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Sample records for cap alpha bungarotoxin

  1. Alpha-bungarotoxin binding to target cell in a developing visual system by carboxylated nanodiamond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological molecules conjugating with nanoparticles are valuable for applications including bio-imaging, bio-detection, and bio-sensing. Nanometer-sized diamond particles have excellent electronic and chemical properties for bio-conjugation. In this study, we manipulated the carboxyl group produced on the surface of nanodiamond (carboxylated nanodiamond, cND) for conjugating with alpha-bungarotoxin (α-BTX), a neurotoxin derived from Bungarus multicinctus with specific blockade of alpha7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR). The electrostatic binding of cND-α-BTX was mediated by the negative charge of the cND and the positive charge of the α-BTX in physiological pH conditions. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel analysis and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF-MS) spectra displayed that α-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles via non-covalent bindings. The green fluorescence of the cND particles combining with the red fluorescence of tetramethylrhodamine-labeled α-BTX presented a yellow color at the same location, which indicated that α-BTX proteins were conjugated with cND particles. Xenopus laevis's oocytes expressed the human α7-nAChR proteins by microinjection with α7-nAChR mRNA. The cND-α-BTX complexes were bound to α7-nAChR locating on the cell membrane of oocytes and human lung A549 cancer cells analyzed by laser scanning confocal microscopy. The choline-evoked α7-nAChR-mediated inward currents of the oocytes were blocked by cND-α-BTX complexes in a concentration-dependent manner using two-electrode voltage-clamp recording. Furthermore, the fluorescence intensity of cND-α-BTX binding on A549 cells could be quantified by flow cytometry. These results indicate that cND-conjugated α-BTX still preserves its biological activity in blocking the function of α7-nAChR, and provide a visual system showing the binding of α-BTX to α7-nAChR

  2. Structural determinants within residues 180-199 of the rodent. alpha. 5 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit involved in. alpha. -bungarotoxin binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLane, K.E.; Xiadong Wu; Conti-Tronconi, B.M. (Univ. of Minnesota, St. Paul (United States))

    1991-11-05

    Synthetic peptides corresponding to sequence segments of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) {alpha} subunits have been used to identify regions that contribute to formation of the binding sites for cholinergic ligands. The authors have previously defined {alpha}-bungarotoxin ({alpha}-BTX) binding sequences between residues 180 and 199 of a putative rat neuronal nAChR {alpha} subunit, designated {alpha}5, and between residues 181 and 200 of the chick neuronal {alpha}7 and {alpha}8 subunits. These sequences are relatively divergent compared with the Torpedo and muscle nAChR {alpha}1 {alpha}-BTX binding sites, which indicates a serious limitation of predicting functional domains of proteins based on homology in general. Given the highly divergent nature of the {alpha}5 sequence, they were interested in determining the critical amino acid residues for {alpha}-BTX binding. In the present study, the effects of single amino acid substitutions of Gly or Ala for each residue of the rat {alpha}(180-199) sequence were tested, using a competition assay, in which peptides compete for {sup 125}I-{alpha}-BTX binding with native Torpedo nAChR. These results indicate that a disulfide bridge between the vicinal cysteines at positions 191 and 192 of the {alpha}5 sequence is not an absolute requirement for {alpha}-BTX binding activity.

  3. Rapid One-Step Selection Method for Generating Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Development of a DNA Aptamer against alpha-Bungarotoxin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Lasse Holm; Shamaileh, Hadi A.; Edwards, Stacey L.;

    2012-01-01

    by PCR enrichment of the selected aptamers. One round of selection successfully identified a DNA aptamer sequence with a binding affinity of 7.58 mu M. Conclusion: We have demonstrated a one-step method for rapid production of nucleic acid aptamers. Although the reported binding affinity is in the low...... in one-step, technique is required for developing aptamers in limited time period. Principal Findings: Herein, we present a simple one-step selection of DNA aptamers against alpha-bungarotoxin. A toxin immobilized glass coverslip was subjected to nucleic acid pool binding and extensive washing followed...... micromolar range, we believe that this could be further improved by using larger targets, increasing the stringency of selection and also by combining a capillary electrophoresis separation prior to the one-step selection. Furthermore, the method presented here is a user-friendly, cheap and an easy way...

  4. Train-of-four fade during neuromuscular blockade induced by tubocurarine, succinylcholine or alpha-bungarotoxin in the rat isolated hemidiaphragm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, L S; Gwee, M C

    1988-12-01

    1. Nerve-evoked maximal twitches (T1, T2, T3, T4) of the rat isolated hemidiaphragm to train-of-four (TOF) stimulation (2 Hz X 2 s) were recorded continuously in the absence or presence of tubocurarine (1.5 mumol/l), succinylcholine (40 mumol/l) or alpha-bungarotoxin (1 mumol/l). The T1 and T4 response-time profiles for the three drugs were analysed with respect to amplitude depression and the TOF ratio (T4/T1) during the development of and recovery from neuromuscular blockade. 2. Tubocurarine produced T1 block accompanied by intense TOF fade; for the same degree of T1 block, the TOF ratio was lower during the recovery from blockade after washing out tubocurarine from the bath than during the onset of blockade. There was also a correspondingly slower recovery of the TOF ratio from 90% T1 block to control levels when compared with the time for complete T1 recovery. Fade and twitch tension depression were shown clearly to be separate responses, each with its own response-time profile. Fade is therefore not simply a consequence of postjunctional cholinoceptor blockade. 3. Succinylcholine produced T1 block with only moderate TOF fade; similar recovery rates from 90% T1 block to control levels were obtained for T1 and the TOF ratio. 4. alpha-Bungarotoxin produced irreversible and complete neuromuscular blockade during which TOF fade was virtually absent. 5. The results obtained in this study closely resemble those from other similar studies in animals and in humans and clearly demonstrate that the rat isolated hemidiaphragm is a suitable in vitro model for time course studies on TOF fade.

  5. Effect of calcium on nicotine-induced current expressed by an atypical alpha-bungarotoxin-insensitive nAChR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thany, Steeve H; Courjaret, Raphael; Lapied, Bruno

    2008-06-27

    Two distinct native alpha-bungarotoxin (alpha-Bgt)-insensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), named nAChR1 and nAChR2, were identified in the cockroach Periplaneta americana dorsal unpaired median (DUM) neurons. They differed in their electrophysiological, pharmacological properties and intracellular regulation pathways. nAChR2 being an atypical nicotinic receptor closed upon agonist application and its current-voltage relationship resulted from a reduction in potassium conductance. In this study, using whole-cell patch-clamp technique, we demonstrated that calcium modulated nAChR2-mediated nicotine response. Under 0.5 microM alpha-Bgt and 20 mM d-tubocurarine, the nicotine-induced inward current amplitude was strongly reduced in the presence of intracellularly applied BAPTA or bath application of calcium-free solution. In addition, using cadmium chloride, we showed that nicotine response was modulated by extracellular calcium through plasma membrane calcium channels. Moreover, extracellular application of caffeine and thapsigargin reduced nAChR2-mediated response. Together these experiments revealed a complex calcium-dependent regulation of nAChR2. PMID:18485593

  6. MFTF-. cap alpha. + T progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, W.D. (ed.)

    1985-04-01

    Early in FY 1983, several upgrades of the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) were proposed to the fusion community. The one most favorably received was designated MFTF-..cap alpha..+T. The engineering design of this device, guided by LLNL, has been a principal activity of the Fusion Engineering Design Center during FY 1983. This interim progress report represents a snapshot of the device design, which was begun in FY 1983 and will continue for several years. The report is organized as a complete design description. Because it is an interim report, some parts are incomplete; they will be supplied as the design study proceeds. As described in this report, MFTF-..cap alpha..+T uses existing facilities, many MFTF-B components, and a number of innovations to improve on the physics parameters of MFTF-B. It burns deuterium-tritium and has a central-cell Q of 2, a wall loading GAMMA/sub n/ of 2 MW/m/sup 2/ (with a central-cell insert module), and an availability of 10%. The machine is fully shielded, allows hands-on maintenance of components outside the vacuum vessel 24 h after shutdown, and has provisions for repair of all operating components.

  7. Trafficking of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCioccio, R.A.; Brown, K.S.

    1987-05-01

    The quantity of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in human serum is determined by heredity. The mechanism controlling levels of the enzyme in serum is unknown. To investigate this, lymphoid cell lines derived from individuals with either low, intermediate or high ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in serum were established. Steady state levels of extracellular ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein and activity overlapped among the cell lines. Thus, in vivo serum phenotypes of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not adequately expressed in this system. ..cap alpha..-L-Fucosidase was also metabolically labelled with /sup 35/S-methionine, immunoprecipitated, and examined by SDS-PAGE. Cells pulse-labelled from 0.25-2 h had a major intracellular form of enzyme (Mr = 58,000). Cells pulsed for 1.5 h and chased for 21 h with unlabeled methionine had an intracellular form of Mr = 60,000 and an extracellular form of Mr = 62,000. Cells treated with chloroquine had only the 58,000-form both intra- and extra-cellularly. Moreover, chloroquine did not effect the quantitative distribution of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase between cells and medium. In fibroblasts, chloroquine enhanced the secretion of newly made lysosomal enzymes and blocked the processing of intercellular enzyme forms from a higher to a lower molecular mass. Thus, there are trafficking differences between ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase in lymphoid cells and lysosomal enzymes in fibroblasts. This suggests that alternative targeting mechanisms for lysosomal enzymes exist in these cells.

  8. Mechanism of radiation graft of methyl-. cap alpha. -fluoroacrylate and. cap alpha. ,. beta. ,. beta. -trifluorostyrene on perfluorinated copolymer. [Cobalt 60

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivankin, A.N.; Tevlina, A.S.; Zagorets, P.A. (Moskovskij Khimiko-Tekhnologicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1983-04-01

    The kinetics of radiation-induced graft copolymerization of methyl-..cap alpha..-fluoroacrylate and ..cap alpha.., ..beta.., ..beta..-trifluorostyrene to perfluorinated copolymer of hexafluoropropylene with tetrafluoroethylene has been studied. The orders of the grafting reaction towards the monomer and dose rate as well as the values of rate constants of radiation-induced grafting at various temperatures were determined, the effective activation energy of grafting (20.6 kJ/mol) was calculated. The kinetic scheme of elementary acts of radiation-induced graft copolymerization is discussed.

  9. Radioimmunoassay determination of decreased amounts of. cap alpha. -L-fucosidase protein in fucosidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews-Smith, G.L.; Alhadeff, J.A. (California Univ., San Diego, La Jolla (USA). Dept. of Neurosciences)

    1982-03-15

    Purified human liver ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase (EC 3.2.1.51) has been radioiodinated by a chloramine-T procedure to a specific activity of 3.7 x 10/sup 6/ dpm/..mu..g protein without altering its apparent Michaelis constant for the 4-methylumbelliferyl substrate. This /sup 125/I-labeled ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase has been used in development of a competitive binding radioimmunoassay for ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase which can detect 1-2 ng of enzyme protein and has been employed to quantify the amount of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein in the liver and spleen from a patient with fucosidosis. Less than 1% of the normal amount of ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase protein is present suggesting that normal amounts of catalytically inactive ..cap alpha..-L-fucosidase are not found in this disease.

  10. Concept of a (1-. cap alpha. ) performance confidence interval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leong, H.H.; Johnson, G.R.; Bechtel, T.N.

    1980-01-01

    A multi-input, single-output system is assumed to be represented by some model. The distribution functions of the input and the output variables are considered to be at least obtainable through experimental data. Associated with the computer response of the model corresponding to given inputs, a conditional pseudoresponse set is generated. This response can be constructed by means of the model by using the simulated pseudorandom input variates from a neighborhood defined by a preassigned probability allowance. A pair of such pseudoresponse values can then be computed by a procedure corresponding to a (1-..cap alpha..) probability for the conditional pseudoresponse set. The range defined by such a pair is called a (1-..cap alpha..) performance confidence interval with respect to the model. The application of this concept can allow comparison of the merit of two models describing the same system, or it can detect a system change when the current response is out of the performance interval with respect to the previously identified model. 6 figures.

  11. ACTH and. cap alpha. -melanotropin in central temperature control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipton, J.M.; Glyn, J.R.; Zimmer, J.A.

    1981-11-01

    Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and ..cap alpha..-melanotropin (..cap alpha..-MSH) occur in brain tissue known to be important to temperature control. These peptides cause hypothermia if they are injected centrally in sufficient doses, but they do not act on the central set point of temperature control. Instead they appear to inhibit central pathways for heat conservation and production. In addition to their hypothermic capability, these peptides are antipyretic when given centrally in doses that have no effect on normal body temperature. ACTH has previously been associated with fever reduction in both clinical and experimental studies, and it may be that endogenous central ACTH is important for limitation of maximal fever. The hypothermic and antipyretic effects of ACTH do not depend on stimulation of the adrenal cortex because they are also observed in adrenalectomized rabbits. Nor is the antipyretic effect limited to the rabbit inasmuch as a comparable effect has been demonstrated in the squirrel monkey. The two peptides may be involved in central mediation of normal thermoregulation and fever, perhaps limiting the febrile response and other rises in body temperature by acting as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators in central thermoregulatory pathways.

  12. Study of /sup 3/H+. cap alpha. and /sup 3/He+. cap alpha. elastic scattering in a state with zero orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopovskii, L. L.

    1988-12-01

    An asymptotic wave function of the relative motion of clusters at zero interaction energy is derived in the oscillator representation. The set of equations of the algebraic version of the resonating-group method (RGM) is transformed to the zero-energy limit of the relative cluster motion. The /sup 3/H+..cap alpha.. and /sup 3/He+..cap alpha.. scattering lengths are calculated in the single-channel RGM variant on the basis of the derived equations. The possibility of experimentally observing large scattering lengths for light charged clusters is predicted, viz., /similar to/10--23 F in the /sup 3/H+..cap alpha.. channel and /similar to/30--82 F in the /sup 3/He+..cap alpha.. channel.

  13. Deletional rearrangement in the human T-cell receptor. cap alpha. -chain locus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Villartay, J.P.; Lewis, D.; Hockett, R.; Waldmann, T.A.; Korsmeyer, S.J.; Cohen, D.I.

    1987-12-01

    The antigen-specific receptor on the surface of mature T lymphocytes is a heterodimer consisting of polypeptides termed ..cap alpha.. and ..beta... In the course of characterizing human T-cell tumors with an immature (CD4/sup -/, CD8/sup -/) surface phenotype, the authors detected a 2-kilobase ..cap alpha..-related transcript. Analysis of cDNA clones corresponding to this transcript established that a genetic element (which they call TEA, for T early ..cap alpha..) located between the ..cap alpha..-chain variable- and joining-region genes had been spliced to the ..cap alpha.. constant region. The TEA transcript is present early in thymocyte ontogeny, and its expression declines during T-cell maturation. More important, the TEA area functions as an active site for rearrangement within the ..cap alpha.. gene locus. Blot hybridization of restriction enzyme-digested DNA with a TEA probe revealed a narrowly limited pattern of rearrangement in polyclonal thymic DNA, surprisingly different from the pattern expected for the mature ..cap alpha.. gene with its complex diversity. These DNA blots also showed that TEA is generally present in the germ-line configuration in cells expressing the ..gamma..delta heterodimeric receptor and is deleted from mature (..cap alpha beta..-expressing) T-lymphocyte tumors and lines. Moreover, the TEA transcript lacked a long open reading frame for protein but instead possessed multiple copies of a repetitive element resembling those utilized in the heavy-chain class switch of the immunoglobulin genes. The temporal nature of the rearrangements and expression detected by TEA suggests that this recombination could mediate a transition between immature (..gamma..delta-expressing) T cells and mature (..cap alpha beta..-expressing) T cells.

  14. Structure of. cap alpha. -phase in two-phase titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Svechnikov, V.L. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    1982-08-01

    The structure of ..cap alpha..-phase in ..beta..-annealed titanium alloys VT 6 and VT 23 and its changes on heating up to ..cap alpha..+..beta.. ..-->.. ..beta.. transformation temperatures with accelerated cooling is studied. An assumption is made that the observed peculiarities of the residual ..cap alpha..-phase structure in alloys after such treatment are the consequence of the relaxation of interphase stresses resulting from a partial polymorphic transformation while the relaxation mechanism is determined by the alloying degree and initial alloy morphology.

  15. Regulation of the synthesis of barley aleurone. cap alpha. -amylase by gibberellic acid and calcium ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, R.L.; Carbonell, J.

    1984-09-01

    The effects of gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) and calcium ions on the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase and acid phosphatase by isolated aleurone layers of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) were studied. Aleurone layers not previously exposed to GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ show qualitative and quantitative changes in hydrolase production following incubation in either GA/sub 3/ or CA/sup 2 +/ or both. In cubation in H/sub 2/O or CA/sup 2 +/ results in the production of low levels of ..cap alpha..-amylase or acid phosphatase. The addition of GA/sub 3/ to the incubation medium causes 10- to 20-fold increase in the amounts of these enzymes released from the tissue, and addition of CA/sup 2 +/ at 10 millimolar causes a further 8- to 9-fold increase in ..cap alpha..-amylase release and a 75% increase in phosphatase release. Production of ..cap alpha..-amylase isoenzymes is also modified by the levels of GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. ..cap alpha..-amylase 2 is produced under all conditions of incubation, while ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 appears only when layers are incubated in GA/sub 3/ or GA/sub 3/ plus CA/sup 2 +/. The synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylases 3 and 4 requires the presence of both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Laurell rocket immunoelectrophoresis shows that two distinct groups of ..cap alpha..-amylase antigens are present in incubation media of aleurone layers incubated with both GA/sub 3/ and CA/sup 2 +/, while only one group of antigens is found in media of layers incubated in GA/sub 3/ alone. Strontium ions can be substituted for CA/sup 2 +/ in increasing hydrolase production, although higher concentrations of Sr/sup 2 +/ are requried for maximal response. We conclude that GA/sub 3/ is required for the production of ..cap alpha..-amylase 1 and that both GA/sub 3/ and either CA/sup 2 +/ or Sr/sup 2 +/ are required for the production of isoenzymes 3 and 4 of barley aleurone ..cap alpha..-amylase. 22 references, 8

  16. Interaction of radiation damage with strain field around. cap alpha. -precipitates in electron-irradiated. beta. -Nb-Zr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, K.; Kinoshita, C.; Kitajima, S.; Muroo, Y. (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1985-05-01

    The strain field around ..cap alpha..-precipitates (hcp) in the ..beta..-Nb-Zr phase has been evaluated to study its relaxation mechanism during electron irradiation in a high voltage electron microscope. The crystallography of the ..cap alpha..-precipitates is determined to be of Burgers' orientation relationship with the ..beta..-phase. The compressive strain field around the ..cap alpha..-precipitates is detected and determined by use of the strain contrast of electron microscopy and the elastic continuum theory. The relaxation process of the strain field around the ..cap alpha..-precipitates is observed during electron irradiation, and is analyzed in terms of accumulation of vacancies.

  17. Pressure phase lines and enthalpies for the. cap alpha. -. beta. and. beta. -liquid transitions in beryllium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abey, A.

    1984-10-31

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transition temperatures in Be was measured in a gas pressure system. Differential thermal analysis was used in the pressure range from 0.1 MPa to 0.7 GPa. For the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. transition, dT/dP = 43 +- 7 K/GPa; for the ..beta..-liquid transition, dT/dP = 35 +- 7 K/GPa. Although it is possible that large systematic errors may arise from experimental procedures, our results are seriously at odds with those of other investigators. Transition enthalpies for the ..cap alpha..-..beta.. and ..beta..-liquid transitions were 1.9 +- 0.2 and 2.2 +- 0.2 kcal/g.m., respectively, at a pressure of 0.1 MPa.

  18. Biological activity of 1. cap alpha. -hydroxyvitamin D/sub 2/ in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reeve, L.E.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    The biological activity of 1..cap alpha..-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 2/ has been determined in vitamin D-deficient rats. In the calcification of the rachitic epiphyseal plate, 1..cap alpha..-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 2/ is more active than 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/, while it is equally active in stimulating intestinal calcium absorption. On the other hand, it is much less active (one-third to one-fifth) than 25-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ in the mobilization of calcium from bone. In both the intestinal and bone responses, 1..cap alpha..-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 2/ (312 pmol) is active in nephrectomized rats while 15-hydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ is not.

  19. Transport of. cap alpha. -aminoisobutyric acid into rat parotid after X-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodner, Lipa

    1989-04-01

    Rat parotid gland exposed to 20 Gy X-irradiation exhibits functional alteration 3 days after exposure. The flow rate of saliva and the uptake of ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid by the gland was reduced to 50% of values for the control non-irradiated glands. When the same gland was studied in an in vitro system it functioned normally. K/sup +/ release and ..cap alpha..-aminoisobutyric acid uptake by the irradiated dispersed acinar cells was comparable to the control. Transport alteration from the circulatory system into the parotid gland may cause the initial radiation-induced damage.

  20. Effect of heating rate on temperature of titanium alloy (. cap alpha. +. beta. ). -->. beta. transformaton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gridnev, V.N.; Ivasishin, O.M.; Markovskij, P.E. (AN Ukrainskoj SSR, Kiev. Inst. Metallofiziki)

    1985-01-01

    The effect of doping of two-phase titaniums alloys and morphology of initial structure on the Tsub(t) temperature shift value of (..cap alpha..+..beta..)..--> beta.. transformation depending on heating rate is investigated. It has been found that the Tsub(t) shift occurs in the strictly determined temperature range depending on chemical alloy composition. The Tsub(t) shift is directly proportional to the Ksub(..beta..) coefficient applied as a quantitative alloying characteristic as well as a dimensional factor equal either to the plate thickness or the ..cap alpha..-phase globule diameter depending on the type of initial structure. In the limits of this temperature range the (..cap alpha..+..beta..)..--> beta..-transformation occurs completely according to the diffusion mechanism. The critical heating rate at which maximum permissible Tsub(t) value is attained and above which its stabilization is observed is determined by the same parameters - the alloy doping degree characterized by the Ksub(..beta..) coefficient and the ..cap alpha..-phase crystal dimensions in the initial structure.

  1. Agonist-promoted desensitization and phosphorylation of. cap alpha. /sub 1/-adrenergic receptors coupled to stimulation of phosphatidylinositol metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeb-Lundberg, L.M.F.; Cotecchia, S.; Caron, M.G.; Lefkowitz, R.J.

    1986-03-05

    In the DDT/sub 1/ MF-2 hamster vas deferens smooth muscle cell line the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-adrenergic receptor (..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR) agonist norepinephrine (NE) promotes rapid attenuation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR-mediated phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolism which is paralleled by rapid phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR. Cells were labeled by incubation with /sup 32/P/sub i/. Coincubation with NE (100 ..mu..M) significantly increases the rate of /sup 32/P-labeling of both PI and phosphatidic acid. Pretreatment of cells with 100 ..mu..M NE (in the presence of 1 ..mu..M propranolol to prevent ..beta..-AR interactions) results in a drastic attenuation of the NE response on PI metabolism. ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR from labeled cells can be solubilized and purified by affinity chromatography on Affigel-A55414 and wheat germ agglutinin agarose chromatography. SDS-PAGE of purified ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR shows a NE-promoted increase in phosphorylation of the M/sub r/ 80K ligand binding peptide. Stoichiometry of phosphorylation increases from approx. 1 mol phosphate/mol ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR in the basal condition to approx. 2.5 after NE treatment. Both desensitization and phosphorylation are rapid being maximal within 10-20 min of agonist exposure. These results together with previous findings that phorbol esters promote rapid ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR uncoupling and phosphorylation suggest that receptor phosphorylation is an important mechanism of regulation of ..cap alpha../sub 1/-AR receptor responsiveness.

  2. Radiation electromagnetic effect in germanium crystals under high-energy. cap alpha. -particle irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Babichenko, V.S.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.; Rzhanov, A.E.; Filippov, V.I.

    1984-05-01

    Results of experimental investigation into radiation electromagnetic effect (REM) in samples of germanium crystals under approximately 40 MeV ..cap alpha..-particle irradiation in a cyclotron are presented. A high level of excitation, volumetric character of generation of non-equilibrium carriers and formation of defects as well as the form of their spatial distribution are shown to result in some peculiarities of the EMF of the REM effect on the particle flux, fluence and sample parameters. Agreement of theoretical calculations, conducted with account of specificity of ..cap alpha..-particle interaction with a crystal, and experimental data is obtained. It is revealed that the REM effect can be applied in obtaining data on spatial distribution of non-equilibrium carrier concentrations along the particle trajectory in the crystal.

  3. Radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium crystals irradiated with high-energy. cap alpha. particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikoin, I.K.; Babichenko, V.S.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.; Rzhanov, A.E.; Filippov, V.I.

    1984-05-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the radiation-electromagnetic effect in germanium crystals irradiated in a cyclotron with ..cap alpha.. particles of energies up to 40 MeV. The high excitation rate, the bulk nature of generation of nonequilibrium carriers and defects, and their spatial distributions gave rise to several special features in the dependence of the emf due to the radiation-electromagnetic effect on the particle flux, fluence, and parameters of samples. Theoretical calculations carried out allowing for the specific nature of the interaction of ..cap alpha.. particles with crystals agreed well with the experimental results. The radiation-electromagnetic effect could be used to obtain information on the nature of the spatial distribution of the density of nonequilibrium carriers along the trajectory of a particle in a crystal.

  4. Effect of temperature on interatomic distances in pyroelectric. cap alpha. -LiIO/sub 3/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coquet, E.; Crettez, J.M. (Laboratoire d' Optique du Reseau Cristallin, Faculte des Sciences, Dijon, France); Pannetier, J.; Bouillot, J. (Institut Max von Laue - Paul Langevin, 38 - Grenoble (France)); Damien, J.C. (Lille-1 Univ., 59 - Villeneuve-d' Ascq (France))

    1983-08-01

    The crystal structure of ..cap alpha..-LiIO/sub 3/ (space group P6/sub 3/) has been refined from neutron and X-ray diffraction data at different temperatures between room temperature and 525 K. The Li atom is well located even at temperatures close to the ..cap alpha.. ..-->.. ..gamma.. phase transition and its thermal parameters do not exhibit any anomalous behaviour. The thermal expansion is analysed in terms of IO/sub 3/-group rotations and expansion of LiO/sub 6/ octahedra; the role of the iodine lone pair in the packing of iodate structures is discussed. The spontaneous polarization is calculated on the basis of a simple point-charge model and the calculated pyroelectric coefficient P/sub 3/ is found to be in fair agreement with the experimental value.

  5. Factorization of the fragmentation cross sections in relativistic pA and. cap alpha. A interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abashidze, L.I.; Avdeichikov, V.V.; Beznogikh, G.G.; Bogatin, V.I.; Budilov, V.A.; Gorshkov, N.L.; Zlomanchuk, Y.; Zhidkov, N.K.; Lozhkin, O.V.; Mruvchinski, S.

    1985-08-01

    We have experimentally demonstrated the factorization of the cross sections for production of the isotopes /sup 3//sup ,//sup 4/He with kinetic energy T> or approx. =100 MeV emitted at an angle 90/sup 0/ in the lab from the nuclei C, Cu, and Au in bombardment by ..cap alpha.. particles with energy 3.33 GeV/nucleon and by protons with energy 6.6 GeV.

  6. Accumulation of glycation products in. cap alpha. -H pig lens crystallin and its bearing to diabetic cataract genesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vidal, P.; Cabezas-Cerrato, J.

    1988-01-01

    The incorporation of /sup 11/C-glucose in native pig crystalline by in vitro incubation was found, after subsequent dialysis, to affect all 5 classes of crystallin separated by Sepharose CL-6B column chromatography. Though the radioactivity of the ..cap alpha..-H fraction was three times greater than that of any of the others, autoradiographs of SDS-PAGE gels showed /sup 11/C-glucose adducts to be present in all soluble protein subunits, without there being any evidence of preferential glycation of the ..cap alpha..-H subunits. The concentration of stable glycation products in the ..cap alpha..-H chromatographic fraction of soluble crystallins is suggested to be due the addition of glycated material to this fraction as result of glycation-induced hyperaggregation, and not because the ..cap alpha..-H subunits were especially susceptible to glycation.

  7. Determination of the M-matrix in d-. cap alpha. elastic scattering from a complete set of experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsener, K.; Grueebler, W.; Sperisen, F.; Ghazi-Wakili, K.; Koenig, V.; Schmelzbach, P.A.; Vuaridel, B.; Bittcher, M.; Singy, D.; Ulbricht, J.

    1988-05-02

    Six polarization transfer coefficients of the d-..cap alpha.. elastic scattering have been measured at an incident deuteron energy of 11.9 MeV and a scattering angle theta/sub lab/ = 37.3/sup 0/. Together with earlier data on cross section and analyzing powers, a complete set of measurements allows to deduce the d-..cap alpha.. M-matrix directly from experiment.

  8. Control of. cap alpha. -amylase mRNA accumulation by gibberellic acid and calcium in barley aleurone layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deikman, J.; Jones, R.L.

    1985-01-01

    Pulse-labeling of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Himalaya) aleurone layers incubated for 13 hours in 2.5 micromolar gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) with or without 5 millimolar CaCl/sub 2/ shows that ..cap alpha..-amylase isozymes 3 and 4 are not synthesized in vivo in the absence of Ca/sup 2 +/. No difference was observed in ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA levels between layers incubated for 12 hours in 2.5 micromolar GA/sub 3/ with 5 millimolar CaCl/sub 2/ and layers incubated in GA/sub 3/ alone. RNA isolated from layers incubated for 12 hours in GA/sub 3/ with and without CA/sup 2 +/. A cDNA clone for ..cap alpha..-amylase was isolated and used to measure ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA levels in aleurone layers incubated in the presence and absence of Ca/sup 2 +/ was translated in vitro and was found to produce the same complement of translation products regardless of the presence of Ca/sup 2 +/ in the incubation medium. Immunoprecipitation of translation products showed that the RNA for ..cap alpha..-amylase synthesized in Ca/sup 2 +/-deprived aleurone layers was translatable. Ca/sup 2 +/ is required for the synthesis of ..cap alpha..-amylase isozymes 3 and 4 at a step after mRNA accumulation and processing.

  9. Capillary electrophoretic study of thiolated alpha-cyclodextrin-capped gold nanoparticles with tetraalkylammonium ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paau, Man Chin; Lo, Chung Keung; Yang, Xiupei; Choi, Martin M F

    2009-11-27

    Capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) has been employed to characterize nanometer-sized thiolated alpha-cyclodextrin-capped gold nanoparticles (alpha-CD-S-AuNPs). The addition of tetrabutylammonium (Bu(4)N(+)) ions to the run buffer greatly narrows the migration peak of alpha-CD-S-AuNP. The optimal run buffer was determined to be 10mM Bu(4)N(+) in 30 mM phosphate buffer at pH 12 and an applied voltage of 15 kV. The effect of various tetraalkylammonium ions on the peak width and electrophoretic mobility (mu(e)) of alpha-CD-S-AuNP was studied in detail. Bu(4)N(+) ions assist in inter-linking the alpha-CD-S-AuNPs and narrowing the migration peak in CZE. This observation can be explained by the fact that each Bu(4)N(+) ion can simultaneously interact with several hydrophobic cavities of the surface-attached alpha-CDs on AuNPs. The TEM images show that alpha-CD-S-AuNPs with Bu(4)N(+) are linked together but in the absence of Bu(4)N(+), they are more dispersed. The migration mechanism in CZE is based on the formation of inclusion complexes between Bu(4)N(+) and alpha-CD-S-AuNPs which induces changes in the charge-to-size ratio of alpha-CD-S-AuNPs and mu(e). An inverse linear relationship (r(2)>0.998) exists between the mu(e) and size of alpha-CD-S-AuNPs in the core range 1.4-4.1 nm. The CZE analyses are rapid with migration time less than 4 min. A few nanoliters of each of the alpha-CD-S-AuNP samples were injected hydrodynamically at 0.5 psi for 5s. Our work confirms that CZE is an efficient tool for characterizing the sizes of alpha-CD-S-AuNPs using Bu(4)N(+) ions. PMID:19853853

  10. Involvement of prostaglandins F/sub 2. cap alpha. / and E/sub 1/ with rabbit endometrium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlicky, D.J.

    1985-01-01

    Several growth factors and hormones are thought to play a role in the growth control of endometrial cells. The authors have shown that prostaglandin F/sub 2..-->../ (PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../) is a growth factor for primary cultures of rabbit endometrium cultured in chemically-defined serum-free medium and that prostaglandin E/sub 1/ (PGE/sub 1/) antagonizes the PGF/sub 2..-->../ induction of growth. Both (/sup 3/H)PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 1/ bind in a time and temperature dependent, dissociable, saturable and specific manner. The binding of (/sup 3/H)PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and (/sup 3/H)PGE/sub 1/ can be both down and up regulated and is enzyme sensitive. PGE /sub 1/ stimulates intracellular cAMP synthesis and accumulation in a time and concentration dependent manner. PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ probably exerts its effects through an amiloride-sensitive intermediate. Both PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 1/ are constitutively synthesized by these primary cultures, and they have shown this synthesis to be both drug and hormone sensitive. They hypothesize that it is the ratio, rather than the absolute quantities, of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and PGE/sub 1/ which is of more importance in the regulation of endometrial cell growth. Furthermore, they believe this regulation of endometrial growth plays a role in control of proliferation during the decidual response and that a derangement in the ratio of these prostaglandins may lead to either infertility or hyperplasia. The ability of these cultures to synthesize prostaglandins in a hormonally regulatable manner may be of importance in the study of dysmenorrhea and uterine cramping as caused by the myometrial contracting prostaglandin, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../.

  11. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sutic, D. (Univ. of Zagreb, Yugoslavia); Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  12. No effect of 5-fluorouracil on the properties of purified. cap alpha. -amylase from barley half-seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodaway, S.J.; Kende, H.

    1978-01-01

    Amylase has been purified from de-embryonated seeds of barley (Horedeum vulgare L. cv. Betzes) which have been incubated on 10/sup 6/M gibberellic acid (GA/sub 3/) following 3 days of imbibition in buffer. Incubation of the half-seeds in up to 10/sup -2/ M 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) during the entire incubation period, including imbibition, had no effect on any of the following characteristics of purified ..cap alpha..-amylase: thermal stability in the absence of calcium, molecular weight of the enzyme, isozyme composition, specific activity, or the amount of ..cap alpha..-amylase synthesized by the aleurone tissue. The synthesis of rRNA and tRNA was strongly inhibited by 5-FU, indicating that the analog had entered the aleurone cells. These results are not in agreement with those of Carlson (Nature New Biology 237: 39-41 (1972)) who found that treatment of barley aleurone with 10/sup -4/ M 5-FU to the addition of GA/sub 3/ resulted in decreased thermal stability of GA/sub 3/-induced ..cap alpha..-amylase and who interpreted this as evidence that the mRNA for ..cap alpha..-amylase was synthesized during the imbibition of the aleurone tissue and independently of gibberellin action. Results of the present experiments indicate that the thermal stability of highly purified ..cap alpha..-amylase is not altered by treatment of barley half-seeds with 5-FU, and that 5-FU cannot be used as a probe to examine the timing of ..cap alpha..-amylase mRNA synthesis.

  13. Toxin a from Clostridium difficile binds to rabbit erythrocyte glycolipids with therminal Gal. cap alpha. 1-3Gal. beta. 1-4GlcNaC sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, G.F.; Krivan, H.; Wilkins, T.; Smith, D.F.

    1987-05-01

    Toxin A is one of two clostridial toxins implicated as the causative agent of pseudomembranous colitis in patients undergoing postoperative antibiotic therapy. Evidence that the carbohydrate binding determinant for this toxin is a glycoconjugate(s) with non-reducing Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc has recently been reported. Specific agglutination of rabbit erythrocytes by Toxin A is inhibited by bovine thyroglobulin and prevented by pretreatment of cells with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase. Total lipid extracts from rabbit erythrocytes were subjected to thin layer chromatography and the chromatogram overlaid with purified /sup 125/I-labeled Toxin A. Two major and several minor toxin-binding glycolipids were detected following autoradiography. The major toxin-binding glycolipids were identified as pentasaccharide- and decasaccharide-ceramides expressing terminal Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc sequences. Treatment of the toxin-binding glycolipids with ..cap alpha..-galactosidase abolished binding. Forsmann glycolipid, globoside, Gal..cap alpha..1-4 Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer, and Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4Glc-cer did not bind the toxin. These observations are consistent with the proposed carbohydrate specificity of the toxin for the non-reducing terminal sequence, Gal..cap alpha..1-3Gal..beta..1-4GlcNAc.

  14. H/sub. cap alpha. / monitors for the Advanced Limiter Test-II (ALT-II) on TEXTOR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uckan, T.

    1988-05-01

    The H/sub ..cap alpha../ monitor system installed on TEXTOR in conjunction with the Advanced Limiter Test-II (ALT-II) toroidal belt pump limiter is introduced. The monitors are used to study edge particle fluxes and recycling, correlations to confinement properties of core and edge plasma with ALT-II, and also high-power auxiliary heating (/approximately/5 MW) during long-pulse (/approximately/4-s) operation of TEXTOR. A model of the edge particle flux based on the H/sub ..cap alpha../ measurements is presented. The ALT-II experiments are to be carried out in various phases. Here we discuss the results obtained from the monitor system during the initial phase of operations following the installation of the ALT-II limiter, with ohmic heating only. 15 refs., 21 figs.

  15. Determination of arsenic, antimony, and bismuth in silicon using 200 keV. cap alpha. -particle backscattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnatowicz, V.; Kvitek, J. (Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Rez. Ustav Jaderne Fyziky); Krejci, P.; Rybka, V. (Tesla, Prague (Czechoslovakia)); Pelikan, L. (Technical University of Prague (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Microelectronics)

    1982-11-16

    Concentration profiles of As, Sb, and Bi implanted into Si are studied using backscattering of the 200 keV ..cap alpha..-particles. A conventional ion implanter serves as a source of analyzing beam and the scattered particles are detected using a silicon surface barrier detector. Measured projected ranges R/sub P/ of implanted atoms are found to be in satisfactory agreement with theoretical predictions.

  16. Continuous three-dimensional radiation dosimetry in tissue-equivalent phantoms using electron paramagnetic resonance in L-. cap alpha. -alanine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wielopolski, L.; Maryanski, M.; Ciesielski, B.; Forman, A.; Reinstein, L.E.; Meek, A.G.

    1987-07-01

    A new tissue-equivalent phantom material has been developed which also acts as a dosimeter. The new phantom material has a similar elemental composition to that of soft tissue and has a density 1.1 g/cm/sup 3/. The phantom has an agar-gel base, and contains crystallized L-..cap alpha..-alanine which traps radiation-induced free radicals. Samples from the phantom were analyzed by an electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer and the intensity of the EPR signal was related to the absorbed dose. When calibrated, the phantom material acts as a dosimeter, with applications in radiation therapy.

  17. Amino acid sequence of phospholipase A/sub 2/-. cap alpha. from the venom of Crotalus adamanteus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrikson, R.L.; Krueger, E.T.; Keim, P.S.

    1977-07-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of Crotalus adamanteus venom phospholipase A/sub 2/-..cap alpha.. has been determined by analysis of the five tryptic peptides from the citraconylated, reduced, and S-(/sup 14/C)carboxamidomethylated enzyme. Earlier studies provided the information necessary to align the tryptic fragments so that secondary cleavage procedures to establish overlaps were unnecessary. The subunit in the phospholipase A/sub 2/-..cap alpha.. dimer is a single polypeptide chain containing 122 amino acids and seven disulfide bonds. The histidine residue implicated in the active site of mammalian phospholipases is at position 47 in the C. adamanteus enzyme and is located in a domain of the molecule which is highly homologous in sequence with corresponding regions of phospholipases from a variety of venom and pancreatic sources. Comparative sequence analysis has revealed insights with regard to the function and evolution of phospholipases A/sub 2/. Primary structural relationships observed among the snake venom enzymes parallel the phylogenetic classification of the venomous reptiles from which they were derived. It is proposed that phospholipases A/sub 2/ of this general type be divided into two groups depending upon the presence or absence of distinctive structural features elucidated in this study.

  18. Electron double ionization cross section in sodium obtained from K. cap alpha. sup(h) hypersatellite spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahtinen, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O. (Laboratory of Physics, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo, Finland)

    1983-05-01

    The K..cap alpha..sup(h) hypersatellite spectrum of Na metal has been measured in electron excitation with voltages from 4 to 25 kV. The spectrum shows lines with initial K/sup -2/ (K..cap alpha../sub 2/sup(h)) and K/sup -2/L/sup -1/ holes. The energies of these lines as well as the K/sup 2/ binding energy have been determined and compared with theoretical calculations. The intensity of the line group with K/sup -2/L/sup -1/ initial configuration relative to the K/sup -2/ group has been measured and found to be in agreement with simple shake-off calculation. The electron double ionization cross section (EDC) of the K-shell has been determined from both thick and thin target measurements using the method developed by Saijonmaa and Keski-Rahkonen, and found to yield equivalent results. The EDC has also been calculated theoretically using classical and quantum mechanical binary encounter approximations as devised by Saijonmaa. Theory reproduces fairly well the magnitude and the atomic number dependence of the EDC whereas the shape of the EDC-curve as function of energy deviates clearly from observed values.

  19. Special features of photoelectromagnetic effect and properties of recombination centers in germanium single crystals irradiated by. cap alpha. particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichenko, V.S.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.; Rzhanov, A.E.; Filippov, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    Results of studies on a spatial distribution of defects arising in Ge crystals following ..cap alpha..-particle (40 MeV) irradiation are given. The distribution of defects playing the role of recombination centres is shown to produce the definite effect on diffusion-recombination processes in semiconductors. The carrier capture cross section on recombination centres is determined to be sigma approximately 10/sup -15/ cm/sup -2/. A representation of recombination wall appearing in the vicinity of radiation defect concentration peak is introduced. The experimental data are compared with the developed theoretical representations. It is shown that studies on the photoelectromagnetic effect can give information both on the pattern of radiation defect spatial distribution and recombination parameters of irradiated semiconductors.

  20. Characteristics of the photelectromagnetic effect and properties of recombination centers in germanium single crystals irradiated with. cap alpha. particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babichenko, V.S.; Kikoin, L.I.; Lazarev, S.D.; Rzhanov, A.E.; Filippov, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The spatial distribution of defects created in Ge crystals by irradiation with 40-MeV ..cap alpha.. particles was investigated. The distribution of the defects acting as recombination centers had a decisive influence on the diffusion-recombination processes in this semiconductor. The carrier-capture cross section of the recombination centers (sigmaapprox.10/sup -15/ cm/sup 2/) was determined. A concept of a recombination wall, which appeared in the region of a maximum of the radiation defect concentration, was introduced. The experimental data were compared with theoretical representations. This comparison demonstrated that an investigation of the photoelectromagnetic effect could give information both on the nature of the spatial distribution of radiation defects and on the recombination parameters of an irradiated semiconductor.

  1. Angular and velocity distributions of secondary particles emitted in interaction of 3. 6-GeV/nucleon. cap alpha. particles and lead nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonenko, V.G.; Vinogradov, A.A.; Galitskii, V.M.; Grigor' yan, Y.I.; Ippolitov, M.S.; Karadzhev, K.V.; Kuz' min, E.A.; Man' ko, V.I.; Ogloblin, A.A.; Paramonov, V.V.; Tsvetkov, A.A.

    1980-04-01

    The technique is described and results presented of measurements of the velocity and angular distributions of pions, protons, and deuterons, and tritons emitted in bombardment of lead nuclei by ..cap alpha.. particles with energy 3.6 GeV/nucleon.

  2. Effect of trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids on blood levels of prostaglandins E/sub 2/ and F/sub 2. cap alpha. / and of 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid in rats with alloxan diabetes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyan, G.S.; Panosyan, A.G.; Karagezyan, K.G.; Gevorkyan, G.A.

    1986-09-01

    The effect of the trihydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (THODA) fraction on blood levels of some eicosanoids and, in particular, of prostaglandins E/sub 2/ and F/sub 2..cap alpha../(PGE/sub 2/ and PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../), and 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE) in rats with alloxan diabetes was studied. Concentrations of PGE/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../, and 5-HETE in peripheral blood plasma were determined by radioimmunoassay. To assess the loss of substances during extraction and chromatography, /sup 3/H/sub 8/-PGE/sub 2/, /sup 3/H/sub 8/-PGF/sub 2..cap alpha.., and /sup 3/H/sub 8/-5-HETE were used. Plasma PGE/sub 2/, PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../, and 5-HETE levels in albino rats with alloxan diabetes and after injection of THODA are shown.

  3. Radioimmunological determination of 5. cap alpha. -pregnane-3,20-dione in the peripheral venous blood of pregnant women showing pathological estriol values and/or HPL values or gestosis, on the basis of the gestational age. Radioimmunologische Bestimmung des 5. cap alpha. -Pregnan-3,20-dion im peripheren Venenblut schwangerer Frauen einer Gruppe mit pathologischen Oestriol- bzw. HPL-Werten und einer Gestosegruppe in Abhaengigkeit vom Gestationsalter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klemm-Wolfgramm, E.

    1984-01-01

    A modified method of extraction and radioimmunological determination (iodine-125) is described, designed to monitor the concentrations of 5..cap alpha..-pregnandione (5..cap alpha..-DHP) in patients showing a pathological course of pregnancy and to examine the role of 5..cap alpha..-DHP blood levels in the development of gestosis. In this study, a control group was compared with two patient groups showing either (a) gestosis or (b) reduced levels of estriol and/or HPL. (1) In gestosis, the levels of 5..cap alpha..-DHP showed significant reductions that were proportionate to the degree of the disease, whereas decreases in these hormone levels were only observed to a minor extent in connection with pathological values of estriol and/or HPL. (2) The age of the patient had no influence on the hormone concentrations. (3) The increases in 5..cap alpha..-DHP seen in multiparae were only slight and did not attain any statistical significance. (4) No links were established between the concentrations of HPL and 5..cap alpha..-DHP in the maternal plasma and the development of the fetus. (5) Significantly reduced values of 5..cap alpha..-DHP were determined in mothers showing disorders of fetoplacental function (birth weights between 2500 and 3500 g) or gestosis (birth weights above 3500 g). (6) There were no relationships between the maternal serum levels of estriol, HPL and 5..cap alpha..-DHP and the sex of the fetus. (TRV).

  4. Drosophila casein kinase I alpha regulates homolog pairing and genome organization by modulating condensin II subunit Cap-H2 levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Q Nguyen

    Full Text Available The spatial organization of chromosomes within interphase nuclei is important for gene expression and epigenetic inheritance. Although the extent of physical interaction between chromosomes and their degree of compaction varies during development and between different cell-types, it is unclear how regulation of chromosome interactions and compaction relate to spatial organization of genomes. Drosophila is an excellent model system for studying chromosomal interactions including homolog pairing. Recent work has shown that condensin II governs both interphase chromosome compaction and homolog pairing and condensin II activity is controlled by the turnover of its regulatory subunit Cap-H2. Specifically, Cap-H2 is a target of the SCFSlimb E3 ubiquitin-ligase which down-regulates Cap-H2 in order to maintain homologous chromosome pairing, chromosome length and proper nuclear organization. Here, we identify Casein Kinase I alpha (CK1α as an additional negative-regulator of Cap-H2. CK1α-depletion stabilizes Cap-H2 protein and results in an accumulation of Cap-H2 on chromosomes. Similar to Slimb mutation, CK1α depletion in cultured cells, larval salivary gland, and nurse cells results in several condensin II-dependent phenotypes including dispersal of centromeres, interphase chromosome compaction, and chromosome unpairing. Moreover, CK1α loss-of-function mutations dominantly suppress condensin II mutant phenotypes in vivo. Thus, CK1α facilitates Cap-H2 destruction and modulates nuclear organization by attenuating chromatin localized Cap-H2 protein.

  5. cap alpha. -L-iduronidase deficiency in mucopolysaccharidosis type I against a radio-labelled sulfated disaccharide substrate derived from dermatan sulfate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, V.J.; Hopwood, J.J. (Department of Chemical Pathology, The Adelaide Children' s Hospital Inc., North Adelaide, South Australia)

    1984-01-01

    ..cap alpha..-L-Iduronidase activity was assayed by incubation of a radiolabelled disaccharide, O-(..cap alpha..-L-idopyranosyluronic acid)-(1 arrow 3)-2,5 anhydro-D-(1, /sup 3/H)-talitol 4-sulfate (IdoA-anT4S) derived from dermatan sulfate, with homogenates of leucocytes, cultured amniotic cells and skin fibroblasts from normal individuals and patients affected with an ..cap alpha..-L-iduronidase-deficiency disorder (mucopolysaccharidosis type I, MPS I), parents of such patients and patients affected with other mucopolysaccharidoses. The assay clearly distinguished affected homozygotes from normal controls, heterozygotes and other mucopolysaccharidosis types. Preliminary results show that fibroblast homogenates from patients with the MPS I Hurler phenotype were virtually unable to hydrolyse IdoA-anT4S, whereas fibroblast homogenates from a patient with a relatively mild (Scheie) phenotype exhibited a residual activity with Vsub(max) value of 2.5 pmol/min/mg protein and an apparent Ksub(m) of 21 ..mu..mol/l compared to a range of 1020-2105 pmol/min/mg for Vsub(max) and 12-35 ..mu..mol/l for Ksub(m) for fibroblasts from normal controls.

  6. Influence of prostaglandins E/sub 2/ and F/sub 2. cap alpha. / on the zinc transport across rat mid-intestine in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, M.K.; Adham, N.F.; Lee, D.B.N.; Carmack, C.R.

    1986-03-05

    Effects of physiological (5.0 ..mu..M) and pharmacological (50 ..mu..M) doses of prostaglandins (PG) E/sub 2/ and F/sub 2..cap alpha../ on the zinc transport rate across rat jejunum mounted on a Ussing Chamber were determined. Zinc transport rate from mucosal to serosal direction was 4.82 +/- 0.81 n moles/hr/cm/sup 2/ whereas the opposite direction was 18.71 +/- 0.96 n moles/hr/cm/sup 2/. When 5.0 ..mu..M or 50 ..mu..M PGE/sub 2/ or PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ were added into Ringers-Krebs bicarbonate solution containing 3 mM L-histidine and 0.5 mM /sup 65/Zn Cl/sub 2/ to the mucosal side of mucosa, no significant difference in /sup 65/Zn transport rate was observed compared to controls. However, 5.0 ..mu..M PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ and 50 ..mu..M PGE/sub 2/ significantly inhibited zinc transport from mucosal to serosal direction. When PGs were added to the opposite side of mucosa, only 5.0 ..mu..M PGs significantly inhibited zinc transport from serosal to mucosal direction. Results suggest that PGs act on the inhibition of zinc transport across the basolateral membrane of columnar absorbing cells and that 50 ..mu..M PGE/sub 2/ was the most powerful inhibitor.

  7. 1. cap alpha. ,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ inhibits. gamma. -interferon synthesis by normal human peripheral blood lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichel, H.; Koeffler, H.P.; Tobler, A.; Norman, A.W.

    1987-05-01

    1..cap alpha..,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D/sub 3/ (1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/), the biologically active metabolite of vitamin D/sub 3/, inhibited synthesis of ..gamma..-interferon (IFN-..gamma..) by phytohemagglutinin-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). A significant reduction of IFN-..gamma.. protein levels in PBL culture medium was achieved with a physiologic 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ concentration, 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ also inhibited accumulation of IFN-..gamma.. mRNA in activated PBLs in a dose-dependent fashion. The ability of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ to modulate IFN-..gamma.. protein synthesis was unaltered in the presence of high concentrations of recombinant human interleukin 2. The suppression of IFN-..gamma.. synthesis by PBLs was specific for 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/; the potencies of other vitamin D/sub 3/ metabolites were correlated with their affinities for the cellular 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ receptor. The time course of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ receptor expression in phytohemagglutinin-activated PBLs was correlated with the time course of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/-mediated inhibition of IFN-..gamma.. synthesis. Finally, the authors examined the effects of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ on the constitutive IFN-..gamma.. production by two human T-lymphocyte lines transformed by human T-lymphotropic virus type I. The cell lines were established from a normal donor (cell line S-LB1) and from a patient with vitamin D-dependent rickets type 2 (cell line Ab-VDR). IFN-..gamma.. synthesis by S-LB1 cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent fashion by 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, whereas IFN-..gamma.. synthesis by Ab-VDR cells was not altered by 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. The data presented in this study provide evidence for a role of 1,25-(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ in immunoregulation.

