  15. Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Sunehag, Agneta L.; Sharma, Susan; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Haymond, Morey W.

    We report a new method to measure the fraction of glucose derived from gluconeogenesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and positive chemical ionization. After ingestion of deuterium oxide by subjects, glucose derived from gluconeogenesis is labeled with deuterium. Our calculations of

  16. Measurement of gluconeogenesis using glucose fragments and mass spectrometry after ingestion of deuterium oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report a new method to measure the fraction of glucose derived from gluconeogenesis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and positive chemical ionization. After ingestion of deuterium oxide by subjects, glucose derived from gluconeogenesis is labeled with deuterium. Our calculations of gluc...

  17. Development of positron annihilation spectroscopy for investigating deuterium decorated voids in neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. N.; Shimada, M.; Merrill, B. J.; Akers, D. W.; Hatano, Y.

    2015-08-01

    The present work is a continuation of a recent research to develop and optimize positron annihilation spectroscopy (PAS) for characterizing neutron-irradiated tungsten. Tungsten samples were exposed to neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and damaged to 0.025 and 0.3 dpa. Subsequently, they were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment (TPE) at Idaho National Laboratory. The implanted deuterium was desorbed through sample heating to 900 °C, and Doppler broadening (DB)-PAS was performed both before and after heating. Results show that deuterium impregnated tungsten is identified as having a smaller S-parameter. The S-parameter increases after deuterium desorption. Microstructural changes also occur during sample heating. These effects can be isolated from deuterium desorption by comparing the S-parameters from the deuterium-free back face with the deuterium-implanted front face. The application of using DB-PAS to examine deuterium retention in tungsten is examined.

  18. Thermal desorption of deuterium from modified carbon nanotubes and its correlation to the microstructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisowski, W.F.; Keim, Enrico G.; van den Berg, A.H.J.; Smithers, Mark A.; Smithers, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The process of deuterium desorption from single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) modified by atomic (D) and molecular (D2) deuterium treatment was investigated in an ultrahigh vacuum environment using thermal desorption mass spectroscopy (TDMS). Microstructural and chemical analyses of SWNT material,

  19. ATLAS End-cap Part II

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The epic journey of the ATLAS magnets is drawing to an end. On Thursday 12 July, the second end-cap of the ATLAS toroid magnet was lowered into the cavern of the experiment with the same degree of precision as the first (see Bulletin No. 26/2007). This spectacular descent of the 240-tonne component, is one of the last transport to be completed for ATLAS.

  20. Cytocompatibility and Antibacterial Properties of Capping Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Poggio, Claudio; Arciola, Carla Renata; Beltrami, Riccardo; Monaco, Annachiara; Dagna, Alberto; Lombardini, Marco; Visai, Livia

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towa...

  1. MycoCAP - Mycobacterium Comparative Analysis Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Siew Woh; Ang, Mia Yang; Dutta, Avirup; Tan, Shi Yang; Siow, Cheuk Chuen; Heydari, Hamed; Mutha, Naresh V R; Wee, Wei Yee; Wong, Guat Jah

    2015-12-15

    Mycobacterium spp. are renowned for being the causative agent of diseases like leprosy, Buruli ulcer and tuberculosis in human beings. With more and more mycobacterial genomes being sequenced, any knowledge generated from comparative genomic analysis would provide better insights into the biology, evolution, phylogeny and pathogenicity of this genus, thus helping in better management of diseases caused by Mycobacterium spp.With this motivation, we constructed MycoCAP, a new comparative analysis platform dedicated to the important genus Mycobacterium. This platform currently provides information of 2108 genome sequences of at least 55 Mycobacterium spp. A number of intuitive web-based tools have been integrated in MycoCAP particularly for comparative analysis including the PGC tool for comparison between two genomes, PathoProT for comparing the virulence genes among the Mycobacterium strains and the SuperClassification tool for the phylogenic classification of the Mycobacterium strains and a specialized classification system for strains of Mycobacterium abscessus. We hope the broad range of functions and easy-to-use tools provided in MycoCAP makes it an invaluable analysis platform to speed up the research discovery on mycobacteria for researchers. Database URL: http://mycobacterium.um.edu.my.

  2. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  3. CAP protein superfamily members in Toxocara canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroehlein, Andreas J; Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Korhonen, Pasi K; Hofmann, Andreas; Sternberg, Paul W; Jabbar, Abdul; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-06-24

    Proteins of the cysteine-rich secretory proteins, antigen 5 and pathogenesis-related 1 (CAP) superfamily are recognized or proposed to play roles in parasite development and reproduction, and in modulating host immune attack and infection processes. However, little is known about these proteins for most parasites. In the present study, we explored CAP proteins of Toxocara canis, a socioeconomically important zoonotic roundworm. To do this, we mined and curated transcriptomic and genomic data, predicted and curated full-length protein sequences (n = 28), conducted analyses of these data and studied the transcription of respective genes in different developmental stages of T. canis. In addition, based on information available for Caenorhabditis elegans, we inferred that selected genes (including lon-1, vap-1, vap-2, scl-1, scl-8 and scl-11 orthologs) of T. canis and their interaction partners likely play central roles in this parasite's development and/or reproduction via TGF-beta and/or insulin-like signaling pathways, or via host interactions. In conclusion, this study could provide a foundation to guide future studies of CAP proteins of T. canis and related parasites, and might assist in finding new interventions against diseases caused by these parasites.

  4. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  5. Exchange of alkanes with deuterium over γ-alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, C.S.; Kemball, C.; Pearce, E.A.; Pearman, A.J.

    1979-01-01

    Exchange reactions of hydrocarbons with deuterium over γ-alumina have been extensively studied but less attention has been directed to the effect of catalyst activation temperature. It has been shown that activity for propane/D 2 exchange passes through a sharp maximum at approximately 823 K and similar behaviour has been shown for the various exchange processes of propene. In this work, the first objective was to examine the effect of varying catalyst activation temperature, Tsub(a), on the subsequent activity of γ-alumina for the exchange of cyclopentane with D 2 ; the effect of chloriding the alumina was also studied. The second objective was to study the influence on the activity for cyclopentane/D 2 exchange of pretreating the catalyst with alkene at various temperatures to determine whether poisoning occurred. The literature indicates that for alkene exchange with deuterium on alumina reaction occurs preferentially for the vinyl hydrogen atoms as opposed to the hydrogen atoms attached to saturated carbon atoms. On this evidence one might expect the presence of alkene to interfere with the exchange of alkanes and indeed there is work which reports that alkene poisons both CH 4 /D 2 and H 2 /D 2 exchange. Finally, the effect of chain-length on the relative rates of methylene and methyl exchange in straight-chain hydrocarbons was examined to follow up previous work on propane and butane. The results are presented and discussed. (author)

  6. Base-catalyzed deuterium exchange of 6,6-dimethylfulvene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hine, J.; Knight, D.B.

    1980-01-01

    The kinetics of the deuterium exchange of 6,6-dimethylfulvene have been studied in the presence of sodium methoxide-methanol-d and potassium tert-butoxide-tert-butyl alcohol-d. The rate of disappearance of undeuterated starting material was followed by mass spectral measurements. The rate of introduction of deuterium into the methyl groups and into the ring was followed by H NMR. The rates of methyl exchange and ring exchange were of the same order of magnitude. The reaction of tert-butyl alcohol-d was speeded by addition of cryptate (4,7,13,16,21,24-hexaoxa-1,10-diazabicyclo[8.8.8]hexacosane). The occurrence of methyl exchange establishes a deprotonation mechanism (Scheme I) in both solvents. The greater rate in tert-butyl alcohol-d than in methanol-d is evidence that an addition-elimination mechanism for ring exchange is not important in tert-butyl alcohol-d solution, but its importance in methanol-d cannot be proven or disproven. 3 figures, 3 tables

  7. A high deuterium abundance at redshift z = 0.7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, J K; Carswell, R F; Lanzetta, K M; Ferlet, R; Lemoine, M; Vidal-Madjar, A; Bowen, D V

    1997-07-17

    Of the light elements, the primordial abundance of deuterium relative to hydrogen, (D/H)p, provides the most sensitive diagnostic for the cosmological mass density parameter, omegaB. Recent high-redshift D/H measurements are highly discrepant, although this may reflect observational uncertainties. The larger primordial D/H values imply a low omegaB (requiring the Universe to be dominated by non-baryonic matter), and cause problems for galactic chemical evolution models, which have difficulty in reproducing the steep decline in D/H to the present-day values. Conversely, the lower D/H values measured at high redshift imply an omegaB greater than that derived from 7Li and 4He abundance measurements, and may require a deuterium-abundance evolution that is too low to easily explain. Here we report the first measurement of D/H at intermediate redshift (z = 0.7010), in a gas cloud selected to minimize observational uncertainties. Our analysis yields a value of D/H ((2.0 +/- 0.5) x 10[-4]) which is at the upper end of the range of values measured at high redshifts. This finding, together with other independent observations, suggests that there may be inhomogeneity in (D/H)p of at least a factor of ten.

  8. 3400 m/s deuterium pellet injector for Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perin, J.P.; Geraud, A.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the Tore Supra high velocity pellet injector which was built in Grenoble and after qualification tests installed on Tore Supra Tokomak where it is used for plasma and ablation studies. By using a two stage light gas gun (TSG) and two cells (φ = 3 mm or 4 mm), unsupported pellets pellets (1 to 3.5 10 21 atoms) made directly in the gun by > [1] have been launched into Tore Supra plasma at speeds between 2400m/s and 3400m/s with a reliability of 80%. These higher pellets velocities (> 2500 m/s) [2] are obtained by the optimization of a TSG and the search for the cryogenic conditions of freezing deuterium with good mechanical properties. In particular, the impurities concentration in deuterium during the condensation process has been studied. Several tens pellets have been injected into ohmically and ICR heated plasma and during LH current drive experiments with a good reliability in the range of 3000m/s. These experiments allowed us to extend significantly the ablation data base. Central penetrations can be reached even for high temperatures plasma (3-5 keV) and very peaked density profiles have been obtained in ohmically and ICR heated plasmas A transient improved confinement regime is then observed, which presents some features similar to the PEP regime obtained on JET. (orig.)

  9. Water behavior in bacterial spores by deuterium NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Anthony W; Zachariah, Malcolm M; Johnson, Karen; Thomas, Kieth J; Middaugh, Amy N; Garimella, Ravindranath; Powell, Douglas R; Vaishampayan, Parag A; Rice, Charles V

    2014-07-31

    Dormant bacterial spores are able to survive long periods of time without nutrients, withstand harsh environmental conditions, and germinate into metabolically active bacteria when conditions are favorable. Numerous factors influence this hardiness, including the spore structure and the presence of compounds to protect DNA from damage. It is known that the water content of the spore core plays a role in resistance to degradation, but the exact state of water inside the core is a subject of discussion. Two main theories present themselves: either the water in the spore core is mostly immobile and the core and its components are in a glassy state, or the core is a gel with mobile water around components which themselves have limited mobility. Using deuterium solid-state NMR experiments, we examine the nature of the water in the spore core. Our data show the presence of unbound water, bound water, and deuterated biomolecules that also contain labile deuterons. Deuterium-hydrogen exchange experiments show that most of these deuterons are inaccessible by external water. We believe that these unreachable deuterons are in a chemical bonding state that prevents exchange. Variable-temperature NMR results suggest that the spore core is more rigid than would be expected for a gel-like state. However, our rigid core interpretation may only apply to dried spores whereas a gel core may exist in aqueous suspension. Nonetheless, the gel core, if present, is inaccessible to external water.

  10. Proton and deuterium NMR experiments in zero field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, J.M.

    1986-02-01

    High field solid-state NMR lineshapes suffer from inhomogeneous broadening since resonance frequencies are a function of molecular orientation. Time domain zero field NMR is a two-dimensional field-cycling technique which removes this broadening by probing the evolution of the spin system under zero applied field. The simplest version, the sudden transition experiment, induces zero field evolution by the sudden removal of the applied magnetic field. Theory and experimental results of this experiment and several variations using pulsed dc magnetic fuelds to initiate zero field evolution are presented. In particular, the pulsed indirect detection method allows detection of the zero field spectrum of one nuclear spin species via another (usually protons) by utilizing the level crossings which occur upon adiabatic demagnetization to zero field. Experimental examples of proton/deuteron systems are presented which demonstrate the method results in enhanced sensitivity relative to that obtained in sudden transition experiments performed directly on deuterium. High resolution 2 H NQR spectra of a series of benzoic acid derivatives are obtained using the sudden transition and indirect detection methods. Librational oscillations in the water molecules of barium chlorate monohydrate are studied using proton and deuterium ZF experiments. 177 refs., 88 figs., 2 tabs

  11. A laser-driven source of polarized hydrogen and deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, L.; Holt, R.J.; Gilman, R.A.; Kowalczyk, R.; Coulter, K.

    1989-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which operates on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumping is being developed. This source is designed to operate as an internal target in an electron storage ring for fundamental studies of spin-dependent structure of nuclei. It has the potential to exceed the flux from existing conventional sources (3 times 10 16/ s) by an order of magnitude. Currently, the source delivers hydrogen at a flux of 8 times 10 16 atoms/s with an atomic polarization of 24% and deuterium at 6 times 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 29%. Technical obstacles which have been overcome, with varying degrees of success are complete Doppler-coverage in the optical-pumping stage without the use of a buffer gas, wall-induced depolarization and radiation-trapping. Future improvements should allow achievement of the design goals of 4 times 10 17 atoms/s with a polarization of 50%. 8 refs., 2 figs

  12. Method to separate and enrich molecules containing deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benson, S.W.

    1978-01-01

    Organic molecules having a normal H and D content and the general formula RX, in which R is chosen from ethyl, isopropyl, tert. butyl or cyclopentenyl groups and X is a functional group such as F, Cl, Br or OH and can even be H in the special case of cyclopentene, are exposed to an infra-red laser radiation. By careful adjustment, bundling and pulsing of an infrared laser, D-contained RX molecules exposed to the laserbeam, can dissociate or decompose. A D-contained olefin and HX is formed under suitable conditions after exposure to laser radiation. The D-contained olefin is drawn off and combusted to obtain D-contained water or D-contained hydrogen. The non-decomposed or non-reacted RX molecules which are deuterium-impoverished can be decomposed to deuterium impoverished olefins and HX in a further process step by heating on a catalyst. The latter products can then be separated off and be catylytically exchanged with normal water in order to reproduce the normal isotopic composition. They may then where necessary be catalytically recombined to form normal RX which can be recycled. (GG) [de

  13. Study of liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium cold neutron sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harig, H.D.

    1969-01-01

    In view of the plant of the cold neutron source for a high flux reactor (maximal thermal flux of about 10 15 n/cm 2 s) an experimental study of several cold sources of liquid hydrogen and liquid deuterium has been made in a low power reactor (100 kW, about 10 12 n/cm 2 s). We have investigated: -cold neutron sources of liquid hydrogen shaped as annular layers of different thickness. Normal liquid hydrogen was used as well as hydrogen with a high para-percentage. -Cold neutron sources of liquid deuterium in cylinders of 18 and 38 cm diameter. In this case the sources could be placed into different positions to the reactor core within the heavy water reflector. This report gives a general description of the experimental device and deals more detailed with the design of the cryogenic systems. Then, the measured results are communicated, interpreted and finally compared with those of a theoretical study about the same cold moderators which have been the matter of the experimental investigation. (authors) [fr

  14. Application of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy in quantitative analysis of deuterium in basic solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinze, S.; Vuillemin, B.; Heinze, S.; Giroux, P.

    1999-01-01

    A method to measure the deuterium concentration in basic solutions, using Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is described. Deuterium quantification is based on the O-D bond stretching peak. A calibration curve is drawn, representing the peak intensity versus the deuterium percentage in a neutral solution. No calibration curve can be obtained with basic solutions, because of the strong absorbance due to hydroxide ions. Thus, an acidification is necessary prior to the analysis of a basic solution. The deuterium content of this acid solution is then measured. As we know the dilution caused by the acid addition, we can calculate the deuterium content of the initial basic solution. The relative uncertainty of this method is + or - 2%. (authors)

  15. Deuterium trapping at vacancy clusters in electron/neutron-irradiated tungsten studied by positron annihilation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyama, T.; Ami, K.; Inoue, K.; Nagai, Y.; Sato, K.; Xu, Q.; Hatano, Y.

    2018-02-01

    Deuterium trapping at irradiation-induced defects in tungsten, a candidate material for plasma facing components in fusion reactors, was revealed by positron annihilation spectroscopy. Pure tungsten was electron-irradiated (8.5 MeV at ∼373 K and to a dose of ∼1 × 10-3 dpa) or neutron-irradiated (at 573 K to a dose of ∼0.3 dpa), followed by post-irradiation annealing at 573 K for 100 h in deuterium gas of ∼0.1 MPa. In both cases of electron- or neutron-irradiation, vacancy clusters were found by positron lifetime measurements. In addition, positron annihilation with deuterium electrons was demonstrated by coincidence Doppler broadening measurements, directly indicating deuterium trapping at vacancy-type defects. This is expected to cause significant increase in deuterium retention in irradiated-tungsten.

  16. Deuterium uptake in boronized ATJ graphite walls of NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez, Javier; Bedoya, Felipe; Krstic, Predrag; Allain, Jean Paul; Irle, Stephan; Skinner, Charles; Kaita, Robert; Koel, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    We present a study of the role of boron and oxygen in the chemistry of deuterium retention in boronized ATJ graphite irradiated by a deuterium plasma. The experimental results were obtained by the first in vacuo X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements at the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). The subtle interplay of boron, carbon, oxygen and deuterium chemistry is explained by reactive molecular dynamics simulation, verified by quantum-classical molecular dynamics and successfully compared to the measured data. The calculations deciphered the roles of oxygen and boron for the deuterium retention and predict deuterium uptake by a boronized carbon surface of 90% close in value to that previously predicted for a lithiated and oxidized carbon surface. CONACyT (JD), USDOE FES Grants (PSK and BK), USDOE BES/FES Grant (JPA and FB).

  17. Expression of triplicated and quadruplicated alpha globin genes in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestri, R; Pieragostini, E; Yang, F; di Gregorio, P; Rando, A; Masina, P

    1991-01-01

    In the sheep alpha alpha alpha globin gene haplotype, the three genes display from the 5' to the 3' end the percentage efficiencies of about 30:14:6, as indicated by the amounts of the three types of alpha chain produced in the alpha alpha alpha/alpha alpha alpha homozygotes. The 3' gene in the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotype appears to have an efficiency around 1%, as suggested by analysis of one quadruple alpha homozygote. Moreover, the total outputs of the alpha alpha alpha as well as of the alpha alpha alpha alpha haplotypes do not substantially differ from that of the common alpha alpha haplotype.

  18. On Origins of Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Kakushadze, Zura

    2015-01-01

    We argue that an important contributing factor into market inefficiency is the lack of a robust mechanism for the stock price to rise if a company has good earnings, e.g., via buybacks/dividends. Instead, the stock price is prone to volatility due to rather random perception/interpretation of earnings announcements (among other data) by market participants. We present empirical evidence indicating that dividend paying stocks on average are less volatile, even factoring out market cap. We furt...

