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Sample records for canyon creek watershed

  1. Fish Passage Assessment: Big Canyon Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, Richard

    2004-02-01

    This report presents the results of the fish passage assessment as outlined as part of the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project as detailed in the CY2003 Statement of Work (SOW). As part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP), this project is one of Bonneville Power Administration's (BPA) many efforts at off-site mitigation for damage to salmon and steelhead runs, their migration, and wildlife habitat caused by the construction and operation of federal hydroelectric dams on the Columbia River and its tributaries. The proposed restoration activities within the Big Canyon Creek watershed follow the watershed restoration approach mandated by the Fisheries and Watershed Program. Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program vision focuses on protecting, restoring, and enhancing watersheds and treaty resources within the ceded territory of the Nez Perce Tribe under the Treaty of 1855 with the United States Federal Government. The program uses a holistic approach, which encompasses entire watersheds, ridge top to ridge top, emphasizing all cultural aspects. We strive toward maximizing historic ecosystem productive health, for the restoration of anadromous and resident fish populations. The Nez Perce Tribal Fisheries/Watershed Program (NPTFWP) sponsors the Protect and Restore the Big Canyon Creek Watershed project. The NPTFWP has the authority to allocate funds under the provisions set forth in their contract with BPA. In the state of Idaho vast numbers of relatively small obstructions, such as road culverts, block thousands of miles of habitat suitable for a variety of fish species. To date, most agencies and land managers have not had sufficient, quantifiable data to adequately address these barrier sites. The ultimate objective of this comprehensive inventory and assessment was to identify all barrier crossings within the watershed. The barriers were then prioritized according to the

  2. Identifying sources and processes controlling the sulphur cycle in the Canyon Creek watershed, Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, Michael; Mayer, Bernhard

    2012-01-01

    Sources and processes affecting the sulphur cycle in the Canyon Creek watershed in Alberta (Canada) were investigated. The catchment is important for water supply and recreational activities and is also a source of oil and natural gas. Water was collected from 10 locations along an 8 km stretch of Canyon Creek including three so-called sulphur pools, followed by the chemical and isotopic analyses on water and its major dissolved species. The δ(2)H and δ(18)O values of the water plotted near the regional meteoric water line, indicating a meteoric origin of the water and no contribution from deeper formation waters. Calcium, magnesium and bicarbonate were the dominant ions in the upstream portion of the watershed, whereas sulphate was the dominant anion in the water from the three sulphur pools. The isotopic composition of sulphate (δ(34)S and δ(18)O) revealed three major sulphate sources with distinct isotopic compositions throughout the catchment: (1) a combination of sulphate from soils and sulphide oxidation in the bedrock in the upper reaches of Canyon Creek; (2) sulphide oxidation in pyrite-rich shales in the lower reaches of Canyon Creek and (3) dissolution of Devonian anhydrite constituting the major sulphate source for the three sulphur pools in the central portion of the watershed. The presence of H(2)S in the sulphur pools with δ(34)S values ∼30 ‰ lower than those of sulphate further indicated the occurrence of bacterial (dissimilatory) sulphate reduction. This case study reveals that δ(34)S values of surface water systems can vary by more than 20 ‰ over short geographic distances and that isotope analyses are an effective tool to identify sources and processes that govern the sulphur cycle in watersheds.

  3. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn (Nez Perce Soil and Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The ''Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Big Canyon Creek Watershed'' is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Big Canyon Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District. Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period September 1, 2004 through October 31, 2005 include; 2.7 riparian miles treated, 3.0 wetland acres treated, 5,263.3 upland acres treated, 106.5 riparian acres treated, 76,285 general public reached, 3,000 students reached, 40 teachers reached, 18 maintenance plans completed, temperature data collected at 6 sites, 8 landowner applications received and processed, 14 land inventories completed, 58 habitat improvement project designs completed, 5 newsletters published, 6 habitat plans completed, 34 projects installed, 2 educational workshops, 6 displays, 1 television segment, 2 public service announcements, a noxious weed GIS coverage, and completion of NEPA, ESA, and cultural resources requirements.

  4. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in Big Canyon Creek Watershed; Anadromous Fish Habitat Restoration in the Nichols Canyon Subwatershed, 2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziol, Deb (Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District, Lewiston, ID)

    2002-02-01

    Big Canyon Creek historically provided quality spawning and rearing habitat for A-run wild summer steelhead in the Clearwater River subbasin (Fuller, 1986). However, high stream temperatures, excessive sediment and nutrient loads, low summer stream flows, and little instream cover caused anadromous fish habitat constraints in the creek. The primary sources of these nonpoint source pollution and habitat degradations are attributed to agricultural, livestock, and forestry practices (NPSWCD, 1995). Addressing these problems is made more complex due to the large percentage of privately owned lands in the watershed. Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (NPSWCD) seeks to assist private, tribal, county, and state landowners in implementing Best Management Practices (BMPs) to reduce nonpoint source pollutants, repair poorly functioning riparian zones, and increase water retention in the Nichols Canyon subwatershed. The project funds coordination, planning, technical assistance, BMP design and installation, monitoring, and educational outreach to identify and correct problems associated with agricultural and livestock activities impacting water quality and salmonid survival. The project accelerates implementation of the Idaho agricultural water quality management program within the subwatershed.

  5. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  6. Big Canyon Creek Ecological Restoration Strategy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn; Richardson, Shannon

    2007-10-01

    He-yey, Nez Perce for steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), are a culturally and ecologically significant resource within the Big Canyon Creek watershed; they are also part of the federally listed Snake River Basin Steelhead DPS. The majority of the Big Canyon Creek drainage is considered critical habitat for that DPS as well as for the federally listed Snake River fall chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ESU. The Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District) and the Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resources Management-Watershed (Tribe), in an effort to support the continued existence of these and other aquatic species, have developed this document to direct funding toward priority restoration projects in priority areas for the Big Canyon Creek watershed. In order to achieve this, the District and the Tribe: (1) Developed a working group and technical team composed of managers from a variety of stakeholders within the basin; (2) Established geographically distinct sub-watershed areas called Assessment Units (AUs); (3) Created a prioritization framework for the AUs and prioritized them; and (4) Developed treatment strategies to utilize within the prioritized AUs. Assessment Units were delineated by significant shifts in sampled juvenile O. mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) densities, which were found to fall at fish passage barriers. The prioritization framework considered four aspects critical to determining the relative importance of performing restoration in a certain area: density of critical fish species, physical condition of the AU, water quantity, and water quality. It was established, through vigorous data analysis within these four areas, that the geographic priority areas for restoration within the Big Canyon Creek watershed are Big Canyon Creek from stream km 45.5 to the headwaters, Little Canyon from km 15 to 30, the mainstem corridors of Big Canyon (mouth to 7km) and Little Canyon (mouth to 7km). The District and the Tribe

  7. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, D.; Holzmiller, J.; Koch, F.; Polumsky, S.; Schlee, D.; Thiessen, G.; Johnson, C.

    1995-04-01

    The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon``. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity. The watershed coordinator for the Asotin County Conservation District led a locally based process that combined local concerns and knowledge with technology from several agencies to produce the Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan.

  8. Elevation - LiDAR Survey Minnehaha Creek, MN Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LiDAR Bare-Earth Grid - Minnehaha Creek Watershed District. The Minnehaha Creek watershed is located primarily in Hennepin County, Minnesota. The watershed covers...

  9. Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek Watershed Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon; Smith, J.G.

    1999-03-01

    Biological monitoring of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, which border the Paducah Site, has been conducted since 1987. Biological monitoring was conducted by University of Kentucky from 1987 to 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 through March 1999. In March 1998, renewed Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permits were issued to the US Department of Energy (DOE) and US Enrichment Corporation. The renewed DOE permit requires that a watershed monitoring program be developed for the Paducah Site within 90 days of the effective date of the renewed permit. This plan outlines the sampling and analysis that will be conducted for the watershed monitoring program. The objectives of the watershed monitoring are to (1) determine whether discharges from the Paducah Site and the Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) associated with the Paducah Site are adversely affecting instream fauna, (2) assess the ecological health of Little Bayou and Big Bayou creeks, (3) assess the degree to which abatement actions ecologically benefit Big Bayou Creek and Little Bayou Creek, (4) provide guidance for remediation, (5) provide an evaluation of changes in potential human health concerns, and (6) provide data which could be used to assess the impact of inadvertent spills or fish kill. According to the cleanup will result in these watersheds [Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks] achieving compliance with the applicable water quality criteria.

  10. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this effort. The successful completion of the replacement and removal of several passage blocking culverts represent a major improvement to the watershed. These projects, coupled with other recently completed projects and those anticipated in the future, are a significant step in improving habitat conditions in Lolo Creek.

  11. EAARL Topography--Potato Creek Watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A digital elevation model (DEM) of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in Georgia was produced from remotely sensed, geographically referenced elevation...

  12. Fish Creek Watershed Lake Classification; NPRA, Alaska, 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This study focuses on the development of a 20 attribute lake cover classification scheme for the Fish Creek Watershed (FCW), which is located in the National...

  13. Pataha Creek Model Watershed : 1998 Habitat Conservation Projects.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartels, Duane G.

    1999-12-01

    The projects outlined in detail on the attached project reports are a few of the many projects implemented in the Pataha Creek Model Watershed since it was selected as a model in 1993. 1998 was a year where a focused effort was made to work on the upland conservation practices to reduce the sedimentation into Pataha Creek.

  14. Identification and characterization of wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensteel, B.A. [JAYCOR, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Trettin, C.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to identify, characterize, and map the wetlands in the Bear Creek watershed. A preliminary wetland categorization system based on the Cowardin classification system (Cowardin et al. 1979) with additional site-specific topographic, vegetation, and disturbance characteristic modifiers was developed to characterize the type of wetlands that exist in the Bear Creek watershed. An additional objective was to detect possible relationships among site soils, hydrology, and the occurrence of wetlands in the watershed through a comparison of existing data with the field survey. Research needs are discussed in the context of wetland functions and values and regulatory requirements for wetland impact assessment and compensatory mitigation.

  15. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed : Annual Report CY 2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-03-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  16. EAARL topography-Potato Creek watershed, Georgia, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonisteel-Cormier, J.M.; Nayegandhi, Amar; Fredericks, Xan; Jones, J.W.; Wright, C.W.; Brock, J.C.; Nagle, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    This DVD contains lidar-derived first-surface (FS) and bare-earth (BE) topography GIS datasets of a portion of the Potato Creek watershed in the Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River basin, Georgia. These datasets were acquired on February 27, 2010.

  17. Trout Creek, Oregon Watershed Assessment; Findings, Condition Evaluation and Action Opportunities, 2002 Technical Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Runyon, John

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of the assessment is to characterize historical and current watershed conditions in the Trout Creek Watershed. Information from the assessment is used to evaluate opportunities for improvements in watershed conditions, with particular reference to improvements in the aquatic environment. Existing information was used, to the extent practicable, to complete this work. The assessment will aid the Trout Creek Watershed Council in identifying opportunities and priorities for watershed restoration projects.

  18. SWAT ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT PRACTICES ON ATRAZINE LOSS IN THE GOOD WATER CREEK EXPERIMENTAL WATERSHED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Goodwater Creek Watershed is a subwatershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed, an ARS-CEAP benchmark watershed in Northeast Missouri. This 7,250-ha watershed was selected for initial modeling because of its smaller size and the large hydrologic and climatologic dataset available. A SWAT model of ...

  19. Water resources of the Sycamore Creek watershed, Maricopa County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, B.W.; Schumann, Herbert H.

    1969-01-01

    The Sycamore Creek watershed is representative of many small watersheds in the Southwest where much of the streamflow originates in the mountainous areas and disappears rather quickly into the alluvial deposits adjacent to the mountains. Five years of .streamflow records from the Sycamore Creek watershed show that an average annual water yield of 6,110 acre-feet was obtained from the 165 square miles (105,000 acres) of the upper hard-rock mountain area, which receives an average annual precipitation of about 20 inches. Only a small percentage of the ,annual water yield, however, reaches the Verde River as surface flow over the 9-mile reach of the alluvial channel below the mountain front. Flows must be more ,than 200 cubic feet per second to reach the river; flows less than this rate disappear into the 1,ower alluvial area and are stored temporarily in the ground-Water reservoir : most of this water is released as ground-water discharge to the Verde River at a relatively constant rate of about 4,000 acre-feet per year. Evapotranspiration losses in the lower alluvial area are controlled by the depth of the water table and averaged about 1,500 acre-feet per year.

  20. Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan: Asotin County, Washington, 1995.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, Dave

    1995-04-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Council completed its ``Strategy for Salmon'' in 1992. This is a plan, composed of four specific elements,designed to double the present production of 2.5 million salmon in the Columbia River watershed. These elements have been called the ``four H's'': (1) improve harvest management; (2) improve hatcheries and their production practices; (3) improve survival at hydroelectric dams; and (4) improve and protect fish habitat. The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Plan is the first to be developed in Washington State which is specifically concerned with habitat protection and restoration for salmon and trout. The plan is consistent with the habitat element of the ``Strategy for Salmon''. Asotin Creek is similar in many ways to other salmon-bearing streams in the Snake River system. Its watershed has been significantly impacted by human activities and catastrophic natural events, such as floods and droughts. It supports only remnant salmon and trout populations compared to earlier years. It will require protection and restoration of its fish habitat and riparian corridor in order to increase its salmonid productivity.

  1. Developing Participatory Models of Watershed Management in the Sugar Creek Watershed (Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Shaw Parker

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA has historically used an expert-driven approach to water and watershed management. In an effort to create regulatory limits for pollution-loading to streams in the USA, the USEPA is establishing limits to the daily loading of nutrients specific to each watershed, which will affect many communities in America. As a part of this process, the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency ranked the Sugar Creek Watershed as the second "most-impaired" watershed in the State of Ohio. This article addresses an alternative approach to watershed management and that emphasises a partnership of farmers and researchers, using community participation in the Sugar Creek to establish a time-frame with goals for water quality remediation. Of interest are the collaborative efforts of a team of farmers, researchers, and agents from multiple levels of government who established this participatory, rather than expert-driven, programme. This new approach created an innovative and adaptive model of non-point source pollution remediation, incorporating strategies to address farmer needs and household decision making, while accounting for local and regional farm structures. In addition, this model has been adapted for point source pollution remediation that creates collaboration among local farmers and a discharge-permitted business that involves nutrient trading.

  2. Road and Street Centerlines, Spring Creek Canyon, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Spring Creek Canyon'. The extent of...

  3. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-01-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed are coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. During the FY 2002, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  4. Best Management Practices in the CEAP Goodwater Creek Watershed: What, Where, Why, and How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Continuation of conservation funding may depend upon demonstration that past funded projects have contributed to improvement of water quality or reduction of pollutant loadings from agricultural sources. In the Goodwater Creek watershed, a 7,250 ha sub-watershed of the Mark Twain Lake watershed in N...

  5. A baseline and watershed assessment in the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds near Hudson's Hope, BC : summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matscha, G.; Sutherland, D. [British Columbia Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Prince George, BC (Canada)

    2005-06-15

    This report summarized a baseline monitoring program for the Lynx Creek, Brenot Creek, and Portage Creek watersheds located near Hudson's Hope, British Columbia (BC). The monitoring program was designed to more accurately determine the effects of potential coalbed gas developments in the region, as well as to assess levels of agricultural and forest harvesting, and the impacts of current land use activities on water quantity and quality. Water quality was sampled at 18 sites during 5 different flow regimes, including summer and fall low flows; ice cover; spring run-off; and high flows after a heavy summer rain event. Sample sites were located up and downstream of both forest and agricultural activities. The water samples were analyzed for 70 contaminants including ions, nutrients, metals, hydrocarbons, and hydrocarbon fractions. Results showed that while many analyzed parameters met current BC water quality guidelines, total organic carbon, manganese, cadmium, E. coli, fecal coliforms, and fecal streptococci often exceeded recommended guidelines. Aluminum and cobalt values exceeded drinking water guidelines. The samples also had a slightly alkaline pH and showed high conductance. A multiple barrier approach was recommended to reduce potential risks of contamination from the watersheds. It was concluded that a more refined bacteria source tracking method is needed to determine whether fecal pollution has emanated from human, livestock or wildlife sources. 1 tab., 9 figs.

  6. A water-quality assessment of the Feather Creek watershed, Vermillion County, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eikenberry, Stephen E.

    1977-01-01

    Chemical quality of surface water within the Feather Creek watershed is generally good. However, fecal bacteria concentrations are high enough to represent a potential problem, especially because of the high water-contact recreation proposed for the future reservoir.

  7. 2007 Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Lidar: Panther Creek Watershed, Yamhill County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset represents LiDAR elevations acquired during a leaf-off and a leaf-on vegetative condition for the Upper Panther Creek Watershed in the Yamhill County...

  8. Using a watershed-based approach to manage and protect water resources in the Bear Canyon Watershed, Albuquerque, New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, F.J. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Depending upon how people use land in a watershed, whether it be farming, livestock grazing, timber harvesting, mining, urbanization, or even recreation, all have significant impacts on the water moving through that watershed. This paper will focus on the urban watershed and how stormwater runoff from urbanization affects erosion, sedimentation, and water quality. It also will explore the potential of a watershed as the basis for managing and protecting water resources. Watershed-based management offers a clear look at how land-use changes affect not only water quality but also erosion and sedimentation; in addition, this approach develops preventive strategies to restore those affected water and land resources. The preventive strategies the author uses for this watershed can be applied to other New Mexico urban watersheds. This paper is divided into three parts. The first part shows how past and present land-use activities affect erosion, sedimentation, and water quality in the Bear Canyon arroyo system. The second part provides solutions to the problems of soil erosion and stormwater pollution in the urban areas through government intervention. The third part discusses how Best Management Practices (BMPs) can be used to limit or reduce stormwater pollution in residential and industrial areas.

  9. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2006-07-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. During this contract period work was completed on two culvert replacement projects; Doe Creek and a tributary to Meadow Creek. Additionally construction was also completed for the ditch restoration project within McComas Meadows. Monitoring for project effectiveness and trends in watershed conditions was also completed. Road decommissioning monitoring, as well as stream temperature, sediment, and discharge were completed.

  10. Analysis of long term nutrient transport from the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taste and odor problems in 2006 and 2007 at the drinking water treatment plant in Mark Twain Lake have implicated nutrient loadings in the lake and its tributaries. The Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW), a 72 km2 watershed within the lake drainage area, has been monitored for flow since ...

  11. Watershed management for erosion and sedimentation control Case Study: Goodwin Creek, Panola County, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Goodwin Creek watershed is located within the loessal hills of northern Mississippi, a region of high erosion risk and elevated watershed sediment yields. This manuscript combines a regional history of land management and conservation issues from the time of European settlement to present with a...

  12. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2004-2005.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2005-12-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest (NPNF) have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and one high priority culvert was replaced in 2004. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  13. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2003-2004.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McRoberts, Heidi (Nez Perce Tribe, Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Lapwai, ID)

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and designs completed on two of the high priority culverts. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  14. Reach Scale Sediment Balance of Goodwin Creek Watershed, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, L.; Garcia, T.; Ye, S.; Harman, C. J.; Hassan, M. A.; Simon, A.

    2010-12-01

    Several reaches of Goodwin Creek, an experimental watershed within the Mississippi river basin, were analyzed for the period 1977-2007 in terms of long-term trends in sediment gain and loss in each reach, the relation of input and output to within-reach sediment fluxes, and the impacts of land use and bank erosion on reach sediment dynamics. Over the period 1977-2007, degradational and aggradational reaches were identified indicating slight vertical adjustment along the mainstream. Lateral adjustment was the main response of the channel to changes in flow and sediment regimes. Event-based sediment load was estimated using suspended concentration data, bedload transport rate, and changes in cross-sectional data. Bank erosion was estimated using cross-sectional data and models. The spatial and temporal patterns of within-reach sediment dynamics correspond closely with river morphology and also reflect basin conditions over the last three decades; thus they are conditioned by coeval trends in climate, hydrology, and land use. The sediment exchange within the mainstream was calculated by the development of reach sediment balances that reveal complex spatial and temporal patterns of sediment dynamics. Sediment load during the rising limb of the hydrograph was slightly higher than those estimated for the falling limb indicating the relative importance of sediment supply on reach sediment dynamic in the basin. Cumulative plots of sediment exchange reveal that major changes in within reach sediment storage are associated with large floods or major inputs from bank erosion.

  15. Couse/Tenmile Creeks Watershed Project Implementation : 2007 Conservtion Projects. [2007 Habitat Projects Completed].

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asotin County Conservation District

    2008-12-10

    The Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD) is the primary entity coordinating habitat projects on private lands within Asotin County watersheds. The Tenmile Creek watershed is a 42 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Asotin Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Couse Creek watershed is a 24 square mile tributary to the Snake River, located between Tenmile Creek and the Grande Ronde River. Both watersheds are almost exclusively under private ownership. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife has documented wild steelhead and rainbow/redband trout spawning and rearing in Tenmile Creek and Couse Creek. The project also provides Best Management Practice (BMP) implementation throughout Asotin County, but the primary focus is for the Couse and Tenmile Creek watersheds. The ACCD has been working with landowners, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Washington State Conservation Commission (WCC), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), Farm Service Agency (FSA), Salmon Recovery Funding Board (SRFB), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW), U.S. Forest Service, Pomeroy Ranger District (USFS), Nez Perce Tribe (NPT), Washington Department of Ecology (DOE), National Marine Fisheries Service (NOAA Fisheries), and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) to address habitat projects in Asotin County. The Asotin Subbasin Plan identified priority areas and actions for ESA listed streams within Asotin County. Couse Creek and Tenmile Creek are identified as protection areas in the plan. The Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) has been successful in working with landowners to protect riparian areas throughout Asotin County. Funding from BPA and other agencies has also been instrumental in protecting streams throughout Asotin County by utilizing the ridge top to ridge top approach.

  16. Telegraph Canyon Creek, City of Chula Vista, San Diego County, California. Detailed Report for Flood Control. Volume 2. Technical Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-07-01

    occurred within 40 miles of’ the site. Most of these earthquakes appear to be related to activity on the Elsinore, Agua Caliente, and offshore faults. The...device would be required by the Sweetwater Authority to prevent contamination of potable water lines. TELEGRAPH CANYON CREEK - - Recommended Plant List A

  17. Algal and Water-Quality Data for Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogestraat, Galen K.; Putnam, Larry D.; Graham, Jennifer L.

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of algae and water-quality sampling on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007. The overall purpose of the study was to determine the algal community composition of Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake in relation to organisms that are known producers of unwanted tastes and odors in drinking-water supplies. Algal assemblage structure (phytoplankton and periphyton) was examined at 16 sites on Rapid Creek and Canyon Lake during May and September 2007, and actinomycetes bacteria were sampled at the Rapid City water treatment plant intake in May 2007, to determine if taste-and-odor producing organisms were present. During the May 2007 sampling, 3 Rapid Creek sites and 4 Canyon Lake sites were quantitatively sampled for phytoplankton in the water column, 7 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 4 lake and retention pond sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Five Rapid Creek sites were sampled for geosmin and 2-methylisoborneol, two common taste-and-odor causing compounds known to affect water supplies. During the September 2007 sampling, 4 Rapid Creek sites were quantitatively sampled for attached periphyton, and 3 Canyon Lake sites were qualitatively sampled for periphyton. Water temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance were measured during each sampling event. Methods of collection and sample analysis are presented for the various types of biological and chemical constituent samples. Diatoms comprised 91-100 percent of the total algal biovolume in periphyton samples collected during May and September. Cyanobacteria (also called blue-green algae) were detected in 7 of the 11 quantitative periphyton samples and ranged from 0.01 to 2.0 percent of the total biovolume. Cyanobacteria were present in 3 of the 7 phytoplankton samples collected in May, but the relative biovolumes were small (0.01-0.2 percent). Six of seven qualitative samples collected from Canyon Lake

  18. Clear Creek Watershed Flood Risk Management Habitat Assessments Using Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP): Analyses, Results and Documentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    There are an additional 16 cities that are at least partially within the watershed including Pearland, Friendswood, and League City. Clear Creek...LULC) classes present in the Clear Creek watershed.1 Landuse/Landcover Characterization of the Clear Creek Watershed Legend Clear Creek and...br KAIIr A. _, 1A El\\DC𔃻 EA"’""""’uJ !Abono- lor clio tiSACt-DoalDCn Cltu Ct"k Floo4 IU&k Rt4JCOODI!..-,_ Pro!oa tnMq:OOS Legend Cover Types

  19. Susceptibility index to surface contamination for the Little Cross Creek watershed, Cumberland County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgino, M.J.; Terziotti, Silvia

    2001-01-01

    An index of surface-water contamination potential was constructed for the Little Cross Creek Basin, a 9.7-square-mile, water-supply watershed in Cumberland County, North Carolina. The index was developed because previous water-quality investigations raised concerns regarding inputs of bacteria, suspended sediment, and phosphorus from nonpoint sources in the watershed. A geographic information system was used to build map overlays and to categorize and rate three factors that affect the transport of water and contaminants-land-surface slope, distance to water, and land use/land cover. Each factor was weighted to reflect its potential contribution to surface-water contamination; the factors then were combined to estimate susceptibility values for the entire watershed. The numerical susceptibility values were categorized to indicate lowest to highest potential for surface-water contamination, and a map was produced showing the spatial distribution of these categories within the watershed. The susceptibility index for about 17 percent of the Little Cross Creek watershed is rated in the high or highest category. These areas have high slopes, short distances to the nearest surface water, impervious land cover, and land uses that generate contaminants. About 38 percent of the watershed area is rated as having low or lowest susceptibility to contamination. These areas contain flat terrain, greater distances to water, land cover that promotes infiltration, and land uses that pose little risk for generating contaminants. Approximately 43 percent of the watershed is in the moderate category of susceptibility. Open water, which is not rated, accounts for the remaining area. The susceptibility index provides water-resource managers with a tool that can aid in prioritizing areas within the Little Cross Creek Basin for monitoring, protection, and remediation. Previous suspended sediment, total phosphorus, and fecal coliform data collected in the Little Cross Creek watershed

  20. Walnut Creek Watershed Restoration and Water Quality Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The primary objective of this project is to establish a nonpoint source monitoring program in relation to the watershed habitat restoration and agricultural...

  1. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R.; Enos, David George

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  2. Analysis of dust samples collected from spent nuclear fuel interim storage containers at Hope Creek, Delaware, and Diablo Canyon, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Charles R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Enos, David George [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Potentially corrosive environments may form on the surface of spent nuclear fuel dry storage canisters by deliquescence of deposited dusts. To assess this, samples of dust were collected from in-service dry storage canisters at two near-marine sites, the Hope Creek and Diablo Canyon storage installations, and have been characterized with respect to mineralogy, chemistry, and texture. At both sites, terrestrially-derived silicate minerals, including quartz, feldspars, micas, and clays, comprise the largest fraction of the dust. Also significant at both sites were particles of iron and iron-chromium metal and oxides generated by the manufacturing process. Soluble salt phases were minor component of the Hope Creek dusts, and were compositionally similar to inland salt aerosols, rich in calcium, sulfate, and nitrate. At Diablo Canyon, however, sea-salt aerosols, occurring as aggregates of NaCl and Mg-sulfate, were a major component of the dust samples. The seasalt aerosols commonly occurred as hollow spheres, which may have formed by evaporation of suspended aerosol seawater droplets, possibly while rising through the heated annulus between the canister and the overpack. The differences in salt composition and abundance for the two sites are attributed to differences in proximity to the open ocean and wave action. The Diablo Canyon facility is on the shores of the Pacific Ocean, while the Hope Creek facility is on the shores of the Delaware River, several miles from the open ocean.

  3. Okanogan Focus Watershed Salmon Creek : Annual Report 1999.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyman, Hilary

    1999-11-01

    During FY 1999 the Colville Tribes and the Okanogan Irrigation District (OID) agreed to study the feasibility of restoring and enhancing anadromous fish populations in Salmon Creek while maintaining the ability of the district to continue full water service delivery to it members.

  4. Water and streambed-material data, Eagle Creek watershed, Indiana, August 1980-December 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.

    1983-01-01

    Water quality studies within the Eagle Creek watershed, Indiana, were done by the U.S. Geological Survey in August 1980, October 1982, and December 1982 in cooperation with the city of Indianapolis, Department of Public Works. Streambed-material and water samples were collected from Finley and Eagle Creeks at various flow rates and were analyzed for selected metals, non-metals, insecticides, and acid-extractable and base-neutral-extractable compounds. Water samples also were analyzed for volatile organics. This report lists all the data collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey during the 1980 and 1982 surveys but does not interpret the data. (Author 's abstract)

  5. Using Caffeine as a Water Quality Indicator in the Ambient Monitoring Program for Third Fork Creek Watershed, Durham, North Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Caffeine has been suggested as a chemical indicator for domestic wastewater in freshwater systems, although it is not included in water quality monitoring programs. The Third Fork Creek watershed in Durham, NC, is highly urbanized, with a history of receiving untreated wastewater from leaking and overflowing sanitary sewers. The poor water quality originating in the Third Fork Creek watershed threatens its intended uses and jeopardizes drinking water, aquatic life, and recreational activities...

  6. Valuing water quality in urban watersheds: A comparative analysis of Johnson Creek, Oregon, and Burnt Bridge Creek, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netusil, Noelwah R.; Kincaid, Michael; Chang, Heejun

    2014-05-01

    This study uses the hedonic price method to investigate the effect of five water quality parameters on the sale price of single-family residential properties in two urbanized watersheds in the Portland, Oregon-Vancouver, Washington metropolitan area. Water quality parameters include E. coli or fecal coliform, which can affect human health, decrease water clarity and generate foul odors; pH, dissolved oxygen, and stream temperature, which can impact fish and wildlife populations; and total suspended solids, which can affect water clarity, aquatic life, and aesthetics. Properties within ¼ mile, ½, mile, one mile, or more than one mile from Johnson Creek are estimated to experience an increase in sale price of 13.71%, 7.05%, 8.18%, and 3.12%, respectively, from a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season (May-October). Estimates for a 100 count per 100 mL increase in E. coli during the dry season are -2.81% for properties within ¼ mile of Johnson Creek, -0.86% (½ mile), -1.19% (one mile), and -0.71% (greater than one mile). Results for properties in Burnt Bridge Creek include a significantly positive effect for a one mg/L increase in dissolved oxygen levels during the dry season for properties within ½ mile (4.49%), one mile (2.95%), or greater than one mile from the creek (3.17%). Results for other water quality parameters in Burnt Bridge Creek are generally consistent with a priori expectations. Restoration efforts underway in both study areas might be cost justified based on their estimated effect on property sale prices.

  7. Temporal Geochemistry Data from Five Springs in the Cement Creek Watershed, San Juan County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Raymond H.; Wirt, Laurie; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    Temporal data from five springs in the Cement Creek watershed, San Juan County, Colorado provide seasonal geochemical data for further research in the formation of ferricretes. In addition, these data can be used to help understand the ground-water flow system. The resulting data demonstrate the difficulty in gathering reliable seasonal data from springs, show the unique geochemistry of each spring due to local geology, and provide seasonal trends in geochemistry for Tiger Iron Spring.

  8. Assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace elements in selected placer-mined creeks in the birch creek watershed near central, Alaska, 2001-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Langley, Dustin E.

    2007-01-01

    Executive Summary The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, completed an assessment of hydrology, water quality, and trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment of the upper Birch Creek watershed near Central, Alaska. The assessment covered one site on upper Birch Creek and paired sites, upstream and downstream from mined areas, on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek. Stream-discharge and suspended-sediment concentration data collected at other selected mined and unmined sites helped characterize conditions in the upper Birch Creek watershed. The purpose of the project was to provide the Bureau of Land Management with baseline information to evaluate watershed water quality and plan reclamation efforts. Data collection began in September 2001 and ended in September 2005. There were substantial geomorphic disturbances in the stream channel and flood plain along several miles of Harrison Creek. Placer mining has physically altered the natural stream channel morphology and removed streamside vegetation. There has been little or no effort to re-contour waste rock piles. During high-flow events, the abandoned placer-mine areas on Harrison Creek will likely contribute large quantities of sediment downstream unless the mined areas are reclaimed. During 2004 and 2005, no substantial changes in nutrient or major-ion concentrations were detected in water samples collected upstream from mined areas compared with water samples collected downstream from mined areas on Frying Pan Creek and Harrison Creek that could not be attributed to natural variation. This also was true for dissolved oxygen, pH, and specific conductance-a measure of total dissolved solids. Sample sites downstream from mined areas on Harrison Creek and Frying Pan Creek had higher median suspended-sediment concentrations, by a few milligrams per liter, than respective upstream sites. However, it is difficult to attach much importance to the small downstream increase

  9. Long-term suspended sediment transport in the Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed and Salt River Basin, Missouri, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since 1992, efforts have been conducted in Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed to assess sediment transport from this 72-km2 Missouri watershed located in the Salt River Basin, the Long-Term Agro-ecosystem Research site in the Central Mississippi River Basin. This effort was complemented by field...

  10. Suspended-sediment and turbidity responses to sediment and turbidity reduction projects in the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek, Watersheds, New York, 2010–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemion, Jason; McHale, Michael R.; Davis, Wae Danyelle

    2016-12-05

    Suspended-sediment concentrations (SSCs) and turbidity were monitored within the Beaver Kill, Stony Clove Creek, and Warner Creek tributaries to the upper Esopus Creek in New York, the main source of water to the Ashokan Reservoir, from October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2014. The purpose of the monitoring was to determine the effects of suspended-sediment and turbidity reduction projects (STRPs) on SSC and turbidity in two of the three streams; no STRPs were constructed in the Beaver Kill watershed. During the study period, four STRPs were completed in the Stony Clove Creek and Warner Creek watersheds. Daily mean SSCs decreased significantly for a given streamflow after the STRPs were completed. The most substantial decreases in daily mean SSCs were measured at the highest streamflows. Background SSCs, as measured in water samples collected in upstream reference stream reaches, in all three streams in this study were less than 5 milligrams per liter during low and high streamflows. Longitudinal stream sampling identified stream reaches with failing hillslopes in contact with the stream channel as the primary sediment sources in the Beaver Kill and Stony Clove Creek watersheds.