  8. Biochemical studies of mouse brain tubulin: colchicine binding (DEAE-cellulose filter) assay and subunits (. cap alpha. and. beta. ) biosynthesis and degradation (in newborn brain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tse, Cek-Fyne

    1978-01-01

    A DEAE-cellulose filter assay, measuring (/sup 3/H)colchicine bound to colchicine binding protein (CBP) absorbed on filter discs, has been modified to include lM sucrose in the incubation medium for complexing colchicine to CBP in samples before applying the samples to filter discs (single point assay). Due to the much greater stability of colchicine binding capacity in the presence of lM sucrose, multiple time-point assays and least squares linear regression analysis were not necessary for accurate determination of CBP in hybrid mouse brain at different stages of development. The highest concentrations of CBP were observed in the 160,000g supernatant and pellet of newborn brain homogenate. Further studies of the modified filter assay documented that the assay has an overall counting efficiency of 27.3%, that DEAE-cellulose filters bind and retain all tubulin in the assay samples, and that one molecule of colchicine binds approximately one molecule of tubulin dimer. Therefore, millimoles of colchicine bound per milligram total protein can be used to calculate tubulin content. With this technique tubulin content of brain supernatant was found to be 11.9% for newborn, and 7.15% for 11 month old mice. Quantitative densitometry was also used to measure mouse brain supernatant actin content for these two stages. In vivo synthesis and degradation rates of tubulin ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits of two day mouse brain 100,000g supernatant were studied after intracerebral injection of (/sup 3/H)leucine. Quantitative changes of the ratio of tritium specific activities of tubulin ..cap alpha.. and ..beta.. subunits with time were determined. The pattern of change was biphasic. During the first phase the ratio decreased; during the second phase the ratio increased continuously. An interpretation consistent with all the data in this study is that the ..cap alpha.. subunit is synthesized at a more rapid rate than the ..beta.. subunit. (ERB)

  9. /sup 45/Ca efflux for myometrial cells: comparison of the effects of prostaglandin F/sub 2/. cap alpha. (PGF/sub 2/), oxytocin (OT) and arachidonate (A)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katona, G.; Molnar, M.; Toth, M.; Hertelendy, F.

    1986-03-01

    The aim of this study was to measure PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../-induced Ca/sup 2 +/ release from uterine cells and to compare this to the actions of OT and A. Smooth muscle cells isolated from the uterus (shell gland) of laying hens were cultured for 7 days in M199 plus 10% fetal calf serum. The cells were treated with digitonin (20..mu..M) and preloaded with /sup 45/Ca for 40 min. Addition of PGF/sub 2..cap alpha../ caused a biphasic /sup 45/Ca-efflux. There was a small but significant /sup 45/Ca-release within 30 sec (rapid phase) followed by a larger one within 7 min (slow phase). In comparison, both OT and A stimulated /sup 45/Ca efflux during a single, slow phase. The maximal effect of A was observed at < 7 min, whereas that of OT was slower, peaking after 7 min. Mepacrin, an inhibitor of A release, attenuated the action of OT without having any effect on A promoted /sup 45/Ca-efflux. Indomethacin, an inhibitor of PG synthase, failed to suppress the Ca-releasing effect of A suggesting the A itself or a lipoxygenase product may have been responsible for the observed effects. Moreover, these results provide suggestive evidence that A release is an important step in the action of various uterotonic agents converging on the mobilization of intracellular Ca.

  10. Extractive separation of micro amounts of rhenium from molybdenite by quinoline and a modified method of rhenium determination by. cap alpha. -furyl-dioxime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorz, D.; Dobrowolski, J. (Politechnika Gdanska (Poland))

    1979-01-01

    The extractive separation of rhenium(7) by quinoline in alkaline solution as well as a modification of the spectrophotometric method for the determination of micro amounts of rhenium in a molybdenite from copper-molybdenum ores from Mongolia, using ..cap alpha..-furyldioxime has been developed. On the basis of the extractive separation method of perrhenate ion by quinoline from alkaline solution, rhenium has been determined in molybdenite. The molybdenite was decomposed by four different methods. Two of these decomposition methods, the fusion of Na/sub 2/O/sub 2/ with NaOH and the sintering of CaO with KMnO/sub 4/ were found as the best ones.

  11. DNA Aptamers against Taiwan Banded Krait α-Bungarotoxin Recognize Taiwan Cobra Cardiotoxins

    OpenAIRE

    Ying-Jung Chen; Chia-Yu Tsai; Wan-Ping Hu; Long-Sen Chang

    2016-01-01

    Bungarus multicinctus α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt) and Naja atra cardiotoxins (CTXs) share a common structural scaffold, and their tertiary structures adopt three-fingered loop motifs. Four DNA aptamers against α-Bgt have been reported previously. Given that the binding of aptamers with targeted proteins depends on structural complementarity, in this study, we investigated whether DNA aptamers against α-Bgt could also recognize CTXs. It was found that N. atra cardiotoxin 3 (CTX3) reduced the electr...

  12. Synthesis of biological markers in fossil fuels. 4. C/sub 27/, C/sub 28/, and C/sub 29/ 13. beta. ,17. cap alpha. (H)-diasteranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, P.E.; Nelson, D.A.; Watt, D.S.; Reibenspies, J.H.; Anderson, O.P.; Seifert, W.K.; Moldowan, J.M.

    1985-12-27

    The rearrangement of 5-cholestene to (20epsilon)-13(17)-diacholestenes, separation of C-20 epimers, and further reduction provided an unambiguous synthesis of the biomarkers (20R)- and (20S)-13..beta..,17..cap alpha..(H)-diacholestanes. Repetition of this sequence using (24R)-5-campestene or (24R)-5-stigmastene provided the analogous C/sub 28/ and C/sub 29/ diasteranes. 15 references, 1 figure.

  13. Effect of. cap alpha. -tocopherol, butylated-hydroxytoluene and hydroxy-anisole on the activation and binding of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ to macromolecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ch' ih, J.J.; Biedrzycka, D.; Devlin, T.M.

    1987-05-01

    The anti-oxidants, ..cap alpha..-tocopherol(TPA), butylated-hydroxy-toluene(BHT) and hydroxyanisole(BHA) inhibit the carcinogenic and toxic effects of a variety of chemical compounds, their effect on aflatoxin B/sub 1/ (AFB/sub 1/) activation and binding was examined utilizing rat liver microsomes and cells. With a NADPH generating system, oxygen, microsomes, (/sup 3/H)-AFB/sub 1/, 2.2 pmoles/h/mg protein was activated and bound to macromolecules. In hepatocytes, 3.4 and 1.4 pmoles of AFB/sub 1/ per 10/sup 6/ cells were taken up and bound to macromolecules, whereas the nucleic acid fraction contained 0.19 pmoles of bound AFB/sub 1/. Moderate decreases of AFB/sub 1/ activation and binding were observed when TPA was present in both cell-free and hepatocytes systems. Only in hepatocytes, BHT inhibited the AFB/sub 1/ uptake and binding to nucleic acids. BHA, however, inhibited microsomal activation of AFB/sub 1/ by 73%; maximum inhibition was reached at 1 mM. AFB/sub 1/ uptake, and binding to nucleic acids were inhibited by 65% and 79% by BHA. GSH-transferase activity of cells treated with these agents was not altered. The effect of BHA at various concentrations on AFB activation was compared with cytochrome P-450 inhibitors; the ED/sub 50/ of SKF 525A, BHA and metyrapone was 9 uM, 80 uM and 380 uM respectively. The data suggest that TPA, BHA and BHT exert their effect by different mechanisms.

  14. Stoichiometry for α-bungarotoxin block of α7 acetylcholine receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacosta, Corrie J. B.; Free, Chris R.; Sine, Steven M.

    2015-08-01

    α-Bungarotoxin (α-Btx) binds to the five agonist binding sites on the homopentameric α7-acetylcholine receptor, yet the number of bound α-Btx molecules required to prevent agonist-induced channel opening remains unknown. To determine the stoichiometry for α-Btx blockade, we generate receptors comprised of wild-type and α-Btx-resistant subunits, tag one of the subunit types with conductance mutations to report subunit stoichiometry, and following incubation with α-Btx, monitor opening of individual receptor channels with defined subunit stoichiometry. We find that a single α-Btx-sensitive subunit confers nearly maximal suppression of channel opening, despite four binding sites remaining unoccupied by α-Btx and accessible to the agonist. Given structural evidence that α-Btx locks the agonist binding site in an inactive conformation, we conclude that the dominant mechanism of antagonism is non-competitive, originating from conformational arrest of the binding sites, and that the five α7 subunits are interdependent and maintain conformational symmetry in the open channel state.

  15. A Randomized Multicentre Phase II Trial Comparing Adjuvant Therapy in Patients with Interferon Alpha-2b and 5-FU Alone or in Combination with Either External Radiation Treatment and Cisplatin (CapRI) or Radiation alone regarding Event-Free Survival – CapRI-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 5-year survival of patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma is still unsatisfying. The ESPAC-1 and the CONKO 001 trial proofed that adjuvant chemotherapy improves 5-year survival significantly from approximately 14% to 21%. In parallel, investigators from the Virginia Mason Clinic reported a 5-year survival rate of 55% in a phase II trial evaluating a combination of adjuvant chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external beam radiation (CapRI-scheme). Two other groups confirmed in phase II trials these results to a certain extent. However, these groups reported severe gastrointestinal toxicity (up to 93% grade 3 or 4 toxicity). In a randomized controlled phase III trial, called CapRI, 110 patients were enrolled from 2004 to 2007 in Germany and Italy to check for reproducibility. Interestingly, much less gastrointestinal toxicity was observed. However, dose-reduction due to haematological side effects had to be performed in nearly all patients. First clinical results are expected for the end of 2009. CapRI-2 is an open, controlled, prospective, randomized, multicentre phase II trial with three parallel arms. A de-escalation of the CapRI-scheme will be tested in two different modifications. Patients in study arm A will be treated as outpatients with the complete CapRI-scheme consisting of cisplatin, Interferon alpha-2b and external beam radiation and three cycles of 5-fluorouracil continuous infusion. In study arm B the first de-escalation will be realised by omitting cisplatin. Next, patients in study arm C will additionally not receive external beam radiation. A total of 135 patients with pathologically confirmed R0 or R1 resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma are planned to be enrolled. Primary endpoint is the comparison of the treatment groups with respect to six-month event-free-survival. An event is defined as grade 3 or grade 4 toxicity, objective tumour recurrence, or death. The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate de-escalation of the CapRI-scheme. It

  16. Cytochrome P450c17 (steroid 17. cap alpha. -hydroxylase/17,20 lyase): cloning of human adrenal and testis cDNAs indicates the same gene is expressed in both tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, B.; Picado-Leonard, J.; Haniu, M.; Bienkowski, M.; Hall, P.F.; Shively, J.E.; Miller, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    P450c17 is the single enzyme mediating both 17..cap alpha..-hydroxylase (steroid 17..cap alpha..-monooxygenase, EC 1.14.99.9) and 17,20 lyase activities in the synthesis of steroid hormones. It has been suggested that different P450c17 isozymes mediate these activities in the adrenal gland and testis. The authors sequenced 423 of the 509 amino acids (83%) of the porcine adrenal enzyme; based on this partial sequence, a 128-fold degenerate 17-mer was synthesized and used to screen a porcine adrenal cDNA library. This yielded a 380-base cloned cDNA, which in turn was used to isolate several human adrenal cDNAs. The longest of these, lambda hac 17-2, is 1754 base pairs long and includes the full-length coding region, the complete 3'-untranslated region, and 41 bases of the 5'-untranslated region. This cDNA encodes a protein of 508 amino acids having a predicted molecular weight of 57,379.82. High-stringency screening of a human testicular cDNA library yielded a partial clone containing 1303 identical bases. RNA gel blots and nuclease S1-protection experiments confirm that the adrenal and testicular P450c17 mRNAs are indistinguishable. These data indicate that the testis possesses a P450c17 identical to that in the adrenal. The human amino acid sequence is 66.7% homologous to the corresponding regions of the porcine sequence, and the human cDNA and amino acid sequences are 80.1 and 70.3% homologous, respectively, to bovine adrenal P450c17 cDNA. Both comparisons indicate that a central region comprising amino acid residues 160-268 is hypervariable among these species of P450c17.

  17. Expression of the α-bungarotoxin binding site of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor by Escherichia coli transformants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restriction fragments of DNA derived from a cDNA clone of the α subunit of the acetylcholine receptor were subcloned in Escherichia coli by using the trpE fusion vector, pATH2. Transformants expressing the amino acid sequences 166-315 or 166-200 are shown to produce a chimeric protein that bound α-bungarotoxin. Moreover, it is shown that sufficient amounts of toxin-binding proteins can be generated by individual colonies of bacteria. This provides a new approach for gene selection via functional expression-i.e., ligand overlays of colony blots

  18. Phase III trial of postoperative cisplatin, interferon alpha-2b, and 5-FU combined with external radiation treatment versus 5-FU alone for patients with resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma – CapRI: study protocol [ISRCTN62866759

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz-Winnenthal H

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After surgical intervention with curative intention in specialised centres the five-year survival of patients with carcinoma of the exocrine pancreas is only 15%. The ESPAC-1 trial showed an increased five-year survival of 21% achieved with adjuvant chemotherapy. Investigators from the Virginia Mason Clinic have reported a 5-year survival rate of 55% in a phase II trial evaluating adjuvant chemotherapy, immunotherapy and external-beam radiation. Design The CapRI study is an open, controlled, prospective, randomised multi-centre phase III trial. Patients in study arm A will be treated as outpatients with 5-Fluorouracil; Cisplatin and 3 million units Interferon alpha-2b for 5 1/2 weeks combined with external beam radiation. After chemo-radiation the patients receive continuous 5-FU infusions for two more cycles. Patients in study arm B will be treated as outpatients with intravenous bolus injections of folinic acid, followed by intravenous bolus injections of 5-FU given on 5 consecutive days every 28 days for 6 cycles. A total of 110 patients with specimen-proven R0 or R1 resected pancreatic adenocarcinoma will be enrolled. An interim analysis for patient safety reasons will be done one year after start of recruitment. Evaluation of the primary endpoint will be performed two years after the last patients' enrolment. Discussion The aim of this study is to evaluate the overall survival period attained by chemo-radiotherapy including interferon alpha 2b administration with adjuvant chemotherapy. The influence of interferon alpha on the effectiveness of the patients' chemoradiation regimen, the toxicity, the disease-free interval and the quality of life are analysed. Different factors are tested in terms of their potential role as predictive markers.

  19. A β-hairpin structure in a 13-mer peptide that binds α-bungarotoxin with high affinity and neutralizes its toxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Scherf, Tali; Kasher, Roni; Balass, Moshe; Fridkin, Mati; Fuchs, Sara; Katchalski-Katzir, Ephraim

    2001-01-01

    Snake-venom α-bungarotoxin is a member of the α-neurotoxin family that binds with very high affinity to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (AChR) at the neuromuscular junction. The structure of the complex between α-bungarotoxin and a 13-mer peptide (WRYYESSLEPYPD) that binds the toxin with high affinity, thus inhibiting its interactions with AChR with an IC50 of 2 nM, has been solved by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The bound peptide folds into a β-hairpin structure crea...

  20. Death cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbæk, Torsten R; Kofoed, Pernille Bouteloup; Bove, Jeppe;

    2014-01-01

    Death cap (Amanita phalloides) is commonly found and is one of the five most toxic fungi in Denmark. Toxicity is due to amatoxin, and poisoning is a serious medical condition, causing organ failure with potential fatal outcome. Acknowledgement and clarification of exposure, symptomatic and focused...... treatment is of primary importance. No data from randomised, controlled trials on management exists, and there is not international consensus on treatment regime. We present amatoxin-case contacts to the Danish Poison Centre from 2006-2012 and summarize current knowledge and Danish recommendations...

  1. Reactor neutron activation analysis for aluminium in the presence of phosphorus and silicon. Contributions of /sup 28/Al activities from /sup 31/P (n,. cap alpha. ) /sup 28/Al and /sup 28/Si (n,p) /sup 28/Al reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizumoto, Yoshihiko (Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology); Iwata, Shiro; Sasajima, Kazuhisa; Yoshimasu, Fumio; Yase, Yoshiro

    1984-01-01

    Reactor neutron activation analysis for aluminium in samples containing phosphorus and silicon was studied. The experiments were performed by using pneumatic tube of the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR). At first, the ratios of the /sup 28/Al activity produced from /sup 27/Al(n, ..gamma..) /sup 28/Al reaction by thermal neutrons to that from /sup 31/P(n, ..cap alpha..)/sup 28/Al reaction by fast neutrons, and to that from /sup 28/Si(n, p)/sup 28/Al reaction were measured by ..gamma..-ray spectrometry. With a ratio of about 5 for the thermal to fast neutron flux of KUR, the ratio of the /sup 28/Al activity from aluminium to that from phosphorus was to be 812 +- 7, and to that from silicon 282 +- 3. Secondly, the contributions of /sup 28/Al activities from phosphorus and silicon and the determination limit of aluminium were calculated for various parameters, such as fast neutron flux, thermal to fast neutron flux ratio, amounts of phosphorus and silicon, etc. Thirdly, on the basis of these results, aluminium contents in spinal cords and brains of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinsonism-dementia complex and control cases were determined.

  2. Synthesis of tritiated 1-alpha-methadol and 1-alpha-acetylmethadol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thang, D.C.; Nam, N.H.; Pontikis, R. (Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale (INSERM), Hopital Fernand Widal, 75 - Paris (France)); Pichat, L. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Service des Molecules Marquees)

    1982-04-01

    dl-Methadone was resolved by crystallization of its ammonium d- ..cap alpha.. -bromocamphor-..pi..-sulfonate salt to give d-methadone. The latter in ethyl acetate solution was reduced with tritium gas to 1-..cap alpha..-methadol /sup 3/H in presence of Adams platinum oxide at normal temperature and pressure. Acetylation of 1-..cap alpha..-carbinol hydrochloride by means of acetyl chloride afforded 1-..cap alpha..-acetylmethadol /sup 3/H, specific activity: 20 Ci/mMole. The positions and extent of tritium labelling were determined by /sup 3/H NMR spectroscopy.

  3. Helium precipitation in. cap alpha. -Fe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspers, L.M.; van Veen, A.; Ypma, M.R.; van der Kolk, G.J. (Interuniversitair Reactor Inst., Delft (Netherlands))

    1982-03-16

    The filling of a vacancy with helium atoms is studied with a programme simulating the relaxation of lattice atoms around the complex. Three filling modes are described. Helium filled V/sub 2/, V/sub 3/, and V/sub 4/ complexes are also considered and the energetics of the mutation reactions of He/sub n/V ..-->.. He/sub m>n/V/sub 2/ ..-->.. He/sub p>m/V/sub 3/ ..-->.. He/sub q>p/V/sub 4/ is studied. It is shown that these mutation reactions are more probable when the emitted interstitials remain bound to the mutation products. The He/sub n/V/sub m/I/sub p/ complexes thus formed are stable against reduction, in agreement with experiments. Also the formation of these complexes could explain why helium precipitation proceeds in a two-dimensional way as observed by TEM. The general trend found in helium desorption measurements viz. a decrease in helium binding energy until some 6 to 10 He atoms are trapped and thereafter an increase in binding energy is also found in this computer simulation study.

  4. Rapid one-step selection method for generating nucleic acid aptamers: development of a DNA aptamer against α-bungarotoxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse H Lauridsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nucleic acids based therapeutic approaches have gained significant interest in recent years towards the development of therapeutics against many diseases. Recently, research on aptamers led to the marketing of Macugen®, an inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF for the treatment of age related macular degeneration (AMD. Aptamer technology may prove useful as a therapeutic alternative against an array of human maladies. Considering the increased interest in aptamer technology globally that rival antibody mediated therapeutic approaches, a simplified selection, possibly in one-step, technique is required for developing aptamers in limited time period. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Herein, we present a simple one-step selection of DNA aptamers against α-bungarotoxin. A toxin immobilized glass coverslip was subjected to nucleic acid pool binding and extensive washing followed by PCR enrichment of the selected aptamers. One round of selection successfully identified a DNA aptamer sequence with a binding affinity of 7.58 µM. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated a one-step method for rapid production of nucleic acid aptamers. Although the reported binding affinity is in the low micromolar range, we believe that this could be further improved by using larger targets, increasing the stringency of selection and also by combining a capillary electrophoresis separation prior to the one-step selection. Furthermore, the method presented here is a user-friendly, cheap and an easy way of deriving an aptamer unlike the time consuming conventional SELEX-based approach. The most important application of this method is that chemically-modified nucleic acid libraries can also be used for aptamer selection as it requires only one enzymatic step. This method could equally be suitable for developing RNA aptamers.

  5. Repeated administration of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, but not positive allosteric modulators, increases alpha7 nAChR levels in the brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ditte Z; Mikkelsen, Jens D; Hansen, Henrik H;

    2010-01-01

    -induced phosphorylation of Erk2 in the prefrontal cortex occurs following acute, but not repeated administration. Our results demonstrate that repeated agonist administration increases the number of alpha7 nAChRs in the brain, and leads to coupling versus uncoupling of specific intracellular signaling....... Here we investigate the effects of repeated agonism on alpha7 nAChR receptor levels and responsiveness in vivo in rats. Using [(125)I]-alpha-bungarotoxin (BTX) autoradiography we show that acute or repeated administration with the selective alpha7 nAChR agonist A-582941 increases the number of alpha7 n......-120596 and NS1738 do not increase [(125)I]-BTX binding. Furthermore, A-582941-induced increase in Arc and c-fos mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex is enhanced and unaltered, respectively, after repeated administration, demonstrating that the alpha7 nAChRs remain responsive. Contrarily, A-582941...

  6. Microtubule's conformational cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chretien, D.; Janosi, I.; Taveau, J.C.;

    1999-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms that allow elongation of the unstable microtubule lattice remain unclear. It is usually thought that the GDP-liganded tubulin lattice is capped by a small layer of GTP- or GDP-P(i)-liganded molecules, the so called "GTP-cap". Here, we point-out that the elastic properties...

  7. Direct correlation between a negative autoregulatory response element at the cap site of the herpes simplex virus type 1 IE175 (alpha 4) promoter and a specific binding site for the IE175 (ICP4) protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, M S; Boundy, A; O'Hare, P; Pizzorno, M C; Ciufo, D M; Hayward, G S

    1988-01-01

    In transient-expression assays, the IE175 (alpha 4) promoter region of herpes simple virus is down-regulated after cotransfection with DNA encoding its own protein product (IE175 or ICP4). The inhibition by IE175 proved to be highly specific for its own promoter region and did not act on either the herpes simplex virus type 1 IE110 (alpha 0) or human cytomegalovirus major immediate-early promoters. Furthermore, the inhibition was still exhibited by IE175 effector plasmids driven by strong het...

  8. Stoichiometry of expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptors depends on the ratio of subunit cDNA transfected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagoner, Kelly R; Czajkowski, Cynthia

    2010-05-01

    The gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)R) is the target of many depressants, including benzodiazepines, anesthetics, and alcohol. Although the highly prevalent alphabetagamma GABA(A)R subtype mediates the majority of fast synaptic inhibition in the brain, receptors containing delta subunits also play a key role, mediating tonic inhibition and the actions of endogenous neurosteroids and alcohol. However, the fundamental properties of delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, such as subunit stoichiometry, are not well established. To determine subunit stoichiometry of expressed delta-containing GABA(A)Rs, we inserted the alpha-bungarotoxin binding site tag in the alpha(4), beta(2), and delta subunit N termini. An enhanced green fluorescent protein tag was also inserted into the beta(2) subunit to shift its molecular weight, allowing us to separate subunits using SDS-PAGE. Tagged alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs were expressed in HEK293T cells using various ratios of subunit cDNA, and receptor subunit stoichiometry was determined by quantitating fluorescent alpha-bungarotoxin bound to each subunit on Western blots of surface immunopurified tagged GABA(A)Rs. The results demonstrate that the subunit stoichiometry of alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs is regulated by the ratio of subunit cDNAs transfected. Increasing the ratio of delta subunit cDNA transfected increased delta subunit incorporation into surface receptors with a concomitant decrease in beta(2) subunit incorporation. Because receptor subunit stoichiometry can directly influence GABA(A)R pharmacological and functional properties, considering how the transfection protocols used affect subunit stoichiometry is essential when studying heterologously expressed alpha(4)beta(2)delta GABA(A)Rs. Successful bungarotoxin binding site tagging of GABA(A)R subunits is a novel tool with which to accurately quantitate subunit stoichiometry and will be useful for monitoring GABA(A)R trafficking in live cells.

  9. A Phrygian Cap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-Janne S. van Kamp

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A Phrygian cap is a congenital anomaly of the gallbladder with an incidence of 4%. It can simulate a mass in the liver during hepatobiliary imaging and is sometimes mistaken for pathology. A Phrygian cap, however, has no pathological significance and normally causes no symptoms. A case will be presented where a Phrygian cap was found by coincidence during surgery. The patient was operated for colon cancer with liver metastasis in segment V. He underwent a simultaneous right hemicolectomy and wedge resection of the liver lesion. During perioperative inspection, a gallbladder with a folded fundus was seen. This deformity was, in retrospective, detected on the preoperative MRI scan. The patient underwent cholecystectomy to make the wedge resection easier to perform. Otherwise, cholecystectomy for a Phrygian cap is only indicated in case of symptoms. Radiographic imaging can be helpful in narrowing the differential diagnosis. To our knowledge, there is no recent literature about the Phrygian cap and its imaging aspects. Nowadays, multiphase MRI, or multiphase CT in case of MRI contraindication, are the first choices of hepatobiliary imaging.

  10. Successful treatment of cap polyposis with infliximab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookman, Ian D; Redston, Mark S; Greenberg, Gordon R

    2004-06-01

    Cap polyposis is a disorder characterized by bloody diarrhea with rectosigmoid polyps covered by a cap of fibropurulent exudate. The pathogenesis is unknown, but histological features suggest that mucosal prolapse may play a role. Drug therapies are usually unsuccessful, and treatment requires sigmoid resection or, if the disease recurs after initial surgical resection, panproctocolectomy. We report the case of a 36-year-old woman with characteristic clinical, endoscopic, and histological features of cap polyposis. Investigations included normal anorectal manometry and defecography, without evidence of prolapse. The patient's disease was unresponsive to treatment with mesalamine, antibiotics, lidocaine enemas, and corticosteroids. One infusion of infliximab 5 mg/kg provided dramatic symptomatic improvement but minimal endoscopic or histological change. After 4 infliximab infusions at 8-week intervals, endoscopy of the rectum and sigmoid colon was normal, and biopsies showed complete histological resolution of the inflammatory process. Well-being with normal endoscopy and histology has been maintained at 38 months, without further treatment. It was concluded that infliximab is effective therapy for cap polyposis and avoids the requirement for surgery. No clinical evidence was obtained to support mucosal prolapse as a causative factor, but the response to infliximab suggests a role for tumor necrosis factor-alpha in the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:15188181

  11. Coefficient Alpha

    OpenAIRE

    Panayiotis Panayides

    2013-01-01

    Heavy reliance on Cronbach’s alpha has been standard practice in many validation studies. However, there seem to be two misconceptions about the interpretation of alpha. First, alpha is mistakenly considered as an indication of unidimensionality and second, that the higher the value of alpha the better. The aim of this study is to clarify these misconceptions with the use of real data from the educational setting. Results showed that high alpha values can be obtained in multidimensional scale...

  12. Performance of blasting caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bement, Laurence J. (Inventor); Schimmel, Morry L. (Inventor); Perry, Ronnie B. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Common blasting caps are made from an aluminum shell in the form of a tube which is closed at both ends. One end, which is called the output end, terminates in a principal side or face, and contains a detonating agent which communicates with a means for igniting the detonating agent. The improvement of the present invention is a flat, steel foil bonded to the face in a position which is aligned perpendicularly to the longitudinal axis of the tube.

  13. Capping the Mortgage Interest Deduction

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, John E.; Clemens, Jeffrey; Hanson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine the economic implications of several policy options for capping the mortgage interest deduction (MID). We extend the standard user–cost model of owner–occupied housing to include a cap on the mortgage size receiving tax–favored status. Our user–cost estimates for taxpayers with mortgages above the current–law cap are 4.41 percent higher than estimates from a model without the cap. We simulate the share of mortgage dollars that would be subject to three alternative cap...

  14. Biochemistry of snake venom neurotoxins and their application to the study of synapse. [Neurotoxins isolated from venom of the Formosan banded krait

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanley, M.R.

    1978-11-01

    The crude venom of the Formosan banded krait, Bungarus multicinctus, was separated into eleven lethal protein fractions. Nine fractions were purified to final homogeneous toxins, designated ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, ..beta..-bungarotoxin, and toxins 7, 8, 9A, 11, 12, 13, and 14. Three of the toxins, ..cap alpha..-bungarotoxin, 7, and 8, were identified as post-synaptic curarimimetic neurotoxins. The remaining toxins were identified as pre-synaptic neurotoxins. ..cap alpha..-Bungarotoxin, toxin 7, and toxin 8 are all highly stable basic polypeptides of approx. 8000 daltons molecular weight. The pre-synaptic toxins fell into two structural groups: toxin 9A and 14 which were single basic chains of approx. 14,000 daltons, and ..beta..-bungarotoxin, and toxins 11 thru 13 which were composed of two chains of approx. 8000 and approx. 13,000 daltons covalently linked by disulfides. All the pre-synaptic neurotoxins were shown to have intrinsic calcium-dependent phospholipase A activities. Under certain conditions, intact synaptic membranes were hydrolyzed more rapidly than protein-free extracted synaptic-lipid liposomes which, in turn, were hydrolyzed more rapidly than any other tested liposomes. It was speculated that cell-surface arrays of phosphatidyl serine/glycolipids created high affinity target sites for ..beta..-bungarotoxin. Single-chain toxins were found to be qualitatively different from the two-chain toxins in their ability to block the functioning of acetylcholine receptors, and were quantitatively different in their enzymatic and membrane disruptive activities. ..beta..-Bungarotoxin was shown to be an extremely potent neuronal lesioning agent. There was no apparent selectivity for cholinergic over non-cholinergic neurons, nor for nerve terminals over cell bodies. It was suggested that ..beta..-bungarotoxin can be considered a useful new histological tool, which may exhibit some regional selectivity.

  15. Saltstone Clean Cap Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C

    2005-04-22

    The current operation strategy for using Saltstone Vault 4 to receive 0.2 Ci/gallon salt solution waste involves pouring a clean grout layer over the radioactive grout prior to initiating pour into another cell. This will minimize the radiating surface area and reduce the dose rate at the vault and surrounding area. The Clean Cap will be used to shield about four feet of Saltstone poured into a Z-Area vault cell prior to moving to another cell. The minimum thickness of the Clean Cap layer will be determined by the cesium concentration and resulting dose levels and it is expected to be about one foot thick based on current calculations for 0.1 Ci Saltstone that is produced in the Saltstone process by stabilization of 0.2 Ci salt solution. This report documents experiments performed to identify a formulation for the Clean Cap. Thermal transient calculations, adiabatic temperature rise measurements, pour height, time between pour calculations and shielding calculations were beyond the scope and time limitations of this study. However, data required for shielding calculations (composition and specific gravity) are provided for shielding calculations. The approach used to design a Clean Cap formulation was to produce a slurry from the reference premix (10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash) and domestic water that resembled as closely as possible the properties of the Saltstone slurry. In addition, options were investigated that may offer advantages such as less bleed water and less heat generation. The options with less bleed water required addition of dispersants. The options with lower heat contained more fly ash and less slag. A mix containing 10/45/45 weight percent cement/slag/fly ash with a water to premix ratio of 0.60 is recommended for the Clean Cap. Although this mix may generate more than 3 volume percent standing water (bleed water), it has rheological, mixing and flow properties that are similar to previously processed Saltstone. The recommended

  16. Novel Multipin Electrode Cap System for Dry Electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, P; Pedrosa, P; Griebel, S; Fonseca, C; Vaz, F; Supriyanto, E; Zanow, F; Haueisen, J

    2015-09-01

    Current usage of electroencephalography (EEG) is limited to laboratory environments. Self-application of a multichannel wet EEG caps is practically impossible, since the application of state-of-the-art wet EEG sensors requires trained laboratory staff. We propose a novel EEG cap system with multipin dry electrodes overcoming this problem. We describe the design of a novel 24-pin dry electrode made from polyurethane and coated with Ag/AgCl. A textile cap system holds 97 of these dry electrodes. An EEG study with 20 volunteers compares the 97-channel dry EEG cap with a conventional 128-channel wet EEG cap for resting state EEG, alpha activity, eye blink artifacts and checkerboard pattern reversal visual evoked potentials. All volunteers report a good cap fit and good wearing comfort. Average impedances are below 150 kΩ for 92 out of 97 dry electrodes, enabling recording with standard EEG amplifiers. No significant differences are observed between wet and dry power spectral densities for all EEG bands. No significant differences are observed between the wet and dry global field power time courses of visual evoked potentials. The 2D interpolated topographic maps show significant differences of 3.52 and 0.44% of the map areas for the N75 and N145 VEP components, respectively. For the P100 component, no significant differences are observed. Dry multipin electrodes integrated in a textile EEG cap overcome the principle limitations of wet electrodes, allow rapid application of EEG multichannel caps by non-trained persons, and thus enable new fields of application for multichannel EEG acquisition.

  17. ATLAS end-cap detector

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Three scientists from the Institute of Nuclear Phyiscs at Novossibirsk with one of the end-caps of the ATLAS detector. The end-caps will be used to detect particles produced in the proton-proton collisions at the heart of the ATLAS experiment that are travelling close to the axis of the two beams.

  18. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  19. ATLAS - End-Cap calorimeter

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The End-cap calorimeter was moved with the help of the rails and this calorimeter will measure the energy of particles close to the beam axis when protons collide. Cooling is important for maximum detector efficiency.

  20. Researchers dodge UK migration cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacey, James

    2011-03-01

    Research scientists are among those to be prioritized under the UK government's new immigration rules that will impose an annual cap on the number of work visas issued to those from outside the European Union (EU).

  1. Genetics Home Reference: cap myopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or a spine that curves to the side ( scoliosis ). The name cap myopathy comes from characteristic abnormal ... health conditions: Diagnostic Tests Drug Therapy Surgery and Rehabilitation Genetic Counseling Palliative Care Related Information How are ...

  2. Alpha fetoprotein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal alpha globulin; AFP ... Greater than normal levels of AFP may be due to: Cancer in testes , ovaries, biliary (liver secretion) tract, stomach, or pancreas Cirrhosis of the liver Liver cancer ...

  3. Creation of polar cap patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, K.; Taguchi, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Polar cap patches, which are islands of enhanced plasma density drifting anti-sunward, are one of the outstanding phenomena in the polar cap F region ionosphere. In the last decade, data from all-sky airglow imagers have been extensively used for better understanding the propagation of patches in the central polar cap region. But still, it has been rather difficult to capture the birth of patches in their generation region near the dayside cusp, because, in most places, the dayside part of the polar cap ionosphere is sunlit even in winter. In Longyearbyen (78.1N, 15.5E), Norway, however, optical observations are possible near the dayside cusp region in a limited period around the winter solstice. This enables us to directly image how polar cap patches are born in the cusp. In this paper, we present a few intervals of daytime optical observations, during which polar cap patches were generated within the field-of-view of an all-sky imager in Longyearbyen. During all the intervals studied here, we identified several signatures of poleward moving auroral forms (PMAF) in the equatorward half of the field-of-view, which are known as ionospheric manifestations of dayside reconnection. Interestingly, patches were directly produced from such poleward moving auroral signatures and propagated poleward along the anti-sunward convection near the cusp. In the literature, Lorentzen et al. (2012) first reported such a direct production of patches from PMAFs. During the current observations, however, we succeeded in tracking the propagation of patches until they reached the poleward edge of the field-of-view of the imager. This confirms that the faint airglow structures produced from PMAFs were actually transported for a long distance towards the central polar cap area; thus, polar cap patches were produced. From this set of observations, we suggest that polar cap patches during moderately disturbed conditions (i.e, non-storm time conditions) can be directly produced by the

  4. Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] is a potent ligand for selectively labeling alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hone, Arik J; Whiteaker, Paul; Mohn, Jesse L; Jacob, Michele H; McIntosh, J Michael

    2010-08-01

    The alpha7* (*denotes the possible presence of additional subunits) nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtype is widely expressed in the vertebrate nervous system and implicated in neuropsychiatric disorders that compromise thought and cognition. In this report, we demonstrate that the recently developed fluorescent ligand Cy3-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels alpha7 nAChRs in cultured hippocampal neurons. However, photobleaching of this ligand during long image acquisition times prompted us to develop a new derivative. In photostability studies, this new ligand, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A], was significantly more resistant to bleaching than the Cy3 derivative. The classic alpha7 ligand alpha-bungarotoxin binds to alpha1* and alpha9* nAChRs. In contrast, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] potently (IC(50) 1.8 nM) and selectively blocked alpha7 nAChRs but not alpha1* or alpha9* nAChRs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Selectivity was further confirmed by competition binding studies of native nAChRs in rat brain membranes. The fluorescence properties of Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] were assessed using human embryonic kidney-293 cells stably transfected with nAChRs; labeling was observed on cells expressing alpha7 but not cells expressing alpha3beta2, alpha3beta4, or alpha4beta2 nAChRs. Further imaging studies demonstrate that Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] labels hippocampal neurons from wild-type mice but not from nAChR alpha7 subunit-null mice. Thus, Alexa Fluor 546-ArIB[V11L;V16A] represents a potent and selective ligand for imaging alpha7 nAChRs.

  5. Crystal structure of Bacillus anthracis transpeptidase enzyme CapD.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, R.; Richter, S.; Zhang, R.; Anderson, V. J.; Missiakas, D.; Joachimiak, A.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Chicago

    2009-09-04

    Bacillus anthracis elaborates a poly-{gamma}-d-glutamic acid capsule that protects bacilli from phagocytic killing during infection. The enzyme CapD generates amide bonds with peptidoglycan cross-bridges to anchor capsular material within the cell wall envelope of B. anthracis. The capsular biosynthetic pathway is essential for virulence during anthrax infections and can be targeted for anti-infective inhibition with small molecules. Here, we present the crystal structures of the {gamma}-glutamyltranspeptidase CapD with and without {alpha}-l-Glu-l-Glu dipeptide, a non-hydrolyzable analog of poly-{gamma}-d-glutamic acid, in the active site. Purified CapD displays transpeptidation activity in vitro, and its structure reveals an active site broadly accessible for poly-{gamma}-glutamate binding and processing. Using structural and biochemical information, we derive a mechanistic model for CapD catalysis whereby Pro{sup 427}, Gly{sup 428}, and Gly{sup 429} activate the catalytic residue of the enzyme, Thr{sup 352}, and stabilize an oxyanion hole via main chain amide hydrogen bonds.

  6. The North Zealand CAP Monitor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Minna; Ravn, Pernille; Notander Clausen, Lise;

    2016-01-01

    nurses and two senior doctors. Direct observations of the clinical processes revealed problems of coordination, complex disease trajectories that did not fit with the pneumonia pathway, unclear guidelines and variation in their interpretation. Intervention We designed a measurement system to monitor...... patients with CAP and effects of interventions to improve the quality of their care. Based on current literature we defined and tested a set of indicators and designed an audit form, a database and a dashboard for presenting the results. Two nurses monthly audited randomly selected files of patients...... steps of the pneumonia pathway. Lessons learnt Quality of care for CAP was worse than expected. Defining and agreeing upon a set of indicators was difficult and time consuming but useful to improve our understanding of how care for CAP was in routine clinical practice. Several indicators we initially...

  7. Inhibition of β-bungarotoxin binding to brain membranes by mast cell degranulating peptide, toxin I, and ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presynaptically active snake venom neurotoxin β-bungarotoxin (β-Butx) is known to affect neurotransmitter release by binding to a subtype of voltage-activated K+ channels. Here the authors show that mast cell degranulating (MCD) peptide from bee venom inhibits the binding of 125I-labeled β-Butx to chick and rat brain membranes with apparent K/sub i/ values of 180 nM and 1100 nM, respectively. The mechanisms of inhibition of MCD peptide is noncompetitive, as is inhibition of 125I-β-Butx binding by the protease inhibitor homologue from mamba venom, toxin I. β-Butx and its binding antagonists thus bind to different sites of the same membrane protein. Removal of Ca2+ by ethylene glycol bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid inhibits the binding of 125I-β-Butx by lowering its affinity to brain membranes

  8. $\\alpha_s$ review (2016)

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David

    2016-01-01

    The current world-average of the strong coupling at the Z pole mass, $\\alpha_s(m^2_{Z}) = 0.1181 \\pm 0.0013$, is obtained from a comparison of perturbative QCD calculations computed, at least, at next-to-next-to-leading-order accuracy, to a set of 6 groups of experimental observables: (i) lattice QCD "data", (ii) $\\tau$ hadronic decays, (iii) proton structure functions, (iv) event shapes and jet rates in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (v) Z boson hadronic decays, and (vi) top-quark cross sections in p-p collisions. In addition, at least 8 other $\\alpha_s$ extractions, usually with a lower level of theoretical and/or experimental precision today, have been proposed: pion, $\\Upsilon$, W hadronic decays; soft and hard fragmentation functions; jets cross sections in pp, e-p and $\\gamma$-p collisions; and photon F$_2$ structure function in $\\gamma\\,\\gamma$ collisions. These 14 $\\alpha_s$ determinations are reviewed, and the perspectives of reduction of their present uncertainties are discussed.

  9. 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid stimulates GABA release from interneurons projecting to CA1 pyramidal neurons in the rat hippocampus via pre-synaptic alpha7 acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Hideyuki; Fujikawa, Hirokazu; Nagata, Tetsu; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2005-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors, such as alpha7, alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 receptors in the hippocampus, are suggested to modulate neurotransmitter release. 8-[2-(2-Pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) (100 nM), a linoleic acid derivative, potentiated responses of alpha7, alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 ACh receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes that are blocked by 3-(1-[dimethylaminopropyl] indol-3-yl)-4-[indol-3-yl] maleimide (GF109203X), a selective inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC), except for alpha3beta4 ACh receptors. DCP-LA enhanced the nicotine-triggered release of GABA from rat hippocampal slices in the presence of tetrodotoxin in a bell-shaped dose-dependent manner at concentrations ranging from 10 nM to 10 microM, although DCP-LA by itself had no effect on GABA release. The DCP-LA action was inhibited by GF109203X or alpha-bungarotoxin, an inhibitor of alpha7 ACh receptors, but not by mecamylamine or dihydro-beta-erithroidine, an inhibitor of alpha3beta4 and alpha4beta2 ACh receptors. A similar effect on GABA release was obtained with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a PKC activator. DCP-LA (100 nM) also enhanced GABA release triggered by choline, an agonist of alpha7 ACh receptors, but not 3-[2(s)-azetidinylmethoxy] pyridine, an agonist of alpha4beta2 ACh receptors. In addition, DCP-LA (100 nM) increased the rate of nicotine-triggered GABA(A) receptor-mediated miniature inhibitory post-synaptic currents, monitored from CA1 pyramidal neurons of rat hippocampal slices, and the effect was also inhibited by GF109203X or alpha-bungarotoxin but not by mecamylamine. Thus, the results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA stimulates GABA release by enhancing activity of pre-synaptic alpha7 ACh receptors present on the GABAergic terminals of interneurons that transmit to CA1 pyramidal neurons via a PKC pathway. PMID:16248884

  10. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  11. Afterglow-reabsorbed H/sub alpha/ line delay effect in an expanding laser plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derzhiev, V.I.; Zhidkov, A.G.; Maiorov, S.A.; Yakovlenko, S.I.

    1987-11-28

    The absorption of H/sub ..cap alpha../ line radiation is shown to lead to delay and even to non-monotonic afterglowing if observed along the 'line' of the expanding laser plasma. This makes it possible to explain the emission character of the H/sub ..cap alpha../ line of the O VIII ion (lambda = 10.2 nm) in experiments with 'Novette' set-ups.

  12. The $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Day, J P; Elhanafy, M; Smith, E; Woodhouse, R; Papp, Z

    2011-01-01

    The fishbone potential of composite particles simulates the Pauli effect by nonlocal terms. We determine the $\\alpha-\\alpha$ fishbone potential by simultaneously fitting to two-$\\alpha$ resonance energies, experimental phase shifts and three-$\\alpha$ binding energies. We found that essentially a simple gaussian can provide a good description of two-$\\alpha$ and three-$\\alpha$ experimental data without invoking three-body potentials.

  13. ATLAS End Cap toroid in upstanding position

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    End Cap toroid The ATLAS End Cap toroid weights 240-ton and is 12-m diameter high. The parts of this vacuum vessel had to be integrated and tested so that End Cap Toroid has no leaks. After that it could be cooled down to 80 K.

  14. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe;

    2014-01-01

    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...

  15. 21 CFR 888.3000 - Bone cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bone cap. 888.3000 Section 888.3000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 888.3000 Bone cap. (a) Identification. A bone cap is a...

  16. Dynamic Modeling of an Evapotranspiration Cap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacob J. Jacobson; Steven Piet; Rafael Soto; Gerald Sehlke; Harold Heydt; John Visser

    2005-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is scheduled to design and install hundreds of landfill caps/barriers over the next several decades and these caps will have a design life expectancy of up to 1,000 years. Other landfill caps with 30 year design lifetimes are reaching the end of their original design life; the changes to these caps need to be understood to provide a basis for lifetime extension. Defining the attributes that make a successful cap (one that isolates the waste from the environment) is crucial to these efforts. Because cap systems such as landfill caps are dynamic in nature, it is impossible to understand, monitor, and update lifetime predictions without understanding the dynamics of cap degradation, which is most often due to multiple interdependent factors rather than isolated independent events. In an attempt to understand the dynamics of cap degradation, a computer model using system dynamics is being developed to capture the complex behavior of an evapotranspiration cap. The specific objectives of this project are to capture the dynamic, nonlinear feedback loop structures underlying an evapotranspiration cap and, through computer simulation, gain a better understanding of long-term behavior, influencing factors, and, ultimately, long-term cap performance.

  17. Alpha One Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tested Find Support Find Doctor What Is Alpha-1? Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Alpha-1) is a ... results for inhaled augmentation More News Our Number One Goal: Find a cure for Alpha-1. Website ...

  18. Traceability and the new CAP

    OpenAIRE

    Maraveyas, Napoleon N.; Doukas, Yannis El.

    2009-01-01

    The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) was strongly criticized for the food safety crises of the 1990s which included Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE), dioxin, foot and mouth disease and swine fever to name a few. Even though the first rules on food safety date from the very early days of the EU, a need was recognized to replace a number of these rules accumulated through the years, whose implementation was difficult to monitor, with a simpler and more comprehensive approach. The result w...

  19. Satellite altimeter remote sensing of ice caps

    OpenAIRE

    Rinne, Eero Juhani

    2011-01-01

    This thesis investigates the use of satellite altimetry techniques for measuring surface elevation changes of ice caps. Two satellite altimeters, Radar Altimeter 2 (RA-2) and Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) are used to assess the surface elevation changes of three Arctic ice caps. This is the first time the RA-2 has been used to assess the elevation changes of ice caps - targets much smaller than the ice sheets which are the instrument’s primary land ice targets. Algor...

  20. Topological dispositions of lysine. alpha. 380 and lysine. gamma. 486 in the acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, B.P. (Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla (USA))

    1991-04-23

    The locations have been determined, with respect to the plasma membrane, of lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 in the {alpha} subunit and the {gamma} subunit, respectively, of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor from Torpedo californica. Immunoadsorbents were constructed that recognize the carboxy terminus of the peptide GVKYIAE released by proteolytic digestion from positions 378-384 in the amino acid sequence of the {alpha} subunit of the acetylcholine receptor and the carboxy terminus of the peptide KYVP released by proteolytic digestion from positions 486-489 in the amino acid sequence of the {gamma} subunit. They were used to isolate these peptides from proteolytic digests of polypeptides from the acetylcholine receptor. Sealed vesicles containing the native acetylcholine receptor were labeled with pyridoxal phosphate and sodium ({sup 3}H)-borohydride. The effect of saponin on the incorporation of pyridoxamine phosphate into lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 from the acetylcholine receptor in these vesicles was assessed with the immunoadsorbents. The conclusions that follow from these results are that lysine {alpha}380 is on the inside surface of a vesicle and lysine {gamma}486 is on the outside surface. Because a majority (85%) of the total binding sites for {alpha}-bungarotoxin bind the toxin in the absence of saponin, the majority of the vesicles are right side out with the inside of the vesicle corresponding to the cytoplasmic surface and the outside of the vesicle corresponding to the extracytoplasmic, synaptic surface. Because lysine {alpha}380 and lysine {gamma}486 lie on opposite sides of the membrane, a membrane-spanning segment must be located between the two positions occupied by these two amino acids in the common sequence of a polypeptide of the acetylcholine receptor.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Tribological Behavior of Oleic Acid Capped Graphene Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiedan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Graphene oxide (GO nanosheets were prepared by modified Hummers and Offeman methods. Furthermore, oleic acid (OA capped graphene oxide (OACGO nanosheets were prepared and characterized by means of Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD. At the same time, the friction and wear properties of OA capped graphite powder (OACG, OACGO, and oleic acid capped precipitate of graphite (OACPG as additives in poly-alpha-olefin (PAO were compared using four-ball tester and SRV-1 reciprocating ball-on-disc friction and wear tester. By the addition of OACGO to PAO, the antiwear ability was improved and the friction coefficient was decreased. Also, the tribological mechanism of the GO was investigated.

  2. Nature mangement, landscape and the CAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, F.M.; Godeschalk, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    The integration of nature management, landscape and environmental concerns into the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) has gained momentum with the CAP reforms adopted in June 2003. The report explores instruments and approaches that contribute to the inte-gration of nature conservation and landscape

  3. Microtubule dynamics: Caps, catastrophes, and coupled hydrolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Holy, T.E.; Leibler, S.

    1996-01-01

    An effective theory is formulated for the dynamics of the guanosine triphosphate (GTP) cap believed to stabilize growing microtubules. The theory provides a ''coarse-grained'' description of the cap's dynamics. ''Microscopic'' details, such as the microtubule lattice structure and the fate of its...... data. A constant nonzero catastrophe rare, identical for both microtubule ends, is predicted at large growth rates. The delay time for dilution-induced catastrophes is stochastic with a simple distribution that fits the experimental one and, like the experimental one, does not depend on the rate of....... A recent experimental result for the size of the minimal cap that can stabilize a microtubule is shown to agree with the result predicted by the cap model, after its parameters have been extracted from previous experimental results. Thus the effective theory and cap model presented here provide a...

  4. Genetic ablation of root cap cells in Arabidopsis

    OpenAIRE

    Tsugeki, Ryuji; Fedoroff, Nina V.

    1999-01-01

    The root cap is increasingly appreciated as a complex and dynamic plant organ. Root caps sense and transmit environmental signals, synthesize and secrete small molecules and macromolecules, and in some species shed metabolically active cells. However, it is not known whether root caps are essential for normal shoot and root development. We report the identification of a root cap-specific promoter and describe its use to genetically ablate root caps by directing root cap-specific expression of...

  5. CAPS and INMS Major Accomplishments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, J. Hunter

    2014-05-01

    The Cassini-Huygens Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (Cassini INMS) and the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) have provided "discovery" science at Titan, Enceladus, Rhea/Dione, and throughout the magnetosphere of Saturn during the course of the mission. In this talk we will review some of the major scientific achievements: 1) the discovery of an extremely complex ion neutral organic chemistry in Titan's upper atmosphere that forms the building blocks for aerosol processes below, 2) the discovery of gases and grains emanating from Enceladus' cryo-geysers that tell us about chemical processes in an interior sea, 3) the first direct compositional measurements of sputtered icy moon surfaces, 4) the clearest example to date of the complex plasma interchange processes that occur in rapidly rotating magnetospheres of gas giants, initiating global dynamic processes that enable Saturn to shed the plasma from Enceladus' plume, and complete with a myriad of longitudinal and solar local-time variations, and 5) the dominance of Enceladus water outgassing as a source of magnetospheric plasma that stretches out to Titan and provides oxygen that can convert Titan's rich nitrile populations into amino acids.

  6. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-01-01

    Processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei comprise a major part of stellar nucleosynthesis and hypothesized mechanisms for thermonuclear supernovae. In an effort towards understanding alpha processes from first principles, we describe in this letter the first ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of nucleons and apply a technique called the adiabatic projection method to reduce the eight-body system to an effective two-cluster system. We find good agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for S-wave and D-wave scattering. The computational scaling with particle number suggests that alpha processes involving heavier nuclei are also within reach in the near future.

  7. The pharmaceutical vial capping process: Container closure systems, capping equipment, regulatory framework, and seal quality tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathaes, Roman; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Buettiker, Jean-Pierre; Roehl, Holger; Lam, Philippe; Brown, Helen; Luemkemann, Joerg; Adler, Michael; Huwyler, Joerg; Streubel, Alexander; Mohl, Silke

    2016-02-01

    Parenteral drug products are protected by appropriate primary packaging to protect against environmental factors, including potential microbial contamination during shelf life duration. The most commonly used CCS configuration for parenteral drug products is the glass vial, sealed with a rubber stopper and an aluminum crimp cap. In combination with an adequately designed and controlled aseptic fill/finish processes, a well-designed and characterized capping process is indispensable to ensure product quality and integrity and to minimize rejections during the manufacturing process. In this review, the health authority requirements and expectations related to container closure system quality and container closure integrity are summarized. The pharmaceutical vial, the rubber stopper, and the crimp cap are described. Different capping techniques are critically compared: The most common capping equipment with a rotating capping plate produces the lowest amount of particle. The strength and challenges of methods to control the capping process are discussed. The residual seal force method can characterize the capping process independent of the used capping equipment or CCS. We analyze the root causes of several cosmetic defects associated with the vial capping process.