  19. Monte Carlo simulation of explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergaoui, K; Reguigui, N; Gary, C K; Brown, C; Cremer, J T; Vainionpaa, J H; Piestrup, M A

    2014-12-01

    An explosive detection system based on a Deuterium-Deuterium (D-D) neutron generator has been simulated using the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNP5). Nuclear-based explosive detection methods can detect explosives by identifying their elemental components, especially nitrogen. Thermal neutron capture reactions have been used for detecting prompt gamma emission (10.82MeV) following radiative neutron capture by (14)N nuclei. The explosive detection system was built based on a fully high-voltage-shielded, axial D-D neutron generator with a radio frequency (RF) driven ion source and nominal yield of about 10(10) fast neutrons per second (E=2.5MeV). Polyethylene and paraffin were used as moderators with borated polyethylene and lead as neutron and gamma ray shielding, respectively. The shape and the thickness of the moderators and shields are optimized to produce the highest thermal neutron flux at the position of the explosive and the minimum total dose at the outer surfaces of the explosive detection system walls. In addition, simulation of the response functions of NaI, BGO, and LaBr3-based γ-ray detectors to different explosives is described. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry identifies two highly protected regions in recombinant full-length prion protein amyloid fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazabal, Alexis; Hornemann, Simone; Aguzzi, Adriano; Zenobi, Renato

    2009-06-01

    Understanding the structural basis that distinguishes the amyloid form of the prion protein from its monomeric homologue is of crucial importance to elucidate the mechanism of the lethal diseases related to this protein. Recently, an in vitro conversion system was established which reproduces the transition of recombinant prion protein PrP(23-230) from its native alpha-helical rich form into an aggregated amyloid beta-sheet rich form with physicochemical properties reminiscent to those of the disease-related isoform of the prion protein, PrPSc. To study the tertiary and quaternary structural organization within recombinant amyloid fibrils from mouse, mPrP(23-231)betaf; bovine, bPrP(23-230)betaf; and elk, ePrP(23-230)betaf; we utilized hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and nano-electrospray (nano-ESI) mass spectrometry. No significant differences were found by measuring the deuterium exchange kinetics of the aggregated fibrillar forms for mPrP(23-231)betaf, bPrP(23-230)betaf and ePrP(23-230)betaf, indicating a similar overall structural organization of the fibrils from all three species. Next, we characterized the solvent accessibility for the soluble and fibrillar forms of the mouse prion protein by hydrogen exchange, pepsin proteolysis and nano-ESI ion trap mass spectrometry analysis. In its amyloid form, two highly protected regions of mPrP(23-231) comprising residues [24-98] and [182-212] were identified. The residues between the two highly protected stretches were found to be more solvent exposed, but less than in the soluble protein, and might therefore rather form part of a fibrillar interface. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP changes gene expression of key molecules of the wound healing machinery and improves wound healing in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Arndt

    Full Text Available Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP has the potential to interact with tissue or cells leading to fast, painless and efficient disinfection and furthermore has positive effects on wound healing and tissue regeneration. For clinical implementation it is necessary to examine how CAP improves wound healing and which molecular changes occur after the CAP treatment. In the present study we used the second generation MicroPlaSter ß® in analogy to the current clinical standard (2 min treatment time in order to determine molecular changes induced by CAP using in vitro cell culture studies with human fibroblasts and an in vivo mouse skin wound healing model. Our in vitro analysis revealed that the CAP treatment induces the expression of important key genes crucial for the wound healing response like IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TGF-ß1, TGF-ß2, and promotes the production of collagen type I and alpha-SMA. Scratch wound healing assays showed improved cell migration, whereas cell proliferation analyzed by XTT method, and the apoptotic machinery analyzed by protein array technology, was not altered by CAP in dermal fibroblasts. An in vivo wound healing model confirmed that the CAP treatment affects above mentioned genes involved in wound healing, tissue injury and repair. Additionally, we observed that the CAP treatment improves wound healing in mice, no relevant side effects were detected. We suggest that improved wound healing might be due to the activation of a specified panel of cytokines and growth factors by CAP. In summary, our in vitro human and in vivo animal data suggest that the 2 min treatment with the MicroPlaSter ß® is an effective technique for activating wound healing relevant molecules in dermal fibroblasts leading to improved wound healing, whereas the mechanisms which contribute to these observed effects have to be further investigated.

  2. Infrared spectroscopic study of photoreceptor membrane and purple membrane. Protein secondary structure and hydrogen deuterium exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downer, N.W.; Bruchman, T.J.; Hazzard, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy in the interval from 1800 to 1300 cm-1 has been used to investigate the secondary structure and the hydrogen/deuterium exchange behavior of bacteriorhodopsin and bovine rhodopsin in their respective native membranes. The amide I' and amide II' regions from spectra of membrane suspensions in D2O were decomposed into constituent bands by use of a curve-fitting procedure. The amide I' bands could be fit with a minimum of three theoretical components having peak positions at 1664, 1638, and 1625 cm-1 for bacteriorhodopsin and 1657, 1639, and 1625 cm-1 for rhodopsin. For both of these membrane proteins, the amide I' spectrum suggests that alpha-helix is the predominant form of peptide chain secondary structure, but that a substantial amount of beta-sheet conformation is present as well. The shape of the amide I' band was pH-sensitive for photoreceptor membranes, but not for purple membrane, indicating that membrane-bound rhodopsin undergoes a conformation change at acidic pH. Peptide hydrogen exchange of bacteriorhodopsin and rhodopsin was monitored by observing the change in the ratio of integrated absorbance (Aamide II'/Aamide I') during the interval from 1.5 to 25 h after membranes were introduced into buffered D2O. The fraction of peptide groups in a very slowly exchanging secondary structure was estimated to be 0.71 for bacteriorhodopsin at pD 7. The corresponding fraction in vertebrate rhodopsin was estimated to be less than or equal to 0.60. These findings are discussed in relationship to previous studies of hydrogen exchange behavior and to structural models for both proteins

  3. Precision Measures of the Primordial Abundance of Deuterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Ryan J.; Pettini, Max; Jorgenson, Regina A.; Murphy, Michael T.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    We report the discovery of deuterium absorption in the very metal-poor ([Fe/H] = -2.88) damped Lyα system at z abs = 3.06726 toward the QSO SDSS J1358+6522. On the basis of 13 resolved D I absorption lines and the damping wings of the H I Lyα transition, we have obtained a new, precise measure of the primordial abundance of deuterium. Furthermore, to bolster the present statistics of precision D/H measures, we have reanalyzed all of the known deuterium absorption-line systems that satisfy a set of strict criteria. We have adopted a blind analysis strategy (to remove human bias) and developed a software package that is specifically designed for precision D/H abundance measurements. For this reanalyzed sample of systems, we obtain a weighted mean of (D/H)p = (2.53 ± 0.04) × 10-5, corresponding to a universal baryon density 100 Ωb, 0 h 2 = 2.202 ± 0.046 for the standard model of big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). By combining our measure of (D/H)p with observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), we derive the effective number of light fermion species, N eff = 3.28 ± 0.28. We therefore rule out the existence of an additional (sterile) neutrino (i.e., N eff = 4.046) at 99.3% confidence (2.7σ), provided that the values of N eff and of the baryon-to-photon ratio (η10) did not change between BBN and recombination. We also place a strong bound on the neutrino degeneracy parameter, independent of the 4He primordial mass fraction, Y P: ξD = +0.05 ± 0.13 based only on the CMB+(D/H)p observations. Combining this value of ξD with the current best literature measure of Y P, we find a 2σ upper bound on the neutrino degeneracy parameter, |ξ| financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. Keck telescope time was partially granted by NOAO, through the Telescope System Instrumentation Program (TSIP). TSIP is funded by NSF.

  4. IAA transport in corn roots includes the root cap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasenstein, K.H.

    1989-01-01

    In earlier reports we concluded that auxin is the growth regulator that controls gravicurvature in roots and that the redistribution of auxin occurs within the root cap. Since other reports did not detect auxin in the root cap, we attempted to confirm the IAA does move through the cap. Agar blocks containing 3 H-IAA were applied to the cut surface of 5 mm long apical segments of primary roots of corn (mo17xB73). After 30 to 120 min radioactivity (RA) of the cap and root tissue was determined. While segments suspended in water-saturated air accumulated very little RA in the cap, application of 0.5 μ1 of dist. water to the cap (=controls) increased RA of the cap dramatically. Application to the cap of 0.5 μ1 of sorbitol or the Ca 2+ chelator EGTA reduced cap RA to 46% and 70% respectively compared to water, without affecting uptake. Control root segments gravireacted faster than non-treated or osmoticum or EGTA treated segments. The data indicate that both the degree of hydration and calcium control the amount of auxin moving through the cap

  5. GPS scintillations associated with cusp dynamics and polar cap patches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Yaqi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the relative scintillation level associated with cusp dynamics (including precipitation, flow shears, etc. with and without the formation of polar cap patches around the cusp inflow region by the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR and two GPS scintillation receivers. A series of polar cap patches were observed by the ESR between 8:40 and 10:20 UT on December 3, 2011. The polar cap patches combined with the auroral dynamics were associated with a significantly higher GPS phase scintillation level (up to 0.6 rad than those observed for the other two alternatives, i.e., cusp dynamics without polar cap patches, and polar cap patches without cusp aurora. The cusp auroral dynamics without plasma patches were indeed related to GPS phase scintillations at a moderate level (up to 0.3 rad. The polar cap patches away from the active cusp were associated with sporadic and moderate GPS phase scintillations (up to 0.2 rad. The main conclusion is that the worst global navigation satellite system space weather events on the dayside occur when polar cap patches enter the polar cap and are subject to particle precipitation and flow shears, which is analogous to the nightside when polar cap patches exit the polar cap and enter the auroral oval.

  6. GPS scintillations associated with cusp dynamics and polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yaqi; Moen, Jøran I.; Oksavik, Kjellmar; Spicher, Andres; Clausen, Lasse B. N.; Miloch, Wojciech J.

    2017-10-01

    This paper investigates the relative scintillation level associated with cusp dynamics (including precipitation, flow shears, etc.) with and without the formation of polar cap patches around the cusp inflow region by the EISCAT Svalbard radar (ESR) and two GPS scintillation receivers. A series of polar cap patches were observed by the ESR between 8:40 and 10:20 UT on December 3, 2011. The polar cap patches combined with the auroral dynamics were associated with a significantly higher GPS phase scintillation level (up to 0.6 rad) than those observed for the other two alternatives, i.e., cusp dynamics without polar cap patches, and polar cap patches without cusp aurora. The cusp auroral dynamics without plasma patches were indeed related to GPS phase scintillations at a moderate level (up to 0.3 rad). The polar cap patches away from the active cusp were associated with sporadic and moderate GPS phase scintillations (up to 0.2 rad). The main conclusion is that the worst global navigation satellite system space weather events on the dayside occur when polar cap patches enter the polar cap and are subject to particle precipitation and flow shears, which is analogous to the nightside when polar cap patches exit the polar cap and enter the auroral oval.

  7. Polar cap deflation during magnetospheric substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, J. J.; Siscoe, G. L.; Heelis, R. A.; Winningham, J. D.

    1989-01-01

    The expanding/contracting polar cap model has been used to simulate DE-2 ion drift data during substorms as determined using the AL index. Of the 39 cases modeled, 57 percent required the opening of a nightside gap which maps to where reconnection occurs in the tail; 75 percent of the 16 recovery phase cases required a nightside gap, while only 29 percent of the 17 expansion phase cases required a nightside gap. On the basis of this result, it is concluded that if a nightside gap implies tail reconnection, then reconnection probably occurs after expansion phase onset and continues throughout most of the recovery phase of a substorm.

  8. The effects of a reduced environmental deuterium concentration on growth of culture normal and neoplastic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bild, Walther; Haulica, Ion; Nastasa, V.

    2002-01-01

    In connection with studies on the effects of deuterium depleted water on radioprotection and immunostimulation, research was conducted to find out effects of environmental depleted deuterium upon culture cells growth. The reduction of deuterium concentration in cellular medium was achieved by forming the culture medium for RMPI 1640, Gibco BRL cells with under-deuterated water (produced at ICSI) with different deuterium concentration (30, 60, 90, 120 ppm), as compared with control batches in the same medium constituted from normal distilled water (145-150 ppm D/(D+H). A significant stimulation in the cellular growth due to deuterium depletion in the culture media was observed. Also, variations in growth rates and the profile of proliferation curves in neoplastic cells as compared with normal cells were observed, the same trend being observed in all cultures. Paradoxically, quantitative effects were observed, peaking at 90 ppm deuterium concentration rather than at a minimal concentration, as expected. The MTT test confirmed the stimulating effects of deuterium depletion. To put into evidence the immunity stimulation, the explant rat splenocytes from laboratory animals were grown, stimulated with Concanavaline A or bacterial Lipopolysaccharides of increasing concentration. Similar effects were observed

  9. Deuterium pumping and erosion behavior of selected graphite materials under high flux plasma bombardment in PISCES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.; LaBombard, B.; Lehmer, R.; Leung, W.K.; Nygren, R.E.; Ra, Y.

    1988-06-01

    Deuterium plasma recycling and chemical erosion behavior of selected graphite materials have been investigated using the PISCES-A facility. These materials include: Pyro-graphite; 2D-graphite weave; 4D-graphite weave; and POCO-graphite. Deuterium plasma bombardment conditions are: fluxes around 7 /times/ 10 17 ions s/sup /minus/1/cm/sup /minus/2/; exposure time in the range from 10 to 100 s; bombarding energy of 300 eV; and graphite temperatures between 20 and 120/degree/C. To reduce deuterium plasma recycling, several approaches have been investigated. Erosion due to high-fluence helium plasma conditioning significantly increases the surface porosity of POCO-graphite and 4D-graphite weave whereas little change for 2D-graphite weave and Pyro-graphite. The increased pore openings and refreshed in-pore surface sites are found to reduce the deuterium plasma recycling and chemical erosion rates at transient stages. The steady state recycling rates for these graphite materials can be also correlated to the surface porosity. Surface topographical modification by machined-grooves noticeably reduces the steady state deuterium recycling rate and the impurity emission from the surface. These surface topography effects are attributed to co-deposition of remitted deuterium, chemically sputtered hydrocarbon and physically sputtered carbon under deuterium plasma bombardment. The co-deposited film is found to have a characteristic surface morphology with dendritic microstructures. 18 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  10. Energy properties of deuterium cluster impacts on TiD targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamura, Yasunori

    1992-01-01

    In order to know the energy properties of deuterium atoms in the cluster impact region, the deuterium cluster impact phenomena have been simulated by using the time-evolution Monte Carlo simulation code DYACAT, where the (D) n (n being 100 to 500 ) with energy 500eV/atom are bombarded on TiD targets. For comparison, the energy properties of 500 eV/atom (Al) 500 cluster impacts on amorphous Au targets have also been simulated. In the case of the deuterium cluster impacts on TiD targets, the high energy tail of the energy distribution of deuterium atoms drops so fast. The temperature of the deuterium cluster impact region is less than 100 ev, and it decreases slightly as the cluster size increases due to the enhanced energy removal with reflected deuterium atoms and sputtered deuterium atoms. While in the case of 500 eV/atom (Al) 500 cluster impacts on Au the high-energy tail of the energy distribution of Al atoms due to the big cluster impact can be well described in terms of the Maxwell-Boltzmann function whose temperature is 270 ev. (author)

  11. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting......-Against-Beta and Quality-Minus-Junk factors. Further, we estimate that Buffett’s leverage is about 1.6-to-1 on average. Buffett’s returns appear to be neither luck nor magic, but, rather, reward for the use of leverage combined with a focus on cheap, safe, quality stocks. Decomposing Berkshires’ portfolio into ownership...

  12. Infrared spectroscopy of solid hydrogen sulfide and deuterium sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fathe, Kristin; Holt, Jennifer S; Oxley, Susan P; Pursell, Christopher J

    2006-09-21

    The infrared spectra of solid hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and deuterium sulfide (D2S) were collected at very low temperatures. Vapor deposition of thin films at the lowest temperature of 10 K produced amorphous solids while deposition at 70 K yielded the crystalline phase III. Infrared interference fringe patterns produced by the films during deposition were used to determine the film thickness. Careful measurement of the integrated absorbance peaks, along with the film thickness, allowed determination of the integrated band intensities. This report represents the first complete presentation of the infrared spectra of the amorphous solids. Observations of peaks near 3.915 and 1.982 microm (ca. 2554 and 5045 cm(-1), respectively) may be helpful in the conclusive identification of solid hydrogen sulfide on the surface of Io, a moon of Jupiter.

  13. In-medium modification of pion-pairs on deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lugert, Stefan

    2007-11-23

    In this thesis the quasi free photo production of pion pairs on bound nucleons {gamma}+A{yields} {pi}{pi}(A-1)+N is analyzed for liquid Deuterium. A pioneering experiment with a photon beam was performed by the TAPS collaboration at the accelerator facility MAMI-B in Mainz in 1999. This measurement observed an invariant mass shift of the isoscalar {pi}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0} channel with increasing atomic number as well. Due to the poor statistics, the significance of the data was however limited. The experiment described in this work reached a much higher statistical significance, allowing a review of the old data. In this experiment, the TAPS detector was used as a forward wall in combination with the Crystal Ball detector to achieve almost the complete 4{pi} solid angle coverage for particle detection at the MAMI accelerator facility. The installation of the experimental setup started at the end of 2003. The new readout electronics for the BaF{sub 2} crystals was used for the first time. Between June 2004 and April 2005 measurements on several targets were performed, including the lD{sub 2} data which has been analyzed in this work. The analysis of the Deuterium data is an essential contribution to understanding the ongoing processes for two reasons. Firstly, there is the possibility to compare the solid targets and Hydrogen to the lightest nucleus having Fermi motion included but the lowest possible nuclear volume, the Deuterium. For the second reason, there are no data for the mass differential cross section on the neutron available for the mentioned channels. Analyzing the Deuterium data and subtracting the published proton data, the cross section on the neutron gets accessible. An essential question for the theory is whether the cross section on neutron and proton are the same or how much they differ in the relevant energy regime. To determine the absolute cross section, the efficiency of the detector system is required. To provide this efficiency, I also

  14. Isotopic scaling of transport in deuterium-tritium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, S.D.; Murakami, M.; Adler, H.; Chang, Z.; Duong, H.; Grisham, L.R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Grek, B.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Hill, K.W.; Hosea, J.; Jassby, D.L.; Johnson, D.W.; Johnson, L.C.; Loughlin, M.J.; Mansfield, D.K.; McGuire, K.M.; Meade, D.M.; Mikkelsen, D.M.; Murphy, J.; Park, H.K.; Ramsey, A.T.; Schivell, J.; Skinner, C.H.; Strachan, J.D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Taylor, G.; Thompson, M.E.; Wieland, R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Both global and thermal energy confinement improve in high-temperature supershot plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) when deuterium beam heating is partially or wholly replaced by tritium beam heating. For the same heating power, the tritium-rich plasmas obtain up to 22% higher total energy, 30% higher thermal ion energy, and 20-25% higher central ion temperature. Kinetic analysis of the temperature and density profiles indicates a favorable isotopic scaling of ion heat transport and electron particle transport, with τ Ei (a/2) ∝ left angle A right angle 0.7-0.8 and τ pe (a) ∝ left angle A right angle 0.8 . (orig.)