  11. Isotopic Investigation of Geologic and Anthropogenic Controls on Nutrient Loading in Malibu Creek Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M.; Hibbs, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    The upper portion of the Malibu Creek Watershed exposes the Monterey-Modelo Formation, a Miocene marine mudstone. This formation has been thought to contribute high concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate to streams via groundwater leaching and baseflow. However, our recent studies suggest that high concentrations of orthophosphate and nitrate may be dominated by dry weather runoff of imported water (tap and recycled water) from watering of urban landscapes. Our study investigates El Camino Real Creek, a tributary in the Malibu Creek Watershed that traverses Monterey-Modelo Formation strata and is fed predominantly by dry weather runoff. From an initial input at a storm drain where dry weather runoff flows consistently, hydrochemical parameters range from 1.86 to 4.66 mg/L NO3-N and 1.06 to 2.28 mg/L PO4 that decrease to concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 0.59 mg/L NO3-N and 0.40 to 0.87 mg/L PO4 where El Camino Real Creek converges with Las Virgenes Creek. The decrease in nutrient content downstream is due to the transformational processes denitrification, vegetation uptake, and mixing with groundwater baseflow containing lower nutrient content. The average water isotope values for the imported (tap and recycled) endmembers are -9.1‰ δ18O and -73‰ δD. The average water isotope values for the samples collected at the storm drain range from -6.0‰ to -8.0‰ δ18O and -56‰ to -68‰ δD while isotope values downstream range from -6.0‰ to -6.3‰ δ18O and -47‰ to -48‰ δD. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen show mixing of imported water with local groundwater downstream, which demonstrates that nutrients in this creek are not strictly dominated by geologic sources. To further understand the nutrient changes and mixing percentages of imported and local water sources, diurnal studies are being conducted with the integration of nitrate isotopes to help understand the nutrient dynamics in El Camino Real Creek.

  12. Geochemical Indicators of Urban Development in Tributaries and Springs along the Bull Creek Watershed, Austin, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senison, J. J.; Banner, J. L.; Reyes, D.; Sharp, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization can cause significant changes to both flow and water quality in streams and tributaries. In the Austin, Texas, area, previous studies have demonstrated that streamwater strontium isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr) correlate with measures of urbanization when comparing non-urbanized streams to their urban counterparts. The inclusion of municipal water into natural surface water is inferred from the mean 87Sr/86Sr value found in urbanized streams, which falls between the high value in treated municipal water and the lower values found in local surface streams sourcing from non-urbanized catchments. Fluoride is added to municipal tap water in the treatment process, and a correlation between 87Sr/86Sr and fluoride is observed in streamwater sampled from the watersheds around Austin. These relationships represent some of the principal findings reported in Christian et al. (2011). Current research is testing the hypothesis that municipal water influx in urban areas is a primary modifier of stream- and spring-water chemistry in a single watershed that contains a strong gradient in land use. We compare 87Sr/86Sr and other chemical constituents with potential contributing endmembers, such as municipal tap water and wastewater, local soil and rock leachates, and land use within the Bull Creek watershed. As a consequence of the history of land development, some Bull Creek tributaries are sourced and flow almost entirely in fully-developed areas, whereas others are located in protected natural areas. Thirteen tributaries were monitored and classified as either urbanized or non-urbanized based upon land use within the tributary catchment. Springs in the Bull Creek watershed were also sampled and are similarly classified. The Bull Creek watershed is composed of Lower Cretaceous limestone with significantly lower 87Sr/86Sr than that of municipal water taken from the Lower Colorado River, which is underlain in part by Precambrian rocks upstream of Austin. There are

  13. Cliff swallows Petrochelidon pyrrhonota as bioindicators of environmental mercury, Cache Creek Watershed, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, Roger L.; Trejo, Bonnie S.; Bauer, Marissa L.; Crayon, John J.

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate mercury (Hg) and other element exposure in cliff swallows (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota), eggs were collected from 16 sites within the mining-impacted Cache Creek watershed, Colusa, Lake, and Yolo counties, California, USA, in 1997-1998. Nestlings were collected from seven sites in 1998. Geometric mean total Hg (THg) concentrations ranged from 0.013 to 0.208 ??g/g wet weight (ww) in cliff swallow eggs and from 0.047 to 0.347 ??g/g ww in nestlings. Mercury detected in eggs generally followed the spatial distribution of Hg in the watershed based on proximity to both anthropogenic and natural sources. Mean Hg concentrations in samples of eggs and nestlings collected from sites near Hg sources were up to five and seven times higher, respectively, than in samples from reference sites within the watershed. Concentrations of other detected elements, including aluminum, beryllium, boron, calcium, manganese, strontium, and vanadium, were more frequently elevated at sites near Hg sources. Overall, Hg concentrations in eggs from Cache Creek were lower than those reported in eggs of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) from highly contaminated locations in North America. Total Hg concentrations were lower in all Cache Creek egg samples than adverse effects levels established for other species. Total Hg concentrations in bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) and foothill yellow-legged frogs (Rana boylii) collected from 10 of the study sites were both positively correlated with THg concentrations in cliff swallow eggs. Our data suggest that cliff swallows are reliable bioindicators of environmental Hg. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007.

  14. Hydrographic characterization of two tidal creeks with implications for watershed land use, flushing times, and benthic production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzzelli, C.; Holland, Austin F.; Sanger, D.M.; Conrads, P.C.

    2007-01-01

    Many coastal ecosystems are undergoing anthropogenic stress from large increases in population and urbanization. In many regions changes in freshwater and material inputs to the coastal zone are altering the biogeochemical and biological capacities of ecosystems. Despite increased watershed inputs, large tidal volumes and flushing indicative of macrotidal estuaries can modulate the fate of introduced materials masking some of the symptoms of eutrophication. The Land Use Coastal Ecosystem Study (LU-CES) examined linkages between land use and environmental properties of Malind and Okatee Creeks in South Carolina from 2001 to 2004. The objectives of this particular study were to assess the hydrography of the two macrotidal creek ecosystems, explore differences in dissolved oxygen (DO), and develop a better understanding of the variations in primary and benthic secondary production in southeastern creek ecosystems. Depth, pH, salinity, and DO were reduced and more variable in Malind Creek than in Okatee Creek, although both creeks had strong semidiurnal frequencies in salinity time signatures. While time series analyses of DO saturation in Malind Creek revealed a dominant semidiurnal pattern, Okatee Creek had a distinctly diel DO pattern. The strongly semidiurnal fluctuations in DO and reduced flushing time indicated that biological processes were not fast enough to influence DO in Malind Creek. The Okatee Creek system had a much greater storage volume, a wider marsh, and a dominant 25-h DO frequency. These attributes contributed to an estimated 8-10 times more phytoplankton-based carbon in Okatee Creek and twice the annual benthic production. As expected from their proximity to the upland, low surface area, and high organic content, both ecosystems were net heterotrophic. This fundamental understanding of tidal creek hydrography is being used to help define linkages among differential watershed land uses, flushing characteristics, and levels of biological production

  15. Impacts on water quality and biota from natural acid rock drainage in Colorado's Lake Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, D.A.; Sares, Matthew A.; Policky, Greg A.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Church, Stanley E.

    2006-01-01

    Colorado's Lake Creek watershed hosts natural acid rock drainage that significantly impacts surface water, streambed sediment, and aquatic life. The source of the ARD is a group of iron-rich springs that emerge from intensely hydrothermally altered, unexploited, low-grade porphyry copper mineralization in the Grizzly Peak Caldera. Source water chemistry includes pH of 2.5 and dissolved metal concentrations of up to 277 mg/L aluminum, 498 mg/L iron, and 10 mg/L copper. From the hydrothermally altered area downstream for 27 kilometers to Twin Lakes Reservoir, metal concentrations in streambed sediment are elevated and the watershed experiences locally severe adverse impacts to aquatic life due to the acidic, metal-laden water. The water and sediment quality of Twin Lakes Reservoir is sufficiently improved that the reservoir supports a trout fishery, and remnants of upstream ARD are negligible.

  16. Bioaccumulation of Selenium by the Bryophyte Hygrohypnum ochraceum in the Fountain Creek Watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S. J.; Turner, J. A.; Carsella, J. S.; Lehmpuhl, D. W.; Nimmo, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    Aquatic bryophytes, Hygrohypnum ochraceum, were deployed "in situ" at 14 sites in the Fountain Creek Watershed, spring and fall, 2007 to study selenium (Se) accumulation. Dissolved, total, and pore (sediment derived) water samples were collected and water quality parameters determined while plants were exposed to the water for 10 days. There was a trend showing plant tissue-Se uptake with distance downstream and we found a strong correlation between Se in the water with total hardness in both seasons. There was a modest association between Se-uptake in plants with hardness in the spring of 2007 but not the fall. Plants bioconcentrated Se from the water by a factor of 5.8 × 103 at Green Mountain Falls and 1.5 × 104 at Manitou Springs in the fall of 2007. Both are examples of the bioconcentration abilities of the plants, primarily in the upper reaches of the watershed where bioconcentration factors were highest. However, the mean minima and maxima of Se in the plants in each of the three watershed segments appeared similar during both seasons. We found direct relationships between the pore and dissolved Se in water in the spring ( R 2 = 0.84) and fall ( R 2 = 0.95) and dissolved Se and total hardness in the spring and fall ( R 2 = 0.92). The data indicate that H. ochraceum was a suitable indicator of Se bioavailability and Se uptake in other trophic levels in the Fountain Creek Watershed based on a subsequent study of Se accumulation in fish tissues at all 14 sites.

  17. Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed, Technical Report 2003-2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Lynn

    2007-02-01

    The Restoring Anadromous Fish Habitat in the Lapwai Creek Watershed is a multi-phase project to enhance steelhead trout in the Lapwai Creek watershed by improving salmonid spawning and rearing habitat. Habitat is limited by extreme high runoff events, low summer flows, high water temperatures, poor instream cover, spawning gravel siltation, and sediment, nutrient and bacteria loading. Funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program, the project assists in mitigating damage to steelhead runs caused by the Columbia River hydroelectric dams. The project is sponsored by the Nez Perce Soil and Water Conservation District (District). Target fish species include steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Steelhead trout within the Snake River Basin were listed in 1997 as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accomplishments for the contract period December 1, 2003 through February 28, 2004 include; seven grade stabilization structures, 0.67 acres of wetland plantings, ten acres tree planting, 500 linear feet streambank erosion control, two acres grass seeding, and 120 acres weed control.

  18. Long-term snow, climate and streamflow trends from at the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Owyhee Mountains, Idaho, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forty-five water years (1962 – 2006) of carefully measured data on temperature, precipitation, snow, and streamflow for valley bottom, mid-elevation, and high elevation sites within the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW), located in the state of Idaho, USA, were analyzed to evaluate the ex...

  19. Simulation of streamflow in the McTier Creek watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Golden, Heather E.; Odom, Kenneth R.; Lowery, Mark A.; Conrads, Paul A.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    The McTier Creek watershed is located in the Sand Hills ecoregion of South Carolina and is a small catchment within the Edisto River Basin. Two watershed hydrology models were applied to the McTier Creek watershed as part of a larger scientific investigation to expand the understanding of relations among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations within the Edisto River Basin. The two models are the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL) and the grid-based mercury model (GBMM). TOPMODEL uses the variable-source area concept for simulating streamflow, and GBMM uses a spatially explicit modified curve-number approach for simulating streamflow. The hydrologic output from TOPMODEL can be used explicitly to simulate the transport of mercury in separate applications, whereas the hydrology output from GBMM is used implicitly in the simulation of mercury fate and transport in GBMM. The modeling efforts were a collaboration between the U.S. Geological Survey and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Exposure Research Laboratory. Calibrations of TOPMODEL and GBMM were done independently while using the same meteorological data and the same period of record of observed data. Two U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations were available for comparison of observed daily mean flow with simulated daily mean flow-station 02172300, McTier Creek near Monetta, South Carolina, and station 02172305, McTier Creek near New Holland, South Carolina. The period of record at the Monetta gage covers a broad range of hydrologic conditions, including a drought and a significant wet period. Calibrating the models under these extreme conditions along with the normal flow conditions included in the record enhances the robustness of the two models. Several quantitative assessments of the goodness of fit between model simulations and the observed daily mean flows were done. These included the Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient

  20. Estimation of runoff and sediment yield in the Redrock Creek watershed using AnnAGNPS and GIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsou Ming-Shu; ZHAN Xiao-yong

    2004-01-01

    Sediment has been identified as a significant threat to water quality and channel clogging that in turn may lead to river flooding. With the increasing awareness of the impairment from sediment to water bodies in a watershed, identifying the locations of the major sediment sources and reducing the sediment through management practices will be important for an effective watershed management. The annualized agricultural non-point source pollution(AnnAGNPS) model and newly developed GIS interface for it were applied in a small agricultural watershed, Redrock Creek watershed, Kansas, in this pilot study for exploring the effectiveness of using this model as a management tool. The calibrated model appropriately simulated monthly runoff and sediment yield through the practices in this study and potentially suggested the ways of sediment reduction through evaluating the changes of land use and field operation in the model for the purpose of watershed management.

  1. Spatial Translation and Scaling Up of LID Practices in Deer Creek Watershed in East Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vittorio, Damien

    This study investigated two important aspects of hydrologic effects of low impact development (LID) practices at the watershed scale by (1) examining the potential benefits of scaling up of LID design, and (2) evaluating downstream effects of LID design and its spatial translation within a watershed. The Personal Computer Storm Water Management Model (PCSWMM) was used to model runoff reduction with the implementation of LID practices in Deer Creek watershed (DCW), Missouri. The model was calibrated from 2003 to 2007 (R2 = 0.58 and NSE = 0.57), and validated from 2008 to 2012 (R2 = 0.64 and NSE = 0.65) for daily direct runoff. Runoff simulated for the study period, 2003 to 2012 (NSE = 0.61; R2 = 0.63), was used as the baseline for comparison to LID scenarios. Using 1958 areal imagery to assign land cover, a predevelopment scenario was constructed and simulated to assess LID scenarios' ability to restore predevelopment hydrologic conditions. The baseline and all LID scenarios were simulated using 2006 National Land Cover Dataset. The watershed was divided in 117 subcatchments, which were clustered in six groups of approximately equal areas and two scaling concepts consisting of incremental scaling and spatial scaling were modelled. Incremental scaling was investigated using three LID practices (rain barrel, porous pavement, and rain garden). Each LID practice was simulated at four implementation levels (25%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) in all subcatchments for the study period (2003 to 2012). Results showed an increased runoff reduction, ranging from 3% to 31%, with increased implementation level. Spatial scaling was investigated by increasing the spatial extent of LID practices using the subcatchment groups and all three LID practices (combined) implemented at 50% level. Results indicated that as the spatial extent of LID practices increased the runoff reduction at the outlet also increased, ranging from 3% to 19%. Spatial variability of LID implementation was examined by

  2. Suspended Sediment Load Prediction Using Support Vector Machines in the Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Jie-Lun; Tsai, Kuang-Jung; Chen, Yie-Ruey; Lee, Ming-Hsi; Sun, Jai-Wei

    2014-05-01

    Strong correlation exists between river discharge and suspended sediment load. The relationship of discharge and suspended sediment load was used to estimate suspended sediment load by using regression model, artificial neural network and support vector machine in this study. Records of river discharges and suspended sediment loads in the Goodwin Creek Experimental Watershed in United States were investigated as a case study. Seventy percent of the records were used as training data set to develop prediction models. The other thirty percent records were used as verification data set. The performances of those models were evaluated by mean absolute percentage error (MAPE). The MAPEs show that support vector machine outperforms the artificial neural network and regression model. The results show that the MAPE of the proposed SVM can achieve less than 14% for 120 minutes prediction (four time steps). As a result, we believe that the proposed SVM model has high potential for predicting suspended sediment load.

  3. Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-01

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Slotton, Darell G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Churchill, Ronald; Bloom, Nicolas; Ayers, Shaun M.; Clinkenbeard, John

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the principal findings of the Cache Creek, California, components of a project funded by the CALFED Bay?Delta Program entitled 'An Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Mercury in the Bay?Delta Watershed.' A companion report summarizes the key findings of other components of the project based in the San Francisco Bay and the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. These summary documents present the more important findings of the various studies in a format intended for a wide audience. For more in-depth, scientific presentation and discussion of the research, a series of detailed technical reports of the integrated mercury studies is available at the following website: .

  4. CTUIR Grande Ronde River Watershed Restoration Program McCoy Creek/McIntyre Creek Road Crossing, 1995-1999 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Childs, Allen B.

    2000-08-01

    The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) entered into a contract agreement beginning in 1996 to fund watershed restoration and enhancement actions and contribute to recovery of fish and wildlife resources and water quality in the Grande Ronde River Basin. The CTUIR's habitat program is closely coordinated with the Grande Ronde Model Watershed Program and multiple agencies and organizations within the basin. The CTUIR has focused during the past 4 years in the upper portions of the Grande Ronde Subbasin (upstream of LaGrande, Oregon) on several major project areas in the Meadow, McCoy, and McIntyre Creek watersheds and along the mainstem Grande Ronde River. This Annual Report provides an overview of individual projects and accomplishments.

  5. Additional mineral resources assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River, Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas, Owyhee County, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diggles, Michael F.; Berger, Byron R.; Vander Meulen, Dean B.; Minor, Scott A.; Ach, Jay A.; Sawlan, Michael G.

    1989-01-01

    From 1984 to 1986, studies were conducted to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources in wilderness study areas on the Owyhee Plateau. The results of these studies have been published in a series of U.S. Geological Survey Bulletins. Since that time, low-grade, high-tonnage epithermal hot-spring gold-silver deposits have been recognized in the region north of the wilderness study areas. The recognition that this mineral-deposit model is applicable in the region, coupled with new data that has become available to the U.S. Geological Survey, reinterpretation of existing geochemical data, and known-deposit data suggest that similar deposits may be present elsewhere on the Owyhee Plateau. This report is an additional assessment of the Battle Creek, Bruneau River, Deep Creek-Owyhee River, Jarbidge River, Juniper Creek, Little Owyhee River, North Fork Owyhee River, Owyhee River Canyon, South Fork Owyhee River (ID-016-053), Upper Deep Creek, and Yatahoney Creek Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho Wilderness Study Areas in Idaho in light of those new data.

  6. Water and streambed-material data, Eagle Creek watershed, Indiana, August 1980 and October and December 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wangsness, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    Water quality studies within the Eagle Creek watershed, Indiana, were done by the US Geological Survey in august 1980, October 1982, and December 1982 in cooperation with the city of Indianapolis, Department of Public Works. Streambed-material and water samples were collected from Finley and Eagle Creeks at various flow rates and were analyzed for volatile organics. This report lists all the data collected and analyzed by the US Geological Survey during the 1980 and 1982 surveys but does not interpret the data. 4 refs., 2 figs. 19 tabs.

  7. Health Impact Assessment of the Boone Boulevard Green Street Project in the Proctor Creek Watershed of Atlanta - Urban Waters National Training Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor Creek is one of the most impaired creeks in metro-Atlanta due to exceedance of state water quality standards for fecal coliforms. The topography, prevalence of impervious surfaces in the watershed, and a strained combined sewer system have contributed to pervasive floodin...

  8. Prediction of suspended-sediment concentrations at selected sites in the Fountain Creek watershed, Colorado, 2008-09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stogner, Robert W.; Nelson, Jonathan M.; McDonald, Richard R.; Kinzel, Paul J.; Mau, David P.

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Pikes Peak Area Council of Governments, Colorado Water Conservation Board, Colorado Springs City Engineering, and the Lower Arkansas Valley Water Conservancy District, began a small-scale pilot study to evaluate the effectiveness of the use of a computational model of streamflow and suspended-sediment transport for predicting suspended-sediment concentrations and loads in the Fountain Creek watershed in Colorado. Increased erosion and sedimentation damage have been identified by the Fountain Creek Watershed Plan as key problems within the watershed. A recommendation in the Fountain Creek Watershed plan for management of the basin is to establish measurable criteria to determine if progress in reducing erosion and sedimentation damage is being made. The major objective of this study was to test a computational method to predict local suspended-sediment loads at two sites with different geomorphic characteristics in order to evaluate the feasibility of using such an approach to predict local suspended-sediment loads throughout the entire watershed. Detailed topographic surveys, particle-size data, and suspended-sediment samples were collected at two gaged sites: Monument Creek above Woodmen Road at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07103970), and Sand Creek above mouth at Colorado Springs, Colorado (USGS gage 07105600). These data were used to construct three-dimensional computational models of relatively short channel reaches at each site. The streamflow component of these models predicted a spatially distributed field of water-surface elevation, water velocity, and bed shear stress for a range of stream discharges. Using the model predictions, along with measured particle sizes, the sediment-transport component of the model predicted the suspended-sediment concentration throughout the reach of interest. These computed concentrations were used with predicted flow patterns and channel morphology to

  9. Mercury and methylmercury concentrations and loads in the Cache Creek watershed, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L; Alpers, Charles N; Slotton, Darell G; Suchanek, Thomas H; Ayers, Shaun M

    2004-07-05

    Concentrations and loads of total mercury and methylmercury were measured in streams draining abandoned mercury mines and in the proximity of geothermal discharge in the Cache Creek watershed of California during a 17-month period from January 2000 through May 2001. Rainfall and runoff were lower than long-term averages during the study period. The greatest loading of mercury and methylmercury from upstream sources to downstream receiving waters, such as San Francisco Bay, generally occurred during or after winter rainfall events. During the study period, loads of mercury and methylmercury from geothermal sources tended to be greater than those from abandoned mining areas, a pattern attributable to the lack of large precipitation events capable of mobilizing significant amounts of either mercury-laden sediment or dissolved mercury and methylmercury from mine waste. Streambed sediments of Cache Creek are a significant source of mercury and methylmercury to downstream receiving bodies of water. Much of the mercury in these sediments is the result of deposition over the last 100-150 years by either storm-water runoff, from abandoned mines, or continuous discharges from geothermal areas. Several geochemical constituents were useful as natural tracers for mining and geothermal areas, including the aqueous concentrations of boron, chloride, lithium and sulfate, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Stable isotopes of water in areas draining geothermal discharges showed a distinct trend toward enrichment of (18)O compared with meteoric waters, whereas much of the runoff from abandoned mines indicated a stable isotopic pattern more consistent with local meteoric water.

  10. The development of an aquatic spill model for the White Oak Creek watershed, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, R.O.

    1996-05-01

    This study develops an aquatic spill model applicable to the White Oak Creek watershed draining the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Hazardous, toxic, and radioactive chemicals are handled and stored on the laboratory reservation. An accidental spill into the White Oak Creek watershed could contaminate downstream water supplies if insufficient dilution did not occur. White Oak Creek empties into the Clinch River, which flows into the Tennessee River. Both rivers serve as municipal water supplies. The aquatic spill model provides estimates of the dilution at sequential downstream locations along White Oak creek and the Clinch River after an accidental spill of a liquid containing a radioactively decaying constituent. The location of the spill on the laboratory is arbitrary, while hydrologic conditions range from drought to extreme flood are simulated. The aquatic spill model provides quantitative estimates with which to assess water quality downstream from the site of the accidental spill, allowing an informed decision to be made whether to perform mitigating measures so that the integrity of affected water supplies is not jeopardized.

  11. Agricultural Nutrient Cycling at the Strawberry Creek Watershed: Insights Into Processes Using Stable Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuss, E.; English, M. C.; Spoelstra, J.

    2009-05-01

    When nitrogen availability exceeds biological demand, excess nitrogen, especially nitrate, may subsequently pollute ground and surface water. Agricultural practices in Southern Ontario typically supplement soils with organic and inorganic nutrients to aid in crop development, and employ various management techniques to limit nutrient loss. Excess nitrogen has several potential fates, which are controlled by the net effects of numerous nitrogen cycling reactions in the soil that are often difficult to measure directly. Nitrogen cycling in soils is controlled in large part by soil moisture, as it affects microbial activity and soil redox conditions. Stable isotope geochemistry is a powerful tool that provides information on nitrogen sources and processes. This study uses crop nitrogen and carbon isotope ratios to provide insights into the net effects of soil nitrogen cycling and nitrogen fate. This research was conducted at the Strawberry Creek Watershed (SCW), an agricultural research watershed located between Kitchener-Waterloo and Guelph, Ontario. The SCW exhibits elevated nitrate concentrations in groundwater, tile discharge, and the stream itself. Previous isotopic work revealed that this nitrate is largely derived from chemical fertilizer and manure applications. Field-scale hydrological processes lead to areas where the fate of applied nitrogen differs, which has an isotopic effect on the residual nitrogen that is available to plants. Results of this study indicate significant patterns in the isotopic signature of plant tissue, in both temporal and spatial scales. At the plot-scale where soil conditions are similar, there is little to no variation in foliar isotope values, but at the field-scale there appears to be a significant amount of variability related to soil moisture and nitrogen loss. This relationship can potentially provide insight into ideal conditions for nitrogen uptake efficiency. Reducing agricultural nitrogen leaching to ground and surface

  12. White Oak Creek watershed: Melton Valley area Remedial Investigation report, at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 2, Appendixes A and B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This document contains Appendixes A ``Source Inventory Information for the Subbasins Evaluated for the White Oak Creek Watershed`` and B ``Human Health Risk Assessment for White Oak Creek / Melton Valley Area`` for the remedial investigation report for the White Oak Creek Watershed and Melton Valley Area. Appendix A identifies the waste types and contaminants for each subbasin in addition to the disposal methods. Appendix B identifies potential human health risks and hazards that may result from contaminants present in the different media within Oak Ridge National Laboratory sites.

  13. Watershed Boundaries, Watershed areas include Rough Creek, Jonathan Creek, Campbell Creek, Allens Creek and Pigeon River, Published in 1993, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Haywood County Land Records/Geographic Information Systems.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Watershed Boundaries dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 1993. It is described as...

  14. Diets of three species of anurans from the cache creek watershed, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hothem, R.L.; Meckstroth, A.M.; Wegner, K.E.; Jennings, M.R.; Crayon, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the diets of three sympatric anuran species, the native Northern Pacific Treefrog, Pseudacris regilla, and Foothill Yellow-Legged Frog, Rana boylii, and the introduced American Bullfrog, Lithobates catesbeianus, based on stomach contents of frogs collected at 36 sites in 1997 and 1998. This investigation was part of a study of mercury bioaccumulation in the biota of the Cache Creek Watershed in north-central California, an area affected by mercury contamination from natural sources and abandoned mercury mines. We collected R. boylii at 22 sites, L. catesbeianus at 21 sites, and P. regilla at 13 sites. We collected both L. catesbeianus and R. boylii at nine sites and all three species at five sites. Pseudacris regilla had the least aquatic diet (100% of the samples had terrestrial prey vs. 5% with aquatic prey), followed by R. boylii (98% terrestrial, 28% aquatic), and L. catesbeianus, which had similar percentages of terrestrial (81%) and aquatic prey (74%). Observed predation by L. catesbeianus on R. boylii may indicate that interaction between these two species is significant. Based on their widespread abundance and their preference for aquatic foods, we suggest that, where present, L. catesbeianus should be the species of choice for all lethal biomonitoring of mercury in amphibians. Copyright ?? 2009 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  15. Diagnosing peak-discharge power laws observed in rainfall runoff events in Goodwin Creek experimental watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furey, Peter R.; Gupta, Vijay K.

    2007-11-01

    Observations from the Goodwin Creek experimental watershed (GCEW), Mississippi show that peak-discharge Q( A) and drainage area A are related, on average, by a power law or scaling relationship, Q( A) = αAθ, during single rainfall-runoff events. Observations also show that α and θ change between events, and, based on a recent analysis of 148 events, observations indicate that α and θ change because of corresponding changes in the depth, duration, and spatial variability of excess-rainfall. To improve our physical understanding of these observations, a 5-step framework for diagnosing observed power laws, or other space-time patterns in a basin, is articulated and applied to GCEW using a combination of analysis and numerical simulations. Diagnostic results indicate how the power laws are connected to physical conditions and processes. Derived expressions for α and θ show that if excess-rainfall depth is fixed then there is a decreasing concave relationship between α and excess-rainfall duration, and an increasing and slightly convex relationship between θ and excess rainfall duration. These trends are consistent with observations only when hillslope velocity vh is given a physically realistic value near 0.1 m/s. If vh ≫ 0.1 m/s, then the predicted trends deviate from observed trends. Results also suggest that trends in α and θ can be impacted by the dependence of vh and link velocity vl on excess-rainfall rate.

  16. Occurrence of Organic Wastewater Compounds in the Tinkers Creek Watershed and Two Other Tributaries to the Cuyahoga River, Northeast Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tertuliani, J.S.; Alvarez, D.A.; Furlong, E.T.; Meyer, M.T.; Zaugg, S.D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey - in cooperation with the Ohio Water Development Authority; National Park Service; Cities of Aurora, Bedford, Bedford Heights, Solon, and Twinsburg; and Portage and Summit Counties - and in collaboration with the Ohio Environmental Protection Agency, did a study to determine the occurrence and distribution of organic wastewater compounds (OWCs) in the Tinkers Creek watershed in northeastern Ohio. In the context of this report, OWCs refer to a wide range of compounds such as antibiotics, prescription and nonprescription pharmaceuticals, personal-care products, household and industrial compounds (for example, antimicrobials, fragrances, surfactants, fire retardants, and so forth) and a variety of other chemicals. Canisters containing polar organic integrative sampler (POCIS) and semipermeable membrane device (SPMD) media were deployed instream for a 28-day period in Mayand June 2006 at locations upstream and downstream from seven wastewater-treatment-plant (WWTP) outfalls in the Tinkers Creek watershed, at a site on Tinkers Creek downstream from all WWTP discharges, and at one reference site each in two nearby watersheds (Yellow Creek and Furnace Run) that drain to the Cuyahoga River. Streambed-sediment samples also were collected at each site when the canisters were retrieved. POCIS and SPMDs are referred to as 'passive samplers' because they sample compounds that they are exposed to without use of mechanical or moving parts. OWCs detected in POCIS and SPMD extracts are referred to in this report as 'detections in water' because both POCIS and SPMDs provided time-weighted measures of concentration in the stream over the exposure period. Streambed sediments also reflect exposure to OWCs in the stream over a long period of time and provide another OWC exposure pathway for aquatic organisms. Four separate laboratory methods were used to analyze for 32 antibiotic, 20 pharmaceutical, 57 to 66 wastewater, and 33 hydrophobic compounds. POCIS and

  17. Streamflow, groundwater hydrology, and water quality in the upper Coleto Creek watershed in southeast Texas, 2009–10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Christopher L.; Lambert, Rebecca B.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Goliad County Groundwater Conservation District, Victoria County Groundwater Conservation District, Pecan Valley Groundwater Conservation District, Guadalupe-Blanco River Authority, and San Antonio River Authority, did a study to examine the hydrology and stream-aquifer interactions in the upper Coleto Creek watershed. Findings of the study will enhance the scientific understanding of the study-area hydrology and be used to support water-management decisions to help ensure protection of the Evangeline aquifer and surface-water resources in the study area. This report describes the results of streamflow measurements, groundwater-level measurements, and water quality (from both surface-water and groundwater sites) collected from three sampling events (July–August 2009, January 2010, and June 2010) designed to characterize groundwater (from the Evangeline aquifer) and surface water, and the interaction between them, in the upper Coleto Creek watershed upstream from Coleto Creek Reservoir in southeast Texas. This report also provides a baseline level of water quality for the upper Coleto Creek watershed. Three surface-water gain-loss surveys—July 29–30, 2009, January 11–13, 2010, and June 21–22, 2010—were done under differing hydrologic conditions to determine the locations and amounts of streamflow recharging or discharging from the Evangeline aquifer. During periods when flow in the reaches of the upper Coleto Creek watershed was common (such as June 2010, when 12 of 25 reaches were flowing) or probable (such as January 2010, when 22 of 25 reaches were flowing), most of the reaches appeared to be gaining (86 percent in January 2010 and 92 percent in June 2010); however, during drought conditions (July 2009), streamflow was negligible in the entire upper Coleto Creek watershed; streamflow was observed in only two reaches during this period, one that receives inflow directly from Audilet Spring and

  18. Natural Recharge to the Unconfined Aquifer System on the Hanford Site from the Greater Cold Creek Watershed: Progress Report 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waichler, Scott R.; Wigmosta, Mark S.; Coleman, Andre M.

    2004-09-14

    Movement of contaminants in groundwater at the Hanford Site is heavily dependent on recharge to the unconfined aquifer. As the effects of past artificial discharges dissipate, the water table is expected to return to more natural conditions, and natural recharge will become the driving force when evaluating future groundwater flow conditions and related contaminant transport. Previous work on the relationship of natural recharge to groundwater movement at the Hanford Site has focused on direct recharge from infiltrating rainfall and snowmelt within the area represented by the Sitewide Groundwater Model (SGM) domain. However, part of the groundwater recharge at Hanford is provided by flow from Greater Cold Creek watershed (GCC), a large drainage area on the western boundary of the Hanford Site that includes Cold Creek Valley, Dry Creek Valley, and the Hanford side of Rattlesnake Mountain. This study was undertaken to estimate the recharge from GCC, which is believed to enter the unconfined aquifer as both infiltrating streamflow and shallow subsurface flow. To estimate recharge, the Distributed Hydrology-Soil-Vegetation Model (DHSVM) was used to simulate a detailed water balance of GCC from 1956 to 2001 at a spatial resolution of 200~m and a temporal resolution of one hour. For estimating natural recharge to Hanford from watersheds along its western and southwestern boundaries, the most important aspects that need to be considered are 1)~distribution and relative magnitude of precipitation and evapotranspiration over the watershed, 2)~streamflow generation at upper elevations and infiltration at lower elevations during rare runoff events, and 3)~permeability of the basalt bedrock surface underlying the soil mantle.

  19. Inferring Process Changes from 30 Years of Distributed Mountain Snowfall and Measured Streamflow at Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, P. R.; Marks, D. G.; Seyfried, M. S.; Havens, S.; Hedrick, A. R.; Garen, D. C.; Pierson, F. B.