  8. Capping stack: An industry in the making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Chen; Li Xunke; Xie Wenhui; Kang Yongtian

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of recent development of the marine well containment system (MWCS)after BP Macondo subsea well blowout occurred on April 20,2010 in the Gulf of Mexico.Capping stack,a hardware utilized to contain blowout well at or near the wellhead is the center piece of MWCS.Accessibility to the dedicated capping stacks is gradually becoming a pre-requirement to obtain the permit for offshore drilling/workover,and the industry for manufacturing,maintenance,transportation and operation of the capping stack is in the making.

  9. Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Circumpolar Active-Layer Permafrost System (CAPS) contains over 100 data sets pertaining to permafrost and frozen ground topics. It also contains detailed...

  10. C-CAP Land Cover, Niihau, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  11. C-CAP Land Cover, Molokai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  12. C-CAP Land Cover, Lanai, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  13. Mapping of p140Cap phosphorylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Repetto, Daniele; Aramu, Simona; Boeri Erba, Elisabetta;

    2013-01-01

    protein, in which both EPLYA/EGLYA tyrosines were converted to phenylalanine, was no longer tyrosine phosphorylated, despite the presence of other tyrosine residues in p140Cap sequence. Moreover, this mutant lost its ability to bind the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk), previously shown to interact with p140...... phosphorylation and tunes its interactions with other regulatory molecules via post-translation modification. In this work, using mass spectrometry, we found that p140Cap is in vivo phosphorylated on tyrosine (Y) within the peptide GEGLpYADPYGLLHEGR (from now on referred to as EGLYA) as well as on three serine...... residues. Consistently, EGLYA has the highest score of in silico prediction of p140Cap phosphorylation. To further investigate the p140Cap function, we performed site specific mutagenesis on tyrosines inserted in EGLYA and EPLYA, a second sequence with the same highest score of phosphorylation. The mutant...

  14. C-CAP Hawaii 2005 Land Cover

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  15. C-CAP Land Cover, Maui, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  16. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A.; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G.

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles (4He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei—nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons—is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the ‘adiabatic projection method’ to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  17. Ab initio alpha-alpha scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhatisari, Serdar; Lee, Dean; Rupak, Gautam; Epelbaum, Evgeny; Krebs, Hermann; Lähde, Timo A; Luu, Thomas; Meißner, Ulf-G

    2015-12-01

    Processes such as the scattering of alpha particles ((4)He), the triple-alpha reaction, and alpha capture play a major role in stellar nucleosynthesis. In particular, alpha capture on carbon determines the ratio of carbon to oxygen during helium burning, and affects subsequent carbon, neon, oxygen, and silicon burning stages. It also substantially affects models of thermonuclear type Ia supernovae, owing to carbon detonation in accreting carbon-oxygen white-dwarf stars. In these reactions, the accurate calculation of the elastic scattering of alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei--nuclei with even and equal numbers of protons and neutrons--is important for understanding background and resonant scattering contributions. First-principles calculations of processes involving alpha particles and alpha-like nuclei have so far been impractical, owing to the exponential growth of the number of computational operations with the number of particles. Here we describe an ab initio calculation of alpha-alpha scattering that uses lattice Monte Carlo simulations. We use lattice effective field theory to describe the low-energy interactions of protons and neutrons, and apply a technique called the 'adiabatic projection method' to reduce the eight-body system to a two-cluster system. We take advantage of the computational efficiency and the more favourable scaling with system size of auxiliary-field Monte Carlo simulations to compute an ab initio effective Hamiltonian for the two clusters. We find promising agreement between lattice results and experimental phase shifts for s-wave and d-wave scattering. The approximately quadratic scaling of computational operations with particle number suggests that it should be possible to compute alpha scattering and capture on carbon and oxygen in the near future. The methods described here can be applied to ultracold atomic few-body systems as well as to hadronic systems using lattice quantum chromodynamics to describe the interactions of

  18. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, based on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties, the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated, and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver. A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation, the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers, and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband. A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time. A software process flow is provided, and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted, such as signal searching, code loop and carrier loop algorithms, a height assistant algorithm, a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique, a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance, and a CAPS time correcting algorithm, according to the design frame of the receiver hardware. Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m, height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m, speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s, dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m, height accuracy is 3.0 m, and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s. In the case of C/A code, the timing accuracy is 200 ns, and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ ) is 5 m from south to north, and 0.8 m from east to west. Finally, research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  19. UNDERSTANDING FARMERS’ RESPONSES TO CAP REFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Menozzi, Davide; Fioravanzi, Martina; Donati, Michele

    2014-01-01

    The 2014-2020 Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) reform defines new rules for farmers including regionalization, crop diversification and ecological focus area (EFA). This paper aims to evaluate farmers’ intention to modify their behaviour because of the CAP reform, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). A questionnaire was submitted to 71 Italian durum wheat producers assessing their intention to change durum wheat surface and to maintain as EFA part of the arable land. Subjective norms ...

  20. Faddeev calculation of 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems using alpha alpha resonating-group method kernel

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M; Suzuki, Y; Baye, D; Sparenberg, J M

    2004-01-01

    We carry out Faddeev calculations of three-alpha (3 alpha) and two-alpha plus Lambda (alpha alpha Lambda) systems, using two-cluster resonating-group method kernels. The input includes an effective two-nucleon force for the alpha alpha resonating-group method and a new effective Lambda N force for the Lambda alpha interaction. The latter force is a simple two-range Gaussian potential for each spin-singlet and triplet state, generated from the phase-shift behavior of the quark-model hyperon-nucleon interaction, fss2, by using an inversion method based on supersymmetric quantum mechanics. Owing to the exact treatment of the Pauli-forbidden states between the clusters, the present three-cluster Faddeev formalism can describe the mutually related, alpha alpha, 3 alpha and alpha alpha Lambda systems, in terms of a unique set of the baryon-baryon interactions. For the three-range Minnesota force which describes the alpha alpha phase shifts quite accurately, the ground-state and excitation energies of 9Be Lambda are...

  1. Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Is a Target in Pharmacology and Toxicology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Pohanka

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR is an important part of the cholinergic nerve system in the brain. Moreover, it is associated with a cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the termination of the parasympathetic nervous system. Antagonists of α7 nAChR are a wide group represented by conotoxin and bungarotoxin. Even Alzheimer’s disease drug memantine acting as an antagonist in its side pathway belongs in this group. Agonists of α7 nAChR are suitable for treatment of multiple cognitive dysfunctions such as Alzheimer’s disease or schizophrenia. Inflammation or even sepsis can be ameliorated by the agonistic acting compounds. Preparations RG3487, SEN34625/WYE-103914, SEN12333, ABT-107, Clozapine, GTS-21, CNI-1493, and AR-R17779 are representative examples of the novel compounds with affinity toward the α7 nAChR. Pharmacological, toxicological, and medicinal significance of α7 nAChR are discussed throughout this paper.

  2. 75 FR 49527 - Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as Caps Group Acquisition, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-13

    ... Employment and Training Administration Caps Visual Communications, LLC; Black Dot Group; Formerly Known as... Adjustment Assistance on June 24, 2010, applicable to workers of Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot..., Caps Visual Communications, LLC, Black Dot Group, formerly known as Caps Group Acquisition,...

  3. Review of alpha_s determinations

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present knowledge on the strong coupling is briefly summarized. The most precise determinations of alpha_s, at different energies, are reviewed and compared at the Z mass scale, using the predicted QCD running. The impressive agreement achieved between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions constitutes a beautiful and very significant test of Asymptotic Freedom, establishing QCD as the fundamental theory of the strong interaction. The world average value of the strong coupling is found to be alpha_s(M_Z^2)= 0.1186 \\pm 0.0007.

  4. Scenarios for a cap beyond 2013; Implications for EU27 agriculture and the cap budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helming, J.F.M.; Terluin, I.J.

    2011-01-01

    An ex ante analysis of a set of five policy components (proposed post 2013 CAP measures) has been carried out for the 2014-2020 period, based on the EC Communication The CAP towards 2020 of 18 November 2010. The policy components are defined in such a way that they focus on the contribution of farme

  5. Decay properties of /sup 186/Pb and the lead alpha-decay rate anomaly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, K.S.; Ellis-Akovali, Y.A.; Bingham, C.R.; Moltz, D.M.; Carter, H.K.; Mlekodaj, R.L.; Spejewski, E.H.; Sousa, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha-decay transitions between ground states of doubly-even nuclei are taken to represent unhindered decays. Reduced widths for these s-wave transitions behave in a regular fashion as a function of both neutron and atomic number. They are largest for nuclei two or four particles beyond a closed shell (with sharp minima at the shell) and they then decrease as the next closure is approached. The s-wave widths for /sup 186/ /sup 188/ /sup 190/ /sup 192/Pb, however, have been reported to behave anomalously, i.e., they purportedly increase by a factor of 30 between /sup 186/Pb (N = 104) and /sup 192/Ob (N = 110) instead of decreasing as one nears N = 126. Theoretical calculations have not reproduced this unusual behavior. The (electron-capture (EC) + ..beta../sup +/) strengths were deduced from K x-ray intensities. A number of corrections are involved in such determinations. We undertook the investigation of the (EC + ..beta../sup +/) decay schemes of these neutron-deficient lead isotopes, in conjunction with studies of their ..cap alpha..-decay properties, to obtain more reliable ..cap alpha..-branching ratios. Herein we present new information on /sup 186/Pb and discuss the partial ..cap alpha.. half-lives for /sup 192/Pb, /sup 190/Pb, /sup 188/Pb, and /sup 186/Pb together with ..cap alpha..-decay rates for even-even nuclei with Z greater than or equal to 78.

  6. Analysis on the positioning precision of CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As a newly developed satellite positioning system, the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) is a typical direct sequence spread spectrum ranging system like GPS. The positioning precision of such navigation signals depends on many factors, including the pseudo-code rate, the signal to noise ratio, the processing methods for tracking loops and so on. This paper describes the CAPS link budget, the solution approach for CAPS positioning, focusing on the autocorrelation function feature of C/A code signals. The CAPS signal measurement precision is studied by the software approach together with theoretical analysis of the range resolution. Because the conventional Delay Lock Loop (DLL) is vul- nerable to the impact of noise, a narrow correlator and multiple correlators as well as the corresponding discrimination methods of phases are proposed, which improves the robustness of DLL and the code-phase resolution of the measurement. The results show that the improvement of the DLL structure and the discrimination method are the most important way to improve the ranging resolution. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that a CAPS receiver could reach a 20-m positioning precision by using three satellites with a supported height from an altimeter.

  7. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Adrian J; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-01-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is 'are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?' To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls=120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for ...

  8. Analysis on the positioning precision of CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI YuanFa; SUN XiYan

    2009-01-01

    As a newly developed satellite positioning system,the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) Is a typical direct sequence spread spectrum ranging system like GPS.The positioning precision of such navigation signals depends on many factors,including the pseudo-code rate,the signal to noise ratio,the processing methods for tracking loops and so on.This paper describes the CAPS link budget,the solution approach for CAPS positioning,focusing on the autocorrelation function feature of C/A code signals.The CAPS signal measurement precision is studied by the software approach together with theoretical analysis of the range resolution.Because the conventional Delay Lock Loop (DLL) is vulnerable to the impact of noise,a narrow correlator and multiple correlatore as well as the corresponding discrimination methods of phases are proposed,which improves the robustness of DLL and the code-phase resolution of the measurement.The results show that the Improvement of the DLL structure and the discrimination method are the most important way to improve the ranging resolution.Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that a CAPS receiver could reach a 20-m positioning precision by using three satellites with a supported height from an altimeter.

  9. Nasute termite soldier frontal gland secretions. 1. Structure of Trinervi-2. beta. ,3. cap alpha. ,9. cap alpha. -triol 9-O acetate, a novel diterpene from Trinervitermes soldiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prestwich, G.D. (International Center of Insect Physiology and Ecology, Nairobi, Kenya); Tanis, S.P.; Springer, J.P.; Clardy, J.

    1976-09-15

    One of the major constituents, ''TG-2,'' of the soldier secretions of Trinervitermes gratiosus Sjostedt were studied by x-ray diffraction. The structure was determined to be a novel diterpene skeleton with a bridgehead double bond in an 11-membered ring. Bond angles and lengths were discussed, and a computer generated perspective drawing of the compound was presented. (DDA)

  10. Capping complex formation at the slow-growing end of the actin filament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukova, A S

    2008-12-01

    Actin filaments are polar; their barbed (fast-growing) and pointed (slow-growing) ends differ in structure and dynamic properties. The slow-growing end is regulated by tropomodulins, a family of capping proteins that require tropomyosins for optimal function. There are four tropomodulin isoforms; their distributions vary depending on tissue type and change during development. The C-terminal half of tropomodulin contains one compact domain represented by alternating alpha-helices and beta-structures. The tropomyosin-independent actin-capping site is located at the C-terminus. The N-terminal half has no regular structure; however, it contains a tropomyosin-dependent actin-capping site and two tropomyosin-binding sites. One tropomodulin molecule can bind two tropomyosin molecules. Effectiveness of tropomodulin binding to tropomyosin depends on the tropomyosin isoform. Regulation of tropomodulin binding at the pointed end as well as capping effectiveness in the presence of specific tropomyosins may affect formation of local cytoskeleton and dynamics of actin filaments in cells. PMID:19216712

  11. Review of alpha_s determinations

    OpenAIRE

    Pich, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The present knowledge on the strong coupling is briefly summarized. The most precise determinations of alpha_s, at different energies, are reviewed and compared at the Z mass scale, using the predicted QCD running. The impressive agreement achieved between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions constitutes a beautiful and very significant test of Asymptotic Freedom, establishing QCD as the fundamental theory of the strong interaction. The world average value of the strong coupl...

  12. Seismic explosion sources on an ice cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shulgin, Alexey; Thybo, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Controlled source seismic investigation of crustal structure below ice covers is an emerging technique. We have recently conducted an explosive refraction/wide-angle reflection seismic experiment on the ice cap in east-central Greenland. The data-quality is high for all shot points and a full...... crustal model can be modelled. A crucial challenge for applying the technique is to control the sources. Here, we present data that describe the efficiency of explosive sources in the ice cover. Analysis of the data shows, that the ice cap traps a significant amount of energy, which is observed...... as a strong ice wave. The ice cap leads to low transmission of energy into the crust such that charges need be larger than in conventional onshore experiments to obtain reliable seismic signals. The strong reflection coefficient at the base of the ice generates strong multiples which may mask for secondary...

  13. Martian north polar cap summer water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Adrian J.; Calvin, Wendy M.; Becerra, Patricio; Byrne, Shane

    2016-10-01

    A key outstanding question in Martian science is "are the polar caps gaining or losing mass and what are the implications for past, current and future climate?" To address this question, we use observations from the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) of the north polar cap during late summer for multiple Martian years, to monitor the summertime water cycle in order to place quantitative limits on the amount of water ice deposited and sublimed in late summer. We establish here for the first time the summer cycle of water ice absorption band signatures on the north polar cap. We show that in a key region in the interior of the north polar cap, the absorption band depths grow until Ls = 120, when they begin to shrink, until they are obscured at the end of summer by the north polar hood. This behavior is transferable over the entire north polar cap, where in late summer regions 'flip' from being net sublimating into net condensation mode. This transition or 'mode flip' happens earlier for regions closer to the pole, and later for regions close to the periphery of the cap. The observations and calculations presented herein estimate that on average a water ice layer ∼70 microns thick is deposited during the Ls = 135-164 period. This is far larger than the results of deposition on the south pole during summer, where an average layer 0.6-6 microns deep has been estimated by Brown et al. (2014) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 406, 102-109.

  14. Pharmacy benefit caps and the chronically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Geoffrey F; Goldman, Dana P; Karaca-Mandic, Pinar; Zheng, Yuhui

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we examine medication use among retirees with employer-sponsored drug coverage both with and without annual benefit limits. We find that pharmacy benefit caps are associated with higher rates of medication discontinuation across the most common therapeutic classes and that only a minority of those who discontinue use reinitiate therapy once coverage resumes. Plan members who reach their cap are more likely than others to switch plans and increase their rate of generic use; however, in most cases, the shift is temporary. Given the similarities between these plans and Part D, we make some inferences about reforms for Medicare.

  15. Assembling the CMS yoke end-caps

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    A crane is used to piece together one of the end-caps that will provide the path for magnetic flux return on the CMS experiment. A total of six end-cap discs will be assembled before being positioned on the barrel yoke to complete the huge 12 500 tonne cylinder yoke. The magnetic field produced will be greater than any other solenoid created to date at 4 T, 100 000 times greater than the Earth's natural magnetic field, and will store enough energy to melt 18 tonnes of gold.

  16. Design and implementation of the CAPS receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YongHui; HUA Yu; HOU Lei; WEI JingFa; WU JianFeng

    2009-01-01

    In this paper,baaed on analyses of the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) satellite (GEO satellite) resources and signal properties,the signal power at the port of the receiver antenna is estimated,and the implementation projects are presented for a switching band C to band L CAPS C/A code receiver integrated with GPS receiver suite and for a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver.A microstrip receiving antenna is designed with high sensitivity and wide beam orientation,the RF front end of the C/A code and P code receivers,and a processor is designed for the navigation baseband.A single frequency CAPS C/A code receiver and a CAPS dual frequency P code receiver are built at the same time.A software process flow is provided,and research on relatively key techniques is also conducted,such as signal searching,code loop and carrier loop algorithms,a height assistant algorithm,a dual frequency difference speed measurement technique,a speed measurement technique using a single frequency source with frequency assistance,and a CAPS time correcting algorithm,according to the design frame of the receiver hardware.Research results show that the static plane positioning accuracy of the CAPS C/A code receiver is 20.5-24.6 m,height accuracy is 1.2-12.8 m,speed measurement accuracy is 0.13-0.3 m/s,dynamic plane positioning accuracy is 24.4 m,height accuracy is 3.0 m,and speed measurement accuracy is 0.24 m/s.In the case of C/A code,the timing accuracy is 200 ha,and it is also shown that the positioning accuracy of the CAPS precise code receiver (1σ) is 5 m from south to north,and 0.8 m from east to west.Finally,research on positioning accuracy is also conducted.

  17. New ALPHA-2 magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2012-01-01

    On 21 June, members of the ALPHA collaboration celebrated the handover of the first solenoid designed for the ALPHA-2 experiment. The magnet has since been successfully installed and is working well.   Khalid Mansoor, Sumera Yamin and Jeffrey Hangst in front of the new ALPHA-2 solenoid. “This was the first of three identical solenoids that will be installed between now and September, as the rest of the ALPHA-2 device is installed and commissioned,” explains ALPHA spokesperson Jeffrey Hangst. “These magnets are designed to allow us to transfer particles - antiprotons, electrons and positrons - between various parts of the new ALPHA-2 device by controlling the transverse size of the particle bunch that is being transferred.” Sumera Yamin and Khalid Mansoor, two Pakistani scientists from the National Centre for Physics in Islamabad, came to CERN in February specifically to design and manufacture these magnets. “We had the chance to work on act...

  18. CAP Reform and the Doha Development Agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijck, P.; Faber, G.

    2004-01-01

    The CAP reforms that the EU accepted in June 2003 will partially decouple direct income payments to farmers from production and make these payments conditional on cross-compliance. The reforms are driven by enlargement of EU membership, budgetary constraints, mounting pressures from diverse animal w

  19. The Effectiveness of Caps on Political Lobbying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matejka, M.; Onderstal, A.M.; De Waegenaere, A.M.B.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze a lobby game, modelled as an all-pay auction in which interest groups submit bids in order to obtain a political prize.The bids are restricted to be below a cap imposed by the government.For both an incomplete and a complete information setting we show the following results

  20. INTERNATIONAL WHEAT PRICE TRANSMISSION AND CAP REFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Stanley R.; Bohl, Martin T.

    1999-01-01

    We illustrate how CAP policy reforms influence the transmission of world prices to domestic markets. Monthly wheat price data in Germany are used to obtain price transmission elasticities. Correctly accounting for structural breaks and the time series properties of the data yield transmission elasticities that differ dramatically among policy regimes.

  1. Knowledge Management at Cap Gemini Nederland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Vlaanderen (Marie Jose)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractThe theme of this paper is knowledge management (KM) at an organization that provides information technology (IT) services. It is based on the results of a KM-survey of the Finance Division of Cap Gemini (CG) conducted during the spring of 1997.

  2. ATLAS: End-cap Toroid assembly

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    In building 191 and building 180- assembly of this massive piece.To reach the top of the end-cap the cranes has to be used and during the assembly you can see welding and hear many tools running background.

  3. Alpha Shapes and Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winter, Pawel; Sterner, Henrik; Sterner, Peter

    2009-01-01

    We provide a unified description of (weighted) alpha shapes, beta shapes and the corresponding simplicialcomplexes. We discuss their applicability to various protein-related problems. We also discuss filtrations of alpha shapes and touch upon related persistence issues.We claim that the full...... potential of alpha-shapes and related geometrical constructs in protein-related problems yet remains to be realized and verified. We suggest parallel algorithms for (weighted) alpha shapes, and we argue that future use of filtrations and kinetic variants for larger proteins will need such implementation....

  4. Targeted Alpha Therapy: From Alpha to Omega

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review covers the broad spectrum of Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT) research in Australia; from in vitro and in vivo studies to clinical trials. The principle of tumour anti-vascular alpha therapy (TAVAT) is discussed in terms of its validation by Monte Carlo calculations of vascular models and the potential role of biological dosimetry is examined. Summmary of this review is as follows: 1. The essence of TAT 2. Therapeutic objectives 3. TAVAT and Monte Carlo microdosimetry 4. Biological dosimetry 5. Preclinical studies 6. Clinical trials 7. What next? 8. Obstacles. (author)

  5. Structure, stability and folding of the alpha-helix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doig, A J; Andrew, C D; Cochran, D A; Hughes, E; Penel, S; Sun, J K; Stapley, B J; Clarke, D T; Jones, G R

    2001-01-01

    Pauling first described the alpha-helix nearly 50 years ago, yet new features of its structure continue to be discovered, using peptide model systems, site-directed mutagenesis, advances in theory, the expansion of the Protein Data Bank and new experimental techniques. Helical peptides in solution form a vast number of structures, including fully helical, fully coiled and partly helical. To interpret peptide results quantitatively it is essential to use a helix/coil model that includes the stabilities of all these conformations. Our models now include terms for helix interiors, capping, side-chain interactions, N-termini and 3(10)-helices. The first three amino acids in a helix (N1, N2 and N3) and the preceding N-cap are unique, as their amide NH groups do not participate in backbone hydrogen bonding. We surveyed their structures in proteins and measured their amino acid preferences. The results are predominantly rationalized by hydrogen bonding to the free NH groups. Stabilizing side-chain-side-chain energies, including hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding and polar/non-polar interactions, were measured accurately in helical peptides. Helices in proteins show a preference for having approximately an integral number of turns so that their N- and C-caps lie on the same side. There are also strong periodic trends in the likelihood of terminating a helix with a Schellman or alpha L C-cap motif. The kinetics of alpha-helix folding have been studied with stopped-flow deep ultraviolet circular dichroism using synchrotron radiation as the light source; this gives a far superior signal-to-noise ratio than a conventional instrument. We find that poly(Glu), poly(Lys) and alanine-based peptides fold in milliseconds, with longer peptides showing a transient overshoot in helix content.

  6. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Shreedhar; Maitra, Uday

    2008-01-01

    A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

  7. Facially amphiphilic thiol capped gold and silver nanoparticles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shreedhar Bhata; Uday Maitra

    2008-11-01

    A series of bile acid-derived facially amphiphilic thiols have been used to cap sliver and gold nanoparticles. The self-assembling properties of these steroid-capped nanoparticles have been investigated and reported in this article.

  8. Buffett’s Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  9. Exploring plasmonic coupling in hole-cap arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Thomas M.; Maj Frederiksen; Vladimir Bochenkov; Sutherland, Duncan S

    2015-01-01

    The plasmonic coupling between gold caps and holes in thin films was investigated experimentally and through finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) calculations. Sparse colloidal lithography combined with a novel thermal treatment was used to control the vertical spacing between caps and hole arrays and compared to separated arrays of holes or caps. Optical spectroscopy and FDTD simulations reveal strong coupling between the gold caps and both Bloch Wave-surface plasmon polariton (BW-SPP) modes...

  10. Alpha-particle diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, K.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper will focus on the state of development of diagnostics which are expected to provide the information needed for {alpha}- physics studies in the future. Conventional measurement of detailed temporal and spatial profiles of background plasma properties in DT will be essential for such aspects as determining heating effectiveness, shaping of the plasma profiles and effects of MHD, but will not be addressed here. This paper will address (1) the measurement of the neutron source, and hence {alpha}-particle birth profile, (2) measurement of the escaping {alpha}-particles and (3) measurement of the confined {alpha}-particles over their full energy range. There will also be a brief discussion of (4) the concerns about instabilities being generated by {alpha}-particles and the methods necessary for measuring these effects. 51 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Imaging alpha particle detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, D.F.

    1980-10-29

    A method and apparatus for detecting and imaging alpha particles sources is described. A dielectric coated high voltage electrode and a tungsten wire grid constitute a diode configuration discharge generator for electrons dislodged from atoms or molecules located in between these electrodes when struck by alpha particles from a source to be quantitatively or qualitatively analyzed. A thin polyester film window allows the alpha particles to pass into the gas enclosure and the combination of the glass electrode, grid and window is light transparent such that the details of the source which is imaged with high resolution and sensitivity by the sparks produced can be observed visually as well. The source can be viewed directly, electronically counted or integrated over time using photographic methods. A significant increase in sensitivity over other alpha particle detectors is observed, and the device has very low sensitivity to gamma or beta emissions which might otherwise appear as noise on the alpha particle signal.

  12. CMS end-cap yoke at the detector's assembly site.

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    The magnetic flux generated by the superconducting coil in the CMS detector is returned via an iron yoke comprising three end-cap discs at each end (end-cap yoke) and five concentric cylinders (barrel yoke). This picture shows the first of three end-cap discs (red) seen through the outer cylinder of the vacuum tank which will house the superconducting coil.

  13. Greening CAP payments: a missed opportunity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthews, Alan

    2013-01-15

    At an important point in the current reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP), a new IIEA policy brief by Professor Alan Matthews, one of the EU’s foremost experts on the topic, considers proposals to green direct farm payments. Professor Matthews argues that proposed greening of direct payments – the key innovation in the current round of CAP Reform – look likely to fail. While greening may survive as a concept, the likely outcome of the negotiations between Agriculture Ministers and the European Parliament will deliver little practical environmental benefit. The paper examines the rationale underpinning greening, arguing that it exists to justify the continuation of a large agricultural budget, explores reasons for the apparent failure of the proposals, and reflects on the implications for future efforts to better integrate environmental objectives into EU agriculture policy. This is the first in a series of Environment Nexus policy briefs by leading experts in the fields of agriculture, energy, climate change and water.

  14. Should we geoengineer larger ice caps?

    CERN Document Server

    Haqq-Misra, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    The climate of Earth is susceptible to catastrophes that could threaten the longevity of human civilization. Geoengineering to reduce incoming solar radiation has been suggested as a way to mediate the warming effects of contemporary climate change, but a geoengineering program for thousands of years could also be used to enlarge the size of the polar ice caps and create a permanently cooler climate. Such a large ice cap state would make Earth less susceptible to climate threats and could allow human civilization to survive further into the future than otherwise possible. Intentionally extending Earth's glacial coverage will require uninterrupted commitment to this program for millenia but would ultimately reach a cooler equilibrium state where geoengineering is no longer needed. Whether or not this program is ever attempted, this concept illustrates the need to identify preference among potential climate states to ensure the long-term success of civilization.

  15. Status of the AlCap experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Litchfield, R Phillip

    2015-01-01

    The AlCap experiment is a joint project between the COMET and Mu2e collaborations. Both experiments intend to look for the lepton-flavour violating conversion $\\mu + A \\rightarrow e + A$, using tertiary muons from high-power pulsed proton beams. In these experiments the products of ordinary muon capture in the muon stopping target are an important concern, both in terms of hit rates in tracking detectors and radiation damage to equipment. The goal of the AlCap experiment is to provide precision measurements of the products of nuclear capture on Aluminium, which is the favoured target material for both COMET and Mu2e. The results will be used for optimising the design of both conversion experiments, and as input to their simulations. Data was taken in December 2013 and is currently being analysed.

  16. ATLAS End-cap Part II

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    The epic journey of the ATLAS magnets is drawing to an end. On Thursday 12 July, the second end-cap of the ATLAS toroid magnet was lowered into the cavern of the experiment with the same degree of precision as the first (see Bulletin No. 26/2007). This spectacular descent of the 240-tonne component, is one of the last transport to be completed for ATLAS.

  17. Polar cap size metrics study at CCMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastaetter, L.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Gombosi, T. I.; Raeder, J.; Weimer, D.

    2005-12-01

    The Community-Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) tests space physics models covering space from the Sun's corona to the Earth's ionosphere and makes them available for researchers through a run-on-request capability. The polar cap size and location as observed by global auroral imagers is used as a basis model to study the performance of global MHD simulation models and statistical models of the auroral ionosphere. With good confidence one can assume that auroral emissions are located within the closed magnetic field lines in a narrow region adjacent to the boundary of the open field line region of the polar cap. In this study we are using imager data from POLAR (FUV) for several events from 1997 to 2000 for which reasonable coverage is available. Simulation runs have been performed using the global magnetospheric models BATSRUS (T. Gombosi et al., U. Michigan) and OpenGGCM (J. Raeder, U. New Hampshire) as well as the Weimer (2000,2005) field-aligned current models (D. Weimer, Mission Research Corp.) fed with upstream solar wind data from the ACE or Geotail satellites. In addition to direct field line tracings available from the 3D MHD model outputs, we use field-aligned currents from both MHD models and the Weimer-2K model to determine the polar cap boundary by using the position of the maximum absolute FAC value in 16 local time sectors. We define skill scores that measure the agreement in the polar cap sizes and location between measurements and models as an example of implementations of metrics to track model performance and apply the analysis to a number of storm event days.

  18. Particle Entrainment in Spherical-Cap Wakes

    OpenAIRE

    Warncke, N.G.W.; Delfos, R.; Ooms, G.; Westerweel, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study the preferential concentration of small particles in the turbulent wake behind a spherical-cap object. We present a model predicting the mean particle concentration in the near-wake as a function of the characteristic Stokes number of the problem, the turbulence level and the Froude number. We compare the model with our experimental results on this flow, measured in a vertical water tunnel.

  19. Translated origin spherical cap harmonic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, A.; Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica, Roma, Italy

    1991-01-01

    The method of spherical cap harmonic analysis (SCHA), due to Haines (1985) is appropriate for regional geomagnetic field modelling as it includes the required potential field constraints and, for a given number of model parameters, describes shorter wavelength features than a global spherical harmonic model. If the origin of the coordinate system is moved from the centre of the Earth towards the surface then the Earth's surface is no longer equidistant from the origin. At the Earth's surface ...

  20. Pulp-Capping with Mineral Trioxide Aggregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peycheva Kalina

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are two considerations for direct pulp capping - accidental mechanical pulp exposure and exposure caused by caries. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA was used as pulp-capping material to preserve the vitality of the pulpal tissues. Follow-up examinations revealed that treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality and continued development of the tooth. On the basis of available information, it appears that MTA is the material of choice for some clinical applications. Material and methods: Cases 18 - 8 teeth with grey MTA, 10 teeth with white MTA; diagnose: Pulpitis chronica ulcerosa, Electro pulpal test (EOD - 30-35 μA, pre-clinical X-ray - without changes in the structures, follow ups for 4 years. Successful treatments: without clinical symptoms and changes in the X-rays: 5 teeth with grey MTA, 8 teeth with white MTA for period of 4 years. Unsuccessful treatments: Clinical symptoms and sometimes changes in the X-ray: 3 with grey MTA, 2 with white MTA. MTA is an appropriate material for pulp-capping and follow-up examinations revealed that the treatment was successful in preserving pulpal vitality.

  1. The alpha channeling effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-10

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  2. What Lies Below a Martian Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger annotated version This image (top) taken by the Shallow Radar instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter reveals the layers of ice, sand and dust that make up the north polar ice cap on Mars. It is the most detailed look to date at the insides of this ice cap. The colored map below the radar picture shows the topography of the corresponding Martian terrain (red and white represent higher ground, and green and yellow lower). The radar image reveals four never-before-seen thick layers of ice and dust separated by layers of nearly pure ice. According to scientists, these thick ice-free layers represent approximately one-million-year-long cycles of climate change on Mars caused by variations in the planet's tilted axis and its eccentric orbit around the sun. Adding up the entire stack of ice gives an estimated age for the north polar ice cap of about 4 million years a finding that agrees with previous theoretical estimates. The ice cap is about 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) thick. The radar picture also shows that the boundary between the ice layers and the surface of Mars underneath is relatively flat (bottom white line on the right). This implies that the surface of Mars is not sagging, or bending, under the weight of the ice cap and this, in turn, suggests that the planet's lithosphere, a combination of the crust and the strong parts of the upper mantle, is thicker than previously thought. A thicker lithosphere on Mars means that temperatures increase more gradually with depth toward the interior. Temperatures warm enough for water to be liquid are therefore deeper than previously thought. Likewise, if liquid water does exist in aquifers below the surface of Mars, and if there are any organisms living in that water, they would have to be located deeper in the planet. The topography data are from Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, which was flown on NASA's Mars Global Surveyor mission. NPLD stands

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions through cap barriers of landfills

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourc, J.P.; Staub, M.; Simonin, R. [Grenoble Univ. (France). LTHE

    2009-07-01

    A study was conducted to examine the environmental impacts of landfill cap covers used to produce biogas. The sensitivity of the environmental performance of landfills on biogas collection and recovery systems as well as on cap cover characteristics was investigated. The study examined both soil and geosynthetic landfill cap covers used to maintain impermeability at landfill sites as well as to enable biogas recovery. Two types of cap cover were discussed: (1) a cover that enabled passive wetting of the landfill wastes through rainfall; and (2) an impermeable cap used to control leachate recirculation. The environmental impacts of both caps were discussed. The study showed that landfill cap covers are a significant means of sequestering greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  4. Synthesis of N-hydroxycinnamides capped with a naturally occurring moiety as inhibitors of histone deacetylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Jan; Chen, Ching-Chow; Chao, Shi-Wei; Lee, Shoei-Sheng; Hsu, Fen-Lin; Lu, Yeh-Lin; Hung, Ming-Fang; Chang, Chung-I

    2010-04-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are regarded as promising therapeutics for the treatment of cancer. All reported HDAC inhibitors contain three pharmacophoric features: a zinc-chelating group, a hydrophobic linker, and a hydrophobic cap for surface recognition. In this study we investigated the effectiveness of osthole, a hydrophobic Chinese herbal compound, as the surface recognition cap in hydroxamate-based compounds as inhibitors of HDAC. Nine novel osthole-based N-hydroxycinnamides were synthesized and screened for enzyme inhibition activity. Compounds 9 d, 9 e, 9 g exhibited inhibitory activities (IC(50)=24.5, 20.0, 19.6 nM) against nuclear HDACs in HeLa cells comparable to that of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA; IC(50)=24.5 nM), a potent inhibitor clinically used for the treatment of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL). While compounds 9 d and 9 e showed SAHA-like activity towards HDAC1 and HDAC6, compound 9 g was more selective for HDAC1. Compound 9 d exhibited the best cellular effect, which was comparable to that of SAHA, of enhancing acetylation of either alpha-tubulin or histone H3. Molecular docking analysis showed that the osthole moiety of compound 9 d may interact with the same hydrophobic surface pocket exploited by SAHA and it may be modified to provide class-specific selectivity. These results suggest that osthole is an effective hydrophobic cap when incorporated into N-hydroxycinnamide-derived HDAC inhibitors. PMID:20209563

  5. Local versus nonlocal $\\alpha\\alpha$ interactions in $3\\alpha$ description of $^{12}$C

    CERN Document Server

    Suzuki, Y; Descouvemont, P; Fujiwara, Y; Matsumura, H; Orabi, M; Theeten, M

    2008-01-01

    Local $\\alpha \\alpha$ potentials fail to describe $^{12}$C as a $3\\alpha$ system. Nonlocal $\\alpha \\alpha$ potentials that renormalize the energy-dependent kernel of the resonating group method allow interpreting simultaneously the ground state and $0^+_2$ resonance of $^{12}$C as $3\\alpha$ states. A comparison with fully microscopic calculations provides a measure of the importance of three-cluster exchanges in those states.

  6. Characterization of cap binding proteins associated with the nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eucaryotic mRNAs a carry 7-methylguanosine triphosphate residue (called cap structure) at their 5' terminus. The cap plays an important role in RNA recognition. Cap binding proteins (CBP) of HeLa cells were identified by photoaffinity labelling using the cap analogue γ-(32P)-(4-(benzoyl-phenyl)methylamido)-7-methylguanosine-5'-triphosphate (BP-m7GTP). Photoreaction of this cap analogue with HeLa cell initiation factors resulted in specific labelling of two polypeptides of Msub(r) 37000 and 26000. The latter was also labelled in crude initiation factors prepared from reticulocytes and is identical to the cap binding protein CBP I previously identified. These cap binding proteins were also affinity labelled in poliovirus infected cell extracts. Photoaffinity reaction with BP-m7GTP of whole HeLa cell homogenate showed three additional polypeptides with Msub(r) 120000, 89000 and 80000. These cap binding proteins were found to be associated with the nucleus and are therefore referred to as nuclear cap binding proteins, i.e. NCBP 1, NCBP 2 and NCBP 3. They were also present in splicing extracts. Photoaffinity labelling in these nuclear extracts was differentially inhibited by various cap analogues and capped mRNAs. Affinity chromatography on immobilized globin mRNA led to a partial separation of the three nuclear cap binding proteins. Chromatography on m7GTP-Sepharose resulted in a specific binding of NCBP 3. The different behaviour of the cap binding proteins suggests that they are functionally distinct and that they might be involved in different processes requiring cap recognition. (Author)

  7. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP changes gene expression of key molecules of the wound healing machinery and improves wound healing in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Arndt

    Full Text Available Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP has the potential to interact with tissue or cells leading to fast, painless and efficient disinfection and furthermore has positive effects on wound healing and tissue regeneration. For clinical implementation it is necessary to examine how CAP improves wound healing and which molecular changes occur after the CAP treatment. In the present study we used the second generation MicroPlaSter ß® in analogy to the current clinical standard (2 min treatment time in order to determine molecular changes induced by CAP using in vitro cell culture studies with human fibroblasts and an in vivo mouse skin wound healing model. Our in vitro analysis revealed that the CAP treatment induces the expression of important key genes crucial for the wound healing response like IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TGF-ß1, TGF-ß2, and promotes the production of collagen type I and alpha-SMA. Scratch wound healing assays showed improved cell migration, whereas cell proliferation analyzed by XTT method, and the apoptotic machinery analyzed by protein array technology, was not altered by CAP in dermal fibroblasts. An in vivo wound healing model confirmed that the CAP treatment affects above mentioned genes involved in wound healing, tissue injury and repair. Additionally, we observed that the CAP treatment improves wound healing in mice, no relevant side effects were detected. We suggest that improved wound healing might be due to the activation of a specified panel of cytokines and growth factors by CAP. In summary, our in vitro human and in vivo animal data suggest that the 2 min treatment with the MicroPlaSter ß® is an effective technique for activating wound healing relevant molecules in dermal fibroblasts leading to improved wound healing, whereas the mechanisms which contribute to these observed effects have to be further investigated.

  8. Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) changes gene expression of key molecules of the wound healing machinery and improves wound healing in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Stephanie; Unger, Petra; Wacker, Eva; Shimizu, Tetsuji; Heinlin, Julia; Li, Yang-Fang; Thomas, Hubertus M; Morfill, Gregor E; Zimmermann, Julia L; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Karrer, Sigrid

    2013-01-01

    Cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) has the potential to interact with tissue or cells leading to fast, painless and efficient disinfection and furthermore has positive effects on wound healing and tissue regeneration. For clinical implementation it is necessary to examine how CAP improves wound healing and which molecular changes occur after the CAP treatment. In the present study we used the second generation MicroPlaSter ß® in analogy to the current clinical standard (2 min treatment time) in order to determine molecular changes induced by CAP using in vitro cell culture studies with human fibroblasts and an in vivo mouse skin wound healing model. Our in vitro analysis revealed that the CAP treatment induces the expression of important key genes crucial for the wound healing response like IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1, TGF-ß1, TGF-ß2, and promotes the production of collagen type I and alpha-SMA. Scratch wound healing assays showed improved cell migration, whereas cell proliferation analyzed by XTT method, and the apoptotic machinery analyzed by protein array technology, was not altered by CAP in dermal fibroblasts. An in vivo wound healing model confirmed that the CAP treatment affects above mentioned genes involved in wound healing, tissue injury and repair. Additionally, we observed that the CAP treatment improves wound healing in mice, no relevant side effects were detected. We suggest that improved wound healing might be due to the activation of a specified panel of cytokines and growth factors by CAP. In summary, our in vitro human and in vivo animal data suggest that the 2 min treatment with the MicroPlaSter ß® is an effective technique for activating wound healing relevant molecules in dermal fibroblasts leading to improved wound healing, whereas the mechanisms which contribute to these observed effects have to be further investigated.

  9. Bremsstrahlung in $\\alpha$ Decay

    CERN Document Server

    Takigawa, N; Hagino, K; Ono, A; Brink, D M

    1999-01-01

    A quantum mechanical analysis of the bremsstrahlung in $\\alpha$ decay of $^{210}$Po is performed in close reference to a semiclassical theory. We clarify the contribution from the tunneling, mixed, outside barrier regions and from the wall of the inner potential well to the final spectral distribution, and discuss their interplay. We also comment on the validity of semiclassical calculations, and the possibility to eliminate the ambiguity in the nuclear potential between the alpha particle and daughter nucleus using the bremsstrahlung spectrum.

  10. ALPHA-2: the sequel

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    While many experiments are methodically planning for intense works over the long shutdown, there is one experiment that is already working at full steam: ALPHA-2. Its final components arrived last month and will completely replace the previous ALPHA set-up. Unlike its predecessor, this next generation experiment has been specifically designed to measure the properties of antimatter.   The ALPHA team lower the new superconducting solenoid magnet into place. The ALPHA collaboration is working at full speed to complete the ALPHA-2 set-up for mid-November – this will give them a few weeks of running before the AD shutdown on 17 December. “We really want to get some experience with this device this year so that, if we need to make any changes, we will have time during the long shutdown in which to make them,” says Jeffrey Hangst, ALPHA spokesperson. “Rather than starting the 2014 run in the commissioning stage, we will be up and running from the get go.&...

  11. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    OpenAIRE

    Wenya eNan; Feng eWan; Mang I eVai; Agostinho eRosa

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the tr...

  12. Cytostatic effect of L-lysine-. cap alpha. -oxidase from Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and Trichoderma viride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaduev, S.Kh.; Zhukova, O.S.; Dobrynin, Ya.V.; Soda, K.; Berezov, T.T.

    1987-09-01

    Comparative data is given on the effect of the new antitumor enzyme LO, obtained from a Soviet strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai and from Trichoderma viride from Japan, on DNA and RNA synthesis in human ovarian carcinoma cells in culture and also the results of the action of LO from Tr. harzianum Rifai on protein synthesis. Specific precursors were added to the samples 1 hour before the end of incubation time: /sup 3/H-thymidine, the precursor for DNA synthesis, /sup 3/H-uridine for RNA synthesis, and /sup 3/H-leucine for protein synthesis.

  13. GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NING ChunLin; SHI HuLi; HU Chao

    2009-01-01

    The positioning of the GPS or Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) software receiver was developed on a software receiver platform.The structure of the GPSlCAPS dual-mode software receiver was put forward after analyzing the differences in the satellite identification,ranging code,spread spectrum,coordinate system,time system,carrier band,and navigation data between GPS and CAPS.Based on Matlab software on a personal computer,baseband signal processing and positioning procedures were completed using real GPS and CAPS radio frequency signals received by two antennas.Three kinds of experiments including GPS positioning,CAPS positioning,and GPS/CAPS positioning were carried out.Stability and precision of the results were analyzed and compared.The experimental results show that the precision of CAPS is similar to that of GPS,while the positioning precision of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver is 1-2 m higher than that of CAPS or GPS.The smallest average variance of the positioning can be obtained by using the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver.

  14. GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The positioning of the GPS or Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) software receiver was developed on a software receiver platform. The structure of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver was put forward after analyzing the differences in the satellite identification, ranging code, spread spectrum, coordinate system, time system, carrier band, and navigation data between GPS and CAPS. Based on Matlab software on a personal computer, baseband signal processing and positioning procedures were completed using real GPS and CAPS radio frequency signals received by two antennas. Three kinds of experiments including GPS positioning, CAPS positioning, and GPS/CAPS positioning were carried out. Stability and precision of the results were analyzed and compared. The experimental results show that the precision of CAPS is similar to that of GPS, while the positioning precision of the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver is 1-2 m higher than that of CAPS or GPS. The smallest average variance of the positioning can be obtained by using the GPS/CAPS dual-mode software receiver.

  15. Alpha particles in fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This collection of 39 (mostly view graph) presentations addresses various aspects of alpha particle physics in thermonuclear fusion research, including energy balance and alpha particle losses, transport, the influence of alpha particles on plasma stability, helium ash, the transition to and sustainment of a burning fusion plasma, as well as alpha particle diagnostics. Refs, figs and tabs

  16. Quantifying Solar Wind-Polar Cap Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, K. D.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.; Huang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    It is well known that the solar wind is a major driver of ultra-low frequency [ULF] power at ground locations from low to high latitudes. However, due to the scarcity of deep polar cap magnetometer sites, it is not clear when, where, or if this is true deep inside the polar cap on open field lines where interplanetary magnetic field [IMF] ULF waves could possibly be directly detected. Given recent observations of very large Joule heating estimates from DMSP data, together with the large heating reported by the CHAMP satellite, it is important to understand the degree to which ULF waves in the solar wind can directly cause such heating. Using a time series of lagged correlation sequences ("dynamic correlograms") between GSM Bz ULF power (computed via data obtained from NASA's Advanced Composition Explorer [ACE] ahead of Earth in the solar wind) and the horizontal ULF power (H^2=N^2+E^2) from ground-based magnetometers in Earth's southern polar cap, we investigate the direct penetration of ULF waves from the solar wind into the polar ionosphere during a gamut of space weather conditions at a distributed network of Automated Geophysical Observatories [AGOs] in Antarctica. To infer causation, a predicted lag correlation maximum at each time step is computed by simply dividing the associated distance of ACE from Earth by the concurrent bulk solar wind speed. This technique helps parse out direct penetration of solar wind ULF waves from other sources (e.g., via leakage from closed field line resonances due to the bulk solar wind plasma viscously interacting at dawn/dusk flanks inducing Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities [KHI] or compressional modes induced by impulses in solar wind dynamic pressure). The identified direct-penetrating ULF waves are related to the DMSP-derived Poynting fluxes by regression analysis, and conclusions are drawn for the importance of the ULF source for the measured heating.

  17. Macrophage Capping Protein CapG Is a Putative Oncogene Involved in Migration and Invasiveness in Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Glaser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The actin binding protein CapG modulates cell motility by interacting with the cytoskeleton. CapG is associated with tumor progression in different nongynecologic tumor entities and overexpression in breast cancer cell lines correlates with a more invasive phenotype in vitro. Here, we report a significant CapG overexpression in 18/47 (38% of ovarian carcinomas (OC analyzed by qRealTime-PCR analyses. Functional analyses in OC cell lines through siRNA mediated CapG knockdown and CapG overexpression showed CapG-dependent cell migration and invasiveness. A single nucleotide polymorphism rs6886 inside the CapG gene was identified, affecting a CapG phosphorylation site and thus potentially modifying CapG function. The minor allele frequency (MAF of SNP rs6886 (c.1004A/G was higher and the homozygous (A/A, His335 genotype was significantly more prevalent in patients with fallopian tube carcinomas (50% as in controls (10%. With OC being one of the most lethal cancer diseases, the detection of novel biomarkers such as CapG could reveal new diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Moreover, in-depth analyses of SNP rs6886 related to FTC and OC will contribute to a better understanding of carcinogenesis and progression of OC.

  18. Selection of satellite constellation framework of CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Based on the idea of transmitting the satellite navigation and positioning system, taking the distribution and variation of the Position Dilution of Precision factor (PDOP), which is closely related with the precision of navigation and positioning, within the China area as the primary criterion, we analyze and discuss the tentative plan of constellation configuration consisting of geosynchronous orbit (GEO) communication satellites and inclined geosynchronous orbit (IGSO) satellites for the transmitting Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS). We emphatically consider the effect on the PDOP by the three major orbit parameters including the inclination, eccentricity and right ascension of the ascend- ing node (RAAN) of IGSO satellites, to research the strategies of the constellation configuration of CAPS through software emulation. Various constellation configurations are analyzed and compared and the results show that the constellation configuration, consisting of three IGSO communication satellites in three orbits with the same inclination as 50°, the difference in RAAN as 120° and the same "8" shaped ground track centered near 115°E and four or five GEO communication satellites within 60°E to 150°E, can satisfy the requirement that Chinese domain is availably covered and the navigation and positioning with high precision could be obtained. Three relatively excellent constellation configurations are initially suggested and some concerned issues are discussed in this work.

  19. Magnetically capped rolled-up nanomembranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streubel, Robert; Thurmer, Dominic J; Makarov, Denys; Kronast, Florian; Kosub, Tobias; Kravchuk, Volodymyr; Sheka, Denis D; Gaididei, Yuri; Schäfer, Rudolf; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2012-08-01

    Modifying the curvature in magnetic nanostructures is a novel and elegant way toward tailoring physical phenomena at the nanoscale, allowing one to overcome limitations apparent in planar counterparts. Here, we address curvature-driven changes of static magnetic properties in cylindrically curved magnetic segments with different radii of curvature. The curved architectures are prepared by capping nonmagnetic micrometer- and nanometer-sized rolled-up membranes with a soft-magnetic 20 nm thick permalloy (Ni(80)Fe(20)) film. A quantitative comparison between the magnetization reversal processes in caps with different diameters is given. The phase diagrams of magnetic equilibrium domain patterns (diameter versus length) are generated. For this, joint experimental, including X-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoelectron emission microscopy (XMCD-PEEM), and theoretical studies are carried out. The anisotropic magnetostatic interaction in cylindrically curved architectures originating from the thickness gradient reduces substantially the magnetostatic interaction between closely packed curved nanowires. This feature is beneficial for racetrack memory devices, since a much higher areal density might be achieved than possible with planar counterparts.

  20. Comparison of Polar Cap (PC) index calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, P.

    2012-04-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index introduced by Troshichev and Andrezen (1985) is derived from polar magnetic variations and is mainly a measure of the intensity of the transpolar ionospheric currents. These currents relate to the polar cap antisunward ionospheric plasma convection driven by the dawn-dusk electric field, which in turn is generated by the interaction of the solar wind with the Earth's magnetosphere. Coefficients to calculate PCN and PCS index values from polar magnetic variations recorded at Thule and Vostok, respectively, have been derived by several different procedures in the past. The first published set of coefficients for Thule was derived by Vennerstrøm, 1991 and is still in use for calculations of PCN index values by DTU Space. Errors in the program used to calculate index values were corrected in 1999 and again in 2001. In 2005 DMI adopted a unified procedure proposed by Troshichev for calculations of the PCN index. Thus there exists 4 different series of PCN index values. Similarly, at AARI three different sets of coefficients have been used to calculate PCS indices in the past. The presentation discusses the principal differences between the various PC index procedures and provides comparisons between index values derived from the same magnetic data sets using the different procedures. Examples from published papers are examined to illustrate the differences.