  15. Pion Electroproduction form Helium 3, Deuterium, and Hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Stephen Milton [Hampton Univ., Hampton, VA (United States)

    2002-05-01

    A series of measurements for pion electroproduction from helium-3, deuterium, and hydrogen were completed at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility by the NucPi Collaboration. E91003 began taking data in February 1998 and was completed in April 1998. The longitudinal and transverse parts of the differential cross section were extracted, by means of a Rosenbluth type separation, in the direction parallel to the virtual photon, at Q 2 = 0.4 GeV 2 , for W = 1.15 and W = 1.6 GeV. The mass dependence of the longitudinal cross section should provide insight into the surprising apparent absence of any significant cross section enhancement due to excess pions in the nuclear medium.

  16. Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Profiles of Polyubiquitin Fibrils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daichi Morimoto

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin and its polymeric forms are conjugated to intracellular proteins to regulate diverse intracellular processes. Intriguingly, polyubiquitin has also been identified as a component of pathological protein aggregates associated with Alzheimer’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. We recently found that polyubiquitin can form amyloid-like fibrils, and that these fibrillar aggregates can be degraded by macroautophagy. Although the structural properties appear to function in recognition of the fibrils, no structural information on polyubiquitin fibrils has been reported so far. Here, we identify the core of M1-linked diubiquitin fibrils from hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments using solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Intriguingly, intrinsically flexible regions became highly solvent-protected in the fibril structure. These results indicate that polyubiquitin fibrils are formed by inter-molecular interactions between relatively flexible structural components, including the loops and edges of secondary structure elements.

  17. Toward standardizing deuterium content reporting in hydrogen exchange-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheff, Joey G; Schriemer, David C

    2014-12-16

    We introduce a method to monitor dispensing ratios during labeling reactions in hydrogen exchange (HX)-MS. The method corrects for systematic and random dispensing errors and harmonizes data incorporating variable %D2O in the experiment design. A correction factor for deuterium levels is obtained by quantifying the relative signal intensities arising from nonexchanging heavy caffeine (spiked into labeling buffer) and light caffeine (spiked into sample solutions). Dispensing variability over a wide range of %D2O composition can be detected and corrected to a common value, and although random dispensing error is usually minor, we show it can be the limiting factor in high quality signal measurements. Applying a dispensing control is therefore an effective tool for monitoring measurement precision in HX-MS.

  18. In-medium modification of pion-pairs on deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lugert, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis the quasi free photo production of pion pairs on bound nucleons γ+A→ ππ(A-1)+N is analyzed for liquid Deuterium. A pioneering experiment with a photon beam was performed by the TAPS collaboration at the accelerator facility MAMI-B in Mainz in 1999. This measurement observed an invariant mass shift of the isoscalar π 0 π 0 channel with increasing atomic number as well. Due to the poor statistics, the significance of the data was however limited. The experiment described in this work reached a much higher statistical significance, allowing a review of the old data. In this experiment, the TAPS detector was used as a forward wall in combination with the Crystal Ball detector to achieve almost the complete 4π solid angle coverage for particle detection at the MAMI accelerator facility. The installation of the experimental setup started at the end of 2003. The new readout electronics for the BaF 2 crystals was used for the first time. Between June 2004 and April 2005 measurements on several targets were performed, including the lD 2 data which has been analyzed in this work. The analysis of the Deuterium data is an essential contribution to understanding the ongoing processes for two reasons. Firstly, there is the possibility to compare the solid targets and Hydrogen to the lightest nucleus having Fermi motion included but the lowest possible nuclear volume, the Deuterium. For the second reason, there are no data for the mass differential cross section on the neutron available for the mentioned channels. Analyzing the Deuterium data and subtracting the published proton data, the cross section on the neutron gets accessible. An essential question for the theory is whether the cross section on neutron and proton are the same or how much they differ in the relevant energy regime. To determine the absolute cross section, the efficiency of the detector system is required. To provide this efficiency, I also developed the MonteCarlo simulation using a

  19. Direct determination of equilibrium deuterium isotope effects at natural abundance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, B.; Martin, M.L.

    1992-01-01

    A great variety of techniques has been used to study deuterium-protium partitioning in exchanging systems at equilibrium. In this context it is shown that the determination of site-specific isotope contents by 2 H-NMR at natural abundance provides simple and direct access to thermodynamic isotope fractionation factors. This method avoids the recourse to deuterated species and therefore the approximations inherent in the analysis of complex isotopomeric mixtures. A number of slowly exchanging systems involving OH, NH, or SH groups and water offer suitable conditions (large chemical shift differences, moderate line widths,hor-ellipsis) for the relatively accurate determination of thermodynamic fractionation factors. Moreover multiple fractionations can be observed and compared in ternary mixtures. 25 refs., 2 tabs

  20. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange study of an allosteric energy cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Dorothy

    2012-01-01

    Elucidation of mechanisms of energy transduction through macromolecules in allosteric systems requires application of a broad range of techniques and approaches. High-resolution structures of the end states in an allosteric system provide invaluable clues about allosteric mechanism. Thermodynamic and kinetic studies reveal the rules that govern the transitions between states in the system. Acquisition of detailed molecular level information about allosteric mechanism requires interrogation of the structural and dynamic properties of both intermediates and end states in the allosteric cycle. Many experimental and computational tools have been developed to probe allostery. Among these are hydrogen-deuterium exchange detected by either NMR spectroscopy or mass spectrometry. This article provides a detailed description of application of hydrogen exchange detected by mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) to investigate an allosteric system.

  1. Atomic hydrogen and deuterium mixtures at 1 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayden, M.E.; Reynolds, M.W.; Hardy, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    It has been predicted that the spin exchange broadening cross section for collisions between atomic hydrogen and deuterium (H and D) is over 300 times as large as the corresponding value for H-H collisions at 1 Kelvin. By monitoring the broadening of the ΔF=1, Δm F =0 hyperfine transition of the H atom, we were able to infer the density of D atoms present in a mixture of H and D confined by superfluid liquid helium (l- 4 He) walls at temperatures between 1.0 and 1.2 K. Measurements have been made of the energy required to dissolve a D atom into l- 4 He as well as the rate constants for the H-D- 4 He and D-D- 4 He gas phase recombination processes. The theoretical spin exchange broadening cross section has been indirectly confirmed. (orig.)

  2. Hydrogen/deuterium substitution methods: understanding water structure in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soper, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    The hydrogen/deuterium substitution method has been used for different applications, such as the short range order between water molecules in a number of different environments (aqueous solutions of organic molecules), or to study the partial structure factors of water at high pressure and temperature. The absolute accuracy that can be obtained remains uncertain, but important qualitative information can be obtained on the local organization of water in aqueous solution. Some recent results with pure water, methanol and dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) solutions are presented. It is shown that the short range water structure is not greatly affected by most solutes except at high concentrations and when the solute species has its own distinctive interaction with water (such as a dissolved small ion). 3 figs., 14 refs

  3. Sound waves and shock waves in high-density deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kazuko; Ariyasu, Tomio

    1991-01-01

    The possibility of compressing the cryogenic hollow pellet of inertial confinement nuclear fusion with multiple adiabatic shock waves is discussed, on the basis of the estimation of the properties of a high-density deuterium plasma (10 24 -10 27 cm -3 , 10 -1 -10 4 eV), such as the velocity and the attenuation constant of the adiabatic sound wave, the width of the shock wave, and the surface tension. It is found that in the course of compression the wavelength of the adiabatic sound wave and the width of the weak shock wave sometimes become comparable to or exceed the fuel shell width of the pellet, and that the surface tension is negative. These results show that it is rather difficult to compress stably the hollow pellet with successive weak shock waves. (author)

  4. Thermal desorption of deuterium from Be, and Be with helium bubbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fedorov, A.V.; Van Veen, A.; Busker, G.J. [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands). Interfaculty Reactor Inst.

    1998-01-01

    Deuterium desorption measurements carried out on a single-crystalline beryllium sample are presented. Deuterium ions were implanted at room temperature at the energy of 0.7 and 1.2 keV up to doses ranging from 10{sup 19} to 3.6 x 10{sup 21} m{sup -2}. In order to eliminate the influence of the beryllium-oxide surface layer, before the implantation the surface of the sample was cleaned by argon sputtering. After the implantation the sample was annealed up to 1200 K at a constant rate of 10 K/s. Deuterium released from the sample was monitored by a calibrated quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The desorption spectra revealed two different contributions. One is a well defined and very narrow peak centered around 450 K. This peak is observed only at high implantation doses > 7.8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -2}, which is close to the deuterium saturation limit of 0.3 D/Be and is related to deuterium release from blisters or interconnected bubbles. The activation energy of 1.1 eV and the threshold implantation dose are consistent with the values reported in literature. The second contribution in the release spectra is found in the temperature range from 600 to 900 K and is present throughout the whole range of the implantation doses. The activation energies corresponding to this release lie in the range between 1.8 and 2.5 eV and are ascribed to the release from deuterium-vacancy type of defects. In a number of experiments the deuterium implantation was preceded by helium implantation followed by partial annealing to create helium bubbles. The resulting deuterium desorption spectra indicate that deuterium detrapping from helium bubbles is characterized by an activation energy of 2.7 eV. (author)

  5. Magnesium growth in magnesium deuteride thin films during deuterium desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Checchetto, R., E-mail: riccardo.checchetto@unitn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Miotello, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica and CNISM, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive 14, I-38123 Trento (Italy); Mengucci, P.; Barucca, G. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Ingegneria dei Materiali e del Territorio, Università Politecnica delle Marche, I-60131 Ancona (Italy)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: ► Highly oriented Pd-capped magnesium deuteride thin films. ► The MgD{sub 2} dissociation was studied at temperatures not exceeding 100 °C. ► The structure of the film samples was analyzed by XRD and TEM. ► The transformation is controlled by the re-growth velocity of the Mg layers. ► The transformation is thermally activated, activation energy value of 1.3 ± 0.1 eV. -- Abstract: Pd- capped nanocrystalline magnesium thin films having columnar structure were deposited on Si substrate by e-gun deposition and submitted to thermal annealing in D{sub 2} atmosphere to promote the metal to deuteride phase transformation. The kinetics of the reverse deuteride to metal transformation was studied by Thermal Desorption Spectroscopy (TDS) while the structure of the as deposited and transformed samples was analyzed by X-rays diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In Pd- capped MgD{sub 2} thin films the deuteride to metal transformation begins at the interface between un-reacted Mg and transformed MgD{sub 2} layers. The D{sub 2} desorption kinetics is controlled by MgD{sub 2}/Mg interface effects, specifically the re-growth velocity of the Mg layers. The Mg re-growth has thermally activated character and shows an activation energy value of 1.3 ± 0.1 eV.

  6. Multiple Paths of Deuterium Fractionation in Protoplanetary Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikawa, Yuri; Furuya, Kenji; Hincelin, Ugo; Herbst, Eric

    2018-03-01

    We investigate deuterium chemistry coupled with the nuclear spin-state chemistry of H2 and {{{H}}}3+ in protoplanetary disks. Multiple paths of deuterium fractionation are found; exchange reactions with D atoms, such as HCO+ + D, are effective in addition to those with HD. In a disk model with grain sizes appropriate for dark clouds, the freeze-out of molecules is severe in the outer midplane, while the disk surface is shielded from UV radiation. Gaseous molecules, including DCO+, thus become abundant at the disk surface, which tends to make their column density distribution relatively flat. If the dust grains have grown to millimeter size, the freeze-out rate of neutral species is reduced and the abundances of gaseous molecules, including DCO+ and N2D+, are enhanced in the cold midplane. Turbulent diffusion transports D atoms and radicals at the disk surface to the midplane, and stable ice species in the midplane to the disk surface. The effects of turbulence on chemistry are thus multifold; while DCO+ and N2D+ abundances increase or decrease depending on the regions, HCN and DCN in the gas and ice are greatly reduced at the innermost radii, compared to the model without turbulence. When cosmic rays penetrate the disk, the ortho-to-para ratio (OPR) of H2 is found to be thermal in the disk, except in the cold (≲10 K) midplane. We also analyze the OPR of {{{H}}}3+ and H2D+, as well as the main reactions of H2D+, DCO+, and N2D+, in order to analytically derive their abundances in the cold midplane.

  7. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange in interstellar ice analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratajczak, A.; Quirico, E.; Faure, A.; Schmitt, B.; Ceccarelli, C.

    2009-03-01

    Context: For several reasons, methanol is believed to be formed on grain surfaces and, in warm environments, released in the gas phase. In the past, multiply deuterated isotopologues of methanol have been detected in gas phase around several low-mass protostars. In all these sources, there is significantly more CH2DOH than CH3OD. Various hypotheses have been suggested to explain this anomaly, but none is fully convincing. Aims: In this work, we test a new hypothesis experimentally: the spontaneous exchange between hydrogen and deuterium atoms in water ice as responsible for the deficiency of CH3OD with respect to CH2DOH. Methods: We follow the temperature dependence of the composition of interstellar ice analogs initially composed of CD3OD and H2O. To this aim, thin films of intimate H2O:CD3OD ice mixtures, condensed at low temperature (hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange is observed, at 120 K and above, through the growth of the ν_OD stretching mode of HDO at ~2425 cm-1. It is also shown that H/D exchange occurs i) on the hydroxyl functional group of methanol, i.e through hydrogen bonds, and ii) before the completion of crystallization. Conclusions: The present results suggest that the much lower abundance of CH3OD compared to CH2DOH in low-mass protostars could reflect H/D exchanges in water ice either prior to or definitely during the grain mantle sublimation. This solid-state depletion mechanism, so far neglected in the astronomical literature, might affect other deuterated molecules with hydrogen bonds.

  8. Monte Carlo calculations of thermodynamic properties of deuterium under high pressures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levashov, P R; Filinov, V S; BoTan, A; Fortov, V E; Bonitz, M

    2008-01-01

    Two different numerical approaches have been applied for calculations of shock Hugoniots and compression isentrope of deuterium: direct path integral Monte Carlo and reactive Monte Carlo. The results show good agreement between two methods at intermediate pressure which is an indication of correct accounting of dissociation effects in the direct path integral Monte Carlo method. Experimental data on both shock and quasi-isentropic compression of deuterium are well described by calculations. Thus dissociation of deuterium molecules in these experiments together with interparticle interaction play significant role

  9. Modelling third harmonic ion cyclotron acceleration of deuterium beams for JET fusion product studies experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, M.; Johnson, T.; Dumont, R.

    2016-01-01

    Recent JET experiments have been dedicated to the studies of fusion reactions between deuterium (D) and Helium-3 (3He) ions using neutral beam injection (NBI) in synergy with third harmonic ion cyclotron radio-frequency heating (ICRH) of the beam. This scenario generates a fast ion deuterium tail...... enhancing DD and D3He fusion reactions. Modelling and measuring the fast deuterium tail accurately is essential for quantifying the fusion products. This paper presents the modelling of the D distribution function resulting from the NBI+ICRF heating scheme, reinforced by a comparison with dedicated JET fast...

  10. Determination of dew absorption by coffee plant through deuterium concentrations in leaf water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leopoldo, P.R.; Salati, E.; Matsui, E.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of dew falling on leaves on the water metabolism of the coffee plant (Coffea arabica) is examined. The use of natural stable isotopes variations in plant physiological studies is demonstrated. Water extracted from leaf samples is analysed by mass spectrometry. Analyses of deuterium concentrations in water extracted from plant leaves, dew and nutrient solutions are made. Determination of changes in deuterium concentration in the water of leaves from plants exposed to dew, compared with leaves not exposed to dew, is carried out. Results show that during daytime there is an enrichment in deuterium in water contained in the leaves, while at night the opposite occurs [pt

  11. Prediction of amino acid residues protected from hydrogen-deuterium exchange in a protein chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovidchenko, N V; Lobanov, M Yu; Garbuzynskiy, S O; Galzitskaya, O V

    2009-08-01

    We have investigated the possibility to predict protection of amino acid residues from hydrogen-deuterium exchange. A database containing experimental hydrogen-deuterium exchange data for 14 proteins for which these data are known has been compiled. Different structural parameters related to flexibility of amino acid residues and their amide groups have been analyzed to answer the question whether these parameters can be used for predicting the protection of amino acid residues from hydrogen-deuterium exchange. A method for prediction of protection of amino acid residues, which uses only the amino acid sequence of a protein, has been elaborated.

  12. [Consideration of the deuterium-free water supply to an expedition to Mars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siniak, Iu E; Turusov, V S; Grigor'ev, A I; Zaridze, D G; Gaĭdadymov, V B; Gus'kova, E I; Antoshina, E E; Gor'kova, T G; Trukhanova, L S

    2003-01-01

    Interplanetary missions, including to Mars, will put crews into severe radiation conditions. Search for methods of reducing the risk of radiation-induced cancer is of the top priority in preparation for the mission to Mars. One of the options is designing life support systems that will generate water with low content of the stable hydrogen isotope (deuterium) to be consumed by crewmembers. Preliminary investigations have shown that a decrease of the deuterium fraction by 65% does impart to water certain anti-cancer properties. Therefore, drinking deuterium-free water has the potential to reduce the risk of cancer consequent to the extreme radiation exposure of the Martian crew.

  13. Prospects for a deuterium internal target, tensor polarized by optical pumping: spin exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The prospects for a tensor polarized deuterium target (approx. 10 15 atoms/cm 2 ) appropriate for nuclear physics studies in medium and high energy particle storage rings are discussed. Using the technique of electron spin exchange with an optically pumped sodium (or potassium) vapor, we hope to polarize deuterium at a rate approx. 10 17 atoms/sec. Predictions for the deuterium polarization for a particular target cell design will be presented leading to the identification of the required optical pumping power and cell wall depolarization probability to attain optimum performance. The technical obstacles to be surmounted in such a target design will also be discussed

  14. Deuterium oxide as a tool for the study of amino acid metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitra, R.; Burton, J.; Varner, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    We have used deuterium oxide in nontoxic concentrations to study, in intact seedlings, the biosynthesis of amino acids. The extent and pattern of deuteration, as determined by a gas--liquid chromatograph--mass spectrometer system, permits conclusions about the biosynthesis of individual amino acids and also about their exposure to transaminases and other enzymes that might introduce deuterium into specific positions of the amino acid by exchange. This method could be used to study amino acid biogenesis in any organism that can tolerate 20 to 40 percent deuterium oxide for a period of a few hours to a few days

  15. Determination of deuterium fraction in heavy water by proton chemical shifts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellomaeki, A.; Jutila, M.