    2015-12-01

    The hydrologic system in snowy mountain catchments includes complicated linkages and feedbacks between climate, snow cover, transpiring vegetation, and streamflow. We use 30 water years (1984 - 2014) of precipitation, relative humidity, air temperature, and streamflow data to identify changes that have occurred in the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in Idaho. The process changes that have occurred during this time are presented and analyzed. This unique spatially distributed data set clearly highlights the transition from snow to rain in mountain regions of western North America.

  20. Simulation of streamflow and water quality in the Leon Creek watershed, Bexar County, Texas, 1997-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Roussel, Meghan C.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the San Antonio River Authority, configured, calibrated, and tested a Hydrological Simulation Program ? FORTRAN watershed model for the approximately 238-square-mile Leon Creek watershed in Bexar County, Texas, and used the model to simulate streamflow and water quality (focusing on loads and yields of selected constituents). Streamflow in the model was calibrated and tested with available data from five U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations for 1997-2004. Simulated streamflow volumes closely matched measured streamflow volumes at all streamflow-gaging stations. Total simulated streamflow volumes were within 10 percent of measured values. Streamflow volumes are greatly influenced by large storms. Two months that included major floods accounted for about 50 percent of all the streamflow measured at the most downstream gaging station during 1997-2004. Water-quality properties and constituents (water temperature, dissolved oxygen, suspended sediment, dissolved ammonia nitrogen, dissolved nitrate nitrogen, and dissolved and total lead and zinc) in the model were calibrated using available data from 13 sites in and near the Leon Creek watershed for varying periods of record during 1992-2005. Average simulated daily mean water temperature and dissolved oxygen at the most downstream gaging station during 1997-2000 were within 1 percent of average measured daily mean water temperature and dissolved oxygen. Simulated suspended-sediment load at the most downstream gaging station during 2001-04 (excluding July 2002 because of major storms) was 77,700 tons compared with 74,600 tons estimated from a streamflow-load regression relation (coefficient of determination = .869). Simulated concentrations of dissolved ammonia nitrogen and dissolved nitrate nitrogen closely matched measured concentrations after calibration. At the most downstream gaging station, average simulated monthly

  1. Field and laboratory assessment of a coal processing effluent in the Leading Creek Watershed, Meigs County, Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, A.J.; Cherry, D.S.; Currie, R.J. [Virginia Polytechnique Institute & State University, Blacksburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Biology

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has not recommended water quality criteria (WQC) to protect aquatic life from elevated sodium and sulfate concentrations, such as those associated with the coal-processing effluent of Meigs County Mine No. 31. This discharge, received by a tributary of the Leading Creek Watershed (SE Ohio), had a mean specific conductivity (SC) of 8,109 (7,750-8,750) {mu}S/cm and total metal concentrations below acute WQC. The mean 48h LC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia in the effluent was 6,713 +/- 99 {mu}S/cm; mean 48h survival was 44% for study sites downstream of the effluent. The best indicators of impairment used in this study were Ceriodaphnia fecundity, in situ Corbicula fluminea growth, EPT minus Hydropsychidae (richness and relative abundance), and relative Ephemeroptera abundance. Mayflies, reduced by more than 99% below the effluent, were absent from all but the furthest downstream study site. SC was strongly correlated with Corbicula growth and EPT minus Hydropsychidae richness, suggesting the effluent was primarily responsible for biotic impairment. The results indicated that SC levels, a measure of dissolved solids, in the Leading Creek Watershed that exceeded about to 3,700 {mu}S/cm impaired sensitive aquatic fauna.

  2. Travel time analysis for a subsurface drained sub-watershed in Upper Big Walnut Creek Watershed, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runoff travel time, which is a function of watershed and storm characteristics, is an important parameter affecting the prediction accuracy of hydrologic models. Although, time of concentration (tc) is a most widely used time parameter, it has multiple conceptual and computational definitions. Most ...

  3. Hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.; Fernandez, Carlos J.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and water quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two primarily agricultural subwatersheds of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is about 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed tributary to Oso Creek (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is about 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during the study period October 2005-September 2008. Seventeen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Twenty-four composite runoff water-quality samples (12 at West Oso Creek, 12 at Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-six discrete suspended-sediment samples (12 West Oso Creek, 14 Oso Creek tributary) and 17 bacteria samples (10 West Oso Creek, 7 Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the two subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the two subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff from the two subwatersheds occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 13.95 inches compared with 9.45 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 3

  4. Hydrologic conditions and assessment of water resources in the Turkey Creek watershed, Jefferson County, Colorado, 1998-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossong, Clifford R.; Caine, Jonathan Saul; Stannard, David I.; Flynn, Jennifer L.; Stevens, Michael R.; Heiny-Dash, Janet S.

    2003-01-01

    The 47.2-square-mile Turkey Creek watershed, in Jefferson County southwest of Denver, Colorado, is relatively steep with about 4,000 feet of relief and is in an area of fractured crystalline rocks of Precambrian age. Water needs for about 4,900 households in the watershed are served by domestic wells and individual sewage-disposal systems. Hydrologic conditions are described on the basis of contemporary hydrologic and geologic data collected in the watershed from early spring 1998 through September 2001. The water resources are assessed using discrete fracture-network modeling to estimate porosity and a physically based, distributed-parameter watershed runoff model to develop estimates of water-balance terms. A variety of climatologic and hydrologic data were collected. Direct measurements of evapotranspiration indicate that a large amount (3 calendar-year mean of 82.9 percent) of precipitation is returned to the atmosphere. Surface-water records from January 1, 1999, through September 30, 2001, indicate that about 9 percent of precipitation leaves the watershed as streamflow in a seasonal pattern, with highest streamflows generally occurring in spring related to snowmelt and precipitation. Although conditions vary considerably within the watershed, overall watershed streamflow, based on several records collected during the 1940's, 1950's, 1980', and 1990's near the downstream part of watershed, can be as high as about 200 cubic feet per second on a daily basis during spring. Streamflow typically recedes to about 1 cubic foot per second or less during rainless periods and is rarely zero. Ground-water level data indicate a seasonal pattern similar to that of surface water in which water levels are highest, rising tens of feet in some locations, in the spring and then receding during rainless periods at relatively constant rates until recharged. Synoptic measurements of water levels in 131 mostly domestic wells in fall of 2001 indicate a water-table surface that

  5. Technical review of managed underground storage of water study of the upper Catherine Creek watershed, Union County, northeastern Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Daniel T.

    2014-01-01

    Because of water diversions during summer, flow in Catherine Creek, a tributary to the Grande Ronde River in northeastern Oregon, is insufficient to sustain several aquatic species for which the stream is listed as critical habitat. A feasibility study for managed underground storage (MUS) in the upper Catherine Creek watershed in Union County, Oregon, was undertaken by Anderson Perry and Associates, Inc., to address the issue of low flows in summer. The results of the study were released as a report titled “Upper Catherine Creek Storage Feasibility Study for Grande Ronde Model Watershed,” which evaluated the possibility of diverting Catherine Creek streamflow during winter (when stream discharge is high), storing the water by infiltration or injection into an aquifer adjacent to the stream, and discharging the water back to the stream in summer to augment low flows. The method of MUS would be accomplished using either (1) aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) that allows for the injection of water that meets drinking-water-quality standards into an aquifer for later recovery and use, or (2) artificial recharge (AR) that involves the intentional addition of water diverted from another source to a groundwater reservoir. Concerns by resource managers that the actions taken to improve water availability for upper Catherine Creek be effective, cost-efficient, long-term, and based on sound analysis led the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation to request that the U.S. Geological Survey conduct an independent review and evaluation of the feasibility study. This report contains the results of that review. The primary objectives of the Anderson Perry and Associates study reviewed here included (1) identifying potentially fatal flaws with the concept of using AR and (or) ASR to augment the streamflow of Catherine Creek, (2) identifying potentially favorable locations for augmenting streamflow, (3) developing and evaluating alternatives for implementing AR and (or) ASR, and

  6. Impacts to Humboldt Bay NWR from forestry and dairy activities in the Salmon Creek Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The freshwater creeks, brackish water sloughs, saltwater marshes and mud flats found on the Humboldt Bay National Refuge provide habitats for at least 110 species of...

  7. Hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff for two agricultural areas of the Oso Creek Watershed, Nueces County, Texas, 2005-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockerman, Darwin J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board, Coastal Bend Bays and Estuaries Program, and Texas AgriLife Research and Extension Center at Corpus Christi, studied hydrologic conditions and quality of rainfall and storm runoff of two (primarily) agricultural areas (subwatersheds) of the Oso Creek watershed in Nueces County, Texas. One area, the upper West Oso Creek subwatershed, is 5,145 acres. The other area, a subwatershed drained by an unnamed Oso Creek tributary (hereinafter, Oso Creek tributary), is 5,287 acres. Rainfall and runoff (streamflow) were continuously monitored at the outlets of the two subwatersheds during October 2005-September 2007. Fourteen rainfall samples were collected and analyzed for nutrients and major inorganic ions. Nineteen composite runoff samples (10 West Oso Creek, nine Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed for nutrients, major inorganic ions, and pesticides. Twenty-two discrete suspended-sediment samples (10 West Oso Creek, 12 Oso Creek tributary) and 13 bacteria samples (eight West Oso Creek, five Oso Creek tributary) were collected and analyzed. These data were used to estimate, for selected constituents, rainfall deposition to and runoff loads and yields from the study subwatersheds. Quantities of fertilizers and pesticides applied in the subwatersheds were compared with quantities of nutrients and pesticides in rainfall and runoff. For the study period, total rainfall was greater than average. Most of the runoff at both subwatershed outlet sites occurred in response to a few specific storm periods. The West Oso Creek subwatershed produced more runoff during the study period than the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed, 10.83 inches compared with 7.28 inches. Runoff response was quicker and peak flows were higher in the West Oso Creek subwatershed than in the Oso Creek tributary subwatershed. Total nitrogen runoff yield for the 2-year study period averaged 2.61 pounds

  8. Heavy Metals and Water Quality in an Urban Creek Watershed, Oakland, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Cheung, J.; Cheung, N.; Flores, J.; Fong, W.; Lam, J.; Marks-Block, T.; Marquez, S.; Rodriguez, N.; Rivera, E.; Sainz, J.; Wyon, M.

    2008-12-01

    Leona Creek runs throughout the Mills College campus, which is located in Central-East Oakland, California. Its source is located in the Oakland Hills, where it is known as Lion Creek, and where there is a history of mining and related acid runoff. On the Mills campus, students hike, casually relax near and play in the creek, which led us to question whether or not its water was clean and healthy, particularly since our focus is the overall safety of the campus community and the quality of its environment. Given the well-known relationship between exposure to lead and brain disorders and other health problems, we decided to collect samples from various locations along Leona Creek, as well as other water sources on the Mills campus, and to determine their lead concentration levels by using a spectrophotometer. Analysis of these samples indicated high concentrations of lead, significantly above the EPA limit for drinking water. All samples taken at Leona Creek were above the EPA mandated limit of 15 ppb. Also, drinking water fountains and ponds on campus were found to have lead levels above the EPA limit. We also collected 12-gram soil samples from various locations throughout campus, including along the banks of Leona Creek. These samples were analyzed by using an ICP spectrometer. Analysis of these samples indicated high lead concentrations in soils collected along the banks of the creek. Although currently only in its preliminary phase, we intend to use the results of this study to alert the Mills College community of the possible hazards associated with what previously had been perceived as safe campus nature areas, and to encourage state and private entities to initiate clean-up efforts to address water pollution issues we have identified.

  9. Precipitation and runoff simulations of select perennial and ephemeral watersheds in the middle Carson River basin, Eagle, Dayton, and Churchill Valleys, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeton, Anne E.; Maurer, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    The effect that land use may have on streamflow in the Carson River, and ultimately its impact on downstream users can be evaluated by simulating precipitation-runoff processes and estimating groundwater inflow in the middle Carson River in west-central Nevada. To address these concerns, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, began a study in 2008 to evaluate groundwater flow in the Carson River basin extending from Eagle Valley to Churchill Valley, called the middle Carson River basin in this report. This report documents the development and calibration of 12 watershed models and presents model results and the estimated mean annual water budgets for the modeled watersheds. This part of the larger middle Carson River study will provide estimates of runoff tributary to the Carson River and the potential for groundwater inflow (defined here as that component of recharge derived from percolation of excess water from the soil zone to the groundwater reservoir). The model used for the study was the U.S. Geological Survey's Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System, a physically based, distributed-parameter model designed to simulate precipitation and snowmelt runoff as well as snowpack accumulation and snowmelt processes. Models were developed for 2 perennial watersheds in Eagle Valley having gaged daily mean runoff, Ash Canyon Creek and Clear Creek, and for 10 ephemeral watersheds in the Dayton Valley and Churchill Valley hydrologic areas. Model calibration was constrained by daily mean runoff for the 2 perennial watersheds and for the 10 ephemeral watersheds by limited indirect runoff estimates and by mean annual runoff estimates derived from empirical methods. The models were further constrained by limited climate data adjusted for altitude differences using annual precipitation volumes estimated in a previous study. The calibration periods were water years 1980-2007 for Ash Canyon Creek, and water years 1991-2007 for Clear Creek. To

  10. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 3 Appendix C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    This report provides details on the baseline ecological risk assessment conducted in support of the Remedial Investigation (RI) Report for the Melton Valley areas of the White Oak Creek watershed (WOCW). The RI presents an analysis meant to enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. The ecological risk assessment builds off of the WOCW screening ecological risk assessment. All information available for contaminated sites under the jurisdiction of the US Department of Energy`s Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Federal Facilities Agreement within the White Oak Creek (WOC) RI area has been used to identify areas of potential concern with respect to the presence of contamination posing a potential risk to ecological receptors within the Melton Valley area of the White Oak Creek watershed. The risk assessment report evaluates the potential risks to receptors within each subbasin of the watershed as well as at a watershed-wide scale. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminant releases from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent waste area groupings.

  11. Comparison of freshwater mussel communities from 1988 to 2015 in the Cedar Creek Watershed, Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Out of the 300 genera of freshwater mussels (Unionidae) represented in North America, most species have shown declines in abundance and distribution largely due to human-mediated factors. This study compares current community composition, abundance and richness of mussels in Cedar Creek, Indiana wit...

  12. Summary statistics and graphical comparisons of historical hydrologic and water-quality data, Seco Creek Watershed, South-Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David W.; Slattery, Richard N.; Gilhousen, Jon R.

    1998-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic (rainfall, streamflow, and reservoir content) and water-quality data in the Seco Creek watershed, south-central Texas. Most of the data from 15 sites were collected as part of a study in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board to evaluate the effects of agricultural best-management practices on surface- and ground-water quantity and quality in the 255-square-mile watershed. Nearly 400 best-management practices at 58 sites were implemented by landowners in the watershed during March 1990-September 1995. Most of the data are from the early 1990s, the period during and after implementation of best-management practices. Data from five sites include water quality and are summarized in tables and graphics in the text; and data from all 15 sites are summarized on a diskette. Maximum annual rainfall among the sites for which data are presented in the text (excluding one site) for the during-and-after-implementation period (March 1990-September 1995) was 53.27 inches in water year 1992. Maximum annual total streamflow among the sites for the period was 63,400 acre-feet, also in water year 1992. At the one site with water-quality data (under base-flow conditions) for both the before-implementation period and the during-and-after implementation period of best-management practices, percentiles (5, 25, 50, 75, 95) for specific conductance, nitrate concentration, and fecal coliform density were less for the during-and-after-implementation period than for the before-implementation period.

  13. Report on projected future climate of the Goodwin Creek experimental watershed, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report is one of several reports that provide technical information on projected climate change at selected ARS experimental watersheds across the continental United States and for three greenhouse gas emission scenarios. The report is an attachment to the main report of the multi-location pro...

  14. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - Libby Creek (Lower Cleveland) Stabilization Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-07-29

    This project is follow-up to stream stabilization activities on Libby Creek that were initiated on the Upper Cleveland reach of Libby Creek 2 years ago. BPA now proposes to fund FWP to complete channel stabilization activities on the Lower Cleveland reach of Libby Creek, reduce sediment sources, convert overwidened portions of the stream into self-maintaining channel types, use natural stream stabilization techniques, and improve wildlife migratory corridors. This lower reach is about one river mile below the upper Cleveland Reach and the proposed activities are very similar to those conducted before. The current work would be constructed in two additional phases. The first phase of the Lower Cleveland project would be completed in the fall of 2004 (9/1/04--12/31/04), to include the upper 3,100 feet. The second phase will be constructed in the fall of 2005 (9/1/05--12/31/05), to include stabilizing the remaining 6,200 feet of stream. The Cleveland reaches are a spawning and rearing tributary for resident redband trout, and resident and fluvial bull trout migrating from the Kootenai River. The planned work at the two remaining phases calls for shaping cut banks; installing root wads and tree revetments; installing channel grade control structures; planting native vegetation; and installing cross vanes constructed from rock and trees to control channel gradient. In the past, this reach of Libby Creek has been degraded by past management practices, including road building, hydraulic and dredge mining, and riparian logging. This past activity has resulted in accelerated bank erosion along a number of meander bends, resulting in channel degradation and poor fish habitat. Currently the stream channel is over-widened and shallow having limited pool habitat. The current stream channel is over-widened and shallow, having limited pool habitat.

  15. Comparison of TOPMODEL streamflow simulations using NEXRAD-based and measured rainfall data, McTier Creek watershed, South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feaster, Toby D.; Westcott, Nancy E.; Hudson, Robert J.M.; Conrads, Paul A.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall is an important forcing function in most watershed models. As part of a previous investigation to assess interactions among hydrologic, geochemical, and ecological processes that affect fish-tissue mercury concentrations in the Edisto River Basin, the topography-based hydrological model (TOPMODEL) was applied in the McTier Creek watershed in Aiken County, South Carolina. Measured rainfall data from six National Weather Service (NWS) Cooperative (COOP) stations surrounding the McTier Creek watershed were used to calibrate the McTier Creek TOPMODEL. Since the 1990s, the next generation weather radar (NEXRAD) has provided rainfall estimates at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than the NWS COOP network. For this investigation, NEXRAD-based rainfall data were generated at the NWS COOP stations and compared with measured rainfall data for the period June 13, 2007, to September 30, 2009. Likewise, these NEXRAD-based rainfall data were used with TOPMODEL to simulate streamflow in the McTier Creek watershed and then compared with the simulations made using measured rainfall data. NEXRAD-based rainfall data for non-zero rainfall days were lower than measured rainfall data at all six NWS COOP locations. The total number of concurrent days for which both measured and NEXRAD-based data were available at the COOP stations ranged from 501 to 833, the number of non-zero days ranged from 139 to 209, and the total difference in rainfall ranged from -1.3 to -21.6 inches. With the calibrated TOPMODEL, simulations using NEXRAD-based rainfall data and those using measured rainfall data produce similar results with respect to matching the timing and shape of the hydrographs. Comparison of the bias, which is the mean of the residuals between observed and simulated streamflow, however, reveals that simulations using NEXRAD-based rainfall tended to underpredict streamflow overall. Given that the total NEXRAD-based rainfall data for the simulation period is lower than the

  16. Implications of climate-driven variability and trends for the hydrologic assessment of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, V.; Nayak, Anurag

    2010-05-01

    SummaryThe Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was used to assess the implications of long-term climate trends for the hydroclimatology of the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed (RCEW) in the Owyhee Mountains, Idaho of the Intermountain West over a 40-year period (1967-2006). Calibration and validation of the macroscale hydrology model in this highly monitored watershed is key to address the watershed processes that are vulnerable to both natural climate variability and climate change. The model was calibrated using the streamflow data collected between 1997 and 2006 from the three nested weirs, the Reynolds Mountain East (RME), Tollgate and Outlet. For assessing the performance of the calibrated model, this study used 30 years of streamflow data for the period between 1966 and 1996. This investigation suggested that the model predicted streamflow was best at RME, and inadequate at Outlet. Simulated soil moisture was also verified using the data available from five soil moisture measurement sites. The model was able to capture the seasonal patterns of changes in soil water storage considering the differences in the spatial extent of the observed and predicted soil water storage (point measurements against the spatially averaged values for the HRU) and uncertainty associated with the soil moisture measurements due to instrument effects. Water budget partitioning during a wet (1984) water year and a dry (1987) water year were also analyzed to characterize the differences in hydrologic cycles during the extreme hydrologic conditions. Our analysis showed that in the dry water year, vegetation at the higher elevation were under water stress by the end of the water year. Contrastingly, in the wet water year only the vegetation at low and mid-elevations were under water stress whereas vegetation at the higher elevations derived substantial soil moisture for ET processes even towards the end of the growing season. To understand the effect of climate change on

  17. Ecological and water quality impairment resulting from the New Idria Mercury Mine and natural sources in the San Carlos and Silver Creek watersheds, central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, J. J.; Hothem, R.; Goldstein, D.; Brussee, B.

    2011-12-01

    The New Idria Mercury Mine in central California is the second largest mercury (Hg) deposit in North America and has been proposed as a US EPA Superfund Site based on ecological impairment to the San Carlos and Silver Creek watersheds. Water, sediment, and biota were sampled in San Carlos Creek in the mine area and downstream for 25 km into the watershed termed Silver Creek. Release of acid rock drainage (ARD) and erosion of mine tailings have impacted the watershed during 120 years of mining and since the mine was closed in 1972. The watershed can be divided into three segments based on water and sediment composition, Hg sources and concentrations, and biodiversity of aquatic invertebrates. Creek waters in segment no. 1 above the mine area consist of Mg-Ca-CO3 meteoric water with pH 8.73. Hg concentrations are elevated in both sediment (100μg/g), and in waters (60 ng/L) because of erosion of Hg mine tailings in the upper part of the watershed. Invertebrate biodiversity is the highest of the sites sampled in the watershed, with seven families (six orders) of aquatic invertebrates collected and six other families observed. In the mine area isotopically heavy ARD (pH 2.7) with high levels of Fe(II), SO4, and total Hg (HgT: 76.7 ng/L) enters and mixes with meteoric creek water, constituting from 10-15% of the water in the 10-km long second creek segment downstream from the mine. Oxidation of Fe(II) from ARD results in precipitation of FeOOH which is transported and deposited as an Fe precipitate that has high Hg and MMeHg concentration (Hg: 15.7-79 μg/g, MMeHg: 0.31 - 1.06 ng/g). Concentrations of HgT are uniformly high (1530-2890 ng/L) with particulate Hg predominant. MMeHg ranges from 0.21-0.99 ng/L. In the area just downstream from the ARD source, biodiversity of invertebrates was low, with only one taxa (water striders) available in sufficient numbers and mass (> 1 g)_to be sampled. Biodiversity further downstream was also low, with only up to 2 families present

  18. Water-quality trends for selected sites in the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds, Montana, based on data collected during water years 1997-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; Clark, Melanie L.; Cleasby, Thomas E.; Barnhart, Elliott P.

    2015-01-01

    In the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds in southwestern Montana, there was intensive mining during a 40-year period after the discovery of gold in the early 1860s. Potential effects from the historic mining activities include acid-mine drainage and elevated concentrations of potentially toxic trace elements from mining remnants such as waste rock and tailing piles. In support of remediation efforts, water-quality monitoring by the U.S. Geological Survey began in 1997 in the Boulder River and Tenmile Creek watersheds and has continued to present (2014). The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, investigated temporal trends in water quality at 13 sites, including 2 adit (or mine entrance) sites and 11 stream sites. The primary purpose of this report is to present results of trend analysis of specific conductance, selected trace-elements (cadmium, copper, lead, zinc, and arsenic), and suspended sediment for the 13 sites.

  19. Water quality of the Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    OpenAIRE

    Odo Primavesi; Alfredo Ribeiro de Freitas; Ana Cândida Primavesi; Haydée Torres de Oliveira

    2002-01-01

    The Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P

  20. Morphological Analyses and Simulated Flood Elevations in a Watershed with Dredged and Leveed Stream Channels, Wheeling Creek, Eastern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, James M.; Huitger, Carrie A.; Ebner, Andrew D.; Koltun, G.F.

    2008-01-01

    The USGS, in cooperation with the Ohio Emergency Management Agency, conducted a study in the Wheeling Creek Basin to (1) evaluate and contrast land-cover characteristics from 2001 with characteristics from 1979 and 1992; (2) compare current streambed elevation, slope, and geometry with conditions present in the late 1980s; (3) look for evidence of channel filling and over widening in selected undredged reaches; (4) estimate flood elevations for existing conditions in both undredged and previously dredged reaches; (5) evaluate the height of the levees required to contain floods with selected recurrence intervals in previously dredged reaches; and (6) estimate flood elevations for several hypothetical dredging and streambed aggradation scenarios in undredged reaches. The amount of barren land in the Wheeling Creek watershed has decreased from 20 to 1 percent of the basin area based on land-cover characteristics from 1979 and 2001. Barren lands appear to have been converted primarily to pasture, presumably as a result of surface-mine reclamation. Croplands also decreased from 13 to 8 percent of the basin area. The combined decrease in barren lands and croplands is approximately offset by the increase in pasture. Stream-channel surveys conducted in 1987 and again in 2006 at 21 sites in four previously dredged reaches of Wheeling Creek indicate little change in the elevation, slope, and geometry of the channel at most sites. The mean change in width-averaged bed and thalweg elevations for the 21 cross sections was 0.1 feet. Bankfull widths, mean depths, and cross-sectional areas measured at 12 sites in undredged reaches were compared to estimates determined from regional equations. The mean percentage difference between measured and estimated bankfull widths was -0.2 percent, suggesting that bankfull widths in the Wheeling Creek Basin are generally about the same as regional averages for undisturbed basins of identical drainage area. For bankfull mean depth and cross

  1. Influence of hydrological conditions on the Escherichia coli population structure in the water of a creek on a rural watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratajczak Mehdy

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli is a commensal bacterium of the gastro-intestinal tract of human and vertebrate animals, although the aquatic environment could be a secondary habitat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of hydrological conditions on the structure of the E. coli population in the water of a creek on a small rural watershed in France composed of pasture and with human occupation. Results It became apparent, after studying the distribution in the four main E. coli phylo-groups (A, B1, B2, D, the presence of the hly (hemolysin gene and the antibiotic resistance pattern, that the E. coli population structure was modified not only by the hydrological conditions (dry versus wet periods, rainfall events, but also by how the watershed was used (presence or absence of cattle. Isolates of the B1 phylo-group devoid of hly and sensitive to antibiotics were particularly abundant during the dry period. During the wet period and the rainfall events, contamination from human sources was predominantly characterized by strains of the A phylo-group, whereas contamination by cattle mainly involved B1 phylo-group strains resistant to antibiotics and exhibiting hly. As E. coli B1 was the main phylo-group isolated in water, the diversity of 112 E. coli B1 isolates was further investigated by studying uidA alleles (beta-D-glucuronidase, the presence of hly, the O-type, and antibiotic resistance. Among the forty epidemiolgical types (ETs identified, five E. coli B1 ETs were more abundant in slightly contaminated water. Conclusions The structure of an E. coli population in water is not stable, but depends on the hydrological conditions and on current use of the land on the watershed. In our study it was the ratio of A to B1 phylo-groups that changed. However, a set of B1 phylo-group isolates seems to be persistent in water, strengthening the hypothesis that they may correspond to specifically adapted strains.

  2. Long-term snow, climate, and streamflow trends at the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, Owyhee Mountains, Idaho, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, A.; Marks, D.; Chandler, D. G.; Seyfried, M.

    2010-06-01

    Forty-five water years (1962-2006) of carefully measured temperature, precipitation, snow, and streamflow data for valley bottom, midelevation, and high-elevation sites within the Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed, located in the state of Idaho, United States, were analyzed to evaluate the extent and magnitude of the impact of climate warming on the hydrology and related resources in the interior northwestern United States. This analysis shows significant trends of increasing temperature at all elevations, with larger increases in daily minimum than daily maximum. The proportion of snow to rain has decreased at all elevations, with the largest and most significant decreases at midelevations and low elevations. Maximum seasonal snow water equivalent has decreased at all elevations, again with the most significant decreases at lower elevations, where the length of the snow season has decreased by nearly a month. All trends show a significant elevation gradient in either timing or magnitude. Though interannual variability is large, there has been no significant change in water year total precipitation or streamflow. Streamflow shows a seasonal shift, stronger at high elevations and delayed at lower elevations, to larger winter and early spring flows and reduced late spring and summer flows.

  3. Problems in Determining the Return of a Watershed to Pretreatment Conditions: Techniques Applied to a Study at Caspar Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Robert B.

    1990-09-01

    Using a previously treated basin as a control in subsequent paired watershed studies requires the control to be stable. Basin stability can be assessed in many ways, some of which are investigated for the South Fork of Caspar Creek in northern California. This basin is recovering from logging and road building in the early 1970s. Three storm-based discharge characteristics (peak discharge, quick flow, and total storm flow), daily flows, and concentration of suspended sediment were studied to see if the South Fork can be used as a control in a second experiment. Mean sediment concentration in three discharge classes and regression parameters for the other data were tested to estimate remaining treatment effects relative to the North Fork. Patterns of change were similar for most data, with rises in response followed by returns toward pretreatment conditions. The storm and sediment data showed few significant differences, but tests on daily flows indicated that differences still exist. The overall evidence suggests that the South Fork has returned to near pretreatment conditions. Better sediment data are needed for studies of the effects of land management.

  4. Genotype, soil type, and locale effects on reciprocal transplant vigor, endophyte growth, and microbial functional diversity of a narrow sagebrush hybrid zone in Salt Creek Canyon, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglia, K.J.; McArthur, E.D.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Zak, J.C.; Freeman, D.C.

    2007-01-01

    When addressing the nature of ecological adaptation and environmental factors limiting population ranges and contributing to speciation, it is important to consider not only the plant's genotype and its response to the environment, but also any close interactions that it has with other organisms, specifically, symbiotic microorganisms. To investigate this, soils and seedlings were reciprocally transplanted into common gardens of the big sagebrush hybrid zone in Salt Creek Canyon, Utah, to determine location and edaphic effects on the fitness of parental and hybrid plants. Endophytic symbionts and functional microbial diversity of indigenous and transplanted soils and sagebrush plants were also examined. Strong selection occurred against the parental genotypes in the middle hybrid zone garden in middle hybrid zone soil; F1 hybrids had the highest fitness under these conditions. Neither of the parental genotypes had superior fitness in their indigenous soils and habitats; rather F1 hybrids with the nonindigenous maternal parent were superiorly fit. Significant garden-by-soil type interactions indicate adaptation of both plant and soil microorganisms to their indigenous soils and habitats, most notably in the middle hybrid zone garden in middle hybrid zone soil. Contrasting performances of F1 hybrids suggest asymmetrical gene flow with mountain, rather than basin, big sagebrush acting as the maternal parent. We showed that the microbial community impacted the performance of parental and hybrid plants in different soils, likely limiting the ranges of the different genotypes.

  5. 78 FR 64003 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Jump Creek, Succor...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-25

    ... Creek, Succor Creek, and Cow Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal, Owyhee County, ID AGENCY: Bureau... Statement (EIS) for the Owyhee Field Office Jump Creek, Succor Creek and Cow Creek Watersheds grazing permit... Creek Watersheds Grazing Permit Renewal Final EIS are available for public inspection at Owyhee...

  6. Effects of groundwater levels and headwater wetlands on streamflow in the Charlie Creek basin, Peace River watershed, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, T.M.; Sacks, L.A.; Hughes, J.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Charlie Creek basin was studied from April 2004 to December 2005 to better understand how groundwater levels in the underlying aquifers and storage and overflow of water from headwater wetlands preserve the streamflows exiting this least-developed tributary basin of the Peace River watershed. The hydrogeologic framework, physical characteristics, and streamflow were described and quantified for five subbasins of the 330-square mile Charlie Creek basin, allowing the contribution of its headwaters area and tributary subbasins to be separately quantified. A MIKE SHE model simulation of the integrated surface-water and groundwater flow processes in the basin was used to simulate daily streamflow observed over 21 months in 2004 and 2005 at five streamflow stations, and to quantify the monthly and annual water budgets for the five subbasins including the changing amount of water stored in wetlands. Groundwater heads were mapped in Zone 2 of the intermediate aquifer system and in the Upper Floridan aquifer, and were used to interpret the location of artesian head conditions in the Charlie Creek basin and its relation to streamflow. Artesian conditions in the intermediate aquifer system induce upward groundwater flow into the surficial aquifer and help sustain base flow which supplies about two-thirds of the streamflow from the Charlie Creek basin. Seepage measurements confirmed seepage inflow to Charlie Creek during the study period. The upper half of the basin, comprised largely of the Upper Charlie Creek subbasin, has lower runoff potential than the lower basin, more storage of runoff in wetlands, and periodically generates no streamflow. Artesian head conditions in the intermediate aquifer system were widespread in the upper half of the Charlie Creek basin, preventing downward leakage from expansive areas of wetlands and enabling them to act as headwaters to Charlie Creek once their storage requirements were met. Currently, the dynamic balance between wetland

  7. Pesticides in groundwater in the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C., 2005 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koterba, Michael T.; Dieter, Cheryl A.; Miller, Cherie V.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the District Department of the Environment, conducted a groundwater-quality investigation to (a) determine the presence, concentrations, and distribution of selected pesticides in groundwater, and (b) assess the presence of pesticides in groundwater in relation to selected landscape, hydrogeologic, and groundwater-quality characteristics in the shallow groundwater underlying the Anacostia River and Rock Creek watersheds in Washington, D.C. With one exception, well depths were 100 feet or less below land surface. The USGS obtained or compiled ancillary data and information on land use (2001), subsurface sediments, and groundwater samples from 17 wells in the lower Anacostia River watershed from September through December 2005, and from 14 wells in the lower Anacostia River and lower Rock Creek watersheds from August through September 2008. Twenty-seven pesticide compounds, reflecting at least 19 different types of pesticides, were detected in the groundwater samples obtained in 2005 and 2008. No fungicides were detected. In relation to the pesticides detected, degradate compounds were as or more likely to be detected than applied (parent) compounds. The detected pesticides chiefly reflected herbicides commonly used in urban settings for non-specific weed control or insecticides used for nonspecific haustellate insects (insects with specialized mouthparts for sucking liquid) or termite-specific control. Detected pesticides included a combination of pesticides currently (2008) in use, banned or under highly restricted use, and some that had replaced the banned or restricted-use pesticides. The presence of banned and restricted-use pesticides illustrates their continued persistence and resistance to complete degradation in the environment. The presence of the replacement pesticides indicates the susceptibility of the surficial aquifer to contamination irrespective of the changes in the pesticides used. A

  8. Chemistry, radiation and histopathology data in support of manuscript "Pre-mining trace element and radiation exposure to biota from a breccia pipe uranium mine in the Grand Canyon (Arizona, USA) watershed"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Cleveland, Danielle; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining to the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This data was collected to characterize the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathologies in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine.