  1. PANDA EMC backward end-cap mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capozza, Luigi; Ceballos, Jorge; Lin, Dexu; Maas, Frank; Rodriguez, David; Valente, Roserio; Welzel, Felix [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Collaboration: PANDA-Collaboration

    2013-07-01

    The PANDA experiment at the FAIR facility will be a multipurpose hermetic spectrometer covering the full solid angle range. A key role for several physics cases will be played by the electromagnetic calorimeter. This includes ca. 15000 PbWO{sub 4} scintillating crystals arranged in a central barrel, a forward and a backward end-cap. The backward end-cap of the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter is composed by 540 straight crystals covering the scattering angles between 147 {sup circle} and 161 {sup circle}. They are housed in the so-called alveoli which are carbon fibre boxes, providing both strength and low material budget. The crystals are to work at -25 C in order to improve the light yield. To achieve this temperature a cooling system and thermal insulation are needed. The cooling system removes the heat coming from the electronics and through walls, cables and mechanical supports. Vacuum insulated panels are installed as a thermal shielding. Avalanche Photodiodes (APD) have been chosen as photon detectors, since they are still functional under strong magnetic fields. ASIC chips will be used to amplify the APD signal, this preamplifier features low noise and low heat generation. Due to the weight of this detector, it will be supported from the outside of the PANDA target spectrometer in a counter lever arm position.

  2. Arrays of magnetic nanoparticles capped with alkylamines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P John Thomas; P Saravanan; G U Kulkarni; C N R Rao

    2002-02-01

    Magnetic metal and metal oxide nanoparticles capped with alkylamines have been synthesized and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis and magnetization measurements. Core-shell Pd–Ni particles with composition, Pd561Ni3000, (diameter ∼ 3.3 nm) are superparamagnetic at 5 K and organize themselves into two-dimensional crystalline arrays. Similar arrays are obtained with Pd561Ni3000Pd1500 nanoparticles containing an additional Pd shell. Magnetic spinel particles of -Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and CoFe2O4 of average diameters in the 4–6 nm range coated with octylamine are all supermagnetic at room temperature and yield close-packed disordered arrays. Relatively regular arrays are formed by dodecylamine-capped Fe3O4 nanoparticles (∼ 8.6 nm diameter) while well-ordered hexagonal arrays were obtained with octylamine-covered Co3O4 nanoparticles (∼ 4.2 nm diameter).

  3. Acoustic Monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, D. L.; Goemmer, S. A.; Chayes, D. N.

    2012-12-01

    Introduction The monitoring of the Arctic Ice Cap is important economically, tactically, and strategically. In the scenario of ice cap retreat, new paths of commerce open, e.g. waterways from Northern Europe to the Far East. Where ship-going commerce is conducted, the U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard have always stood guard and been prepared to assist from acts of nature and of man. It is imperative that in addition to measuring the ice from satellites, e.g. Icesat, that we have an ability to measure the ice extent, its thickness, and roughness. These parameters play an important part in the modeling of the ice and the processes that control its growth or shrinking and its thickness. The proposed system consists of three subsystems. The first subsystem is an acoustic source, the second is an array of geophones and the third is a system to supply energy and transmit the results back to the analysis laboratory. The subsystems are described below. We conclude with a plan on how to tackle this project and the payoff to the ice cap modeler and hence the users, i.e. commerce and defense. System Two historically tested methods to generate a large amplitude multi-frequency sound source include explosives and air guns. A new method developed and tested by the University of Texas, ARL is a combustive Sound Source [Wilson, et al., 1995]. The combustive sound source is a submerged combustion chamber that is filled with the byproducts of the electrolysis of sea water, i.e. Hydrogen and Oxygen, an explosive mixture which is ignited via a spark. Thus, no additional compressors, gases, or explosives need to be transported to the Arctic to generate an acoustic pulse capable of the sediment and the ice. The second subsystem would be geophones capable of listening in the O(10 Hz) range and transmitting that data back to the laboratory. Thus two single arrays of geophones arranged orthogonal to each other with a range of 1000's of kilometers and a combustive sound source where the two

  4. Alpha/sub 1/ receptor coupling events initiated by methoxy-substituted tolazoline partial agonists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, P.; Keung, A.; Deth, R.

    1986-03-01

    A series of mono- and dimethyoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives, known to be partial agonists at the alpha/sub 1/ receptor, were compared with the ..cap alpha../sub 1/ selective full agonist phenylephrine (PE) on isolated strips of rabbit aorta Agonist activity was evaluated in contraction, /sup 45/Ca influx, /sup 45/Ca efflux, and /sup 32/P-Phospholipid labelling studies. Maximum contractile responses for the 2-, 3-, and 3, 5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives (10/sup -5/M) were 53.8, 67.6 and 99.7% of the PE (10/sup -5/M) response respectively. These same partial agonists caused a stimulation of /sup 45/Ca influx to the extent of 64, 86, and 95% of the PE response respectively. In /sup 45/Ca efflux studies, (a measure of the intracellular Ca/sup +2/ release) the tolazolines caused: 30%, 63%, and 78% of the PE stimulated level. /sup 32/P-Phosphatidic acid (PA) labelling was measured as an index of PI turnover after ..cap alpha../sub 1/ receptor stimulation. Compared to PE, the 2-, 3-, and 3,5- methoxy substituted tolazoline derivatives caused 22, 46, and 72% PA labelling. The above values are all in reasonable accord with the rank order or agonist activity shown in maximum contractile responses. The results of this investigation suggest that partial agonists stimulate ..cap alpha.. receptor coupling events at a level which is quantitatively comparable to their potencies in causing contraction of arterial smooth muscle.

  5. ALPHA MIS: Reference manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lovin, J.K.; Haese, R.L.; Heatherly, R.D.; Hughes, S.E.; Ishee, J.S.; Pratt, S.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1992-02-01

    ALPHA is a powerful and versatile management information system (MIS) initiated and sponsored and by the Finance and Business Management Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, who maintain and develop it in concert with the Business Systems Division for its Information Center. A general-purpose MIS, ALPHA allows users to access System 1022 and System 1032 databases to obtain and manage information. From a personal computer or a data terminal, Energy Systems employees can use ALPHA to control their own report reprocessing. Using four general commands (Database, Select, Sort, and Report) they can (1) choose a mainframe database, (2) define subsets within it, (3) sequentially order a subset by one or more variables, and (4) generate a report with their own or a canned format.

  6. Identification of the DNA sequences encoding the large subunit of the mRNA-capping enzyme of vaccinia virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The DNA sequences encoding the large subunit of the mRNA-capping enzyme of vaccinia virus were located on the viral genome. The formation of an enzyme-guanylate covalent intermediate labeled with [alpha-32P]GTP allowed the identification of the large subunit of the capping enzyme and was used to monitor the appearance of the enzyme during the infectious cycle. This assay confirmed that after vaccinia infection, a novel 84,000-molecular-weight polypeptide corresponding to the large subunit was rapidly synthesized before viral DNA replication. Hybrid-selected cell-free translation of early viral mRNA established that vaccinia virus encoded a polypeptide identical in molecular weight with the 32P-labeled 84,000-molecular-weight polypeptide found in vaccinia virions. Like the authentic capping enzyme, this virus-encoded cell-free translation product bound specifically to DNA-cellulose. A comparison of the partial proteolytic digestion fragments generated by V8 protease, chymotrypsin, and trypsin demonstrated that the 32P-labeled large subunit and the [35S]methionine-labeled cell-free translation product were identical. The mRNA encoding the large subunit of the capping enzyme was located 3.1 kilobase pairs to the left of the HindIII D restriction fragment of the vaccinia genome. Furthermore, the mRNA was determined to be 3.0 kilobases in size, and its 5 and 3 termini were precisely located by S1 nuclease analysis

  7. Analysis list: Cap-H2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Cap-H2 Cell line + dm3 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Cap-H2....1.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Cap-H2.5.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/target/Ca...p-H2.10.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cap-H2.Cell_line.tsv http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/colo/Cell_line.gml ...

  8. Design and Performance of Capping Layers for EUV Multilayer Mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Nuygen, N; Alameda, J; Robinson, J C; Malinowski, M; Gullikson, E; Aquila, A; Tarrio, C; Grantham, S

    2003-03-10

    The reflectance stability of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) in a commercial tool environment is of uttermost importance to ensure continuous exposures with minimum maintenance cost. We have made substantial progress in designing the protective capping layer coatings, understanding their performance and estimating their lifetimes based on accelerated electron beam and EUV exposure studies. Our current capping layer coatings have about 40 times longer lifetimes than Si-capped multilayer optics. Nevertheless, the lifetime of current Ru-capped multilayers is too short to satisfy commercial tool requirements and further improvements are essential.

  9. Analyses of Current And Wave Forces on Velocity Caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Buhrkall, Jeppe; Eskesen, Mark C. D.;

    2015-01-01

    Velocity caps are often used in connection with for instance offshore intake sea water for the use of for cooling water for power plants or as a source for desalinization plants. The intakes can also be used for river intakes. The velocity cap is placed on top of a vertical pipe. The vertical pipe......) this paper investigates the current and wave forces on the velocity cap and the vertical cylinder. The Morison’s force model was used in the analyses of the extracted force time series in from the CFD model. Further the distribution of the inlet velocities around the velocity cap was also analyzed in detail...

  10. Effect of swim cap model on passive drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Giorgio; Zamparo, Paola; Cortesi, Matteo

    2013-10-01

    Hydrodynamics plays an important role in swimming because even small decreases in a swimmer's drag can lead to performance improvements. During the gliding phases of a race, the head of a swimmer is an important point of impact with the fluid, and the swim cap, even if it covers only a small portion of the swimmer's body, can have an influence on drag. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects on passive drag (Dp) of wearing 3 different types of swim caps (LSC: a lycra cap; CSC: a silicone cap; HSC: a silicone helmet cap without seams). Sixteen swimmers were tested at 3 velocities (1.5, 1.7, 1.9 m·s), and the Dp measurements were repeated at each condition 5 times. A statistical analysis revealed significant differences in drag (p swim cap is the most rigid, the most adherent to the swimmer's head, and does not allow the formation of wrinkles compared with the other 2 investigated swim caps. Therefore, the following conclusions can be made: (a) swimmers should take care when selecting their swim cap if they want to improve the fluid dynamics at the "leading edge" of their body and (b) because Dp is affected by the swim cap model, care should be taken when comparing data from different studies, especially at faster investigated speeds.

  11. Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Martínez Carmenate

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo está extraído de la obra inédita de Urbano Martínez Carmenate, Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV. Ofrece una mirada sobre los primeros años de la trayectoria profesional de Alejo Carpentier. Se muestra cómo, durante la década de 1920, se inicia como periodista y cronista teatral. A la vez, comienzan sus conexiones con el Grupo Minorista, que desempeña un papel destacado en la etapa republicana en Cuba. También se contempla su viaje a México en 1926, que constituye su primer contacto directo con la naturaleza y la cultura americanas.

  12. Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urbano Martínez Carmenate

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El presente ensayo está extraído de la obra inédita de Urbano Martínez Carmenate, Carpentier, la otra novela (cap. IV. Ofrece una mirada sobre los primeros años de la trayectoria profesional de Alejo Carpentier. Se muestra cómo, durante la década de 1920, se inicia como periodista y cronista teatral. A la vez, comienzan sus conexiones con el Grupo Minorista, que desempeña un papel destacado en la etapa republicana en Cuba. También se contempla su viaje a México en 1926, que constituye su primer contacto directo con la naturaleza y la cultura americanas.

  13. The $\\alpha_S$ Dependence of Parton Distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, A. D.; Stirling, W. J.; Roberts, R G

    1995-01-01

    We perform next-to-leading order global analyses of deep inelastic and related data for different fixed values of $\\alpha_S (M_Z^2)$. We present sets of parton distributions for six values of $\\alpha_S$ in the range 0.105 to 0.130. We display the $(x, Q^2)$ domains with the largest parton uncertainty and we discuss how forthcoming data may be able to improve the determination of the parton densities.

  14. 47 CFR 52.109 - Permanent cap on number reservations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permanent cap on number reservations. 52.109... (CONTINUED) NUMBERING Toll Free Numbers § 52.109 Permanent cap on number reservations. (a) A Responsible Organization may have in reserve status, at any one time, either 2000 toll free numbers or 7.5 percent of...

  15. 47 CFR 61.41 - Price cap requirements generally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... party to a merger, acquisition, or similar transaction shall continue to be subject to price cap... no later than one year following the effective date of such merger, acquisition, or similar... subject to price cap regulation, as that term is defined in § 61.3(ee), which are involved in...

  16. ATLAS end-caps 
on the move

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Two delicate and spectacular transport operations have been performed for ATLAS in recent weeks: the first end-cap tracker was installed in its final position, and one of the huge end-caps of the toroid magnet was moved to the top of the experiment’s shaft.

  17. Preparing an ATLAS toroid magnet end-cap for lowering

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni

    2007-01-01

    One of the two 13-m high toroid magnet end-caps for the ATLAS experiment being transported from the construction hall to the experimental area. The end-cap will be lowered into the ATLAS cavern and attached to an end of the detector.

  18. Regulating Telecommunications : Lessons from U.S. Price Cap Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey H. Rohlfs

    1996-01-01

    Price cap regulation uses a formula, set in advance, to determine the price increases for a firm's services for a period of several years. During this period, the firm may keep all the benefits of its incremental productivity gains. Customers can also benefit because the price cap formula may cause prices to rise less rapidly during the period. The sharpened incentives created may encourag...

  19. Temperature Distribution within a Cold Cap during Nuclear Waste Vitrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, Derek R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Riley, Brian J.; Pokorny, Richard; Hrma, Pavel R.

    2015-07-21

    The kinetics of the feed-to-glass conversion affects the waste vitrification rate in an electric melter. The primary area of interest in this conversion process is the cold cap, a layer of reacting feed on top of molten glass. Knowing the temperature profile within a cold cap will help determine its characteristics and relate them to the rate of glass production. The work presented here provides an experimental determination of the temperature distribution within the cold cap. Since a direct measurement of the temperature field within the cold cap is impracticable, an indirect method was developed where the textural features in a laboratory-made cold cap with a high-level waste feed were mapped as a function of position using optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. To correlate the temperature distribution to microstructures within the cold cap, microstructures were identified of individual feed samples that were heat treated to set temperatures between 400°C and 1200°C and quenched. The temperature distribution within the cold cap was then established by correlating cold-cap regions with the feed samples of nearly identical structures and was compared with the temperature profile from a mathematical model.

  20. IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS - ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Roberts, J.; Paller, M.; Reible, D.

    2010-09-02

    Active capping is a relatively new approach for treating contaminated sediments. It involves applying chemically reactive amendments to the sediment surface. The main role of active caps is to stabilize contaminants in contaminated sediments, lower the bioavailable pool of contaminants, and reduce the release of contaminants to the water column. Metals are common contaminants in many marine and fresh water environments as a result of industrial and military activities. The mobile, soluble forms of metals are generally considered toxic. Induced chemical precipitation of these metals can shift toxic metals from the aqueous phase to a solid, precipitated phase which is often less bioavailable. This approach can be achieved through application of sequestering agents such as rock phosphates, organoclays, zeolites, clay minerals, and biopolymers (e.g., chitosan) in active capping technology. Active capping holds great potential for a more permanent solution that avoids residual risks resulting from contaminant migration through the cap or breaching of the cap. In addition to identifying superior active capping agents, research is needed to optimize application techniques, application rates, and amendment combinations that maximize sequestration of contaminants. A selected set of active capping treatment technologies has been demonstrated at a few sites, including a field demonstration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC. This demonstration has provided useful information on the effects of sequestering agents on metal immobilization, bioavailability, toxicity, and resistance to mechanical disturbance.

  1. Genetics Home Reference: alpha thalassemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Disease Control and Prevention Centre for Genetics Education (Australia) Cooley's Anemia Foundation: Fact sheet about alpha thalassemia Disease InfoSearch: Alpha-Thalassemia Genomics Education Programme (UK) Information Center for Sickle Cell and ...

  2. alpha-Synuclein budding yeast model: toxicity enhanced by impaired proteasome and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Nijee; Brandis, Katrina A; Herrera, Sara K; Johnson, Brandon E; Vaidya, Tulaza; Shrestha, Ruja; Debburman, Shubhik K

    2006-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder that results from the selective loss of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Misfolding and aggregation of the protein alpha-synuclein, oxidative damage, and proteasomal impairment are all hypotheses for the molecular cause of this selective neurotoxicity. Here, we describe a Saccharomyces cerevisiae model to evaluate the misfolding, aggregation, and toxicity-inducing ability of wild-type alpha-synuclein and three mutants (A30P, A53T, and A30P/A53T), and we compare regulation of these properties by dysfunctional proteasomes and by oxidative stress. We found prominent localization of wild-type and A53T alpha-synuclein near the plasma membrane, supporting known in vitro lipid-binding ability. In contrast, A30P was mostly cytoplasmic, whereas A30P/A53T displayed both types of fluorescence. Surprisingly, alpha-synuclein was not toxic to several yeast strains tested. When yeast mutants for the proteasomal barrel (doa3-1) were evaluated, delayed alpha-synuclein synthesis and membrane association were observed; yeast mutant for the proteasomal cap (sen3-1) exhibited increased accumulation and aggregation of alpha-synuclein. Both sen3-1and doa3-1 mutants exhibited synthetic lethality with alpha-synuclein. When yeasts were challenged with an oxidant (hydrogen peroxide), alpha-synuclein was extremely lethal to cells that lacked manganese superoxide dismutase Mn-SOD (sod2Delta) but not to cells that lacked copper, zinc superoxide dismutase Cu,Zn-SOD (sod1Delta). Despite the toxicity, sod2Delta cells never displayed intracellular aggregates of alpha-synuclein. We suggest that the toxic alpha-synuclein species in yeast are smaller than the visible aggregates, and toxicity might involve alpha-synuclein membrane association. Thus, yeasts have emerged effective organisms for characterizing factors and mechanisms that regulate alpha-synuclein toxicity.

  3. Progress in LAr EndCap Calorimetry: News from the Hadronic EndCap Group.

    CERN Multimedia

    Oram, C.J.

    With module production and testing completed for the Hadronic EndCap calorimeter, the attention of the HEC group is heavily directed towards wheel assembly in building 180. Three of the four HEC wheels are now assembled and rotated, and work is progressing on assembling the final wheel. This year has been a busy year for the installation of components in the EndCap C cryostat: the signal feedthrough installation was completed April 22nd, the pre-sampler shortly thereafter and the Electro-Magnetic EndCap August 13th. This allowed the HEC group to start transferring the HEC wheels from the T6A storage cradle into the cryostat. The operation started in mid-September and has progressed, on or ahead of schedule, since then with the major milestones being: Insertion of 67 ton front HEC wheel October 3rd Insertion of 90 ton rear HEC wheel October 22nd. The wheel alignment has proved to be excellent, with the position of the centre of the front(rear) wheel with respect to the nominal position being displaced b...

  4. The CAP Theorem Versus Databases with Relaxed ACID properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frank, Lars; Ulslev Pedersen, Rasmus; Frank, Christian Havnø;

    2014-01-01

    the traditional ACID properties and all the CAP properties were implemented. This optimizing is especially important in mobile integrated databases, where disconnections are normal and frequent. It is also important in distributed databases like EHR (electronic Health Records) where many different hospital...... data from different locations can have at most two of the three desirable CAP properties [5]. The NoSQL movement has applied the CAP theorem as an argument against traditional ACID (atomicity, consistency, isolation, and durability) databases, which prioritize consistency and partition...... availability and sufficient data consistency, despite the presence of network partitions. The overall objective of this paper is to improve the CAP optimization methods by using optimization techniques outside of those preferred in CAP optimization literature. The main contribution is to use relaxed ACID...

  5. $\\alpha$-minimal Banach spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Rosendal, Christian

    2011-01-01

    A Banach space with a Schauder basis is said to be $\\alpha$-minimal for some countable ordinal $\\alpha$ if, for any two block subspaces, the Bourgain embeddability index of one into the other is at least $\\alpha$. We prove a dichotomy that characterises when a Banach space has an $\\alpha$-minimal subspace, which contributes to the ongoing project, initiated by W. T. Gowers, of classifying separable Banach spaces by identifying characteristic subspaces.

  6. Identification and functional characterization of the putative polysaccharide biosynthesis protein (CapD) of Enterococcus faecium U0317.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Liaqat; Spiess, Meike; Wobser, Dominique; Rodriguez, Marta; Blum, Hubert E; Sakιnç, Türkân

    2016-01-01

    Most bacterial species produce capsular polysaccharides that contribute to disease pathogenesis through evasion of the host innate immune system and are also involved in inhibiting leukocyte killing. In the present study, we identified a gene in Enterococcus faecium U0317 with homologies to the polysaccharide biosynthesis protein CapD that is made up of 336 amino acids and putatively catalyzes N-linked glycosylation. A capD deletion mutant was constructed and complemented by homologous recombination that was confirmed by PCR and sequencing. The mutant revealed different growth behavior and morphological changes compared to wild-type by scanning electron microscopy, also the capD mutant showed a strong hydrophobicity and that was reversed in the reconstituted mutant. For further characterization and functional analyses, in-vitro cell culture and in-vivo a mouse infection models were used. Antibodies directed against alpha lipotechoic acid (αLTA) and the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (αPpiC), effectively mediated the opsonophagocytic killing in the capD knock-out mutant, while this activity was not observed in the wild-type and reconstituted mutant. By comparison more than 2-fold decrease was seen in mutant colonization and adherence to both T24 and Caco2 cells. However, a significant higher bacterial colonization was observed in capD mutant during bacteremia in the animal model, while virulence in a mouse UTI (urinary tract infection) model, there were no obvious differences. Further studies are needed to elucidate the function of capsular polysaccharide synthesis gene clusters and its involvement in the disease pathogenesis with the aim to develop targeted therapies to treat multidrug-resistant E. faecium infections.

  7. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  8. Myofibril growth during cardiac hypertrophy is regulated through dual phosphorylation and acetylation of the actin capping protein CapZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Hsi; Warren, Chad M; Li, Jieli; McKinsey, Timothy A; Russell, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    The mechanotransduction signaling pathways initiated in heart muscle by increased mechanical loading are known to lead to long-term transcriptional changes and hypertrophy, but the rapid events for adaptation at the sarcomeric level are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that actin filament assembly during cardiomyocyte growth is regulated by post-translational modifications (PTMs) of CapZβ1. In rapidly hypertrophying neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) stimulated by phenylephrine (PE), two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DGE) of CapZβ1 revealed a shift toward more negative charge. Consistent with this, mass spectrometry identified CapZβ1 phosphorylation on serine-204 and acetylation on lysine-199, two residues which are near the actin binding surface of CapZβ1. Ectopic expression of dominant negative PKCɛ (dnPKCɛ) in NRVMs blunted the PE-induced increase in CapZ dynamics, as evidenced by the kinetic constant (Kfrap) of fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), and concomitantly reduced phosphorylation and acetylation of CapZβ1. Furthermore, inhibition of class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) increased lysine-199 acetylation on CapZβ1, which increased Kfrap of CapZ and stimulated actin dynamics. Finally, we show that PE treatment of NRVMs results in decreased binding of HDAC3 to myofibrils, suggesting a signal-dependent mechanism for the regulation of sarcomere-associated CapZβ1 acetylation. Taken together, this dual regulation through phosphorylation and acetylation of CapZβ1 provides a novel model for the regulation of myofibril growth during cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27185186

  9. Combining Alphas via Bounded Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zura Kakushadze

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We give an explicit algorithm and source code for combining alpha streams via bounded regression. In practical applications, typically, there is insufficient history to compute a sample covariance matrix (SCM for a large number of alphas. To compute alpha allocation weights, one then resorts to (weighted regression over SCM principal components. Regression often produces alpha weights with insufficient diversification and/or skewed distribution against, e.g., turnover. This can be rectified by imposing bounds on alpha weights within the regression procedure. Bounded regression can also be applied to stock and other asset portfolio construction. We discuss illustrative examples.

  10. Alpha/sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on a platelet precursor cell line, HEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKernan, R.M.; Motulsky, H.J.; Rozansky, D.; Insel, P.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have identified ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors on human erythroleukemia HEL cells, a suspension-growing, bone-marrow-derived cell line related to human platelets. Intact HEL cells were studied using radioligand binding and cAMP accumulation assays. The authors identified saturable specific binding of the ..cap alpha../sub 2/-antagonist (/sup 3/H)yohimbine (yoh) in cells incubated at 37/sup 0/C for 1 hr (B/sub max/ 5900 +/- 2100 sites/cell, K/sub d/ 3.6 +/- 0.9 nM, n = 7). Competition for (/sup 3/H)yoh binding sites with antagonists confirmed that these sites were similar to human ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoceptors from platelets and other resources, as typified by their high affinity for WY-26392, yohimbine and idazoxan, and very low affinity for prazosin. Studies at 37/sup 0/C revealed a low affinity of these sites for catecholamines (K/sub i/ for (-)-epinephrine, 21 ..mu..M; (-)-norepinephrine, 45 ..mu..M, (+)-epinephrine, 80 ..mu..M). When experiments were conducted at 4 /sup 0/C, (-)-epinephrine was able to compete for only 50-60% of the sites specifically labelled by (/sup 3/H)yoh at 37/sup 0/, but (-)-epinephrine had an approximately 10-fold greater affinity for these sites (K/sub i/ at 4 /sup 0/C = 2.4 ..mu..M). In addition, epinephrine inhibited cAMP accumulation stimulated by forskolin and PGE/sub 1/ in HEL cells; this response was inhibited by pertussis toxin. The authors conclude that HEL cells possess ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenergic receptors linked to G/sub i/ and thus should serve as a useful model to explore metabolism and regulation of these receptors in human cells.

  11. Orthopositronium lifetime. Analytic results in O ({alpha}) and O ({alpha}{sup 3} ln {alpha})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2008-06-15

    We present the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3}ln {alpha}) corrections to the total decay width of orthopositronium in closed analytic form, in terms of basic transcendental numbers, which can be evaluated numerically to arbitrary precision. (orig.)

  12. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni; Angelina Sala; Carlos Silvera; Rodrigo Harispe; Rosa Marquez Romero

    2013-01-01

    Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI) and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A) and with prese...

  13. The catheter hub disinfection cap as esophageal foreign body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawfik, Kareem O; Myer, Charles M; Shikary, Tasneem; Goldschneider, Kenneth R

    2015-12-01

    Disinfection caps are increasingly being used to prevent catheter-associated bloodstream infections. These devices, designed for continuous passive disinfection of catheter hubs, are typically small and often brightly colored. As such, they have the potential to become pediatric airway and esophageal foreign bodies. We report two patients who developed esophageal foreign body following ingestion of disinfection caps. Given the increasing use of these devices, it is imperative that health care providers be aware of this potential iatrogenic problem. We propose that the use of disinfection caps may not be appropriate in pediatric patients with risk factors for foreign body ingestion.

  14. Download - RGP caps | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RGP caps Download... First of all, please read the license of this database. Data names and data descriptions are about the download...ase. Click the links on Data Name for descriptions of the data. # Data name File Simple search and downloa..._main.zip (18.5 KB) Simple search and download 3 Images of gel electrophoresis rgp_caps_electrophoresis_imag...atabase Description Download License Update History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Download - RGP caps | LSDB Archive ...

  15. Biomolecularly capped uniformly sized nanocrystalline materials: glutathione-capped ZnS nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Martínez, Claudia L.; Nguyen, Liem; Kho, Richard; Bae, Weon; Bozhilov, Krassimir; Klimov, Victor; Mehra, Rajesh K.

    1999-09-01

    Micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeasts form CdS to detoxify toxic cadmium ions. Frequently, CdS particles formed in yeasts and bacteria were found to be associated with specific biomolecules. It was later determined that these biomolecules were present at the surface of CdS. This coating caused a restriction in the growth of CdS particles and resulted in the formation of nanometre-sized semiconductors (NCs) that exhibited typical quantum confinement properties. Glutathione and related phytochelatin peptides were shown to be the biomolecules that capped CdS nanocrystallites synthesized by yeasts Candida glabrata and Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Although early studies showed the existence of specific biochemical pathways for the synthesis of biomolecularly capped CdS NCs, these NCs could be formed in vitro under appropriate conditions. We have recently shown that cysteine and cysteine-containing peptides such as glutathione and phytochelatins can be used in vitro to dictate the formation of discrete sizes of CdS and ZnS nanocrystals. We have evolved protocols for the synthesis of ZnS or CdS nanocrystals within a narrow size distribution range. These procedures involve three steps: (1) formation of metallo-complexes of cysteine or cysteine-containing peptides, (2) introduction of stoichiometric amounts of inorganic sulfide into the metallo-complexes to initiate the formation of nanocrystallites and finally (3) size-selective precipitation of NCs with ethanol in the presence of Na+. The resulting NCs were characterized by optical spectroscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. HRTEM showed that the diameter of the ZnS-glutathione nanocrystals was 3.45+/-0.5 nm. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction analyses indicated ZnS-glutathione to be hexagonal. Photocatalytic studies suggest that glutathione-capped ZnS nanocrystals prepared by our procedure are highly efficient in degrading a test model

  16. Capítulo I: Contabilidad de costos - Capítulo II : Costos estimados

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas Medina, Ricardo Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    Me permito poner a su consideración los capítulos I y II del libro titulado: Costos un enfoque administrativo y de gerencia, contenido que fue realizado para mejorar y reestructurar el libro titulado Sistemas de costos un proceso para su implementación, que tuvo gran acogida dado el volumen de consulta y descarga del repositorio de la UN. En la primera unidad se trabaja lo referente a costos para la toma de decisiones, presentado un marco teórico y los fundamentos básicos del costeo direct...

  17. Identification of Cytoplasmic Capping Targets Reveals a Role for Cap Homeostasis in Translation and mRNA Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrama Mukherjee

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The notion that decapping leads irreversibly to messenger RNA (mRNA decay was contradicted by the identification of capped transcripts missing portions of their 5′ ends and a cytoplasmic complex that can restore the cap on uncapped mRNAs. In this study, we used accumulation of uncapped transcripts in cells inhibited for cytoplasmic capping to identify the targets of this pathway. Inhibition of cytoplasmic capping results in the destabilization of some transcripts and the redistribution of others from polysomes to nontranslating messenger ribonucleoproteins, where they accumulate in an uncapped state. Only a portion of the mRNA transcriptome is affected by cytoplasmic capping, and its targets encode proteins involved in nucleotide binding, RNA and protein localization, and the mitotic cell cycle. The 3′ untranslated regions of recapping targets are enriched for AU-rich elements and microRNA binding sites, both of which function in cap-dependent mRNA silencing. These findings identify a cyclical process of decapping and recapping that we term cap homeostasis.

  18. Unfolding domains of recombinant fusion alpha alpha-tropomyosin.

    OpenAIRE

    Ishii, Y; Hitchcock-DeGregori, S.; Mabuchi, K; Lehrer, S S

    1992-01-01

    The thermal unfolding of the coiled-coil alpha-helix of recombinant alpha alpha-tropomyosin from rat striated muscle containing an additional 80-residue peptide of influenza virus NS1 protein at the N-terminus (fusion-tropomyosin) was studied with circular dichroism and fluorescence techniques. Fusion-tropomyosin unfolded in four cooperative transitions: (1) a pretransition starting at 35 degrees C involving the middle of the molecule; (2) a major transition at 46 degrees C involving no more ...

  19. Alpha-mannosidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilssen Øivind

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Alpha-mannosidosis is an inherited lysosomal storage disorder characterized by immune deficiency, facial and skeletal abnormalities, hearing impairment, and intellectual disability. It occurs in approximately 1 of 500,000 live births. The children are often born apparently normal, and their condition worsens progressively. Some children are born with ankle equinus or develop hydrocephalus in the first year of life. Main features are immune deficiency (manifested by recurrent infections, especially in the first decade of life, skeletal abnormalities (mild-to-moderate dysostosis multiplex, scoliosis and deformation of the sternum, hearing impairment (moderate-to-severe sensorineural hearing loss, gradual impairment of mental functions and speech, and often, periods of psychosis. Associated motor function disturbances include muscular weakness, joint abnormalities and ataxia. The facial trait include large head with prominent forehead, rounded eyebrows, flattened nasal bridge, macroglossia, widely spaced teeth, and prognathism. Slight strabismus is common. The clinical variability is significant, representing a continuum in severity. The disorder is caused by lysosomal alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Alpha-mannosidosis is inherited in an autosomal recessive fashion and is caused by mutations in the MAN2B1 gene located on chromosome 19 (19 p13.2-q12. Diagnosis is made by measuring acid alpha-mannosidase activity in leukocytes or other nucleated cells and can be confirmed by genetic testing. Elevated urinary secretion of mannose-rich oligosaccharides is suggestive, but not diagnostic. Differential diagnoses are mainly the other lysosomal storage diseases like the mucopolysaccharidoses. Genetic counseling should be given to explain the nature of the disease and to detect carriers. Antenatal diagnosis is possible, based on both biochemical and genetic methods. The management should be pro-active, preventing complications and treating

  20. p-Fitting子群的CAP-嵌入子群%On CAP-Embedded Subgroups of p-Fitting Subgroups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭鹏飞; 郭秀云

    2010-01-01

    群G的子群H称为G的CAP-嵌入子群,如果对于|H|的每个素因子p,存在G的某个CAP-子群K,使得H的某个Sylow p-子群也是K的一个Sylowp-子群.本文通过假定G的p-Fitting子群Fp(G)的某个Sylow p-子群的每个极大子群是G的CAP-嵌入子群,得到一些新的结果.

  1. NON AUTOMATICALLY EXERCISED (NAE EUROPEAN CAPPED CALL PRICING THEORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subanar .

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to present a methodology for deriving Black Scholes formulae via a simple lognormal distribution approach and introduce European capped non automatically exercise (NAE call option pricing theory.

  2. Mechanical capping of silica nanotubes for encapsulation of molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jaeeun; Bai, Xia; Suh, Junghun; Lee, Sang Bok; Son, Sang Jun

    2009-11-01

    Multifunctional silica nanotubes (SNTs) are being widely used for many biomedical applications due to their structural benefits. Controlling the structure of the open end of an SNT is a crucial step for drug/gene delivery and for fabrication of multifunctional SNTs. We developed a mechanical capsulation method to fabricate caps at the ends of SNTs. A thin layer of malleable capping materials (Au, Ag, PLGA) was deposited onto the surface of an SNT-grown AAO template. Capped SNTs were then obtained by hammering with alumina microbeads. For a proof-of-concept experiment, we demonstrated dye-encapsulated SNTs without any chemical functionalizations. Since a mechanical approach is free of the issue of chemical compatibility between cargo molecules and capping materials, the method can provide an effective platform for the preparation of smart multifunctional nanotubes for biomedical applications. PMID:19824675

  3. C-CAP Land Cover, Territory of Guam 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  4. ATLAS - End-Cap calorimeter lowered in to the cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    The End-cap calorimeter was lowered into the ATLAS cavern at POINT1. This calorimeter will measure the energy of particles close to the beam axis when protons collide. Cooling is important for maximum detector efficiency.

  5. C-CAP Land Cover, Big Island, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  6. C-CAP Land Cover, Territory of Guam 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  7. 2011 C-CAP Land Cover of Oahu, Hawaii

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set consists of land derived from high resolution imagery and was analyzed according to the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) protocol to determine...

  8. Rat as a model for direct pulp capping research

    OpenAIRE

    Orhan, Ekim Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to evaluate the suitability of rat teeth in preclinical evaluation of medical materials for direct pulp capping. The international standard states clearly that only non-rodent mammals are suitable species for animal research in dentistry. However, in the past halve of the century many research have been published using rat teeth in order to evaluate direct pulp capping, pulpotomies and tissue reactions after pulp exposure. Numerous studies showed that the healing of ...

  9. A regional analysis of CAP expenditure in Austria

    OpenAIRE

    Strahl, Wibke; Dax, Thomas; Hovorka, Gerhard

    2011-01-01

    This paper reflects the demand for taking account of the territorial dimension in the application of Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) more comprehensively. While this has been addressed in rural development discourse to a wide extent over the last two decades and consensus for regionalized strategies is emerging, programme evaluation is in general still limited to the analysis of policy interventions at the national level. This implies that conclusions on the territorial effects of CAP are la...

  10. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus

    OpenAIRE

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-01-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identifie...

  11. Effect of Swim Cap Surface Roughness on Passive Drag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatta, Giorgio; Cortesi, Matteo; Zamparo, Paola

    2015-11-01

    In the last decade, great attention has been given to the improvements in swimming performance that can be obtained by wearing "technical swimsuits"; the technological evolution of these materials only marginally involved swim caps production, even if several studies have pointed out the important role of the head (as main impact point with the fluid) on hydrodynamics. The aim of this study was to compare the effects on passive drag (Dp) of 3 swim cap models: a smooth silicon helmet cap (usually used during swimming competitions), a silicon helmet cap with "dimples," and a silicon helmet cap with "wrinkles." Experiments were performed on 10 swimmers who were towed underwater (at a depth of 60 cm) at 3 speeds (1.5, 1.7, and 1.9 m·s) and in 2 body positions: LA (arms above the swimmer's head) and SA (arms alongside the body). The Dp values obtained in each trial were divided by the square of the corresponding speed to obtain the speed-specific drag (the k coefficient = Dp/v). No differences in k were observed among swim caps in the LA position. No differences in k were observed between the smooth and dimpled helmets also in the SA position; however, the wrinkled swim cap helmet showed a significant larger k (4.4%) in comparison with the model with dimples, when the swimmers kept their arms alongside the body (in the SA position). These data suggest that wearing a wrinkled swim cap helmet can be detrimental to performance at least in this specific position.

  12. Mid-small Cap Vs. Heavy-weight Share

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Xinwen

    2008-01-01

    @@ In light of the current investment trends,mid and small cap stocks are the stocks of choice for institutional capital.Currently,101 listed companies have released their performance reports.Repots show that increased stocks from 55 companies are held by institutions,some heavy-weight blue-chip stocks were sold with large margins,while some mid and small cap stocks were widely welcomed by investors.

  13. Density functional study of condensation in capped capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatsyshin, P.; Savva, N.; Kalliadasis, S.

    2015-07-01

    We study liquid adsorption in narrow rectangular capped capillaries formed by capping two parallel planar walls (a slit pore) with a third wall orthogonal to the two planar walls. The most important transition in confined fluids is arguably condensation, where the pore becomes filled with the liquid phase which is metastable in the bulk. Depending on the temperature T, the condensation in capped capillaries can be first-order (at T≤slant {{T}\\text{cw}} ) or continuous (at T\\gt {{T}\\text{cw}} ), where {{T}\\text{cw}} is the capillary wetting temperature. At T \\gt {{T}\\text{cw}} , the capping wall can adsorb mesoscopic amounts of metastable under-condensed liquid. The onset of condensation is then manifested by the continuous unbinding of the interface between the liquid adsorbed on the capping wall and the gas filling the rest of the capillary volume. In wide capped capillaries there may be a remnant of wedge filling transition, which is manifested by the adsorption of liquid drops in the corners. Our classical statistical mechanical treatment predicts a possibility of three-phase coexistence between gas, corner drops and liquid slabs adsorbed on the capping wall. In sufficiently wide capillaries we find that thick prewetting films of finite length may be nucleated at the capping wall below the boundary of the prewetting transition. Prewetting then proceeds in a continuous manner manifested by the unbinding interface between the thick and thin films adsorbed on the side walls. Our analysis is based on a detailed numerical investigation of the density functional theory for the fluid equilibria for a number of illustrative case studies.

  14. Comparison of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's CAP88 PC Versions 3.0 and 4.0.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannik, Tim; Farfan, Eduardo B; Dixon, Ken; Newton, Joseph; Sailors, Christopher; Johnson, Levi; Moore, Kelsey; Stahman, Richard

    2015-08-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) with the assistance of Georgia Regents University, completed a comparison of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) environmental dosimetry code CAP88 PC V3.0 with the recently developed V4.0. CAP88 is a set of computer programs and databases used for estimation of dose and risk from radionuclide emissions to air. At the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site, CAP88 is used by SRNL for determining compliance with U.S. EPA's National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61, Subpart H) regulations. Using standardized input parameters, individual runs were conducted for each radionuclide within its corresponding database. Some radioactive decay constants, human usage parameters, and dose coefficients changed between the two versions, directly causing a proportional change in the total effective dose. A detailed summary for select radionuclides of concern at the Savannah River Site (60Co, 137Cs, 3H, 129I, 239Pu, and 90Sr) is provided. In general, the total effective doses will decrease for alpha/beta emitters because of reduced inhalation and ingestion rates in V4.0. However, for gamma emitters, such as 60Co and 137Cs, the total effective doses will increase because of changes U.S. EPA made in the external ground shine calculations.

  15. A decision tool for selecting trench cap designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paige, G.B.; Stone, J.J.; Lane, L.J. [USDA-ARS, Tucson, AZ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A computer based prototype decision support system (PDSS) is being developed to assist the risk manager in selecting an appropriate trench cap design for waste disposal sites. The selection of the {open_quote}best{close_quote} design among feasible alternatives requires consideration of multiple and often conflicting objectives. The methodology used in the selection process consists of: selecting and parameterizing decision variables using data, simulation models, or expert opinion; selecting feasible trench cap design alternatives; ordering the decision variables and ranking the design alternatives. The decision model is based on multi-objective decision theory and uses a unique approach to order the decision variables and rank the design alternatives. Trench cap designs are evaluated based on federal regulations, hydrologic performance, cover stability and cost. Four trench cap designs, which were monitored for a four year period at Hill Air Force Base in Utah, are used to demonstrate the application of the PDSS and evaluate the results of the decision model. The results of the PDSS, using both data and simulations, illustrate the relative advantages of each of the cap designs and which cap is the {open_quotes}best{close_quotes} alternative for a given set of criteria and a particular importance order of those decision criteria.

  16. Response of northern winter polar cap to auroral substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liou, Kan; Sotirelis, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    The three-phase substorm sequence has been generally accepted and is often tied to the Dungey cycle. Although previous studies have mostly agreed on the increase and decrease in the polar cap area during an episode of substorm, there are disparate views on when the polar cap starts to contract relative to substorm onset. Here we address this conflict using high-resolution (~1-3 min) snapshot global auroral images from the ultraviolet imager on board the Polar spacecraft. On the basis of 28 auroral substorm events, all observed in the Northern Hemispheric winter, it is found that the polar cap inflated prior to onset in all events and it attained the largest area ~6 min prior to the substorm expansion phase onset, while the dayside polar cap area remained steady around the onset. The onset of nightside polar cap deflation is found to be attributed to intensifications of aurora on the poleward edge of the nightside oval, mostly in the midnight sector. Although this result supports the loading-unloading and reconnection substorm models, it is not clear if the initial polar cap deflation and the substorm expansion are parts of the same process.

  17. Myc Regulation of mRNA Cap Methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowling, Victoria H.; Cole, Michael D.

    2010-01-01

    The c-myc proto-oncogene regulates the expression of 15% to 20% of all genes, depending on the cell type, and the regulation is usually modest (1.5- to 2.0-fold). The authors discovered that in addition to regulating mRNA abundance, c-Myc regulates the formation of the 7-methylguanosine cap on many mRNAs, including transcriptional target genes and others not transcriptionally activated. Because the 7-methylguanosine cap is required for effective translation, enhanced methyl cap formation leads to increased protein production from Myc-responsive genes that exceeds the transcriptional induction. Increased cap methylation is linked to Myc-dependent enhanced activity of 2 critical kinases, TFIIH and p-TEFb, which phosphorylate the RNA polymerase II carboxy-terminal domain (CTD). Phosphorylation of the CTD recruits RNGTT and RNMT, the enzymes involved in mRNA capping, to the nascent transcript. Evidence is accumulating that enhanced cap methylation makes a significant contribution to Myc-dependent gene regulation and protein production. PMID:21170289

  18. A capacitive, biocompatible and adhesive electrode for long-term and cap-free monitoring of EEG signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Min; Kim, Jeong Hun; Byeon, Hang Jin; Choi, Yoon Young; Park, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2013-06-01

    Objective. Long-term electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring broadens EEG applications to various areas, but it requires cap-free recording of EEG signals. Our objective here is to develop a capacitive, small-sized, adhesive and biocompatible electrode for the cap-free and long-term EEG monitoring. Approach. We have developed an electrode made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and adhesive PDMS for EEG monitoring. This electrode can be attached to a hairy scalp and be completely hidden by the hair. We tested its electrical and mechanical (adhesive) properties by measuring voltage gain to frequency and adhesive force using 30 repeat cycles of the attachment and detachment test. Electrode performance on EEG was evaluated by alpha rhythm detection and measuring steady state visually evoked potential and N100 auditory evoked potential. Main results. We observed the successful recording of alpha rhythm and evoked signals to diverse stimuli with high signal quality. The biocompatibility of the electrode was verified and a survey found that the electrode was comfortable and convenient to wear. Significance. These results indicate that the proposed EEG electrode is suitable and convenient for long term EEG monitoring.

  19. Robust estimation of Cronbach's alpha

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Cronbach’s alpha is a popular method to measure reliability, e.g. in quantifying the reliability of a score to summarize the information of several items in questionnaires. The alpha coefficient is known to be non-robust. We study the behavior of this coefficient in different settings to identify situations, which can easily occur in practice, but under which the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient is extremely sensitive to violations of the classical model assumptions. Furthermore, we construct a r...

  20. PDFs, $\\alpha_s$, and quark masses from global fits

    CERN Document Server

    Alekhin, S; Moch, S; Placakyte, R

    2016-01-01

    The strong coupling constant $\\alpha_s$ and the heavy-quark masses, $m_c$, $m_b$, $m_t$ are extracted simultaneosly with the parton distribution functions (PDFs) in the updated ABM12 fit including recent data from CERN-SPS, HERA, Tevatron, and the LHC. The values of \\begin{eqnarray} \

  1. Risk weighted alpha index – analysis of the ASX50 index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nipun Agarwal

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Major stock indexes are developed on the market capitalization or price weighted indexation method. The Australian Stock Exchange 50 (ASX50 index is a market capitalization index of the top 50 Australian stocks. Fundamental indexation, equal weighted index and risk weighted index methods have recently been developed as an alternative to the market cap and price indexes. However, empirical studies do not conclusively prove if these alternate methods are more efficient to the existing market cap or price weighted methods. Also, the fundamental index method provides a higher alpha, while the risk weighted index methods focus on risk reduction through diversification. There is a gap to develop another passive indexation method in order to provide the investor a higher return (alpha and lower volatility. This paper re-weights the ASX50 index using the risk weighted alpha method and provides higher weight to stocks that have increasing returns and lower volatility. The empirical study for ASX50 index from 2002-2012 is undertaken and results show that the risk weighted alpha method provides higher return and has lower systematic risk than the ASX50 index.

  2. An add-on cap for ATR-IR spectroscopy studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a cap (300B) for an attenuated total reflectance infrared (ATR-IR) spectrometer, the ATR-IR spectrometer comprising an ATR-IR plate (200). The cap (300B) comprises an ATR- IR plate facing cap surface. When the ATR-IR plate facing cap surface is placed on the sample surfac...

  3. 22 CFR 121.11 - Military demolition blocks and blasting caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Military demolition blocks and blasting caps... blasting caps. Military demolition blocks and blasting caps referred to in Category IV(a) do not include the following articles: (a) Electric squibs. (b) No. 6 and No. 8 blasting caps, including...

  4. Alpha glucosidase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    Alpha glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) are a unique class of anti-diabetic drugs. Derived from bacteria, these oral drugs are enzyme inhibitors which do not have a pancreato -centred mechanism of action. Working to delay carbohydrate absorption in the gastrointestinal tract, they control postprandial hyperglycaemia and provide unquestioned cardiovascular benefit. Specially suited for a traditional Pakistani carbohydrate-rich diet, AGIs have been termed the 'untapped diamonds' of diabetology. The use of these oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs) that target pathophysiology in the early stages of type 2 diabetes, notably to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia and hyperinsulinaemia will inevitably increase with time. This review describes the history of their development, mechanism of action, basic and clinical pharmacology, and suggests practical, evidence-based guidance for their optimal use. PMID:24864650

  5. CAPS-POEIRA: um modo de intervenção no CAPS-ad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Galdiano Vieira de Matos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo versa sobre el reducto de las experiencias de la investigadora conforme la voluntaria de "Capoeira Angola" en una unidad CAPS-ad. Transitando por la posición de voluntaria y psicóloga se buscó comprender la dinámica de los sujetos usuarios del servicio, además de nombrar los sentidos proporcionados por el encuentro entre el Psicoanálisis y la Capoeira Angola en los grupos operativos del CAPS-ad, siendo éste el objetivo general delineado en el trabajo. En aquel escenario, en que muchos sujetos usuarios del servicio estaban absortos a la droga, había aquellos que se interesaban por los talleres y demostraban atención a los propios tratamientos. La propuesta era comprender la dinámica observada en el grupo de sujetos drogadictos y provocar inquietudes posibles. Para eso, se intensificaba el entrelazamiento entre el Psicoanálisis, la Capoeira Angola y los grupos operativos, recursos que proporcionaban una mayor aproximación a la psique humana, el reconocimiento de la potencialidad humana de creación y de transformación de la realidad, y la comprensión de que en los grupos podría haber una re-significación de las vivencias personales y grupales. Fueron desarrollados once encuentros cuya propuesta era la articulación de los grupos con los recursos de la Capoeira Angola-musica, narrativa y movimiento. La conclusión presenta la complejidad de la problemática droga y el posible movimiento provocado en aquel grupo por medio de la Capoeira Angola, arte ancestral marcada por la resistencia en la sociedad contemporánea.

  6. The capping domain in RalF regulates effector functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Alix

    Full Text Available The Legionella pneumophila effector protein RalF functions as a guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF that activates the host small GTPase protein ADP-ribosylation factor (Arf, and recruits this host protein to the vacuoles in which this pathogen resides. GEF activity is conferred by the Sec7 domain located in the N-terminal region of RalF. Structural studies indicate that the C-terminal region of RalF makes contacts with residues in the Sec7 domain important for Arf interactions. Theoretically, the C-terminal region of RalF could prevent nucleotide exchange activity by blocking the ability of Arf to interact with the Sec7 domain. For this reason, the C-terminal region of RalF has been termed a capping domain. Here, the role of the RalF capping domain was investigated by comparing biochemical and effector activities mediated by this domain in both the Legionella RalF protein (LpRalF and in a RalF ortholog isolated from the unrelated intracellular pathogen Rickettsia prowazekii (RpRalF. These data indicate that both RalF proteins contain a functional Sec7 domain and that the capping domain regulates RalF GEF activity. The capping domain has intrinsic determinants that mediate localization of the RalF protein inside of host cells and confer distinct effector activities. Localization mediated by the capping domain of LpRalF enables the GEF to modulate membrane transport in the secretory pathway, whereas, the capping domain of RpRalF enables this bacterial GEF to modulate actin dynamics occurring near the plasma membrane. Thus, these data reveal that divergence in the function of the C-terminal capping domain alters the in vivo functions of the RalF proteins.

  7. The transmission link of CAPS navigation and communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) is based on communication satellites with integrated capability, which is different from the Global Positioning System (GPS), the International Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat) and so on. CAPS works at C-band, and its navigation information is not directly generated from the satellite, but from the master control station on the ground and transmitted to users via the satellite. The slightly inclined geostationary-satellite orbit (SIGSO) satellites are adopted in CAPS. All of these increase the difficulty in the design of the system and terminals. In this paper, the authors study the CAPS configuration parameters of the navigation master control station, information transmission capability, and the selection of the antenna aperture of the communication center station, as well as the impact of satellite parameters on the whole communication system from the perspective of the transmission link budget. The conclusion of availability of the CAPS navigation system is achieved. The results show that the CAPS inbound communication system forms a new low-data-rate satellite communication system, which can accommodate mass communication terminals with the transmission rate of no more than 1 kbps for every terminal. The communication center station should be configured with a large-aperture antenna (about 10-15 m); spread spectrum com- munication technology should be used with the spreading gain as high as about 40 dB; reduction of the satellite transponder gain attenuation is beneficial to improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the system, with the attenuation value of 0 or 2 dB as the best choice. The fact that the CAPS navigation system has been checked and accepted by the experts and the operation is stable till now clarifies the rationality of the analysis results. The fact that a variety of experiments and applications of the satellite communication system designed according to the findings in this paper have been

  8. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 (211At) and natural bismuth-212 (212Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 (223Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  9. The Lyman alpha reference sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayes, M.; Östlin, G.; Schaerer, D.;

    2013-01-01

    We report on new imaging observations of the Lyman alpha emission line (Lyα), performed with the Hubble Space Telescope, that comprise the backbone of the Lyman alpha Reference Sample. We present images of 14 starburst galaxies at redshifts 0.028

  10. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ({sup 211}At) and natural bismuth-212 ({sup 212}Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ({sup 223}Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs.

  11. Alpha Schottky junction energy source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litz, Marc S.; Fan, Zhaoyang; Carroll, James J.; Bayne, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    Isotope batteries offer solutions for long-lived low-power sensor requirements. Alpha emitting isotopes have energy per decay 103 times that of beta emitters. Alpha particles are absorbed within 20 μm of most materials reducing shielding mitigation. However, damage to materials from the alphas limits their practical use. A Schottky Barrier Diode (SBD) geometry is considered with an alpha emitting contact-layer on a diamond-like crystal semiconductor region. The radiation tolerance of diamond, the safety of alpha particles, combined with the internal field of the SBD is expected to generate current useful for low-power electronic devices over decades. Device design parameters and calculations of the expected current are described.