    1979-01-01

    One nuclear magnetic resonance method used to determine the deuterium fraction of heavy water samples is based on the chemical shifts of dissolved fluoride ions depending on the deuterium content of the sample. This method presented indicated that the proton chemical shifts of the hydrogen form sulfonated polystyrene ion exchangers suspended in H 2 O--D 2 O mixtures are dependent on the deuterium content of the solvent. The strong polystyrene sulfuric acid ion exchangers are more practical: the concentration of the interior electrolytic solution is automatically regulated by the fairly constant swelling of the resin and the peak of the exterior water provides an internal standard in every sample. 2 figures

  16. Macrophage Capping Protein CapG Is a Putative Oncogene Involved in Migration and Invasiveness in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glaser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin binding protein CapG modulates cell motility by interacting with the cytoskeleton. CapG is associated with tumor progression in different nongynecologic tumor entities and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines correlates with a more invasive phenotype in vitro. Here, we report a significant CapG overexpression in 18/47 (38% of ovarian carcinomas (OC analyzed by qRealTime-PCR analyses. Functional analyses in OC cell lines through siRNA mediated CapG knockdown and CapG overexpression showed CapG-dependent cell migration and invasiveness. A single nucleotide polymorphism rs6886 inside the CapG gene was identified, affecting a CapG phosphorylation site and thus potentially modifying CapG function. The minor allele frequency (MAF of SNP rs6886 (c.1004A/G was higher and the homozygous (A/A, His335 genotype was significantly more prevalent in patients with fallopian tube carcinomas (50% as in controls (10%. With OC being one of the most lethal cancer diseases, the detection of novel biomarkers such as CapG could reveal new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Moreover, in-depth analyses of SNP rs6886 related to FTC and OC will contribute to a better understanding of carcinogenesis and progression of OC.

  17. Initial Results from the Lost Alpha Diagnostics on Joint European Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, Doug; Baeumel, Stefan; Cecil, Ed; Ellis, Bob; Fullard, Keith; Hill, Ken; Horton, Alan; Kiptily, Vasily; Pedrick, Les; Reich, Matthias; Werner, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Two devices have been installed in the Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel near the plasma boundary to investigate the loss of energetic ions and fusion products in general and alpha particles in particular during the upcoming JET experiments. These devices are (i) a set of multichannel thin foil Faraday collectors, and (ii) a well collimated scintillator which is optically connected to a charge-coupled device. Initial results, including the radial energy and poloidal dependence of lost ions from hydrogen and deuterium plasmas during the 2005-06 JET restart campaign, will be presented.

  18. Initial Results from the Lost Alpha Diagnostics on Joint European Torus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darrow, Doug; Cecil, Ed; Ellis, Bob; Fullard, Keith; Hill, Ken; Horton, Alan; Kiptily, Vasily; Pedrick, Les; Reich, Matthias

    2007-07-25

    Two devices have been installed in the Joint European Torus (JET) vacuum vessel near the plasma boundary to investigate the loss of energetic ions and fusion products in general and alpha particles in particular during the upcoming JET experiments. These devices are (i) a set of multichannel thin foil Faraday collectors, and (ii) a well collimated scintillator which is optically connected to a charge-coupled device. Initial results, including the radial energy and poloidal dependence of lost ions from hydrogen and deuterium plasmas during the 2005–06 JET restart campaign, will be presented.

  19. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction The monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap is important economically, tactically, and strategically. In the scenario of ice cap retreat, new paths of commerce open, e.g. waterways from Northern Europe to the Far East. Where ship-going commerce is conducted, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard have always stood guard and been prepared to assist from acts of nature and of man. It is imperative that in addition to measuring the ice from satellites, e.g. Icesat, that we have an ability to measure the ice extent, its thickness, and roughness. These parameters play an important part in the modeling of the ice and the processes that control its growth or shrinking and its thickness. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first subsystem is an acoustic source, the second is an array of geophones and the third is a system to supply energy and transmit the results back to the analysis laboratory. The subsystems are described below. We conclude with a plan on how to tackle this project and the payoff to the ice cap modeler and hence the users, i.e. commerce and defense. System Two historically tested methods to generate a large amplitude multi-frequency sound source include explosives and air guns. A new method developed and tested by the University of Texas, ARL is a combustive Sound Source [Wilson, et al., 1995]. The combustive sound source is a submerged combustion chamber that is filled with the byproducts of the electrolysis of sea water, i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen, an explosive mixture which is ignited via a spark. Thus, no additional compressors, gases, or explosives need to be transported to the Arctic to generate an acoustic pulse capable of the sediment and the ice. The second subsystem would be geophones capable of listening in the O(10 Hz) range and transmitting that data back to the laboratory. Thus two single arrays of geophones arranged orthogonal to each other with a range of 1000's of kilometers and a combustive sound source where the two

  20. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  1. Alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line; Stensland, Hilde Monica Frostad Riise; Olsen, Klaus Juul

    2015-01-01

    of the three subgroups of genotype/subcellular localisation and the clinical and biochemical data were done to investigate the potential relationship between genotype and phenotype in alpha-mannosidosis. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS software. Analyses of covariance were performed...

  2. Evolution of hydrogen (deuterium) in palladium hydrogen (deuterium) system and the distribution of hydrogen near the surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Guogang; Peng Qingzhi; Fu Jishi; Zhang Lizhu; Zhang Borui

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen and deuterium have been introduced into palladium cathodes in an electrolysis process for 150 h with light and heavy water as electrolyte respectively. The palladium cathodes used had quenched or annealed after a thermal treatment at 950 deg C. The variation of diffraction pattern and lattice constant of β phase of palladium-hydrogen system in air with time have been measured by X ray diffraction method. The distribution of hydrogen in the surface layer of palladium-hydrogen system has been measured by the nuclear reaction 1 H( 19 F, αγ) 16 O. Comparing a quenched palladium cathode with annealed palladium cathode, it is shown that the former has higher initial concentration of hydrogen and faster evolution velocity than the latter after the electrolysis. The concentration of hydrogen arrives its maximum at the surface of palladium hydrogen system and its minimum at a depth of several hundred angstroms from the surface

  3. Preform spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingston, Jamie T [Simpsonville, SC; Driver, Howard D [Greer, SC; van Breugel, Sjef [Enschede, NL; Jenkins, Thomas B [Cantonment, FL; Bakhuis, Jan Willem [Nijverdal, NL; Billen, Andrew J [Daarlerveen, NL; Riahi, Amir [Pensacola, FL

    2011-07-12

    A spar cap for a wind turbine rotor blade. The spar cap may include multiple preform components. The multiple preform components may be planar sheets having a swept shape with a first end and a second end. The multiple preform components may be joined by mating the first end of a first preform component to the second end of a next preform component, forming the spar cap.

  4. Lowering the YE+1 end-cap for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    On 9 January 2007, the massive YE+1 end-cap was lowered into the CMS cavern. This is a very precise process as the crane must lower the end-cap through minimal clearance without tilt or sway. Once in the cavern, the end-cap is then positioned over the end of the barrel to detect particles produced in collisions that travel close to the axis of the beams.

  5. Capped bit patterned media for high density magnetic recording

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaojing; Livshitz, Boris; Bertram, H. Neal; Inomata, Akihiro; Fullerton, Eric E.; Lomakin, Vitaliy

    2009-04-01

    A capped composite patterned medium design is described which comprises an array of hard elements exchange coupled to a continuous cap layer. The role of the cap layer is to lower the write field of the individual hard element and introduce ferromagnetic exchange interactions between hard elements to compensate the magnetostatic interactions. Modeling results show significant reduction in the reversal field distributions caused by the magnetization states in the array which is important to prevent bit errors and increase achievable recording densities.

  6. Surface morphology and dewettability of self-organized thermosets involving epoxy and POSS-capped poly(ethylene oxide) telechelics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Lei [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and the State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zheng, Sixun, E-mail: szheng@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering and the State Key Laboratory of Metal Matrix Composites, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2012-10-15

    A heptaphenyl polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane-capped poly(ethylene oxide) (POSS-capped PEO) telechelics was synthesized via the Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between 3-azidopropylheptaphenyl POSS and {alpha},{omega}-dialkynyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide). The organic-inorganic amphiphile was incorporated into epoxy to obtain the organic-inorganic nanocomposites. The morphology of the nanocomposites was investigated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). It was found that the epoxy thermosets containing POSS-capped PEO telechelics were microphase-separated. The formation of the nanophases in the thermosets followed a self-assembly mechanism. The static contact angle measurements show that the nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity as well as reduction in surface free energy. The improvement in surface dewettability was ascribed to the enrichment of POSS cages at the surface of the nanocomposites and the formation of the specific surface morphology as evidenced by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and surface atomic force microscopy (AFM). -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer POSS-capped PEO telechelics was synthesized via click chemistry approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The organic-inorganic amphiphile can be self-assembled into the nanophases in epoxy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The hybrid nanocomposites were successfully prepared via a self-assembly approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanocomposites displayed a significant enhancement in surface hydrophobicity.

  7. Management of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-04

    ADV). Human metapneumovirus. Measles virus c. Others. Mycobacterium spp. Pneumocystis jiroveci. Globally, the common pathogens of CAP and the corre- sponding paediatric population are: General population of children.

  8. The CAP Theorem Versus Databases with Relaxed ACID properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Lars; Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Frank, Christian Havnø

    2014-01-01

    The CAP theorem combines the three desirable properties C (data consistency), A (data availability), and P (partition-tolerance: tolerance of inconsistencies between data stored in a distributed database where partitions are allowed). The CAP theorem asserts that any distributed system that uses ...... data from different locations can have at most two of the three desirable CAP properties [5]. The NoSQL movement has applied the CAP theorem as an argument against traditional ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability) databases, which prioritize consistency and partition...

  9. Biochemical principles and inhibitors to interfere with viral capping pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decroly, Etienne; Canard, Bruno

    2017-06-01

    Messenger RNAs are decorated by a cap structure, which is essential for their translation into proteins. Many viruses have developed strategies in order to cap their mRNAs. The cap is either synthetized by a subset of viral or cellular enzymes, or stolen from capped cellular mRNAs by viral endonucleases ('cap-snatching'). Reverse genetic studies provide evidence that inhibition of viral enzymes belonging to the capping pathway leads to inhibition of virus replication. The replication defect results from reduced protein synthesis as well as from detection of incompletely capped RNAs by cellular innate immunity sensors. Thus, it is now admitted that capping enzymes are validated antiviral targets, as their inhibition will support an antiviral response in addition to the attenuation of viral mRNA translation. In this review, we describe the different viral enzymes involved in mRNA capping together with relevant inhibitors, and their biochemical features useful in inhibitor discovery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. NAMMA CLOUD MICROPHYSICS (CAPS-PIP) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Cloud Microphysics dataset consists of particle size distributions from the Clouds, Aerosol and Preciptaition Spectrometer (CAPS) and the Precipitaiton Imaging...

  11. Who's (Still) Above the Social Security Payroll Tax Cap?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicole Woo; Janelle Jones; John Schmitt

    2012-01-01

    The Social Security payroll tax cap is the earnings level above which no further Social Security taxes are collected. The cap is currently at $110,100, though legislation has been introduced in Congress to apply the Social Security payroll tax to earnings above $250,000 (but not between the current cap and this level). This issue brief updates earlier work, finding that 5.8 percent of workers would be affected if the Social Security cap were eliminated entirely and 1.4 percent would be affect...

  12. Tests of a polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium based on spin-exchange optical pumping and a storage cell for polarized deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, R.J.; Gilman, R.; Kinney, E.R.

    1988-01-01

    A novel laser-driven polarized source of hydrogen and deuterium which is based on the principle of spin-exchange optical pumping has been developed at Argonne. The advantages of this method over conventional polarized sources for internal target experiments is discussed. At present, the laser-driven polarized source delivers hydrogen 8 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 24% and deuterium at 6 x 10 16 atoms/s with a polarization of 25%. A passive storage cell for polarized deuterium was tested in the VEPP-3 electron storage ring. The storage cell was found to increase the target thickness by approximately a factor of three and no loss in polarization was observed. 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  13. Nuclear micro-beam analysis of deuterium distribution in carbon fibre composites for controlled fusion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersson, P.; Kreter, A.; Possnert, G.; Rubel, M.

    2010-01-01

    Probes made of carbon fibre composite NB41 were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the TEXTOR tokamak and in a simulator of plasma-wall interactions, PISCES. The aim was to assess the deuterium retention and its lateral and depth distribution. The analysis was performed by means of D( 3 He, p) 4 He and 12 C( 3 He, p) 14 N nuclear reactions analysis using a standard (1 mm spot) and micro-beam (20 μm resolution). The measurements have revealed non uniform distribution of deuterium atoms in micro-regions: differences by a factor of 3 between the maximum and minimum deuterium concentrations. The differences were associated with the orientation and type of fibres for samples exposed in PICSES. For surface structure in the erosion zone of samples exposed to a tokamak plasma the micro-regions were more complex. Depth profiling has indicated migration of fuel into the bulk of materials.

  14. An Effective Deuterium Exchange Method for Neutron Crystal Structure Analysis with Unfolding-Refolding Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kita, Akiko; Morimoto, Yukio

    2016-02-01

    A method of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange with an unfolding-refolding process has been applied to hen egg-white lysozyme (HWL), and accurate evaluation of its deuteration was carried out by time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. Neutron crystallography requires a suitable crystal with enough deuterium exchanged in the protein to decrease incoherent scattering from hydrogens. It is very expensive to prepare a fully deuterated protein, and therefore a simple H/D exchange technique is desirable for this purpose. Acid or base addition to protein solutions with heating effectively increased the number of deuterium up to more than 20 % of that of all hydrogen atoms, and refolded structures were determined by X-ray structure analysis at 1.8 Å resolution. Refolded HWL had increased deuterium content in its protein core and its native structure, determined at atomic resolution, was fully preserved.

  15. Low energy hydrogen and deuterium sputtering measurements of stainless steel, graphite, and beryllium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borders, J.A.; Langley, R.A.; Wilson, K.L.

    1978-01-01

    The total erosion yields of 304 stainless steel by low energy hydrogen and deuterium have been determined by 4 He ion backscattering spectroscopy at energies ranging from 0.33 to 9.0 keV. This experimental method determines the number of atoms removed by sputtering by measuring the change in depth of implanted Xe marker atoms. Data for 304 stainless steel are compared with the extensive published data obtained using the weight loss technique. The Xe marker method is used to make the first measurements of deuterium erosion on polycrystalline graphite. Deuterium erosion measurements of thermally-prepared oxide layers on Be were also made using 4 He backscattering spectroscopy to determine directly the number of removed atoms. These new data for the sputtering yields of deuterium on carbon and BeO range from 0.016 to 0.052 atoms per ion

  16. APPLICATION OF THE NATURALLY-OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE TO TRACING THE CAPILLARY FRINGE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naturally-occurring deuterium is a useful tracer of subsurface hydrologic processes. A possible application includes the identification of capillary fringes in the vadose zone. Multiple and discontinuous water tables persist in many temperate regions, under various hydrogeologi...

  17. Regio-controlled hydrogen-deuterium exchange of biologically important indoles under uv irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Isao; Muramatsu, Shigeru; Sugiyama, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akihiro; Matsuura, Teruo

    1985-01-01

    Photochemical hydrogen-deuterium exchange reaction of biologically important indoles is reported. The regioselectivity of the photodeuteration was found to be controlled by the ammonium group of the side chain. (author)

  18. Mechanistic studies of the reactions of 2-methylpropene with deuterium over supported metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.; Kemball, C.; Sadler, I.H.

    1989-01-01

    Deuterium NMR spectroscopy, gas chromatography and mass spectrometry have been used to examine the products from the reaction of 2-methylpropene with deuterium over supported metal catalysts. The detailed information, so obtained, about the number, location and grouping of deuterium atoms in both the exchanged alkenes and the 2-methylpropanes formed by addition provided evidence about possible mechanisms. With palladium, exchange was faster than addition and the deuterium atoms were randomly distributed in the alkene, probably through a π-allyl dissociative mechanism. With platinum and rhodium, exchange occurred preferentially in the methylene groups of the alkene and the results indicated a dissociative mechanism involving adsorbed vinyl intermediates together with some intramolecular double-bond movement through a π-allyl type of species. Relatively little exchange occurred with iridium. (author)

  19. Demystifying AlphaGo Zero as AlphaGo GAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xiao; Wu, Jiasong; Zhou, Ling

    2017-01-01

    The astonishing success of AlphaGo Zero\\cite{Silver_AlphaGo} invokes a worldwide discussion of the future of our human society with a mixed mood of hope, anxiousness, excitement and fear. We try to dymystify AlphaGo Zero by a qualitative analysis to indicate that AlphaGo Zero can be understood as a specially structured GAN system which is expected to possess an inherent good convergence property. Thus we deduct the success of AlphaGo Zero may not be a sign of a new generation of AI.

  20. Relative extents of hydrogen-deuterium exchange of nitrosamines: relevance to biological isotope effect studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, G.M.; Lijinsky, W.

    1979-01-01

    Relative extents of base-catalyzed, hydrogen-deuterium exchange have been determined for a number of nitrosamines. Observed trends in the exchanges are discussed in terms of substitution, ring size and conformation. The relevance of the exchanges to deuterium isotope effects in carcinogenesis tests is discussed. Those compounds which give pronounced biological isotope effects undergo exchange only to a small extent. No biological isotope effect is found for compounds which undergo extensive exchange. (author)

  1. THE TURN OF THE MONTH EFFECT CONTINUED: A COMPARISON OF SMALL CAP STOCKS AND LARGE CAP STOCKS

    OpenAIRE

    Ramsundhar, Shamman

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether the turn of the month effect occurs in small cap and large cap stocks and if it occurs in both categories, to determine whether there is a difference in the magnitude. My research, for the period of 1963-2008, based on the CRSP value weighted index, shows that there is a significant turn of the month effect in small and large cap stocks, however the effect is larger in small cap stocks. Furthermore, this effect is not limited to a short time...

  2. $\\alpha$-Representation for QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Tuan, Richard Hong

    1998-01-01

    An $\\alpha$-parameter representation is derived for gauge field theories.It involves, relative to a scalar field theory, only constants and derivatives with respect to the $\\alpha$-parameters. Simple rules are given to obtain the $\\alpha$-representation for a Feynman graph with an arbitrary number of loops in gauge theories in the Feynman gauge.

  3. Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alpha Theta Meditation: Phenomenological, neurophysiologic, mindfulness, mood, health and sport implications. ... the single alpha theta meditation was associated with elevated alpha and theta activity, as well as decrease in negative mood perceptions, especially with regard to anxiety, sadness and confusion scores.

  4. Alternate cap designs under RCRA regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manrod, W.E. III; Yager, R.E.; Craig, P.M.

    1988-01-01

    Low-level radioactive waste and mixed wastes have been disposed of in several sites in the vicinity of the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant in Tennessee. Most of these materials have been placed in shallow land burial pits (SLB). Closure plans have been developed and approved by appropriate regulatory agencies for several of these sites. A variety of cap (final cover) designs for closure of these sites were investigated to determine their ability to inhibit infiltration of precipitation to the waste. The most effective designs are those that use synthetic materials as drainage layers and/or impermeable liners. The more complex, multi-layer systems perform no better than simpler covers and would complicate construction and increase costs. Despite the successful analytical results described in this paper, additional considerations must be factored into use of geosynthetic as well as natural materials

  5. Glaciers and ice caps outside Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Marin; Wolken, G.; Burgess, D.; Cogley, J.G.; Copland, L.; Thomson, L.; Arendt, A.; Wouters, B.; Kohler, J.; Andreassen, L.M.; O'Neel, Shad; Pelto, M.