  9. Modeling post-fire hydro-geomorphic recovery in the Waldo Canyon Fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Alicia; Nourbakhshbeidokhti, Samira; Chin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire can have significant impacts on watershed hydrology and geomorphology by changing soil properties and removing vegetation, often increasing runoff and soil erosion and deposition, debris flows, and flooding. Watershed systems may take several years or longer to recover. During this time, post-fire channel changes have the potential to alter hydraulics that influence characteristics such as time of concentration and increase time to peak flow, flow capacity, and velocity. Using the case of the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado (USA), this research will leverage field-based surveys and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to parameterize KINEROS2 (KINematic runoff and EROSion), an event oriented, physically-based watershed runoff and erosion model. We will use the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool, which is a GIS-based hydrologic modeling tool that uses commonly available GIS data layers to parameterize, execute, and spatially visualize runoff and sediment yield for watersheds impacted by the Waldo Canyon Fire. Specifically, two models are developed, an unburned (Bear Creek) and burned (Williams) watershed. The models will simulate burn severity and treatment conditions. Field data will be used to validate the burned watersheds for pre- and post-fire changes in infiltration, runoff, peak flow, sediment yield, and sediment discharge. Spatial modeling will provide insight into post-fire patterns for varying treatment, burn severity, and climate scenarios. Results will also provide post-fire managers with improved hydro-geomorphic modeling and prediction tools for water resources management and mitigation efforts.

  10. Transport of contaminants during storms in the White Oak Creek and Melton Branch watersheds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solomon, D.K.; Marsh, J.D.; Larsen, I.L.; Wickliff, D.S.; Clapp, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the transport of contaminants from Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 5 along two principle pathways: the saturated groundwater system and the intermittently saturated storm flow system. The results of the storm flow sampling show a {sup 90}Sr anomaly in SWSA 5 that is suggested by the similar mobility of {sup 3}H and {sup 90}Sr, in spite of the reactive nature of {sup 90}Sr. An empirical relationship between concentration and discharge was established for {sup 3}H and {sup 90}Sr in the Melton Branch Watershed. The relationship is of the form C = AD{sup b}, where C is concentration of either {sup 3}H or {sup 90}Sr, D is discharge at MBS, and A and b are empirical constants. A model was developed and a computer program written to separate the discharge into quick-flow and base flow components. The results of the modeling, using data collected during storm flow, showed that 44% of the annual stream discharge occurred as quick flow, whereas only 16% of the {sup 3}H and 27% of the {sup 90}Sr occurred as quick flow. The data show that for SWSA 5 the saturated groundwater pathway is quite important in dry years, such as the 1988 water year. Data from other areas, such as SWSA 6 suggest that the storm flow pathway may be more important in wet years. This study has several important implications for remedial actions and site monitoring. 23 refs., 52 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Data visualization, time-series analysis, and mass-balance modeling of hydrologic and water-quality data for the McTier Creek watershed, South Carolina, 2007-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Conrads, Paul A.; Feaster, Toby D.; Journey, Celeste; Golden, Heather E.; Knightes, Christopher D.; Davis, Gary M.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    The McTier Creek watershed is located in the headwaters of the Edisto River Basin, which is in the Coastal Plain region of South Carolina. The Edisto ecosystem has some of the highest recorded fish-tissue mercury concentrations in the United States. In an effort to advance the understanding of the fate and transport of mercury in stream ecosystems, the U.S. Geological Survey, as part of its National Water-Quality Assessment Program, initiated a field investigation of mercury in the McTier Creek watershed in 2006. The initial efforts of the investigation included the collection of extensive hydrologic and water-quality field data, along with the development of several hydrologic and water-quality models. This series of measured and modeled data forms the primary source of information for this investigation to assess the fate and transport of mercury within the McTier Creek watershed.

  12. Impacts of Land Cover Changes on Runoff and Sediment in the Cedar Creek Watershed, St. Joseph River,Indiana, United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Xiaobo; Chi-hua Huang; Fushui Ruan

    2008-01-01

    The relation between runoff and sediment and land cover is investigated in the Cedar Creek Watershed (CCW), located in Northeastern Indiana, United States. The major land cover types in this watershed are cultivated land, woodland and pasture/Conservation Reserve Program (CRP), which account for approximate 90% of the total area in the region. Moreover, land use was changed tremendously from 2ooo to 2004, even without regarding the effect of the crop rotation system (corn & soybean). At least 49% of land cover types were changed into other types in this period. The land cover types, ranking by changing area from high to low series, are rye, soybean, corn, woodland and pasture/CRP. The CCW is divided into 21 sub-watersheds, and soil and water loss in each sub-watershed is computed by using Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). The results indicate that the variations in runoff and sediment have positive relation to the area of crops (especially corn and soybean); sediment is more sensitive to land cover changes than runoff; more heavy rainfall does not always mean more runoff because the combination of different land cover types always modify runoff coefficient; and rye, soybean and corn are the key land cover types, which affected the variation in runoff and sediment in the CCW.

  13. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS (DOE/EIS-0265/SA-158) - Idaho Model Watershed Habitat Projects - Twelvemile Creek Pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Shannon C. [Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), Portland, OR (United States)

    2004-07-15

    The Bonneville Power Administration is proposing to fund a fish passage enhancement project on Twelvemile Creek in Lemhi County, Idaho with the Lemhi Soil and Water Conservation District. The goal of this project is to enhance fish passage in Twelvemile Creek by eliminating barriers and increasing flows. The project goals will be accomplished by eliminating two diversions and two pumps from Twelvemile Creek by consolidating the flow into one diversion, eliminating ditch loss with pipe, and switching one irrigator from flood to sprinkler irrigation. This project will also attach the irrigators to a fish screen that will be installed by the Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

  14. Pre-mining trace element and radiation exposure to biota from a breccia pipe uranium mine in the Grand Canyon (Arizona, USA) watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Cleveland, Danielle; Brumbaugh, William G.; Linder, Greg; Lankton, Julia S.

    2017-01-01

    The risks to wildlife and humans from uranium (U) mining in the Grand Canyon watershed are largely unknown. In addition to U, other co-occurring ore constituents contribute to risks to biological receptors depending on their toxicological profiles. This study characterizes the pre-mining concentrations of total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl), U, and zinc (Zn); radiation levels; and histopathology in biota (vegetation, invertebrates, amphibians, birds, and mammals) at the Canyon Mine. Gross alpha levels were below the reporting limit (4 pCi/g) in all samples, and gross beta levels were indicative of background in vegetation (<10–17 pCi/g) and rodents (<10–43.5 pCi/g). Concentrations of U, Tl, Pb, Ni, Cu, and As in vegetation downwind from the mine were likely the result of aeolian transport. Chemical concentrations in rodents and terrestrial invertebrates indicate that surface disturbance during mine construction has not resulted in statistically significant spatial differences in fauna concentrations adjacent to the mine. Chemical concentrations in egg contents and nestlings of non-aquatic birds were less than method quantification limits or did not exceed toxicity thresholds. Bioaccumulation of As, Pb, Se, Tl, and U was evident in Western spadefoot (Spea multiplicata) tadpoles from the mine containment pond; concentrations of As (28.9–31.4 μg/g) and Se (5.81–7.20 μg/g) exceeded toxicity values and were significantly greater than in tadpoles from a nearby water source. Continued evaluation of As and Se in biota inhabiting and forging in the mine containment pond is warranted as mining progresses.

  15. Assessment of metal loads in watersheds affected by acid mine drainage by using tracer injection and synoptic sampling: Cement Creek, Colorado, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Walton-Day, K.; Bencala, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    Watersheds in mineralized zones may contain many mines, each of which can contribute to acidity and the metal load of a stream. In this study the authors delineate hydrogeologic characteristics determining the transport of metals from the watershed to the stream in the watershed of Cement Creek, Colorado. Combining the injection of a chemical tracer, to determine a discharge, with synoptic sampling, to obtain chemistry of major ions and metals, spatially detailed load profiles are quantified. Using the discharge and load profiles, the authors (1) identified sampled inflow sources which emanate from undisturbed as well as previously mined areas; (2) demonstrate, based on simple hydrologic balance, that unsampled, likely dispersed subsurface, inflows are significant; and (3) estimate attenuation. For example, along the 12-km study reach, 108 kg per day of Zn were added to Cement Creek. Almost half of this load came from 10 well-defined areas that included both mined and non-mined parts of the watershed. However, the combined effect of many smaller inflows also contributed a substantial load that could limit the effectiveness of remediation. Of the total Zn load, 58.3 kg/day came from stream segments with no visible inflow, indicating the importance of contributions from dispersed subsurface inflow. The subsurface inflow mostly occurred in areas with substantial fracturing of the bedrock or in areas downstream from tributaries with large alluvial fans. Despite a pH generally less than 4.5, there was 58.4 kg/day of Zn attenuation that occurred in mixing zones downstream from inflows with high pH. Mixing zones can have local areas of pH that are high enough for sorption and precipitation reactions to have an effect. Principal component analysis classified inflows into 7 groups with distinct chemical signatures that represent water-rock interaction with different mineral-alteration suites in the watershed. The present approach provides a detailed snapshot of metal load

  16. Real-Time Forecast of Hydrologically Sensitive Areas in the Salmon Creek Watershed, New York State, Using an Online Prediction Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Todd Walter

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the northeastern United States (U.S., watersheds and ecosystems are impacted by nonpoint source pollution (NPS from agricultural activity. Where agricultural fields coincide with runoff-producing areas—so called hydrologically sensitive areas (HSA—there is a potential risk of NPS contaminant transport to streams during rainfall events. Although improvements have been made, water management practices implemented to reduce NPS pollution generally do not account for the highly variable, spatiotemporal dynamics of HSAs and the associated dynamics in NPS pollution risks. This paper presents a prototype for a web-based HSA prediction tool developed for the Salmon Creek watershed in upstate New York to assist producers and planners in quickly identifying areas at high risk of generating storm runoff. These predictions can be used to prioritize potentially polluting activities to parts of the landscape with low risks of generating storm runoff. The tool uses real-time measured data and 24–48 h weather forecasts so that locations and the timing of storm runoff generation are accurately predicted based on present-day and future moisture conditions. Analysis of HSA predictions in Salmon Creek show that 71% of the largest storm events between 2006 and 2009 were correctly predicted based on 48 h forecasted weather data. Real-time forecast of HSAs represents an important paradigm shift for the management of NPS in the northeastern U.S.

  17. Using airborne thermal infrared imagery and helicopter EM conductivity to locate mine pools and discharges in the Kettle Creek watershed, north-central Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, E. (Shaw Environmental, Monroeville, PA); Hammack, R.W.; Harbert, W.P. (Univ. of Pittsburgh); Sams, J.I.; Veloski, G.A.; Ackman, T.E.

    2005-11-01

    The Kettle Creek watershed contains 50–100-year-old surface and underground coal mines that are a continuing source of acid mine drainage (AMD). To characterize the mining-altered hydrology of this watershed, an airborne reconnaissance was conducted in 2002 using airborne thermal infrared imagery (TIR) and helicopter-mounted electromagnetic (HEM) surveys. TIR uses the temperature differential between surface water and groundwater to locate areas where groundwater emerges at the surface. TIR anomalies located in the survey included seeps and springs, as well as mine discharges. In a follow-up ground investigation, hand-held GPS units were used to locate 103 of the TIR anomalies. Of the sites investigated, 26 correlated with known mine discharges, whereas 27 were previously unknown. Seven known mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery were documented. HEM surveys were used to delineate the groundwater table and also to locate mine pools, mine discharges, and groundwater recharge zones. These surveys located 12 source regions and flow paths for acidic, metal-containing (conductive) mine drainage; areas containing acid-generating mine spoil; and areas of groundwater recharge and discharge, as well as identifying potential mine discharges previously obscured from TIR imagery by nondeciduous vegetation. Follow-up ground-based electromagnetic surveys verified the results of the HEM survey. Our study suggests that airborne reconnaissance can make the remediation of large watersheds more efficient by focusing expensive ground surveys on small target areas.

  18. Cache Creek mercury investigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Cache Creek watershed is located in the California Coastal range approximately 100 miles north of San Francisco in Lake, Colusa and Yolo Counties. Wildlife...

  19. 76 FR 50170 - Pohick Creek Watershed Dam No. 8, Fairfax County, Virginia; Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... statement is not needed for this project. The project purpose is continued flood prevention. The planned... Assistance under 10.904, Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention, and is subject to the provisions...

  20. Water quality of the Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odo Primavesi

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim’s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  1. Fourth report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.

    1994-04-01

    In response to a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC) and selected tributaries. BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake. The ecological characterization of the WOC watershed will provide baseline data that can be used to document the ecological effects of the water pollution control program and the remedial action program. The long-term nature of BMAP ensures that the effectiveness of remedial measures will be properly evaluated.

  2. Water quality of the Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, occupied by beef and dairy cattle activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primavesi Odo

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Canchim?s creek watershed in São Carlos, SP, Brazil, was chosen to evaluate water quality affected by dairy and beef cattle production systems based on tropical pasture. The water samples were collected monthly, during three years, at six sampling points: spring in a tropical forest, spring in an intensive dairy production system, two dam springs, and stream water upward and at the delta. Results showed differences (P<0.01 among sampling points for the mean parameters. True color, hardness, turbidity, electric conductivity, alkalinity, pH, chemical oxygen demand and consumed oxygen explained well differences among sampling points. According to current legislation standards, water quality fitted with most of the established parameters for class 2, with exception of phosphate and iron. The high levels of total phosphorus, except in the forest spring, classified this water in an eutrophic class, even where soil and water conservation practices were considered adequate.

  3. Chemistry and age of groundwater in bedrock aquifers of the Piceance and Yellow Creek watersheds, Rio Blanco County, Colorado, 2010-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, P.B.; Thomas, J.C.; Hunt, A.G.

    2013-01-01

    Fourteen monitoring wells completed in the Uinta and Green River Formations in the Piceance Creek and Yellow Creek watersheds in Rio Blanco County, Colorado, were sampled for chemical, isotopic, and groundwater-age tracers to provide information on the overall groundwater quality, the occurrence and distribution of chemicals that could be related to the development of underlying natural-gas reservoirs, and to better understand groundwater residence times in the flow system. Methane concentrations in groundwater ranged from less than 0.0005 to 387 milligrams per liter. The methane was predominantly biogenic in origin, although the biogenic methane was mixed with thermogenic methane in water from seven wells. Three BTEX compounds (benzene, toluene, and ethylbenzene) were detected in water from six of the wells, but none of the concentrations exceeded Federal drinking-water standards. The presence of thermogenic methane in the aquifers indicates a connection and vulnerability to chemicals in deeper geologic units. Helium-4 data indicate that groundwater had ages ranging from less than 1,000 years to greater than 50,000 years. The presence of old groundwater in parts of the aquifers indicates that these aquifers may not be useful for large-scale water supply because of low recharge rates.

  4. Waste area grouping 2 Phase I task data report: Ecological risk assessment and White Oak Creek watershed screening ecological risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Efroymson, R.A.; Jackson, B.L.; Jones, D.S. [and others

    1996-05-01

    This report presents an ecological risk assessment for Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 2 based on the data collected in the Phase I remedial investigation (RI). It serves as an update to the WAG 2 screening ecological risk assessment that was performed using historic data. In addition to identifying potential ecological risks in WAG 2 that may require additional data collection, this report serves to determine whether there are ecological risks of sufficient magnitude to require a removal action or some other expedited remedial process. WAG 2 consists of White Oak Creek (WOC) and its tributaries downstream of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) main plant area, White Oak Lake (WOL), the White Oak Creek Embayment of the Clinch River, associated flood plains, and the associated groundwater. The WOC system drains the WOC watershed, an area of approximately 16.8 km{sup 2} that includes ORNL and associated WAGs. The WOC system has been exposed to contaminants released from ORNL and associated operations since 1943 and continues to receive contaminants from adjacent WAGs.

  5. Water and streambed-material data, Eagle Creek watershed, Indiana, August 1980, October and December 1982, and April 1983; updating of U.S. Geological Survey Open-file report 83-215

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangsness, David J.

    1983-01-01

    Water-quality surveys within the Eagle Creek watershed were done by the U.S. Geological Survey in August 1980, October and December 1982 and April 1983 in cooperation with the city of Indianapolis, Department of Public Works. Streambed-material and water samples were collected from Finley and Eagle Creek and was analyzed for selected metals, insecticides, and acid-extractable and base-neutral-extractable compounds. Water samples also were analyzed for volatile organic compounds. The 1982-83 surveys represent different flow conditions. This report lists all the data collected and analyzed by the U.S. Geological Survey but does not interpret any of the results.

  6. The F. L. Brinkley Midden (22Ts729): Archaeological Investigations in the Yellow Creek Watershed, Tishomingo County, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    Cultural Resource Management Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway Structures Prehistoric Archaeology Lithic Analysis Archaic Period Paleoethnobo tany .. COTI...1976 Cedar Creek Archaeological Project, 1976 Season Lithic Analysis . Manuscript on file at University of Alabama, Office of Archae- ological Research...in the Formation of Edge Damage: A New Approach to Lithic Analysis . Journal of Field Archaeology 1(1-2): 171- 196. Watson, Patty Jo 1976 In Pursuit of

  7. Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M.; Adams, S.M.; Allison, L.J.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Kitchings, J.T.; Olsen, C.R.

    1991-09-01

    On April 1, 1986, a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit was issued for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) (EPA 1986). As specified in Part 3: Special Conditions (Item H) of the permit, a plan for biological monitoring of the Clinch River, White Oak Creek (WOC), Northwest Tributary (NWT) of WOC, Melton Branch (MB), Fifth Creek, and First Creek shall be submitted for approval to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Health and Environment (TDHE) within 90 days of the effective date of the permit. The plan, which is referred to in Part 3 (H) of the permit as the Biological Monitoring Plan and Abatement Program (BMPAP), describes characterization monitoring studies to be conducted for the duration of the permit (5 years). In order to be consistent with the terminology used for the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Programs for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plan and the Oak Ridge K-25 Plant, BMPAP will subsequently be referred to as the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP). The proposed BMAP outlined in this document is based on preliminary discussions held on December 9, 1985, between staff of Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (ORNL and Central Management), the US Department of Energy (DOE), EPA, and TDHE. 232 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Relative abundance and distribution of fishes within an established Area of Critical Environmental Concern, of the Amargosa River Canyon and Willow Creek, Inyo and San Bernardino Counties, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoppettone, G. Gary; Hereford, Mark E.; Rissler, Peter H.; Johnson, Danielle M.; Salgado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The Amargosa River Canyon of San Bernardino and Inyo County, California, has been designated by the Bureau of Land Management as an Area of Critical Environmental Concern, due in part to its unique flora and fauna. As a task of the Area of Critical Environmental Concern implementation plan, a survey of native fishes was conducted from June 21 to August 12, 2010. Geographic Information System tools were used to map sampling locations, which were spaced at 50-meter intervals. Global Positioning Systems were used to locate sampling stations, and stations with adequate water for successful trapping were sampled with baited minnow traps. Amargosa River pupfish (Cyprinodon nevadensis amargosae) and speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus spp.) were widespread throughout Armargosa River Canyon. Throughout the study area 8,558 pupfish were captured at 194 stations; 3,472 speckled dace were captured at 210 stations; 238 red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkia) were captured at 83 stations; and 1,095 western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinus) were captured at 110 stations. Pupfish were most abundant in open water habitat with native riparian vegetation, and they were significantly less abundant where the stream was completely covered by cattails or where saltcedar (Tamarix sp.) dominated the riparian corridor. There was no relationship between stream cover and speckled dace distribution. Non-native western mosquitofish and red-swamp crayfish densities were significantly higher in stream reaches dominated by saltcedar. The continued spread of saltcedar threatens to negatively affect pupfish and potentially reduce speckled dace abundance throughout the Amargosa River Canyon. This study can serve as baseline information for observing native fish populations in the future, as related to potential changes to the Amargosa River Canyon ecosystem.

  9. Total nitrogen and suspended-sediment loads and identification of suspended-sediment sources in the Laurel Hill Creek watershed, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, water years 2010-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Gellis, Allen C.; Galeone, Daniel G.

    2012-01-01

    Laurel Hill Creek is a watershed of 125 square miles located mostly in Somerset County, Pennsylvania, with small areas extending into Fayette and Westmoreland Counties. The upper part of the watershed is on the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection 303(d) list of impaired streams because of siltation, nutrients, and low dissolved oxygen concentrations. The objectives of this study were to (1) estimate the annual sediment load, (2) estimate the annual nitrogen load, and (3) identify the major sources of fine-grained sediment using the sediment-fingerprinting approach. This study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was done in cooperation with the Somerset County Conservation District. Discharge, suspended-sediment, and nutrient data were collected at two streamflow-gaging stations—Laurel Hill Creek near Bakersville, Pa., (station 03079600) and Laurel Hill Creek at Ursina, Pa., (station 03080000)—and one ungaged stream site, Laurel Hill Creek below Laurel Hill Creek Lake at Trent (station 03079655). Concentrations of nutrients generally were low. Concentrations of ammonia were less than 0.2 milligrams per liter (mg/L), and concentrations of phosphorus were less than 0.3 mg/L. Most concentrations of phosphorus were less than the detection limit of 0.02 mg/L. Most water samples had concentrations of nitrate plus nitrite less than 1.0 mg/L. At the Bakersville station, concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.63 to 1.3 mg/L in base-flow samples and from 0.57 to 1.5 mg/L in storm composite samples. Median concentrations were 0.88 mg/L in base-flow samples and 1.2 mg/L in storm composite samples. At the Ursina station, concentrations of total nitrogen ranged from 0.25 to 0.92 mg/L in base-flow samples; the median concentration was 0.57 mg/L. The estimated total nitrogen load at the Bakersville station was 262 pounds (lb) for 11 months of the 2010 water year (November 2009 to September 2010) and 266 lb for the 2011 water year. Most of the total

  10. Trends in precipitation and streamwater chemistry in East Creek watershed in southwestern British Columbia, 1971–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. FELLER

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Bulk precipitation and streamwater in a small, undisturbed, forested watershed in southwestern British Columbia were sampled regularly and analyzed for dissolved chemical constituents from 1971 to 2008. Concentrations and fluxes of most chemicals in precipitation and streamwater have exhibited considerable yearly variation. Temporal trends, when they have occurred, have rarely been consistent for the entire 1972–2008 time period. Precipitation has exhibited a decline in electrical conductivity, a decline in NH4, inorganic-N, and total-N concentrations and fluxes since the 1980s, an increase in pH, a decline in acid H fluxes since ~1990, and a decrease in SO4 concentrations and fluxes from 1980 until the late 1990s. Streamwater has exhibited an increase in NO3 concentrations and fluxes until the late 1990s, an increase in pH and decrease in acid H fluxes since the early 1990s, a decrease in SO4 concentrations and fluxes from ~1980 until ~2000, and increases in Na and Cl concentrations and fluxes until ~2000. Critical precipitation SO4 and inorganic-N loads have probably been exceeded for most years. East Ck. watershed has continuously experienced net inflows of all forms of N and acid H, and net outflows of dissolved Si, Na, Mg, and Ca. Net inflows of inorganic forms of N and total-N have decreased since the early 1980s. Net acid H inflows have decreased since the early 1990s, while net Na and Cl outflows increased until ~2000. The contribution of nutrient cycling processes within the watershed to the changes is currently unknown.

  11. Simulated water budgets and ground-water/surface-water interactions in Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds, Northampton County, Pennsylvania--a preliminary study with identification of data needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2006-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Department of Environmental Protection, Office of Mineral Resources Management, provides a preliminary analysis of water budgets and generalized ground-water/surface-water interactions for Bushkill and parts of Monocacy Creek watersheds in Northampton County, Pa., by use of a ground-water flow model. Bushkill Creek watershed was selected for study because it has areas of rapid growth, ground-water withdrawals from a quarry, and proposed stream-channel modifications, all of which have the potential for altering ground-water budgets and the interaction between ground water and streams. Preliminary 2-dimensional, steady-state simulations of ground-water flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to show the status of work through September 2005 and help guide ongoing data collection in Bushkill Creek watershed. Simulations were conducted for (1) predevelopment conditions, (2) a water table lowered for quarry operations, and (3) anthropogenic changes in hydraulic conductivity of the streambed and aquifer. Preliminary results indicated under predevelopment conditions, the divide between the Bushkill and Monocacy Creek ground-water basins may not have been coincident with the topographic divide and as much as 14 percent of the ground-water discharge to Bushkill Creek may have originated from recharge in the Monocacy Creek watershed. For simulated predevelopment conditions, Schoeneck Creek and parts of Monocacy Creek were dry, but Bushkill Creek was gaining throughout all reaches. Simulated lowering of the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 147 feet for quarry operations caused ground-water recharge and streamflow leakage to be diverted to the quarry throughout about 14 square miles and caused reaches of Bushkill and Little Bushkill Creeks to change from gaining to losing streams. Lowering the deepest quarry sump to an altitude of 100 feet caused simulated ground-water discharge to the quarry to increase about 4 cubic feet

  12. Hydrologic data summary for the White Oak Creek watershed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (January--December 1993)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borders, D.M.; Frederick, B.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Reece, D.K.; McCalla, W.L. [Analysas Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watts, J.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Division; Ziegler, K.S. [Midwest Technical, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes, for the 12-month period (January through December 1993), the available dynamic hydrologic data collected, primarily, on the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed along with information collected on the surface flow systems which affect the quality or quantity of surface water. Identification of spatial and temporal trends in hydrologic parameters and mechanisms that affect the movement of contaminants supports the development of interim corrective measures and remedial restoration alternatives. In addition, hydrologic monitoring supports long-term assessment of the effectiveness of remedial actions in limiting the transport of contaminants across Waste Area Grouping (WAG) boundaries and ultimately to the off-site environment. For these reasons, it is of paramount importance to the Environmental Restoration Program (ERP) to collect and report hydrologic data, an activity that contributes to the Site Investigations (SI) component of the ERP. This report provides and describes sources of hydrologic data for Environmental Restoration activities that use monitoring data to quantify and assess the impact from releases of contaminants from ORNL WAGs.

  13. White Oak Creek Watershed: Melton Valley Area Remedial Investigation Report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Volume 1 Main Text

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this Remedial Investigation (RI) report is to present an analysis of the Melton Valley portion of the White Oak Creek (WOC) watershed, which will enable the US Department of Energy (DOE) to pursue a series of cost-effective remedial actions resulting in site cleanup and stabilization. In this RI existing levels of contamination and radiological exposure are compared to levels acceptable for future industrial and potential recreational use levels at the site. This comparison provides a perspective for the magnitude of remedial actions required to achieve a site condition compatible with relaxed access restrictions over existing conditions. Ecological risk will be assessed to evaluate measures required for ecological receptor protection. For each subbasin, this report will provide site-specific analyses of the physical setting including identification of contaminant source areas, description of contaminant transport pathways, identification of release mechanisms, analysis of contaminant source interactions with groundwater, identification of secondary contaminated media associated with the source and seepage pathways, assessment of potential human health and ecological risks from exposure to contaminants, ranking of each source area within the subwatershed, and outline the conditions that remedial technologies must address to stop present and future contaminant releases, prevent the spread of contamination and achieve the goal of limiting environmental contamination to be consistent with a potential recreational use of the site.

  14. Water chemistry of surface waters affected by the Fourmile Canyon wildfire, Colorado, 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, R. Blaine; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2012-01-01

    In September 2010, the Fourmile Canyon fire burned about 23 percent of the Fourmile Creek watershed in Boulder County, Colo. Water-quality sampling of Fourmile Creek began within a month after the wildfire to assess its effects on surface-water chemistry. Water samples were collected from five sites along Fourmile Creek (above, within, and below the burned area) monthly during base flow, twice weekly during snowmelt runoff, and at higher frequencies during storm events. Stream discharge was also monitored. Water-quality samples were collected less frequently from an additional 6 sites on Fourmile Creek, from 11 tributaries or other inputs, and from 3 sites along Boulder Creek. The pH, electrical conductivity, temperature, specific ultraviolet absorbance, total suspended solids, and concentrations (dissolved and total) of major cations (calcium, magnesium, sodium, and potassium), anions (chloride, sulfate, alkalinity, fluoride, and bromide), nutrients (nitrate, ammonium, and phosphorus), trace metals (aluminum, arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, iron, mercury, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, rubidium, antimony, selenium, strontium, vanadium, and zinc), and dissolved organic carbon are here reported for 436 samples collected during 2010 and 2011.

  15. Spatial Distribution of Ground-Water Recharge Estimated with a Water-Budget Method for the Jordan Creek Watershed, Lehigh County, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, Dennis W.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Geological Survey, to illustrate a water-budget method for mapping the spatial distribution of ground-water recharge for a 76-square-mile part of the Jordan Creek watershed, northwest of Allentown, in Lehigh County, Pennsylvania. Recharge was estimated by using the Hydrological Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) water-budget model for 577 landscape units in Jordan Creek watershed, delineated on the basis of their soils, land use/land cover, and mean annual precipitation during 1951-2000. The water-budget model routes precipitation falling on each landscape unit to components of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, storage, and vertical percolation (recharge) for a five-layer soil column on a daily basis. The spatial distribution of mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 for each landscape unit was mapped by the use of a geographic information system. Recharge simulated by the water-budget model in Jordan Creek watershed during 1951-2000 averaged 12.3 inches per year and ranged by landscape unit from 0.11 to 17.05 inches per year. Mean annual recharge during 1951-2000 simulated by the water-budget model was most sensitive to changes to input values for precipitation and runoff-curve number. Mean annual recharge values for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-use/land-cover classes were similar (11.2 to 12.2 inches per year) but were substantially less for high-density urban (6.8 inches per year), herbaceous wetlands (2.5 inches per year), and forested wetlands (1.3 inches per year). Recharge rates simulated for the crop, forest, pasture, and low-density urban land-cover classes were similar because those land-use/land-cover classes are represented in the model with parameter values that either did not significantly affect simulated recharge or tended to have offsetting effects on recharge. For example, for landscapes with forest land

  16. Mercury bioaccumulation in fish in a region affected by historic gold mining; the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds, California, 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Jason T.; Hothem, Roger L.; Alpers, Charles N.; Law, Matthew A.

    2000-01-01

    Mercury that was used historically for gold recovery in mining areas of the Sierra Nevada continues to enter local and downstream water bodies, including the Sacramento Delta and the San Francisco Bay of northern California. Methylmercury is of particular concern because it is the most prevalent form of mercury in fish and is a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates at successive trophic levels within food webs. In April 1999, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with several other agencies the Forest Service (U.S. Department of Agriculture), the Bureau of Land Management, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the California State Water Resources Control Board, and the Nevada County Resource Conservation District began a pilot investigation to characterize the occurrence and distribution of mercury in water, sediment, and biota in the South Yuba River, Deer Creek, and Bear River watersheds of California. Biological samples consisted of semi-aquatic and aquatic insects, amphibians, bird eggs, and fish. Fish were collected from 5 reservoirs and 14 stream sites during August through October 1999 to assess the distribution of mercury in these watersheds. Fish that were collected from reservoirs included top trophic level predators (black basses, Micropterus spp.) intermediate trophic level predators [sunfish (blue gill, Lepomis macrochirus; green sunfish, Lepomis cyanellus; and black crappie, Poxomis nigromaculatus)] and benthic omnivores (channel catfish, Ictularus punctatus). At stream sites, the species collected were upper trophic level salmonids (brown trout, Salmo trutta) and upper-to-intermediate trophic level salmonids (rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss). Boneless and skinless fillet portions from 161 fish were analyzed for total mercury; 131 samples were individual fish, and the remaining 30 fish were combined into 10 composite samples of three fish each of the same species and size class. Mercury concentrations in samples of black basses

  17. Simulation of climate change effects on streamflow, groundwater, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP in the Black Earth Creek Watershed, Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Randall J.; Westenbroek, Stephen M.; Walker, John F.; Selbig, William R.; Regan, R. Steven; Leaf, Andrew T.; Saad, David A.

    2016-08-23

    A groundwater/surface-water model was constructed and calibrated for the Black Earth Creek watershed in south-central Wisconsin. The model was then run to simulate scenarios representing common societal concerns in the basin, focusing on maintaining a cold-water resource in an urbanizing fringe near its upper stream reaches and minimizing downstream flooding. Although groundwater and surface water are considered a single resource, many hydrologic models simplistically simulate feedback loops between the groundwater system and other hydrologic processes. These feedbacks include timing and rates of evapotranspiration, surface runoff, soil-zone flow, and interactions with the groundwater system; however, computer models can now routinely and iteratively couple the surface-water and groundwater systems—albeit with longer model run times. In this study, preliminary calibrations of uncoupled transient surface-water and steady-state groundwater models were used to form the starting point for final calibration of one transient computer simulation that iteratively couples groundwater and surface water. The computer code GSFLOW (Groundwater/Surface-water FLOW) was used to simulate the coupled hydrologic system; a surface-water model represented hydrologic processes in the atmosphere, at land surface, and within the soil zone, and a groundwater-flow model represented the unsaturated zone, saturated zone, and streams. The coupled GSFLOW model was run on a daily time step during water years 1985–2007. Early simulation times (1985–2000) were used for spin-up to make the simulation results less sensitive to initial conditions specified; the spin-up period was not included in the model calibration. Model calibration used observed heads, streamflows, solar radiation, and snowpack measurements from 2000 to 2007 for history matching. Calibration was performed by using the PEST parameter estimation software suite.