  12. The "demand side" effect of price caps: uncertainty, imperfect competition, and ration

    OpenAIRE

    Léautier, Thomas-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Price caps are often used by policy makers to "regulate markets". Previous analyses have focussed on the "supply side" impact of these caps, and derived the optimal price cap, which maximizes investment and welfare. This article expands the analysis to include the "demand side" impact of price caps: when prices can no longer rise, customers must be rationed to adjust demand to available supply. This yields two new findings, that contradict previous analyses. First, the welfare-maximizing cap ...

  13. Parametric study of propeller boss cap fins for container ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Sang-Seop

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The global price of oil, which is both finite and limited in quantity, has been rising steadily because of the increasing requirements for energy in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, regulations have been strengthened across all industries to address global warming. Many studies of hull resistance, propulsion and operation of ships have been performed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This study examined the design parameters of the propeller boss cap fin (PBCF and hub cap for 6,000TEU container ships to improve the propulsion efficiency. The design parameters of PBCF have been selected based on the geometrical shape. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD analysis with a propeller open water (POW test was performed to check the validity of CFD analysis. The design of experiment (DOE case was selected as a full factorial design, and the experiment was analyzed by POW and CFD analysis. Analysis of variance (ANOVA was performed to determine the correlation among design parameters. Four design alternatives of PBCF were selected from the DOE. The shape of a propeller hub cap was selected as a divergent shape, and the divergent angle was determined by the DOE. Four design alternatives of PBCF were attached to the divergent hub cap, and the POW was estimated by CFD. As a result, the divergent hub cap with PBCF has a negative effect on the POW, which is induced by an increase in torque coefficient. A POW test and cavitation test were performed with a divergent hub cap with PBCF to verify the CFD result. The POW test result showed that the open water efficiency was increased approximately 2% with a divergent hub cap compared to a normal cap. The POW test result was similar to the CFD result, and the divergent hub cap with the PBCF models showed lower open water efficiency. This was attributed to an increase in the torque coefficient just like the CFD results. A cavitation test was performed using the 2 models selected. The test

  14. Climatic and environmental records in Guliya Ice Cap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚檀栋; 焦克勤; 田力德; 李忠勤; 李月芳; 刘景寿; 皇翠兰; 谢超; L.G.Thompson; E.M.Thompson

    1995-01-01

    The Guliya Ice Cap is the largest (with a total area of 376.1 m2 and an area cf 131 2 m2 at the flat top), highest (6 700 m a. s.l.) and coldest (with an ice temperature of -19℃ at 10 m depth) ice cap found in Central Asia so far. From 1990 to 1992, the oxygen isotope ratios, microparticle concentrations, anions, cations of a large number of samples from snow pits and ice cores were analysed to study the climatic and environmental characteristics of the Guliya Ice Cap. Being frozen to bedrock and with extremely low ice temperature, the ideal climatic and environmental informarion was recorded in Guliya Ice Cap. The distinct annual and seasonal cycle characteristics of the oxygen isotope ratio, microparticle concentration, anion and cation provide bases to date precisely the high-resolution time series in the ice cap. Oxygen isotope ratios decreased, microparticle concentrations and various chemical elements increased in the colder periods, while oxygen isotope values increased, microparticle concentrat

  15. Canadian ice caps as sources of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven surface-to-bedrock ice cores, varying from 129 to 337 m in length, have been recovered from Canadian high Arctic ice caps since 1964. While one (Meighen Island) consists entirely of Holocene ice, the others (Devon and Agassiz ice caps) cover time spans of 100,000 years, similar to those from Greenland. The authors relatively thin ice caps provide simple drilling conditions but give records of various parameters from several holes down a flow line. Comparison of these records continues to provide information on signal-to-noise ratios and ice cap rheology. The major disadvantage of thin ice caps is poor resolution in ice more than 5,000 to 10,000 years old. This is offset, however, by the relative ease of retrieval of significant numbers of pollen grains from all levels in the ice. Thus the authors have been able to use pollen as a paleoenvironmental tool leading, for example, to identification of basal ice layers as Sangamonian in age. Similarly, although annual melting of snow at the surface precludes the possibility of using ice cores for gas analysis, the persistence of variable melt layer concentrations through the Holocene ice has given a continuous melt layer record showing gradual deterioration of summer climate from a warm peak 8,000 to 9,000 years ago, to a cold minimum 200 years ago

  16. Is Vitamin C Beneficial to Patients with CAP?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Li, Guoping

    2016-08-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in elderly and children. Vitamin C is known as a physiological antioxidant, regulating innate immune system in the lung. Vitamin C has been used to prevent and treat CAP. However, the use of vitamin C for preventing and treating CAP has been a subject of controversy. We aim to review the most significant findings about vitamin C supplementation in patients with pneumonia based on literature from the PubMed. First, we reviewed recent advances about the role of oxidative stress in CAP. Oxidative stress is a crucial component of the host defense system and inflammatory response. However, excessive oxidative stress can cause a systemic inflammatory response leading to tissue damage. The degree of oxidative stress has been associated with the severity of CAP. Vitamin C is beneficial to the host defense system by regulating the innate immunity in the lungs. We also discuss the prophylactic use of vitamin C for pneumonia. Vitamin C supplementation decreased the pneumonia risk in patients with vitamin C deficiency. However, it is not beneficial for prophylactic use of vitamin C to prevent pneumonia in the well-nourished population. Finally, we summarize the effect of vitamin C on mechanical ventilation used during respiratory failure. Administration of vitamin C decreases the duration of mechanical ventilation by decreasing oxidative stress. PMID:27363830

  17. Tasseled cap transformation for HJ multispectral remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ling; Han, Xiaoyong

    2015-12-01

    The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in environment, agriculture, forest and ecology. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ multi-spectrum data has been established through Givens rotation matrix to rotate principal component transform vector to whiteness, greenness and blueness direction of ground object basing on 24 scenes year-round HJ multispectral remote sensing data. The whiteness component enhances the brightness difference of ground object, and the greenness component preserves more detailed information of vegetation change while enhances the vegetation characteristic, and the blueness component significantly enhances factory with blue plastic house roof around the town and also can enhance brightness of water. Tasseled cap transformation coefficients matrix of HJ will enhance the application effect of HJ multispectral remote sensing data in their application fields.

  18. Spatial Distribution of Pair Production over the Pulsar Polar Cap

    CERN Document Server

    Belyaev, Mikhail A

    2016-01-01

    Using an analytic, axisymmetric approach that includes general relativity, coupled to a condition for pair production deduced from simulations, we derive general results about the spatial distribution of pair-producing field lines over the pulsar polar cap. In particular, we show that pair production by curvature photons on magnetic field lines operates over only a fraction of the polar cap for an aligned rotator for general magnetic field configurations, assuming the magnetic field varies spatially on a scale that is larger than the size of the polar cap. We compare our result to force-free simulations of a pulsar with a dipole surface field and find excellent agreement. Our work has implications for first-principles simulations of pulsar magnetospheres, and for explaining observations of pulsed radio and high-energy emission.

  19. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration

  20. Assessing the value of price caps and floors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    This publication assesses the long-term economic and climatic effects of introducing price caps and price floors in hypothetical global climate change mitigation policy. Based on emission trends, abatement costs and equilibrium climate sensitivity from IPCC and IEA reports, this quantitative analysis confirms that price caps could significantly reduce economic uncertainty. This uncertainty stems primarily from unpredictable economic growth and energy prices, and ultimately unabated emission trends. In addition, the development of abatement technologies is uncertain. Furthermore,this analysis shows that rigid targets may entail greater economic risks with little or no comparative advantage for the climate. More ambitious emission objectives, combined with price caps and price floors, could still entail significantly lower expected costs while driving similar, or even slightly better, climatic outcomes in probabilistic terms.

  1. Buy badges and help finance Cap Loisirs activities!

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Please give a warm welcome to Cap Loisirs’ volunteers who will be manning a stand at the main entrance on Friday 8 February! In honour of St. Valentine’s Day, they will be selling a selection of 5 badges designed by artist Anna Sommer, depicting declarations of love by our friends from the animal kingdom. Price : Frs. 3.- per badge The aim of Fondation Cap Loisirs is to provide leisure activities for mentally handicapped children, adolescents and adults. The Foundation offers a wide range of activities which allow the mentally handicapped to enjoy quality leisure in areas as varied as culture, sport, tourism, travel and artistic expression. Fondation Cap Loisirs Rue de Monthoux 66 – 1201 Geneva – Tel: 022 731 86 00 – CCP Genève 12-5587-5 – caploisirs@caploisirs.ch – http://www.Caploisirs.ch

  2. Economic evaluation of closure cap barrier materials study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrato, M.G.; Bhutani, J.S.; Mead, S.M.

    1993-09-01

    Volume II of the Economic Evaluation of the Closure Cap Barrier Materials, Revision I contains detailed cost estimates for closure cap barrier materials. The cost estimates incorporate the life cycle costs for a generic hazardous waste seepage basin closure cap under the RCRA Post Closure Period of thirty years. The economic evaluation assessed six barrier material categories. Each of these categories consists of several composite cover system configurations, which were used to develop individual cost estimates. The information contained in this report is not intended to be used as a cost estimating manual. This information provides the decision makers with the ability to screen barrier materials, cover system configurations, and identify cost-effective materials for further consideration.

  3. Open flux merging in an expanding polar cap model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents calculated ionospheric convection patterns that result from dayside magnetic merging when open and closed flux tubes are cut. In the model, a boundary representing the boundary between open and closed field lines expands as newly open flux enters through a gap on the dayside. The gap which represents the dayside merging region mapped to the ionosphere is extended into the polar cap to represent open field line merging. It has been suggested that it is necessary to extend the ionospheric image of the merging line into the polar cap to account for sunward flows observed there. It is shown how the length and the merging potential associated with the extended merging line affects the resulting flow patterns. The results are compared to relevant published data and it is found that an extended merging line indeed induces sunward polar cap flow, but the observed sunward flow is better explained by a day-night ionospheric conductivity gradient. 12 references

  4. CAPS and Munc13: CATCHRs that SNARE vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan J James

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. CAPS (Calcium-dependent Activator Protein for Secretion, aka CADPS and Munc13 (Mammalian Unc-13 proteins function to prime vesicles for Ca2+-triggered exocytosis in neurons and neuroendocrine cells. CAPS and Munc13 proteins contain conserved C-terminal domains that promote the assembly of SNARE complexes for vesicle priming. Similarities of the C-terminal domains of CAPS/Munc13 proteins with CATCHR (Complex Associated with Tethering Containing Helical Rods domains in multi-subunit tethering complexes have been reported. Multi-subunit tethering complexes coordinate multiple interactions for SNARE complex assembly at constitutive membrane fusion steps. We review aspects of these diverse tethering and priming factors to identify common operating principles.

  5. Laser-assisted {alpha} decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castaneda Cortes, Hector Mauricio; Palffy, Adriana; Keitel, Christoph H. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Kernphysik, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Popruzhenko, Sergey [Moscow State Engineering Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-01

    The spontaneous emission of alpha particles by unstable nuclei was one of the first physical processes to be described by quantum tunneling of a quasistationary state, i.e. a long-lived state. The development of new powerful coherent light sources opens the possibility to study the direct interaction between strong laser fields and atomic nuclei, assisting the tunneling of the {alpha} particle through the nuclear barrier. In this work we investigate for the first time the effect of strong laser fields on the tunneling and {alpha} particle emission of several medium-mass and heavy nuclei. To this end we make use of the formalism we have developed starting from the well-known Strong-Field Approximation and its complex trajectories formulation to describe the laser-assisted decay of quasistationary states [1]. The effect of a static as well as optical and X-ray monochromatic fields on the {alpha} decay lifetimes and {alpha} particle emission spectra is determined. We find that even at strong intensities, the laser-induced acceleration of the {alpha} decay is negligible, and only the spectra are significantly changed by the laser field. In particular, for optical fields, high laser intensities can lead to rescattering of the {alpha} particle off the daughter nucleus.

  6. ALPHA freezes antiprotons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Laboratories like CERN can routinely produce many different types of antiparticles. In 1995, the PS210 experiment formed the first antihydrogen atoms and a few years later, in 2002, ATRAP and ATHENA were already able to produce several thousand of them. However, no experiment in the world has succeeded in ‘trapping’ these anti-atoms in order to study them. This is the goal of the ALPHA experiment, which has recently managed to cool down the antiprotons to just a few Kelvin. This represents a major step towards trapping the anti-atom, thus opening a new avenue into the investigation of antimatter properties.   Members of the ALPHA collaboration working on the apparatus in the Antiproton Decelerator experimental hall at CERN. Just like the atom, the anti-atom is neutral. Unlike the atom, the anti-atom is made up of antiprotons (as opposed to protons in the atom) and positrons (as opposed to electrons). In order to thoroughly study the properties of the anti-atoms, scien...

  7. CapsID: a web-based tool for developing parsimonious sets of CAPS molecular markers for genotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Provart Nicholas J

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genotyping may be carried out by a number of different methods including direct sequencing and polymorphism analysis. For a number of reasons, PCR-based polymorphism analysis may be desirable, owing to the fact that only small amounts of genetic material are required, and that the costs are low. One popular and cheap method for detecting polymorphisms is by using cleaved amplified polymorphic sequence, or CAPS, molecular markers. These are also known as PCR-RFLP markers. Results We have developed a program, called CapsID, that identifies snip-SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms that alter restriction endonuclease cut sites within a set or sets of reference sequences, designs PCR primers around these, and then suggests the most parsimonious combination of markers for genotyping any individual who is not a member of the reference set. The output page includes biologist-friendly features, such as images of virtual gels to assist in genotyping efforts. CapsID is freely available at http://bbc.botany.utoronto.ca/capsid. Conclusion CapsID is a tool that can rapidly provide minimal sets of CAPS markers for molecular identification purposes for any biologist working in genetics, community genetics, plant and animal breeding, forensics and other fields.

  8. Enzymatic synthesis of RNAs capped with nucleotide analogues reveals the molecular basis for substrate selectivity of RNA capping enzyme: impacts on RNA metabolism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moheshwarnath Issur

    Full Text Available RNA cap binding proteins have evolved to specifically bind to the N7-methyl guanosine cap structure found at the 5' ends of eukaryotic mRNAs. The specificity of RNA capping enzymes towards GTP for the synthesis of this structure is therefore crucial for mRNA metabolism. The fact that ribavirin triphosphate was described as a substrate of a viral RNA capping enzyme, raised the possibility that RNAs capped with nucleotide analogues could be generated in cellulo. Owing to the fact that this prospect potentially has wide pharmacological implications, we decided to investigate whether the active site of the model Paramecium bursaria Chlorella virus-1 RNA capping enzyme was flexible enough to accommodate various purine analogues. Using this approach, we identified several key structural determinants at each step of the RNA capping reaction and generated RNAs harboring various different cap analogues. Moreover, we monitored the binding affinity of these novel capped RNAs to the eIF4E protein and evaluated their translational properties in cellulo. Overall, this study establishes a molecular rationale for the specific selection of GTP over other NTPs by RNA capping enzyme It also demonstrates that RNAs can be enzymatically capped with certain purine nucleotide analogs, and it also describes the impacts of modified RNA caps on specific steps involved in mRNA metabolism. For instance, our results indicate that the N7-methyl group of the classical N7-methyl guanosine cap is not always indispensable for binding to eIF4E and subsequently for translation when compensatory modifications are present on the capped residue. Overall, these findings have important implications for our understanding of the molecular determinants involved in both RNA capping and RNA metabolism.

  9. Facile hydrothermal synthesis of alpha manganese sesquioxide ({alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanodumb-bells: Structural, magnetic, optical and photocatalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanam, S., E-mail: gnanam.nanoscience@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600005, Tamilnadu (India); Rajendran, V. [Department of Physics, Presidency College, Chennai 600005, Tamilnadu (India)

    2013-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles sizes of 35-42 nm have been prepared by hydrothermal process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Shapes of {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Dumb-bell, Cauliflower, spherical with rod, spherical with wires. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The strong UV emission can be attributed to high purity and perfect crystallinity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Photocatalytic activity of {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} was studied by degradation of Remazol red B dye. - Abstract: Nanometer scale cubic bixbyite {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method, at a temperature of 450 Degree-Sign C in the presence of various surfactants. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis shows that the average crystallite size of the sample is {approx}35-42 nm. The shapes of the {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles include: Dumb-bell-like (anionic surfactant), Cauliflower-like (nonionic surfactant), spherical with rods (cationic surfactant) and spherical with wires (surface modifier). The shapes of {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles depend on the type of surfactant used in the synthesis. The magnetic property of the anionic surfactant assisted sample was primarily studied, using the vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The optical absorption spectra confirmed the effectiveness of the selected capping agents, as the anionic capped {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} colloids absorbed at shorter wavelength than the other agents, indicating a much smaller crystallite size. The property of strong UV emissions may be attributed to the high purity and perfect crystallinity of the as-prepared {alpha}-Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The surfactants-assisted catalyst was tested for its photocatalytic activity towards the photodegradation of the harmful organic dye Remazol Red B, using a multilamp photo reactor. Possible formation mechanisms have also been proposed for the as-synthesized anionic surfactant assisted samples.

  10. Partitioning $\\alpha$-large sets for $\\alpha<\\varepsilon_{\\omega}$

    CERN Document Server

    De Smet, Michiel

    2010-01-01

    We generalise the results by Bigorajska and Kotlarski about partitioning $\\alpha$-large sets, by extending the domain up to ordinals below $\\varepsilon_{\\omega}$. These results will be very useful to give a miniaturisation of the infinite Ramsey Theorem.

  11. Synthesis of a precursor for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from 11 beta-hydroxytestosterone, the synthesis of a strategic precursor, C-9 (11) unsaturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide (9a), for the preparation of 9 alpha,11 alpha-tritiated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide has been achieved. The authors optimized the reaction conditions for catalytic reduction employing hydrogen and subsequent base hydrolysis followed by purification on Amberlite XAD-2 resin to obtain the saturated 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha, 17 beta-diol 17-glucuronide

  12. Gross alpha activity as an estimator of radium-226 activity in soils and tailings at an inactive uranium mill tailings site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesen, D.R.; Wienke, C.L.

    1978-10-01

    Gross alpha activity in surface tailings and surface soils from one inactive uranium mill site has been shown to be an accurate estimator of /sup 226/Ra activity. An exponential regression, /sup 226/Ra = 387(e/sup 0.00166..cap alpha../ - 1), where /sup 226/Ra activity is in picoCuries per gram and gross alpha activity is in counts per minute per sample, gave a good fit for samples ranging in gross alpha activity from 3 to 1082 cpm/sample. A linear regression, /sup 226/Ra = 1.05 ..cap alpha.. + 1.78, has been calculated, which shows gross alpha activity to be an excellent estimator of /sup 226/Ra activity in soils contaminated with tailings. The percentage of gross alpha activity attributable to /sup 226/Ra activity has been calculated to be 7.2, 17.6, 18.3, and 17.0 for uncontaminated soils, contaminated soils, tailings, and the total set of samples, respectively.

  13. Federal mandatory spending caps vital for health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domenici, P V

    1992-01-01

    Rising health spending creates an increasing burden on families, businesses, and government. Federal health spending--chiefly on Medicare and Medicaid--is a major contributor to a budget deficit that threatens to exceed $400 billion. In order to control that deficit, the President and the Congress must cap mandatory spending, excluding Social Security. In turn, policymakers should adopt health reforms to fit spending within the cap including enrolling more consumers in managed care plans, resolving medical liability disputes in arbitration instead of courts, and increasing assessment of research into cost-effective new technology.

  14. Equilibrium magnetic states in individual hemispherical permalloy caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streubel, Robert; Schmidt, Oliver G. [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Material Systems for Nanoelectronics, Chemnitz University of Technology, 09107 Chemnitz (Germany); Kravchuk, Volodymyr P.; Gaididei, Yuri [Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, 03143 Kiev (Ukraine); Sheka, Denis D. [Radiophysics Faculty, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kiev, 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Makarov, Denys [Institute for Integrative Nanosciences, IFW Dresden, 01069 Dresden (Germany); Kronast, Florian [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin fuer Materialien und Energie GmbH, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2012-09-24

    The magnetization distributions in individual soft magnetic permalloy caps on non-magnetic spherical particles with sizes ranging from 50 to 800 nm are investigated. We experimentally visualize the magnetic structures at the resolution limit of the x-ray magnetic circular dichroism photoelectron emission microscopy (XMCD-PEEM). By analyzing the so-called tail contrast in XMCD-PEEM, the spatial resolution is significantly enhanced, which allowed us to explore magnetic vortices and their displacement on curved surfaces. Furthermore, cap nanostructures are modeled as extruded hemispheres to determine theoretically the phase diagram of equilibrium magnetic states. The calculated phase diagram agrees well with the experimental observations.

  15. Perawatan Indirect Pulp Capping pada Gigi Tetap Muda (Laporan Kasus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanty Ariany

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Treatment for young permanent teeth with deep carious lesion that on radiographic examination close to the pulp and without symptoms and sign of pulp degeneration are indirect pulp capping. The aim of this technique is to maintain pulp vitality. Material used for this treatment must be able to stimulate reparative dentin, such as calcium hydroxide, zinc oxide eugenol, glass ionomer cement and bonding agent. This paper reported indirect pulp capping on young permanent tooth with deep carious lesion. After 7 months of observation there was no symptom and on radiographic examination showed reparative dentin.

  16. Analisa Aliran Hub Cap Propeller Terhadap Pengaruh Nozzle Ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicaksono Wicaksono

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Propeller mempunyai peranan yang penting,dimana alat tersebut yang sering digunakan untuk mengerakan kapal,propeller sendiri dapat mengubah gaya gerak (putar menjadi gaya dorong,berdasarkan studi lebih lanjut dalam penelitian ini,banyak ditemukan tipe propeller yang sudah dimodifikasi untuk memdapatkan performa yang lebih baik,untuk meningkatan efisiensi.tujuan dari tugas akhir ini adalah menghybrid nozzle ring dengan hub cap propeller yang mana dapat mempengaruhi besar dari thrust,torque,dan juga efisiensi yang maksimal dengan pendekatan CFD   (Computational,Fluid,Dynamic,variabel yang divariasikan  adlah sudu ducted dengan hub cap propeller.

  17. Virus-specific mRNA capping enzyme encoded by hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magden, J; Takeda, N; Li, T; Auvinen, P; Ahola, T; Miyamura, T; Merits, A; Kääriäinen, L

    2001-07-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV), a positive-strand RNA virus, is an important causative agent of waterborne hepatitis. Expression of cDNA (encoding amino acids 1 to 979 of HEV nonstructural open reading frame 1) in insect cells resulted in synthesis of a 110-kDa protein (P110), a fraction of which was proteolytically processed to an 80-kDa protein. P110 was tightly bound to cytoplasmic membranes, from which it could be released by detergents. Immunopurified P110 catalyzed transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) to GTP and GDP to yield m(7)GTP or m(7)GDP. GMP, GpppG, and GpppA were poor substrates for the P110 methyltransferase. There was no evidence for further methylation of m(7)GTP when it was used as a substrate for the methyltransferase. P110 was also a guanylyltransferase, which formed a covalent complex, P110-m(7)GMP, in the presence of AdoMet and GTP, because radioactivity from both [alpha-(32)P]GTP and [(3)H-methyl]AdoMet was found in the covalent guanylate complex. Since both methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase reactions are strictly virus specific, they should offer optimal targets for development of antiviral drugs. Cap analogs such as m(7)GTP, m(7)GDP, et(2)m(7)GMP, and m(2)et(7)GMP inhibited the methyltransferase reaction. HEV P110 capping enzyme has similar properties to the methyltransferase and guanylyltransferase of alphavirus nsP1, tobacco mosaic virus P126, brome mosaic virus replicase protein 1a, and bamboo mosaic virus (a potexvirus) nonstructural protein, indicating there is a common evolutionary origin of these distantly related plant and animal virus families. PMID:11413290

  18. Dynamics of cap opening in Agaricus bisporus and changes in spore numbers vs. cap opening and radiation treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovacs, E.; Voeroes, Zs.; Farkas, J. (Koezponti Elelmiszeripari Kutato Intezet, Budapest (Hungary))

    1981-01-01

    The spore count in Agaricus bisporus treated with radiation doses of 1.5 and 2.5 kGy was studied as a function of cap opening and radiation treatment (at 14-16 deg C and RH 80-90%). It was established that spore formation starts in the mushroom while the cap is still closed and the opening of the pileus starts when the spore number begins to increase. In treated mushrooms not only the cap remains closed but in lack of the development of gills the development of spores is also inhibited. Maturation retardation becomes apparent in the inhibition of the increase in number and of the darkening of the spores.

  19. Tissue-specific expression of the human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene is controlled by multiple cis-regulatory elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, R F; Li, Y.; Sifers, R N; Wang, H.; Hardick, C; Tsai, S. Y.; Woo, S L

    1987-01-01

    Human alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) is expressed in the liver, and a 318 bp fragment immediately flanking the CAP site of the gene was found to be sufficient to drive the expression of a reporter gene (CAT) specifically in hepatoma cells. The enhancing activity however, was orientation-dependent. The DNA fragment was separated into a distal region and a proximal region. A "core enhancer" sequence GTGGTTTC is present within the distal region and is capable of activity enhancement in both orientati...

  20. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins

  1. Impact Response Study on Covering Cap of Aircraft Big-Size Integral Fuel Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fusheng; Jia, Senqing; Wang, Yi; Yue, Zhufeng

    2016-10-01

    In order to assess various design concepts and choose a kind of covering cap design scheme which can meet the requirements of airworthiness standard and ensure the safety of fuel tank. Using finite element software ANSYS/LS- DYNA, the impact process of covering cap of aircraft fuel tank by projectile were simulated, in which dynamical characteristics of simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap impacted by titanium alloy projectile and rubber projectile were studied, as well as factor effects on simple single covering cap and gland double-layer covering cap under impact region, impact angle and impact energy were also studied. Though the comparison of critical damage velocity and element deleted number of the covering caps, it shows that the external covering cap has a good protection effect on internal covering cap. The regions close to boundary are vulnerable to appear impact damage with titanium alloy projectile while the regions close to center is vulnerable to occur damage with rubber projectile. Equivalent strain in covering cap is very little when impact angle is less than 15°. Element deleted number in covering cap reaches the maximum when impact angle is between 60°and 65°by titanium alloy projectile. While the bigger the impact angle and the more serious damage of the covering cap will be when rubber projectile impact composite covering cap. The energy needed for occurring damage on external covering cap and internal covering cap is less than and higher than that when single covering cap occur damage, respectively. The energy needed for complete breakdown of double-layer covering cap is much higher than that of single covering cap.

  2. Structure of a two-CAP-domain protein from the human hookworm parasite Necator americanus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asojo, Oluwatoyin A., E-mail: oasojo@unmc.edu [Pathology and Microbiology Department, 986495 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-6495 (United States)

    2011-05-01

    The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite N. americanus refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å is presented. Major proteins secreted by the infective larval stage hookworms upon host entry include Ancylostoma secreted proteins (ASPs), which are characterized by one or two CAP (cysteine-rich secretory protein/antigen 5/pathogenesis related-1) domains. The CAP domain has been reported in diverse phylogenetically unrelated proteins, but has no confirmed function. The first structure of a two-CAP-domain protein, Na-ASP-1, from the major human hookworm parasite Necator americanus was refined to a resolution limit of 2.2 Å. The structure was solved by molecular replacement (MR) using Na-ASP-2, a one-CAP-domain ASP, as the search model. The correct MR solution could only be obtained by truncating the polyalanine model of Na-ASP-2 and removing several loops. The structure reveals two CAP domains linked by an extended loop. Overall, the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain is more similar to Na-ASP-2 than to the amino-terminal CAP domain. A large central cavity extends from the amino-terminal CAP domain to the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain, encompassing the putative CAP-binding cavity. The putative CAP-binding cavity is a characteristic cavity in the carboxyl-terminal CAP domain that contains a His and Glu pair. These residues are conserved in all single-CAP-domain proteins, but are absent in the amino-terminal CAP domain. The conserved His residues are oriented such that they appear to be capable of directly coordinating a zinc ion as observed for CAP proteins from reptile venoms. This first structure of a two-CAP-domain ASP can serve as a template for homology modeling of other two-CAP-domain proteins.

  3. Activation of P2 late transcription by P2 Ogr protein requires a discrete contact site on the C terminus of the alpha subunit of Escherichia coli RNA polymerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, L F; Tszine, N Y; Christie, G E

    1997-11-21

    Bacteriophage P2 late transcription requires the product of the P2 ogr gene. Ogr-dependent transcription from P2 late promoters is blocked by certain point mutations affecting the alpha subunits of the host RNA polymerase. An alanine scan spanning the putative activation target in the alpha C-terminal domain (alphaCTD) was carried out to identify individual residues essential for Ogr-dependent transcription from P2 late promoters. In addition, the effects of alanine substitutions in the regions of the alphaCTD previously reported to affect CAP-dependent activation of the lac promoter and UP-element DNA binding were examined. Residues E286, V287, L289 and L290 in helix 3, and residue L300 at the beginning of helix 4, define a surface-exposed patch on the alphaCTD important for Ogr-dependent activation. These residues, adjacent to the recently identified DNA-binding determinants, constitute a newly identified activation surface for protein:protein contact. Alanine substitutions at some of the residues that affect UP-element DNA binding also impaired activation. This suggests that upstream DNA-alpha contacts, in addition to alpha-Ogr contacts, may be important in P2 late transcription. Other residues implicated in the interaction of alpha with CAP are not required for activation by Ogr, consistent with previous genetic evidence suggesting that these activators contact different sites on the alphaCTD. PMID:9398509

  4. Integrated Modeling and Decision-Support System for Water Management in the Puget Sound Basin: Snow Caps to White Caps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copping, Andrea E.; Yang, Zhaoqing; Voisin, Nathalie; Richey, Jeff; Wang, Taiping; Taira, Randal Y.; Constans, Michael; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Tesfa, Teklu K.

    2013-12-31

    Final Report for the EPA-sponsored project Snow Caps to White Caps that provides data products and insight for water resource managers to support their predictions and management actions to address future changes in water resources (fresh and marine) in the Puget Sound basin. This report details the efforts of a team of scientists and engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the University of Washington (UW) to examine the movement of water in the Snohomish Basin, within the watershed and the estuary, under present and future conditions, using a set of linked numerical models.

  5. Alpha thalassaemia in British people.

    OpenAIRE

    Higgs, D R; Ayyub, H.; Clegg, J B; Hill, A V; Nicholls, R D; Teal, H; Wainscoat, J.S. (James S.); Weatherall, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Although alpha thalassaemia is rare in north Europeans, it has been identified in British people with no known foreign ancestry. Twelve such patients were studied, of whom eight shared a distinctive molecular defect, which was clearly different from defects seen in subjects of Mediterranean or South East Asian origin. A rare but specific form of alpha thalassaemia is therefore present in the British population. In addition, two patients from families of mixed racial origin were encountered wh...

  6. Synthesis of capped RNA using a DMT group as a purification handle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veliath, Elizabeth; Gaffney, Barbara L; Jones, Roger A

    2014-01-01

    We report a new method for synthesis of capped RNA or 2'-OMe RNA that uses a N(2-)4,4'-dimethoxytrityl (DMT) group as a lipophilic purification handle to allow convenient isolation and purification of the capped RNA. The DMT group is easily removed under mild conditions without degradation of the cap. We have used this approach to prepare capped 10- and 20-mers. This method is compatible with the many condensation reactions that have been reported for preparation of capped RNA or cap analogues.

  7. Almost Redundant Components in the 3 alpha Faddeev Equation for the Buck, Friedlich and Wheatly alpha alpha Potential

    CERN Document Server

    Fujiwara, Y; Kohno, M

    2004-01-01

    The 3 alpha orthogonality condition model using the Pauli-forbidden bound states of the Buck, Friedlich and Wheatly alpha alpha potential can yield a compact 3 alpha ground state with a large binding energy, in which a small admixture of the redundant components can never be eliminated.

  8. Optical Properties of ZnO Nanoparticles Capped with Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Noguchi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Optical properties of ZnO nanoparticles capped with polymers were investigated. Polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP were used as capping reagents. ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Fluorescence and absorption spectra were measured. When we varied the timing of the addition of the polymer to the ZnO nanoparticle solution, the optical properties were drastically changed. When PEG was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence intensity increased. At the same time, the total particle size increased, which indicated that PEG molecules had capped the ZnO nanoparticles. The capping led to surface passivation, which increased fluorescence intensity. However, when PEG was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, the fluorescence and particle size did not change. When PVP was added to the solution before the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, aggregation of nanoparticles occurred. When PVP was added to the solution after the synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, fluorescence and particle size increased. This improvement of optical properties is advantageous to the practical usage of ZnO nanoparticles, such as bioimaging

  9. 7 CFR 1714.7 - Interest rate cap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interest rate cap. 1714.7 Section 1714.7 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... improving electric service to consumers located in an area that is an urban area at the time of...

  10. Shelf life of pie caps with biodegradable films as spacers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Verónica Escobar Gianni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commonly pie caps at market use polyethylene films as spacers between them. This paper studies the conventional spacers replacement with edible and biodegradable films made with whey protein isolate (WPI and potassium sorbate as a preservative. Besides facilitating the separation of pie caps, with this application is intended to increase their shelf life. The films made by the compression molding method were used as spacers in pie caps without preservative in their formula (A and with preservative (B and they were compared with conventional polyethylene spacers (C. During four months, monthly sensory, microbiological and physicochemical (humidity evaluations were done on the pie caps, together with humidity and solubility evaluations of the films. None of the samples showed microbiological or sensory deterioration. The sensory attributes showed no or slight difference in study time. Between samples the differences were minor: the best scores were for sample A in color, sample C in flavor, and samples B and C in texture and overall liking. The edible films have an interesting potential for this application, although studies in disguise the flavor of serum should be done.

  11. Lowering End-cap YE-1 in the CMS cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    On Tuesday 22 January, the dance of the CMS end-caps came to an end with the lowering of YE-1, the heaviest of them all. After a spectacular lowering operation lsting ten hours, this mammoth component completed the 100-metre descent and was gently placed on the floor of the CMS cavern to the applause of the many onlookers.

  12. Working on an LHC dipole end-cap

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    A metal worker constructs an end-cap for an LHC dipole magnet. These magnets will be used to bend the proton beams around the LHC, which is due to start up in 2008. The handmade prototype seen here will be used to make a mold from which the final set of components will be made for the accelerator.

  13. Traditional M e n Caps o f Kyrgyzstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap TANRISEVER

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Kyrgyzstan has an extraordinarily rich mosaic of folk culture. There is a great importance of wear clothing, crafts and decorative arts in this mosaic. Traditional caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are the best elements that reflect the presence of culture, t raditions, geography inhabited, climatic conditions that they already live in. Kyrgyzstan has been trying to keep alive the traditions, styles of lives by using the required crafts and handmade products although the global fashion, time and technological development. According to research, it has still been seen that the caps and clothes of Kyrgyzstan are being used less in daily life. Caps, Kalpak , Tebetey, Malakay, are some of the best known extant that come to this age related with the traditions of ca p s of Kyrgyzstan’s men . In this research, it has been worked of decorations of Kirghiz men caps , specialties of color and design, techniques of sewing, characteristics of mold and fabrics, Moreover the place and the meaning of the titles has been trying to determine in the cultural life. The scan method has been used by doing regional research.

  14. CAPS OpenACC Compilers: Performance and Portability

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    The announcement late 2011 of the new OpenACC directive-based programming standard supported by CAPS, CRAY and PGI compilers has open up the door to more scientific applications that can be ported on many-core systems. Following a porting methodology, this talk will first review the principles of programming with OpenACC and then the advanced features available in the CAPS compilers to further optimize OpenACC applications: library integration, tuning directives with auto-tune mechanisms to build applications adaptive to different GPUs. CAPS compilers use hardware vendors' backends such as NVIDIA CUDA and OpenCL making them the only OpenACC compilers supporting various many-core architectures. About the speaker Stéphane Bihan is co-funder and currently Director of Sales and Marketing at CAPS enterprise. He has held several R&D positions in companies such as ARC international plc in London, Canon Research Center France, ACE compiler experts in Amsterdam and the INRIA r...

  15. Risk premiums in cap rates of investment property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berkhout, T.M.; Wouwe, van M.; Tansens, P.R.

    2005-01-01

    Our research wants to establish links and patterns over time between the constituent components of the cap rates, and between real interest and risk premium in particular. We developed a statistical model to predict and explain the risk premium asked for by investors buying properties throughout Eur

  16. Indirect pulp capping in primary molar using glass ionomer cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtia Metalita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indirect pulp capping in primary teeth, however, is more rarely conducted than permanent teeth, since it thought to have low impact and most suggestion is for taking caries lesion aggressively on primary teeth. Purpose: The study was aimed to evaluate the subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance of indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomers cements in primary molar. Methods: Sixteen children in range of age 6 to 8 years old, who visited Clinic of Pediatric Dentistry Universitas Airlangga Dental Hospital, Surabaya Indonesia, were the subject of study. They had one occlusal dental caries on one side of maxillary or mandibular primary molar with the diagnose of pulpitis reversible. The experimental group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with glass ionomer cements (GC Fuji VII®, while the control group, had indirect pulp capping treatment with calcium hydroxide (Metapaste. Each group was filled with GC Fuji IX® as permanent restoration. After one week, one month, and three months later, the observations were made on subjective complaint, clinical symptom, and radiographic appearance. Results: The results showed no subjective complaint such as pain or problem on mastication; no negative clinical symptoms such as pain on palpation, gingivitis or periodontitis, and abnormal tooth mobility; no negative radiographic appearance such as pathological apical radioluscency, internal or external resorbtion, and change of ligament periodontal widthafter the treatment. Conclusion: The study suggested that indirect pulp capping treatment using glass ionomer cement materials on primary teeth might be considered to be the treatment choice.Latar belakang: Indirect pulp capping pada gigi sulung lebih jarang dilakukan dibandingkan gigi permanen, karena dianggap memiliki dampak yang rendah dan sebagian besar menyarankan untuk mengambil lesi karies secara agresif pada gigi sulung. Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan

  17. Numerical Study on Pressure Drop Factor in the Vent-Cap of CDQ Shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Song; Yanhui Feng; Xinxin Zhang

    2008-01-01

    In CDQ (Coke Dry Quenching) shaft, the vent-cap with complex structure is installed in the cone-shaped funnel under the cooling chamber. It acts to introduce cooling gas and support the descending coke in the chamber. The designing and installation of vent-cap aim to get relatively uniform gas distribution, to reduce the temperature fluctuation of cokes at outlet and realize stable operation of CDQ apparatus. In this paper, the turbulent flow of gas in vent-cap of 1:7 scale CDQ experimental shaft is numerically simulated by using CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) software, CFX. The velocity field, the outlet flux distribution and the pressure drop factor of each outlet under three kinds of vent-cap (called high vent-cap, low vent-cap and elliptic vent-cap) are analysed and compared. The results turn out that the pressure drop factor of elliptic vent-cap is larger than the other two vent-caps, and that the pressure drop factors of high vent-cap and low vent-cap almost have the same value.While for a specified vent-cap, the pressure drop factor with pressing brick is larger than that without pressing brick. The work in this paper is valuable for the designing of vent-cap for large-acale CDQ shaft.

  18. Design document for landfill capping Prototype Decision Support System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall objective of the Prototype Decision Support System for shallow land burial project is to ''Develop a Decision Support System tool which incorporates simulation modeling and multi-objective decision theory for the purpose of designing and evaluating alternative trench cap designs for mixed waste landfill covers. The goal is to improve the quality of technical information used by the risk manager to select landfill cover designs while taking into account technological, economical, and regulatory factors.'' The complexity of the technical and non-technical information, and how the information varies in importance across sites, points to the need for decision analysis tools that provide a common basis for integrating, synthesizing, and valuing the decision input. Because the cost of remediating thousands of contaminated DOE sites is projected to be in the 10's--100's of billions of dollars, methods will be needed to establish cleanup priorities and to help in the selection and evaluation of cost effective remediation alternatives. Even at this early stage in DOE's cleanup program, it is certain that capping technologies will be heavily relied upon to remediate the 3000+ landfills on DOE property. Capping is favored in remediating most DOE landfills because, based on preliminary baseline risk assessments, human and ecological risks are considered to be low at most of these sites and the regulatory requirements for final closure of old landfills can be met using a well designed cap to isolate the buried waste. This report describes a program plan to design, develop, and test a decision support system (DSS) for assisting the DOE risk manager in evaluating capping alternatives for radioactive and hazardous waste landfills. The DOE DSS will incorporate methods for calculating, integrating and valuing technical, regulatory, and economic criteria

  19. κ-银环蛇毒素敏感的烟碱受体激活引起的去甲肾上腺素释放参与烟碱诱导的长时程增强样反应%Noradrenaline release by activation of κ-bungarotoxin-sensitive nicotinic acetylcholine receptors participates in long-term potentiation-like response inducea by nicotine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余剑平; 何进; 刘丹; 邓春玉; 朱小南; 汪雪兰; 王勇; 陈汝筑

    2007-01-01

    烟碱可以增强学习记忆功能,但其相关机制仍不清楚.海马长时程增强被认为是学习记忆的细胞机制.本研究室以往研究表明,当单脉冲的强度为诱发80%最大群体锋电位时,烟碱(10μmol/L)可以在海马CAI区诱导长时程增强样反应.本文通过细胞外记录离体海马脑片CA1区锥体细胞层群体锋电位,探讨烟碱诱导长时程增强样反应所涉及的烟碱受体亚型与相应的神经递质释放.结果显示,烟碱诱导的长时程增强样反应可以被美加明(mecamylamine,1 μmol/L)或κ-银环蛇毒素(κ-bungarotoxin,0.1μmol/L)阻断,但不被dihydro-β-erythtroidine(DHβE,10μmol/L)阻断.烟碱诱导的长时程增强样反应可以被普萘洛尔(propranolol,10μmol/L)阻断,但不被酚妥拉明(phentolamine,10μmol/L)或阿托品(atropine,10 μmol/L)阻断.以上结果提示,κ-银环蛇毒素敏感的烟碱受体激活引起的去甲肾上腺素释放参与烟碱诱导的海马CA1区长时程增强样反应.%Nicotine enhances the function of learning and memory,but the underlying mechanism still remains unclear.Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP)is assumed to be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Our previous experiments showed that with the single pulses evoking 80% of the maximal population spike(PS) amplitude,nicotine(10 μmol/L)induced LTP-like response in the hippocampal CA1 region.In the present study,the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor(nAChR)subtypes and relevant neurotransmitter releases involved in LTP-like response induced by nicotine were investigated by extracellularly recording the PS in the pyramidal cell layer in the hippocampal CA1 region in vitro.LTP-like response induced by nicotine was blocked by mecamylamine(1μmol/L) or κ-bungarotoxin(0.1 μmol/L),but not by dihydro-β-erythtroidine(DHIβE,10 μmol/L).Moreover,it was inhibited by propranolol(10μmol/L),but not by phentolamine(10 μmol/L)or atropine(10 μmol/L).The results suggest that

  20. Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) Regional Land Cover Data and Change Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  1. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  2. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1975 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  3. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  4. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  5. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  6. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  7. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2006 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  8. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  9. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  10. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1996 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  11. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2010 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  12. Integration of the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Volker; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Bremer, R; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Feld, Lutz; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub-system of the tracker is its end cap system, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted into the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 petals, and the insertion of these petals into the end cap structure is referred to as TEC integration. The two end caps were integrated independently in Aachen (TEC+) and at CERN (TEC--). This note deals with the integration of TEC+, describing procedures for end cap integration and for quality control during testing of integrated sections of the end cap and presenting results from the testing.

  13. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1985 Regional Land Cover Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  14. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 Forest Fragmentation Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  15. Gaseous alpha emitter diffusion studies using alpha track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a very accurate and sensitive analysis method such as alpha track method, the SSNTD group was able to undertake studies on the atomic and molecular processes taking place at low speed and/or very low concentrations, such as diffusion of gaseous alpha radionuclides in gaseous media. For practical application reasons, we began to study the diffusion in air for gaseous alpha radionuclides and aerosols carrying solid alpha radionuclides. The used alpha radionuclides were: Rn-222, as gaseous radionuclide and its solid descendants genetically related, attached to different particles from air, as radioactive aerosols. The source was included into an air tight device with a very well known volume. After 40 days, the radioactive equilibrium was established for all descendants, so that in the device there were the Rn-222 and its descendants, each of them having the same activity. The relative amount/activity ratio of each decay product, at any duration, for any initial mass of Ra-226 parent radionuclide, were calculated using the code UURASE, based on the Bateman general equations, for computing the U-238 radioactive series gamma accumulation. This was adapted for alpha accumulation as ALFAURASE programme. The device which contains the Ra-226 source can be coupled to the calibration system or to the diffusion system, without destroying the radioactive equilibrium. At this coupling, only the radioactive concentration is changed due to the variation of the volume. First of all the device was used for calibrating the CR-39 track detectors for both Rn-222 gaseous radionuclide and aerosol concentration measurements using, in the coupled calibration system, a special 'detector-container' equipped/or not with a filter used for radioactive aerosol stopping. The track detectors CR-39 were etched in NaOH 30%, for 7 hours at 70 deg. C and their studies were performed by optical microscopy using a stereo-microscope Wild M7S and a binocular Zeiss Jena microscope. (authors)

  16. Evaluation of Sediment Agitation and Mixing Into the Surrounding Water Column From Capping Activities – Boston Harbor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capping is a common remediation technology for the containment of contaminated sediments. While capping is a common remediation technology for contaminated sediments, little information exists on the potential release of contaminated sediments during and after the capping operati...

  17. Workshop on Precision Measurements of $\\alpha_s$

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethke, Siegfried; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Hoang, Andre H.; /Vienna U.; Kluth, Stefan; /Munich, Max Planck Inst.; Schieck, Jochen; /Munich U.; Stewart, Iain W.; Aoki, S.; Beneke, M.; Bethke, S.; Blumlein, J.; Brambilla, N.; Brodsky, S.; /MIT, LNS

    2011-10-01

    These are the proceedings of the Workshop on Precision Measurements of {alpha}{sub s} held at the Max-Planck-Institute for Physics, Munich, February 9-11, 2011. The workshop explored in depth the determination of {alpha}{sub s}(m{sub Z}) in the {ovr MS} scheme from the key categories where high precision measurements are currently being made, including DIS and global PDF fits, {tau}-decays, electro-weak precision observables and Z-decays, event-shapes, and lattice QCD. These proceedings contain a short summary contribution from the speakers, as well as the lists of authors, conveners, participants, and talks.

  18. On the mystery of the perennial carbon dioxide cap at the south pole of Mars

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Xin; Richardson, Mark Ian; Soto, Alejandro; Toigo, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    A perennial ice cap has long been observed near the south pole of Mars. The surface of this cap is predominantly composed of carbon dioxide ice. The retention of a CO_2 ice cap results from the surface energy balance of the latent heat, solar radiation, surface emission, subsurface conduction, and atmospheric sensible heat. While models conventionally treat surface CO_2 ice using constant ice albedos and emissivities, such an approach fails to predict the existence of a perennial cap. Here we...

  19. Approximating tasseled cap values to evaluate brightness, greenness, and wetness for the Advanced Land Imager (ALI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kristina H.; Finn, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The Tasseled Cap transformation is a method of image band conversion to enhance spectral information. It primarily is used to detect vegetation using the derived brightness, greenness, and wetness bands. An approximation of Tasseled Cap values for the Advanced Land Imager was investigated and compared to the Landsat Thematic Mapper Tasseled Cap values. Despite sharing similar spectral, temporal, and spatial resolution, the two systems are not interchangeable with regard to Tasseled Cap matrices.

  20. Effects of ice-cap unloading on shallow magmatic reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Richard; Frehner, Marcel; Lupi, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    One of the effects of global warming is the increase of volcanic activity. Glacial melting has been shown to cause visco-elastic relaxation of the upper mantle, which in turn promotes upwelling of magmas through the crust. To date, the effects of ice-cap melting on shallow (i.e., less than 10 km depth) plumbing systems of volcanoes are still not clear. We investigate the pressure changes due to glacial unloading around a magmatic reservoir by combining laboratory and numerical methods. As a case study we focus on Snæfellsjökull, a volcano in Western Iceland whose ice cap is currently melting 1.25 meters (thickness) per year. Our approach is as follows: we obtain representative rock samples from the field, preform tri-axial deformation tests at relevant pressure and temperature (PT) conditions and feed the results into a numerical model in which the stress fields before and after ice cap removal are compared. A suite of deformation experiments were conducted using a Paterson-type tri-axial deformation apparatus. All experiments were performed at a constant strain rate of 10-5 s-1, while varying the PT conditions. We applied confining pressures between 50 and 150 MPa and temperatures between 200 and 1000 ° C. Between 200 and 800 ° C we observe a localized deformation and a slight decrease of the Young's modulus from 41 to 38 GPa. Experiments at 900 and 1000 ° C exhibit macroscopically ductile behavior and a marked reduction of the Young's modulus down to 4 GPa at 1000 ° C. These results are used to construct a numerical finite-element model in which we approximate the volcanic edifice and basement by a 2D axisymmetric half-space. We first calculate the steady-state temperature field in the volcanic system and assign the laboratory-derived temperature-dependent Young's modulus to every element of the model. Then the pressure in the edifice is calculated for two scenarios: with and without ice cap. The comparison between the two scenarios allows us estimate the

  1. 47 CFR 69.105 - Carrier common line for non-price cap local exchange carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... residential and single-line business lines multiplied by the difference between the residential and single-line business End User Common Line rate cap and the lesser of $6.50 or the non-price cap local exchange... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carrier common line for non-price cap...

  2. 38 CFR 8.33 - Cash value for term-capped policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Appeals § 8.33 Cash value for term-capped policies. (a) What is a term-capped policy? A term-capped policy is a National Service Life Insurance policy prefixed with “V” or Veterans Special Life Insurance policy prefixed with “RS,” issued on a 5-year level premium term plan...

  3. Characterization of the major regulatory element upstream of the human alpha-globin gene cluster.

    OpenAIRE

    Jarman, A P; Wood, W G; Sharpe, J.A.; Gourdon, G; Ayyub, H; Higgs, D R

    1991-01-01

    The major positive regulatory activity of the human alpha-globin gene complex has been localized to an element associated with a strong erythroid-specific DNase I hypersensitive site (HS -40) located 40 kb upstream of the zeta 2-globin mRNA cap site. Footprint and gel shift analyses of the element have demonstrated the presence of four binding sites for the nuclear factor GATA-1 and two sites corresponding to the AP-1 consensus binding sequence. This region resembles one of the major elements...

  4. Conditioning of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpha bearing wastes are generated during the reprocessing of spent fuel, mixed oxide fuel fabrication, decommissioning and other activities. The safe and effective management of these wastes is of particular importance owing to the radiotoxicity and long lived characteristics of certain transuranic (TRU) elements. The management of alpha bearing wastes involves a number of stages which include collection, characterization, segregation, treatment, conditioning, transport, storage and disposal. This report describes the currently available matrices and technologies for the conditioning of alpha wastes and relates them to their compatibility with the other stages of the waste management process. The selection of a specific immobilization process is dependent on the waste treatment state and the subsequent handling, transport, storage and disposal requirements. The overall objectives of immobilization are similar for all waste producers and processors, which are to produce: (a) Waste forms with sufficient mechanical, physical and chemical stability to satisfy all stages of handling, transport and storage (referred to as the short term requirements), and (b) Waste forms which will satisfy disposal requirements and inhibit the release of radionuclides to the biosphere (referred to as the long term requirements). Cement and bitumen processes have already been successfully applied to alpha waste conditioning on the industrial scale in many of the IAEA Member States. Cement systems based on BFS and pozzolanic cements have emerged as the principal encapsulation matrices for the full range of alpha bearing wastes. Alternative technologies, such as polymers and ceramics, are being developed for specific waste streams but are unlikely to meet widespread application owing to cost and process complexity. The merits of alpha waste conditioning are improved performance in transport, storage and disposal combined with enhanced public perception of waste management operations. These

  5. Test chamber for alpha spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Robert P.

    1977-01-01

    Alpha emitters for low-level radiochemical analysis by measurement of alpha spectra are positioned precisely with respect to the location of a surface-barrier detector by means of a chamber having a removable threaded planchet holder. A pedestal on the planchet holder holds a specimen in fixed engagement close to the detector. Insertion of the planchet holder establishes an O-ring seal that permits the chamber to be pumped to a desired vacuum. The detector is protected against accidental contact and resulting damage.