    2015-01-01

    Mountain glaciers and ice caps cover an area of over 400 000 km2 in the Arctic, and are a major influence on global sea level (Gardner et al. 2011, 2013; Jacob et al. 2012). They gain mass by snow accumulation and lose mass by meltwater runoff. Where they terminate in water (ocean or lake), they also lose mass by iceberg calving. The climatic mass balance (Bclim, the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual meltwater runoff) is a widely used index of how glaciers respond to climate variability and change. The total mass balance (ΔM) is defined as the difference between annual snow accumulation and annual mass losses (by iceberg calving plus runoff).

  6. Cytocompatibility and Antibacterial Properties of Capping Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Poggio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply, Calcicur (Voco, Calcimol LC (Voco, TheraCal LC (Bisco, MTA Angelus (Angelus, and Biodentine (Septodont. To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity.

  7. Cytocompatibility and Antibacterial Properties of Capping Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciola, Carla Renata; Monaco, Annachiara; Lombardini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of six different pulp-capping materials: Dycal (Dentsply), Calcicur (Voco), Calcimol LC (Voco), TheraCal LC (Bisco), MTA Angelus (Angelus), and Biodentine (Septodont). To evaluate antimicrobial activity, materials were challenged in vitro with Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, and Streptococcus sanguis in the agar disc diffusion test. Cytocompatibility of the assayed materials towards rat MDPC-23 cells was evaluated at different times by both MTT and apoptosis assays. Results significantly differed among the different materials tested. Both bacterial growth inhibition halos and cytocompatibility performances were significantly different among materials with different composition. MTA-based products showed lower cytotoxicity and valuable antibacterial activity, different from calcium hydroxide-based materials, which exhibited not only higher antibacterial activity but also higher cytotoxicity. PMID:24959601

  8. Cap buckling as a potential mechanism of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelali, Maria; Reiter, Steven; Mongrain, Rosaire; Bertrand, Michel; L'Allier, Philippe L; Kritikou, Ekaterini A; Tardif, Jean-Claude

    2014-04-01

    Plaque rupture in atherosclerosis is the primary cause of potentially deadly coronary events, yet about 40% of ruptures occur away from the plaque cap shoulders and cannot be fully explained with the current biomechanical theories. Here, cap buckling is considered as a potential destabilizing factor which increases the propensity of the atherosclerotic plaque to rupture and which may also explain plaque failure away from the cap shoulders. To investigate this phenomenon, quasistatic 2D finite element simulations are performed, considering the salient geometrical and nonlinear material properties of diverse atherosclerotic plaques over the range of physiological loads. The numerical results indicate that buckling may displace the location of the peak von Mises stresses in the deflected caps. Plaque buckling, together with its deleterious effects is further observed experimentally in plaque caps using a physical model of deformable mock coronary arteries with fibroatheroma. Moreover, an analytical approach combining quasistatic equilibrium equations with the Navier-Bresse formulas is used to demonstrate the buckling potential of a simplified arched slender cap under intraluminal pressure and supported by foundations. This analysis shows that plaque caps - calcified, fibrotic or cellular - may buckle in specific undulated shapes once submitted to critical loads. Finally, a preliminary analysis of intravascular ultrasonography recordings of patients with atherosclerotic coronary arteries corroborates the numerical, experimental and theoretical findings and shows that various plaque caps buckle in vivo. By displacing the sites of high stresses in the plaque cap, buckling may explain the atherosclerotic plaque cap rupture at various locations, including cap shoulders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence of 9Be  +  p nuclear reactions during 2ω CH and hydrogen minority ICRH in JET-ILW hydrogen and deuterium plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasilnikov, A. V.; Kiptily, V.; Lerche, E.; Van Eester, D.; Afanasyev, V. I.; Giroud, C.; Goloborodko, V.; Hellesen, C.; Popovichev, S. V.; Mironov, M. I.; contributors, JET

    2018-02-01

    The intensity of 9Be  +  p nuclear fusion reactions was experimentally studied during second harmonic (2ω CH) ion-cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) and further analyzed during fundamental hydrogen minority ICRH of JET-ILW hydrogen and deuterium plasmas. In relatively low-density plasmas with a high ICRH power, a population of fast H+ ions was created and measured by neutral particle analyzers. Primary and secondary nuclear reaction products, due to 9Be  +  p interaction, were observed with fast ion loss detectors, γ-ray spectrometers and neutron flux monitors and spectrometers. The possibility of using 9Be(p, d)2α and 9Be(p, α)6Li nuclear reactions to create a population of fast alpha particles and study their behaviour in non-active stage of ITER operation is discussed in the paper.

  10. In-ESI source hydrogen/deuterium exchange of carbohydrate ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2014-03-04

    We present the investigation of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange of carbohydrates ions occurring in the electrospray ion source. The shape of the deuterium distribution was observed to be considerably dependent on the temperature of the ion transfer tube and the solvent used. If deuterated alcohol (EtOD or MeOD) or D2O/deuterated alcohol is used as an electrospray solvent, then for high temperatures (>350 °C), intensive back exchange is observed, resulting in ∼30% depth of the deuterium exchange. At low temperatures (exchange is weaker and the depth of the deuterium exchange is ∼70%. In the intermediate temperature region (∼250 °C), the deuterium distribution is unusually wide for methanol and bimodal for ethanol. The addition of 1% formic acid results in low (∼30%) depth of the deuterium exchange for any temperature in the operating region. The bimodal distribution for the ethanol can be possibly explained by the presence of differently folded gas-phase ions of carbohydrates.

  11. Catalytic isotope exchange reaction between deuterium gas and water pre-adsorbed on platinum/alumina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Itsuo; Kato, Junko; Tamaru, Kenzi.

    1976-01-01

    The catalytic isotope exchange reaction between deuterium gas and the water pre-adsorbed on Pt/Al 2 O 3 was studied. At reaction temperatures above 273 K, the exchange rate was proportional to the deuterium pressure and independent of the amount of adsorbed water, which suggests that the rate determining step is the supply of deuterium from the gas phase. Its apparent activation energy was 38 kJ mol -1 . Below freezing point of water, the kinetic behaviour was different from that above freezing point. At higher deuterium pressures the rate dropped abruptly at 273 K. Below the temperature the apparent activation energy was 54 kJ mol -1 and the exchange rate depended not on the deuterium pressure but on the amount of the pre-adsorbed water. At lower pressures, however, the kinetic behaviour was the same as the above 273 K, till the rate of the supply of deuterium from the gas phase exceeded the supply of hydrogen from adsorbed water to platinum surface. These results suggest that below 273 K the supply of hydrogen is markedly retarded, the state of the adsorbed water differing from that above 273 K. It was also demonstrated that when the adsorbed water is in the state of capillary condensation, the exchange rate becomes very small. (auth.)

  12. Neutron-diffraction localization of deuterium in Ti6OD0,45 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sumin, V.V.; Fadeev, N.V.; Morozov, S.I.

    1987-01-01

    Attemp to localize hydrogen in TiO alloy octahedral internodes was made by independent method. To do this, deuterium and hydrogen interstitial solid solutions in titanium were studied by neutron-diffraction method. Deuterium localization in crystal lattice is considerably more reliable, than hydrogen localization due to low noncoherent cross-section of neutron scattering by deuterium. Phase analysis of TiO samples with different deuterium content has shown, that alloys remain singlephase, at least, up to D/O≤1/2 composition. Second phase presence in a sample was determined with accuracy of up to ∼1%, that was proved by phase mixing-in method. Deuterium distribution analysis was conducted for Ti 6 O alloy. It is shown, that presence of oxigen atoms within titanium matrix provides conditions for hydrogen and deuturium localization in octacell layers, which are partially filled with oxygen atoms. Here, hydrogen (Deuterium) forms with oxygen O-H pairs (D), placed in plane parallel to basis HCP of titanium lattice. The most possible characteristic distance between oxygen and hydrogen atoms constitutes a 0 =2,96A (a o -HCP parameter of Ti lattice in Ti 6 O alloy)

  13. Alpha scintillation radon counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, H.F. Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Radon counting chambers which utilize the alpha-scintillation properties of silver activated zinc sulfide are simple to construct, have a high efficiency, and, with proper design, may be relatively insensitive to variations in the pressure or purity of the counter filling. Chambers which were constructed from glass, metal, or plastic in a wide variety of shapes and sizes were evaluated for the accuracy and the precision of the radon counting. The principles affecting the alpha-scintillation radon counting chamber design and an analytic system suitable for a large scale study of the 222 Rn and 226 Ra content of either air or other environmental samples are described. Particular note is taken of those factors which affect the accuracy and the precision of the method for monitoring radioactivity around uranium mines

  14. Deuterium Fractionation on Mars and Evolutionary Implications for Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathare, A. V.; Paige, D. A.

    1998-09-01

    Deuterium/Hydrogen (D/H) in the Martian atmosphere is enriched relative to terrestrial Standard Mean Ocean Water (SMOW) by a factor of 5.5. Yung et al. (1) photochemically modeled the escape efficiency (R) of D relative to H and obtained 0.32. Such high R implies that Mars experienced massive water loss early in its history, and cannot have significantly exchanged with juvenile water since. But Yung et al. (1) did not consider solar cycle related variations in both exospheric temperature and ionospheric chemistry, and when we accounted for changes in solar activity we obtained R = 0.17, which as we discussed last year is consistent with episodic juvenile water resupply. However, earlier this year Krasnopolsky et al. (2) obtained an even lower R = 0.02, based on spectroscopic measurements of deuterium which they could only reproduce by assuming that the ratio of (HD/H2) / (HDO/H2O) at the 80 km base of the exosphere was less than 10 based on Yung et al. (1). To explain this significant deviation, Krasnopolsky et al. (2) argued that partitioning of D into HD and HDO is controlled not kinetically but rather thermodynamically. However, as pointed out by Yung and Kass (3), this explanation would require an isotopic exchange rate coefficient over 10 orders of magnitude larger than that measured for this thermodynamic reaction in the laboratory. Therefore, we explore within the confines of the more likely applicable kinetic photochemical theory whether less extreme variations in exospheric and/or lower atmospheric reaction rate constants could result in a resolution to this dilemma. For example, variations in the vertical distribution of D could allow higher densities of HD at 80 km to be consistent with the new spectroscopic observations, or changes in the tropospheric conversion of HDO into HD could lessen the predicted amount of HD at 80 km. In addition, we examine the new climatological implications of R limited juvenile water exchange may no longer be necessary. (1

  15. The effects of deuterium-depleted water on bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butnaru, Gallia; Jurca, Elena M.; Titescu, Gh.; Stefanescu, I.

    2000-01-01

    Due to their adaptability the bacteria are ubiquitous, occurring in a large variety of habitats. Most of them are saprotrophs or parasites. Bacteria are agents causing many diseases in animals and humans. The main purpose of this work was to reveal the deuterium-depleted water bactericidal effect. Nonpathogenic Gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus) and pathogenic Gram-negative (Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Erwinia amylovora and Escherichia coli) bacteria were used. The variant deuterium depleted (DDW) eater was compared with distilled water eater one. The diffusometric method was found the proper way of investigation. The bacteria culture was developed in Petri dishes (diam = 70 mm) at a temperature of 25 deg. C. After 24 h, 48 h and 72 h the clear area was measured. The clear area was one in which the bacteria were killed. The surface was determined by the area of the small disc on the filter paper. The statistical data were determined by variance analysis. The results pointed out a large response to DDW presence. The data were classified in: 1. without response when no clear area occurred; - 2. with response when a clear area of under 5 mm 2 occurred; - 3. strong response when the clear area was higher than 10 mm 2 . The Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria behaviours were not in correlation with the DDW bactericidal effect. The Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli were scored as without response and we presume that they were very tolerant. No clear area was induced by DDW. Bacillus subtilis and Erwinia amylovora showed weak response. After 24 h the killed bacteria were extended on the same area, namely, 2.89 mm 2 . Even if the DDW effect seems to be small it was significantly in comparison with the control case (s d = 2.78 mm 2 > 0.1). After 48 h and 72 h the clear surface remained the same. The Agrobacterium tumefaciens' response was very strong. The bacteria were killed on 22.50 mm 2 after 24 h and on 26.95 mm 2 after 48 h, being very

  16. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  17. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.

    2015-01-01

    ) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  18. Assembling Modules to the End-cap SCT Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, JN; Sutcliffe, P

    2002-01-01

    A major step in the construction of the SCT end-caps is the process of mounting the modules onto the discs and testing them. This note contains a description of the proposed assembly procedure and the design of the necessary jig to assemble inner, middle, and outer modules to the end-cap disc structure. Results obtained using prototype jigs are described.

  19. Preparing an ATLAS toroid magnet end-cap for lowering

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the two 13-m high toroid magnet end-caps for the ATLAS experiment being transported from the construction hall to the experimental area. The end-cap will be lowered into the ATLAS cavern and attached to an end of the detector.

  20. ATLAS end-caps 
on the move

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    Two delicate and spectacular transport operations have been performed for ATLAS in recent weeks: the first end-cap tracker was installed in its final position, and one of the huge end-caps of the toroid magnet was moved to the top of the experiment’s shaft.

  1. 20 CFR 606.20 - Cap on tax credit reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cap on tax credit reduction. 606.20 Section 606.20 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TAX CREDITS... Tax Credit Reduction § 606.20 Cap on tax credit reduction. (a) Applicability. Subsection (f) of...

  2. An historical look at a contemporary question: the cervical cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmet, J A; Reagan, P A

    1986-01-01

    The cervical cap was most likely invented during the 19th century and was rediscovered in 1908 by a Viennese physician. The cap was always more popular in Europe than in the US, and the introduction of oral contraceptives and the IUD in the 1960s led to a declining interest in barrier methods. In 1977, the US Food and Drug Administration banned distribution of the cervical cap, presumably in reaction to outbreaks of toxic shock syndrome and despite rising interest in the device on the part of the woman's health movement. It is important for health educators to be informed about empirical research about the cervical cap so that they can counsel consumers in the event that the device is reclassified for general use. Acceptor studies have identified convenience, safety, spontaneity, and comfort as reasons for selecting the cervical cap, while difficult insertion and removal, odor, partner discomfort, and uncertainty about contraceptive effectiveness are cited as reasons for disliking this device. Dislodgement has been a major problem, experienced by almost half of cap acceptors at some point. Discontinuation rates after 6 months of use have been in the 25-40% range. No cases of pelvic inflammatory disease or significant cervical pathology have been recorded. The unplanned pregnancy rate associated with the cervical cap has been estimated to be about 8%. Omission of spermicide, dislodgement, faulty technique, and irregular usage account for most of these failures. There is a need for additional research addressing the issues and documenting the limits of safe cervical cap use.

  3. A simplified model of polar cap electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Angelo, N.

    1977-01-01

    A simple-minded 'model' is used in order to visualize the gross features of polar cap electric fields, in particular the 'diode' effect which had emerged already from earlier observations and the asymmetry between the electric fields observed on the dawn and dusk sides of the polar cap, which depends on Bsub(y)

  4. Effect of capping agents on optical and antibacterial properties of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    nature of capping agents. The QDs have been characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, atomic absorption spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Further, antimicrobial activity of as-prepared QDs has also been investigated using the disk diffusion method. Keywords. Capping agents; quantum ...

  5. Progress in LAr EndCap Calorimetry: News from the Hadronic EndCap Group.

    CERN Multimedia

    Oram, C.J.

    With module production and testing completed for the Hadronic EndCap calorimeter, the attention of the HEC group is heavily directed towards wheel assembly in building 180. Three of the four HEC wheels are now assembled and rotated, and work is progressing on assembling the final wheel. This year has been a busy year for the installation of components in the EndCap C cryostat: the signal feedthrough installation was completed April 22nd, the pre-sampler shortly thereafter and the Electro-Magnetic EndCap August 13th. This allowed the HEC group to start transferring the HEC wheels from the T6A storage cradle into the cryostat. The operation started in mid-September and has progressed, on or ahead of schedule, since then with the major milestones being: Insertion of 67 ton front HEC wheel October 3rd Insertion of 90 ton rear HEC wheel October 22nd. The wheel alignment has proved to be excellent, with the position of the centre of the front(rear) wheel with respect to the nominal position being displaced b...

  6. Transcriptional promiscuity of the human /alpha/-globin gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitelaw, E.; Hogben, P.; Hanscombe, O.; Proudfoot, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    The human /alpha/-globin gene displays the unusual property of transcriptional promiscuity: that is, it functions in the absence of an enhancer when transfected into nonerythroid cell lines. It is also unusual in that its promoter region lies in a hypomethylated HpaII tiny fragment (HTF) island containing multiple copies of the consensus sequence for the SP1-binding site. The authors have investigated whether there is a relationship between these two observations. First, they investigated the mouse /alpha/-globin gene since it does not lie in an HTF island. They have demonstrated that it was not transcriptionally promiscuous. Second, they studied the transcriptional activity of the human /alpha/-globin gene in the absence of the GC-rich region containing putative SP1-binding sites and found a small (two- to threefold) but consistent positive effect of this region on transcriptional activity in both nonerythroid and erythroid cell lines. However, this effect did not account for the promiscuous nature of the human /alpha/-globin gene. They found that in a nonreplicating system, the human //a/-globin gene, like that of the mouse, required a simian virus 40 enhancer in order to be transcriptionally active in nonerythroid and erythroid cell lines. Since they only observed enhancer independence of the human /alpha/-globin gene in a high-copy-number replicating system, they suggest that competition for trans-acting factors could explain these results. Finally, the authors' experiments with the erythroid cell line Putko suggest that there are no tissue-specific enhancers within 1 kilobase 5' of the human /alpha/-globin cap site or within the gene itself.