  18. SYCAMORE CANYON PRIMITIVE AREA, ARIZONA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Lyman C.; Raabe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The Sycamore Canyon Primitive Area, which occupies about 74 sq mi, lies about 24 mi southwest of Flagstaff, Arizona. To help evaluate the area for mineral resources, sediment samples were collected along Sycamore Creek and its tributaries. These were analyzed for traces of the ore metals without finding any local concentrations. In addition, a scintillometer was used to test rocks in the area without finding any abnormal radioactivity.

  19. An analysis of potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes in the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.

    2014-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to assess potential water availability from the Charles Mill, Clendening, Piedmont, Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes, located within the Muskingum River Watershed, Ohio. The assessment was based on the criterion that water withdrawals should not appreciably affect maintenance of recreation-season pool levels in current use. To facilitate and simplify the assessment, it was assumed that historical lake operations were successful in maintaining seasonal pool levels, and that any discharges from lakes constituted either water that was discharged to prevent exceeding seasonal pool levels or discharges intended to meet minimum in-stream flow targets downstream from the lakes. It further was assumed that the volume of water discharged in excess of the minimum in-stream flow target is available for use without negatively impacting seasonal pool levels or downstream water uses and that all or part of it is subject to withdrawal. Historical daily outflow data for the lakes were used to determine the quantity of water that potentially could be withdrawn and the resulting quantity of water that would flow downstream (referred to as “flow-by”) on a daily basis as a function of all combinations of three hypothetical target minimum flow-by amounts (1, 2, and 3 times current minimum in-stream flow targets) and three pumping capacities (1, 2, and 3 million gallons per day). Using both U.S. Geological Survey streamgage data (where available) and lake-outflow data provided by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers resulted in analytical periods ranging from 51 calendar years for Charles Mill, Clendening, and Piedmont Lakes to 74 calendar years for Pleasant Hill, Senecaville, and Wills Creek Lakes. The observed outflow time series and the computed time series of daily flow-by amounts and potential withdrawals were analyzed to compute and report order statistics (95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, 10th, and 5th percentiles) and means for

  20. Linking physical monitoring to coho and Chinook salmon populations in the Redwood Creek Watershed, California—Summary of May 3–4, 2012 Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann; Torregrosa, Alicia; Woodward, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    On Thursday, May 3, 2012, a science workshop was held at the Redwood National and State Parks (RNSP) office in Arcata, California, with researchers and resource managers working in RNSP to share data and expert opinions concerning salmon populations and habitat in the Redwood Creek watershed. The focus of the workshop was to discuss how best to synthesize physical and biological data related to the freshwater and estuarine phases of salmon life cycles in order to increase the understanding of constraints on salmon populations. The workshop was hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Status and Trends (S&T) Program National Park Monitoring Project (http://www.fort.usgs.gov/brdscience/ParkMonitoring.htm), which supports USGS research on priority topics (themes) identified by the National Park Service (NPS) Inventory and Monitoring Program (I&M) and S&T. The NPS has organized more than 270 parks with significant natural resources into 32 Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Networks (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/networks.cfm) that share funding and core professional staff to monitor the status and long-term trends of selected natural resources (http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor). All 32 networks have completed vital signs monitoring plans (available at http://science.nature.nps.gov/im/monitor/MonitoringPlans.cfm), containing background information on the important resources of each park, conceptual models behind the selection of vital signs for monitoring the condition of natural resources, and the selection of high priority vital signs for monitoring. Vital signs are particular physical, chemical, and biological elements and processes of park ecosystems that represent the overall health or condition of the park, known or hypothesized effects of stressors, or elements that have important human values (Fancy and others, 2009). Beginning in 2009, the I&M program funded projects to analyze and synthesize the biotic and abiotic data generated by vital signs

  1. The impacts of climate change on hydrology in a typical glacier region-A case study in Hailuo Creek watershed of Mt. Gongga in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuoFeng Zhu; YuanQingHe; DaHe Qin; HongKai Gao; Tao Pu; DongDong Chen; Kai Wang

    2016-01-01

    The glaciers of the Hengduan Mountains play an important role in the hydrology processes of this region. In this study, the HBV Light model, which relies on a degree-day model to simulate glacier melting, was employed to simulate both glacier runoff and total runoff. The daily temperature and precipitation at the Hailuo Creek No. 1 Glacier from 1952 to 2009 were obtained from daily meteorological observed data at the glacier and from six national meteorological stations near the Hailuo Creek Basin. The daily air temperature, precipitation, runoff depth, and monthly potential evaporation in 1995, 1996, and 2002 were used to obtain a set of optimal parameters, and the annual total runoff and glacier runoff of the Hailuo Creek Glacier (1952–2009) were calculated using the HBV Light model. Results showed the average annual runoff in the Hailuo Creek Basin was 2,114 mm from 1952 to 2009, of which glacial melting accounted for about 1,078 mm. The river runoff in the Hailuo Creek catchment increased as a result of increased glacier runoff. Glacier runoff accounted for 51.1% of the Hailuo Creek stream flow in 1994 and increased to 72.6% in 2006. About 95% of the increased stream flow derived from the increased glacier runoff.

  2. Watershed Restoration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  3. Second report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D.; Blaylock, B.G.; Boston, H.L.; Cox, D.K.; Huston, M.A.; Kimmel, B.L.; Loar, J.M.; Olsen, C.R.; Ryon, M.G.; Shugart, L.R.; Smith, J.G.; Southworth, G.R.; Stewart, A.J.; Walton, B.T.; Talmage, S.S.; Murphy, J.B.; Valentine, C.K. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Appellanis, S.M.; Jimenez, B.D. [Puerto Rico Univ., San Juan (Puerto Rico); Huq, M.V. [Connecticut Dept. of Environmental Protection, Hamden, CT (United States); Meyers-Schone, L.J. [Frankfurter, Gross-Gerau (Germany); Mohrbacher, D.A. [Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Olsen, C.R. [USDOE Office of Energy Research, Washington, DC (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Stout, J.G. [Cincinnati Univ., OH (United States)

    1992-12-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1986, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. BMAP consists of seven major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs on-site and the aquatic environs off-site. These tasks are (1) toxicity monitoring; (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota; (3) biological indicator studies; (4) instream ecological monitoring; (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment; (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL); and (7) contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system. This document, the second of a series of annual reports, described the results of BMAP studies conducted in 1987.

  4. Minnesota Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Statewide minor watershed delineations with major/minor watershed identifiers and names for provinces, major watersheds, and basins. Also included are watershed...

  5. Hydrologic and water-quality data at Government Canyon State Natural Area, Bexar County, Texas, 2002-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banta, J. Ryan; Slattery, Richard N.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service, the Edwards Aquifer Authority, and the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, collected rainfall, streamflow, evapotranspiration, and stormflow water-quality data at the Laurel Canyon Creek watershed, within the Government Canyon State Natural Area, Bexar County, Tex. The purpose of the data collection was to support evaluations of the effects of brush management conservation practices on components of the hydrologic budget and water quality. One component of brush management was to take endangered wildlife into consideration, specifically the golden-cheeked warbler (Dendroica chrysoparia). Much of the area that may have been considered for brush management was left intact to protect habitat for the golden-cheeked warbler. The area identified for brush management was approximately 10 percent of the study watershed. The hydrologic data presented here (2002–10) represent pre- and post-treatment periods, with brush management treatment occurring from winter 2006–07 to spring 2008.

  6. Traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek, upper Colorado River basin, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdak, Jason J.; Spahr, Norman E.; Szmajter, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    In the Rocky Mountains of Colorado, major highways are often constructed in stream valleys. In the event of a vehicular accident involving hazardous materials, the close proximity of highways to the streams increases the risk of contamination entering the streams. Recent population growth has contributed to increased traffic volume along Colorado highways and has resulted in increased movement of hazardous materials, particularly along Interstate 70. Gore Creek and its major tributary, Black Gore Creek, are vulnerable to such contamination from vehicular accidents along Interstate 70. Gore Creek, major tributary of the Eagle River, drains approximately 102 square miles, some of which has recently undergone significant urban development. The headwaters of Gore Creek originate in the Gore Range in the eastern part of the Gore Creek watershed. Gore Creek flows west to the Eagle River. Beginning at the watershed boundary on Vail Pass, southeast of Vail Ski Resort, Interstate 70 parallels Black Gore Creek and then closely follows Gore Creek the entire length of the watershed. Interstate 70 crosses Gore Creek and tributaries 20 times in the watershed. In the event of a vehicular accident involving a contaminant spill into Gore Creek or Black Gore Creek, a stepwise procedure has been developed for water-resource managers to estimate traveltimes of the leading edge and peak concentration of a conservative contaminant. An example calculating estimated traveltimes for a hypothetical contaminant release in Black Gore Creek is provided. Traveltime measurements were made during May and September along Black Gore Creek and Gore Creek from just downstream from the Black Lakes to the confluence with the Eagle River to account for seasonal variability in stream discharge. Fluorometric dye injection of rhodamine WT and downstream dye detection by fluorometry were used to measure traveltime characteristics of Gore Creek and Black Gore Creek. During the May traveltime measurements

  7. Third report on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program for White Oak Creek Watershed and the Clinch River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loar, J.M. [ed.; Adams, S.M.; Bailey, R.D. [and others

    1994-03-01

    As a condition of the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit issued to Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) on April 1, 1985, a Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was developed for White Oak Creek (WOC); selected tributaries of WOC, including Fifth Creek, First Creek, Melton Branch, and Northwest Tributary; and the Clinch River. The BMAP currently consists of six major tasks that address both radiological and nonradiological contaminants in the aquatic and terrestrial environs at ORNL. These are (1) toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation monitoring of nonradiological contaminants in aquatic biota, (3) biological indicator studies, (4) instream ecological monitoring, (5) assessment of contaminants in the terrestrial environment, and (6) radioecology of WOC and White Oak Lake (WOL). The investigation of contaminant transport, distribution, and fate in the WOC embayment-Clinch River-Watts Bar Reservoir system was originally a task of the BMAP but, in 1988, was incorporated into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Facility Investigation for the Clinch River, a separate study to assess offsite contamination from all three Department of Energy facilities in Oak Ridge.

  8. Use of short-term (5-Minute) and long-term (18-Hour) leaching tests to characterize, fingerprint, and rank mine-waste material from historical mines in the Deer Creek, Snake River, and Clear Creek Watersheds in and around the Montezuma Mining District, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hageman, Philip L.

    2004-01-01

    Precipitation-induced runoff from historical mine-waste located adjacent to the headwaters of the Snake River, Deer Creek, Saints John Creek, Grizzly Gulch, Stevens Gulch, and Leavenworth Creek contributes to the degradation of water quality in these streams. Because historical mine-waste piles have had long-term exposure to the atmosphere, it is surmised that runoff from these piles, induced by meteorological events such as cloudbursts and snowmelt, may cause mobility of acid and metals into a watershed due to dissolution of soluble minerals. For this study, 13 mine-waste composite samples from various mine-wastes in these drainage basins were leached using both a short-term and a long-term leach test. Analytical results from this combination of leach tests are tools that allow the investigator to quantify (fingerprint) which geochemical components could be expected in runoff from these piles if they were leached by a cloudburst (5-minute leach test), as well as what the ?worst-case? geochemical profile would look like if the material were subject to extended leaching and breakdown of the mine-waste material (18-hour leach test). Also, this combination of leach tests allows the geoscientist the ability to see geochemical changes in the mine-waste leachate over time. That is, does the leachate become more or less acidic over time; does the specific conductance increase or decrease; and are there changes in the concentrations of major or trace elements? Further, use of a ranking scheme described herein will aid in prediction of which historical mine-waste piles have the greatest potential for impact on a watershed should runoff occur. Because of long-term weathering of these historical mine-waste piles, geochemical profiles, leachate time-trends, and relative ranking of the mine-wastes produced from analysis of the leachates are Hageman_SIR_2508.doc 1 7/21/2004 2:50 PM indicative of how the mine-waste piles can be expected to act in the environment and may help to

  9. Water chemistry - Thornton Creek Restoration Project Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA has designed and is currently implementing a hyporheic monitoring plan for the Thornton Creek watershed in North Seattle. This work is being conducted for...

  10. Aquatic Invertebrates - Thornton Creek Restoration Project Effectiveness Monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA has designed and is currently implementing a hyporheic monitoring plan for the Thornton Creek watershed in North Seattle. This work is being conducted for...

  11. Subinertial canyon resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Allan J.; Van Gorder, Stephen

    2016-04-01

    Near the bottom of a narrow canyon currents that oscillate back and forth along the bottom slope hx in a stratified ocean of buoyancy frequency N do so with a natural internal gravitational frequency Nhx. From May 2012 to May 2013 Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler measurements were made at 715 m depth in the deep narrow part of the DeSoto Canyon south of Pensacola, Florida, in water with 2π/Nhx ≈ 2.5 days. Above the canyon the flow follows the large-scale isobaths, but beneath the canyon rim the current oscillates along the canyon axis with 2-3 day periodicity, and is much stronger than and uncorrelated with the overlying flow. A simple theoretical model explains the resonant response. Published observations from the Hudson and Gully canyons suggest that the strong subinertial current oscillations observed in these canyons occur close to the relevant local frequency Nhx, consistent with the proposed simple model physics.

  12. A landscape perspective of the stream corridor invasion and habitat characteristics of an exotic (Dioscorea oppositifolia) in a pristine watershed in Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J.R.; Middleton, B.; Gibson, D.J.

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution of exotics across riparian landscapes is not uniform, and research elaborating the environmental constraints and dispersal behavior that underlie these patterns of distribution is warranted. This study examined the spatial distribution, growth patterns, and habitat constraints of populations of the invasive Dioscorea oppositifolia in a forested stream corridor of a tributary of Drury Creek in Giant City State Park, IL. The distribution of D. oppositifolia was determined at the watershed scale mainly by floodplain structure and connectivity. Populations of D. oppositifolia were confined to the floodplain, with overbank flooding from the stream. Dioscorea oppositifolia probably originates in disturbed areas upstream of natural corridors, and subsequently, the species disperses downstream into pristine canyons or ravines via bulbils dispersing in the water. In Giant City State Park, populations of D. oppositifolia were distributed on the floodplain across broad gradients of soil texture, light, slope, and potential radiation. The study also examined the longevity of bulbils in various micro-environments to illuminate strategies for the management of the species in invaded watersheds. After 1 year, the highest percentages of bulbils were viable under leaves, and much lower percentages were viable over leaves, in soil, and in the creek (76.0??6.8, 21.2??9.6, 21.6??3.6, and 5.2??5.2%), respectively. This study suggests that management procedures that reduce leaf litter on the forest floor (e.g., prescribed burning) could reduce the number of bulbils of D. oppositifolia stored in the watershed. ?? Springer 2006.

  13. Panther Creek, Idaho, Habitat Rehabilitation, Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reiser, Dudley W.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to achieve full chinook salmon and steelhead trout production in the Panther Creek, Idaho, basin. Plans were developed to eliminate the sources of toxic effluent entering Panther Creek. Operation of a cobalt-copper mine since the 1930's has resulted in acid, metal-bearing drainage entering the watershed from underground workings and tailings piles. The report discusses plans for eliminating and/or treating the effluent to rehabilitate the water quality of Panther Creek and allow the reestablishment of salmon and trout spawning runs. (ACR)

  14. Impact of oil and gas infrastructure development in La Manga Canyon, NM

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Manga Canyon is a small watershed (~20km2) in the San Juan Basin that has historically been developed for natural gas and recently for coal bed methane. Since gas production began in the 1940s, an extensive network of dirt roads have transected the watershed, providing access to well sites. There...

  15. Optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure to reduce impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality: An application to the Trail Creek Watershed, Indiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaoze; Theller, Lawrence O; Pijanowski, Bryan C; Engel, Bernard A

    2016-05-15

    The adverse impacts of urbanization and climate change on hydrology and water quality can be mitigated by applying green infrastructure practices. In this study, the impacts of land use change and climate change on hydrology and water quality in the 153.2 km(2) Trail Creek watershed located in northwest Indiana were estimated using the Long-Term Hydrologic Impact Assessment-Low Impact Development 2.1 (L-THIA-LID 2.1) model for the following environmental concerns: runoff volume, Total Suspended Solids (TSS), Total Phosphorous (TP), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN), and Nitrate+Nitrite (NOx). Using a recent 2001 land use map and 2050 land use forecasts, we found that land use change resulted in increased runoff volume and pollutant loads (8.0% to 17.9% increase). Climate change reduced runoff and nonpoint source pollutant loads (5.6% to 10.2% reduction). The 2050 forecasted land use with current rainfall resulted in the largest runoff volume and pollutant loads. The optimal selection and placement of green infrastructure practices using L-THIA-LID 2.1 model were conducted. Costs of applying green infrastructure were estimated using the L-THIA-LID 2.1 model considering construction, maintenance, and opportunity costs. To attain the same runoff volume and pollutant loads as in 2001 land uses for 2050 land uses, the runoff volume, TSS, TP, TKN, and NOx for 2050 needed to be reduced by 10.8%, 14.4%, 13.1%, 15.2%, and 9.0%, respectively. The corresponding annual costs of implementing green infrastructure to achieve the goals were $2.1, $0.8, $1.6, $1.9, and $0.8 million, respectively. Annual costs of reducing 2050 runoff volume/pollutant loads were estimated, and results show green infrastructure annual cost greatly increased for larger reductions in runoff volume and pollutant loads. During optimization, the most cost-efficient green infrastructure practices were selected and implementation levels increased for greater reductions of runoff and nonpoint source pollutants.

  16. Water quality and benthic macroinvertebrate bioassessment of Gallinas Creek, San Miguel County, New Mexico, 1987-90

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garn, H.S.; Jacobi, G.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Upper Gallinas Creek in north-central New Mexico serves as the public water supply for the City of Las Vegas. The majority of this 84-square-mile watershed is within national forest lands managed by the U.S. Forest Service. In 1985, the Forest Service planned to conduct timber harvesting in the headwaters of Gallinas Creek. The City of Las Vegas was concerned about possible effects from logging on water quality and on water-supply treatment costs. The U.S. Geological Survey began a cooperative study in 1987 to (1) assess the baseline water-quality characteristics of Gallinas Creek upstream from the Las Vegas water-supply diversion, (2) relate water quality to State water- quality standards, and (3) determine possible causes for spatial differences in quality. During 1987-90, water-quality constituents and aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates were collected and analyzed at five sampling sites in the watershed. Specific conductance, pH, total hardness, total alkalinity, and calcium concentrations increased in a downstream direction, probably in response to differences in geology in the watershed. The water-quality standard for temperature was exceeded at the two most downstream sites probably due to a lack of riparian vegetation and low streamflow conditions. The standards for pH and turbidity were exceeded at all sites except the most upstream one. Concentrations of nitrogen species and phosphorus generally were small at all sites. The maximum total nitrogen concentration of 2.1 milligrams per liter was at the mouth of Porvenir Canyon; only one sample at this site exceeded the water-quality standard for total inorganic nitrogen. At each of the sites, 10 to 15 percent of the samples exceeded the total phosphorus standard of less than 0.1 milligram per liter. Except for aluminum and iron, almost all samples tested for trace elements contained concentrations less than the laboratory detection limit. No trace-element concentrations exceeded the State standard for domestic

  17. Flow in bedrock canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, Jeremy G; Rennie, Colin D; Bomhof, James; Bradley, Ryan W; Little, Malcolm; Church, Michael

    2014-09-25

    Bedrock erosion in rivers sets the pace of landscape evolution, influences the evolution of orogens and determines the size, shape and relief of mountains. A variety of models link fluid flow and sediment transport processes to bedrock incision in canyons. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are increasingly well developed. In contrast, the model components being used to represent fluid flow are largely untested because there are no observations of the flow structure in bedrock canyons. Here we present a 524-kilometre, continuous centreline, acoustic Doppler current profiler survey of the Fraser Canyon in western Canada, which includes 42 individual bedrock canyons. Our observations of three-dimensional flow structure reveal that, as water enters the canyons, a high-velocity core follows the bed surface, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities near the bed and low velocities at the surface). The plunging water then upwells along the canyon walls, resulting in counter-rotating, along-stream coherent flow structures that diverge near the bed. The resulting flow structure promotes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor and undercutting of the canyon walls. This provides a mechanism for channel widening and ensures that the base of the walls is swept clear of the debris that is often deposited there, keeping the walls nearly vertical. These observations reveal that the flow structure in bedrock canyons is more complex than assumed in the models presently used. Fluid flow models that capture the essence of the three-dimensional flow field, using simple phenomenological rules that are computationally tractable, are required to capture the dynamic coupling between flow, bedrock erosion and solid-Earth dynamics.

  18. Erosion Rates Over Millennial and Decadal Timescales: Measurements at Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, K. L.; Kirchner, J. W.; Finkel, R. C.

    2003-12-01

    Erosion rate measurements are essential for modeling landscape evolution and for discerning how sediment loading affects stream ecosystems. Cosmogenic nuclides such as 10Be in stream sediments can be used to measure whole-catchment erosion rates averaged over thousands of years, a timescale that is unobservable by other methods. Comparing long-term erosion rates from cosmogenic nuclides with short-term sediment yields can shed light on erosional processes and on the effects of land use on sediment delivery to streams. Using cosmogenic 10Be, we measured erosion rates averaged over the past several thousand years at Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek in Northern California. Sediment yields have also been measured at Caspar Creek since 1963 using sediment trapping and gauging methods, and sediment yield data have been collected at Redwood Creek since 1974. The cosmogenic 10Be signature of Caspar Creek sediments indicates an average erosion rate of 0.13 mm/yr, which agrees with the short-term sediment yield data within error. The cosmogenic 10Be signature of Redwood Creek sediments implies an average long-term erosion rate of 0.3 mm/yr, which is in rough agreement with traditional measurements of stream sediment flux. These results imply that the rate of sediment delivery to Caspar Creek and Redwood Creek over the past few decades is broadly consistent with the long-term average rate of sediment production in these watersheds.

  19. Estimating pothole wetland connectivity to Pipestem Creek, North Dakota: an isotopic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding how reliant stream flow is on wetlands within their watershed. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water to examine hydrologic connectivity within Pipestem Creek, Nort...

  20. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps and human health hazards associated with uranium exploration and mining, Red, White, and Fry Canyons, southeastern Utah, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beisner, Kimberly R.; Marston, Thomas M.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Freeman, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    During May, June, and July 2007, 58 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium mine waste dumps, background sites, and adjacent streambeds in Red, White, and Fry Canyons in southeastern Utah. The objectives of this sampling program were to (1) assess the nonpoint-source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial drainage basins from uranium waste dumps and (2) assess potential effects on human health due to recreational activities on and around uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste-dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for major and trace elements at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah. A subset of the solid-phase samples also were digested with strong acids and analyzed for major ions and trace elements at the U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Division Laboratory in Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential for uranium waste dumps, results of leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic-life and drinking-water-quality standards. To assess potential effects on human health, solid-phase digestion values for uranium were compared to soil screening levels (SSL) computed using the computer model RESRAD 6.5 for a probable concentration of radium. One or more chemical constituents exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards in approximately 64 percent (29/45) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were located in Red Canyon. Approximately 69 percent (31/45) of the strong acid digestible soil concentration values were greater than a calculated

  1. Estimates of natural streamflow at two streamgages on the Esopus Creek, New York, water years 1932 to 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Douglas A.; Gazoorian, Christopher L.

    2015-01-01

    Streamflow in the Esopus Creek watershed is altered by two major watershed management activities carried out by the New York City Department of Environmental Protection as part of its responsibility to maintain a water supply for New York City: (1) diversion of water from the Schoharie Creek watershed to the Esopus Creek through the Shandaken Tunnel, and (2) impoundment of the Esopus Creek by a dam that forms the Ashokan Reservoir and subsequent release through the Catskill Aqueduct. Stakeholders in the Catskill region are interested and concerned about the extent to which these watershed management activities have altered streamflow, especially low and high flows, in the Esopus Creek. To address these concerns, natural (in the absence of diversion and impoundment) daily discharge from October 1, 1931, to September 30, 2012, was estimated for the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages at Coldbrook (station number 01362500), downstream of the Shandaken Tunnel discharge, and at Mount Marion (01364500), downstream of the Ashokan Reservoir.

  2. A Creek to Bay Biological Assessment in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahumada, E.; Ramirez, N.; Lopez, A.; Avila, M.; Ramirez, J.; Arroyo, D.; Bracho, H.; Casanova, A.; Pierson, E.

    2011-12-01

    In 2007, the Surface Water Ambient Monitoring Program (SWAMP) assessed the impact of trash on water quality in the Peralta Creek which is located in the Fruitvale district of Oakland, CA. This 2011 follow-up study will take further steps in evaluating the physical and biological impacts of pollution and human development on Peralta Creek and in the San Leandro Bay, where the Creek empties into the larger San Francisco Bay estuary. This study will utilize two forms of biological assessment in order to determine the level of water quality and ecosystem health of Peralta Creek and San Leandro Bay in Oakland, California. A Rapid Bioassesment Protocal (RBP) will be used as the method of biological assessment for Peralta Creek. RBP uses a biotic index of benthic macroinvertebrates to provide a measure of a water body's health. Larval trematodes found in two mud snails (Ilynassa obsoleta and Cerithidea californica) will be used to evaluate the health of the San Leandro Bay. Due to the complex life cycle of trematodes, the measure of trematode diversity and richness in host species serves as an indicator of estuarine health (Huspeni 2005). We have completed the assessment of one section of Peralta Creek, located at 2465 34th Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601. Abundance results indicate a moderately healthy creek because there were high levels of pollution tolerant benthic macroinvertebrates. The tolerant group of benthic macroinvertebrates includes such organisms as flatworms, leeches, and scuds. This is possibly due to this section of the creek being pumped up to the surface from culverts impacting the macroinvertebrate's life cycle. Another contributing factor to creek health is the amount of organic debris found in the creek, which inhibits the flow and oxygenation of the water, allowing for more pollution tolerant aquatic insects to persist. Further investigation is being conducted to fully assess the Peralta Creek watershed; from the preliminary results one can surmise that

  3. Effects of environmental protection on forest management costs in the Nehalliston creek watershed: An analysis. FERIC special report No. SR-95, and Working paper No. WP-6-008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thibodeau, E.D.

    1994-12-31

    This report presents results of a study investigating the economic impacts of environmental protection on forest management for a typical watershed in the interior of British Columbia. The study compares three scenarios representing past, present, and future generations of integrated resource management guidelines. Specific objectives of the study were to analyze, describe, and compare the sustainable flow of harvested timber over a 120-year period from the watershed, and to estimate and compare the annual costs of harvesting and related management activities for the first 20 years of each scenario. The study estimated sustainable harvest volumes over a full rotation using the ATLAS (A Tactical Landscape Analysis System) computer model.

  4. Report on the biological monitoring program for Bear Creek at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 1989-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinzman, R.L. [ed.; Beauchamp, J.J.; Cada, G.F.; Peterson, M.J. [and others

    1996-04-01

    The Bear Creek Valley watershed drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in the Bear Creek Valley resulted in the contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Ecological monitoring by the Biological Monitoring and Abatement Program (BMAP) was initiated in the Bear Creek watershed in May 1984 and continues at present. Studies conducted during the first year provided a detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek. The initial characterization was followed by a biological monitoring phase in which studies were conducted at reduced intensities.

  5. DCS Hydraulics Submission for Bates Canyon Creek Tooele County, Utah

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Hydrology data include spatial datasets and data tables necessary for documenting the hydrologic procedures for estimating flood discharges for a flood insurance...

  6. Application of watershed modeling system (WMS) for integrated management of a watershed in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erturk, Ali; Gurel, Melike; Baloch, Mansoor Ahmed; Dikerler, Teoman; Varol, Evren; Akbulut, Neslihan; Tanik, Aysegul

    2006-01-01

    Watershed models, that enable the quantification of current and future pollution loading impacts, are essential tools to address the functions and conflicts faced in watershed planning and management. In this study, the Watershed Modeling System (WMS) version 7.1 was used for the delineation of boundaries of Koycegiz Lake-Dalyan Lagoon watershed located in the southwest of Turkey at the Mediterranean Sea coast. A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was created for one of the major streams of the watershed, namely, Kargicak Creek by using WMS, and DEM data were further used to extract stream networks and delineate the watershed boundaries. Typical properties like drainage areas, characteristic length and slope of sub-drainage areas have also been determined to be used as model inputs in hydrological and diffuse pollution modeling. Besides, run-off hydrographs for the sub-drainages have been calculated using the Rational Method, which produces valuable data for calculating the time variable inflow and input pollution loads to be further utilized in the future water quality models of the Creek. Application of WMS in the study has shown that, it is capable to visualize the results in establishing watershed management strategies.

  7. [Beaver Creek Project Flumes

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pictures of installed Parshall flumes and structures for the Beaver Creek Project at Browns Park National Wildlife Refuge for the Beaver Creek, Jarvie, DeJournette...

  8. Hydrologic resilience of a Canadian Foothills watershed to forest harvest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodbrand, Amy; Anderson, Axel

    2016-04-01

    Recent investigations of long-term hydrometeorological, groundwater, and streamflow data from watersheds on the eastern slopes of the Canadian Rocky Mountains showed the streamflow regime was resilient to forest harvest. These watersheds had low levels of harvest relative to their size and a large area of sparsely vegetated alpine talus slopes and exposed bedrock; an area shown to generate the majority of runoff for streamflow. In contrast, watersheds located in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains are of lower relief and typically have harvestable timber throughout the watershed; therefore, these watersheds may be more sensitive to forest disturbance and have increased potential for streamflow response. This project assesses the hydrologic resilience of an Alberta Foothills watershed to forest harvest using a 23-year dataset from the Tri-Creeks Experimental Watershed (Tri-Creeks). Tri-Creeks has been the site of intensive streamflow, groundwater, snow accumulation, and precipitation observations from 1967 - 1990. During the early 1980s, forestry experiments were conducted to compare the effects of timber harvest and riparian buffers, and the effectiveness of timber harvesting ground rules in protecting fisheries and maintaining water resources within three sub-watersheds: Eunice (16.8 km2; control); Deerlick (15.2 km2; 36% streamside timber removal); and, Wampus (28.3 km2; 37% clear-cut). Statistical analyses were used to compare the pre-and post-harvest ratios of treatment to control sub-watershed runoff for: water year, monthly (April - October), snowmelt peak flow, and low flow (10th percentile streamflow) periods as an assessment of hydrologic resilience to forest harvest. The only significant post-harvest change was an increase in water yield during May at Wampus (Mann-Whitney (MW), pforest harvest. We hypothesize on the processes and characteristics that result in this watershed to exhibit greater resilience compared to other forested watersheds.

  9. Watershed District

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Boundaries show on this map are derived from legal descriptions contained in petitions to the Kansas Secretary of State for the creation or extension of watershed...

  10. Watershed Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    Investigating local watersheds presents middle school students with authentic opportunities to engage in inquiry and address questions about their immediate environment. Investigation activities promote learning in an investigations interdisciplinary context as students explore relationships among chemical, biological, physical, geological, and…

  11. An exhumed Late Paleozoic canyon in the rocky mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soreghan, G.S.; Sweet, D.E.; Marra, K.R.; Eble, C.F.; Soreghan, M.J.; Elmore, R.D.; Kaplan, S.A.; Blum, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Landscapes are thought to be youthful, particularly those of active orogenic belts. Unaweep Canyon in the Colorado Rocky Mountains, a large gorge drained by two opposite-flowing creeks, is an exception. Its origin has long been enigmatic, but new data indicate that it is an exhumed late Paleozoic landform. Its survival within a region of profound late Paleozoic orogenesis demands a reassessment of tectonic models for the Ancestral Rocky Mountains, and its form and genesis have significant implications for understanding late Paleozoic equatorial climate. This discovery highlights the utility of paleogeomorphology as a tectonic and climatic indicator. ?? 2007 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  12. Post project evaluation, Miller Creek, California : assessment of stream bed morphology, and recommendations for future study

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Wan-chih; Pope-Daum, Caitilin

    2004-01-01

    Miller creek is located in Marin County, California, and runs east from Big Rock Ridge through the Laws Gallinas Valley and into the San Pablo Bay. The Miller Creek watershed has been grazed continuously since the 1800s, and the creek has experienced sever widening and down cutting as a result. The miller Creek restoration Project, located in the Lucas Valley Estates subdivision and designed and built from 1979 to 1989, employed a multi-stage channel approach to restore and protect a riparian...

  13. The Whittard Canyon - A case study of submarine canyon processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V. A. I.; Allcock, A. L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J. S.; Danovaro, R.; De Stigter, H. C.; Duineveld, G. C. A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A. J.; Gunton, L. M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K. L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C. E.; Lavaleye, M. S. S.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A. M.

    2016-08-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communities but owing to our lack of understanding of the processes shaping and driving this diversity, appropriate management strategies have yet to be developed. Here, we integrate all the current knowledge of one single system, the Whittard Canyon (Celtic Margin, NE Atlantic), including the latest research on its geology, sedimentology, geomorphology, oceanography, ecology, and biodiversity in order to address this issue. The Whittard Canyon is an active system in terms of sediment transport. The net suspended sediment transport is mainly up-canyon causing sedimentary overflow in some upper canyon areas. Occasionally sediment gravity flow events do occur, some possibly the result of anthropogenic activity. However, the role of these intermittent gravity flows in transferring labile organic matter to the deeper regions of the canyon appears to be limited. More likely, any labile organic matter flushed downslope in this way becomes strongly diluted with bulk material and is therefore of little food value for benthic fauna. Instead, the fresh organic matter found in the Whittard Channel mainly arrives through vertical deposition and lateral transport of phytoplankton blooms that occur in the area during spring and summer. The response of the Whittard Canyon fauna to these processes is different in different groups. Foraminiferal abundances are higher in the upper parts of the canyon and on the slope than in the lower canyon. Meiofaunal abundances in the upper and middle part of the canyon are higher than on adjacent slopes, but lower in the deepest part. Mega- and macrofauna abundances are higher in the canyon compared with the adjacent slope and are higher in the eastern than

  14. Healthy Watersheds Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Healthy Watersheds Protection (HWP) Share ... live in a watershed — thus watershed condition is important to everyone. Watersheds exist at different geographic scales, ...