  6. Environmentally Sustainable Agriculture and Future Developments of the CAP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsted Nielsen, Helle; Branth Pedersen, Anders; Christensen, Tove

    2009-01-01

    Recent reforms of the European Union’s Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) have set in motion a process of increased market orientation in the agricultural sector, a process that will be intensified by trade liberalization if an agreement is reached under the World Trade Organization (WTO...... in the world market could increase pressure to slacken regulatory requirements on agriculture. Thus, the question of whether liberalization will hinder or promote environmentally sustainable production methods in agriculture is unresolved. This paper analyses different scenarios of agricultural policy......). It is widely expected that both CAP reforms and a WTO agreement will also lead to a more environmentally friendly European agriculture. It is conceivable, however, that market demand would instead provide renewed incentives for intensive agricultural production. Opening European agriculture to more competition...

  7. Cassini/CAPS Observations of Tail Dynamics at Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, M. F.; Tokar, R. L.; Wilson, R. J.; Jackman, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    Following up a recent study of the density and flow direction of plasmas in Saturn's premidnight tail, we apply the same methodology to examine Cassini's near- and post-midnight tail passes as well. Specifically, we focus on intervals when CAPS was able to view both inward and outward plasma flows, and we examine the spatial distribution and other properties of such flows. We compare our results with those found by McAndrews et al. [Plasma in Saturn's nightside magnetosphere and the implications for global circulation, Plan. Sp. Sci. (2009)], using a different approach to the analysis of Cassini/CAPS data. These observations provide important clues to Saturn's tail structure and dynamics.

  8. Nanoscale gadolinium oxide capping layers on compositionally variant gate dielectrics

    KAUST Repository

    Alshareef, Husam N.

    2010-11-19

    Metal gate work function enhancement using nanoscale (1.0 nm) Gd2O3 interfacial layers has been evaluated as a function of silicon oxide content in the HfxSiyOz gate dielectric and process thermal budget. It is found that the effective work function tuning by the Gd2O3 capping layer varied by nearly 400 mV as the composition of the underlying dielectric changed from 0% to 100% SiO2, and by nearly 300 mV as the maximum process temperature increased from ambient to 1000 °C. A qualitative model is proposed to explain these results, expanding the existing models for the lanthanide capping layer effect.

  9. A tasseled cap transformation for CBERS-02B CCD data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li SHENG; Jing-feng HUANG; Xiao-lu TANG

    2011-01-01

    The tasseled cap transformation of remote sensing data has been widely used in agriculture,forest,ecology,and landscape.In this paper,tasseled cap transformation coefficients appropriate for data from a new sensor (China & Brazil Earth Resource Satellite (CBERS-02B)) are presented.The first three components after transformation captured 98% of the four-band variance,and represent the physical characteristics of brightness (coefficients:0.509,0.431,0.330,and 0.668),greenness (coefficients:-0.494,-0.318,-0.324,and 0.741),and blueness (coefficients:0.581,-0.070,-0.811,and 0.003),respectively.We hope these results will enhance the application of CBERS-02B charge-coupled device (CCD) data in the areas of agriculture,forest,ecology,and landscape.

  10. A Capped Dipeptide Which Simultaneously Exhibits Gelation and Crystallization Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Adam D; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P; Bhadbhade, Mohan M; Thordarson, Pall

    2016-03-01

    Short peptides capped at their N-terminus are often highly efficient gelators, yet notoriously difficult to crystallize. This is due to strong unidirectional interactions within fibers, resulting in structure propagation only along one direction. Here, we synthesize the N-capped dipeptide, benzimidazole-diphenylalanine, which forms both hydrogels and single crystals. Even more remarkably, we show using atomic force microscopy the coexistence of these two distinct phases. We then use powder X-ray diffraction to investigate whether the single crystal structure can be extrapolated to the molecular arrangement within the hydrogel. The results suggest parallel β-sheet arrangement as the dominant structural motif, challenging existing models for gelation of short peptides, and providing new directions for the future rational design of short peptide gelators. PMID:26890360

  11. Effective area for northern Polar Cap index data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The northern (PCN) and southern (PCS) Polar Cap indices are used, among other, in applications to forecast geomagnetic storms and substorms. The index values are based on geomagnetic observations that for the forecast are transmitted in real-time from selected stations, PCN on data from Qaanaaq (Thule) in Greenland and PCS on geomagnetic data from Vostok in Antarctica. Observational conditions in the harsh polar environments are difficult and data transmission links are vulnerable. Hence, it could be advantageous to base real-time PC index values on data from multiple sites in order to safeguard the forecasts. The presentation shall compare PCN index values derived from a range of further observatories in Greenland and Canada in order to delimit an effective Polar Cap area for providing geomagnetic data for a useful index and to settle whether reliable (preliminary) index values could be derived from other than the standard observatories particularly during strongly disturbed conditions.

  12. Review of methods to derive a Polar Cap (PC) index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Since a Polar Cap (PC) index was introduced in 1985, several different methods have been used to derive index values. Basically, the northern (PCN) and southern (PCS) are based on geomagnetic recordings at Qaanaaq (Thule) and Vostok, respectively. However, different derivation methods can give index values differing by more than a factor 2. The PC indices are used, among other, in scientific analyses to link solar wind conditions to relevant geophysical effects and in forecast efforts to establish numerical criteria for imminent risk of geomagnetic storms and substorms. Thus, it is unfortunate that several different versions of the PC index have been in use, often without specifically mentioning the index version being used or without ensuring that proper documention and specification of the derivation method is available. The presentation shall briefly describe the basic calculation of a Polar Cap index and point specifically to the differences between the different derivation methods and to the consequences for the index values

  13. The spatial coherence of Schumann activity in the polar cap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtham, P. M.; McAskill, B. J.

    1988-02-01

    The spatial coherence of the first two Schumann resonant modes has been studied at two locations in the polar cap separated by 1100 km. Measurements were made at Assistance Bay and Mould Bay, which have geomagnetic latitudes of 83 and 79 deg, respectively, and satellite time-keeping was employed to accurately synchronize the field stations. The coherence was found to be high, typically 95 percent for the first Schumann mode, and was unaffected by changes in Kp, a storm sudden commencement, or a solar flare event. Polarization rotations were observed between the two stations, which could most likely be attributed to the coastline effect. The results are consistent with a stable propagation of Schumann activity from midlatitudes to high latitudes that is relatively unaffected by changes in the polar cap ionosphere.

  14. Capping of rare earth silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The capping of Tb and Dy silicide nanowires grown on Si(001) was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Several nanometers thick amorphous Si films deposited at room temperature allow an even capping, while the nanowires maintain their original structural properties. Subsequent recrystallization by thermal annealing leads to more compact nanowire structures and to troughs in the Si layer above the nanowires, which may even reach down to the nanowires in the case of thin Si films, as well as to V-shaped stacking faults forming along (111) lattice planes. This behavior is related to strain due to the lattice mismatch between the Si overlayer and the nanowires

  15. Capping of rare earth silicide nanowires on Si(001)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelfeller, Stephan; Franz, Martin; Kubicki, Milan; Dähne, Mario [Institut für Festkörperphysik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Reiß, Paul; Niermann, Tore; Lehmann, Michael [Institut für Optik und Atomare Physik, Technische Universität Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Schubert, Markus Andreas [IHP–Leibniz-Institut für innovative Mikroelektronik, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany)

    2016-01-04

    The capping of Tb and Dy silicide nanowires grown on Si(001) was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy and cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Several nanometers thick amorphous Si films deposited at room temperature allow an even capping, while the nanowires maintain their original structural properties. Subsequent recrystallization by thermal annealing leads to more compact nanowire structures and to troughs in the Si layer above the nanowires, which may even reach down to the nanowires in the case of thin Si films, as well as to V-shaped stacking faults forming along (111) lattice planes. This behavior is related to strain due to the lattice mismatch between the Si overlayer and the nanowires.

  16. Meteorological observations in support of a hill cap cloud experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Morten

    1998-06-01

    Humid air flows form a hill cap cloud over the Agana mountain ridge in the north-east of Tenerife. The HILLCLOUD project utilised this cloud formation to investigate the chemical and physical properties of cloud aerosols by land based observations. The project was part of the second Aerosol characterisation Experiment (ACE-2) of the International Global Atmospheric chemistry project (IGAC). The present report describes meteorological observations in support of the hill cap cloud experiment. Time-series of wind speed, wind direction, temperature and humidity were collected at ground-based meteorological stations during a period starting one year in advance of the main campaign. A series of radiosonde detecting the upstream stability and wind profile were launched during the main campaign. (au) 5 tabs., 32 ills., 6 refs.

  17. D1-D5-P microstates at the cap

    CERN Document Server

    Giusto, Stefano; Mathur, Samir D; Turton, David

    2012-01-01

    The geometries describing D1-D5-P bound states in string theory have three regions: flat asymptotics, an anti-de Sitter throat, and a 'cap' region at the bottom of the throat. We identify the CFT description of a known class of supersymmetric D1-D5-P microstate geometries which describe degrees of freedom in the cap region. The class includes both regular solutions and solutions with conical defects, and generalizes configurations with known CFT descriptions: a parameter related to spectral flow in the CFT is generalized from integer to fractional values. We provide strong evidence for this identification by comparing the massless scalar excitation spectrum between gravity and CFT and finding exact agreement.

  18. [Acute liver failure after ingestion of death cap mushrooms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuliani, Anna-Maria; Kabar, Iyad; Mitchell, Todd; Heinzow, Hauke Sebastian

    2016-07-01

    Amatoxins, which are mainly found in Amanita phalloides, Amanita virosa, and Galerina autumnalis, are responsible for the majority of fatal intoxication with green death cap. The intoxication is associated with acute liver failure, which explains the poor prognosis. Acute liver injury is generally preceeded by a gastrointestinal phase with nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. In the course, pre-renal kidney failure due to the associated fluid deficit and fulminant liver failure may occur. General guidelines for the treatment of amatoxin poisoning are yet not available. We report on three patients who suffered from amatoxin mushroom poisoning after ingestion of green death cap mushrooms. Based on the pathophysiology of amatoxin poisoning, we discuss a potential therapeutic approach. PMID:27359312

  19. A Reduction Factor for Buckling Load of Spherical Cap Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.N. Khakina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The classical buckling theory usually overestimates the buckling load of shells. In this study, a reduction factor is determined using geometrical parameters so as to reduce the classical buckling load to a more realistic value based on the post-buckling load. It is observed that the buckling load is directly proportional to the thickness and rise and inversely proportional to the span of the spherical cap. Finite element modeling and simulation using ABAQUS was conducted to determine the buckling behavior of a spherical cap shell subjected to different initial geometrical imperfections. The load-deflection curves drawn from the simulation formed a plateau at the post-buckling load. It is observed that as the initial geometrical imperfection is increased, the value of the initial buckling load is almost the same as the value of the post-buckling load on the plateau. The results obtained from different shells were used to derive a formula for the reduction factor.

  20. Polar cap index as a proxy for hemispheric Joule heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, F.K.; Knipp, D.J.; McHarg, M.G.;

    1999-01-01

    input into the polar cap, we propose to use PC as a proxy for the hemispheric Joule heat production rate (JH). In this study, JH is estimated from the Assimilative Mapping of Ionospheric Electrodynamics (AMIE) procedure. We fit hourly PC values to hourly averages of JH. Using a data base approximately...... three times larger than studies, we find a quadratic relationship between JH and PC, differentiated by season. A comparison during the November 1993 storm interval with earlier reported methods using the AE index and the cross polar cap potential, shows that the PC-based Joule heating estimate...... is as equally accurate. Thus the single station PC index appears to provide a quick estimate of, and is an appropriate proxy for, the hemispheric Joule heating rate....

  1. Influence of polar cap currents on pulsar polarization

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, D

    2012-01-01

    We have developed a model for the polarization of curvature radiation for pulsars by taking into account the polar cap induced perturbation on the nonrotating (slowly rotating) dipolar magnetic field, where the rotation effects such as aberration and retardation can be ignored. We have simulated a set of typical pulse profiles to understand the role of induced magnetic field on radio emission of pulsars, and found to be significantly influencing the profile structure and polarization. Our model indicates that the intensity components and the polarization angle inflection point can get shifted to either leading or trailing side depending upon the prevailing conditions in the viewing geometry, the non-uniformity in source distribution (modulation) and the polar cap current induced perturbation. Also, we find an evidence for the origin of symmetric type circular polarization in addition to antisymmetric type. Our model predicts for a stronger trailing component compared to that on leading side of a given cone.

  2. Solar illumination control of ionospheric outflow above polar cap arcs

    CERN Document Server

    Maes, L; De Keyser, J; Dandouras, I; Fear, R C; Fontaine, D; Haaland, S

    2016-01-01

    We measure the flux density, composition, and energy of outflowing ions above the polar cap, accelerated by quasi-static electric fields parallel to the magnetic field and associated with polar cap arcs, using Cluster. Mapping the spacecraft position to its ionospheric foot point, we analyze the dependence of these parameters on the solar zenith angle (SZA). We find a clear transition at SZA between We find a clear transition at SZA between $\\sim$94$^{\\circ}$ and $\\sim$107$^{\\circ}$, with the O$^{+}$ flux higher above the sunlit ionosphere. This dependence on the illumination of the local ionosphere indicates that significant O$^{+}$ upflow occurs locally above the polar ionosphere. The same is found for H$^{+}$, but to a lesser extent. This effect can result in a seasonal variation of the total ion upflow from the polar ionosphere. Furthermore, we show that low-magnitude field-aligned potential drops are preferentially observed above the sunlit ionosphere, suggesting a feedback effect of ionospheric conducti...

  3. Synthesis and Applications of Fluoroalkyl End-capped Oligomeric Nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hideo; Sawada

    2007-01-01

    1 Results Considerable interest has been devoted in recent years to block copolymers containing fluoroalkyl groups owing to exhibiting the low surface energy and the self-assembled polymeric aggregates resembling micelle in aqueous and organic media, which cannot be achieved in the corresponding randomly fluorinated copolymers[1].In these fluorinated block copolymers, we have found that ABA triblock-type fluoroalkylated oligomers and dendritic-type fluoroalkyl end-capped block copolymers can be prepared...

  4. Collapse mechanisms and strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe G.; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an upper bound plasticity approach for strength prediction of reinforced concrete pile caps. A number of collapse mechanisms are identified and analysed. The procedure leads to an estimate of the load-carrying capacity and an identification of the critical collapse mechanism........ It is argued that the upper bound approach may be a useful complement to the widely used lower bound strut-and-tie method. Especially when dealing with strength assessment of existing structures....

  5. Pulsar Polar Cap and Slot Gap Models: Confronting Fermi Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Alice K.

    2012-01-01

    Rotation-powered pulsars are excellent laboratories for studying particle acceleration as well as fundamental physics of strong gravity, strong magnetic fields and relativity. I will review acceleration and gamma-ray emission from the pulsar polar cap and slot gap. Predictions of these models can be tested with the data set on pulsars collected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Telescope over the last four years, using both detailed light curve fitting and population synthesis.

  6. Analysis of the EC Commission Plan for CAP Reform, An

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick C. Westhoff

    1991-01-01

    The Commission of the European Community has proposed a restructuring of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) that is independent of the ongoing General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) negotiations. This study analyzes the proposal in terms of the flexibility it would grant EC negotiators at the GATT. The results indicate that adopting the proposal would sharply reduce the volume of EC cereal, meat, and dairy product exports. EC negotiators at the GATT would be able to offer significant...

  7. Polar cap flow channel events: spontaneous and driven responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present two case studies of specific flow channel events appearing at the dusk and/or dawn polar cap boundary during passage at Earth of interplanetary (IP coronal mass ejections (ICMEs on 10 January and 25 July 2004. The channels of enhanced (>1 km/s antisunward convection are documented by SuperDARN radars and dawn-dusk crossings of the polar cap by the DMSP F13 satellite. The relationship with Birkeland currents (C1–C2 located poleward of the traditional R1–R2 currents is demonstrated. The convection events are manifest in ground magnetic deflections obtained from the IMAGE (International Monitor for Auroral Geomagnetic Effects Svalbard chain of ground magnetometer stations located within 71–76° MLAT. By combining the ionospheric convection data and the ground magnetograms we are able to study the temporal behaviour of the convection events. In the two ICME case studies the convection events belong to two different categories, i.e., directly driven and spontaneous events. In the 10 January case two sharp southward turnings of the ICME magnetic field excited corresponding convection events as detected by IMAGE and SuperDARN. We use this case to determine the ground magnetic signature of enhanced flow channel events (the NH-dusk/By<0 variant. In the 25 July case a several-hour-long interval of steady southwest ICME field (Bz<0; By<0 gave rise to a long series of spontaneous convection events as detected by IMAGE when the ground stations swept through the 12:00–18:00 MLT sector. From the ground-satellite conjunction on 25 July we infer the pulsed nature of the polar cap ionospheric flow channel events in this case. The typical duration of these convection enhancements in the polar cap is 10 min.

  8. Characterization of Mars' seasonal caps using neutron spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prettyman, T.H.; Feldman, W.C.; Titus, T.N.

    2009-01-01

    Mars' seasonal caps are characterized during Mars years 26 and 27 (April 2002 to January 2006) using data acquired by the 2001 Mars Odyssey Neutron Spectrometer. Time-dependent maps of the column abundance of seasonal CO 2 surface ice poleward of 60?? latitude in both hemispheres are determined from spatially deconvolved, epithermal neutron counting data. Sources of systematic error are analyzed, including spatial blurring by the spectrometer's broad footprint and the seasonal variations in the abundance of noncondensable gas at high southern latitudes, which are found to be consistent with results reported by Sprague et al. (2004, 2007). Corrections for spatial blurring are found to be important during the recession, when the column abundance of seasonal CO2 ice has the largest latitude gradient. The measured distribution and inventory of seasonal CO2 ice is compared to simulations by a general circulation model (GCM) calibrated using Viking lander pressure data, cap edge functions determined by thermal emission spectroscopy, and other nuclear spectroscopy data sets. On the basis of the amount of CO2 cycled through the caps during years 26 and 27, the gross polar energy balance has not changed significantly since Viking. The distribution of seasonal CO2 ice is longitudinally asymmetric: in the north, deposition rates of CO2 ice are elevated in Acidalia, which is exposed to katabatic winds from Chasma Borealis; in the south, CO2 deposition is highest near the residual cap. During southern recession, CO 2 ice is present longer than calculated by the GCM, which has implications for the local polar energy balance. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  9. Creating and maintaining a gas cap in tar sands formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Karanikas, John Michael (Houston, TX); Dinkoruk, Deniz Sumnu (Houston, TX); Wellington, Scott Lee (Bellaire, TX)

    2010-03-16

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are disclosed herein. Methods for treating a tar sands formation may include providing heat to at least part of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the formation. Pressure may be allowed to increase in an upper portion of the formation to provide a gas cap in the upper portion. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from a lower portion of the formation.

  10. Facile method to synthesize oleic acid-capped magnetite nanoparticles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We described a simple one-step process for the synthesis of oleic acid-capped magnetite nanoparticles using the dimethyl sulfoxide(DMSO) to oxidize the precursor Fe~(2+) at 140℃.By adjusting the alkalinity of the reaction system,magnetite nanoparticles with two sizes of 4 and 7 nm could be easily achieved.And the magnetite nanoparticles coated by oleate were well-monodispersed in organic solvent.

  11. Parametric study of propeller boss cap fins for container ships

    OpenAIRE

    Lim Sang-Seop; Kim Tae-Won; Lee Dong-Myung; Kang Chung-Gil; Kim Soo-Young

    2014-01-01

    The global price of oil, which is both finite and limited in quantity, has been rising steadily because of the increasing requirements for energy in both developing and developed countries. Furthermore, regulations have been strengthened across all industries to address global warming. Many studies of hull resistance, propulsion and operation of ships have been performed to reduce fuel consumption and emissions. This study examined the design parameters of the propeller boss cap fin (PBCF) an...

  12. Potential for imaging ovarian carcinoma by radioiodinated 11. beta. methoxy 17. cap alpha. -iodovinylestradiol (MIVE/sub 2/)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibson, R.E.; Holt, J.A.; Greene, G.L.; Jagoda, E.M.; Eckelman, W.C.; Rzeszotarski, W.J.; Francis, B.E.; Reba, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    I-125 labeled MIVE/sub 2/ provides the highest extent of receptor mediated localization and the highest uterus to blood ratio (immature rat) of any radioiodinated derivative of estradiol. The authors have determined that 48% of the activity which localizes in the uterus remains after 24 hrs. Nonetheless, in vivo the I-127 derivative is an agonist as demonstrated by the induction of progesterone synthesis by the ovaries of rabbit. In addition to estrogen dependent breast tumors, ovarian carcinoma (OVCA) has been shown to exhibit high concentrations of estrogen receptor. The receptor isolated from OVCA has been studied using I-125 labeled MIVE/sub 2/ as the receptor radiotracer. In addition to sucrose gradient profiles consistent with that of ER and competition studies (diethylstilbestrol and estradiol compete, testosterone, progesterone and cortisol do not) consistent with an ER drug profile, antibodies H222, H226 (Abbott Lab.) and D547, all raised against human breast cancer, interact with the receptor from OVCA. The affinities of MIVE/sub 2/ for ER from rat uterus and OVCA are the same (K/sub A/ = 6.5 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/ and K/sub A/ = 9.1 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/, respectively). These results are consistent with the receptor being ER. The longer retention time of MIVE/sub 2/ in ER rich tissue should provide time for clearance of radiotracer from background tissues to allow the imaging of OVCA primaries and metasteses. In addition, MIVE/sub 2/ labeled with I-131 or an analogue containing Br-80m or Br-77, may prove radiotoxic to the receptor rich OVCA.

  13. Population Files for use with CAP88 at Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNaughton, Michael W [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brock, Burgandy R [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-07-10

    CAP88 (Clean Air Act Assessment Package 1988) is a computer model developed for the US Environmental Protection Agency to assess the potential dose from radionuclide emissions to air and to demonstrate compliance with the Clean Air Act. It has options to calculate either individual doses, in units of mrem, or a collective dose, also called population dose, in units of person-rem. To calculate the collective dose, CAP88 uses a population file such as LANL.pop, that lists the number of people in each sector (N, NNE, NE, etc.) as a function of distance (1 to 2 km, etc.) out to a maximum radius of 80 km. Early population files are described in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Environmental Reports for 1985 (page 14) and subsequent years. LA-13469-MS describes a population file based on the 1990 census. These files have been updated several times, most recently in 2006 for CAP88 version 3. The 2006 version used the US census for 2000. The present paper describes the 2012 updates, using the 2010 census.

  14. First Wheel of the Hadronic EndCap Calorimeter Completed

    CERN Multimedia

    Oram, C.J.

    2002-01-01

    With the LAr calorimeters well advanced in module production, the attention is turning to Batiment 180 where the calorimeter modules are formed into complete detectors and inserted into their respective cryostats. For the Hadronic End Cap (HEC) Group the task in B180 is to assemble the wheels, rotate them into their final orientation, and put them onto the cradle in front of the End Cap Cryostat. These tasks have been completed for the first HEC wheel in the B180 End Cap Clean Room. Given that this wheel weighs 70 tons the group is very relieved to have established that these gymnastics with the wheel proceed in a routine fashion. To assemble a wheel we take modules that have already been cold tested, do the final electrical testing and locate them onto the HEC wheel assembly table. Four wheels are required in total, each consisting of 32 modules. Wheel assembly is done in the horizontal position, creating a doughnut-like object sitting on the HEC table. The first picture shows the last module being added ...

  15. Polar caps in the presence of an induction field

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, P B

    2015-01-01

    Following the early paper of Goldreich & Julian (1969), polar-cap models have usually assumed that the closed sector of a pulsar magnetosphere corotates with the neutron star. Recent work by Melrose & Yuen has been a reminder that in an oblique rotator, the induction field arising from the time-varying magnetic flux density cannot be completely screened. The principal consequence is that the plasma does not corotate with the star. Here it is shown that the physics of the polar cap is not changed at the altitudes of the radio emission source. But the presence of a plasma drift velocity in the corotating frame of reference does provide a mechanism whereby the net charge of the star can be maintained within a stable band of values. It also shows directly how electron injection and acceleration occur in the outer gap of the magnetosphere. It is consistent with radio-loud pulsars in the Fermi LAT catalogue of gamma-emitters all having positive polar-cap charge density.

  16. Last End Cap Toroid installation : The Pharaonic enterprise

    CERN Multimedia

    Arnaud Foussat

    After the successful and impressive transport feat from Building 191 to Point 1 was carried out by the Friderici crew on 28th June, the second and last Toroid End Cap, ECT-C, was transferred into the surface building, SX1, on 2nd July. The ECT-C was installed in the ATLAS cavern on the C-side on 12th July. As the person responsible for the project, in my opinion, one of the crucial points of this project was to design all the tooling and installation sequences taking into account the building infrastructure dimensional constraints. View of the ECT installation tooling and preparation for the ECT-C descent into the ATLAS 80m-shaft by the ATLAS magnet group and DBS teams. The movement of the 240-ton magnet and 12-m diameter toroid end-cap was achieved in collaboration with SCALES, a subcontractor company, using a hydraulic gantry able to lower the ECT inside the shaft by 5m below the floor level . This allowed the DBS team to attach the end-cap with the 2 x 140 tons overhead crane and lower it onto the c...

  17. The cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticle with borate capping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zunjing; Wang, Yongjing; Pan, Danmei; Chen, Zhi; Pan, Xiaohong; Wang, Yonghao; Lin, Zhang

    2011-11-01

    The impact of surface capping on cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticle was investigated with Escherichia coil (E.coli) in this work. The NiO nanoparticle and NiO nanoparticle capped by borate (denoted as NiO-borate) were synthesized by hydrothermal method. The average size of both nanoparticles is about 4.0 nm. The plate experiments demonstrated that NiO-borate nanoparticles show lower cytotoxicity than NiO nanopaticles. Further spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the concentration of both extracellular and intercellular Ni2+ in NiO-borate system were lower than that of uncapped one. Intracellular ICP-AES analysis also showed the concentration of Ni element was higher than Ni2+, suggesting the NiO nanoparticles might penetrate into the cellular interior. Comprehensive AFM, SEM and TEM observation illustrated both NiO-borate and NiO nanoparticles lead to the collapse of cellular body, the convex on the cell wall and the damage of cell wall ultimately. In summary, the surface capping with borate on NiO nanopaticles will suppress the release of the Ni2+ ions and impede the contact between the NiO nanoparticle and cell wall, which ultimately decreased the cytotoxicity of NiO nanoparticles.

  18. Completion of the first TRT End-cap

    CERN Multimedia

    Catinaccio, A; Rohne, O

    On July 1, the first end-cap of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) was successfully completed in terms of the integration of the wheels assembled in Russia with their front-end electronics. The two groups of the detector, fully assembled and equipped with front-end electronics, were rotated from their horizontal position during stacking to their nominal vertical position, in which they will be integrated with the corresponding end-cap silicon-strip (SCT) detector towards the end of 2005, before installation into ATLAS in spring 2006. After starting the assembly in the SR building one year ago, the TRT team reached this important milestone, which marks the final realization and validation of the engineering concept developed by the CERN DT1 (ex-TA1) and ATT teams. A TRT end-cap consists of two sets of identical and independent wheels. The first type of wheels (type A, 12 wheels, positioned closest to the primary interaction point) contains 6144 radial straws positioned in eight successive layers s...

  19. Diffusion and electrical behavior of Al implanted into capped Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scandurra, A. (Consorzio Catania Ricerche, Catania (Italy)); Galvagno, G. (Istituto di Metodologie e Tecnologie per la Microelettronica-CNR, Catania (Italy)); Raineri, V. (Univ. di Catania (Italy). Dipartimento di Fisica); Frisina, F. (ST-Microelectronics, Catania (Italy)); Torrisi, A. (Univ. di Catania (Italy). Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche)

    1993-07-01

    The diffusion and the electrical behavior of Al implanted in the dose of 1 x 10[sup 13] to 5 x 10[sup 15] cm[sup [minus]2] at 300 keV in capped and uncapped Si is investigated. The Al-based precipitates which are formed when Al concentration exceeds its solid solubility in Si are electrically inactive. The out-diffusion phenomenon that is always present in uncapped samples reduces the Al dose diffused into Si substrate. A study on the electrical activity of Al implanted in Si through SiO[sub 2], Si[sub 3]N[sub 4], and Si[sub 3]N[sub 4]/SiO[sub 2] capping films also is presented. In these capped samples Al segregation in SiO[sub 2] layer occurs. The electrically active doses are small and comparable to that of uncapped samples. The authors studied the diffusivity of Al in bulk SiO[sub 2] and Si[sub 3]N[sub 4] at 1,200 C. The fast Al diffusion through SiO[sub 2] thin layers is driven by a chemical reaction between Al and SiO[sub 2] starting from the SiO[sub 2]/Si interface.

  20. Inflaton Decay in an Alpha Vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Naidu, S; Naidu, Siddartha; Holman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    We study the alpha vacua of de Sitter space by considering the decay rate of the inflaton field coupled to a scalar field placed in an alpha vacuum. We find an {\\em alpha dependent} Bose enhancement relative to the Bunch-Davies vacuum and, surprisingly, no non-renormalizable divergences. We also consider a modified alpha dependent time ordering prescription for the Feynman propagator and show that it leads to an alpha independent result. This result suggests that it may be possible to calculate in any alpha vacuum if we employ the appropriate causality preserving prescription.

  1. Smart Beta or Smart Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winther, Kenneth Lillelund; Steenstrup, Søren Resen

    2016-01-01

    Smart beta has become the flavor of the decade in the investment world with its low fees, easy access to rewarded risk premiums, and appearance of providing good investment results relative to both traditional passive benchmarks and actively managed funds. Although we consider it well documented......-documented smart beta risk premiums and still motivate active managers to avoid value traps, too highly priced small caps, defensives, etc. By constructing the equity portfolios of active managers that resemble the most widely used risk premiums, we show that the returns and risk-adjusted returns measures...

  2. What Powers Lyman alpha Blobs?

    CERN Document Server

    Ao, Y; Beelen, A; Henkel, C; Cen, R; De Breuck, C; Francis, P; Kovacs, A; Lagache, G; Lehnert, M; Mao, M; Menten, K M; Norris, R; Omont, A; Tatemastu, K; Weiss, A; Zheng, Z

    2015-01-01

    Lyman alpha blobs (LABs) are spatially extended lyman alpha nebulae seen at high redshift. The origin of Lyman alpha emission in the LABs is still unclear and under debate. To study their heating mechanism(s), we present Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) observations of the 20 cm radio emission and Herschel PACS and SPIRE measurements of the far-infrared (FIR) emission towards the four LABs in the protocluster J2143-4423 at z=2.38. Among the four LABs, B6 and B7 are detected in the radio with fluxes of 67+/-17 microJy and 77+/-16 microJy, respectively, and B5 is marginally detected at 3 sigma (51+/-16 microJy). For all detected sources, their radio positions are consistent with the central positions of the LABs. B6 and B7 are obviously also detected in the FIR. By fitting the data with different templates, we obtained redshifts of 2.20$^{+0.30}_{-0.35}$ for B6 and 2.20$^{+0.45}_{-0.30}$ for B7 which are consistent with the redshift of the lyman alpha emission within uncertainties, indicating that both ...

  3. Alpha Testing Escape from Diab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpha testing was conducted of sessions 2 and 3 from Diab to assess whether the activities worked as expected, and whether children in the target ages enjoyed it. Data include both RA observations of child performance while playing the games and cognitive interview responses from the players after t...

  4. Dynamic Interaction between Cap & Trade and Electricity Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeev, Kumar

    Greenhouse Gases (GHG), such as Carbon-Dioxide (CO2), which is released in the atmosphere due to anthropogenic activities like power production, are now accepted as the main culprits for global warming. The Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), an initiative of the North East and Mid-Atlantic States of the United States (US) for limiting the emission of GHG, has developed a regional cap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions for power plants. Existing cap-and-trade programs in US and Europe for Greenhouse Gases have recently been plagued by over-allocation. Carbon prices recently collapsed in all these markets during the global recession. Since then, there have been significant policy changes, which have resulted in the adoption of aggressive emission cap targets by most major carbon emission markets. This is expected to make carbon emissions availability more restrictive, raising the prices of these credits. These emissions markets are expected to have a major impact on the wholesale electricity markets. Two models to study the interaction of these two markets are presented. These models assess the impact of the emissions market on wholesale electricity prices. The first model characterizes the competition between two types of power plants (coal and gas) in both the electricity and emissions markets as a dynamic game using the Cournot approximation. Under this approximation, we find that in the Nash equilibrium the plants increase their permit allocation to high-demand periods and the marginal value of each credit for a plant is identical in all periods under their optimal equilibrium strategy. The second numerical model allows us to explicitly evaluate the closed loop equilibrium of the dynamic interaction of two competitors in these markets. We find that plants often try to corner the market and push prices all the way to the price cap. Power plants derive most of their profits from these extreme price regimes. In the experiments where trading is allowed

  5. Novel insights into the function of the conserved domain of the CAP superfamily of proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick K. Olrichs

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Cysteine-rich secretory proteins, Antigen 5, and Pathogenesis-related 1 proteins (CAP superfamily are found in a remarkable variety of biological species. The presence of a highly conserved CAP domain defines the CAP family members, which in many cases is linked to other functional protein domains. As a result, this superfamily of proteins is involved in a large variety of biological processes such as reproduction, tumor suppression, and immune regulation. The role of the CAP domain and its conserved structure throughout evolution in relation to the diverse functions of CAP proteins is, however, poorly understood. Recent studies on the mammalian Golgi-Associated plant Pathogenesis Related protein 1 (GAPR-1, which consists almost exclusively of a CAP domain, may shed new light on the function of the CAP domain. GAPR-1 was shown to form amyloid fibrils but also to possess anti-amyloidogenic properties against other amyloid forming peptides. Amyloid prediction analysis reveals the presence of potentially amyloidogenic sequences within the highly conserved sequence motifs of the CAP domain. This review will address the structural properties of GAPR-1 in combination with existing knowledge on CAP protein structure-function relationships. We propose that the CAP domain is a structural domain, which can regulate protein-protein interactions of CAP family members using its amyloidogenic properties.

  6. Resident CAPS on dense-core vesicles docks and primes vesicles for fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabachinski, Greg; Kielar-Grevstad, D Michelle; Zhang, Xingmin; James, Declan J; Martin, Thomas F J

    2016-02-15

    The Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis of dense-core vesicles in neuroendocrine cells requires a priming step during which SNARE protein complexes assemble. CAPS (aka CADPS) is one of several factors required for vesicle priming; however, the localization and dynamics of CAPS at sites of exocytosis in live neuroendocrine cells has not been determined. We imaged CAPS before, during, and after single-vesicle fusion events in PC12 cells by TIRF micro-scopy. In addition to being a resident on cytoplasmic dense-core vesicles, CAPS was present in clusters of approximately nine molecules near the plasma membrane that corresponded to docked/tethered vesicles. CAPS accompanied vesicles to the plasma membrane and was present at all vesicle exocytic events. The knockdown of CAPS by shRNA eliminated the VAMP-2-dependent docking and evoked exocytosis of fusion-competent vesicles. A CAPS(ΔC135) protein that does not localize to vesicles failed to rescue vesicle docking and evoked exocytosis in CAPS-depleted cells, showing that CAPS residence on vesicles is essential. Our results indicate that dense-core vesicles carry CAPS to sites of exocytosis, where CAPS promotes vesicle docking and fusion competence, probably by initiating SNARE complex assembly. PMID:26700319

  7. ACTIVE CAPPING TECHNOLOGY - NEW APPROACHES FOR IN SITU REMEDIATION OF CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, A.; Paller, M.; Roberts, J.

    2012-02-13

    This study evaluated pilot-scale active caps composed of apatite, organoclay, biopolymers, and sand for the remediation of metal-contaminated sediments. The active caps were constructed in Steel Creek, at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. Monitoring was conducted for 12 months. Effectiveness of the caps was based on an evaluation of contaminant bioavailability, resistance to erosion, and impacts on benthic organisms. Active caps lowered metal bioavailability in the sediment during the one-year test period. Biopolymers reduced sediment suspension during cap construction, increased the pool of carbon, and lowered the release of metals. This field validation showed that active caps can effectively treat contaminants by changing their speciation, and that caps can be constructed to include more than one type of amendment to achieve multiple goals.

  8. Evaluation of MerCAP for Power Plant Mercury Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carl Richardson

    2008-09-30

    This report is submitted to the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-03NT41993, 'Evaluation of EPRI's MerCAP{trademark} Technology for Power Plant Mercury Control'. This project has investigated the mercury removal performance of EPRI's Mercury Capture by Amalgamation Process (MerCAP{trademark}) technology. Test programs were conducted to evaluate gold-based MerCAP{trademark} at Great River Energy's Stanton Station Unit 10 (Site 1), which fired both North Dakota lignite (NDL) and Power River Basin (PRB) coal during the testing period, and at Georgia Power's Plant Yates Unit 1 (Site 2) [Georgia Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company] which fires a low sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. Additional tests were carried out at Alabama Power's Plant Miller, which fires Powder River Basin Coal, to evaluate a carbon-based MerCAP{trademark} process for removing mercury from flue gas downstream of an electrostatic precipitator [Alabama Power is a subsidiary of The Southern Company]. A full-scale gold-based sorbent array was installed in the clean-air plenum of a single baghouse compartment at GRE's Stanton Station Unit 10, thereby treating 1/10th of the unit's exhaust gas flow. The substrates that were installed were electroplated gold screens oriented parallel to the flue gas flow. The sorbent array was initially installed in late August of 2004, operating continuously until its removal in July 2006, after nearly 23 months. The initial 4 months of operation were conducted while the host unit was burning North Dakota lignite (NDL). In November 2004, the host unit switched fuel to burn Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal and continued to burn the PRB fuel for the final 19 months of this program. Tests were conducted at Site 1 to evaluate the impacts of flue gas flow rate, sorbent plate spacing, sorbent pre-cleaning and regeneration, and spray

  9. Synthesis, Structural and Optical Properties of TOPO and HDA Capped Cadmium Sulphide Nanocrystals, and the Effect of Capping Ligand Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian C. Onwudiwe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermal decomposition of bis(N,N-diallyldithiocarbamatoCd(II in a “one-pot” synthesis in tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO and hexadecylamine (HDA afforded CdS (TOPO-CdS and HDA-CdS of varying optical properties and morphologies. The influence of the ratio of the precursor concentration to the capping molecule, as a factor affecting the morphology and size of the nanoparticles, was investigated. The particles varied in shape from spheres to rods and show quantum size effects in their optical spectra with clear differences in the photoluminescence (PL spectra. The PL spectrum of the HDA capped CdS nanoparticles has an emission maximum centred at 468, 472, and 484 nm for the precursor to HDA concentration ratio of 1 : 10, 1 : 15, and 1 : 20, respectively, while the TOPO capped nanoparticles show emission peaks at 483, 494, and 498 nm at the same concentration ratio. Powdered X-ray diffraction (p-XRD shows the nanoparticles to be hexagonal. The crystallinity of the nanoparticles was evident from high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM which gave well-defined images of particles with clear lattice fringes.

  10. A synopsis of collective alpha effects and implications for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigmar, D.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following: Alpha Interaction with Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes; Alpha Interaction with Ballooning Modes; Alpha Interaction with Fishbone Oscillations; and Implications for ITER.

  11. Calibration of sources for alpha spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the calibration methodology for measuring the total alpha activity of plane and thin sources with the Alpha Spectrometer for Silicon Detector in the Nuclear Measures and Dosimetry laboratory at IEAv/CTA. (author)

  12. Enzyme replacement therapy for alpha-mannosidosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgwardt, Line Gutte; Dali, Christine I.; Fogh, J;

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis (OMIM 248500) is a rare lysosomal storage disease (LSD) caused by alpha-mannosidase deficiency. Manifestations include intellectual disabilities, facial characteristics and hearing impairment. A recombinant human alpha-mannosidase (rhLAMAN) has been developed for weekly...

  13. Planar track model and the prediction of alpha-recoil aging in radwaste materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borg, J.; Dran, J.C.; Langevin, Y.; Maurette, M.; Petit, J.C.; Vassent, B. (Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Centre de Spectrometrie Nucleaire et de Spectrometrie de Masse)

    1982-10-01

    High fluences of low energy heavy ions generate very thin layers of radiation-damaged material on the surface of solid-state track detectors such as glasses and silicate minerals. For glasses, such layers undergo above a critical dose complex modifications in their chemical reactivity which strongly depend on the particular glass-leachant system. We have explained this striking threshold effect by the formation of a particular structural state on both crystalline and amorphous insulators, generated by the accumulation of individual damaged islands produced by the incident ions. We first recall our experimental technique that is based on an implantation of lead ions. Then we report on new experimental results on the ion-induced etchability of two very different insulating materials, muscovite mica and soda-lime glass which are conveniently described by a refined version of our planar track model. Finally, by assimilating such lead ions to recoil nuclei emitted during the ..cap alpha..-decay of actinide elements incorporated in radioactive waste storage materials (radwaste materials) we tentatively apply this new concept of planar track to the important problem of radiation stability of radwaste materials exposed to the internal irradiation with ..cap alpha..-recoils and subjected to corrosion by ground waters.

  14. Effectiveness evaluation of three RCRA caps at the Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shevenell, L.A. [Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Reno, NV (United States); Goldstrand, P.M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Geological Sciences

    1994-01-01

    Because installation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)- engineered caps is costly, it is prudent to evaluate the effectiveness of this procedure for hydrologically isolating contaminants. The objective for installation of five-part engineered caps at the Y-12 Plant was to (1) satisfy the regulatory compliance issues, (2) minimize the risk of direct contact with the wastes, and (3) reduce rainfall infiltration. Although the original objectives of installing the caps were not to alter groundwater flow, a potential effect of reducing infiltration is to minimize leaching, thus retarding groundwater contaminant migration from the site. Hence, cap effectiveness with respect to reduced groundwater contaminant migration is evaluated using groundwater data in this report. Based on the available data at the Y-12 capped areas, evaluation of cap effectiveness includes studying water level and chemical variability in nearby monitoring wells. Three caps installed during 1989 are selected for evaluation in this report. These caps are located in three significantly different hydrogeologic settings: overlying a karst aquifer (Chestnut Ridge Security Pits [CRSP]), overlying shales located on a hill slope (Oil Landfarm Waste Management Area [OLWMA]), and overlying shales in a valley floor which is a site of convergent groundwater flow (New Hope Pond [NHP]). Presumably, the caps have been effective in minimizing risk of direct contact with the wastes and halting direct rainfall infiltration into the sites over the extent of the capped areas, but no evidence is presented in this report to directly demonstrate this. The caps installed over the three sites appear to have had a minimal effect on groundwater contaminant migration from the respective sites. Following cap construction, no changes in the configuration of the water table were observed. Migration of contaminant plumes occurred at all three sites, apparently without regard to the timing of cap installation.

  15. Damped Lyman-Alpha Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Turnshek, D A; Lane, W; Monier, E M; Nestor, D; Bergeron, J; Briggs, F; Smette, A

    2000-01-01

    Some results from an imaging program to identify low-redshift (0.09alpha (DLA) galaxies are presented. The standard paradigm that was widely accepted a decade ago, that DLA galaxies are the progenitors of luminous disk galaxies, is now being seriously challenged. The indisputable conclusion from imaging studies at low redshift is that the morphological types of DLA galaxies are mixed and that they span a range in luminosities and surface brightnesses.

  16. Crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose: A calorimetric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto, Susana S. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: susanapinto@ist.utl.pt; Diogo, Herminio P. [Centro de Quimica Estrutural, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: hdiogo@ist.utl.pt; Moura-Ramos, Joaquim J. [Centro de Quimica-Fisica Molecular, Complexo Interdisciplinar, Instituto Superior Tecnico, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)]. E-mail: mouraramos@ist.utl.pt

    2006-09-15

    The mean values of the standard massic energy of combustion of crystalline anhydrous {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11}, polymorph {beta}) and crystalline dihydrate {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13}) measured by static-bomb combustion calorimetry in oxygen, at the temperature T=298.15K, are {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(16434.05+/-4.50)J.g{sup -1} and {delta}{sub c}u{sup o}=-(14816.05+/-3.52)J.g{sup -1}, respectively. The standard (p{sup o}=0.1MPa) molar enthalpy of formation of these compounds were derived from the corresponding standard molar enthalpies of combustion, respectively, {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 22}O{sub 11},cr)=-(2240.9+/-3.9)kJ.mol{sup -1}, and {delta}{sub f}H{sub m}{sup o} (C{sub 12}H{sub 26}O{sub 13},cr)=-(2832.6+/-3.6)kJ.mol{sup -1}. The values of the standard enthalpies of formation obtained in this work, together with data on enthalpies of solution at infinite dilution ({delta}{sub sol}H{sup {approx}}) for crystalline dihydrate and amorphous anhydrous trehalose, allow a better insight on the thermodynamic description of the trehalose system which can provide, together with the future research on the subject, a contribution for understanding the metabolism in several organisms, as well as the phase transition between the different polymorphs.

  17. Production of the CMS Tracker End Cap sub-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Fontaine, Jean-Charles

    2007-01-01

    The production and qualification of the 288 petals needed to build both CMS Tracker End Caps (TECs) is summarized. There will be first a description of a petal, integrating many components, the most important ones being the silicon modules. The organization of the production, involving 7 Institutes all over Europe, will then be explained. The petal assembly and testing procedure will be quickly described. The quality assurance put in place at each production step has resulted in a very high petal quality, as some overall plots will attest. Finally some details about part failures will be given.

  18. Capping and in vivo toxicity studies of gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Thi Ha Lien; Tuyen Nguyen, Thi; Fort, Emmanuel; Phuong Nguyen, Thanh; Nhung Hoang, Thi My; Quy Nguyen, Thi; Nhung Tran, Hong

    2012-03-01

    Water-dispersed colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high concentration were synthesized from metal precursor HAuCl4. The bovine serum albumin (BSA) and heterobiofunctionalized thiol polyethylene glycol acid (HS-PEG-COOH) were used as biofunctionalized layers for the synthesized AuNPs. The BSA and HS-PEG-COOH bound to the AuNPs were characterized qualitatively and quantitatively by transmission electron microscope and UV-VS spectrophotometer. The fabricated BSA and HS-PEG-COOH-capped AuNPs were introduced in mouse to study its toxicity and its availability in the liver.

  19. Beads,Necklaces, Chains and Strings in Capping Carbonyl Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enos Masheija Kiremire

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper attempts to explain at length the close relationship between transition metal carbonyl clusters with main group clusters especially the boranes using the 14n and 4n rules. When the ‘shielding’ electrons are removed from a transition metal carbonyl cluster and becomes ‘naked’, it resembles a corresponding one in the main group elements. A an expanded table of osmium carbonyl clusters was constructed using the capping fragment Os(CO2(14n-2 and the fragment Os(CO3 (14n+0. The table reveals the fact that the known series such closo, nido and arachno are part and parcel of a wide range of series especially the capping series 14n+q, where q takes up negative multiple integers of two including 0 such as such = 0, -2,-4, -6, and so on. The linkage between capping series in transition metal carbonyl clusters has also been identified. Apart from the capping series generated in the table, there is another type of series where the skeletal cluster elements remained the same but the number of carbonyl ligands successively decreased. These types of series are referred to as stripping series. Mapping generating functions were also derived which produces any cluster formula or series required. Also the table shows that many clusters form utilizing some of its atoms as closo nucleus around which the larger ones are built and thus forming clusters within larger clusters. The table may be used to categorize a given cluster formula that falls within its range. Otherwise, using the 14n rule or 4n rule can be used for cluster classification. Furthermore, the table indicated that atoms, fragments and molecules can be classified into series. Through this approach of using series, Hoffmann’s important isolobal relationship of chemical species can splendidly be explained.Using the 14n rule and 4n rules creates a framework under which chemical species such as atoms, fragments, molecules and ions some of which may appear unrelated from main group

  20. License - RGP caps | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available RGP caps License License to Use This Database Last updated : 2015/05/12 You may use this database in complia...garding the use of this database and the requirements you must follow in using this database.... The license for this database is specified in the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.1 ...Japan . If you use data from this database, please be sure attribute this database as follows: RGP: 332 PCR-...on-Share Alike 2.1 Japan is found here . With regard to this database, you are licensed to: freely access part or whole of this datab

  1. Structural microtubule cap: Stability, catastrophe, rescue, and third state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, H.; Chretien, D.; Janosi, I.M.

    2002-01-01

    Microtubules polymerize from GTP-liganded tubulin dinners, but are essentially made of GDP-liganded tubulin. We investigate the tug-of-war resulting from the fact that GDP-liganded tubulin favors a curved configuration, but is forced to remain in a straight one when part of a microtubule. We point...... of two well-established facts: protofilaments made of GDP-liganded tubulin have intrinsic curvature, and microtubules are elastic, made from material that can yield to forces, in casu its own intrinsic forces. We explore possible properties of this structural cap, and demonstrate 1) how it allows both...

  2. CAP1000 integrated head package airflow system fluid field analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The Integrated Head Package (IHP) is required to provide CRDM cooling. Purpose: In order to evaluate the CRDM ventilation system to ensure that there is adequate flow to cool the CRDMs. Methods: The CFD method is used to calculate the fluid field of CAP1000 reactor IHP airflow system. Results: This analysis demonstrates that the IHP design meets or exceeds the requirements and will therefore provide the required cooling air flow to the CRDMs. Conclusions: The results will provide the technical support for the choice and design of cooling fan. (authors)

  3. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) on Flemish Cap Surveys 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, J.M. (José Miguel)

    2014-01-01

    A stratified random bottom trawl survey on Flemish Cap was carried out from June 25th to July 23th 2014. The area surveyed was extended up to depths of 800 fathoms (1450 meters) following the same procedures as in previous years. This year a total of 181 valid hauls were made by the vessel R/V Vizconde de Eza with the usual survey gear (Lofoten), 120 up to 730 meters depth. The surveyed area has properly prospected the 32 strata planned. The general indexes for shrimp were estimated taken int...

  4. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) on Flemish Cap Surveys 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, J.M. (José Miguel)

    2015-01-01

    A stratified random bottom trawl survey on Flemish Cap was carried out from June 21th to July 26th 2015. The area surveyed was extended up to depths of 800 fathoms (1450 meters) following the same procedures as in previous years. This year a total of 181 valid hauls were made by the vessel R/V Vizconde de Eza with the usual survey gear (Lofoten), 120 up to 730 meters depth. The surveyed area has properly prospected the 32 strata planned. The general indexes for shrimp were estimated taken int...

  5. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) on Flemish Cap Surveys 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, J.M. (José Miguel)

    2012-01-01

    A stratified random bottom trawl survey on Flemish Cap was carried out from June 26th to July 24th 2012. The area surveyed was extended up to depths of 800 fathoms (1450 meters) following the same procedures as in previous years. This year a total of 174 valid hauls were made by the vessel R/V Vizconde de Eza with the usual survey gear (Lofoten), 118 up to 730 meters depth. The surveyed area has properly prospected the 32 strata planned. The general indexes for shrimp were estimated taken int...

  6. Northern Shrimp (Pandalus borealis) on Flemish Cap Surveys 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Casas-Sánchez, J.M. (José Miguel)

    2013-01-01

    A stratified random bottom trawl survey on Flemish Cap was carried out from June 26th to July 23th 2013. The area surveyed was extended up to depths of 800 fathoms (1450 meters) following the same procedures as in previous years. This year a total of 181 valid hauls were made by the vessel R/V Vizconde de Eza with the usual survey gear (Lofoten), 120 up to 730 meters depth. The surveyed area has properly prospected the 32 strata planned. The general indexes for shrimp were estimated taken int...

  7. The transmission link of CAPS navigation and communication system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUI JunXia; SHI HuLi; CHEN JiBin; PEI Jun

    2009-01-01

    The Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS) is based on communication satellites with integrated oapability,whioh is different from the Global Positioning System (GPS),the International Maritime Satellite Organization (Inmarsat) and so on.CAPS works at G-band,and its navigation information ie not directly generated from the satellite,but from the master control station on the ground and transmitted to users via the satellite.The slightly inclined geostationary-satellite orbit (SIGSO) satellites are adopted in CAPS.All of these increase the difficulty in the design of the system and terminals.In this paper,the authors study the CAPS oonfiguration parameters of the navigation master control station,information transmission capability,and the selection of the antenna aperture of the communication oenter station,as well as the impact of satellite parameters on the whole communication system from the perspective of the transmission link budget.The conclusion of availability of the GAPS navigation system is achieved.The results show that the GAPS inbound communication system forms a new low-data-rate satellite communicaUon system,which can accommodate mass communication termihale with the transmission rate of no more than 1 kbps for every terminal.The communication center station should be configured with a large-aperture antenna (about 10--15 m); spread spectrum communication technology should be used with the spreading gain as high as about 40 dB; reduction of the satellite transponder gain attenuation is beneficial to improving the signal-to-noise ratio of the system,with the attenuation value of 0 or 2 dB as the best choice.The fact that the GAPS navigation system has been checked and aooepted by the experts and the operation is stable till now larifies the rationality of the analysis results.The fact that a variety of experiments and applications of the satellite communication system designed according to the findings in this paper have been successfully carried out

  8. Alpha voltaic batteries and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P. (Inventor); Jenkins, Phillip (Inventor); Wilt, David (Inventor); Scheiman, David (Inventor); Chubb, Donald (Inventor); Castro, Stephanie (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An alpha voltaic battery includes at least one layer of a semiconductor material comprising at least one p/n junction, at least one absorption and conversion layer on the at least one layer of semiconductor layer, and at least one alpha particle emitter. The absorption and conversion layer prevents at least a portion of alpha particles from the alpha particle emitter from damaging the p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material. The absorption and conversion layer also converts at least a portion of energy from the alpha particles into electron-hole pairs for collection by the one p/n junction in the layer of semiconductor material.