  7. Condensed Matter Deuterium Cluster Target for Study of Pycnonuclear Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoling; George, Miley

    2009-11-01

    Fusion reactions have two main classes: thermonuclear and the pycnonuclear. Thermonuclear fusion occurs in low density high temperature plasmas, and is very sensitive to the ion temperature due to Columbic repulsion effects. As the density increases, the Columbic potential barrier is depressed by increased electron screening, allowing fusion at lower temperatures. This type of nuclear reaction is termed a pycnonuclear fusion and is the basis for astrophysical fusion. Ichimarua [1] proposed a laboratory study of this process using explosive mechanical compression of H/D to metallic densities, which would be extremely difficult to implement. Instead, our recent research suggests that metallic-like H/D ``clusters'' can be formed in dislocation loops of thin Palladium foils through electrochemical processes. [2] If this technique is used as a laser compression target, the compressed cluster density would allow study of pycnonuclear reactions. This provides a means of studying astrophysical fusion process, and could also lead to an important non-cryogenic ICF target. [2] [4pt] [1] S. Ichimaru, H. Kitamura. Phys. Plasmas, 6, 2649 (1999) [0pt] [2] G. Miley and X. Yang, Deuterium Cluster Target for Ultra-High Density, 18TH TOFE, San Francisco, CA Sep. 28 -- Oct. 2, 2008

  8. Complete photo-fragmentation of the deuterium molecule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Thorsten; Czasch, Achim O.; Jagutzki, Ottmar; Muller, Alkis K.; Mergel, Volker; Kheifets, A.; Rotenberg, Eli; Meigs, George; Prior, Mike H.; Daveau, Sebastian; Landers, Allen; Cocke, C.L.; Osipov, Timur; Diez Muino, Ricardo; Schmidt-Bocking, Horst; Dorner, Reinhard

    2004-05-13

    All properties of molecules, from binding and excitation energies to their geometry, are determined by the highly correlated initial state wavefunction of the electrons and nuclei. Perhaps surprisingly, details of these correlations can be revealed by studying the break-up of these systems into their constituents. The fragmentation might be initiated by the absorption of a single photon [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6], collision with a charged particle [7, 8] or exposure to a strong laser pulse [9, 10]. If the exciting interaction is sufficiently understood, one can use the fragmentation process as a tool to learn about the bound initial state [11, 12]. However, often the interaction and the fragment motions pose formidable challenges to quantum theory [13, 14, 15]. Here we report the coincident measurement of the momenta of both nuclei and both electrons from the single photon induced fragmentation of the deuterium molecule. The results reveal that the correlated motion of the electrons is strongly dependent on the inter-nuclear separation in the molecular ground state at the instant of photon absorption.

  9. Deuterium retention in tungsten films after different heat treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, P.; Jacob, W.; Elgeti, S.

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten films deposited by magnetron sputtering on polycrystalline tungsten substrates were used as a model system to study the influence of the film microstructure on deuterium retention behavior. Different microstructures were produced by annealing the films up to recrystallization temperature and the corresponding structural changes were investigated by scanning electron microscopy combined with focused ion beam (FIB) cross sectioning. The influence of the induced structural changes on D retention was investigated by both nuclear reaction analysis and temperature-programmed desorption. D concentration in the investigated W films is higher than in polycrystalline bulk tungsten by a factor of 3. D retention in the films decreases as a function of annealing temperature. After annealing at 2000 K, FIB cross-section images reveal that cavities appeared at the grain boundaries within the film and at the initial interface between the W film and W substrate. This new microstructure strongly affects the D depth profile and leads to the increase of D retention. Although a further increase of the holding time at 2000 K or an increase of the annealing temperature to 2150 K lead to the reduction of the retained D amount, the D concentration in the recrystallized W films cannot be reduced to a level as low as that of bulk W recrystallized at 2000 K for 30 min.

  10. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-08-01

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of ΔΣ in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  11. Deeply virtual Compton scattering off unpolarised deuterium at HERMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Gordon D.

    2008-10-15

    The HERMES experiment was a forward angle spectrometer on the HERA storage ring at DESY, Hamburg, Germany. HERMES successfully increased understanding of the ''spin puzzle'', the spin structure of the nucleon, by providing high precision measurements of {delta}{sigma} in the Quark Parton Model, the fraction of the spin carried by the current quarks. Following the link of another piece of the puzzle, the orbital angular momentum of quarks and gluons, to the Generalised Parton Distribution (GPD) theoretical framework, HERMES focused on measurements of the Deeply Virtual Compton Scattering (DVCS) process. These measurements are sensitive to GPDs, allowing further experimental constraints to be made on the components of nucleon spin. In the Winter shutdown period 2005-2006 HERMES was upgraded with a Recoil Detector in the target region. This allowed the experiment to make exclusive measurements of the DVCS process for the rst time, reducing background and increasing the resolution of various kinematic variables. The method for reconstructing particle tracks in the inhomogeneous magnetic eld is investigated here. DVCS o a deuterium target is measured with all available data prior to the installation of the Recoil Detector. A comparison is made to currently available models of spin-(1)/(2) GPDs. This analysis has been approved for publication by the HERMES collaboration. The data is further employed in an investigation of a model dependent constraint of the total angular momentum of up and down quarks in the nucleon. (orig.)

  12. Water Behavior in Bacterial Spores by Deuterium NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Dormant bacterial spores are able to survive long periods of time without nutrients, withstand harsh environmental conditions, and germinate into metabolically active bacteria when conditions are favorable. Numerous factors influence this hardiness, including the spore structure and the presence of compounds to protect DNA from damage. It is known that the water content of the spore core plays a role in resistance to degradation, but the exact state of water inside the core is a subject of discussion. Two main theories present themselves: either the water in the spore core is mostly immobile and the core and its components are in a glassy state, or the core is a gel with mobile water around components which themselves have limited mobility. Using deuterium solid-state NMR experiments, we examine the nature of the water in the spore core. Our data show the presence of unbound water, bound water, and deuterated biomolecules that also contain labile deuterons. Deuterium–hydrogen exchange experiments show that most of these deuterons are inaccessible by external water. We believe that these unreachable deuterons are in a chemical bonding state that prevents exchange. Variable-temperature NMR results suggest that the spore core is more rigid than would be expected for a gel-like state. However, our rigid core interpretation may only apply to dried spores whereas a gel core may exist in aqueous suspension. Nonetheless, the gel core, if present, is inaccessible to external water. PMID:24950158

  13. Recombinant Nepenthesin II for Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Menglin; Hoeppner, Morgan; Rey, Martial; Kadek, Alan; Man, Petr; Schriemer, David C

    2015-07-07

    The pitcher secretions of the Nepenthes genus of carnivorous plants contain a proteolytic activity that is very useful for hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HX-MS). Our efforts to reconstitute pitcher fluid activity using recombinant nepenthesin I (one of two known aspartic proteases in the fluid) revealed a partial cleavage profile and reduced enzymatic stability in certain HX-MS applications. We produced and characterized recombinant nepenthesin II to determine if it complemented nepenthesin I in HX-MS applications. Nepenthesin II shares many properties with nepenthesin I, such as fast digestion at reduced temperature and pH, and broad cleavage specificity, but in addition, it cleaves C-terminal to tryptophan. Neither enzyme reproduces the C-terminal proline cleavage we observed in the natural extract. Nepenthesin II is considerably more resistant to chemical denaturants and reducing agents than nepenthesin I, and it possesses a stability profile that is similar to that of pepsin. Higher stability combined with the slightly broader cleavage specificity makes nepenthesin II a useful alternative to pepsin and a more complete replacement for pitcher fluid in HX-MS applications.

  14. The production rate of cosmogenic deuterium at the Moon's surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füri, Evelyn; Deloule, Etienne; Trappitsch, Reto

    2017-09-01

    The hydrogen (D/H) isotope ratio is a key tracer for the source of planetary water. However, secondary processes such as solar wind implantation and cosmic ray induced spallation reactions have modified the primordial D/H signature of 'water' in all rocks and soils recovered on the Moon. Here, we re-evaluate the production rate of cosmogenic deuterium (D) at the Moon's surface through ion microprobe analyses of hydrogen isotopes in olivines from eight Apollo 12 and 15 mare basalts. These in situ measurements are complemented by CO2 laser extraction-static mass spectrometry analyses of cosmogenic noble gas nuclides (3He, 21Ne, 38Ar). Cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of the mare basalts, derived from their cosmogenic 21Ne content, range from 60 to 422 Ma. These CRE ages are 35% higher, on average, than the published values for the same samples. The amount of D detected in the olivines increases linearly with increasing CRE ages, consistent with a production rate of (2.17 ± 0.11) ×10-12 mol(g rock)-1 Ma-1. This value is more than twice as high as previous estimates for the production of D by galactic cosmic rays, indicating that for water-poor lunar samples, i.e., samples with water concentrations ≤50 ppm, corrected D/H ratios have been severely overestimated.

  15. Isotopic exchange of cyclic ethers with deuterium over metal catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchet, J.C.; Cornet, D.

    1976-01-01

    The exchange reaction between deuterium and cyclic ethers (oxolane and α-methyl derivatives) has been investigated using rhodium and palladium catalysts. The first hydrogen undergoing exchange has been found to be located on a β-carbon. This fact, and the poisoning of the exchange of cyclopentane in the presence of ether, suggest that the O atom participates in the exchange mechanism of ethers. It appears, however, that the oxygen--metal bonding occurs only during this simple exchange process; simultaneous adsorption of oxygen and a vicinal carbon causes hydrogenolysis of the O--C bond. In each case multiple exchange is important. In the oxolane molecule two sets of exchangeable hydrogens are distinguished according to their reactivities, as could be expected by analogy with cycloalkanes. However, this distinction is not so clear in the exchange patterns of substituted oxolanes, since intermediate maxima are observed in these cases. It is suggested that the conformational properties of the substituted rings cause a constraint in the formation of 3,4-diadsorbed oxolanes. Thus, multiple exchange, based on α,β-process, and epimerization via the ''roll-over'' mechanism occur preferentially in certain parts of the molecules

  16. CoX zeolites and their exchange with deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novakova, J.; Kubelkova, L.; Jiru, P.

    1976-01-01

    An analysis of the gaseous phase using a mass spectrometer and analysis of the solid phase using an infrared spectrophotometer was made to investigate the deuterium exchange with hydrogen mostly bound in hydroxyl groups of zeolites CoX(21 and 47%) and NaX. It was found that with the increasing amount of cobalt ions the number of exchangeable hydrogens of the zeolite increases; the respective types of the hydrogen are discussed with respect to the particular dehydration temperatures. The rate of the D 2 +OH exchange is substantially faster with the CoX than with the NaX zeolite, and exhibits a decrease with increasing dehydration. On the other hand, the rate of D 2 +H 2 exchange without zeolite hydrogen incorporation, catalyzed by CoX zeolites, increases with increasing dehydration. The increased activation of gaseous hydrogen molecules is related to the presence in the zeolite of cobalt ions whose properties change during dehydration with the change in their environment. Hydroxyl groups of the CoX zeolites are not equivalent during the exchange; the hydroxyl hydrogens of the 3740 cm -1 band are exchanged more slowly than are the other hydrogens. (author)

  17. Hyperfine resonance of atomic deuterium at 1 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, M.W.; Hayden, M.E.; Hardy, W.N.

    1991-01-01

    Atomic-deuterium gas was studied at temperatures just above 1 K. A short rf discharge was used to dissociate solid D 2 on the surface of a sealed pyrex bulb lined with a saturated helium film. Pulsed magnetic resonance on the β-δ transition at its minimum frequency (309 MHz in a magnetic field of 3.9 mT) was used to observe the resulting D. The free induction decays were shortened by spin-exchange collisions with impurity H atoms present in the sample. The H density, inferred using calculated spin-exchange cross sections, was typically higher than the D density. In addition, the samples of D were short-lived decaying exponentially in time with a strongly temperature-dependent lifetime. It was found that recombination with the H impurity was not the cause of the sample decay, and it is proposed that the decay is due to the thermally activated process wherein D atoms penetrate the liquid helium film that coats the cell walls. Analysis of the lifetime data yields the value 13.6 (6) K for the rest energy of a D atom dissolved in liquid helium, the first measurement of this quantity for any hydrogen isotope

  18. Deuterium-tritium fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdou, M.A.; Vold, E.L.; Gung, C.Y.; Youssef, M.Z.; Shin, K.

    1986-01-01

    Conditions necessary to achieve deuterium-tritium fuel self-sufficiency in fusion reactors are derived through extensive modeling and calculations of the required and achievable tritium breeding ratios as functions of the many reactor parameters and candidate design concepts. It is found that the excess margin in the breeding potential is not sufficient to cover all present uncertainties. Thus, the goal of attaining fuel self-sufficiency significantly restricts the allowable parameter space and design concepts. For example, the required breeding ratio can be reduced by (A) attaining high tritium fractional burnup, >5%, in the plasma, (B) achieving very high reliability, >99%, and very short times, <1 day, to fix failures in the tritium processing system, and (C) ensuring that nonradioactive decay losses from all subsystems are extremely low, e.g., <0.1% for the plasma exhaust processing system. The uncertainties due to nuclear data and calculational methods are found to be significant, but they are substantially smaller than those due to uncertainties in system definition

  19. Instability of the ion hybrid wave in the presence of superthermal alpha-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashmore-Davies, C. N.; Russell, D. A.

    1997-02-01

    The stability of the ion hybrid wave in a plasma containing two thermal ion species present in comparable proportions and a low density population of superthermal alpha-particles is analyzed. A simple, model distribution function consisting of a ring distribution in the perpendicular velocity and a Maxwellian in the parallel velocity is used for the superthermal alpha-particles. This distribution function is relevant to the core plasma of a tokamak in the immediate post-birth phase before the alpha-particles have had time to relax collisionally and is therefore of interest to the alpha-channelling question. It has also been used to interpret ion cyclotron emission from fusion products in the edge plasma of large tokamaks. An approximate dispersion relation is derived which allows the conditions for instability to be explored and an analytic expression for the growth rate to be obtained. It is found that the ion hybrid wave can be unstable for v⊥0/cA≪1 where v⊥0 is the alpha-particle ring speed and cA is Alfvén speed for a plasma with two ion species. The instability conditions obtained from the analytic approximation are used to guide the solution of the exact dispersion relation. Numerical solutions for the specific cases of deuterium-tritium core and edge plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [K. M. Young et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 26, 11 (1984)] are given.

  20. Technique for measuring the losses of alpha particles to the wall in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, A.C.

    1984-03-01

    It is proposed to measure the losses of alpha particles to the wall in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) or any large deuterium-tritium (D-T) burning tokamak by a nuclear technique. For this purpose, a chamber containing a suitable fluid would be mounted near the wall of the tokamak. Alpha particles would enter the chamber through a thin window and cause nuclear reactions in the fluid. The material would then be transported through a tube to a remote, low-background location for measurement of the activity. The most favorable reaction suggested here is 10 B(α,n) 13 N, although 14 N(α,γ) 18 F and others may be possible. The system, the sensitivity, the probe design, and the sources of error are described

  1. Phosphogypsum capping depth affects revegetation and hydrology in Western Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Mallory E; Naeth, M Anne; Chanasyk, David S; Nichol, Connie K

    2011-01-01

    Phosphogypsum (PG), a byproduct of phosphate fertilizer manufacturing, is commonly stacked and capped with soil at decommissioning. Shallow (0, 8, 15, and 30 cm) and thick (46 and 91 cm) sandy loam caps on a PG stack near Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta, Canada, were studied in relation to vegetation establishment and hydrologic properties. Plant response was evaluated over two growing seasons for redtop ( L.), slender wheatgrass ( (Link) Malte ex H.F. Lewis), tufted hairgrass ( (L.) P. Beauv.), and sheep fescue ( L.) and for a mix of these grasses with alsike clover ( L.). Water content below the soil-PG interface was monitored with time-domain reflectometry probes, and leachate water quantity and quality at a depth of 30 cm was measured using lysimeters. Vegetation responded positively to all cap depths relative to bare PG, with few significant differences among cap depths. Slender wheatgrass performed best, and tufted hairgrass performed poorly. Soil caps <1 m required by regulation were sufficient for early revegetation. Soil water fluctuated more in shallow than in thick caps, and water content was generally between field capacity and wilting point regardless of cap depth. Water quality was not affected by cap depths ≤30 cm. Leachate volumes at 30 cm from distinct rainfall events were independent of precipitation amount and cap depth. The study period had lower precipitation than normal, yet soil caps were hospitable for plant growth in the first 2 yr of establishment. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  2. Analysis of phosphoinositide 3-kinase inhibitors by bottom-up electron-transfer dissociation hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Masson, Glenn R.; Maslen, Sarah L.; Williams, Roger L.

    2017-01-01

    Until recently, one of the major limitations of hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) was the peptide-level resolution afforded by proteolytic digestion. This limitation can be selectively overcome through the use of electron-transfer dissociation to fragment peptides in a manner that allows the retention of the deuterium signal to produce hydrogen/deuterium exchange tandem mass spectrometry (HDX-MS/MS). Here, we describe the application of HDX-MS/MS to structurally screen in...

  3. Rapid and Controllable Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange on Aromatic Rings of α-Amino Acids and Peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Murai, Yuta; Wang, Lei; Masuda, Katsuyoshi; Sakihama, Yasuko; Hashidoko, Yasuyuki; Hatanaka, Yasumaru; Hashimoto, Makoto

    2013-01-01

    Novel hydrogen/deuterium exchange for aromatic α-amino acids and their corresponding peptides were performed through the use of deuterated trifluoromethanesulfonic acid (TfOD). Detailed analysis of the exchange revealed that equal hydrogen/deuterium exchange was observed for phenylalanine, and specific exchange at the ortho-positions of phenol for tyrosine was also detected. The stereochemistry of the aromatic α-amino acids was retained under the exchange conditions. The hydrogen/deuterium ex...

  4. Exchange of deuterium for hydrogen during the reaction of dimethylamine-N-d-borane with halogenating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, W.H.; Ryschkewitsch, G.E.

    1978-01-01

    During the reaction of dimethylamine-N-d-borane with chlorine considerable exchange of hydrogen for deuterium on nitrogen occurred. An extensive investigation of the halogenation reactions of dimethylamine-N-d-borane indicated that the exchange process occurred via the loss of deuterium chloride from a molecule activated as a result of halogenation. The extent of substitution of hydrogen for deuterium in the products of these reactions was estimated by comparing NMR and IR spectra

  5. Submolecular regulation of cell transformation by deuterium depleting water exchange reactions in the tricarboxylic acid substrate cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Boros, László G; D’Agostino, Dominic P.; Katz, Howard E.; Roth, Justine P.; Meuillet, Emmanuelle J.; Somlyai, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    The naturally occurring isotope of hydrogen (1H), deuterium (2H), could have an important biological role. Deuterium depleted water delays tumor progression in mice, dogs, cats and humans. Hydratase enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle control cell growth and deplete deuterium from redox cofactors, fatty acids and DNA, which undergo hydride ion and hydrogen atom transfer reactions. A model is proposed that emphasizes the terminal complex of mitochondrial electron transport chain redu...

  6. Influence of traps on the deuterium behaviour in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, E.; Perujo, A.; Benamati, G.

    1997-06-01

    A time dependent permeation method is used to measure the permeability, diffusivity and solubility of deuterium in the low activation martensitic steels F82H and Batman. The measurements cover the temperature range from 373 to 743 K which includes the onset of deuterium trapping effects on diffusivity and solubility. The results are interpreted using a trapping model. The number of trap sites and their average energies for deuterium in F82H and Batman steels are determined.

  7. Automated Hydrogen/Deuterium Exchange Electron Transfer Dissociation High Resolution Mass Spectrometry Measured at Single-Amide Resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Landgraf, Rachelle R.; Chalmers, Michael J.; Griffin, Patrick R.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS) is a well established method for the measurement of solution-phase deuterium incorporation into proteins, which can provide insight into protein conformational mobility. However, most HDX measurements are constrained to regions of the protein where pepsin proteolysis allows detection at peptide resolution. Recently, single-amide resolution deuterium incorporation has been achieved by limiting gas-phase scrambling in the mass spectrometer....