  15. DCS HYDRAULICS SUBMISSION FOR, KINGS CANYON CREEEK, ASH CANYON CREE, AND VICEE CANYON CREEK, CITY OF CARSON CITY, NV

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Recent developments in digital terrain and geospatial database management technology make it possible to protect this investment for existing and future projects to...

  16. New York Canyon Stimulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raemy, Bernard

    2012-06-21

    The New York Canyon Stimulation Project was to demonstrate the commercial application of Enhanced Geothermal System techniques in Buena Vista Valley area of Pershing County, Nevada. From October 2009 to early 2012, TGP Development Company aggressively implemented Phase I of Pre-Stimulation and Site/Wellbore readiness. This included: geological studies; water studies and analyses and procurement of initial permits for drilling. Oversubscription of water rights and lack of water needed for implementation of EGS were identified and remained primary obstacles. Despite extended efforts to find alternative solutions, the water supply circumstances could not be overcome and led TGP to determine a "No Go" decision and initiate project termination in April 2012.

  17. SEDIMENT SOURCES IN AN URBANIZING, MIXED LAND-USE WATERSHED. (R825284)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThe Issaquah Creek watershed is a rapidly urbanizing watershed of 144 km2 in western Washington, where sediment aggradation of the main channel and delivery of fine sediment into a large downstream lake have raised increasingly frequent concern...

  18. Macroinvertebrate community sample collection methods and data collected from Sand Creek and Medano Creek, Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Colorado, 2005–07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Morgan A.; Zuellig, Robert E.; Walters, David M.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-08-11

    This report provides a table of site descriptions, sample information, and semiquantitative aquatic macroinvertebrate data from 105 samples collected between 2005 and 2007 from 7 stream sites within the Sand Creek and Medano Creek watersheds in Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve, Saguache County, Colorado. Additionally, a short description of sample collection methods and laboratory sample processing procedures is presented. These data were collected in anticipation of assessing the potential effects of fish toxicants on macroinvertebrates.

  19. 2010 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Diablo Canyon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Diablo Canyon (2010), and San...

  20. Effects of changing land use on the microbial water quality of tidal creeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiDonato, Guy T; Stewart, Jill R; Sanger, Denise M; Robinson, Brian J; Thompson, Brian C; Holland, A Frederick; Van Dolah, Robert F

    2009-01-01

    Population growth along the southeastern United States coast has precipitated the conversion of forested watersheds to suburban and urban ones. This study sampled creeks representing forested, suburban, and urban watersheds along a longitudinal gradient for indicators of water quality, including traditional indicator bacteria (fecal coliforms and enterococci) and alternative viral indicators (male-specific and somatic coliphages). Tested microorganisms were generally distributed with highest concentrations in creek headwaters and in more developed watersheds. The headwaters also showed the strongest predictive relationship between indicator concentrations and urbanization as measured by impervious cover. A seasonal pattern was observed for indicator bacteria but not for indicator viruses. Coliphage typing indicated the likely source of contamination was nonhuman. Results suggest that headwater creeks can serve as sentinel habitat, signaling early warning of public health concerns from land-based anthropogenic activities. This study also implies the potential to eventually forecast indicator concentrations under land use change scenarios.

  1. Small Mammal Sampling in Mortandad and Los Alamos Canyons, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Kathy; Sherwood, Sherri; Robinson, Rhonda

    2006-08-15

    As part of an ongoing ecological field investigation at Los Alamos National Laboratory, a study was conducted that compared measured contaminant concentrations in sediment to population parameters for small mammals in the Mortandad Canyon watershed. Mortandad Canyon and its tributary canyons have received contaminants from multiple solid waste management units and areas of concern since establishment of the Laboratory in the 1940s. The study included three reaches within Effluent and Mortandad canyons (E-1W, M-2W, and M-3) that had a spread in the concentrations of metals and radionuclides and included locations where polychlorinated biphenyls and perchlorate had been detected. A reference location, reach LA-BKG in upper Los Alamos Canyon, was also included in the study for comparison purposes. A small mammal study was initiated to assess whether potential adverse effects were evident in Mortandad Canyon due to the presence of contaminants, designated as contaminants of potential ecological concern, in the terrestrial media. Study sites, including the reference site, were sampled in late July/early August. Species diversity and the mean daily capture rate were the highest for E-1W reach and the lowest for the reference site. Species composition among the three reaches in Mortandad was similar with very little overlap with the reference canyon. Differences in species composition and diversity were most likely due to differences in habitat. Sex ratios, body weights, and reproductive status of small mammals were also evaluated. However, small sample sizes of some species within some sites affected the analysis. Ratios of males to females by species of each site (n = 5) were tested using a Chi-square analysis. No differences were detected. Where there was sufficient sample size, body weights of adult small mammals were compared between sites. No differences in body weights were found. Reproductive status of species appears to be similar across sites. However, sample

  2. Ecological effects of contaminants and remedial actions in Bear Creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Southworth, G.R.; Loar, J.M.; Ryon, M.G.; Smith, J.G.; Stewart, A.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Burris, J.A. (C. E. Environmental, Inc., Tallahassee, FL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Ecological studies of the Bear Creek watershed, which drains the area surrounding several Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities, were initiated in May 1984 and are continuing at present. These studies consisted of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek, and they were followed by a presently ongoing monitoring phase that involves reduced sampling intensities. The characterization phase utilized two approaches: (1) instream sampling of benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek to identify spatial and temporal patterns in distribution and abundance and (2) laboratory bioassays on water samples from Bear Creek and selected tributaries to identify potential sources of toxicity to biota. The monitoring phase of the ecological program relates to the long-term goals of identifying and prioritizing contaminant sources and assessing the effectiveness of remedial actions. It continues activities of the characterization phase at less frequent intervals. The Bear Greek Valley is a watershed that drains the area surrounding several closed Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant waste disposal facilities. Past waste disposal practices in Bear Creek Valley resulted in contamination of Bear Creek and consequent ecological damage. Extensive remedial actions have been proposed at waste sites, and some of the have been implemented or are now underway. The proposed study plan consists of an initial, detailed characterization of the benthic invertebrate and fish communities in Bear Creek in the first year followed by a reduction in sampling intensity during the monitoring phase of the plan. The results of sampling conducted from May 1984 through early 1989 are presented in this report.

  3. Hydrology, phosphorus, and suspended solids in five agricultural streams in the Lower Fox River and Green Bay Watersheds, Wisconsin, Water Years 2004-06

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graczyk, David J.; Robertson, Dale M.; Baumgart, Paul D.; Fermanich, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    A 3-year study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey and the University of Wisconsin-Green Bay to characterize water quality in agricultural streams in the Fox/Wolf watershed in northeastern Wisconsin and provide information to assist in the calibration of a watershed model for the area. Streamflow, phosphorus, and suspended solids data were collected between October 1, 2003, and September 30, 2006, in five streams, including Apple Creek, Ashwaubenon Creek, Baird Creek, Duck Creek, and the East River. During this study, total annual precipitation was close to the 30-year normal of 29.12 inches. The 3-year mean streamflow was highest in the East River (113 ft3/s), followed by Duck Creek (58.2 ft3/s), Apple Creek (26.9 ft3/s), Baird Creek (12.8 ft3/s), and Ashwaubenon Creek (9.1 ft3/s). On a yield basis, during these three years, the East River had the highest flow (0.78 ft3/s/mi2), followed by Baird Creek (0.61 ft3/s/mi2), Apple Creek (0.59 ft3/s/mi2), Duck Creek (0.54 ft3/s/mi2), and Ashwaubenon Creek (0.46 ft3/s/mi2). The overall median total suspended solids (TSS) concentration was highest in Baird Creek (73.5 mg/L), followed by Apple and Ashwaubenon Creeks (65 mg/L), East River (40 mg/L), and Duck Creek (30 mg/L). The median total phosphorus (TP) concentration was highest in Ashwaubenon Creek (0.60 mg/L), followed by Baird Creek (0.47 mg/L), Apple Creek (0.37 mg/L), East River (0.26 mg/L), and Duck Creek (0.22 mg/L).

  4. Emergency Assessment of Debris-Flow Hazards from Basins Burned by the 2007 Canyon Fire, Los Angeles County, Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Susan H.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Michael, John A.; Bauer, Mark A.; Stitt, Susan C.; Knifong, Donna L.; McNamara, Bernard J.; Roque, Yvonne M.

    2007-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The objective of this report is to present a preliminary emergency assessment of the potential for debris-flow generation from basins burned by the Canyon Fire in Los Angeles County, southern California in 2007. Debris flows are among the most hazardous geologic phenomena; debris flows that followed wildfires in southern California in 2003 killed 16 people and caused tens of millions of dollars of property damage. A short period of even moderate rainfall on a burned watershed can lead to debris flows. Rainfall that is normally absorbed into hillslope soils can run off almost instantly after vegetation has been removed by wildfire. This causes much greater and more rapid runoff than is normal from creeks and drainage areas. Highly erodible soils in a burn scar allow flood waters to entrain large amounts of ash, mud, boulders, and unburned vegetation. Within the burned area and downstream, the force of rushing water, soil, and rock can destroy culverts, bridges, roadways, and buildings, potentially causing injury or death. This emergency debris-flow hazard assessment is presented as relative ranking of the predicted median volume of debris flows that can issue from basin outlets in response to 2.25 inches (57.15 mm) of rainfall over a 3-hour period. Such a storm has a 10-year return period. The calculation of debris flow volume is based on a multiple-regression statistical model that describes the median volume of material that can be expected from a recently burned basin as a function of the area burned at high and moderate severity, the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30 percent, and triggering storm rainfall. Cannon and others (2007) describe the methods used to generate the hazard maps. Identification of potential debris-flow hazards from burned drainage basins is necessary to issue warnings for specific basins, to make effective mitigation decisions, and to help plan evacuation timing and routes.

  5. Conservation practice establishment in two northeast Iowa watersheds: Strategies, water quality implications, and lessons learned

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gassman, P.W.; Tisl, J.A.; Palas, E.A.; Fields, C.L.; Isenhart, T.M.; Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.; Seigley, L.S.; Helmers, M.J.

    2010-01-01

    Coldwater trout streams are important natural resources in northeast Iowa. Extensive efforts have been made by state and federal agencies to protect and improve water quality in northeast Iowa streams that include Sny Magill Creek and Bloody Run Creek, which are located in Clayton County. A series of three water quality projects were implemented in Sny Magill Creek watershed during 1988 to 1999, which were supported by multiple agencies and focused on best management practice (BMP) adoption. Water quality monitoring was performed during 1992 to 2001 to assess the impact of these installed BMPs in the Sny Magill Creek watershed using a paired watershed approach, where the Bloody Run Creek watershed served as the control. Conservation practice adoption still occurred in the Bloody Run Creek watershed during the 10-year monitoring project and accelerated after the project ended, when a multiagency supported water quality project was implemented during 2002 to 2007. Statistical analysis of the paired watershed results using a pre/post model indicated that discharge increased 8% in Sny Magill Creek watershed relative to the Bloody Run Creek watershed, turbidity declined 41%, total suspended sediment declined 7%, and NOx-N (nitrate-nitrogen plus nitrite-nitrogen) increased 15%. Similar results were obtained with a gradual change statistical model.The weak sediment reductions and increased NOx-N levels were both unexpected and indicate that dynamics between adopted BMPs and stream systems need to be better understood. Fish surveys indicate that conditions for supporting trout fisheries have improved in both streams. Important lessons to be taken from the overall study include (1) committed project coordinators, agency collaborators, and landowners/producers are all needed for successful water quality projects; (2) smaller watershed areas should be used in paired studies; (3) reductions in stream discharge may be required in these systems in order for significant sediment

  6. Hydrologic data for Little Elm Creek, Trinity River basin, Texas, 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, R.M.; Hays, T.H.; Schoultz, C.T.

    1976-01-01

    This report contains rainfall, runoff, and storage data collected during the 1976 water year for a 75.5 sq mi area above the stream-gaging station Little Elm Creek near Aubrey, Texas. Floodflows from 35.7 sq mi of the area are regulated by 16 floodwater-retarding structures constructed by the Soil Conservation Service. During the 1976 water year, five storm periods were selected for detailed computations and analyses. Beginning with the 1975 water year, water-quality data is given for Little Elm Creek. Investigations in the Little Elm Creek watershed were terminated on September 30, 1976. (Woodard-USGS)

  7. Life Cycle Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Production in a Central New York State Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.

    2009-12-01

    Cumulative greenhouse gas emissions related to dairy production in the Fall Creek watershed of central New York State were calculated using a life-cycle approach for the period 1975-2001. Expressed as CO2 equivalents (CO2e), emissions include CO2, CH4 and N2O related to fertilizer manufacture and transport, bovine metabolism, volatilization and leaching losses from applied fertilizer, nitrogen dynamics in crop residues, among a myriad of sources. During the 1975-2001 period, dairy N production in the study area increased by over 20%, although crop N production in the watershed declined by 33%. This change was driven by consolidation within the dairy industry that also led to a six-fold increase in N in feed imports into the watershed during the same period. Cumulative GHG emissions related to dairy production in Fall Creek rose by about 20% over 1975-2001 to about 14,000 tons CO2e per year for the 326 km2 watershed by 2001. In 1975, about 90% of CO2e emissions related to dairy production in the Fall Creek watershed were emitted within the watershed. However, by 2001 over 50% of emissions were generated outside of the watershed, primarily as N2O emissions related to fertilizer used in the production of feed subsequently imported into Fall Creek watershed.

  8. Deepwater Canyons 2013: Pathways to the Abyss

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Leg I focused on biological objectives in Norfolk Canyon, with some sampling in Baltimore Canyon. Leg II focused on archaeological targets in and around the Norfolk...

  9. Priority List : Beaver Creek

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Priority list of water rights at Beaver Creek owned by the State of Colorado or federal Fish and Wildlife. This document also has designs for Parshall flumes and...

  10. [Little Dry Creek Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of the drainage boundary, direction of flow, canals and ditches, and streets for the drainage study plan and profile for Little Dry Creek sub area in the North...

  11. Big Creek Pit Tags

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The BCPITTAGS database is used to store data from an Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead/rainbow trout) population dynamics study in Big Creek, a coastal stream along the...

  12. Water Conservation Study for Manastash Creek Water Users, Kittias County, Washington, Final Report 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery Watson Harza (Firm)

    2002-12-31

    Manastash Creek is tributary of the Yakima River and is located southwest and across the Yakima River from the City of Ellensburg. The creek drains mountainous terrain that ranges in elevation from 2,000 feet to over 5,500 feet and is primarily snowmelt fed, with largest flows occurring in spring and early summer. The creek flows through a narrow canyon until reaching a large, open plain that slopes gently toward the Yakima River and enters the main stem of the Yakima River at river mile 154.5. This area, formed by the alluvial fan of the Creek as it leaves the canyon, is the subject of this study. The area is presently dominated by irrigated agriculture, but development pressures are evident as Ellensburg grows and develops as an urban center. Since the mid to late nineteenth century when irrigated agriculture was established in a significant manner in the Yakima River Basin, Manastash Creek has been used to supply irrigation water for farming in the area. Adjudicated water rights dating back to 1871 for 4,465 acres adjacent to Manastash Creek allow appropriation of up to 26,273 acre-feet of creek water for agricultural irrigation and stock water. The diversion of water from Manastash Creek for irrigation has created two main problems for fisheries. They are low flows or dewatered reaches of Manastash Creek and fish passage barriers at the irrigation diversion dams. The primary goal of this study, as expressed by Yakama Nation and BPA, is to reestablish safe access in tributaries of the Yakima River by removing physical barriers and unscreened diversions and by adding instream flow where needed for fisheries. The goal expressed by irrigators who would be affected by these projects is to support sustainable and profitable agricultural use of land that currently uses Manastash Creek water for irrigation. This study provides preliminary costs and recommendations for a range of alternative projects that will partially or fully meet the goal of establishing safe access

  13. Surface-water quality of coal-mine lands in Raccoon Creek Basin, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, K.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Ohio Department of Natural Resources, Division of Reclamation, plans to reclaim abandoned surface mines in the Raccoon Creek watershed in southern Ohio. Historic water-quality data collected between 1975 and 1983 were complied and analyzed in terms of eight selected mine-drainage characteristics to develop a data base for individual subbasin reclamation projects. Areas of mine drainage affecting Raccoon Creek basin, the study Sandy Run basin, the Hewett Fork basin, and the Little raccoon Creek basin. Surface-water-quality samples were collected from a 41-site network from November 1 through November 3, 1983, Results of the sampling reaffirmed that the major sources of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek are in the Little Raccoon Creek basin, and the Hewett Fork basin. However, water quality at the mouth of Sandy Run indicated that it is not a source of mine drainage to Raccoon Creek. Buffer Run, Goose Run, an unnamed tributary to Little Raccoon Creek, Mulga Run, and Sugar Run were the main sources of mine drainage sampled in the Little Raccoon Creek basin. All sites sampled in the East Branch Raccoon Creek basin were affected by mine drainage. This information was used to prepare a work plan for additional data collection before, during, and after reclamation. The data will be used to define the effectiveness of reclamation effects in the basin.

  14. Flood-frequency analyses from paleoflood investigations for Spring, Rapid, Boxelder, and Elk Creeks, Black Hills, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Tessa M.; O'Connor, Jim E.; Driscoll, Daniel G.; Stamm, John F.

    2011-01-01

    Flood-frequency analyses for the Black Hills area are important because of severe flooding of June 9-10, 1972, that was caused by a large mesoscale convective system and caused at least 238 deaths. Many 1972 peak flows are high outliers (by factors of 10 or more) in observed records that date to the early 1900s. An efficient means of reducing uncertainties for flood recurrence is to augment gaged records by using paleohydrologic techniques to determine ages and magnitudes of prior large floods (paleofloods). This report summarizes results of paleoflood investigations for Spring Creek, Rapid Creek (two reaches), Boxelder Creek (two subreaches), and Elk Creek. Stratigraphic records and resulting long-term flood chronologies, locally extending more than 2,000 years, were combined with observed and adjusted peak-flow values (gaged records) and historical flood information to derive flood-frequency estimates for the six study reaches. Results indicate that (1) floods as large as and even substantially larger than 1972 have affected most of the study reaches, and (2) incorporation of the paleohydrologic information substantially reduced uncertainties in estimating flood recurrence. Canyons within outcrops of Paleozoic rocks along the eastern flanks of the Black Hills provided excellent environments for (1) deposition and preservation of stratigraphic sequences of late-Holocene flood deposits, primarily in protected slack-water settings flanking the streams; and (2) hydraulic analyses for determination of associated flow magnitudes. The bedrock canyons ensure long-term stability of channel and valley geometry, thereby increasing confidence in hydraulic computations of ancient floods from modern channel geometry. Stratigraphic records of flood sequences, in combination with deposit dating by radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence, and cesium-137, provided paleoflood chronologies for 29 individual study sites. Flow magnitudes were estimated from elevations of flood

  15. 76 FR 35208 - Pacific Gas and Electric Company; Nevada Irrigation District; Notice of Environmental Site Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... Yuba River, Canyon Creek, Rucker Creek and Bear River watersheds in Nevada, Placer and Sierra Counties... some brief walking over dirt trails might be needed. Cell phone coverage in the upper and mid...

  16. Vegetation - Pine Creek WA and Fitzhugh Creek WA [ds484

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This fine-scale vegetation classification and map of the Pine Creek and Fitzhugh Creek Wildlife Areas, Modoc County, California was created following FGDC and...

  17. Extent and bioavailability of trace metal contamination due to acid rock drainage in Pennask Creek, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walls, L. D.; Li, L. Y.; Hall, K. J.

    2010-05-01

    Pennask Creek is one of the most important rainbow trout producing streams in British Columbia (BC). Much of the Pennask Creek watershed is located within a BC Parks Protected Area, which was set aside to protect the spawning and rearing habitat of this wild rainbow trout population. Construction of Highway 97C, which bisects the Pennask Creek watershed, resulted in the exposure of a highly pyritic rock formation, which began releasing acid rock drainage and causing metals to be leached into Highway Creek, a tributary of Pennask Creek. Previous studies commissioned by the BC Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure indicate that Highway Creek yields fewer invertebrates and elevated levels of some metals in the water when compared with downstream sites in Pennask Creek. This study examines the impacts of this acid rock drainage and metal leaching by determining the extent of trace metal contamination in the water and sediments of the Pennask Creek watershed and determining the bioavailability of these trace metals. Preliminary results indicate concentrations of Al, Cu, and Zn in the water as well as levels of total As, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn in the sediments that are above the BC Water and Sediment Quality Guidelines for the Protection of Aquatic Life. The highest level of trace metal contamination is found in Highway Creek, downstream of Highway 97C, with concentrations generally returning to near background levels downstream of the confluence with Pennask Creek. Levels of Cu in the water and Zn in the sediments appear to be of greatest concern in areas furthest from the highway.

  18. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    map area also includes Portuguese Ledge and Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Areas. Designated conservation and (or) recreation areas in the onshore part of the map area include Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Conservation Area, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Reserve, Moss Landing Wildlife Area, Zmudowski and Salinas River State Beaches, and Marina Dunes Preserve.Monterey Bay, a geologically complex area within a tectonically active continental margin, lies between two major, converging strike-slip faults. The northwest-striking San Andreas Fault lies about 34 km east of Monterey Bay; this section of the fault ruptured in both the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake and the 1906 M7.8 great California earthquake. The northwest-striking San Gregorio Fault crosses Monterey Canyon west of Monterey Bay. Between these two regional faults, strain is accommodated by the northwest-striking Monterey Bay Fault Zone. Deformation associated with these major regional faults and related structures has resulted in uplift of the Santa Cruz Mountains, as well as the granitic highlands of the Monterey peninsula.Monterey Canyon begins in the nearshore area directly offshore of Moss Landing and Elkhorn Slough, and it can be traced for more than 400 km seaward, out to water depths of more than 4,000 m. Within the map area, the canyon can be traced for about 42 km to a water depth of about 1,520 m. The head of the canyon consists of three branches that begin about 150 m offshore of Moss Landing Harbor. At 500 m offshore, the canyon is already 70 m deep and 750 m wide. Large sand waves, which have heights from 1 to 3 m and wavelengths of about 50 m, are present along the channel axis in the upper 4 km of the canyon.Soquel Canyon is the most prominent tributary of Monterey Canyon within the map area. The head of Soquel Canyon is isolated from coastal watersheds and, thus, is considered inactive as a conduit for coarse sediment transport.North and south of

  19. California State Waters Map Series--Hueneme Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine E.; Phillips, Eleyne L.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Greene, H. Gary; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Endris, Charles A.; Clahan, Kevin B.; Sliter, Ray W.; Wong, Florence L.; Yoklavich, Mary M.; Normark, William R.

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, the California Ocean Protection Council initiated the California Seafloor Mapping Program (CSMP), designed to create a comprehensive seafloor map of high-resolution bathymetry, marine benthic habitats, and geology within the 3-nautical-mile limit of California's State Waters. The CSMP approach is to create highly detailed seafloor maps through collection, integration, interpretation, and visualization of swath sonar data, acoustic backscatter, seafloor video, seafloor photography, high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles, and bottom-sediment sampling data. The map products display seafloor morphology and character, identify potential marine benthic habitats, and illustrate both the surficial seafloor geology and shallow (to about 100 m) subsurface geology. The Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area lies within the eastern Santa Barbara Channel region of the Southern California Bight. The area is part of the Western Transverse Ranges geologic province, which is north of the California Continental Borderland. Significant clockwise rotation - at least 90° - since the early Miocene has been proposed for the Western Transverse Ranges, and the region is presently undergoing north-south shortening. This geologically complex region forms a major biogeographic transition zone, separating the cold-temperate Oregonian province north of Point Conception from the warm-temperate California province to the south. The map area, which is offshore of the Oxnard plain and west of and along the trend of the south flank of the Santa Monica Mountains, lies at the east end of the Santa Barbara littoral cell, characterized by west-to-east littoral transport of sediment derived mainly from coastal watersheds. The Hueneme Canyon and vicinity map area in California's State Waters is characterized by two major physiographic features: (1) the nearshore continental shelf, and (2) the Hueneme and Mugu Submarine Canyon system, which, in the map area, includes Hueneme Canyon and parts

  20. Geomorphic process fingerprints in submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brothers, Daniel S.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Andrews, Brian D.; Chaytor, Jason D.; Twichell, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Submarine canyons are common features of continental margins worldwide. They are conduits that funnel vast quantities of sediment from the continents to the deep sea. Though it is known that submarine canyons form primarily from erosion induced by submarine sediment flows, we currently lack quantitative, empirically based expressions that describe the morphology of submarine canyon networks. Multibeam bathymetry data along the entire passive US Atlantic margin (USAM) and along the active central California margin near Monterey Bay provide an opportunity to examine the fine-scale morphology of 171 slope-sourced canyons. Log–log regression analyses of canyon thalweg gradient (S) versus up-canyon catchment area (A) are used to examine linkages between morphological domains and the generation and evolution of submarine sediment flows. For example, canyon reaches of the upper continental slope are characterized by steep, linear and/or convex longitudinal profiles, whereas reaches farther down canyon have distinctly concave longitudinal profiles. The transition between these geomorphic domains is inferred to represent the downslope transformation of debris flows into erosive, canyon-flushing turbidity flows. Over geologic timescales this process appears to leave behind a predictable geomorphic fingerprint that is dependent on the catchment area of the canyon head. Catchment area, in turn, may be a proxy for the volume of sediment released during geomorphically significant failures along the upper continental slope. Focused studies of slope-sourced submarine canyons may provide new insights into the relationships between fine-scale canyon morphology and down-canyon changes in sediment flow dynamics.

  1. Contribution of base flow to nonpoint source pollution loads in an agricultural watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, K.E.; Wolter, C.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source pollution from base flow ground water was estimated in the Walnut Creek watershed by measuring chemical loads of atrazine, nitrate, chloride, and sulfate at 18 tributary creeks and 19 tiles. Loads were measured during a stable base flow period at creeks and files that discharged into Walnut Creek between two stream gauges. Chemical concentrations of atrazine (restored prairie areas. Three methods were used to estimate base flow discharge in the watershed: (1) Darcy flux; (2) watershed discharge budget; and (3) discharge-drainage area; each yielded similar results (31.2 L/s to 62.3 L/s). Base flow loads to the main channel were estimated by subtracting the loads from the upstream gauge; creeks and tiles, from the total load measured at the downstream gauge station. Base flow concentration for atrazine ranged from 0.15 to 0.29 ??g/L and sulfate concentration ranged from 32 to 64 mg/L, whereas concentrations for nitrate and chloride were negative (-1 to -4 mg/L). Calculated base flow concentrations of atrazine and sulfate appeared to be reasonable estimates, but negative concentrations of nitrate and chloride imply either loss of chemical mass in the stream from upstream to downstream sampling points or measurement error. Load data suggest little contribution from base flow pollutants to Walnut Creek water quality, with most of the pollutant load derived from major tributary creeks. Results from this study have implications for determining total maximum daily loads in agricultural watersheds where contributions from point sources (creeks and tiles) can he used to estimate loads from nonpoint source ground water inputs.Nonpoint source pollution of surface water from overland flow, drainage tiles, and ground water discharge is a major cause of water quality impairment in Iowa. Nonpoint source

  2. Evaluation of thrusting and folding of the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault, Sangre de Cristo range, Saguache County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigel, Jacob F., II

    The Deadman Creek Thrust Fault was mapped in a structural window on the west side of the Sangre de Cristo Range. The study area, located in southern Colorado, is a two square mile area halfway between the town of Crestone and the Great Sand Dunes National Park. The Deadman Creek Thrust Fault is the center of this study because it delineates the fold structure in the structural window. The fault is a northeast-directed low-angle thrust folded by subsequent additional compression. This study was directed at understanding the motion of the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault as affected by subsequent folding, and the driving mechanism behind the folding of the Pole Creek Anticline as part of a broader study of Laramide thrust faulting in the range. This study aids in the interpretation of the geologic structure of the San Luis Valley, which is being studied by staff of the United States Geological Survey (USGS), to understand Rio Grande Rift basin evolution by focusing on rift and pre-rift tectonic activity. It also provides a geologic interpretation for the Saguache County Forest Service, Great Sand Dunes National Park, and its visitors. The Sangre de Cristo Mountain Range has undergone tectonic events in the Proterozoic, Pennsylvanian (Ancestral Rocky Mountains), Cretaceous-Tertiary (Laramide Orogeny) and mid-Tertiary (Rio Grande Rift). During the Laramide Orogeny the Deadman Creek Thrust Fault emplaced Proterozoic gneiss over Paleozoic sedimentary rocks and Proterozoic granodiorite in the area. Continued deformation resulted in folding of the fault to form the Pole Creek Anticline. The direction of motion of both the fault and fold is northeastward. A self-consistent net of cross-sections and stereonet plots generated from existing and new field data show that the anticline is an overturned isoclinal fold in Pole Creek Canyon, which shows an increasing inter-limb angle and a more vertical axial surface northwestward toward Deadman Creek Canyon. Southwest-directed apparent

  3. Hydraulic Characteristics of the San Gregorio Creek Drainage Basin, California: a Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J. R.; Snow, M. K.; Pestrong, R.; Sklar, L. S.; Vavro, M.; Sawachi, A.; Talapian, E.; Bailey, E.

    2004-12-01

    Population pressures within the greater San Francisco Bay Area are forcing development into nearby rural communities, and are impacting local environments. This study of the San Gregorio Creek Watershed is designed as a baseline for evaluating the effect increasing development within the drainage basin has on its river system. We hope to provide evidence for that impact through laboratory and field studies that provide a snap-shot of this drainage basin's current characteristics. The San Gregorio Creek watershed, in the Coast Ranges, is located in the southwestern portion of San Mateo County, California. It drains the western slopes of the Santa Cruz Mountains, in the Coast Ranges into the Pacific Ocean at the town of San Gregorio. Most of its fingertip tributaries flow into the trunk from the north and west, with elevations as high as 2050 feet. The watershed includes an area of approximately 51.6 square miles and San Gregorio Creek, the trunk stream, is roughly 12 miles long. San Gregorio Creek is a fourth order perennial stream. It is fed by a number of major tributaries, the largest of which are Alpine, Mindego, and La Honda creeks. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a stream gauging station for San Gregorio Creek at the town of San Gregorio, where it has been monitoring stream flows for more than 30 years through its Water Resources Department. The resulting data indicate a mean discharge of 36.4 cfs. Map studies of hydraulic geometry for the drainage basin reveal geometric characteristics for San Gregorio Creek that coincide with similar streams in comparable climatic and environmental settings. Stream table studies are used to further investigate fundamental stream processes. Field studies at selected reaches throughout the drainage basin will document hydraulic characteristics. The results of this study will contribute to more comprehensive studies demonstrateing channel response to changing environmental conditions.

  4. Beyond formal groups: neighboring acts and watershed protection in Appalachia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Lukacs

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how watershed organizations in Appalachia have persisted in addressing water quality issues in areas with a history of coal mining. We identified two watershed groups that have taken responsibility for restoring local creeks that were previously highly degraded and sporadically managed. These watershed groups represent cases of self-organized commons governance in resource-rich, economically poor Appalachian communities. We describe the extent and characteristics of links between watershed group volunteers and watershed residents who are not group members. Through surveys, participant observation, and key-informant consultation, we found that neighbors – group members as well as non-group-members – supported the group's function through informal neighboring acts. Past research has shown that local commons governance institutions benefit from being nested in supportive external structures. We found that the persistence and success of community watershed organizations depends on the informal participation of local residents, affirming the necessity of looking beyond formal, organized groups to understand the resources, expertise, and information needed to address complex water pollution at the watershed level. Our findings augment the concept of nestedness in commons governance to include that of a formal organization acting as a neighbor that exchanges informal neighboring acts with local residents. In this way, we extend the concept of neighboring to include interactions between individuals and a group operating in the same geographic area.

  5. Adopt Your Watershed

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Adopt Your Watershed is a Website that encourages stewardship of the nation's water resources and serves as a national inventory of local watershed groups and...

  6. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats’ surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  7. Surface waters of North Boggy Creek basin in the Muddy Boggy Creek basin in Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, L.L.

    1958-01-01

    Analysis of short-term streamflow data in North Boggy Creek basin indicates that the average runoff in this region is substantial. The streamflow is highly variable from year to year and from month to month. The estimated total yield from the North Boggy Creek watershed of 231 square miles averages 155,000 acre-feet annually, equivalent to an average runoff depth of 12 1/2 inches. Almost a fourth of the annual volume is contributed by Chickasaw Creek basin, where about 35,000 acre-feet runs off from 46 square miles. Two years of records show a variation in runoff for the calendar year 1957 in comparison to 1956 in a ratio of 13 to 1 for the station on North Boggy Creek and a ratio of 18 to 1 for the station on Chickasaw Creek. In a longer-term record downstream on Muddy Boggy Creek near Farris, the corresponding range was 17 to 1, while the calendar years 1945 and 1956 show a 20-fold variation in runoff. Within a year the higher runoff tends to occur in the spring months, April to June, a 3-month period that, on the average, accounts for at least half of the annual flow. High runoff may occur during any month in the year, but in general, the streamflow is relatively small in the summer. Records for the gaging stations noted indicate that there is little or no base flow in the summer, and thus there will be periods of no flow at times in most years. The variation in runoff during a year is suggested by a frequency analysis of low flows at the reference station on Muddy Boggy Creek near Farris. Although the mean flow at that site is 955 cfs (cubic feet per second), the median daily flow is only 59 cfs and the lowest 30-day flow in a year will average less than 1 cfs in 4 out of 10 years on the average. The estimated mean flow on North Boggy Creek near Stringtown is 124 cfs, but the estimated median daily flow is only 3 1/2 cfs. Because of the high variability in streamflow, development of storage by impoundment will be necessary to attain maximum utilization of the

  8. TERRAIN DATA, DELANEY CREEK WATERSHED, HILLSBOROUGH COUNTY, FL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — Terrain data, as defined in FEMA Guidelines and Specifications, Appendix N: Data Capture Standards, describe the digital topographic data that were used to create...