  9. The Behaviour of Varying-Alpha Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D; Magueijo, J

    2002-01-01

    We determine the behaviour of a time-varying fine structure 'constant' $\\alpha (t)$ during the early and late phases of universes dominated by the kinetic energy of changing $\\alpha (t)$, radiation, dust, curvature, and lambda, respectively. We show that after leaving an initial vacuum-dominated phase during which $\\alpha$ increases, $\\alpha$ remains constant in universes like our own during the radiation era, and then increases slowly, proportional to a logarithm of cosmic time, during the dust era. If the universe becomes dominated by negative curvature or a positive cosmological constant then $\\alpha$ tends rapidly to a constant value. The effect of an early period of de Sitter or power-law inflation is to drive $\\alpha$ to a constant value. Various cosmological consequences of these results are discussed with reference to recent observational studies of the value of $\\alpha$ from quasar absorption spectra and to the existence of life in expanding universes.

  10. Carbon- and silicon-capped silicon carbide nanotubes: An ab initio study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, K.; Ray, A. K.

    2011-04-01

    A systematic study of fullerene hemisphere capped finite SiC nanotubes is presented. The tubes are spin optimized using the hybrid functional B3LYP (Becke's three-parameter exchange and the Lee-Yang-Parr correlation functionals) and an all electron 3-21G * basis. Capping of a SiC nanotube changes cohesive energy, HOMO-LUMO gap and other electronic and geometric properties of a SiC nanotube. Also, the carbon-capped SiC nanotubes are energetically preferable compared to silicon-capped tubes. For example, the binding energy per atom for hydrogen-terminated “infinite” SiC nanotube (5,5) having five unit cells is 4.993 eV, the corresponding numbers being 5.989 eV and 4.812 eV for C-capped and Si-capped nanotubes, respectively.

  11. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T;

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels...... in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic...... diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low...

  12. DNA-PKcs is critical for telomere capping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilley, David; Tanaka, Hiromi; Hande, M. Prakash; Kurimasa,Akihiro; Li, Gloria C.; Chen, David J.

    2001-04-10

    The DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) is critical for DNA repair via the non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) pathway. Previously, it was reported that bone marrow cells and spontaneously transformed fibroblasts from SCID (severe combined immunodeficiency) mice have defects in telomere maintenance. The genetically defective SCID mouse arose spontaneously from its parental strain CB17. One known genomic alteration in SCID mice is a truncation of the extreme carboxyl-terminus of DNA-PKcs, but other as yet unidentified alterations may also exist. We have used a defined system, the DNA-PKcs knockout mouse, to investigate specifically the role DNA-PKcs specifically plays in telomere maintenance. We report that primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and primary cultured kidney cells from 6-8 month old DNA-PKcs deficient mice accumulate a large number of telomere fusions, yet still retain wildtype telomere length. Thus, the phenotype of this defect separates the two-telomere related phenotypes, capping and length maintenance. DNA-PKcs deficient MEFs also exhibit elevated levels of chromosome fragments and breaks, which correlate with increased telomere fusions. Based on the high levels of telomere fusions observed in DNA-PKcs deficient cells, we conclude that DNA-PKcs plays an important capping role at the mammalian telomere.

  13. Earth's polar cap ionization patches lead to ion upflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q. H.; Zong, Q.; Lockwood, M. M.; Liang, J.; Zhang, B.; Moen, J. I.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, Y.; Ruohoniemi, J. M.; Thomas, E. G.; Liu, R.; Dunlop, M. W.; Yang, H. G.; Hu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lester, M.

    2014-12-01

    The Earth constantly losses matter through ions escaping from the polar ionosphere. This makes the ionosphere as an important source of plasma for the magnetosphere and could modulate atmospheric isotope abundances on geological timescales, depending on what fraction of the upflowing ions subsequently return to the ionosphere and what fraction are ejected into interplanetary space. It has been proposed that the magnetosphere is dynamically modulated by the presence of the ionospheric ions, particularly heavy ions O+, during magnetic substorms and storms. The origin and formation mechanism of ionospheric ion upflow is, however, poorly understood, particularly under disturbed space weather conditions. We report simultaneous direct observations of ion upflow and a patch of ionization at the center of the polar cap region during a geomagnetic storm. Our observations indicate enhanced fluxes of upwelling O+ ions originate from the patch and were accelerated by the enhanced ambipolar electric field. This enhancement is caused by soft electron precipitations. Polar cap patches therefore provide an important source of upwelling ions for accelerations mechanisms at greater altitudes which can eject the ions. These observations give new insight into the processes of ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling and the potential loss of terrestrial water dissociation products into space which, although extremely slow in the case of Earth, may be significant for other planets and moons.

  14. Viral Agents Causing Brown Cap Mushroom Disease of Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Daniel; Green, Julian; Grogan, Helen; Burton, Kerry

    2015-10-01

    The symptoms of viral infections of fungi range from cryptic to severe, but there is little knowledge of the factors involved in this transition of fungal/viral interactions. Brown cap mushroom disease of the cultivated Agaricus bisporus is economically important and represents a model system to describe this transition. Differentially expressed transcript fragments between mushrooms showing the symptoms of brown cap mushroom disease and control white noninfected mushrooms have been identified and sequenced. Ten of these RNA fragments have been found to be upregulated over 1,000-fold between diseased and nondiseased tissue but are absent from the Agaricus bisporus genome sequence and hybridize to double-stranded RNAs extracted from diseased tissue. We hypothesize that these transcript fragments are viral and represent components of the disease-causing agent, a bipartite virus with similarities to the family Partitiviridae. The virus fragments were found at two distinct levels within infected mushrooms, at raised levels in infected, nonsymptomatic, white mushrooms and at much greater levels (3,500 to 87,000 times greater) in infected mushrooms exhibiting brown coloration. In addition, differential screening revealed 9 upregulated and 32 downregulated host Agaricus bisporus transcripts. Chromametric analysis was able to distinguish color differences between noninfected white mushrooms and white infected mushrooms at an early stage of mushroom growth. This method may be the basis for an "on-farm" disease detection assay. PMID:26253676

  15. [Experimental testing of centrally authorised medicinal products. The CAP programme].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giess, S

    2014-10-01

    In addition to marketing authorisation, inspection and pharmacovigilance the experimental testing within the CAP programme provides another important instrument of assessing and testing centrally authorised medicinal products. Coordinated activities in European member states and institutions--including planning, sampling, lab testing, reporting and assessment of results--allow us to establish an effective quality control system for this group of innovative medicinal products. By means of using existing networks and national structures, unnecessary parallel sampling and testing can be avoided, and limited resources can be used in a better way. The CAP programme is an independent test and surveillance programme, which demonstrates the high quality of centrally authorised medicinal products in the EU/EEA. That way, it strengthens the confidence of patients and the public in these innovative medicinal products. Furthermore, it enables OMCLs to gain experience with new sensitive analytical methods, which can also be used in other areas, for example for the identification of counterfeits or the assessment of biosimilars and generics. PMID:25159224

  16. The backward end-cap for the PANDA electromagnetic calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capozza, L.; Maas, F. E.; Noll, O.; Rodriguez Pineiro, D.; Valente, R.

    2015-02-01

    The PANDA experiment at the new FAIR facility will cover a broad experimental programme in hadron structure and spectroscopy. As a multipurpose detector, the PANDA spectrometer needs to ensure almost 4π coverage of the scattering solid angle, full and accurate multiple-particle event reconstruction and very good particle identification capabilities. The electromagnetic calorimeter (EMC) will be a key item for many of these aspects. Particle energies ranging from some MeVs to several GeVs have to be measured with a relative resolution of 1% ⊕ 2%/√E/GeV . It will be a homogeneous calorimeter made of PbWO4 crystals and will be operated at -25°C, in order to improve the scintillation light yield. With the exception of the very forward section, the light will be detected by large area avalanche photodiodes (APDs). The current pulses from the APDs will be integrated, amplified and shaped by ASIC chips which were developed for this purpose. The whole calorimeter has been designed in three sections: a forward end-cap, a central barrel and a backward end-cap (BWEC). In this contribution, a status report on the development of the BWEC is presented.

  17. Computer vision based end cap weld quality inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a weld quality inspection system that has been developed for QA(F), NFC to evaluate the PHWR end cap welds. The system consists of a trinocular microscope with a video camera connected through a video reduction lens, PCI video frame grabber and PC based acquisition and analysis software. The software developed in the VC++ under windows operating system calculates the non-fusion percentage for the weld specimens in two different modes of computing i.e. Indian welding inspection method and Canadian welding inspection method. The software uses image processing and analysis algorithms to automatically identify the lack of fusion lines as per user supplied parameters for a specific set-up of the system. The lack of fusion lines and the region of interest that was used for computation are marked on the image and can be saved for future reference. GUI for user interaction to delete or add non-fusion lines is also provided. A report generation module has been integrated with the analysis software as per user requirements. Reports are generated for the end cap welding performance including machine set up, machine qualification and operator qualification information. (author)

  18. [CAPNETZ. The competence network for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttorp, Norbert; Welte, Tobias; Marre, Reinhard; Stenger, Steffen; Pletz, Mathias; Rupp, Jan; Schütte, Hartwig; Rohde, Gernot

    2016-04-01

    CAPNETZ is a medical competence network for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), which was funded by the German Ministry for Education and Research. It has accomplished seminal work on pneumonia over the last 15 years. A unique infrastructure was established which has so far allowed us to recruit and analyze more than 11,000 patients. The CAPNETZ cohort is the largest cohort worldwide and the results obtained relate to all relevant aspects of CAP management (epidemiology, risk stratification via biomarkers or clinical scores, pathogen spectrum, pathogen resistance, antibiotic management, prevention and health care research). Results were published in more than 150 journals and informed the preparation and update of the national S3-guideline. CAPNETZ was also the foundation for further networks like the Pneumonia Research Network on Genetic Resistance and Susceptibility for the Evolution of Severe Sepsis) (PROGRESS), the Systems Medicine of Community Acquired Pneumonia Network (CAPSyS) and SFB-TR84 (Sonderforschungsbereich - Transregio 84). The main recipients (Charité Berlin, University Clinic Ulm and the Hannover Medical School) founded the CAPNETZ foundation and transferred all data and materials rights to this foundation. Moreover, the ministry granted the CAPNETZ foundation the status of being eligible to apply for research proposals and receive research funds. Since 2013 the CAPNETZ foundation has been an associated member of the German Center for Lung Research (DZL). Thus, a solid foundation has been set up for CAPNETZ to continue its success story. PMID:26984399

  19. Double-real corrections at O(alpha alpha_s) to single gauge boson production

    CERN Document Server

    Bonciani, Roberto; Mondini, Roberto; Vicini, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    We consider the O(alpha alpha_s) corrections to single on-shell gauge boson production at hadron colliders. We concentrate on the contribution of all the subprocesses where the gauge boson is accompanied by the emission of two additional real partons and we evaluate the corresponding total cross sections. The latter are divergent quantities, because of soft and collinear emissions, and are expressed as Laurent series in the dimensional regularization parameter. The total cross sections are evaluated by means of reverse unitarity, i.e. expressing the phase-space integrals in terms of two-loop forward box integrals with cuts on the final state particles. The results are reduced to a combination of Master Integrals, which eventually are evaluated in terms of Generalized Polylogarithms. The presence of internal massive lines in the Feynman diagrams, due to the exchange of electroweak gauge bosons, causes the appearance of 14 Master Integrals which were not previously known in the literature and have been evaluate...

  20. Polar cap particle precipitation and aurora: Review and commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Patrick T.; Liou, Kan; Wilson, Gordon R.

    2009-02-01

    Polar rain has a beautiful set of symmetry properties, individually established, but not previously discussed collectively, which can be organized by a single unifying principle. The key polar rain properties are favored hemisphere (controlled by the interplanetary magnetic field Bx), dawn/dusk gradient (IMF By), merging rate (IMF Bz or more generally d[Phi]MP/dt), nightside/dayside gradient, and seasonal effect. We argue that all five properties involve variants on a single theme: the further downstream a field line exits the magnetosphere (or less directly points toward the solar wind electron heat flux), the weaker the polar rain. This effect is the result of the requirements of charge quasi-neutrality, and because the ion thermal velocity declines and the tailward ion bulk flow velocity rises moving down tail from the frontside magnetopause. Polar cap arcs (or more properly, high-latitude sun-aligned arcs) are largely complementary to the polar rain, occurring most frequently when the dayside merging rate is low, and thus when polar rain is weak. Sun-aligned arcs are often considered as originating either in the polar rain or the expansion of the plasma sheet into the polar cap. In fact three quite distinct types of sun-aligned high-latitude arcs exist, two common, and one rare. One type of arc occurs as intensifications of the polar rain, and is common, but weak, typically 0.1 ergs/cm2 s usually occurs adjacent to the auroral oval, and includes ion precipitation. The plasma regime of these common, and at times intense, arcs is often distinct from the oval which they abut. Convection alone does not specify the open/closed nature of these arcs, because multiple narrow convection reversals are common around such arcs, and the arcs themselves can be embedded within flows that are either sunward or anti-sunward. These observational facts do not neatly fit into either a plasma sheet origin or a polar rain origin (e.g., the necessity to abut the auroral oval, and the

  1. Update History of This Database - RGP caps | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RGP caps Update... History of This Database Date Update contents 2015/05/12 RGP caps English archive site is op...opened. Joomla SEF URLs by Artio About This Database Database Description Download License Update History of... This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Update History of This Database - RGP caps | LSDB Archive ...

  2. Evaluation of antibacterial effects of pulp capping agents with direct contact test method

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Muhammet; Arslan, Ugur; Dundar, Ayse

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Calcium hydroxide has been used in dentistry as a major capping material having the capacity to introduce the formation of a mineralized dentin bridge, but it has no direct inducing effect to the pulp cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial properties of three different pulp capping agents using a direct contact test (DCT). Materials and Methods: The antibacterial properties of three pulp capping agents were evaluated a DCT. For the DCT, wells (n = 12) o...

  3. Structure–function analysis of vaccinia virus mRNA cap (guanine-N7) methyltransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Sushuang; Shuman, Stewart

    2008-01-01

    The guanine-N7 methyltransferase domain of vaccinia virus mRNA capping enzyme is a heterodimer composed of a catalytic subunit and a stimulatory subunit. Structure–function analysis of the catalytic subunit by alanine scanning and conservative substitutions (49 mutations at 25 amino acids) identified 12 functional groups essential for methyltransferase activity in vivo, most of which were essential for cap methylation in vitro. Defects in cap binding were demonstrated for a subset of lethal m...

  4. The Effect of Salary Caps in Professional Team Sports on Social Welfare

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Dietl; Markus Lang; Alexander Rathke

    2007-01-01

    Increasing financial disparity and spiralling wages in European football have triggered a debate about the introduction of salary caps. This paper provides a theoretical model of a team sports leagues and studies the welfare effect of salary caps. It shows that salary caps will increase competitive balance and decrease overall salary payments within the league. The resulting effect on social welfare is counter-intuitive and depends on the preference of fans for aggregate talent and for compet...

  5. Optimal choice and consumption of cost cap tariffs: Theory and empirical evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Köhler, Philip; Krämer, Jan; Krüger, Lars

    2014-01-01

    Cost cap tariffs are pay-per-use tariffs for which costs cannot exceed a predefined cost limit. They were recently introduced to telecommunications markets, but were previously also applied in the insurance industry as deductibles or in the rental industry as day rates. This paper develops and empirically validates a consumer surplus model that explains the optimal consumption pattern under cost cap tariffs and the conditions under which cost cap tariffs are chosen over pure pay-per-use and f...

  6. Organic–Inorganic Nanostructure Architecture via Directly Capping Fullerenes onto Quantum Dots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jonggi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A new form of fullerene-capped CdSe nanoparticles (PCBA-capped CdSe NPs, using carboxylate ligands with [60]fullerene capping groups that provides an effective synthetic methodology to attach fullerenes noncovalently to CdSe, is presented for usage in nanotechnology and photoelectric fields. Interestingly, either the internal charge transfer or the energy transfer in the hybrid material contributes to photoluminescence (PL quenching of the CdSe moieties.

  7. The inter-rater reliability of categories of auditory performance-II (CAP)-II

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmour, Louise

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate a modified version of the Categories of Auditory Performance (CAP) rating scale, the CAP-II. The CAP is a hierarchy rating scale which assesses a child?s functioning in everyday situations. It covers a range of auditory performance and also takes into consideration different developmental rates of children. Inter-rater reliability was assessed by participants rating benefits young children receive with cochlear implants (CI). Volunteers watched vid...

  8. Green wet chemical route to synthesize capped CdSe quantum dots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Oudhia; P Bichpuria

    2014-02-01

    In the present work, we report green synthesis of tartaric acid (TA) and triethanolamine (TEA) capped cadmium selenide quantum dots (CdSe QDs) employing chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The mechanism of capping using non-toxic binary capping agents is also discussed. Stable QDs of various sizes were obtained by varying pH of the bath. The structural, morphological and spectroscopic characterization of the as-prepared samples by XRD, SEM, optical absorption and photoluminescence (PL) is also reported.

  9. Folding model study of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ scattering at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Ngo Hai; Khoa, Dao T

    2014-01-01

    The folding model analysis of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ scattering at the incident energies below the reaction threshold of 34.7 MeV (in the lab system) has been done using the well-tested density dependent versions of the M3Y interaction and realistic choices for the $^4$He density. Because the absorption is negligible at the energies below the reaction threshold, we were able to probe the $\\alpha + \\alpha$ optical potential at low energies quite unambiguously and found that the $\\alpha + \\alpha$ overlap density used to construct the density dependence of the M3Y interaction is strongly distorted by the Pauli blocking. This result gives possible explanation of a long-standing inconsistency of the double-folding model in its study of the elastic $\\alpha + \\alpha$ and $\\alpha$-nucleus scattering at low energies using the same realistic density dependent M3Y interaction.

  10. Green synthesis of silk sericin-capped silver nanoparticles and their potent anti-bacterial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Bang, Nipaporn; Ratanavaraporn, Juthamas; Ekgasit, Sanong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a ‘green chemistry’ approach was introduced to synthesize silk sericin (SS)-capped silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under an alkaline condition (pH 11) using SS as a reducing and stabilizing agent instead of toxic chemicals. The SS-capped AgNPs were successfully synthesized at various concentrations of SS and AgNO3, but the yields were different. A higher yield of SS-capped AgNPs was obtained when the concentrations of SS and AgNO3 were increased. The SS-capped AgNPs showed a round...

  11. Arabidopsis CAP1-mediated ammonium sensing required reactive oxygen species in plant cell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ling; Zhou, Yun; Ma, Xiaonan; Gao, Lijie; Song, Chun-Peng

    2014-06-18

    [Ca (2+)]cyt-associated protein kinase (CAP) gene 1 is a receptor-like kinase that belongs to CrRLK1L (Catharanthus roseus Receptor like kinase) subfamily. CAP1 has been identified as a novel modulator of NH 4(+) in the tonoplast, which regulates root hair growth by maintaining the cytoplasmic Ca (2+) gradients. Different expression pattern of tonoplast intrinsic protein (TIP2;3) in the CAP1 knock out mutant and wild type on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium suggested that CAP1 influences transport activity to regulate the compartmentalization of NH 4(+) into vacuole. Lower expression level of Oxidative Signal-Inducible1(OXI1) in the cap1-1 root and the abnormal reactive oxygen species (ROS) gradient in root hair of cap1-1 on MS medium indicated that ROS signaling involve in CAP1-regulated root hair growth. Wild-type-like ROS distribution pattern in the cap1-1 root hair can be reestablished in seedlings grown on NH 4(+) deficient medium, which indicated that CAP1 functions as a sensor for NH 4(+) signaling in maintaining tip-focused ROS gradient in root hairs polar growth. PMID:24940875

  12. Development of CAP code for nuclear power plant containment: Lumped model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Soon Joon, E-mail: sjhong90@fnctech.com [FNC Tech. Co. Ltd., Heungdeok 1 ro 13, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-908 (Korea, Republic of); Choo, Yeon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech. Co. Ltd., Heungdeok 1 ro 13, Giheung-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-908 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun [Central Research Institute, Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Company, Ltd., 70, 1312-gil, Yuseong-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • State-of-art containment analysis code, CAP, has been developed. • CAP uses 3-field equations, water level oriented upwind scheme, local head model. • CAP has a function of linked calculation with reactor coolant system code. • CAP code assessments showed appropriate prediction capabilities. - Abstract: CAP (nuclear Containment Analysis Package) code has been developed in Korean nuclear society for the analysis of nuclear containment thermal hydraulic behaviors including pressure and temperature trends and hydrogen concentration. Lumped model of CAP code uses 2-phase, 3-field equations for fluid behaviors, and has appropriate constitutive equations, 1-dimensional heat conductor model, component models, trip and control models, and special process models. CAP can run in a standalone mode or a linked mode with a reactor coolant system analysis code. The linked mode enables the more realistic calculation of a containment response and is expected to be applicable to a more complicated advanced plant design calculation. CAP code assessments were carried out by gradual approaches: conceptual problems, fundamental phenomena, component and principal phenomena, experimental validation, and finally comparison with other code calculations on the base of important phenomena identifications. The assessments showed appropriate prediction capabilities of CAP.

  13. Comparison of carrierless amplitude-phase (CAP) and discrete multitone (DMT) modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Othman, M. B.; Pham, Tien-Thang; Deng, Lei;

    2014-01-01

    We compare the transmission of 1.25 Gb/s CAP-16 and 909.2 Mb/s 16-QAM-DMT modulation formats over 2.4 km of MMF with 850 nm DM-CSELs. CAP displays 0.7-1.1 dB better sensitivity than DMT in this experiment.......We compare the transmission of 1.25 Gb/s CAP-16 and 909.2 Mb/s 16-QAM-DMT modulation formats over 2.4 km of MMF with 850 nm DM-CSELs. CAP displays 0.7-1.1 dB better sensitivity than DMT in this experiment....

  14. A concept study of a carbon spar cap design for a 80m wind turbine blade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemeier, M.; Bätge, M.

    2014-06-01

    The buckling resistance is a key design driver for large wind turbine blades with a significant influence on the material costs. During the structural design process the choice was made for carbon spar caps and two shear webs, which were set relatively far apart in order to stabilize the panels. This design presented a major challenge for the stability of the spar caps. The topology of these spar caps has been modified with regard to stability, comparing a continuous spar cap with split spar cap concepts and considering both lay-ups with hybrid carbon glass spar caps or sandwich concepts. Within those concepts, parametric studies were conducted varying different geometrical parameters of the spar caps and its layups. In order to determine the buckling resistance of the spar cap, an analytical model considering a 2D cross section discretized blade model was utilized to select the basic concept, after which a 3D numerical finite element model taking the whole blade into account was used to evaluate the chosen design concepts. The stability limit state analysis was conducted according to the certification scheme of GL guideline 2012. The various concepts were evaluated based on the blade's mass, tip deflection and modal properties. The results of this design process of the spar caps and the evaluation of the used analysis tools are presented within the paper.

  15. Reception Test of Petals for the End Cap TEC+ of the CMS Silicon Strip Tracker

    CERN Document Server

    Bremer, R; Klein, Katja; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Adler, Volker; Adolphi, Roman; Ageron, Michel; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Atz, Bernd; Barvich, Tobias; Baulieu, Guillaume; Beaumont, Willem; Beissel, Franz; Bergauer, Thomas; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Blüm, Peter; Bock, E; Bogelsbacher, F; de Boer, Wim; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Bouhali, Othmane; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Brom, Jean-Marie; Butz, Erik; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Clerbaux, Barbara; Contardo, Didier; De Callatay, Bernard; Dehm, Philip; Delaere, Christophe; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Didierjean, Francois; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Dragicevic, Marko; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Esser, Hans; Estre, Nicolas; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Florins, Benoit; Flossdorf, Alexander; Flucke, Gero; Flügge, Günter; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Freudenreich, Klaus; Frey, Martin; Friedl, Markus; Furgeri, Alexander; Giraud, Noël; Goerlach, Ulrich; Goorens, Robert; Graehling, Philippe; Grégoire, Ghislain; Gregoriev, E; Gross, Laurent; Hansel, S; Haroutunian, Roger; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Heyninck, Jan; Hosselet, J; Hrubec, Josef; Jahn, Dieter; Juillot, Pierre; Kaminski, Jochen; Karpinski, Waclaw; Kaussen, Gordon; Keutgen, Thomas; Klanner, Robert; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Krammer, Manfred; Ledermann, Bernhard; Lemaître, Vincent; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Linn, Alexander; Lounis, Abdenour; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Lumb, Nicholas; Maazouzi, Chaker; Mahmoud, Tariq; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Mirabito, Laurent; Müller, Thomas; Neukermans, Lionel; Ollivetto, C; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pein, Uwe; Pernicka, Manfred; Perriès, Stephane; Piaseki, C; Pierschel, Gerhard; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Rouby, Xavier; Sabellek, Andreas; Schael, Stefan; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Stahl, Achim; Steck, Pia; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Strub, Roger; Tavernier, Stefaan; Teyssier, Daniel; Theel, Andreas; Trocmé, Benjamin; Udo, Fred; Van der Donckt, M; Van der Velde, C; Van Hove, Pierre; Vanlaer, Pascal; Van Lancker, Luc; Van Staa, Rolf; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Weber, Markus; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Wickens, John; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; De Wolf, Eddi A; Zhukov, Valery; Zoeller, Marc Henning

    2009-01-01

    The silicon strip tracker of the CMS experiment has been completed and was inserted into the CMS detector in late 2007. The largest sub system of the tracker are its end caps, comprising two large end caps (TEC) each containing 3200 silicon strip modules. To ease construction, the end caps feature a modular design: groups of about 20 silicon modules are placed on sub-assemblies called petals and these self-contained elements are then mounted onto the TEC support structures. Each end cap consists of 144 such petals, which were built and fully qualified by several institutes across Europe. From

  16. A concept study of a carbon spar cap design for a 80m wind turbine blade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The buckling resistance is a key design driver for large wind turbine blades with a significant influence on the material costs. During the structural design process the choice was made for carbon spar caps and two shear webs, which were set relatively far apart in order to stabilize the panels. This design presented a major challenge for the stability of the spar caps. The topology of these spar caps has been modified with regard to stability, comparing a continuous spar cap with split spar cap concepts and considering both lay-ups with hybrid carbon glass spar caps or sandwich concepts. Within those concepts, parametric studies were conducted varying different geometrical parameters of the spar caps and its layups. In order to determine the buckling resistance of the spar cap, an analytical model considering a 2D cross section discretized blade model was utilized to select the basic concept, after which a 3D numerical finite element model taking the whole blade into account was used to evaluate the chosen design concepts. The stability limit state analysis was conducted according to the certification scheme of GL guideline 2012. The various concepts were evaluated based on the blade's mass, tip deflection and modal properties. The results of this design process of the spar caps and the evaluation of the used analysis tools are presented within the paper

  17. Development of CAP code for nuclear power plant containment: Lumped model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • State-of-art containment analysis code, CAP, has been developed. • CAP uses 3-field equations, water level oriented upwind scheme, local head model. • CAP has a function of linked calculation with reactor coolant system code. • CAP code assessments showed appropriate prediction capabilities. - Abstract: CAP (nuclear Containment Analysis Package) code has been developed in Korean nuclear society for the analysis of nuclear containment thermal hydraulic behaviors including pressure and temperature trends and hydrogen concentration. Lumped model of CAP code uses 2-phase, 3-field equations for fluid behaviors, and has appropriate constitutive equations, 1-dimensional heat conductor model, component models, trip and control models, and special process models. CAP can run in a standalone mode or a linked mode with a reactor coolant system analysis code. The linked mode enables the more realistic calculation of a containment response and is expected to be applicable to a more complicated advanced plant design calculation. CAP code assessments were carried out by gradual approaches: conceptual problems, fundamental phenomena, component and principal phenomena, experimental validation, and finally comparison with other code calculations on the base of important phenomena identifications. The assessments showed appropriate prediction capabilities of CAP

  18. ICESat Estimates of Elevation and Volume Changes of Greenland Ice Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, J. W.; Zwally, J.; Yi, D.; Li, J.; Saba, J. L.

    2012-12-01

    ICESat Laser Altimetry acquired over the period 2003-2008 has been processed to provide estimates of changes in elevation for each aligned laser footprint. These are then interpolated, geographically, yielding estimates of volume change on nearly two dozen peripheral ice caps, mostly located in northern Greenland. Definition of ice cap edges are provided by the Greenland Mapping Project 90m, high-resolution, ice mask (GIMP). The results provide a geometric measure of sub-decadal ice cap gain or loss, with the outcome being that more ice caps are losing volume than gaining. Ice caps ranging in size from 200 to 7500 square km have been considered. Over the five-years, ice cap volume changes range from -1.586 cubic km for the Ikke Opmålt cap (2965.1 sq. km areal extent) to +0.582 cubic km on the Kronprins Christian Land cap (7414.6 sq. km). The corresponding averaged rates of elevation change range from -0.535 m/yr to +0.079 m/yr, respectively. Estimates of elevation changes from variations in the rate of firn compaction are also applied. Additionally, examination of time histories of ICESat elevation profiles crossing select ice caps reveal seasonal losses and gains.

  19. The 2009 Wolrd Average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$

    CERN Document Server

    Bethke, Siegfried

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of $\\alpha_s$, the coupling strength of the Strong Interaction between quarks and gluons, are summarised and an updated value of the world average of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ is derived. Building up on previous reviews, special emphasis is laid on the most recent determinations of $\\alpha_s$. These are obtained from $\\tau$-decays, from global fits of electroweak precision data and from measurements of the proton structure function $\\F_2$, which are based on perturbative QCD calculations up to $O(\\alpha_s^4)$; from hadronic event shapes and jet production in $\\epem$ annihilation, based on $O(\\alpha_s^3) $ QCD; from jet production in deep inelastic scattering and from $\\Upsilon$ decays, based on $O(\\alpha_s^2) $ QCD; and from heavy quarkonia based on unquenched QCD lattice calculations. Applying pragmatic methods to deal with possibly underestimated errors and/or unknown correlations, the world average value of $\\alpha_s (M_Z)$ results in $\\alpha_s (M_Z) = 0.1184 \\pm 0.0007$. The measured values of $\\alpha...

  20. Synthesis of 16 alpha-3H androgen and estrogen substrates for 16 alpha-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantineau, R; Kremers, P; De Graeve, J; Cornelis, A; Laszlo, P; Gielen, J E; Lambotte, R

    1981-02-01

    The synthesis of 16 alpha-3H androgens and estrogens is described. 1-(3H)-Acetic acid in the presence of zinc dust reacts with 16 alpha-bromo-17-ketosteroids to produce 16 alpha-3H-17-ketosteroids. This chemical reaction was used to prepare 16 alpha-3H-dehydroepiandrosterone (I) and 16 alpha-3H-estrone acetate (XI) from 16 alpha-bromo-dehydroepiandrosterone (X) and from 16 alpha-bromo-estrone acetate (XII), respectively. Using appropriate microbiological techniques, it was possible to convert these radiolabelled substrates into 16 alpha-3H-androstenedione (II) and 16 alpha-3H-estradiol-17 beta (VII). 16 alpha-3H-Estrone (VI) was obtained by the chemical hydrolysis of 16 alpha-3H-estrone acetate. The label distribution as determined by microbiological 16 alpha-hydroxylations indicated a specific labelling of 77% for androgens and 65% for estrogens in the 16 alpha position. These substrates can be used for measuring the 16 alpha hydroxylase activity, an important step in the biosynthesis of estriol (VIII) and estetrol (IX). PMID:7013160

  1. Recoil-alpha-fission and recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events observed in the reaction Ca-48 + Am-243

    CERN Document Server

    Forsberg, U; Andersson, L -L; Di Nitto, A; Düllmann, Ch E; Gates, J M; Golubev, P; Gregorich, K E; Gross, C J; Herzberg, R -D; Hessberger, F P; Khuyagbaatar, J; Kratz, J V; Rykaczewski, K; Sarmiento, L G; Schädel, M; Yakushev, A; Åberg, S; Ackermann, D; Block, M; Brand, H; Carlsson, B G; Cox, D; Derkx, X; Dobaczewski, J; Eberhardt, K; Even, J; Fahlander, C; Gerl, J; Jäger, E; Kindler, B; Krier, J; Kojouharov, I; Kurz, N; Lommel, B; Mistry, A; Mokry, C; Nazarewicz, W; Nitsche, H; Omtvedt, J P; Papadakis, P; Ragnarsson, I; Runke, J; Schaffner, H; Schausten, B; Shi, Y; Thörle-Pospiech, P; Torres, T; Traut, T; Trautmann, N; Türler, A; Ward, A; Ward, D E; Wiehl, N

    2015-01-01

    Products of the fusion-evaporation reaction Ca-48 + Am-243 were studied with the TASISpec set-up at the gas-filled separator TASCA at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f\\"ur Schwerionenforschung. Amongst the detected thirty correlated alpha-decay chains associated with the production of element Z=115, two recoil-alpha-fission and five recoil-alpha-alpha-fission events were observed. The latter are similar to four such events reported from experiments performed at the Dubna gas-filled separator. Contrary to their interpretation, we propose an alternative view, namely to assign eight of these eleven decay chains of recoil-alpha(-alpha)-fission type to start from the 3n-evaporation channel 115-288. The other three decay chains remain viable candidates for the 2n-evaporation channel 115-289.

  2. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alcaraz, J.; Alpat, B.; Ambrosi, G.; Anderhub, H.; Ao, L.; Arefiev, A.; Azzarello, P.; Babucci, E.; Baldini, L.; Basile, M.; Barancourt, D.; Barao, F.; Barbier, G.; Barreira, G.; Battiston, R.; Becker, R.; Becker, U.; Bellagamba, L.; Bene, P.; Berdugo, J.; Berges, P.; Bertucci, B.; Biland, A.; Bizzaglia, S.; Blasko, S.; Boella, G.; Boschini, M.; Bourquin, M.; Brocco, L.; Bruni, G.; Buenerd, M.; Burger, J.D.; Burger, W.J.; Cai, X.D.; Camps, C.; Cannarsa, P.; Capell, M.; Casadei, D.; Casaus, J.; Castellini, G.; Cecchi, C.; Chang, Y.H.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, H.S.; Chen, Z.G.; Chernoplekov, N.A.; Chiueh, T.H.; Chuang, Y.L.; Cindolo, F.; Commichau, V.; Contin, A. E-mail: contin@bo.infn.it; Crespo, P.; Cristinziani, M.; Cunha, J.P. da; Dai, T.S.; Deus, J.D.; Dinu, N.; Djambazov, L.; DAntone, I.; Dong, Z.R.; Emonet, P.; Engelberg, J.; Eppling, F.J.; Eronen, T.; Esposito, G.; Extermann, P.; Favier, J.; Fiandrini, E.; Fisher, P.H.; Fluegge, G.; Fouque, N.; Galaktionov, Yu.; Gervasi, M.; Giusti, P.; Grandi, D.; Grimm, O.; Gu, W.Q.; Hangarter, K.; Hasan, A.; Hermel, V.; Hofer, H.; Huang, M.A.; Hungerford, W.; Ionica, M.; Ionica, R.; Jongmanns, M.; Karlamaa, K.; Karpinski, W.; Kenney, G.; Kenny, J.; Kim, W.; Klimentov, A.; Kossakowski, R.; Koutsenko, V.; Kraeber, M.; Laborie, G.; Laitinen, T.; Lamanna, G.; Laurenti, G.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, S.C.; Levi, G.; Levtchenko, P.; Liu, C.L.; Liu, H.T.; Lopes, I.; Lu, G.; Lu, Y.S.; Luebelsmeyer, K.; Luckey, D.; Lustermann, W.; Mana, C.; Margotti, A.; Mayet, F.; McNeil, R.R.; Meillon, B.; Menichelli, M.; Mihul, A.; Mourao, A.; Mujunen, A.; Palmonari, F.; Papi, A.; Park, I.H.; Pauluzzi, M.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, E.; Pesci, A.; Pevsner, A.; Pimenta, M.; Plyaskin, V.; Pojidaev, V.; Postolache, V.; Produit, N.; Rancoita, P.G.; Rapin, D.; Raupach, F.; Ren, D.; Ren, Z.; Ribordy, M.; Richeux, J.P.; Riihonen, E.; Ritakari, J.; Roeser, U.; Roissin, C.; Sagdeev, R.; Sartorelli, G.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Scolieri, G.; Seo, E.S.; Shoutko, V.

    2002-02-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m{sup 2}) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  3. The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Alcaraz, J; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Ao, L; Arefev, A; Azzarello, P; Babucci, E; Baldini, L; Basile, M; Barancourt, D; Barão, F; Barbier, G; Barreira, G; Battiston, R; Becker, R; Becker, U; Bellagamba, L; Bene, P; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Biland, A; Bizzaglia, S; Blasko, S; Bölla, G; Boschini, M; Bourquin, Maurice; Brocco, L; Bruni, G; Buénerd, M; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Cai, X D; Camps, C; Cannarsa, P; Capell, M; Casadei, D; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cecchi, C; Chang, Y H; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chen, Z G; Chernoplekov, N A; Tzi Hong Chiueh; Chuang, Y L; Cindolo, F; Commichau, V; Contin, A; Crespo, P; Cristinziani, M; Cunha, J P D; Dai, T S; Deus, J D; Dinu, N; Djambazov, L; Dantone, I; Dong, Z R; Emonet, P; Engelberg, J; Eppling, F J; Eronen, T; Esposito, G; Extermann, P; Favier, Jean; Fiandrini, E; Fisher, P H; Flügge, G; Fouque, N; Galaktionov, Yu; Gervasi, M; Giusti, P; Grandi, D; Grimm, O; Gu, W Q; Hangarter, K; Hasan, A; Hermel, V; Hofer, H; Huang, M A; Hungerford, W; Ionica, M; Ionica, R; Jongmanns, M; Karlamaa, K; Karpinski, W; Kenney, G; Kenny, J; Kim, W; Klimentov, A; Kossakowski, R; Koutsenko, V F; Kraeber, M; Laborie, G; Laitinen, T; Lamanna, G; Laurenti, G; Lebedev, A; Lee, S C; Levi, G; Levchenko, P M; Liu, C L; Liu, H T; Lopes, I; Lu, G; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luckey, D; Lustermann, W; Maña, C; Margotti, A; Mayet, F; McNeil, R R; Meillon, B; Menichelli, M; Mihul, A; Mourao, A; Mujunen, A; Palmonari, F; Papi, A; Park, I H; Pauluzzi, M; Pauss, Felicitas; Perrin, E; Pesci, A; Pevsner, A; Pimenta, M; Plyaskin, V; Pozhidaev, V; Postolache, V; Produit, N; Rancoita, P G; Rapin, D; Raupach, F; Ren, D; Ren, Z; Ribordy, M; Richeux, J P; Riihonen, E; Ritakari, J; Röser, U; Roissin, C; Sagdeev, R; Sartorelli, G; Schwering, G; Scolieri, G; Seo, E S; Shoutko, V; Shoumilov, E; Siedling, R; Son, D; Song, T; Steuer, M; Sun, G S; Suter, H; Tang, X W; Ting, Samuel C C; Ting, S M; Tornikoski, M; Torsti, J; Ulbricht, J; Urpo, S; Usoskin, I; Valtonen, E; Vandenhirtz, J; Velcea, F; Velikhov, E P; Verlaat, B; Vetlitskii, I; Vezzu, F; Vialle, J P; Viertel, Gert M; Vitè, Davide F; Gunten, H V; Wallraff, W; Wang, B C; Wang, J Z; Wang, Y H; Wiik, K; Williams, C; Wu, S X; Xia, P C; Yan, J L; Yan, L G; Yang, C G; Yang, M; Ye, S W; Yeh, P; Xu, Z Z; Zhang, H Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, D X; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, W Z; Zhuang, H L; Zichichi, A; Zimmermann, B

    2002-01-01

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) is a large acceptance (0.65 sr m sup 2) detector designed to operate in the International Space Station (ISS) for three years. The purposes of the experiment are to search for cosmic antimatter and dark matter and to study the composition and energy spectrum of the primary cosmic rays. A 'scaled-down' version has been flown on the Space Shuttle Discovery for 10 days in June 1998. The complete AMS is programmed for installation on the ISS in October 2003 for an operational period of 3 yr. This contribution reports on the experimental configuration that will be installed on the ISS.

  4. Linearized Bekenstein Varying Alpha Models

    CERN Document Server

    Pina-Avelino, P; Oliveira, J C

    2004-01-01

    We study the simplest class of Bekenstein-type, varying $\\alpha$ models, in which the two available free functions (potential and gauge kinetic function) are Taylor-expanded up to linear order. Any realistic model of this type reduces to a model in this class for a certain time interval around the present day. Nevertheless, we show that no such model is consistent with all existing observational results. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and in particular clarify the ambiguous statement (often found in the literature) that ``the Webb results are inconsistent with Oklo''.

  5. Orthopositronium lifetime at O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3} ln {alpha}) in closed form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kniehl, B.A.; Kotikov, A.V.; Veretin, O.L. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2009-09-15

    Recently, the O({alpha}) and O({alpha}{sup 3} ln{alpha}) radiative corrections to the orthopositronium lifetime have been presented in closed analytical form, in terms of basic irrational numbers that can be evaluated numerically to arbitrary precision [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 193401 (2008)]. Here, we present the details of this calculation and reveal the nature of these new constants. We also list explicit transformation formulas for generalized polylogarithms of weight four, which may be useful for other applications. (orig.)

  6. Microstructure, impurity and metal cap effects on Cu electromigration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, C.-K.; Gignac, L. G.; Ohm, J.; Breslin, C. M.; Huang, E.; Bonilla, G.; Liniger, E.; Rosenberg, R. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Choi, S.; Simon, A. H. [IBM Microelectronic Division, Hopewell Junction, NY 12533 (United States)

    2014-06-19

    Electromigration (EM) lifetimes and void growth of pure Cu, Cu(Mn) alloy, and pure Cu damascene lines with a CoWP cap were measured as a function of grain structure (bamboo, near bamboo, and polycrystalline) and sample temperature. The bamboo grains in a bamboo-polycrystalline grained line play the key role in reducing Cu mass flow. The variation in Cu grain size distribution among the wafers was achieved by varying the metal line height and wafer annealing process step after electroplating Cu and before or after chemical mechanical polishing. The Cu grain size was found to have a large impact on Cu EM lifetime and activation energy, especially for the lines capped with CoWP. The EM activation energy for pure Cu with a CoWP cap from near-bamboo, bamboo-polycrystalline, mostly polycrystalline to polycrystalline only line grain structures was reduced from 2.2 ± 0.2 eV, to 1.7 ± 0.1 eV, to 1.5 ± 0.1 eV, to 0.72 ± 0.05 eV, respectively. The effect of Mn in Cu grain boundary diffusion was found to be dependent on Mn concentration in Cu. The depletion of Cu at the cathode end of the Cu(Mn) line is preceded by an incubation period. Unlike pure Cu lines with void growth at the cathode end and hillocks at the anode end of the line, the hillocks grew at a starting position roughly equal to the Blech critical length from the cathode end of the Cu(Mn) polycrystalline line. The effectiveness of Mn on Cu grain boundary migration can also be qualitatively accounted for by a simple trapping model. The free migration of Cu atoms at grain boundaries is reduced by the presence of Mn due to Cu-solute binding. A large binding energy of 0.5 ± 0.1 eV was observed.

  7. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE II TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Stone, M.; Miller, D.

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models;  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36

  8. alpha-MSH tripeptide analogs activate the melanocortin 1 receptor and reduce UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A; Ruwe, Andrew; Kavanagh-Starner, Renny; Kadekaro, Ana Luisa; Swope, Viki; Haskell-Luevano, Carrie; Koikov, Leonid; Knittel, James J

    2009-10-01

    One skin cancer prevention strategy that we are developing is based on synthesizing and testing melanocortin analogs that reduce and repair DNA damage resulting from exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, in addition to stimulating pigmentation. Previously, we reported the effects of tetrapeptide analogs of alpha-melanocortin (alpha-MSH) that were more potent and stable than the physiological alpha-MSH, and mimicked its photoprotective effects against UV-induced DNA damage in human melanocytes. Here, we report on a panel of tripeptide analogs consisting of a modified alpha-MSH core His(6)-d-Phe(7)-Arg(8), which contained different N-capping groups, C-terminal modifications, or arginine mimics. The most potent tripeptides in activating cAMP formation and tyrosinase of human melanocytes were three analogs with C-terminal modifications. The most effective C-terminal tripeptide mimicked alpha-MSH in reducing hydrogen peroxide generation and enhancing nucleotide excision repair following UV irradiation. The effects of these three analogs required functional MC1R, as they were absent in human melanocytes that expressed non-functional receptor. These results demonstrate activation of the MC1R by tripeptide melanocortin analogs. Designing small analogs for topical delivery should prove practical and efficacious for skin cancer prevention.

  9. Identification and characterization of Csh3 as an SH3 protein that interacts with fission yeast Cap1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Takaharu; Kobayashi-Ooka, Yasuyo; Zhou, Guo-Lei; Kawamukai, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Schizosaccharomyces pombe Cap1 has been identified as the (adenylyl) cyclase-associated protein. Cap1 was able to bind Cap1 itself and actin. Cap1 localized at the growing tip, and this localization was dependent on the Cap1 P2 region. In a two-hybrid screening using cap1 as bait, we isolated csh3, which encodes a protein of 296 amino acids with an SH3 domain and a proline/glutamine-rich region. The binding of Csh3 and Cap1 was confirmed by in vivo pull down assays. Cooperative functions of Csh3 and Cap1 were observed. Deletion of both csh3 and cap1 resulted in heightened sensitivity to CaCl2, while disruption of either gene alone did not have any effect in this regard. In addition, over-expression of csh3 or cap1 alone did not affect cell growth, while over-expression of both genes resulted in growth retardation. Finally, while Csh3-GFP localized to the cytoplasm in wild-type cells, its localization was altered in cap1Δ cells, suggesting that the interaction between Csh3 and Cap1 controls the cellular localization of Csh3. These results demonstrate that Cap1 in Schizo. pombe is a multifunctional protein that functions through interaction with Cap1 itself and other proteins including adenylyl cyclase, actin and Csh3.

  10. Resonances in alpha-nuclei interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpeshin, F F [Fock Institute of Physics, St Petersburg State University, RU-198504 St Petersburg (Russian Federation); La Rana, G [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli, Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Vardaci, Emanuele [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli, Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Brondi, Augusto [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli, Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Moro, Renata [Instituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche dell' Universita di Napoli, Monte S. Angelo, via Cintia, 80126 Naples (Italy); Abramovich, S N [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre VNIIEF, RU-607190 Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Serov, V I [Russian Federal Nuclear Centre VNIIEF, RU-607190 Sarov, Nizhny Novgorod Region (Russian Federation)

    2007-03-15

    Tunnelling of {alpha} particles through the Coulomb barrier is considered. The main attention is given to the effect of sharp peaks arising in the case of coincidence of the {alpha} energy with that of a quasistaionary state within the barrier. The question of the {alpha}-nucleus potential is discussed in this light. The method is applied to the {alpha} decay of a compound nucleus of {sup 135}Pr. The appearance of the peaks in the spectrum of emitted particles is predicted. They can give rise to 'anomalous' properties of some neutron resonances. The peaks can also be observed in the incoming {alpha}-nucleus channel. Observation of the peaks would give unique information about the {alpha}-nucleus potential.

  11. Condensin II subunit dCAP-D3 restricts retrotransposon mobilization in Drosophila somatic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T Schuster

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Retrotransposon sequences are positioned throughout the genome of almost every eukaryote that has been sequenced. As mobilization of these elements can have detrimental effects on the transcriptional regulation and stability of an organism's genome, most organisms have evolved mechanisms to repress their movement. Here, we identify a novel role for the Drosophila melanogaster Condensin II subunit, dCAP-D3 in preventing the mobilization of retrotransposons located in somatic cell euchromatin. dCAP-D3 regulates transcription of euchromatic gene clusters which contain or are proximal to retrotransposon sequence. ChIP experiments demonstrate that dCAP-D3 binds to these loci and is important for maintaining a repressed chromatin structure within the boundaries of the retrotransposon and for repressing retrotransposon transcription. We show that dCAP-D3 prevents accumulation of double stranded DNA breaks within retrotransposon sequence, and decreased dCAP-D3 levels leads to a precise loss of retrotransposon sequence at some dCAP-D3 regulated gene clusters and a gain of sequence elsewhere in the genome. Homologous chromosomes exhibit high levels of pairing in Drosophila somatic cells, and our FISH analyses demonstrate that retrotransposon-containing euchromatic loci are regions which are actually less paired than euchromatic regions devoid of retrotransposon sequences. Decreased dCAP-D3 expression increases pairing of homologous retrotransposon-containing loci in tissue culture cells. We propose that the combined effects of dCAP-D3 deficiency on double strand break levels, chromatin structure, transcription and pairing at retrotransposon-containing loci may lead to 1 higher levels of homologous recombination between repeats flanking retrotransposons in dCAP-D3 deficient cells and 2 increased retrotransposition. These findings identify a novel role for the anti-pairing activities of dCAP-D3/Condensin II and uncover a new way in which dCAP-D3/Condensin

  12. Molecular Basis of mRNA Cap Recognition by Influenza B Polymerase PB2 Subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lili; Wartchow, Charles; Shia, Steven; Uehara, Kyoko; Steffek, Micah; Warne, Robert; Sutton, James; Muiru, Gladys T; Leonard, Vincent H J; Bussiere, Dirksen E; Ma, Xiaolei

    2016-01-01

    Influenza virus polymerase catalyzes the transcription of viral mRNAs by a process known as "cap-snatching," where the 5'-cap of cellular pre-mRNA is recognized by the PB2 subunit and cleaved 10-13 nucleotides downstream of the cap by the endonuclease PA subunit. Although this mechanism is common to both influenza A (FluA) and influenza B (FluB) viruses, FluB PB2 recognizes a wider range of cap structures including m(7)GpppGm-, m(7)GpppG-, and GpppG-RNA, whereas FluA PB2 utilizes methylated G-capped RNA specifically. Biophysical studies with isolated PB2 cap-binding domain (PB2(cap)) confirm that FluB PB2 has expanded mRNA cap recognition capability, although the affinities toward m(7)GTP are significantly reduced when compared with FluA PB2. The x-ray co-structures of the FluB PB2(cap) with bound cap analogs m(7)GTP and GTP reveal an inverted GTP binding mode that is distinct from the cognate m(7)GTP binding mode shared between FluA and FluB PB2. These results delineate the commonalities and differences in the cap-binding site between FluA and FluB PB2 and will aid structure-guided drug design efforts to identify dual inhibitors of both FluA and FluB PB2. PMID:26559973

  13. Effects of alpha, gamma, and alpha-recoil radiation on borosilicate glass containing Savannah River Plant defense high-level nuclear waste. [Lead ions-250 keV; xenon ions-160 keV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    At the Savannah River Plant, the reference process for the immobilization of defense high-level waste (DHLW) for geologic storage is vitrification into borosilicate glass. During geologic storage for 10/sup 6/ y, the glass would be exposed to approx. 3 x 10/sup 10/ rad of ..beta.. radiation, approx. 10/sup 10/ rad of ..gamma.. radiation, and 10/sup 18/ particles/g glass for both ..cap alpha.. and ..cap alpha..-recoil radiation. This paper discusses tests of the effect of these radiations on the leachability and density of the glass. Even though the doses were large, no effect of the radiations was detected that reduced the effectiveness of the glass for long-term storage of DHLW even at doses corresponding to 10/sup 6/ years storage for the actual glass. For the tests, glass containing simulated DHLW was prepared from frit of the reference composition. Three methods were used to irradiate the glass: external irradiations with beams of approx. 200 keV Xe or Pb ions, internal irradiations with Cm-244 doped glass, and external irradiations with Co-60 ..gamma.. rays. Results with both Xe and Pb ions indicate that a dose of 3 x 10/sup 13/ ions/cm/sup 2/ (simulating > 10/sup 6/ years storage) does not significantly increase the leachability of the glass in deionized water. Tests with Cm-244 doped glass show no increase in leach rate in water or brine up to a dose of 10/sup 18/ ..cap alpha.. and ..cap alpha..-recoils/g glass. Results of larger doses are being examined. The density of the Cm-244 doped glass has decreased by 1% at a dose of 10/sup 18/ particles/g glass. With ..gamma..-radiation, the density has changed by < 0.05% at a dose of 8.5 x 10/sup 10/ rad. Results of leach tests in deionized water and brine indicated that this very large dose of ..gamma..-radiation increased the leach rate by only 20%. Also, the leach rates are lower in brine.