  8. Solid-State Hydrogen-Deuterium Exchange Mass Spectrometry: Correlation of Deuterium Uptake and Long-Term Stability of Lyophilized Monoclonal Antibody Formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Balakrishnan S; Zarraga, Isidro E; Kumar, Lokesh; Walters, Benjamin T; Goldbach, Pierre; Topp, Elizabeth M; Allmendinger, Andrea

    2018-01-02

    Solid state hydrogen-deuterium exchange with mass spectrometric analysis (ssHDX-MS) has been used to assess protein conformation and matrix interactions in lyophilized solids. ssHDX-MS metrics have been previously correlated to the formation of aggregates of lyophilized myoglobin on storage. Here, ssHDX-MS was applied to lyophilized monoclonal antibody (mAb) formulations and correlated to their long-term stability. After exposing lyophilized samples to D 2 O(g), the amount of deuterium incorporated at various time points was determined by mass spectrometry for four different lyophilized mAb formulations. Hydrogen-deuterium exchange data were then correlated with mAb aggregation and chemical degradation, which was obtained in stability studies of >2.5 years. Deuterium uptake on ssHDX-MS of four lyophilized mAb formulations determined at the initial time point prior to storage in the dry state was directly and strongly correlated with the extent of aggregation and chemical degradation during storage. Other measures of physical and chemical properties of the solids were weakly or poorly correlated with stability. The data demonstrate, for the first time, that ssHDX-MS results are highly correlated with the stability of lyophilized mAb formulations. The findings thus suggest that ssHDX-MS can be used as an early read-out of differences in long-term stability between formulations helping to accelerate formulation screening and selection.

  9. Cap-preserving SMILE Enhancement Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedky, Ahmed N; Wahba, Sherine S; Roshdy, Maged M; Ayaad, Nermeen R

    2018-02-17

    Different enhancement procedures have been suggested for reduction of residual refractive errors after SMILE. The aim of this study is to evaluate an improved cap-preserving technique for enhancement after SMILE (Re-SMILE). A retrospective case series was conducted at Eye subspecialty center, Cairo, Egypt on 9 eyes with myopia or myopic astigmatism (spherical equivalent - 8.0 and - 12.0D). undergoing SMILE procedure and needed second interference. This was either because the more myopic meridian was more than - 10.0 D and therefore planned to have two-steps procedure (six eyes) or because of under correction needing enhancement (three eyes). Assessment after the primary SMILE procedure was conducted at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. Assessment after Re-SMILE was conducted at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months and 1 year postoperatively. The assessments included full ophthalmic examination, objective and subjective refraction, and rotating Scheimpflug camera imaging. Preoperatively, the mean refractive spherical equivalent (MRSE) values were: - 9.36 ± 0. 89. After primary SMILE it was - 2.18 ± 0.71. After Re-SMILE it was - 0.13 ± 0.68. MRSE was significantly improved after both procedures (P < 0.01). The safety index of primary SMILE cases was 1.65 ± 0.62 and for Re-SMILE 1.13 ± 0.34 and the efficacy index was 1.14 ± 0.24 after primary SMILE and 1.11 ± 0.26 after Re-SMILE. Centered cap-preserving Re-SMILE is an effective procedure in reducing residual refractive errors after primary SMILE in high myopes.

  10. The influence of connecting pile cap-column in the mechanisms of break in the two pile caps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. MESQUITA

    Full Text Available Abstract The paper analyzes the two pile caps with partially embedded socket and subject a center load. Three models were experimentally tested, varying the type of conformation of the column and walls of the socket, with a smooth, the other rough, and a monolithic two pile cap, used for reference. The roughening of the column-socket interface was examined with the aim of verifying the difference of the distribution of compressive and tensile stresses in the strut an tie model used for design. The experimental test to show that the two pile caps with conformation rough of the column and walls of the socket, support more load in comparison with two pile caps with smooth of the column and walls of the socket. Both however underperformed the monolithic two pile cap, with values of 66% and 36% respectively.

  11. Compression of a spherically symmetric deuterium-tritium plasma liner onto a magnetized deuterium-tritium target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santarius, J. F.

    2012-01-01

    Converging plasma jets may be able to reach the regime of high energy density plasmas (HEDP). The successful application of plasma jets to magneto-inertial fusion (MIF) would heat the plasma by fusion products and should increase the plasma energy density. This paper reports the results of using the University of Wisconsin’s 1-D Lagrangian, radiation-hydrodynamics, fusion code BUCKY to investigate two MIF converging plasma jet test cases originally analyzed by Samulyak et al.[Physics of Plasmas 17, 092702 (2010)]. In these cases, 15 cm or 5 cm radially thick deuterium-tritium (DT) plasma jets merge at 60 cm from the origin and converge radially onto a DT target magnetized to 2 T and of radius 5 cm. The BUCKY calculations reported here model these cases, starting from the time of initial contact of the jets and target. Compared to the one-temperature Samulyak et al. calculations, the one-temperature BUCKY results show similar behavior, except that the plasma radius remains about twice as long near maximum compression. One-temperature and two-temperature BUCKY results differ, reflecting the sensitivity of the calculations to timing and plasma parameter details, with the two-temperature case giving a more sustained compression.

  12. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  13. Efficacy of polyphasic calcium phosphates as a direct pulp capping material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiba, Wakako; Imazato, Satoshi; Takahashi, Yusuke; Yoshioka, Seisuke; Ebisu, Sigeyuki; Nakano, Takayoshi

    2010-10-01

    Polyphasic calcium phosphates (Poly-CaP), a complex of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and soluble calcium phosphates including alpha-tricalcium phosphate and tetracalcium phosphate, demonstrate promoting effects on hard tissue formation by osteoblasts. We hypothesized that a Poly-CaP block with a soluble calcium phosphates phase on one side and an insoluble HAp phase on the other side is useful for vital pulp therapy as it may promote dentin regeneration and provide the surface effective to achieve sealing. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of Poly-CaP as a direct pulp capping material by examining the Ca-release profile, the in vivo ability to induce reparative dentinogenesis, and the bonding of HAp surface with adhesive systems. Poly-CaP prepared by annealing crude HAp disc was immersed in buffer solution at pH 7.4 or 4.0, and the concentration of Ca released was measured until 15 days. The pulp of 9-week-old Wister rat molar was exposed and capped with Poly-CaP or HAp block, and dentin bridge formation and pulpal inflammation was evaluated histopathologically after 2 or 4 weeks. Etch & rinse or self-etching adhesive was bonded to HAp surface, and the interface was observed using SEM. Poly-CaP exhibited continuous release of Ca with significantly greater amount than HAp at both pH conditions (P<0.05, Student's t-test). Animal tests demonstrated formation of complete dentin bridge at higher rate for Poly-CaP compared with HAp after 4 weeks (P<0.05, Steel-Dwass test). Impregnation of resin into etched HAp surface, with production of intimate contact at the bonding interface, was seen for all adhesives. Poly-CaP is a potentially useful material for direct pulp capping with the advantages to promote dentin bridge formation and to provide tight sealing by adhesives. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The alpha effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    Much of the recent interest in RAM system reliability stems from concern over alpha particle soft error rates reported for the initial 64 k RAMs. With increasing memory density likely in the next few years the problem of soft errors is rearing its head again. A few years ago ITT carried out experiments on 16k RAMs and found no significant problems. However, recent tests have shown a raise in the number of soft errors with 64k RAMs, and the launch of 256k and 512k memories is likely to make the problem acute

  15. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  16. High-precision measurement of strong-interaction effects in pionic deuterium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauch, Thomas

    2009-06-30

    The hadronic ground state shift {epsilon}{sub 1s} and width {gamma}{sub 1s} in pionic deuterium were measured with high precision at the pion factory of the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Switzerland (PSI-Experiment R-06.03). In this experiment the {pi}D(3p-1s) X-ray transition of about 3 keV was measured using a high-resolution Bragg crystal spectrometer equipped with a large-area position sensitive CCD detector. The characteristic X-radiation stems from a de-excitation cascade of the pionic atom. In order to produce an intense X-ray source, the cyclotron trap was used to stop pions in a cryogenic D{sub 2} target after winding up the pion beam in a magnetic field. The hadronic shift {epsilon}{sub 1s} is obtained from the measured transition energy by comparison to the pure electromagnetic value, where the determination of the broadening {gamma}{sub 1s} requires the precise knowledge of the spectrometer response, obtained from measurements of narrow X-ray transitions from highly ionised atoms, produced in an electron cyclotron resonance ion trap. As the formation rate is assumed to be density dependent, the {pi}D(3p-1s) X-ray energy was measured at three different D{sub 2} pressures. Another cascade process (Coulomb de-excitation) transforms the energy release of de-excitation steps into kinetic energy of the collision partners leading to a Doppler broadening of subsequent X-ray transitions. The hadronic broadening {gamma}{sub 1s} is only obtained after deconvolution of the spectrometer response function and the contributions from Doppler broadening. No energy dependence of the {pi}D(3p-1s) was found, and it is concluded that radiative de-excitation from molecular states is negligible within the experimental accuracy. Hence, the result for the shift reads {epsilon}{sub 1s} = (-2.325{+-}0.031) eV, corresponding to an accuracy of 1.3% and represents the average of the three measured densities. The uncertainty is dominated by the accuracy of the gallium K{alpha}{sub 2

  17. Interaction of insulin with colloidal ZnS quantum dots functionalized by various surface capping agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Ghader; Maghari, Ali; Farniya, Seyed Morteza Famil; Keihan, Amir Homayoun; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali A

    2017-08-01

    Interaction of quantum dots (QDs) and proteins strongly influenced by the surface characteristics of the QDs at the protein-QD interface. For a precise control of these surface-related interactions, it is necessary to improve our understanding in this field. In this regard, in the present work, the interaction between the insulin and differently functionalized ZnS quantum dots (QDs) were studied. The ZnS QDs were functionalized with various functional groups of hydroxyl (OH), carboxyl (COOH), amine (NH 2 ), and amino acid (COOH and NH 2 ). The effect of surface hydrophobicity was also studied by changing the alkyl-chain lengths of mercaptocarboxylic acid capping agents. The interaction between insulin and the ZnS QDs were investigated by fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), and thermal aggregation techniques. The results reveal that among the studied QDs, mercaptosuccinic acid functionalized QDs has the strongest interaction (∆G ° =-51.50kJ/mol at 310K) with insulin, mercaptoethanol functionalized QDs destabilize insulin by increasing the beta-sheet contents, and only cysteine functionalized QDs improves the insulin stability by increasing the alpha-helix contents of the protein, and. Our results also indicate that by increasing the alkyl-chain length of capping agents, due to an increase in hydrophobicity of the QDs surface, the beta-sheet contents of insulin increase which results in the enhancement of insulin instability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Innovation under cap-and-trade programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Margaret R

    2012-03-27

    Policies incentivizing the private sector to reach its innovative potential in "clean" technologies are likely to play a key role in achieving climate stabilization. This article explores the relationship between innovation and cap-and-trade programs (CTPs)--the world's most prominent climate policy instrument--through empirical evidence drawn from successful CTPs for sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide control. The article shows that before trading began for these CTPs, analysts overestimated the value of allowances in a pattern suggestive of the frequent a priori overestimation of the compliance costs of regulation. When lower-than-expected allowance prices were observed, in part because of the unexpected range of abatement approaches used in the lead-up to trading, emissions sources chose to bank allowances in significant numbers and reassess abatement approaches going forward. In addition, commercially oriented inventive activity declined for emissions-reducing technologies with a wide range of costs and technical characteristics, dropping from peaks before the establishment of CTPs to nadirs a few years into trading. This finding is consistent with innovators deciding during trading that their research and development investments should be reduced, based on assessments of future market conditions under the relevant CTPs. The article concludes with a discussion of the results and their implications for innovation and climate policy.

  19. Temperature Distribution within a Cold Cap during Nuclear Waste Vitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Derek R; Schweiger, Michael J; Riley, Brian J; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel

    2015-07-21

    The kinetics of the feed-to-glass conversion affects the waste vitrification rate in an electric glass melter. The primary area of interest in this conversion process is the cold cap, a layer of reacting feed on top of the molten glass. The work presented here provides an experimental determination of the temperature distribution within the cold cap. Because direct measurement of the temperature field within the cold cap is impracticable, an indirect method was developed in which the textural features in a laboratory-made cold cap with a simulated high-level waste feed were mapped as a function of position using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature distribution within the cold cap was established by correlating microstructures of cold-cap regions with heat-treated feed samples of nearly identical structures at known temperatures. This temperature profile was compared with a mathematically simulated profile generated by a cold-cap model that has been developed to assess the rate of glass production in a melter.

  20. ImmunoCAP assays: Pros and cons in allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hage, Marianne; Hamsten, Carl; Valenta, Rudolf

    2017-10-01

    Allergen-specific IgE measurements and the clinical history are the cornerstones of allergy diagnosis. During the past decades, both characterization and standardization of allergen extracts and assay technology have improved. Here we discuss the uses, advantages, misinterpretations, and limitations of ImmunoCAP IgE assays (Thermo Fisher Scientific/Phadia, Uppsala, Sweden) in the field of allergology. They can be performed as singleplex (ImmunoCAP) and, for the last decade, as multiplex (Immuno Solid-phase Allergen Chip [ISAC]). The major benefit of ImmunoCAP is the obtained quantified allergen-specific IgE antibody level and the lack of interference from allergen-specific IgG antibodies. However, ImmunoCAP allergen extracts are limited to the composition of the extract. The introduction of allergen molecules has had a major effect on analytic specificity and allergy diagnosis. They are used in both singleplex ImmunoCAP and multiplex ImmunoCAP ISAC assays. The major advantage of ISAC is the comprehensive IgE pattern obtained with a minute amount of serum. The shortcomings are its semiquantitative measurements, lower linear range, and cost per assay. With respect to assay performance, ImmunoCAP allergen extracts are good screening tools, but allergen molecules dissect the IgE response on a molecular level and put allergy research on the map of precision medicine. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Electrochemical synthesis and optical properties of organically capped silver nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabinal, M.K.; Kalasad, M.N.; Praveenkumar, K.; Bharadi, V.R.; Bhikshavartimath, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A simple electrochemical method for the synthesis of organically capped silver nanoparticles by anodic dissolution of silver. Highlights: ► Electrochemical method has been developed to synthesize silver nanoparticles. ► The bulk silver is converted to monodispersed silver nanoparticles by anodic dissolution of metal. ► It permits in-situ capping of nanoparticles with suitable organic molecules. ► The method is simple, economical and greener in approach to prepare bulk quantity of stable sols of silver nanoparticles. -- Abstract: A top to bottom approach has been adopted to prepare silver nanoparticles by electrochemical dissolution of metal in suitable organic solvents. The method is being simple and economical, also permits in situ capping of nanoparticles with organic molecules. Thioglycolic acid is used as capping/stabilizing agent. Optical absorption, transmission electron microscopy, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction measurements were carried out to study the effect of capping molecules on the size and shape of nanoparticles. It is found that thioglycolic acid is an effective capping agent and hence the resultant sol, even with high density of nanoparticles, is kinetically more stable. The present method can also be extended to synthesize other metal nanoparticles capped with various organic molecules

  2. Pulpal response to tricalcium phosphate as a capping agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chohayeb, A A; Adrian, J C; Salamat, K

    1991-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as a pulp-capping agent. Two adult male beagle dogs were used for this investigation. Class I cavities were prepared in the posterior teeth and Class V cavities in the anterior teeth. With the use of a rubber dam and high speed with water coolant, minimal pulp exposures were created in both the experimental and control teeth, by means of a 1/2 round bur. Zinc oxide-eugenol was the temporary filling material used to restore all cavities. In each dog, five teeth served as control and were capped with the use of calcium hydroxide. In one dog, 10 teeth from two quadrants were capped with the tested material (TCP). In the other dog, 11 teeth were capped with TCP. Four teeth from the fourth quadrant in each dog were capped with a mixture of calcium hydroxide and TCP in a ratio of 1:1 by weight (50/50 group.) The two dogs were killed after 70 days. The histologic evaluation of the response to the capping agents and at the exposure site was recorded. A total of 39 teeth were evaluated in this study. It was found that TCP as a capping agent precipitated the highest mean inflammatory response and also demonstrated the highest percentage of reparative dentin formation.

  3. Fundamental ion cyclotron resonance heating of JET deuterium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasilnikov, A V; Amosov, V N; Kaschuck, Yu A; Van Eester, D; Lerche, E; Ongena, J; Bonheure, G; Biewer, T; Crombe, K; Ericsson, G; Giacomelli, L; Hellesen, C; Hjalmarsson, A; Esposito, B; Marocco, D; Jachmich, S; Kiptily, V; Leggate, H; Mailloux, J; Kallne, J

    2009-01-01

    Radio frequency heating of majority ions is of prime importance for understanding the basic role of auxiliary heating in the activated D-T phase of ITER. Majority deuterium ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) experiments at the fundamental cyclotron frequency were performed in JET. In spite of the poor antenna coupling at 25 MHz, this heating scheme proved promising when adopted in combination with D neutral beam injection (NBI). The effect of fundamental ICRH of a D population was clearly demonstrated in these experiments: by adding ∼25% of heating power the fusion power was increased up to 30-50%, depending on the type of NBI adopted. At this power level, the ion and electron temperatures increased from T i ∼ 4.0 keV and T e ∼ 4.5 keV (NBI-only phase) to T i ∼ 5.5 keV and T e ∼ 5.2 keV (ICRH + NBI phase), respectively. The increase in the neutron yield was stronger when 80 keV rather than 130 keV deuterons were injected in the plasma. It is shown that the neutron rate, the diamagnetic energy and the electron as well as the ion temperature scale roughly linearly with the applied RF power. A synergistic effect of the combined use of ICRF and NBI heating was observed: (i) the number of neutron counts measured by the neutron camera during the combined ICRF + NBI phases of the discharges exceeded the sum of the individual counts of the NBI-only and ICRF-only phases; (ii) a substantial increase in the number of slowing-down beam ions was detected by the time of flight neutron spectrometer when ICRF power was switched on; (iii) a small D subpopulation with energies slightly above the NBI launch energy was detected by the neutral particle analyzer and γ-ray spectroscopy.

  4. Probing protein ensemble rigidity and hydrogen-deuterium exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljoka, Adnan; Wilson, Derek

    2013-10-01

    Protein rigidity and flexibility can be analyzed accurately and efficiently using the program floppy inclusion and rigid substructure topography (FIRST). Previous studies using FIRST were designed to analyze the rigidity and flexibility of proteins using a single static (snapshot) structure. It is however well known that proteins can undergo spontaneous sub-molecular unfolding and refolding, or conformational dynamics, even under conditions that strongly favor a well-defined native structure. These (local) unfolding events result in a large number of conformers that differ from each other very slightly. In this context, proteins are better represented as a thermodynamic ensemble of 'native-like' structures, and not just as a single static low-energy structure. Working with this notion, we introduce a novel FIRST-based approach for predicting rigidity/flexibility of the protein ensemble by (i) averaging the hydrogen bonding strengths from the entire ensemble and (ii) by refining the mathematical model of hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, we combine our FIRST-ensemble rigidity predictions with the ensemble solvent accessibility data of the backbone amides and propose a novel computational method which uses both rigidity and solvent accessibility for predicting hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX). To validate our predictions, we report a novel site specific HDX experiment which characterizes the native structural ensemble of Acylphosphatase from hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso AcP). The sub-structural conformational dynamics that is observed by HDX data, is closely matched with the FIRST-ensemble rigidity predictions, which could not be attained using the traditional single 'snapshot' rigidity analysis. Moreover, the computational predictions of regions that are protected from HDX and those that undergo exchange are in very good agreement with the experimental HDX profile of Sso AcP.