  9. Summaries of Minnehaha Creek Watershed District Plans/Studies/Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    or structures, and these are considered to be aggrading , despite their anthropogenic origin. In total, there are five major impounded reaches and 14 of...reaches within the stable or slightly aggrading range, with a slight trend toward aggradation in the upstream reaches. This trend is mainly due to the...presence of wetlands near Lake Minnetonka and the density of impoundments upstream of Wooddale Avenue (Reach 16), all of which are rated as aggrading

  10. Analysis of Herbicide Transport from Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental impacts caused by herbicide loss from agricultural production are well documented in the surface runoff-prone claypan region. The most widely known impact was for atrazine, which caused the Mark Twain Lake to be listed in the original 303(d) list for impaired waters. While this lake ha...

  11. Ghost Dancing the Grand Canyon. Southern Paiute Rock Art, Ceremony, and Cultural Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffle; Loendorf; Austin; Halmo; Bulletts

    2000-02-01

    Combining rock art studies with ethnohistory, contemporary ethnographic analysis, and the interpretations of people who share the cultural traditions being studied, this paper documents a rock art site in Kanab Creek Canyon that appears to have been the location of a Ghost Dance ceremony performed by Southern Paiute and perhaps Hualapai people in the late 1800s. Using the site as a point of departure, it focuses on the way in which synergistic associations among place, artifact, resources, events, and historic and contemporary Indian people contribute to the construction of a contextual cultural landscape.

  12. Hydrology, Water Quality, and Surface- and Ground-Water Interactions in the Upper Hillsborough River Watershed, West-Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trommer, J.T.; Sacks, L.A.; Kuniansky, E.L.

    2007-01-01

    A study of the Hillsborough River watershed was conducted between October 1999 through September 2003 to characterize the hydrology, water quality, and interaction between the surface and ground water in the highly karstic uppermost part of the watershed. Information such as locations of ground-water recharge and discharge, depth of the flow system interacting with the stream, and water quality in the watershed can aid in prudent water-management decisions. The upper Hillsborough River watershed covers a 220-square-mile area upstream from Hillsborough River State Park where the watershed is relatively undeveloped. The watershed contains a second order magnitude spring, many karst features, poorly drained swamps, marshes, upland flatwoods, and ridge areas. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is subdivided into two major subbasins, namely, the upper Hillsborough River subbasin, and the Blackwater Creek subbasin. The Blackwater Creek subbasin includes the Itchepackesassa Creek subbasin, which in turn includes the East Canal subbasin. The upper Hillsborough River watershed is underlain by thick sequences of carbonate rock that are covered by thin surficial deposits of unconsolidated sand and sandy clay. The clay layer is breached in many places because of the karst nature of the underlying limestone, and the highly variable degree of confinement between the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers throughout the watershed. Potentiometric-surface maps indicate good hydraulic connection between the Upper Floridan aquifer and the Hillsborough River, and a poorer connection with Blackwater and Itchepackesassa Creeks. Similar water level elevations and fluctuations in the Upper Floridan and surficial aquifers at paired wells also indicate good hydraulic connection. Calcium was the dominant ion in ground water from all wells sampled in the watershed. Nitrate concentrations were near or below the detection limit in all except two wells that may have been affected by

  13. Remote sensing approach to map riparian vegetation of the Colorado River Ecosystem, Grand Canyon area, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, U.; Glenn, E.; Nagler, P. L.; Sankey, J. B.

    2015-12-01

    Riparian zones in the southwestern U.S. are usually a mosaic of vegetation types at varying states of succession in response to past floods or droughts. Human impacts also affect riparian vegetation patterns. Human- induced changes include introduction of exotic species, diversion of water for human use, channelization of the river to protect property, and other land use changes that can lead to deterioration of the riparian ecosystem. This study explored the use of remote sensing to map an iconic stretch of the Colorado River in the Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. The pre-dam riparian zone in the Grand Canyon was affected by annual floods from spring run-off from the watersheds of Green River, the Colorado River and the San Juan River. A pixel-based vegetation map of the riparian zone in the Grand Canyon, Arizona, was produced from high-resolution aerial imagery. The map was calibrated and validated with ground survey data. A seven-step image processing and classification procedure was developed based on a suite of vegetation indices and classification subroutines available in ENVI Image Processing and Analysis software. The result was a quantitative species level vegetation map that could be more accurate than the qualitative, polygon-based maps presently used on the Lower Colorado River. The dominant woody species in the Grand Canyon are now saltcedar, arrowweed and mesquite, reflecting stress-tolerant forms adapted to alternated flow regimes associated with the river regulation.

  14. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  15. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  16. H-Canyon Recovery Crawler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kriikku, E. M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hera, K. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Marzolf, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Phillips, M. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-08-01

    The Nuclear Material Disposition Project group asked the Savannah River National Lab (SRNL) Research and Development Engineering (R&DE) department to help procure, test, and deploy a remote crawler to recover the 2014 Inspection Crawler (IC) that tipped over in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. R&DE wrote a Procurement Specification for a Recovery Crawler (RC) and SRNS Procurement Department awarded the contract to Power Equipment Manufacturing Inc. (PEM). The PEM RC was based on their standard sewer inspection crawler with custom arms and forks added to the front. The arms and forks would be used to upright the 2014 Inspection Crawler. PEM delivered the RC and associated cable reel, 2014 Inspection Crawler mockup, and manuals in late April 2015. R&DE and the team tested the crawler in May of 2015 and made modifications based on test results and Savannah River Site (SRS) requirements. R&DE delivered the RC to H-Area at the end of May. The team deployed the RC on June 9, 10, and 11, 2015 in the H-Canyon Air Exhaust Tunnel. The RC struggled with some obstacles in the tunnel, but eventually made it to the IC. The team spent approximately five hours working to upright the IC and eventually got it on its wheels. The IC travelled approximately 20 feet and struggled to drive over debris on the air tunnel floor. Unfortunately the IC tripped over trying to pass this obstacle. The team decided to leave the IC in this location and inspect the tunnel with the RC. The RC passed the IC and inspected the tunnel as it travelled toward H-Canyon. The team turned the RC around when it was about 20 feet from the H-Canyon crossover tunnel. From that point, the team drove the RC past the manway towards the new sand filter and stopped approximately 20 feet from the new sand filter. The team removed the RC from the tunnel, decontaminated the RC, and stored it the manway building, 294-2H. The RC deployment confirmed the IC was not in a condition to perform useful tunnel inspections and

  17. Primary Initiation of Submarine Canyons

    CERN Document Server

    Herndon, J Marvin

    2011-01-01

    The discovery of close-to-star gas-giant exo-planets lends support to the idea of Earth's origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant and to the consequences of its compression, including whole-Earth decompression dynamics that gives rise, without requiring mantle convection, to the myriad measurements and observations whose descriptions are attributed to plate tectonics. I propose here another, unanticipated consequence of whole-Earth decompression dynamics: namely, a specific, dominant, non-erosion, underlying initiation-mechanism precursor for submarine canyons that follows as a direct consequence of Earth's early origin as a Jupiter-like gas-giant.

  18. An experimental approach to submarine canyon evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Steven Y. J.; Gerber, Thomas P.; Amblas, David

    2016-03-01

    We present results from a sandbox experiment designed to investigate how sediment gravity flows form and shape submarine canyons. In the experiment, unconfined saline gravity flows were released onto an inclined sand bed bounded on the downstream end by a movable floor that was used to increase relief during the experiment. In areas unaffected by the flows, we observed featureless, angle-of-repose submarine slopes formed by retrogressive breaching processes. In contrast, areas influenced by gravity flows cascading across the shelf break were deeply incised by submarine canyons with well-developed channel networks. Normalized canyon long profiles extracted from successive high-resolution digital elevation models collapse to a single profile when referenced to the migrating shelf-slope break, indicating self-similar growth in the relief defined by the canyon and intercanyon profiles. Although our experimental approach is simple, the resulting canyon morphology and behavior appear similar in several important respects to that observed in the field.

  19. The effect of snowmelt on the water quality of Filson Creek and Omaday Lake, northeastern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D.I.

    1981-01-01

    Sulfate concentration and pH were determined in surface water, groundwater, and precipitation samples collected in the Filson Creek watershed to evaluate the sources of sulfate in Filson Creek. During and immediately after snowmelt, sulfate concentrations in Filson Creek increased from about 2 to 14 mg/l. Concurrently, H+ ion activity increased from an average of 10−6.6 to 10−5.5. These changes suggest that sulfate acidity is concentrated in the snowpack at snowmelt, which is similar to changes reported in Scandinavia in areas subject to acid precipitation. Mass balance calculations indicate that the sulfate contribution from groundwater during snowmelt was minimal in comparison to that from snow. During base flow, sulfate did not appreciably increase from the headwaters of Filson Creek to the mouth, even though sulfate was as high as 58 mg/l in groundwater discharging to the creek from surficial materials overlying a sulfide-bearing mineralized zone in the lower third of the watershed. Approximately 10.6 kg of sulfate per hectare per year was retained in 1977.

  20. FECAL SOURCE TRACKING BY ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE ANALYSIS ON A RURAL WATERSHED

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Turkey Creek watershed located in northwestern Oklahoma, sustains approximately 40000 head of livestock. In addition, the stream receives partially-treated municipal waste from various towns. E. coli was enumerated quarterly and counts beyond EPA limit were found in spring an...

  1. Linkage of a Physically Based Distributed Watershed Model and a Dynamic Plant Growth Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    California, Colorado, Maine, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico , Texas, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, Australia, and Indonesia. EDYS consists of Climate, Soil...caliche. The Cibolo Creek watershed encompasses portions of Bandera , Bexar, Comal, and Kendall counties and includes the communities of Boerne and

  2. Gully development in Pavon Creeks: Downstream sediment supply and sub-basin restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, S.; McKee, L. J.

    2011-12-01

    Sediment supply in watersheds is a function of geology, climate, and land use. Small watersheds in the Coast Ranges of California can provide large volumes of sediment to downstream waterbodies due to the active tectonic setting, the Mediterranean climate, and the history of intense land use. The Pavon Creeks sub-basin, a 1.1 km2 tributary to Pinole Creek which drains to San Francisco Bay, California, currently provides a large supply of fine-grained sediment to the detriment of creek function and native species habitat. The sub-basin is situated near the active Hayward Fault Zone, is underlain by highly erosive shales and siltstones, and has experienced over 100 years of cattle grazing. Despite only comprising 3% of the total watershed area, the Pavon Creeks sub-basin has been identified as one of the largest sources of fine sediment within the Pinole Creek watershed. To protect creek function and habitat, watershed stakeholders have prioritized preventing excess fine sediment delivery to Pinole Creek. The sub-basin includes four small ephemeral gully channels that are primarily actively eroding, downcutting, and extending over their length, and secondarily aggrading over a shorter localized reach. Field-based geomorphic data including channel cross-sections, longitudinal profiles, bank pins, and headcut monitoring have documented channel incision, erosion, and lengthening of the channel network over six years. During Water Year 2006, the first and wettest year of measurements, we observed maximum rates of incision of 0.75 m, lateral bank erosion of 2.5 m, and gully extension of 16.3 m. Annual repeat surveys show continued gully evolution, and allowed for quantitative assessment of incision, aggradation, and extension rates over this time period, as well as eroded sediment volume. We found that the largest storm events of a season cause the greatest instantaneous amount of change in the sub-basin, but cumulative seasonal rainfall determines the total amount and

  3. Watershed Boundaries - Watershed Boundary Database for Montana

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This data set is a complete digital hydrologic unit boundary layer of the Subbasins (8-digit), Watersheds (10-digit), and Subwatersheds (12-digit) for Montana. This...

  4. Distribution of DDT and other persistent organic contaminants in Canyons and on the continental shelf off the central California coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwell, S Ian

    2008-04-01

    Sediment samples were collected to delineate the distribution of contaminants along the central California coast. Sampling included a variety of Canyons and shelf/slope areas to evaluate contaminant transport patterns and potential delivery to Canyons and the continental slope to a depth of 1200 m. Sediments were collected and analyzed for organic contaminants using standard techniques of the NOAA National Status and Trends Program (NS&T). DDT is distributed on the shelf within a zone of fine-grained sediments between Half Moon and Monterey Bays. DDT was found at higher concentrations in Ascension, Año Nuevo, and Monterey/Soquel Canyons than in Pioneer and Carmel Canyons, the Gulf of the Farallones, or the continental slope. The Monterey Bay watershed appears to be the primary source of DDT. In contrast, PAHs and PCBs on the shelf appear to be derived primarily from San Francisco Bay. DDT appears to be delivered to the deep ocean via the Canyons more than from cross-shelf sediment transport. Sediment budget estimates for the continental shelf north of Monterey Bay need further refinement and more data to account for the movement of material from Monterey Bay onto the shelf.

  5. Prehistoric deforestation at Chaco Canyon?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, W H; Drake, Brandon L; Dorshow, Wetherbee B

    2014-08-12

    Ancient societies are often used to illustrate the potential problems stemming from unsustainable land-use practices because the past seems rife with examples of sociopolitical "collapse" associated with the exhaustion of finite resources. Just as frequently, and typically in response to such presentations, archaeologists and other specialists caution against seeking simple cause-and effect-relationships in the complex data that comprise the archaeological record. In this study we examine the famous case of Chaco Canyon, New Mexico, during the Bonito Phase (ca. AD 860-1140), which has become a prominent popular illustration of ecological and social catastrophe attributed to deforestation. We conclude that there is no substantive evidence for deforestation at Chaco and no obvious indications that the depopulation of the canyon in the 13th century was caused by any specific cultural practices or natural events. Clearly there was a reason why these farming people eventually moved elsewhere, but the archaeological record has not yet produced compelling empirical evidence for what that reason might have been. Until such evidence appears, the legacy of Ancestral Pueblo society in Chaco should not be used as a cautionary story about socioeconomic failures in the modern world.

  6. Understanding Urban Watersheds through Digital Interactive Maps, San Francisco Bay Area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowers, J. M.; Ticci, M. G.; Mulvey, P.

    2014-12-01

    Dense urbanization has resulted in the "disappearance" of many local creeks in urbanized areas surrounding the San Francisco Bay. Long reaches of creeks now flow in underground pipes. Municipalities and water agencies trying to reduce non-point-source pollution are faced with a public that cannot see and therefore does not understand the interconnected nature of the drainage system or its ultimate discharge to the bay. Since 1993, we have collaborated with the Oakland Museum, the San Francisco Estuary Institute, public agencies, and municipalities to create creek and watershed maps to address the need for public understanding of watershed concepts. Fifteen paper maps are now published (www.museumca.org/creeks), which have become a standard reference for educators and anyone working on local creek-related issues. We now present digital interactive creek and watershed maps in Google Earth. Four maps are completed covering urbanized areas of Santa Clara and Alameda Counties. The maps provide a 3D visualization of the watersheds, with cartography draped over the landscape in transparent colors. Each mapped area includes both Present and Past (circa 1800s) layers which can be clicked on or off by the user. The Present layers include the modern drainage network, watershed boundaries, and reservoirs. The Past layers include the 1800s-era creek systems, tidal marshes, lagoons, and other habitats. All data are developed in ArcGIS software and converted to Google Earth format. To ensure the maps are interesting and engaging, clickable icons pop-up provide information on places to visit, restoration projects, history, plants, and animals. Maps of Santa Clara Valley are available at http://www.valleywater.org/WOW.aspx. Maps of western Alameda County will soon be available at http://acfloodcontrol.org/. Digital interactive maps provide several advantages over paper maps. They are seamless within each map area, and the user can zoom in or out, and tilt, and fly over to explore

  7. Variations in tropical cyclone-related discharge in four watersheds near Houston, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laiyin Zhu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined a 60-year record of daily precipitation and river discharge related to tropical cyclones (TCs in four watersheds undergoing land use and land cover change near Houston, Texas. Results show that TCs are responsible for ∼20% of the annual maximum discharge events in the four selected watersheds. Although there are no trends in TC precipitation, increasing trends were observed in daily extreme discharge and TC-related discharge. The more developed watersheds (Whiteoak Bayou and Brays Bayou, tend to have higher extreme discharge and steeper trends in extreme discharge than the less developed watersheds (Cypress Creek. Increases in TC-related extreme discharges correspond with increases in developed land and decreases in vegetated land between 1980 and 2006. Therefore, changes in land cover/use in watersheds near Houston are a major cause of the increased flooding risk in recent years.

  8. 78 FR 36743 - Adoption of Final Environmental Assessment (UT-040-09-03) Prepared for the Upper Kanab Creek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-19

    ... Natural Resources Conservation Service Adoption of Final Environmental Assessment (UT-040-09-03) Prepared... Lake City, Utah 84138; email at gary.mcrae@ut.usda.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NRCS announces its intent to adopt the Kanab Creek Watershed Vegetation Management Project EA (UT-040-09-03) prepared by...

  9. Water-Quality Characteristics of Ledge Creek and Holman Creek Upstream from Lake Rogers, Granville County, North Carolina, 2005 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harden, Stephen L.; Giorgino, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Water-quality and hydrologic data were collected during 2005 and 2008 to characterize potential source areas of nutrients and sediment within the Ledge and Holman Creek watersheds upstream from Lake Rogers in Granville County, North Carolina. Eight monitoring locations were established in all--five in Holman Creek and three in Ledge Creek--for collecting discharge and water-quality data during different streamflow conditions. Water-quality samples were collected during two sampling events in the fall of 2005 for analysis of major ions, nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal-indicator bacteria. Water-quality samples were collected during three sampling events in the winter and spring of 2008 for analysis of nutrients and suspended sediment.

  10. Compensatory forestation for soil water retention in watersheds of Campos do Jordão municipality, SP, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Getulio Teixeira Batista; Marcelo dos Santos Targa; Agenor Micaeli dos Santos; Nelson Wellausen Dias

    2011-01-01

    Compensatory forestation is an important technique to estimate the necessary forest cover for compensating the water loss due to surface runoff within a watershed and, therefore, guiding forest recovery interventions. The objective of this study was to quantify the forest area needed to compensate water loss caused by surface runoff in Fojo Creek and Perdizes Creek basin areas in the municipality of Campos do Jordão, SP, Brazil. Estimates were based on the Compensatory Forestation Methodology...

  11. Water-Quality Characteristics of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek, Grand Teton National Park, Wyoming, 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melanie L.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.; O'Ney, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    To address water-resource management objectives of the National Park Service in Grand Teton National Park, the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service has conducted water-quality sampling on streams in the Snake River headwaters area. A synoptic study of streams in the western part of the headwaters area was conducted during 2006. Sampling sites were located on Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Sampling events in June, July, August, and October were selected to characterize different hydrologic conditions and different recreational-use periods. Stream samples were collected and analyzed for field measurements, major-ion chemistry, nutrients, selected trace elements, pesticides, and suspended sediment. Water types of Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek were calcium bicarbonate. Dissolved-solids concentrations were dilute in Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 11 to 31 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Cottonwood Creek and Taggart Creek. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 55 to 130 milligrams per liter for samples collected from Lake Creek and Granite Creek, which drain Precambrian-era rocks and Paleozoic-era rocks and materials derived from these rocks. Nutrient concentrations generally were small in samples collected from Cottonwood Creek, Taggart Creek, Lake Creek, and Granite Creek. Dissolved-nitrate concentrations were the largest in Taggart Creek. The Taggart Creek drainage basin has the largest percentage of barren land cover of the basins, and subsurface waters of talus slopes may contribute to dissolved-nitrate concentrations in Taggart Creek. Pesticide concentrations, trace-element concentrations, and suspended-sediment concentrations generally were less than laboratory reporting levels or were small for all samples. Water

  12. 75 FR 27332 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC; Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC; Eagle Creek Water Resources... Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC.... For the transferee: Mr. Paul Ho, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC,...

  13. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgin, J. M.; Allen, S. E.

    2014-10-01

    Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean) was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively) and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ) was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m). Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate), as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  14. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (Northwest Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby number and Burger number were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10 day model period, however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. Offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies were explained within this new dynamic framework.

  15. Flow dynamics around downwelling submarine canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Spurgin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flow dynamics around a downwelling submarine canyon were analysed with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model. Blanes Canyon (northwestern Mediterranean was used for topographic and initial forcing conditions. Fourteen scenarios were modelled with varying forcing conditions. Rossby and Burger numbers were used to determine the significance of Coriolis acceleration and stratification (respectively and their impacts on flow dynamics. A new non-dimensional parameter (χ was introduced to determine the significance of vertical variations in stratification. Some simulations do see brief periods of upwards displacement of water during the 10-day model period; however, the presence of the submarine canyon is found to enhance downwards advection of density in all model scenarios. High Burger numbers lead to negative vorticity and a trapped anticyclonic eddy within the canyon, as well as an increased density anomaly. Low Burger numbers lead to positive vorticity, cyclonic circulation, and weaker density anomalies. Vertical variations in stratification affect zonal jet placement. Under the same forcing conditions, the zonal jet is pushed offshore in more uniformly stratified domains. The offshore jet location generates upwards density advection away from the canyon, while onshore jets generate downwards density advection everywhere within the model domain. Increasing Rossby values across the canyon axis, as well as decreasing Burger values, increase negative vertical flux at shelf break depth (150 m. Increasing Rossby numbers lead to stronger downwards advection of a passive tracer (nitrate, as well as stronger vorticity within the canyon. Results from previous studies are explained within this new dynamic framework.

  16. Discharge and water quality of springs in Roan and Parachute Creek basins, northwestern Colorado, 1981-83

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, D.L.

    1985-01-01

    This report is a compilation and interpretation of discharge, water-quality, and radiochemical data collected at springs in the oil-shale regions of Roan and Parachute Creek basins, Colorado, from 1981 to 1983. Springs located on upland plateaus and ridges are mixed-cation bicarbonate water types with 216 to 713 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Calcite and dolomite dissolution are dominant chemical reactions in upland springs. Springs located in the canyons contain greater concentrations of sodium and sulfate and have 388 to 3,970 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Gypsum dissolution is an important chemical reaction in canyon spring water. The only trace constituents with mean concentration greater than 10 micrograms per liter in the study area were barium, boron, lithium and strontium. None of the canyon springs investigated represent discharge from the lower aquifer in the Green River Formation. Analysis of chemical and discharge data for streams in the Roan Creek drainage showed evidence of lower-aquifer discharge into the canyons. Springs located near an oil-shale mine or processing plant could be used for monitoring groundwater quality and quantity. Bicarbonate, fluoride, arsenic, boron, lithium, mercury, ammonia, and organic carbon may be chemical indicators of mine or process-water contamination of shallow aquifers near an oil-shale plant or mine. (USGS)

  17. Ship Creek bioassessment investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.; Mueller, R.P.; Murphy, M.T.

    1995-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was asked by Elmendorf Air Force Base (EAFB) personnel to conduct a series of collections of macroinvertebrates and sediments from Ship Creek to (1) establish baseline data on these populations for reference in evaluating possible impacts from Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) activities at two operable units, (2) compare current population indices with those found by previous investigations in Ship Creek, and (3) determine baseline levels of concentrations of any contaminants in the sediments associated with the macroinvertebrates. A specific suite of indices established by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was requested for the macroinvertebrate analyses; these follow the Rapid Bioassessment Protocol developed by Plafkin et al. (1989) and will be described. Sediment sample analyses included a Microtox bioassay and chemical analysis for contaminants of concern. These analyses included, volatile organic compounds, total gasoline and diesel hydrocarbons (EPA method 8015, CA modified), total organic carbon, and an inductive-coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) metals scan. Appendix A reports on the sediment analyses. The Work Plan is attached as Appendix B.

  18. Kiowa Creek Switching Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a new Kiowa Creek Switching Station near Orchard in Morgan County, Colorado. Kiowa Creek Switching Station would consist of a fenced area of approximately 300 by 300 feet and contain various electrical equipment typical for a switching station. As part of this new construction, approximately one mile of an existing 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line will be removed and replaced with a double circuit overhead line. The project will also include a short (one-third mile) realignment of an existing line to permit connection with the new switching station. In accordance with the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) regulations for implementing the procedural provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 40 CFR Parts 1500--1508, the Department of Energy (DOE) has determined that an environmental impact statement (EIS) is not required for the proposed project. This determination is based on the information contained in this environmental assessment (EA) prepared by Western. The EA identifies and evaluates the environmental and socioeconomic effects of the proposed action, and concludes that the advance impacts on the human environment resulting from the proposed project would not be significant. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  19. The cumulative effects of forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M.; X Wei

    2012-01-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2) situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada has been severely disturbed by both human-being logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area was attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance with consideration of...

  20. The effects of cumulative forest disturbance on streamflow in a large watershed in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, M.; X Wei

    2012-01-01

    The Baker Creek watershed (1570 km2), situated in the central interior of British Columbia, Canada, has been severely disturbed by both logging and natural disturbance, particularly by a recent large-scale mountain pine beetle (MPB) infestation (up to 2009, 70.2% of the watershed area had been attacked by MPB) and subsequent salvage logging. The concept of equivalent clear-cut area (ECA) was used to indicate the magnitude of forest disturbance, with consideration of hyd...

  1. Water quality trading opportunities in two sub-watersheds in the northern Lake Okeechobee watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Juliana; Naja, G Melodie; Bhat, Mahadev G; Miralles-Wilhelm, Fernando

    2017-03-25

    For decades, the increase of nutrient enrichment has threatened the ecological integrity and economic sustainability of many rivers, lakes, and coastal waters, including Lake Okeechobee, the second largest freshwater lake in the contiguous United States. Water quality trading programs have been an area of active development to both, reduce nutrient pollution and minimize abatement costs. The objective of this study was to apply a comprehensive modeling framework, integrating a hydrologic-water quality model with an economic model, to assess and compare the cost-effectiveness of a water quality trading program over a command-and-control approach in order to reduce phosphorus loadings to Lake Okeechobee. The Upper Kissimmee (UK) and Taylor Creek/Nubbin Slough (TCNS) sub-watersheds, identified as major sources of total phosphorus (TP) loadings to the lake, were selected for this analysis. The effect of different caps on the market potential was assessed while considering four factors: the least-cost abatement solutions, credit prices, potential cost savings, and credit supply and demand. Hypothetical trading scenarios were also developed, using the optimal caps selected for the two sub-watersheds. In both sub-watersheds, a phosphorus credit trading program was less expensive than the conventional command-and-control approach. While attaining cost-effectiveness, keeping optimal credit prices, and fostering market competition, phosphorus reduction targets of 46% and 32% were selected as the most appropriate caps in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds, respectively. Wastewater treatment facilities and urban areas in the UK, and concentrated animal feeding operations in the TCNS sub-watershed were identified as potential credit buyers, whereas improved pastures were identified as the major credit sellers in both sub-watersheds. The estimated net cost savings resulting from implementing a phosphorus trading program in the UK and TCNS sub-watersheds were 76% ($ 34.9 million per

  2. Street canyon ventilation and atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salizzoni, P.; Soulhac, L.; Mejean, P.

    Operational models for pollutant dispersion in urban areas require an estimate of the turbulent transfer between the street canyons and the overlying atmospheric flow. To date, the mechanisms that govern this process remain poorly understood. We have studied the mass exchange between a street canyon and the atmospheric flow above it by means of wind tunnel experiments. Fluid velocities were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry system and passive scalar concentrations were measured using a Flame Ionisation Detector. The mass-transfer velocity between the canyon and the external flow has been estimated by measuring the cavity wash-out time. A two-box model, used to estimate the transfer velocity for varying dynamical conditions of the external flow, has been used to interpret the experimental data. This study sheds new light on the mechanisms which drive the ventilation of a street canyon and illustrates the influence of the external turbulence on the transfer process.

  3. Modelling Aerosol Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, B. K.; Jones, D. P.; Gallagher, M. W.; McFiggans, G. B.; Watkins, A. P.

    2009-04-01

    Flow patterns within an urban street canyon are influenced by various micrometeorological factors. It also represents an environment where pollutants such as aerosols accumulate to high levels due to high volumes of traffic. As adverse health effects are being attributed to exposure to aerosols, an investigation of the dispersion of aerosols within such environments is of growing importance. In particular, one is concerned with the vertical structure of the aerosol concentration, the ventilation characteristics of the street canyon and the influence of aerosol microphysical processes. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of the aerosol concentrations within the street canyon and the lack of spatial resolution of measurement campaigns, these issues are an on-going debate. Therefore, a modelling tool is required to represent aerosol dispersion patterns to provide insights to results of past measurement campaigns. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are able to predict detailed airflow patterns within urban geometries. This capability may be further extended to include aerosol dispersion, by an Euler-Euler multiphase approach. To facilitate the investigation, a two-dimensional, multiphase CFD tool coupled with the k-epsilon turbulence model and with the capability of modelling mixed convection flow regimes arising from both wind driven flows and buoyancy effects from heated walls was developed. Assuming wind blowing perpendicularly to the canyon axis and treating aerosols as a passive scalar, an attempt will be made to assess the sensitivities of aerosol vertical structure and ventilation characteristics to the various flow conditions. Numerical studies were performed using an idealized 10m by 10m canyon to represent a regular canyon and 10m by 5m to represent a deep one. An aerosol emission source was assigned on the centerline of the canyon to represent exhaust emissions. The vertical structure of the aerosols would inform future directives regarding the

  4. Habitat--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  5. Watersheds in disordered media

    CERN Document Server

    Araújo, N A M; Herrmann, H J; Andrade, J S

    2014-01-01

    What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics o...

  6. Flow Structure in a Bedrock Canyon (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.; Bomhof, J.; Lin, M.

    2013-12-01

    Bedrock canyon incision is widely recognized as setting the pace of landscape evolution. A variety of models link flow and sediment transport processes to the bedrock canyon incision rate. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are quite well developed in some models. In contrast, the model components that represent fluid flow remain rudimentary. Part of the reason is that there have been relatively few observations of flow structure in a bedrock canyon. Here, we present observations of flow obtained using an array of three acoustic Doppler current profilers during a 524 km long continuous centerline traverse of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada as it passes through a series of bedrock canyons. Through this portion of the river, the channel alternates between gravel-bedded reaches that are deeply incised into semi-consolidated glacial deposits and solid bedrock-bound reaches. We present observations of flow through 41 bedrock bound reaches of the river, derived from our centerline traverses and more detailed three-dimensional mapping of the flow structure in 2 canyons. Our observations suggest that flow in the most well-defined canyons (deep, laterally constrained, completely bedrock bound) is far more complex than that in a simple prismatic channel. As flow enters the canyon, a high velocity core plunges from the surface to the bed, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities at the bed and low velocities at the surface). This plunging flow then upwells along the canyon wall, resulting in a three-dimensional flow with counter-rotating, along-stream eddies that diverge near the bed. We observe centerline ridges along the canyon floors that result from the divergence and large-scale surface boils caused by the upwelling. This flow structure causes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor, and ensures the base of the canyon walls are swept of debris that otherwise may be deposited due to lower shear stresses abutting the walls. The

  7. Structure of Flow in a Bedrock Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venditti, J. G.; Rennie, C. D.; Church, M. A.; Bomhof, J.; Lin, M.

    2012-12-01

    Bedrock canyon incision is widely recognized as setting the pace of landscape evolution. A variety of models link flow and sediment transport processes to the bedrock canyon incision rate. The model components that represent sediment transport processes are quite well developed in some models. In contrast, the model components that represent fluid flow remain rudimentary. Part of the reason is that there have been relatively few observations of flow structure in a bedrock canyon. Here, we present observations of flow obtained using an array of three acoustic Doppler current profilers during a 524 km long continuous centerline traverse of the Fraser River, British Columbia, Canada as it passes through a series of bedrock canyons. Through this portion of the river, the channel alternates between gravel-bedded reaches that are deeply incised into semi-consolidated glacial deposits and solid bedrock-bound reaches. We present observations of flow through 41 bedrock bound reaches of the river, derived from our centerline traverses and more detailed three-dimensional mapping of the flow structure in 2 canyons. Our observations suggest that flow in the most well-defined canyons (deep, laterally constrained, completely bedrock bound) is far more complex than that in a simple prismatic channel. As flow enters the canyon, a high velocity core plunges from the surface to the bed, causing a velocity inversion (high velocities at the bed and low velocities at the surface). This plunging flow then upwells along the canyon wall, resulting in a three-dimensional flow with counter-rotating, along-stream eddies that diverge near the bed. We observe centerline ridges along the canyon floors that result from the divergence and large-scale surface boils caused by the upwelling. This flow structure causes deep scour in the bedrock channel floor, and ensures the base of the canyon walls are swept of debris that otherwise may be deposited due to lower shear stresses abutting the walls. The

  8. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has fond that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization. 181 figs., 175 tabs.

  9. Bridge Creek IMW database - Bridge Creek Restoration and Monitoring Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek is thought to be limiting a population of ESA-listed steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A logical restoration approach...

  10. Magnitude and frequency data for historic debris flows in Grand Canyon National Park and vicinity, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, T.S.; Webb, R.H.; Griffiths, P.G.; Wise, T.J.