  14. Capítulo V. Los aliados en la encrucijada

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi Revoredo, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    «La campaña de Arequipa para los chilenos tenía gran proyección político militar, porque si caía Arequipa, Bolivia quedaba aislada y, por lo tanto, se destruía la Alianza Perú — Boliviana».Héctor Ballón Lozada En el presente capítulo estudiamos los acontecimientos vinculados con la expedición chilena a Arequipa, que se realizó entre los meses de setiembre y octubre de 1883, y que implicaron la ocupación de esta ciudad, el fin de la Alianza Perú — Boliviana y de la Guerra del Pacífico. Pondera...

  15. Controlling large malpractice claims: the unexpected impact of damage caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronfein, W P; Kinney, E D

    1991-01-01

    Indiana's comprehensive malpractice reforms, inaugurated in 1975, include a cap on damages, a mandated medical review before trial, and a state insurance fund to pay claims equal to or greater than $100,000. We have found that the amount of compensation going to claimants with such large malpractice claims in Indiana is, on average, substantially higher than in Michigan and Ohio. Indiana's mean claim severity between 1977 and 1988 was $404,832, while the means for Michigan and Ohio were $290,022 and $303,220, respectively, with the difference between these three means being highly significant. Although data on claim and claimant characteristics reveal considerable interstate variation, the results of regression analyses show that Indiana claim payment amounts are higher than Michigan or Ohio payments, independent of the effect of factors such as sex, age, severity of injury, allegations of negligence, and year of settlement.

  16. Fourier spectra from exoplanets with polar caps and ocean glint

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, P M

    2015-01-01

    The weak orbital-phase dependent reflection signal of an exoplanet contains information on the planet surface, such as the distribution of continents and oceans on terrestrial planets. This light curve is usually studied in the time domain, but because the signal from a stationary surface is (quasi)periodic, analysis of the Fourier series may provide an alternative, complementary approach. We study Fourier spectra from reflected light curves for geometrically simple configurations. Depending on its atmospheric properties, a rotating planet in the habitable zone could have circular polar ice caps. Tidally locked planets, on the other hand, may have symmetric circular oceans facing the star. These cases are interesting because the high-albedo contrast at the sharp edges of the ice-sheets and the glint from the host star in the ocean may produce recognizable light curves with orbital periodicity, which could also be interpreted in the Fourier domain. We derive a simple general expression for the Fourier coeffici...

  17. Cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Westmoreland, III, James Harold; Flanagan, James Scott

    2016-04-26

    A cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector includes an impingement plate and an aft plate that is disposed downstream from the impingement plate. The aft plate includes a forward side that is axially separated from an aft side. A tube passage extends through the impingement plate and the aft plate. A tube sleeve extends through the impingement plate within the tube passage towards the aft plate. The tube sleeve includes a flange at a forward end and an aft end that is axially separated from the forward end. A retention plate is positioned upstream from the impingement plate. A spring is disposed between the retention plate and the flange. The spring provides a force so as to maintain contact between at least a portion of the aft end of the tube sleeve and the forward side of the aft plate.

  18. Petal Integration for the CMS Tracker End Caps

    CERN Document Server

    Bergauer, Thomas; Friedl, Markus; Hansel, S; Hrubec, Josef; Krammer, Manfred; Pernicka, Manfred; Beaumont, Willem; De Wolf, Eddi A; Bouhali, Othmane; Clerbaux, Barbara; Dewulf, Jean-Paul; De Lentdecker, Gilles; Mahmoud, Tariq; Neukermans, Lionel; Van der Velde, C; Vanlaer, Pascal; Wickens, John; D'Hondt, Jorgen; Goorens, Robert; Heyninck, Jan; Tavernier, Stefaan; Udo, Fred; Van Lancker, Luc; Bonnet, Jean-Luc; De Callatay, Bernard; Delaere, Christophe; Florins, Benoit; Grégoire, Ghislain; Keutgen, Thomas; Lemaître, Vincent; Michotte, Daniel; Militaru, Otilia; Piotrzkowski, Krzysztof; Rouby, Xavier; Teyssier, Daniel; Van der Donckt, M; Ageron, Michel; Baulieu, Guillaume; Bonnevaux, Alain; Boudoul, Gaelle; Chabanat, Eric; Chabert, Eric Christian; Contardo, Didier; Della Negra, Rodolphe; Estre, Nicolas; Giraud, Noël; Haroutunian, Roger; Lumb, Nicholas; Mirabito, Laurent; Perriès, Stephane; Trocmé, Benjamin; Vanzetto, Sylvain; Agram, Jean-Laurent; Drouhin, Frédéric; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Fontaine, Jean-Charles; Berst, Jean-Daniel; Brom, Jean-Marie; Didierjean, Francois; Hosselet, J; Goerlach, Ulrich; Graehling, Philippe; Gross, Laurent; Juillot, Pierre; Lounis, Abdenour; Maazouzi, Chaker; Ollivetto, C; Strub, Roger; Van Hove, Pierre; Adolphi, Roman; Brauer, Richard; Braunschweig, Wolfgang; Esser, Hans; Feld, Lutz; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; König, Stefan; Kosbow, M; Lübelsmeyer, Klaus; Olzem, Jan; Ostapchuk, Andrey; Pandoulas, Demetrios; Pierschel, Gerhard; Schael, Stefan; Schmitz, Stefan Antonius; Schultz von Dratzig, Arndt; Siedling, Rolf; Weber, Markus; Wittmer, Bruno; Wlochal, Michael; Beissel, Franz; Bock, E; Flossdorf, E; Flügge, Günter; Hermanns, Thomas; Heydhausen, Dirk; Jahn, Dieter; Kaussen, Gordon; Linn, Alexander; Poettgens, Michael; Pooth, Oliver; Stahl, Achim; Zoeller, Marc Henning; Butz, Erik; Flucke, Gero; Klanner, Robert; Pein, Uwe; Schirm, Norbert; Schleper, Peter; Steinbruck, G; Stoye, Markus; Van Staa, Rolf; Atz, Bernd; Blüm, Peter; de Boer, Wim; Bogelsbacher, F; Barvich, Tobias; Dehm, Philip; Dierlamm, Alexander; Dirkes, Guido; Fahrer, Manuel; Fernández, J; Frey, Martin; Furgeri, Alexander; Gregoriev, E; Hartmann, Frank; Heier, Stefan; Kaminski, Jochen; Ledermann, Bernhard; Muller, Th; Piaseki, C; Sabellek, Andreas; Simonis, Hans-Jürgen; Steck, Pia; Theel, Andreas; Weiler, Thomas; Weseler, Siegfried; Zhukov, Valery; Freudenreich, Klaus

    2008-01-01

    This note describes the assembly and testing of the 292 petals built for the CMS Tracker End Caps from the beginning of 2005 until the summer of 2006. Due to the large number of petals to be assembled and the need to reach a throughput of 10 to 15 petals per week, a distributed integration approach was chosen. This integration was carried out by the following institutes: I. and III. Physikalisches Institut - RWTH Aachen University; IIHE, ULB \\& VUB Universities, Brussels; Hamburg University; IEKP, Karlsruhe University; FYNU, Louvain University; IPN, Lyon University; and IPHC, Strasbourg University. Despite the large number of petals which needed to be reworked to cope with a late-discovered module issue, the quality of the petals is excellent with less than 0.2\\% bad channels.

  19. Mapping of the Mouse Actin Capping Protein Beta Subunit Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper John A

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Capping protein (CP, a heterodimer of α and β subunits, is found in all eukaryotes. CP binds to the barbed ends of actin filaments in vitro and controls actin assembly and cell motility in vivo. Vertebrates have three isoforms of CPβ produced by alternatively splicing from one gene; lower organisms have one gene and one isoform. Results We isolated genomic clones corresponding to the β subunit of mouse CP and identified its chromosomal location by interspecies backcross mapping. Conclusions The CPβ gene (Cappb1 mapped to Chromosome 4 between Cdc42 and D4Mit312. Three mouse mutations, snubnose, curly tail, and cribriform degeneration, map in the vicinity of the β gene.

  20. Suspended hybrid films assembled from thiol-capped gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu Xin; Huang, Ming; Hao, Xiao Dong; Dong, Meng; Li, Xin Lu; Huang, Jia Mu

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we explored the formation processes of suspended hybrid thin films of thiol-capped Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) inside metal oxide tubular structures. We found that a balance between in-film interactions of the AuNPs and boundary interactions with metal oxides is a key in making these special organic-inorganic thin films. The hybrid films process many processing advantages and flexibilities, such as controllable film thickness, interfacial shape and inter-AuNPs distance, tuning of particle sizes, thiol population, chain lengths, and other new properties by introducing functional groups to thiol chains. Among their many unique features, the assembly-disassembly property may be useful for future on-off or store-release applications.

  1. [Two cases of tuberculosis of the skull cap (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memin, Y; Zurbach, J; Mafart, Y; Lesobre, B; Piéron, R; Hercend, T

    The authors report two cases of tuberculosis of the skull cap. The first in a Black African with heterozygous sickle cell disease also presenting with: tuberculosis of the cervical lymph nodes, subcutaneous frontal tumefactions bacteriologically confirmed to be of tuberculous origin, multiple lacunae of the vault from the same origin; the second case is an Asian woman having a multifocal tuberculous osteitis involving the skull, spine, pelvis and probably the same affection in the spleen. These cases are a reminder that the principal features of tuberculosis of the skull vault are very often associated with other tuberculous lesions, and to the problems of diagnosis it entails; the existence of a subcutaneous tumefaction of the vault or of any accessible site one can aspirate and/or perform biopsy constitutes a diagnostic aid. PMID:6244640

  2. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP):  Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models  Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a

  3. Corner capping of silsesquioxane cages by chemical warfare agent simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson-McPherson, Melinda K; Low, Emily R; Esker, Alan R; Morris, John R

    2005-11-22

    The room-temperature uptake and reactivity of gas-phase methyl dichlorophosphate (MDCP) and trichlorophosphate (TCP) within trisilanolphenyl-polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) Langmuir-Blodgett films are investigated. The halogenated phosphate molecules are found to readily diffuse into and react with the hybrid inorganic-organic silicon-oxide films under ambient conditions. Reflection absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry (FAB-MS) measurements suggest that the chlorophosphates undergo hydrolysis with the silanol groups of the POSS LB-film. Substitution and elimination reactions appear to cap the corner of the POSS molecules, leaving a surface-bound phosphoryl group and a resulting structure that is highly stable at elevated temperatures. PMID:16285795

  4. Relative symplectic caps, 4-genus and fibered knots

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Siddhartha Gadgil; Dheeraj Kulkarni

    2016-05-01

    We prove relative versions of the symplectic capping theorem and sufficiency of Giroux’s criterion for Stein fillability and use these to study the 4-genus of knots. More precisely, suppose we have a symplectic 4-manifold with convex boundary and a symplectic surface in such that is a transverse knot in . In this paper, we prove that there is a closed symplectic 4-manifold with a closed symplectic surface such that (, ) embeds into (, ) symplectically. As a consequence we obtain a relative version of the symplectic Thom conjecture. We also prove a relative version of the sufficiency part of Giroux’s criterion for Stein fillability, namely, we show that a fibered knot whose mondoromy is a product of positive Dehn twists bounds a symplectic surface in a Stein filling. We use this to study 4-genus of fibered knots in $\\mathbb S^3$. Further, we give a criterion for quasipositive fibered knots to be strongly quasipositive.

  5. Spherical Cap Packing Asymptotics and Rank-Extreme Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Kai

    2015-01-01

    We study the spherical cap packing problem with a probabilistic approach. Such probabilistic considerations result in an asymptotic sharp universal uniform bound on the maximal inner product between any set of unit vectors and a stochastically independent uniformly distributed unit vector. When the set of unit vectors are themselves independently uniformly distributed, we further develop the extreme value distribution limit of the maximal inner product, which characterizes its uncertainty around the bound. As applications of the above asymptotic results, we derive (1) an asymptotic sharp universal uniform bound on the maximal spurious correlation, as well as its uniform convergence in distribution when the explanatory variables are independently Gaussian distributed; and (2) an asymptotic sharp universal bound on the maximum norm of a low-rank elliptically distributed vector, as well as related limiting distributions. With these results, we develop a fast detection method for a low-rank structure in high-dime...

  6. Synthesis of stabilized myrrh-capped hydrocolloidal magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atta, Ayman M; Al-Lohedan, Hamad A; Al-Hussain, Sami A

    2014-07-31

    Herein we report a new method for synthesizing stabilized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) colloids. A new class of monodisperse water-soluble magnetite nano-particles was prepared by a simple and inexpensive co-precipitation method. Iron ions and iodine were prepared by the reaction between ferric chloride and potassium iodide. The ferrous and ferric ions were hydrolyzed at low temperature at pH 9 in the presence of iodine to produce iron oxide nanoparticles. The natural product myrrh gum was used as capping agent to produce highly dispersed coated magnetite nanoparticles. The structure and morphology of the magnetic nanogel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to examine the crystal structure of the produced magnetite nanoparticles.

  7. Synthesis of Stabilized Myrrh-Capped Hydrocolloidal Magnetite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman M. Atta

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Herein we report a new method for synthesizing stabilized magnetic nanoparticle (MNP colloids. A new class of monodisperse water-soluble magnetite nano-particles was prepared by a simple and inexpensive co-precipitation method. Iron ions and iodine were prepared by the reaction between ferric chloride and potassium iodide. The ferrous and ferric ions were hydrolyzed at low temperature at pH 9 in the presence of iodine to produce iron oxide nanoparticles. The natural product myrrh gum was used as capping agent to produce highly dispersed coated magnetite nanoparticles. The structure and morphology of the magnetic nanogel was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM, and X-ray diffraction (XRD was used to examine the crystal structure of the produced magnetite nanoparticles.

  8. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  9. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, Alex; Franses, Philip Hans

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, which amounts to computing the confidence intervals of an alpha, as these intervals automatically account for differences across the numbers of items. We also give appropriate statistics to test for ...

  10. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    OpenAIRE

    Koning, A. J.; Franses, Ph.H.B.F.

    2003-01-01

    Coefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, which amounts to computing the confidence intervals of an alpha, as these intervals automatically account for differences across the numbers of items. We also give appropriate statistics to test for significant ...

  11. Conformons in alpha-helical proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Atanasov, Victor

    2009-01-01

    We propose the conformon as a quantum of conformational change for energy transfer in alpha-helical proteins. The underlying mechanism of interaction between the quantum of excitation and the conformational degrees of freedom is nonlinear and leads to solitary wave packets of conformational energy. The phenomenon is specific to alpha-helices and not to beta-sheets in proteins due to the three strands of hydrogen bonds constituting the alpha-helical backbone.

  12. Microbial diversity on Icelandic glaciers and ice caps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eLutz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Algae are important primary colonizers of snow and glacial ice, but hitherto little is known about their ecology on Iceland’s glaciers and ice caps. Due do the close proximity of active volcanoes delivering large amounts of ash and dust, they are special ecosystems. This study provides the first investigation of the presence and diversity of microbial communities on all major Icelandic glaciers and ice caps over a three year period. Using high-throughput sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes (16S and 18S, we assessed the snow community structure and complemented these analyses with a comprehensive suite of physical-, geo- and biochemical characterizations of the aqueous and solid components contained in snow and ice samples. Our data reveal that a limited number of snow algal taxa (Chloromonas polyptera, Raphidonema sempervirens and two uncultured Chlamydomonadaceae support a rich community comprising of other micro-eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the dominant bacterial phyla. Archaea were also detected in sites where snow algae dominated and they mainly belong to the Nitrososphaerales, which are known as important ammonia oxidizers. Multivariate analyses indicated no relationships between nutrient data and microbial community structure. However, the aqueous geochemical simulations suggest that the microbial communities were not nutrient limited because of the equilibrium of snow with the nutrient-rich and fast dissolving volcanic ash. Increasing algal secondary carotenoid contents in the last stages of the melt seasons have previously been associated with a decrease in surface albedo, which in turn could potentially have an impact on the melt rates of Icelandic glaciers.

  13. Hard Cap Espresso Machines in Analytical Chemistry: What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2016-06-21

    A hard cap espresso machine has been used in combination with liquid chromatography with molecular fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils and sediments providing appropriate extraction efficiencies and quantitative results. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were used as target compounds. It should be mentioned that the pairs benz[a]anthracene-chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene-benz[ghi]perylene peaks coelute under the employed chromatographic conditions; thus, those compounds were determined together. PAHs were extracted from 5.0 g of soil, previously homogenized, freeze-dried, and sieved to 250 μm, with 50 mL of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile in water at a temperature of 72 ± 3 °C. The proposed procedure is really fast, with an extraction time of 11 s, and it reduces the required amount of organic solvent to do the sample preparation. The obtained limit of detection for the evaluated PAHs was from 1 to 38 μg kg(-1). Recoveries were calculated using clean soils spiked with 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg(-1) PAHs with values ranging from 81 to 121% and good precision with relative standard deviation values lower than 30%. The method was validated using soil and sediment certified reference materials and also using real samples by comparison with ultrasound-assisted extraction, as reference methodology, obtaining statistically comparable results. Thus, the use of hard cap espresso machines in the analytical laboratories offers tremendous possibilities as low cost extraction units for the extraction of solid samples. PMID:27224000

  14. Barometric altimetry system as virtual constellation applied in CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the barometric altimetry as virtual constellation applied to the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS), which uses the transponders of communication satellites to transfer navigation messages to users. Barometric altimetry depends on the relationship of air pressure varying with altitude in the Earth’s atmosphere. Once the air pressure at a location is measured the site altitude can be found. This method is able to enhance and improve the availability of three-dimensional positioning. The difficulty is that the relation between barometric pressure and altitude is variable in different areas and under various weather conditions. Hence, in order to obtain higher accuracy, we need to acquire the real-time air pressure corresponding to an altimetric region’s reference height. On the other hand, the altimetry method will be applied to satellite navigation system, but the greatest difficulty lies in how to get the real-time air pressure value at the reference height in the broad areas overlaid by satellite navigation. We propose an innovational method to solve this problem. It is to collect the real-time air pressures and temperatures of the 1860 known-altitude weather observatories over China and around via satellite communication and to carry out time extrapolation forecast uniformly. To reduce data quantity, we first partition the data and encode them and then broadcast these information via navigation message to CAPS users’ receivers. Upon the interpolations being done in receivers, the reference air pressure and temperature at the receiver’s nearby place is derived. Lastly, combing with the receiver-observed real air pressure and temperature, the site’s altitude can be determined. The work is presented in the following aspects: the calculation principle, formulae, data collection, encoding, prediction, interpolation method, navigation message transmission together with errors causes and analyses. The advantages and shortcomings of the

  15. Barometric altimetry system as virtual constellation applied in CAPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI GuoXiang; SHENG PeiXuan; DU JinLin; ZHENG YongGuang; CAI XianDe; WU HaiTao; HU YongHui; HUA Yu; LI XiaoHui

    2009-01-01

    This work describes the barometric altimetry as virtual constellation applied to the Chinese Area Positioning System (CAPS),which uses the transponders of communication satellites to transfer navigation messages to users.Barometric altimetry depends on the relationship of air pressure varying with altitude in the Earth's atmosphere.Once the air pressure at a location is measured the site altitude can be found.This method is able to enhance and improve the availability of three-dimensional positioning.The difficulty is that the relation between barometric pressure and altitude is variable in different areas and under various weather conditions.Hence,in order to obtain higher accuracy,we need to acquire the real-time air pressure corresponding to an altimetric region's reference height.On the other hand,the altimetry method will be applied to satellite navigation system,but the greatest difficulty lies in how to get the real-time air pressure value at the reference height in the broad areas overlaid by satellite navigation.We propose an innovational method to solve this problem.It is to collect the real-time air pressures and temperatures of the 1860 known-altitude weather observatories over China and around via satellite communication and to carry out time extrapolation forecast uniformly.To reduce data quantity,we first partition the data and encode them and then broadcast these information via navigation message to CAPS users' receivers.Upon the interpolations being done in receivers,the reference air pressure and temperature at the receiver's nearby place is derived.Lastly,combing with the receiver-observed real air pressure and temperature,the site's altitude can be determined.The work is presented in the following aspects:the calculation principle,formulae,data collection,encoding,prediction,interpolation method,navigation message transmission together with errors causes and analyses.The advantages and shortcomings of the technique are discussed at the end.

  16. Hard Cap Espresso Machines in Analytical Chemistry: What Else?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenta, Sergio; de la Guardia, Miguel; Esteve-Turrillas, Francesc A

    2016-06-21

    A hard cap espresso machine has been used in combination with liquid chromatography with molecular fluorescence detection for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from contaminated soils and sediments providing appropriate extraction efficiencies and quantitative results. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benz[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene were used as target compounds. It should be mentioned that the pairs benz[a]anthracene-chrysene and dibenz[a,h]anthracene-benz[ghi]perylene peaks coelute under the employed chromatographic conditions; thus, those compounds were determined together. PAHs were extracted from 5.0 g of soil, previously homogenized, freeze-dried, and sieved to 250 μm, with 50 mL of 40% (v/v) acetonitrile in water at a temperature of 72 ± 3 °C. The proposed procedure is really fast, with an extraction time of 11 s, and it reduces the required amount of organic solvent to do the sample preparation. The obtained limit of detection for the evaluated PAHs was from 1 to 38 μg kg(-1). Recoveries were calculated using clean soils spiked with 100, 500, 1000, and 2000 μg kg(-1) PAHs with values ranging from 81 to 121% and good precision with relative standard deviation values lower than 30%. The method was validated using soil and sediment certified reference materials and also using real samples by comparison with ultrasound-assisted extraction, as reference methodology, obtaining statistically comparable results. Thus, the use of hard cap espresso machines in the analytical laboratories offers tremendous possibilities as low cost extraction units for the extraction of solid samples.

  17. Quantifying the Mass Balance of Ice Caps on Severnaya Zemlya, Russian High Arctic. I: Climate and Mass Balance of the Vavilov Ice Cap

    OpenAIRE

    Bassford, R. P.; Siegert, M.J.; Dowdeswell, J.A.; Oerlemans, J.; A. F. Glazovsky; Macheret, Y.Y.

    2006-01-01

    Due to their remote location within the Russian High Arctic, little is known about the mass balance of ice caps on Severnaya Zemlya now and in the past. Such information is critical, however, to building a global picture of the cryospheric response to climate change. This paper provides a numerical analysis of the climate and mass balance of the Vavilov Ice Cap on October Revolution Island. Mass balance model results are compared with available glaciological and climatological data. A referen...

  18. Quantum time scales in alpha tunneling

    CERN Document Server

    Kelkar, N G; Nowakowski, M

    2008-01-01

    The theoretical treatment of alpha decay by Gamow is revisited by investigating the quantum time scales in tunneling. The time spent by an alpha particle in front of the barrier and traversing it before escape is evaluated using microscopic alpha nucleus potentials. The half-life of a nucleus is shown to correspond to the time spent by the alpha knocking in front of the barrier. Calculations for medium and super heavy nuclei show that from a multitude of available tunneling time definitions, the transmission dwell time gives the bulk of the lifetime of the decaying state, in most cases.

  19. [Alpha-linolenic acid and cardiovascular diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić-Medić, Danijela; Ristić, Gordana; Tepsić, Vesna

    2003-01-01

    IMPORTANCE AND METABOLISM OF ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID: Alpha-linolenic acid is an essential fatty acid which cannot be produced in the body and must be taken by food. Both in animals and humans, alpha-linolenic acid is desaturated and elongated into eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. It is also incorporated into plasma and tissue lipids and its conversion is affected by levels of linoleic acid. POTENTIAL ROLE IN PATHOGENESIS OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES: Diet enriched in n-3 fatty acids, especially alpha-linolenic acid, reduces the incidence of cardiac death. Studies have shown that alpha linolenic acid prevents ventricular fibrillation which is the main cause of cardiac death. Studies in rats suggest that alpha-linolenic acid may be more effective in preventing ventricular fibrillations than eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid. Furthermore, alpha-linolenic acid is the main fatty acid decreasing platalet aggregation which is an important step in thrombosis i.e. non-fatal myocardial infarction and stroke. DIETARY SOURCES AND NUTRITION RECOMMENDATIONS: Dietary sources include flaxseed and flaxseed oil, canola oil, soybean and soybean oil, pumpkin seed and pumpkin oil, walnuts and walnut oil. Strong evidence supports beneficial effects of alpha-linolenic acid and its dietary sources should be incorporated into balanced diet for prevention of cardiovascular diseases. The recommended daily intake is 2 g with a ratio of 5/1 for linoleic/alpha-linolenic acid. PMID:15510909

  20. Quantum Estimates of Alpha Emitter Life Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Santoso

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Quantum estimates of several alpha radioactive life time have been made using the probability of quantum tunneling through the nuclear potential barrier. It is assumed that for a given nucleus with mass number A and isotopic number Z, there exists an alpha particle moving freely back and forth in the nucleus with mass and isotopic numbers A -4 and Z-2. If the probability of penetrating the nuclear potential barrier is Τ, then after N times (N=1/Τ hitting the barrier an alpha particle is emitted. To obtain the elapsed time for emitting an alpha particle requires N times τ0, where τ0 is the time travel for alpha across the nuclear diameter, which is dependent on alpha energy. It is assumed here that this kinetic energy is the same as the emitted energy. The emitting alpha kinetic energies here are calculated by the difference of the masses of the parent and daughter nuclei and the alpha particles. They are in closed agreement with the experimental observations. While the alpha radioactive life time are not the same order of magnitudes but give the same linearity on the logarithmic scale as function of the inverse square root of energy.

  1. Inducible expression of Pisum sativum xyloglucan fucosyltransferase in the pea root cap meristem, and effects of antisense mRNA expression on root cap cell wall structural integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fushi; Celoy, Rhodesia M; Nguyen, Trang; Zeng, Weiqing; Keegstra, Kenneth; Immerzeel, Peter; Pauly, Markus; Hawes, Martha C

    2008-07-01

    Mitosis and cell wall synthesis in the legume root cap meristem can be induced and synchronized by the nondestructive removal of border cells from the cap periphery. Newly synthesized cells can be examined microscopically as they differentiate progressively during cap development, and ultimately detach as a new population of border cells. This system was used to demonstrate that Pisum sativum L. fucosyl transferase (PsFut1) mRNA expression is strongly expressed in root meristematic tissues, and is induced >2-fold during a 5-h period when mitosis in the root cap meristem is increased. Expression of PsFut1 antisense mRNA in pea hairy roots under the control of the CaMV35S promoter, which exhibits meristem localized expression in pea root caps, resulted in a 50-60% reduction in meristem localized endogenous PsFut1 mRNA expression measured using whole mount in situ hybridization. Changes in gross levels of cell wall fucosylated xyloglucan were not detected, but altered surface localization patterns were detected using whole mount immunolocalization with CCRC-M1, an antibody that recognizes fucosylated xyloglucan. Emerging hairy roots expressing antisense PsFut1 mRNA appeared normal macroscopically but scanning electron microscopy of tissues with altered CCRC-M1 localization patterns revealed wrinkled, collapsed cell surfaces. As individual border cells separated from the cap periphery, cell death occurred in correlation with extrusion of cellular contents through breaks in the wall.

  2. $\\alpha_{s}$ from the (revised) ALEPH data for $\\tau$ decay

    CERN Document Server

    Boito, Diogo; Maltman, Kim; Osborne, James; Peris, Santiago

    2014-01-01

    We present a new analysis of $\\alpha_s$ from hadronic $\\tau$ decays based on the recently revised ALEPH data. The analysis is based on a strategy which we previously applied to the OPAL data. We critically compare our strategy to the one traditionally used and comment on the main differences. Our analysis yields the values $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.296\\pm 0.010$ using fixed-order perturbation theory, and $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.310\\pm 0.014$ using contour-improved perturbation theory. Averaging these values with our previously obtained values from the OPAL data, we find $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.303\\pm 0.009$, respectively, $\\alpha_s(m_\\tau^2)=0.319\\pm 0.012$, as the most reliable results for $\\alpha_s$ from $\\tau$ decays currently available.

  3. Impact of CAP Subsidies on Technical Efficiency of Crop Farms in Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xueqin Zhu, Xueqin; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the impacts of CAP reforms, particularly subsidies on technical efficiency of crop farms. An output distance function is employed and estimated together with an inefficiency effects model to capture the effects of CAP subsidies and farmer characteristics on farm efficiency. The m

  4. 16 CFR 1500.47 - Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps. 1500.47 Section 1500.47 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... ENFORCEMENT REGULATIONS § 1500.47 Method for determining the sound pressure level produced by toy caps....

  5. Images of gel electrophoresis - RGP caps | LSDB Archive [Life Science Database Archive metadata

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available [ Credits ] BLAST Search Image Search Home About Archive Update History Contact us RGP caps Images... of gel electrophoresis Data detail Data name Images of gel electrophoresis Description of da...pdate History of This Database Site Policy | Contact Us Images of gel electrophoresis - RGP caps | LSDB Archive ...

  6. WhiteCap DOE/ERIP progress report, October--December 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-10

    This progress report describes work done October through December 1996 for the WhiteCap system. The work included installation and commissioning of the large WhiteCap system at the Common House, radiant cooling components installation in the floor of the Southwest House, preparation of an operations and maintenance manual, and commissioning of a monitoring system.

  7. The Mars water cycle at other epochs: Recent history of the polar caps and layered terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakosky, Bruce M.; Henderson, Bradley G.; Mellon, Michael T.

    1992-01-01

    The Martian polar caps and layered terrain presumably evolves by the deposition and removal of small amounts of water and dust each year, the current cap attributes therefore represent the incremental transport during a single year as integrated over long periods of time. The role was studied of condensation and sublimation of water ice in this process by examining the seasonal water cycle during the last 10(exp 7) yr. In the model, axial obliquity, eccentricity, and L sub s of perihelion vary according to dynamical models. At each epoch, the seasonal variations in temperature are calculated at the two poles, keeping track of the seasonal CO2 cap and the summertime sublimation of water vapor into the atmosphere; net exchange of water between the two caps is calculated based on the difference in the summertime sublimation between the two caps (or on the sublimation from one cap if the other is covered with CO2 frost all year). Results from the model can help to explain (1) the apparent inconsistency between the timescales inferred for layer formation and the much older crater retention age of the cap and (2) the difference in sizes of the two residual caps, with the south being smaller than the north.

  8. A market power model with price caps and compact DC power flow constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a spatial gaming model with price caps for deregulated electricity markets. There has been heated debate on price caps that have been enforced in deregulated electricity markets. Opponents argue that price caps may send wrong economic signals while advocates argue that price caps are good for damping market power. This paper does not intend to take a stand in the argument. Given the fact that price caps are enforced in several deregulated regional electricity markets in the US, a logical step is to reflect this reality in gaining modeling. However, current gaining models have not included any price cap formulation. This paper is the first one to address the issue. DC power flow equations are used for representing the spatial nature of an electrical network. An algorithm is proposed to find a generalized Nash equilibrium under the enforcement of price caps based on the Kuhn-Tucker Vector Optimization Theorem. Case studies show the successful application of the model. The conclusion is that market power impact can be reduced under appropriate price caps. (author)

  9. Mapping Quantitatively Regional Drug Absorption in Canines with IntelliCap System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, D.; Schütz, H.; Beyerbach, A.; Zou, H.; Shimizu, J.; Iordanov, V.P.

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative regional absorption of a drug under development was studied by using the novel IntelliCap system. IntelliCap is an orally swallowable programmable drug delivery capsule and capable of real-time monitoring of physiological conditions (pH, temperature), consequently allowing localization

  10. The Effect of a Homework Grade Cap in an Introductory Finance Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannonier, Colin; Chen, Dennis; Smolira, Joe

    2016-01-01

    The authors used data collected from various sections of principles of finance classes at a private university to examine the effect of utilizing a homework grade cap policy. The results indicate that the homework grade cap policy increased the homework scores and that an increase in homework scores improved performance of the students on exams.…

  11. Using Airborne SAR Interferometry to Measure the Elevation of a Greenland Ice Cap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dall, Jørgen; Keller, K.; Madsen, S.N.;

    2000-01-01

    A digital elevation model (DEM) of an ice cap in Greenland has been generated from airborne SAR interferometry data, calibrated with a new algorithm, and compared with airborne laser altimetry profiles and carrier-phase differential GPS measurements of radar reflectors deployed on the ice cap...

  12. Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure, Savannah River Plant: Clay cap test section construction report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-02-26

    This report contains appendices 3 through 6 for the Clay Cap Test Section Construction Report for the Mixed Waste Management Facility (MWMF) closure at the Savannah River Plant. The Clay Cap Test Program was conducted to evaluate the source, lab. permeability, in-situ permeability, and compaction characteristics, representative of kaolin clays from the Aiken, South Carolina vicinity. (KJD)

  13. An Index (PC) Aimed at Monitoring the (P)olar (C)ap for Magnetic Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — PC is an index for magnetic activity in the (P)olar (C)ap. It is based on data from a single nearpole station, and aimed to monitor the polar cap magnetic activity...

  14. Numerical evaluation of the capping tendency of microcrystalline cellulose tablets during a diametrical compression test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Ryoichi; Chen, Yuan; Horiguchi, Akio; Takagaki, Keisuke; Nishi, Junichi; Konishi, Akira; Shirakawa, Yoshiyuki; Sugimoto, Masaaki; Narisawa, Shinji

    2015-09-30

    Capping is one of the major problems that occur during the tabletting process in the pharmaceutical industry. This study provided an effective method for evaluating the capping tendency during diametrical compression test using the finite element method (FEM). In experiments, tablets of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) were compacted with a single tabletting machine, and the capping tendency was determined by visual inspection of the tablet after a diametrical compression test. By comparing the effects of double-radius and single-radius concave punch shapes on the capping tendency, it was observed that the capping tendency of double-radius tablets occurred at a lower compaction force compared with single-radius tablets. Using FEM, we investigated the variation in plastic strain within tablets during the diametrical compression test and visualised it using the output variable actively yielding (AC YIELD) of ABAQUS. For both single-radius and double-radius tablets, a capping tendency is indicated if the variation in plastic strain was initiated from the centre of tablets, while capping does not occur if the variation began from the periphery of tablets. The compaction force estimated by the FEM analysis at which the capping tendency was observed was in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. PMID:26188313

  15. A proline-derived transannular N-cap for nucleation of short α-helical peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Wang, Dongyuan; Li, Jingxu; Shi, Chuan; Zhao, Hui; Niu, Xiaogang; Li, Zigang

    2016-07-28

    We report herein a proline-derived transannular N-cap as a helix nucleating template in diverse bio-related peptide sequences via macrolactamization on resin. This approach takes advantage of synergistic stabilization effects of both N-capping properties of proline and substitution of a main chain hydrogen bond with a covalent bond. PMID:27357119

  16. Stability of the Early Mars Atmosphere to Collapse into Permanent Polar Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, R. M.; Kahre, M. A.; Wordsworth, R.; Forget, F.

    2016-09-01

    Snowfall from CO2 ice clouds on early Mars can affect the formation of permanent polar caps. We use a GCM to study the influence of CO2 cloud microphysics on the stability of thick CO2 atmospheres against collapse into permanent polar caps.

  17. $\\alpha$-curvatures and $\\alpha$-flows on low dimensional triangulated manifolds

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Huabin; Xu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce two discrete curvature flows, which are called $\\alpha$-flows on two and three dimensional triangulated manifolds. For triangulated surface $M$, we introduce a new normalization of combinatorial Ricci flow (first introduced by Bennett Chow and Feng Luo \\cite{CL1}), aiming at evolving $\\alpha$ order discrete Gauss curvature to a constant. When $\\alpha\\chi(M)\\leq0$, we prove that the convergence of the flow is equivalent to the existence of constant $\\alpha$-curvatur...

  18. alpha-nucleus potentials, alpha-decay half-lives, and shell closures for superheavy nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Systematic alpha-nucleus folding potentials are used to analyze alpha-decay half-lives of superheavy nuclei. Preformation factors of about several per cent are found for all nuclei under study. The systematic behavior of the preformation factors and the volume integrals of the potentials allows to predict alpha-decay energies and half-lives for unknown nuclei. Shell closures can be determined from measured alpha-decay energies using the discontinuity of the volume integral at shell closures. ...

  19. Numerical Modeling of the Last Glacial Maximum Yellowstone Ice Cap Captures Asymmetry in Moraine Ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, L. S.; Wickert, A. D.; Colgan, W. T.; Anderson, R. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) Yellowstone Ice Cap was the largest continuous ice body in the US Rocky Mountains. Terminal moraine ages derived from cosmogenic radionuclide dating (e.g., Licciardi and Pierce, 2008) constrain the timing of maximum Ice Cap extent. Importantly, the moraine ages vary by several thousand years around the Ice Cap; ages on the eastern outlet glaciers are significantly younger than their western counterparts. In order to interpret these observations within the context of LGM climate in North America, we perform two numerical glacier modeling experiments: 1) We model the initiation and growth of the Ice Cap to steady state; and 2) We estimate the range of LGM climate states which led to the formation of the Ice Cap. We use an efficient semi-implicit 2-D glacier model coupled to a fully implicit solution for flexural isostasy, allowing for transient links between climatic forcing, ice thickness, and earth surface deflection. Independent of parameter selection, the Ice Cap initiates in the Absaroka and Beartooth mountains and then advances across the Yellowstone plateau to the west. The Ice Cap advances to its maximum extent first to the older eastern moraines and last to the younger western and northwestern moraines. This suggests that the moraine ages may reflect the timescale required for the Ice Cap to advance across the high elevation Yellowstone plateau rather than the timing of local LGM climate. With no change in annual precipitation from the present, a mean summer temperature drop of 8-9° C is required to form the Ice Cap. Further parameter searches provide the full range of LGM paleoclimate states that led to the Yellowstone Ice Cap. Using our preferred parameter set, we find that the timescale for the growth of the complete Ice Cap is roughly 10,000 years. Isostatic subsidence helps explain the long timescale of Ice Cap growth. The Yellowstone Ice Cap caused a maximum surface deflection of 300 m (using a constant effective elastic

  20. Experimental study on load bearing behavior of large-scaled caps with pile groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Chao; Lu Bo; Gong Weiming; Qiu Hongxing

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the behavior of deep pile caps and the ultimate load-carrying capacity. Four 1/10 scaled models of nine-pile caps were cast and tested on vertical loads to failure. The destruction shapes of pile caps, the correlation between load and displacement, and the internal stresses were analyzed systematical-ly. The results demonstrated that the failures of all the four models are resulted from punching shear; the internal flow of the forces in nine-pile caps can be approximated by "strut-and-fie" model. Furthermore, the failure loads of these spec-imens were predicted by some of the present design methods and the calculated results were compared with the experi-mental loads. The comparative results also indicated that the "strut-and-tie" model is a more reasonable design method for deep pile caps design.

  1. Giant-enhancement of extraordinary optical transmission through nanohole arrays blocked by plasmonic gold mushroom caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Hu, Pidong; Liu, Chengpu

    2015-01-01

    An improved plasmonic hole array nanostructure model with the holes blocked by gold mushroom caps is proposed and it can realize a giant transmission with efficiency up to 65%, 182% larger than the unblocked nanohole array, due to the strong coupling between caps and holes, which plays the role of a cavity antenna. Moreover, the numerical investigation confirms that it provides more consistency with the practical experimental situations, than the nanodisk model instead. As expected, the light transmission sensitively depends on the geometric parameters of this new nanostructure; as the cap-hole's gap or cap's diameter vary, there always exists an optimal transmission efficiency. More interesting is that the corresponding optimal wavelength decreases with the gap's increment or the diameter's decrement, particularly in an exponential decaying way, and the decay rate is obviously influenced by the cap's parameters.

  2. Effects of contact cap dimension on dry adhesion of bioinspired mushroom-shaped surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Shao, Jinyou; Ding, Yucheng; Li, Xiangming; Tian, Hongmiao; Hu, Hong

    2015-03-01

    Dry adhesion observed in small creatures, such as spiders, insects, and geckos, has many great advantages such as repeatability and strong adhesiveness. In order to mimic these unique performances, fibrillar surface with a mushroom shaped end has drawn lots of attentions because of its advantage in efficiently enhancing adhesion compared with other sphere or simple flat ends. Here, in order to study the effects of contact cap dimension on adhesion strength, patterned surfaces of mushroom-shaped micropillars with differing cap diameters are fabricated based on the conventional photolithography and molding. The normal adhesion strength of these dry adhesives with varying cap diameters is measured with home-built equipment. The strength increases with the rise of cap diameter, and interestingly it becomes strongest when the mushroom caps join together.

  3. Effect of capping material on interfacial ferromagnetism in FeRh thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldasseroni, C.; Pálsson, G. K.; Bordel, C.; Valencia, S.; Unal, A. A.; Kronast, F.; Nemsak, S.; Fadley, C. S.; Borchers, J. A.; Maranville, B. B.; Hellman, F.

    2014-01-01

    The role of the capping material in stabilizing a thin ferromagnetic layer at the interface between a FeRh film and cap in the nominally antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature was studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in photoemission electron microscopy and polarized neutron reflectivity. These techniques were used to determine the presence or absence of interfacial ferromagnetism (FM) in films capped with different oxides and metals. Chemically stable oxide caps do not generate any interfacial FM while the effect of metallic caps depends on the element, showing that interfacial FM is due to metallic interdiffusion and the formation of a ternary alloy with a modified antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition temperature.

  4. Effect of capping material on interfacial ferromagnetism in FeRh thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldasseroni, C., E-mail: cbaldasseroni@berkeley.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Pálsson, G. K.; Nemsak, S.; Fadley, C. S. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Bordel, C. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); GPM, UMR CNRS 6634, Université de Rouen, Av. de l' Université—BP12, 76801 St Etienne du Rouvray (France); Valencia, S.; Unal, A. A.; Kronast, F. [Helmholtz Zentrum-Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein-Straße 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany); Borchers, J. A.; Maranville, B. B. [NIST Center for Neutron Research, National Institute of Standard and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States); Hellman, F. [Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2014-01-28

    The role of the capping material in stabilizing a thin ferromagnetic layer at the interface between a FeRh film and cap in the nominally antiferromagnetic phase at room temperature was studied by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism in photoemission electron microscopy and polarized neutron reflectivity. These techniques were used to determine the presence or absence of interfacial ferromagnetism (FM) in films capped with different oxides and metals. Chemically stable oxide caps do not generate any interfacial FM while the effect of metallic caps depends on the element, showing that interfacial FM is due to metallic interdiffusion and the formation of a ternary alloy with a modified antiferromagnetic to ferromagnetic transition temperature.

  5. Application of Polar Cap (PC) indices in analyses and forecasts of geophysical conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauning, Peter

    2016-07-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) indices could be considered to represent the input of power from the solar wind to the Earth's magnetosphere. The indices have been used to analyse interplanetary electric fields, effects of solar wind pressure pulses, cross polar cap voltages and polar cap diameter, ionospheric Joule heating, and other issues of polar cap dynamics. The PC indices have also been used to predict auroral electrojet intensities and global auroral power as well as ring current intensities. For specific space weather purposes the PC indices could be used to forecast substorm development and predict associated power line disturbances in the subauroral regions. The presentation shall outline the general background for applying the PC indices in analyses or forecasts of solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions and provide illustrative examples of the use of the Polar Cap indices in specific cases

  6. Reference Cap of Poly Vinyl Alcohol for Quantitative Elastography of the Human Uterine Cervix

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leonhard, Anne Katrine; Sandager, Puk; Rasmussen, Christina Kjærgaard;

    inter-intra observer evaluations. Methods: Two types of reference caps were developed. Cap 1 made of Poly Vinyl Alcohol [PVA] with the Young’s modulus [E] of 0.09 N/mm2. Cap 2 made of silicone and oil with the Young’s modulus of 0.4 N/mm2. Elastography was conducted with the caps applied to a 2D......CONTROL ID: 2522419 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: EP22.04 TITLE: Reference Cap of Poly Vinyl Alcohol for Quantitative Elastography of the Human Uterine Cervix AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Anne Katrine Leonhard1, Puk Sandager1, Christina K. Rasmussen1, Hee Lene1, Niels Uldbjerg1 INSTITUTIONS (ALL): 1...

  7. Overlap Technique for End-Cap Seals on Cylindrical Magnetic Shields

    CERN Document Server

    Malkowski, S; Boissevain, J; Daurer, C; Filippone, B W; Hona, B; Plaster, B; Woods, D; Yan, H

    2013-01-01

    We present results from studies of the effectiveness of an overlap technique for forming a magnetic seal across a gap at the boundary between a cylindrical magnetic shield and an end-cap. In this technique a thin foil of magnetic material overlaps the two surfaces, thereby spanning the gap across the cylinder and the end-cap, with the magnetic seal then formed by clamping the thin magnetic foil to the surfaces of the cylindrical shield and the end-cap on both sides of the gap. In studies with a prototype 31-cm diameter, 91-cm long, 0.16-cm thick cylindrical magnetic shield and flared end-cap, the magnetic shielding performance of our overlap technique is comparable to that obtained with the conventional method in which the end-cap is placed in direct lapped contact with the cylindrical shield via through bolts or screws.

  8. Alpha-Synuclein Binds to the Inner Membrane of Mitochondria in an alpha-Helical Conformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robotta, M.; Gerding, H.R.; Vogel, A.; Hauser, K.; Schildknecht, S.; Karreman, C.; Leist, M.; Subramaniam, V.; Drescher, M.

    2014-01-01

    The human alpha-Synuclein (alphaS) protein is of significant interest because of its association with Parkinson's disease and related neurodegenerative disorders. The intrinsically disordered protein (140 amino acids) is characterized by the absence of a well-defined structure in solution. It displa

  9. Matching coefficients for alpha_s and m_b to O(alpha_s^2) in the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, A; Salomon, J

    2009-01-01

    We compute the exact two-loop matching coefficients for the strong coupling constant alpha_s and the bottom-quark mass m_b within the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), taking into account O(alpha_s^2) contributions from Supersymmetric Quantum Chromodynamics (SQCD). We find that the explicit mass pattern of the supersymmetric particles has a significant impact on the predictions of alpha_s and m_b at high energies. Further on, the three-loop corrections exceed the uncertainty due to the current experimental accuracy. In case of the the running bottom-quark mass, they can reach in the large tan(beta) regime up to 30% from the tree-level value.

  10. Local Varying-Alpha Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper we demonstrated how the simplest model for varying alpha may be interpreted as the effect of a dielectric material, generalized to be consistent with Lorentz invariance. Unlike normal dielectrics, such a medium cannot change the speed of light, and its dynamics obey a Klein-Gordon equation. This work immediately suggests an extension of the standard theory, even if we require compliance with Lorentz invariance. Instead of a wave equation, the dynamics may satisfy a local algebraic relation involving the permittivity and the properties of the electromagnetic field, in analogy with more conventional dielectric (but still preserving Lorentz invariance). We develop the formalism for such theories and investigate some phenomenological implications. The problem of the divergence of the classical self-energy can be solved, or at least softened, in this framework. Some interesting new cosmological solutions for the very early universe are found, including the possibility of a bounce, inflation and e...

  11. Confidence Intervals for Cronbach's Coefficient Alpha Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. Koning (Alex); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractCoefficient Alpha, which is widely used in empirical research, estimates the reliability of a test consisting of parallel items. In practice it is difficult to compare values of alpha across studies as it depends on the number of items used. In this paper we provide a simple solution, wh

  12. ALPHA experiment facility and Prof. Jeffrey Hangst.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    Picture 01-07: General views of the ALPHA experiment Picture 5: Andrea Gutierrez, a PhD student from UBC, transfers liquid helium from a storage dewar into the cryostat containing the superconducting magnetic trap used by the ALPHA experiment.Picture 08-11: Jeffery Hangst, spokesperson for ALPHA Picture 12: The ALPHA silicon detector, which surrounds the trapping resion and is used for imaging antiproton annihilations (Credit University of Liverpool) Picture 13: Untrapped antihydrogen atoms annihilating on the inner surface of the ALPHA trap. These are measured by the ALPHA annihilation detector. The events are concentrated at the electrode radius of about 22.3 mm. The coordinates are defined in the Nature article, Figure 1b. Picture 14: The electrodes (gold) for the ALPHA Penning trap being inserted into the vacuum chamber and cryostat assembly. This is the trap used to combine or "mix" positrons and antiprotons to make antihydrogen. (Credit: Niels Madsen ALPHA/Swansea.) Picture 15: Top, a diagram of the...

  13. Single-field $\\alpha$-attractors

    CERN Document Server

    Linde, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    I describe a simple class of $\\alpha$-attractors, generalizing the single-field GL model of inflation in supergravity. The new class of models is defined for $0<\\alpha \\lesssim 1$, providing a good match to the present cosmological data. I also present a generalized version of these models which can describe not only inflation but also dark energy and supersymmetry breaking.

  14. Coefficient Alpha Bootstrap Confidence Interval under Nonnormality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Divers, Jasmin; Newton, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Three different bootstrap methods for estimating confidence intervals (CIs) for coefficient alpha were investigated. In addition, the bootstrap methods were compared with the most promising coefficient alpha CI estimation methods reported in the literature. The CI methods were assessed through a Monte Carlo simulation utilizing conditions…

  15. Miglitol, a new alpha-glucosidase inhibitor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sels, J P; Huijberts, M S; Wolffenbuttel, B H

    1999-01-01

    Miglitol (Bay m 1099, Bayer) is a second generation alpha-glucosidase inhibitor. It is a derivative of 1-desoxynojirimycin, and binds reversibly to the brushborder alpha-glucosidase enzymes. In contrast to its parent drug (acarbose, Bay g 5421, Bayer), miglitol is almost completely absorbed in the s

  16. Teaching Calculus with Wolfram|Alpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimiceli, Vincent E.; Lang, Andrew S. I. D.; Locke, LeighAnne

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the benefits and drawbacks of using Wolfram|Alpha as the platform for teaching calculus concepts in the lab setting. It is a result of our experiences designing and creating an entirely new set of labs using Wolfram|Alpha. We present the reasoning behind our transition from using a standard computer algebra system (CAS) to…

  17. Anomalous atomic volume of alpha-Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kollar, J.; Vitos, Levente; Skriver, Hans Lomholt

    1997-01-01

    .3%. The comparison between the LDA and GGA results show that the anomalously large atomic volume of alpha-Pu relative to alpha-Np can be ascribed to exchange-correlation effects connected with the presence of low coordinated sites in the structure where the f electrons are close to the onset of localization...

  18. Extending permanent volcano monitoring networks into Iceland's ice caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogfjörd, Kristín S.; Bergsson, Bergur H.; Kjartansson, Vilhjálmur; Jónsson, Thorsteinn; Ófeigsson, Benedikt G.; Roberts, Matthew J.; Jóhannesson, Tómas; Pálsson, Finnur; Magnússon, Eyjólfur; Erlendsson, Pálmi; Ingvarsson, Thorgils; Pálssson, Sighvatur K.

    2015-04-01

    The goals of the FUTUREVOLC project are the establishment of a volcano Supersite in Iceland to enable access to volcanological data from the country's many volcanoes and the development of a multiparametric volcano monitoring and early warning system. However, the location of some of Iceland's most active volcanoes inside the country's largest ice cap, Vatnajökull, makes these goals difficult to achieve as it hinders access and proper monitoring of seismic and deformation signals from the volcanoes. To overcome these obstacles, one of the developments in the project involves experimenting with extending the permanent real-time networks into the ice cap, including installation of stations in the glacier ice. At the onset of the project, only one permanent seismic and GPS site existed within Vatnajökull, on the caldera rim of the Grímsvötn volcano. Two years into the project both seismic and GPS stations have been successfully installed and operated inside the glacier; on rock outcrops as well as on the glacier surface. The specific problems to overcome are (i) harsh weather conditions requiring sturdy and resilient equipment and site installations, (ii) darkness during winter months shutting down power generation for several weeks, (iii) high snow accumulation burying the instruments, solar panels and communication and GPS antennae, and in some locations (iv) extreme icing conditions blocking transmission signals and connection to GPS satellites, as well as excluding the possibility of power generation by wind generators. In 2013, two permanent seismic stations and one GPS station were installed on rock outcrops within the ice cap in locations with 3G connections and powered by solar panels and enough battery storage to sustain operation during the darkest winter months. These sites have successfully operated for over a year with mostly regular maintenance requirements, transmitting data in real-time to IMO for analysis. Preparations for two permanent seismic

  19. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 2001 to 2006 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...

  20. NOAA's Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) 1992 to 2001 Regional Land Cover Change Data - Coastal United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP) produces national standardized land cover and change products for the coastal regions of the U.S. C-CAP products...