  5. Deuterium and tritium profile through the Vatnajoekull icecap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnasson, B.

    1974-06-01

    During the years 1971-73 a research project was carried out at the Science Institute of the University of Iceland with the financial support of the IAEA. A rotary drill for deep coring in temperate ice has been developed, and a 415 m deep hole was drilled during the summer of 1972 into the temperate accumulation area of the Vatnajoekull glacier, Iceland, at an altitude of 1800 m a.s.l. The core recovery was 99%. The bottom, at 480-500 m depth, was not reached because of a fault in the cable. Detail on the drill is given in: Arnason, Bjoernsson and Theodorsson, J. of Glaciology, 13, 133 (1974). Several volcanic ash layers have been recognized in the ice core and associated with historically known eruptions. This provides the age-depth relationship. Isotopic analyses along the core show that precipitation in the period 1931-1960 is enriched by 5 per mil in deuterium with respect to that in the period 1891-1920, in agreement with the 1degC increase in the mean air temperature occurred from the beginning of the century. Tritium analyses show appreciable isotopic exchange due to water percolation (summer rains and ice melting). The Na + and Cl - content decreases with depth (from 1 μg/g ice to 0.1 μg/g ice). This decrease has been attributed to dissolution of ions in water percolating along the ice crystals. Other studies of the ice core, in progress or planned, include: size and orientation of ice crystals, size and pressure of air bubbles, measurement of F - , SO 4 -- and Hg

  6. The high pressure PVT properties of deuterium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fine, R.A.; Millero, F.J.

    1975-01-01

    The high pressure isothermal compressibilities of deuterium oxide from 5 to 100 degreeC and 0 to 1000 bars applied or gauge pressure were determined from sound speed data. These compressibilities were used to derive an equation of state of the form V 0 P/(V 0 - V/supP/) = B + A 1 P + A 2 P 2 , where V 0 and V/supP/ are the specific volumes at an applied pressure of zero and P; and B, A 1 , and A 2 are polynomial functions of temperature. The compressibilities derived from this equation of state are consistent with those derived from the sound speed data to plus-or-minus0.016times10 -6 bar -1 over the entire pressure and temperature range (this is equivalent to approx.0.2 m sec -1 in sound speed). The 1 atm sound-derived compressibilities agree on the average to plus-or-minus0.06times10 -6 bar -1 with the direct measurements of Millero and Lepple. The P--V--T data from the sound-derived equation are compared with the high pressure work of Bridgman, Kesselman, Juza et al., and Emmet and Millero. Good agreement (average deviation of plus-or-minus28times10 -6 cm 3 g -1 ) was found with the recent specific volume measurements of Emmet and Millero. The P--V--T properties of D 2 O are compared to pure water. D 2 O and H 2 O are shown to follow similar trends. Contrary to previous reports, the D 2 O/H 2 O ratios of the specific volumes and specific heats are shown to be functions of both temperature and pressure

  7. Probing protein ensemble rigidity and hydrogen-deuterium exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sljoka, Adnan; Wilson, Derek

    2013-10-01

    Protein rigidity and flexibility can be analyzed accurately and efficiently using the program floppy inclusion and rigid substructure topography (FIRST). Previous studies using FIRST were designed to analyze the rigidity and flexibility of proteins using a single static (snapshot) structure. It is however well known that proteins can undergo spontaneous sub-molecular unfolding and refolding, or conformational dynamics, even under conditions that strongly favor a well-defined native structure. These (local) unfolding events result in a large number of conformers that differ from each other very slightly. In this context, proteins are better represented as a thermodynamic ensemble of ‘native-like’ structures, and not just as a single static low-energy structure. Working with this notion, we introduce a novel FIRST-based approach for predicting rigidity/flexibility of the protein ensemble by (i) averaging the hydrogen bonding strengths from the entire ensemble and (ii) by refining the mathematical model of hydrogen bonds. Furthermore, we combine our FIRST-ensemble rigidity predictions with the ensemble solvent accessibility data of the backbone amides and propose a novel computational method which uses both rigidity and solvent accessibility for predicting hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX). To validate our predictions, we report a novel site specific HDX experiment which characterizes the native structural ensemble of Acylphosphatase from hyperthermophile Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso AcP). The sub-structural conformational dynamics that is observed by HDX data, is closely matched with the FIRST-ensemble rigidity predictions, which could not be attained using the traditional single ‘snapshot’ rigidity analysis. Moreover, the computational predictions of regions that are protected from HDX and those that undergo exchange are in very good agreement with the experimental HDX profile of Sso AcP.

  8. Alpha activity measurement with lsc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrin, R. I.; Dulama, C. N.; Ciocirlan, C. N.; Toma, A.; Stoica, S. M.; Valeca, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we showed that the alpha activity in liquid samples can be measured using a liquid scintillation analyzer without alpha/beta discrimination capability. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the performances of the method and to optimize the procedure of the sample preparation. A series of tests was performed to validate the procedure of alpha emitting radionuclides extraction in aqueous samples with Actinide Resin, especially regarding to the contact time required to extract all alpha nuclides. The main conclusions were that a minimum 18 hours stirring time is needed to achieve a percent recovery of the alpha nuclides grater than 90% and that the counting efficiency of alphas measurements with LSC is nearly 100%. (authors)

  9. Oxidation resistance of Ru-capped EUV multilayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajt, Sasa; Dai, Zu Rong; Nelson, Erik J.; Wall, Mark A.; Alameda, Jennifer; Nguyen, Nhan; Baker, Sherry; Robinson, Jeffrey C.; Taylor, John S.; Clift, Miles; Aquila, Andy; Gullikson, Eric M.; Edwards, N. V. Ginger

    2005-05-01

    Differently prepared Ru-capping layers, deposited on Mo/Si EUV multilayers, have been characterized using a suite of metrologies to establish their baseline structural, optical, and surface properties in as-deposited state. The same capping layer structures were tested for their thermal stability and oxidation resistance. Post-mortem characterization identified changes due to accelerated tests. The best performing Ru-capping layer structure was studied in detail with transmission electron microscopy to identify the grain microstructure and texture. This information is essential for modeling and performance optimization of EUVL multilayers.

  10. Capítulo I: Contabilidad de costos - Capítulo II : Costos estimados

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Medina, Ricardo Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Me permito poner a su consideración los capítulos I y II del libro titulado: Costos un enfoque administrativo y de gerencia, contenido que fue realizado para mejorar y reestructurar el libro titulado Sistemas de costos un proceso para su implementación, que tuvo gran acogida dado el volumen de consulta y descarga del repositorio de la UN. En la primera unidad se trabaja lo referente a costos para la toma de decisiones, presentado un marco teórico y los fundamentos básicos del costeo direct...

  11. Behavior of deuterium implanted in Ni, Cu and stainless steel membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, S.; Nagata, S.; Yamaguchi, S.

    1992-01-01

    The re-emission, retention and permeation behaviors of implanted deuterium atoms in Ni, Cu and 304ss membranes have been studied using the elastic recoil detection (ERD) analysis technique of transmission geometry. Whole profiles of deuterium in the membranes as well as amounts of the permeating deuterium during D implantation were measured simultaneously at various temperatures up to 493 K. The permeating flux was determined from amount of D atoms deposited in the getter layer on the downstream surface. Thus, we could estimate the fractions of re-emitted, trapped and permeated deuterium directly from retention curves for membrane and the getter layer. The results show that the D transport behaviors during D implantation depend on temperature as well as materials implanted; the permeation rate is increased with increasing of temperature, and also increased in the order of Cu-Ni-304ss. The observed deuterium behaviors at various temperatures are analyzed by the simple analytical model to evaluate the recombination coefficients in these metals. (author)

  12. Electrodeposition of tungsten coatings on molybdenum substrates and deuterium irradiation effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Ziwei; Fang, Xianqin; Han, Wenjia; Yu, Jiangang; Wang, Zhanlei; Zhang, Ying; Zhu, Kaigui

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Tungsten coatings were successfully electroplated on molybdenum substrates. • The current density affected the performance of tungsten coatings. • Deuterium irradiation property of tungsten coatings was investigated. • Deuterium retention in the tungsten coating was less than that in the bulk tungsten. - Abstract: Tungsten coatings were prepared using pulse electrodeposition on the molybdenum substrates. Effects of variations in current density on surface morphology, thickness distribution and crystal orientation of the coatings were investigated. The results indicate that with the current density increasing, the grain size of tungsten coatings first decreases, then increases; while the deposited thickness increases all the time. And all of tungsten coatings exhibit the preferred orientation of (200) plane. Moreover, the polished tungsten coating and bulk tungsten were exposed to low energy (80 eV) and high flux (7.2 × 10 20 D/m 2 /s) deuterium plasma in a linear plasma device (Simulator of Tokamak Edge Plasma, STEP). Deuterium (D) retention was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). It is found that blisters on the tungsten coating are much fewer than that on the bulk tungsten. TDS spectroscopy of the tungsten coating reveals one D 2 release peak at 740 K, while the bulk tungsten has two D 2 release peaks at 500 K and 660 K. The amount of deuterium retention in the tungsten coating is lower.

  13. Influence of Murchison or Allende minerals on hydrogen-deuterium exchange of amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerner, N. R.

    1995-04-01

    Deuterium-enriched amino acids occur in the Murchison carbonaceous chrondrite. This meteorite underwent a period of aqueous alteration with isotopically light water. With the objective of setting limits on the conditions of aqueous alteration, the exchange of the carbon-bonded hydrogen atoms of amino acids with D 2O has been studied from 295 to 380 K as a function of time and meteorite/heavy water ratio. The amount of Murchison or Allende dust present has a significant effect on the rate and amount of hydrogen-deuterium exchange observed. At elevated temperatures, the a-hydrogens of all the amino acids studied were found to exchange with deuterium. In glycine and aspartic acid, this process resulted in total exchange of the carbon-bonded hydrogen. A completely deuterated isotopomer of alanine was produced in significant quantities only when the rock/water ratio was greater than 0.5. No exchange of carbonbonded hydrogens was observed in the case of amino acids which do not possess an α-hydrogen atom. The rates of H/D exchange for amino acids observed here did not correspond to deuterium enrichment of the amino acids in the Murchison meteorite. These results suggest that H/D exchange with water had a negligible effect on the observed deuterium enrichment of amino acids found in Murchison and that the temperature at which the amino acids were exposed to liquid water was close to 273 K.

  14. Mechanism and deuterium pickup in Zr-2.5Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ploc, R.A.

    1999-12-01

    There are approximately 400 Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes in a CANDU reactor. During operation, the pressure tubes contain heavy water at about 300 deg C, 10.3 NPa with a room-temperature pD of 10.5. Operation of the pressure tube in the environment leads to oxide formation and absorption of deuterium. Excess deuterium absorption leads to precipitation of zirconium deuterides in the metal. A knowledge of how the deuterium passes through the oxide film to enter into the metal is an important step in gaining control over ingress rates. Fresnel fringe imaging of cross-sectioned oxides grown on pressure tubes, combined with tilting in the electron microscope, has revealed the three-dimensional nature of porosity in the oxide films. Two primary types exist, flake and ribbon. The main route for deuterium ingress is via ribbon porosity, as shown by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The location of the ribbon porosity is along the boundary between the oxidized α-Zr and β-Zr phases. Modifications to reduce ribbon porosity are possible and this, in turn, leads to significantly lower rates of deuterium absorption and extension of pressure-tube lifetime. (author)

  15. The Variability of Atmospheric Deuterium Brightness at Mars: Evidence for Seasonal Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayyasi, Majd; Clarke, John; Bhattacharyya, Dolon; Deighan, Justin; Jain, Sonal; Chaffin, Michael; Thiemann, Edward; Schneider, Nick; Jakosky, Bruce

    2017-10-01

    The enhanced ratio of deuterium to hydrogen on Mars has been widely interpreted as indicating the loss of a large column of water into space, and the hydrogen content of the upper atmosphere is now known to be highly variable. The variation in the properties of both deuterium and hydrogen in the upper atmosphere of Mars is indicative of the dynamical processes that produce these species and propagate them to altitudes where they can escape the planet. Understanding the seasonal variability of D is key to understanding the variability of the escape rate of water from Mars. Data from a 15 month observing campaign, made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph high-resolution echelle channel, are used to determine the brightness of deuterium as observed at the limb of Mars. The D emission is highly variable, with a peak in brightness just after southern summer solstice. The trends of D brightness are examined against extrinsic as well as intrinsic sources. It is found that the fluctuations in deuterium brightness in the upper atmosphere of Mars (up to 400 km), corrected for periodic solar variations, vary on timescales that are similar to those of water vapor fluctuations lower in the atmosphere (20-80 km). The observed variability in deuterium may be attributed to seasonal factors such as regional dust storm activity and subsequent circulation lower in the atmosphere.

  16. Methylamine-deuterium isotope exchange equilibria in the gaseous and liquid phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolston, J.H.; Hartog, J.D.; Butler, J.P.; Silberring, L.; Guenthard, H.H.

    1980-01-01

    The deuterium-protium separation factor, α, between molecular hydrogen and liquid methylamine in the presence of potassium methylamide catalyst has been measured at low deuterium concentrations over the temperature range -50 to 5 0 C. The separation factor is about 10% larger than that for liquid ammonia, and its dependence upon absolute temperature, T, is given by ln α = 0.1135 + (240.05/T) + (43,989/T 2 ). The equilibrium constant, K 1 , for deuterium-protium exchange between hydrogen and the amino group of methylamine vapor has been calculated for all deuterium concentration at temperatures between 150 and 400 K with partition functions for methylamine derived from an internal rotation-inversion-normal vibration model of methylamine based on spectroscopic data. Conversion of K 1 into α values, by inclusion of vapor-liquid fractionation effects, shows that the discrepancy between theory and experiment is less than the combined tolerances (+- 5%) of the two approaches. The dependence of α on deuterium atom fraction is discussed

  17. Creatine Supplementation Increases Total Body Water in Soccer Players: a Deuterium Oxide Dilution Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deminice, R; Rosa, F T; Pfrimer, K; Ferrioli, E; Jordao, A A; Freitas, E

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate changes in total body water (TBW) in soccer athletes using a deuterium oxide dilution method and bioelectrical impedance (BIA) formulas after 7 days of creatine supplementation. In a double-blind controlled manner, 13 healthy (under-20) soccer players were divided randomly in 2 supplementation groups: Placebo (Pla, n=6) and creatine supplementation (CR, n=7). Before and after the supplementation period (0.3 g/kg/d during 7 days), TBW was determined by deuterium oxide dilution and BIA methods. 7 days of creatine supplementation lead to a large increase in TBW (2.3±1.0 L) determined by deuterium oxide dilution, and a small but significant increase in total body weight (1.0±0.4 kg) in Cr group compared to Pla. The Pla group did not experience any significant changes in TBW or body weight. Although 5 of 6 BIA equations were sensitive to determine TBW changes induced by creatine supplementation, the Kushner et al. 16 method presented the best concordance levels when compared to deuterium dilution method. In conclusion, 7-days of creatine supplementation increased TBW determined by deuterium oxide dilution or BIA formulas. BIA can be useful to determine TBW changes promoted by creatine supplementation in soccer athletes, with special concern for formula choice. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Irradiation effect on deuterium behaviour in low-dose HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Masashi; Cao, G.; Otsuka, T.; Hara, M.; Kobayashi, M.; Oya, Y.; Hatano, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Tungsten samples were irradiated by neutrons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR), Oak Ridge National Laboratory at reactor coolant temperatures of 50-70 °C to low displacement damage of 0.025 and 0.3 dpa. After cooling down, the HFIR neutron-irradiated tungsten samples were exposed to deuterium plasmas in the Tritium Plasma Experiment, Idaho National Laboratory at 100, 200 and 500 °C twice at the ion fluence of 5 × 1025 m-2 to reach the total ion fluence of 1 × 1026 m-2 in order to investigate the near-surface deuterium retention and saturation via nuclear reaction analysis. Final thermal desorption spectroscopy was performed to elucidate the irradiation effect on total deuterium retention. Nuclear reaction analysis results showed that the maximum near-surface (<5 µm depth) deuterium concentration increased from 0.5 at% D/W in 0.025 dpa samples to 0.8 at% D/W in 0.3 dpa samples. The large discrepancy between the total retention via thermal desorption spectroscopy and the near-surface retention via nuclear reaction analysis indicated the deuterium was trapped in bulk (at least 50 µm depth for 0.025 dpa and 35 µm depth for 0.3 dpa) at 500 °C cases even in the relatively low ion fluence of 1026 m-2.

  19. On the deuterium abundance and the importance of stellar mass loss in the interstellar and intergalactic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Voort, Freeke; Quataert, Eliot; Faucher-Giguére, Claude-André; Kereš, Dušan; Hopkins, Philip F.; Chan, T. K.; Feldmann, Robert; Hafen, Zachary

    2018-03-01

    We quantify the gas-phase abundance of deuterium and fractional contribution of stellar mass loss to the gas in cosmological zoom-in simulations from the Feedback In Realistic Environments project. At low metallicity, our simulations confirm that the deuterium abundance is very close to the primordial value. The chemical evolution of the deuterium abundance that we derive here agrees quantitatively with analytical chemical evolution models. We furthermore find that the relation between the deuterium and oxygen abundance exhibits very little scatter. We compare our simulations to existing high-redshift observations in order to determine a primordial deuterium fraction of (2.549 ± 0.033) × 10-5 and stress that future observations at higher metallicity can also be used to constrain this value. At fixed metallicity, the deuterium fraction decreases slightly with decreasing redshift, due to the increased importance of mass loss from intermediate-mass stars. We find that the evolution of the average deuterium fraction in a galaxy correlates with its star formation history. Our simulations are consistent with observations of the Milky Way's interstellar medium: the deuterium fraction at the solar circle is 85 - 92 per cent of the primordial deuterium fraction. We use our simulations to make predictions for future observations. In particular, the deuterium abundance is lower at smaller galactocentric radii and in higher mass galaxies, showing that stellar mass loss is more important for fuelling star formation in these regimes (and can even dominate). Gas accreting onto galaxies has a deuterium fraction above that of the galaxies' interstellar medium, but below the primordial fraction, because it is a mix of gas accreting from the intergalactic medium and gas previously ejected or stripped from galaxies.

  20. Molecular characterization of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, J K; Pearson, W R; Lynch, K R

    1991-02-01

    Three 'alpha 1-adrenoceptors' and three 'alpha 2-adrenoceptors' have now been cloned. How closely do these receptors match the native receptors that have been identified pharmacologically? What are the properties of these receptors, and how do they relate to other members of the cationic amine receptor family? Kevin Lynch and his colleagues discuss these questions in this review.