    1995-01-01

    Debris flows occur in 529 tributaries of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon between Lees Ferry and Diamond Creek, Arizona (river miles 0 to 225). An episodic type of flash flood, debris flows transport poorly-sorted sediment ranging in size from clay to boulders into the Colorado River. Debris flows create and maintain debris fans and the hundreds of associated riffles and rapids that control the geomorphic framework of the Colorado River downstream from Glen Canyon Dam. Between 1984 and 1994, debris flows created 4 new rapids and enlarged 17 existing rapids and riffles. Debris flows in Grand Canyon are initiated by slope failures that occur during intense rainfall. Three of these mechanisms of slope failure are documented. Failures in weathered bedrock, particularly in the Hermit Shale and Supai Group, have initiated many historic debris flows in Grand Canyon. A second mechanism, termed the fire-hose effect, occurs when runoff pours over cliffs onto unconsolidated colluvial wedges, triggering a failure. A third initiation mechanism occurs when intense precipitation causes failures in colluvium overlying bedrock. Multiple source areas and extreme topographic relief in Grand Canyon commonly result in combinations of these three initiation mechanisms. Interpretation of 1,107 historical photographs spanning 120 years, supplemented with aerial photography made between 1935 and 1994, yielded information on the frequency of debris flows in 168 of the 529 tributaries (32 percent) of the Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Of the 168 tributaries, 96 contain evidence of debris flows that have occurred since 1872, whereas 72 tributaries have not had a debris flow during the last century. The oldest debris flow we have documented in Grand Canyon occurred 5,400 years ago in an unnamed tributary at river mile 63.3-R. Our results indicate that the frequency of debris flows ranges from one every 10 to 15 years in certain eastern tributaries, to less than one per century in other

  11. Statistical Analysis and water Quality Modeling for a Drinking Water Source Watershed for the City of Houston, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, A.; Bedient, P.; Vieux, B. E.

    2009-12-01

    Water quality is a problem in Lake Houston, the primary source of drinking water for the City of Houston, due to pollutant loads coming from the influent watersheds, including Cypress Creek. Water quality issues in the watershed that are of concern for the lake include nutrient enrichment bacterial impairment, both of which present operational challenges for the drinking water treatment plant operations. Statistical analysis of the historic water quality data was developed in order to understand the source characterization and seasonality of the watershed. Multivariate analysis including principal component, cluster, and discriminant analysis provided a unique seasonal assessment of the watershed leading to refined loading curves have been analyzed using data collected by the USGS at 3 sites in Cypress Creek with corresponding City of Houston water quality data at the sites for the past 5 years to characterize the behavior of the pollutant source and watershed. A VfloTM hydrologic model from Vieux & Assoc., Inc for the watershed of the influent stream Cypress Creek was developed to predict the watershed flows into Lake Houston. A distributed model of a large scale watershed, it uses finite element analysis to solve the kinematic wave equation. The model incorporates land use relationships to predict runoff from Radar rainfall data. Continuous VfloTM was run for storm events and the distributed discharge of the watershed simulated. From the spatial discharge output, nutrient wash-off and convective transport was simulated. The simulated nutrient transport was then compared to storm sampling data at a downstream location to assess the water quality model and determine needed future refinements.

  12. Canyon conditions impact carbon flows in food webs of three sections of the Nazare canyon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K.; Garcia, R.; de Stigter, H.C.; Cunha, M.R.; Pusceddu, A.; Danovaro, R.; Garcia, R.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine canyons transport large amounts of sediment and organic matter (OM) from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain. Three carbon-based food web models were constructed for the upper (300-750 m water depth), middle (2700-3500 m) and lower section (4000-5000 m) of the Nazare canyon (eastern

  13. The Whittard Canyon – A case study of submarine canyon processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V.A.I.; Allcock, A.L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J.S.; Danovaro, R.; de Stigter, H.C.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A.J.; Gunton, L.M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K.L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C.E.; Lavaleye, M.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communit

  14. The Whittard Canyon – a case study of submarine canyon processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaro, T.; Huvenne, V.A.I.; Allcock, A.L.; Aslam, T.; Davies, J.S.; Danovaro, R.; de Stigter, H.C.; Duineveld, G.C.A.; Gambi, C.; Gooday, A.J.; Gunton, L.M.; Hall, R.; Howell, K.L.; Ingels, J.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Kershaw, C.E.; Lavaleye, M.; Robert, K.; Stewart, H.; Van Rooij, D.; White, M.; Wilson, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Submarine canyons are large geomorphological features that incise continental shelves and slopes around the world. They are often suggested to be biodiversity and biomass hotspots, although there is no consensus about this in the literature. Nevertheless, many canyons do host diverse faunal communit

  15. Water quality trends in the Blackwater River watershed, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jessica; Welsh, Stuart; Anderson, James T.; Fortney, Ronald H.

    2015-01-01

    An understanding of historic and current water quality is needed to manage and improve aquatic communities within the Blackwater River watershed, WV. The Blackwater River, which historically offered an excellent Salvelinus fontinalis (Brook Trout) fishery, has been affected by logging, coal mining, use of off-road vehicles, and land development. Using information-theoretic methods, we examined trends in water quality at 12 sites in the watershed for the 14 years of 1980–1993. Except for Beaver Creek, downward trends in acidity and upward trends in alkalinity, conductivity, and hardness were consistent with decreases in hydrogen ion concentration. Water-quality trends for Beaver Creek were inconsistent with the other sites and reflect ongoing coal-mining influences. Dissolved oxygen trended downward, possibly due to natural conditions, but remained above thresholds that would be detrimental to aquatic life. Water quality changed only slightly within the watershed from 1980–1993, possibly reflecting few changes in development and land uses during this time. These data serve as a baseline for future water-quality studies and may help to inform management planning.

  16. Tidal Creek Sentinel Habitat Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ecological Research, Assessment and Prediction's Tidal Creeks: Sentinel Habitat Database was developed to support the National Oceanic and Atmospheric...

  17. Rattlesnake Creek management program proposal

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Partnership has concentrated its efforts on a voluntary approach for lowering the total water use in the Rattlesnake Creek subbasin. This will occur through the...

  18. GIS Spatial Analysis of Water Quality at Courtland Creek in Oakland, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matias, F.; Perez, L.; Martinez, E.; Rivera Soto, E.; McDonald, K.; Garcia, D.; Ruiz, I.

    2015-12-01

    Courtland Creek is a channelized stream that traverses residential and industrial sections of East Oakland, California. Segments of the creek are exposed on the surface and have been designated as City of Oakland park land. Since 2012, the quality of creek waters has been monitored through measurement and analysis of nutrient and other possible contaminant levels in samples collected in these exposed segments. Throughout the three-year period during which monitoring efforts have been undertaken, high concentration levels of nitrate have been observed. The primary aim of our research is to gain an overall indication of creek health in relation to its surrounding environment through the use of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) analysis of nutrient concentrations at the four sites. Investigating the relationship between Courtland Creek and the environmental factors influencing its health will enable us to develop a better sense of the actions that can be taken by the City of Oakland to create sustainable park land and healthy communities. During the summer of 2015, our group continued to monitor levels of ammonia, phosphate and nitrate at four different sites along the creek, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled at one of these sites. Preliminary analysis of benthic macroinvertebrate data indicates that Courtland Creek is in poor health ecologically. Nitrate concentration levels measured during the study period were lower than those detected in previous years but still indicate inputs other than those associated with natural processes. The high nitrate concentration levels may be the result of human and animal waste pollution, as supported by data obtained during a recent Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) - led E. coli survey that included the watershed within which Courtland Creek is situated.

  19. 77 FR 13592 - AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, Eagle Creek Land...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission AER NY-Gen, LLC; Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources... Power, LLC, Eagle Creek Water Resources, LLC, and Eagle Creek Land Resources, LLC (transferees) filed an...) 805-1469. Transferees: Mr. Bernard H. Cherry, Eagle Creek Hydro Power, LLC, Eagle Creek...

  20. Streamflow, specific-conductance, and temperature data for Bayou and Little Bayou Creeks near Paducah, Kentucky, August 15 and 16, 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evaldi, R.D.; McClain, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    Discharge, temperature, and specific conductance measurements were made August 15 and 16, 1989, at 74 main channel sites and seven flowing tributaries on Bayou and Little Bayou Creeks, Kentucky in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. These measurements were made during base flow conditions to provide data for analysis of the interaction of surface and groundwater. The discharge of Bayou Creek was 0.30 cfs at the most upstream site, and 5.8 cfs at the most downstream site. Total measured tributary inflow of Bayou Creek was 5.7 cfs. Specific conductance values in the Bayou Creek watershed ranged from 208 to 489 microsiemens/cm, and water temperature ranged from 20.0 to 32.6 C. The discharge of Little Bayou Creek was 0.65 cfs at the most upstream site, and 1.8 cfs at the most downstream site. Total measured tributary inflow of Little Bayou Creek was 0.38 cfs. Specific conductance values in the Little Bayou Creek watershed ranged from 211 to 272 microsiemens/cm, and water temperature ranged from 14.5 to 24.9 C. (USGS)

  1. A Corresponding Study of Water Quality Evaluation of the Pasquotank Watershed in Northeastern North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, J.; Walthall, S.; McKenzie, R.; Dixon, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Pasquotank River Watershed covers 450 sq miles in the Coastal Plain of NE North Carolina. It flows from the Great Dismal Swamp at the VA/NC border into the Albemarle Sound. The watershed provides a transition between spawning grounds and waters of the Albemarle Sound. Forested swamp wetlands border much of the waterways. Increased agricultural and urban development has greatly affected water quality during recent years. Test were completed along the tributaries and the river itself, adding to the previously data from 2011, 2013, and 2014. Streams tested were the Newbegun Creek, Knobbs Creek, Areneuse Creek, Mill Dam Creek, and Sawyers Creek. These streams cover a large area of the watershed and provide a wide variety of shore development from swampland and farmland to industrial development. Samples were tested for pH, salinity, total dissolved solids, and conductivity. Air/water temperature, dissolved oxygen, wind speed/direction, and turbidity/clarity measurements were taken in the field. The results were placed into an online database and correlated to the location of the sample using Google Maps®. Analysis tools were developed to compare the data from all years. Excel spreadsheets were developed to look more closely at individual points and tests for each point. This database was connected to a data visualization page utilizing Google Maps®. The results show variations for the individual water quality scores, but the overall water quality score for all the tested water sources remained at a comparable level from previous years. Mill Dam Creek rose above the previous three scores of 48 (2011), 47 (2013), and 49 (2014) and achieved a medium water quality score of 57. Areneuse Creek improved in water quality with a medium water quality score of 60. Sawyers Creek became the lowest scoring waterway tested at 35. Knobbs Creek decreased from previous years with a water quality score of 42. For a fourth consecutive testing year, Newbegun Creek fell within the

  2. TRAFFIC EMISSION TRANSPORTATION IN STREET CANYONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiao-min; WANG Jia-song; HUANG Zhen

    2009-01-01

    Spatial distributions of traffic-related pollutants in street canyons were investigated by field measurements and Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD).Two typical street canyons were selected for field monitoring,and a three-dimensional numerical model was built based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations equipped with the standard k-ε turbulence models for CFD simulations.The study shows that the pollutant concentrations of vehicle emission correlate well with the traffic volume variation,wind direction and wind speed.The wind direction and speed at the roof level determine overwhellmingly the flow field and the distributions of pollutant concentrations in the street canyon.When the wind speed is equal to zero,the pollutant concentrations on the breath height of the both sides of the street canyon are almost the same.When the wind direction is perpendicular to the street,one main vortex is formed with a shape depending on the building structure on both sides of the street,the pollutant is accumulated on the leeward side,and the pollutant concentrations at the breath height on the leeward side are 2 to 3 times as those at the breath height on the windward side.If the wind direction makes some angles with the street canyon,the pollutant concentration will be higher on the leeward side because one main vortex will also be formed in the vertical section of the canyon by the perpendicular component of the wind.But pollutant concentrations decrease in the canyon because pollutants are dispersed along the axis of the street.Pollutants at different heights of the vertical section decrease with height,i.e.there are concentration gradients in the vertical section,and the pollutant concentrations on the leeward side of the upstream building are much higher than those on the windward side of the downstream building.

  3. An Adaptive Watershed Management Assessment Based on Watershed Investigation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Goo; Park, Seung Woo

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the states of watersheds in South Korea and to formulate new measures to improve identified inadequacies. The study focused on the watersheds of the Han River basin and adopted an adaptive watershed management framework. Using data collected during watershed investigation projects, we analyzed the management context of the study basin and identified weaknesses in water use management, flood management, and environmental and ecosystems management in the watersheds. In addition, we conducted an interview survey to obtain experts' opinions on the possible management of watersheds in the future. The results of the assessment show that effective management of the Han River basin requires adaptive watershed management, which includes stakeholders' participation and social learning. Urbanization was the key variable in watershed management of the study basin. The results provide strong guidance for future watershed management and suggest that nonstructural measures are preferred to improve the states of the watersheds and that consistent implementation of the measures can lead to successful watershed management. The results also reveal that governance is essential for adaptive watershed management in the study basin. A special ordinance is necessary to establish governance and aid social learning. Based on the findings, a management process is proposed to support new watershed management practices. The results will be of use to policy makers and practitioners who can implement the measures recommended here in the early stages of adaptive watershed management in the Han River basin. The measures can also be applied to other river basins.

  4. Stormwater Impaired Watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Stormwater impaired watersheds occuring on both the Priority Waters (Part D - Completed TMDL) and 303(d) list of waters (Part A - need TMDL) The Vermont State...

  5. Watershed Planning Basins

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Watershed Planning Basin layer is part of a larger dataset contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  6. Grand Canyon Humpback Chub Population Improving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Matthew E.

    2007-01-01

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is a long-lived, freshwater fish found only in the Colorado River Basin. Physical adaptations-large adult body size, large predorsal hump, and small eyes-appear to have helped humpback chub evolve in the historically turbulent Colorado River. A variety of factors, including habitat alterations and the introduction of nonnative fishes, likely prompted the decline of native Colorado River fishes. Declining numbers propelled the humpback chub onto the Federal list of endangered species in 1967, and the species is today protected under the Endangered Species Act of 1973. Only six populations of humpback chub are currently known to exist, five in the Colorado River Basin above Lees Ferry, Ariz., and one in Grand Canyon, Ariz. The U.S. Geological Survey's Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center oversees monitoring and research activities for the Grand Canyon population under the auspices of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program (GCDAMP). Analysis of data collected through 2006 suggests that the number of adult (age 4+ years) humpback chub in Grand Canyon increased to approximately 6,000 fish in 2006, following an approximate 40-50 percent decline between 1989 and 2001. Increasing numbers of adult fish appear to be the result of steadily increasing numbers of juvenile fish reaching adulthood beginning in the mid- to late-1990s and continuing through at least 2002.

  7. Contemporary sediment-transport processes in submarine canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, Pere; Palanques, Albert; Martín, Jacobo

    2014-01-01

    Submarine canyons are morphological incisions into continental margins that act as major conduits of sediment from shallow- to deep-sea regions. However, the exact mechanisms involved in sediment transfer within submarine canyons are still a subject of investigation. Several studies have provided direct information about contemporary sedimentary processes in submarine canyons that suggests different modes of transport and various triggering mechanisms. Storm-induced turbidity currents and enhanced off-shelf advection, hyperpycnal flows and failures of recently deposited fluvial sediments, dense shelf-water cascading, canyon-flank failures, and trawling-induced resuspension largely dominate present-day sediment transfer through canyons. Additionally, internal waves periodically resuspend ephemeral deposits within canyons and contribute to dispersing particles or retaining and accumulating them in specific regions. These transport processes commonly deposit sediments in the upper- and middle-canyon reaches for decades or centuries before being completely or partially flushed farther down-canyon by large sediment failures.

  8. Deciphering Outburst Flood Discharges from the Morphology of Hesperian Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapotre, M. G. A.; Lamb, M. P.; Williams, R. M.

    2014-07-01

    We model the hydraulics of outburst floods over canyon escarpments. We show that canyons only maintain a constant width under a certain hydraulic regime. We combine the hydraulic model to an erosion law to constrain paleodischarges at Echus Chasma.

  9. Improvement of Anadromous Fish Habitat and Passage in Omak Creek, 2008 Annual Report : February 1, 2008 to January 31, 2009.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dasher, Rhonda; Fisher, Christopher [Colville Confederated Tribes

    2009-06-09

    During the 2008 season, projects completed under BPA project 2000-100-00 included installation of riparian fencing, maintenance of existing riparian fencing, monitoring of at-risk culverts and installation of riparian vegetation along impacted sections of Omak Creek. Redd and snorkel surveys were conducted in Omak Creek to determine steelhead production. Canopy closure surveys were conducted to monitor riparian vegetation recovery after exclusion of cattle since 2000 from a study area commonly known as the Moomaw property. Additional redd and fry surveys were conducted above Mission Falls and in the lower portion of Stapaloop Creek to try and determine whether there has been successful passage at Mission Falls. Monitoring adult steelhead trying to navigate the falls resulted in the discovery of shallow pool depth at an upper pool that is preventing many fish from successfully navigating the entire falls. The Omak Creek Habitat and Passage Project has worked with NRCS to obtain additional funds to implement projects in 2009 that will address passage at Mission Falls, culvert replacement, as well as additional riparian planting. The Omak Creek Technical Advisory Group (TAG) is currently revising the Omak Creek Watershed Assessment. In addition, the group is revising strategy to focus efforts in targeted areas to provide a greater positive impact within the watershed. In 2008 the NRCS Riparian Technical Team was supposed to assess areas within the watershed that have unique problems and require special treatments to successfully resolve the issues involved. The technical team will be scheduled for 2009 to assist the TAG in developing strategies for these special areas.

  10. Tectonic activity and the evolution of submarine canyons: The Cook Strait Canyon system, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Aaron; Mountjoy, Joshu; Barnes, Philip; Canals, Miquel; Lastras, Galderic

    2016-04-01

    Submarine canyons are Earth's most dramatic erosional features, comprising steep-walled valleys that originate in the continental shelf and slope. They play a key role in the evolution of continental margins by transferring sediments into deep water settings and are considered important biodiversity hotspots, pathways for nutrients and pollutants, and analogues of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Although comprising only one third of continental margins worldwide, active margins host more than half of global submarine canyons. We still lack of thorough understanding of the coupling between active tectonics and submarine canyon processes, which is necessary to improve the modelling of canyon evolution in active margins and derive tectonic information from canyon morphology. The objectives of this study are to: (i) understand how tectonic activity influences submarine canyon morphology, processes, and evolution in an active margin, and (2) formulate a generalised model of canyon development in response to tectonic forcing based on morphometric parameters. We fulfil these objectives by analysing high resolution geophysical data and imagery from Cook Strait Canyon system, offshore New Zealand. Using these data, we demonstrate that tectonic activity, in the form of major faults and structurally-generated tectonic ridges, leaves a clear topographic signature on submarine canyon location and morphology, in particular their dendritic and sinuous planform shapes, steep and linear longitudinal profiles, and cross-sectional asymmetry and width. We also report breaks/changes in canyon longitudinal slope gradient, relief and slope-area regression models at the intersection with faults. Tectonic activity gives rise to two types of knickpoints in the Cook Strait Canyon. The first type consists of low slope gradient, rounded and diffusive knickpoints forming as a result of short wavelength folds or fault break outs and being restored to an equilibrium profile by upstream erosion and

  11. The seismic response of concrete arch bridges (with focus on the Bixby Creek bridge Carmel, California)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoehler, M; McCallen, D; Noble, C

    1999-06-01

    The analysis, and subsequent retrofit, of concrete arch bridges during recent years has relied heavily on the use of computational simulation. For seismic analysis in particular, computer simulation, typically utilizing linear approximations of structural behavior, has become standard practice. This report presents the results of a comprehensive study of the significance of model sophistication (i.e. linear vs. nonlinear) and pertinent modeling assumptions on the dynamic response of concrete arch bridges. The study uses the Bixby Creek Bridge, located in California, as a case study. In addition to presenting general recommendations for analysis of this class of structures, this report provides an independent evaluation of the proposed seismic retrofit for the Bixby Creek Bridge. Results from the study clearly illustrate a reduction of displacement drifts and redistribution of member forces brought on by the inclusion of material nonlinearity. The analyses demonstrate that accurate modeling of expansion joints, for the Bixby Creek Bridge in particular, is critical to achieve representative modal and transient behavior. The inclusion of near-field displacement pulses in ground motion records was shown to significantly increase demand on the relatively softer, longer period Bixby Creek Bridge arch. Stiffer, shorter period arches, however, are more likely susceptible to variable support motions arising from the canyon topography typical for this class of bridges.

  12. Exploration for uranium deposits in the Spring Creek Mesa area, Montrose County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Carl Houston

    1954-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey explored the Spring Creek Mesa area from July 11, 1951, to August 14, 1953. During that period, 280 diamond-drill holes were completed for a total of 180,287 feet. Sedimentary rocks of Mesozoic age are exposed in and adjacent to the Spring Creek Mesa area. These rocks consist of, from oldest to youngest: the Upper Jurassic Morrison formation, the Lower Cretaceous Burro Canyon formation, and the Upper Cretaceous Dakota formation. The Morrison formation consists of two members in the Spring Creek Mesa area: the lower is the Salt Wash member and the upper is the Brusby Basin member. All of the large uranium-bearing deposits discovered by the Geological Survey drilling in the Spring Creek Mesa area are in a series of coalescing sandstone lenses in the uppermost part of the Salt Wash member of the Morrison formation. Most of the ore deposits are believed to be irregular tabular or lens-shaped masses and probably lie parallel to the bedding, although in detail, they may crosscut the bedding. Also, ore deposits that take the form of narrow elongate concretionary-like structures, locally called “rolls”, may be present in the Spring Creek Mesa area. The mineralized material consists mostly of sandstone which has been selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Also, rich concentrations of uranium and vanadium are commonly associated with thin mudstone seams, beds of mudstone pebbles, and carbonaceous material of various types. Two suites of ore minerals are present in the ore deposits - - an oxidized suite of secondary uranium and vanadium minerals and a relatively unoxidized suite of “primary” uranium and vanadium minerals. The following geologic criteria are useful as guides to ore in the Spring Creek Mesa area:

  13. 78 FR 21415 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-10

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group..., the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon Monitoring and Research Center, and...

  14. 77 FR 43117 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  15. 77 FR 22801 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Management Work Group (AMWG) makes recommendations to the Secretary of the Interior concerning Glen Canyon... AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group, a Grand Canyon...

  16. 77 FR 9265 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-16

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group... Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work group (TWG), a Grand Canyon Monitoring and...

  17. 27 CFR 9.152 - Malibu-Newton Canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Malibu-Newton Canyon. 9... Malibu-Newton Canyon. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this petition is “Malibu-Newton Canyon.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundary of the...

  18. Hydrologic analysis for selection and placement of conservation practices at the watershed scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Brooks, E. S.; Boll, J.

    2012-12-01

    When a water body is exceeding water quality standards and a Total Maximum Daily Load has been established, conservation practices in the watershed are able to reduce point and non-point source pollution. Hydrological analysis is needed to place conservation practices in the most hydrologically sensitive areas. The selection and placement of conservation practices, however, is challenging in ungauged watersheds with little or no data for the hydrological analysis. The objective of this research is to perform a hydrological analysis for mitigation of erosion and total phosphorus in a mixed land use watershed, and to select and place the conservation practices in the most sensitive areas. The study area is the Hangman Creek watershed in Idaho and Washington State, upstream of Long Lake (WA) reservoir, east of Spokane, WA. While the pollutant of concern is total phosphorus (TP), reductions in TP were translated to total suspended solids or reductions in nonpoint source erosion and sediment delivery to streams. Hydrological characterization was done with a simple web-based tool, which runs the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model for representative land types in the watersheds, where a land type is defined as a unique combination of soil type, slope configuration, land use and management, and climate. The web-based tool used site-specific spatial and temporal data on land use, soil physical parameters, slope, and climate derived from readily available data sources and provided information on potential pollutant pathways (i.e. erosion, runoff, lateral flow, and percolation). Multiple land types representative in the watershed were ordered from most effective to least effective, and displayed spatially using GIS. The methodology for the Hangman Creek watershed was validated in the nearby Paradise Creek watershed that has long-term stream discharge and monitoring as well as land use data. Output from the web-based tool shows the potential reductions for different

  19. A Sediment Budget Case Study: Comparing Watershed Scale Erosion Estimates to Modeled and Empirical Sediment Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDavitt, B.; O'Connor, M.

    2003-12-01

    The Pacific Lumber Company Habitat Conservation Plan requires watershed analyses to be conducted on their property. This paper summarizes a portion of that analysis focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates coupled with downstream sediment routing in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Watershed scale erosion sources from hillslopes, roads, and channel banks were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. Recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield that a community watershed group collected with technical assistance from the US Forest Service were used to validate the resulting sediment budget. Bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek, provided another check on the sediment budget. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study generated sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments. Ongoing monitoring of sediment sources coupled with sediment routing models and reach scale field data allows for predictions to be made regarding in-channel sediment storage.

  20. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta......A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings...

  1. Bioassessment of Black Creek, Holmes County, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical, chemical and biological components at four stations on Black Creek and one station on Harland Creek (reference site), Holmes County, Mississippi were...

  2. Fluctuating Asymmetry in Two Common Freshwater Fishes as a Biological Indicator of Urbanization and Environmental Stress within the Middle Chattahoochee Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William I. Lutterschmidt

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Deviations in bilateral symmetry or fluctuating asymmetry of an organism may result under environmental stressors that reduce developmental homeostasis and stability. Anthropogenic stressors such as increased urbanization can negatively impact environmental quality of aquatic ecosystems. Researchers have stressed the value in finding easy, accurate and inexpensive methods for assessing potential stress within ecosystems. Here we use fluctuating asymmetry (FA as a useful quantitative tool in assessing the environmental quality and potential urban-based stressors within eight creeks of the Bull and Upatoi Creeks Watershed within the larger watershed of the Middle Chattahoochee. Using Geographic Information System (GIS, we characterize land-use patterns and a decreasing urbanization gradient as related to each creek’s eastward position from Columbus, Georgia. We collected two common fishes (redbreast sunfish; Lepomis auritus and bluegill; Lepomis macrochirus, measured both metric and meristic traits and investigated if the degree of FA in these two common fishes correlated with the urbanization gradient across creeks. We found significant differences in FA among creeks with one of the highest FA measures for the most urban creek. Principal component analysis (PCA scores of urbanization and water chemistry were regressed against FA scores. We found no significant relationship between urbanization and FA nor environmental water chemistry and FA among creeks. We comment on the use of FA as a potential response variable and biological indicator of environmental stress within this watershed.

  3. Realities of the Watershed Management Approach: The Magat Watershed Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Elazegui, Dulce D.; Combalicer, Edwin A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper aims to showcase the experience of the Magat watershed in the implementation of the watershed management approach. Magat watershed was declared as a forest-reservation area through Proclamation No. 573 on June 26, 1969 because of its great importance to human survival and environmental balance in the region. The Magat case demonstrates the important role that ‘champions’ like the local government unit (LGU) could play in managing the country’s watersheds. With the Nueva Viscaya pro...

  4. Selenium and Other Elements in Water and Adjacent Rock and Sediment of Toll Gate Creek, Aurora, Arapahoe County, Colorado, December 2003 through March 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, J.R.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2007-01-01

    Streamwater and solid samples (rock, unconsolidated sediment, stream sediment, and efflorescent material) in the Toll Gate Creek watershed, Colorado, were collected and analyzed for major and trace elements to determine trace-element concentrations and stream loads from December 2003 through March 2004, a period of seasonally low flow. Special emphasis was given to selenium (Se) concentrations because historic Se concentrations exceeded current (2004) stream standards. The goal of the project was to assess the distribution of Se concentration and loads in Toll Gate Creek and to determine the potential for rock and unconsolidated sediment in the basin to be sources of Se to the streamwater. Streamwater samples and discharge measurements were collected during December 2003 and March 2004 along Toll Gate Creek and its two primary tributaries - West Toll Gate Creek and East Toll Gate Creek. During both sampling periods, discharge ranged from 2.5 liters per second to 138 liters per second in the watershed. Discharge was greater in March 2004 than December 2003, but both periods represent low flow in Toll Gate Creek, and results of this study should not be extended to periods of higher flow. Discharge decreased moving downstream in East Toll Gate Creek but increased moving downstream along West Toll Gate Creek and the main stem of Toll Gate Creek, indicating that these two streams gain flow from ground water. Se concentrations in streamwater samples ranged from 7 to 70 micrograms per liter, were elevated in the upstream-most samples, and were greater than the State stream standard of 4.6 micrograms per liter. Se loads ranged from 6 grams per day to 250 grams per day, decreased in a downstream direction along East Toll Gate Creek, and increased in a downstream direction along West Toll Gate Creek and Toll Gate Creek. The largest Se-load increases occurred between two sampling locations on West Toll Gate Creek during both sampling periods and between the two sampling

  5. Morphology of Neptune Node Sites, Barkley Canyon, Cascadia Margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundsten, E. M.; Anderson, K.; Paull, C. K.; Caress, D. W.; Thomas, H. J.; Riedel, M.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution multibeam bathymetry and chirp seismic reflection profiles collected with MBARI's mapping autonomous underwater vehicle reveal the fine-scale morphology and shallow seafloor structure of the flanks and floor of Barkley Canyon on the Cascadia continental margin off British Columbia. The surveys characterize the environment surrounding three nodes on the Neptune Canada cabled observatory located within the canyon. The canyon floor between 960 and 1020 m water depth lacks channeling and contains ≥ 24 m of acoustically uniform sediment fill, which is ponded between the canyon's steep sidewalls. The fill overlies a strong reflector that outlines an earlier, now buried, canyon floor channel system. Debris flow tongues contain meter scale blocks sticking-up through the fill. Apparently the present geomorphology surrounding the Canyon Axis node in 985 m is attributable to local debris flows, rather than organized down canyon processes. In the survey area the canyon sidewalls extend ~300 m up and in places the slope of the canyons sides exceed 40°. Both the Hydrate node in 870 m water depths and the Mid-Canyon node at 890 m are located on a headland that forms intermediate depth terraces on the canyon's western flank. While the seafloor immediately surrounding the Mid-canyon node is smooth, the Hydrate node is marked by 10 circular mounds up to 2 m high and 10 m in diameter, presumable associated with hydrate formation. Although wedges of sediment drape occur in places on the canyon sides, the chirp profiles show no detectible sediment drape at either node site and suggest these nodes are situated on older, presumably pre-Quaternary strata. The lack of reflectors in the chirp profiles indicates most of the canyon's sidewalls are largely sediment-bare. Lineations in the bathymetry mark the exposed edges of truncated beds. Rough, apparently fresh textures, within slide scarps show the importance of erosion on the development of the canyon flanks.

  6. 27 CFR 9.85 - Willow Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Willow Creek. 9.85 Section... THE TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.85 Willow Creek. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Willow Creek.”...

  7. The Impact of Microbial Communities on Water Quality in an Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, G. R.; Rademacher, L. K.; Faul, K. L.; Brunell, M.; Burmeister, K. C.

    2011-12-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) from the former Leona Heights Sulfur mine in Oakland, CA, contributes toxic levels of Cu, Cd, and Zn and elevated levels of Fe2+ and SO42- to downstream reaches of Lion Creek via Leona Creek. To investigate the extent of AMD and its relationship to microbial community structure, water samples were collected from three tributaries (two natural, and one with AMD) as well as the inlet and outlet of Lake Aliso (a reservoir downstream of the confluence of the three tributaries) beginning in July 2009. Lake Aliso was dammed in the late 1800s but since the early 1990s it has been full during the dry season and drained during the wet season, thus dramatically altering the geochemical conditions on a seasonal basis. Natural waters from Lion Creek and Horseshoe Creek tributaries dilute the water from Leona Creek, thus reducing concentrations of major ions and metals below toxic levels before water discharges into Lake Aliso. Precipitation events lead to episodes of increased mobilization of Cu and Cd in Leona Creek and produce toxic levels of these metals below the confluence with Lion Creek. Tributary mixing calculations suggest that even though Leona Creek contributes the smallest volume of water of the three tributaries, it is the main source of metals entering Lake Aliso. The input of the metal-rich AMD from Leona Creek changes the redox conditions of Lion Creek. In addition, Lake Aliso has a significant impact on water quality in the Lion Creek watershed. Observations of temperature, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen in lake depth profiles indicate that Lake Aliso is stratified during the dry season when the lake is full. Based on concentration differences between the inlet and outlet of the lake, Na, Mg, SO42-, Ca, Mn, Zn, Cd, Cu and Ni are removed from the water while K, As, Pb and Fe are mobilized when Lake Aliso is full. Geochemical modeling using PhreeqcI suggests the deposition of minerals containing the metals that are being removed

  8. Evaluation of Lower East Fork Poplar Creek Mercury Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, David B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brooks, Scott C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mathews, Teresa J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bevelhimer, Mark S. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DeRolph, Chris [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brandt, Craig C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Peterson, Mark J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ketelle, Richard [East Tennessee Technology Park (ETTP), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-06-01

    This report summarizes a 3-year research project undertaken to better understand the nature and magnitude of mercury (Hg) fluxes in East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC). This project addresses the requirements of Action Plan 1 in the 2011 Oak Ridge Reservation-wide Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Five Year Review (FYR). The Action Plan is designed to address a twofold 2011 FYR issue: (1) new information suggests mobilization of mercury from the upper and lower EFPC streambeds and stream banks is the primary source of mercury export during high-flow conditions, and (2) the current Record of Decision did not address the entire hydrologic system and creek bank or creek bed sediments. To obtain a more robust watershed-scale understanding of mercury sources and processes in lower EFPC (LEFPC), new field and laboratory studies were coupled with existing data from multiple US Department of Energy programs to develop a dynamic watershed and bioaccumulation model. LEFPC field studies for the project focused primarily on quantification of streambank erosion and an evaluation of mercury dynamics in shallow groundwater adjacent to LEFPC and potential connection to the surface water. The approach to the stream bank study was innovative in using imagery from kayak floats’ surveys from the headwaters to the mouth of EFPC to estimate erosion, coupled with detailed bank soil mercury analyses. The goal of new field assessments and modeling was to generate a more holistic and quantitative understanding of the watershed and the sources, flux, concentration, transformation, and bioaccumulation of inorganic mercury (IHg) and methylmercury (MeHg). Model development used a hybrid approach that dynamically linked a spreadsheet-based physical and chemical watershed model to a systems dynamics, mercury bioaccumulation model for key fish species. The watershed model tracks total Hg and MeHg fluxes and concentrations by examining upstream inputs, floodplain

  9. Colorado River fish monitoring in Grand Canyon, Arizona; 2002–14 humpback chub aggregations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, William R.; Van Haverbeke, David R.; Dodrill, Michael J.

    2017-01-31

    The humpback chub (Gila cypha) is an endangered cyprinid species endemic to the Colorado River. The largest remaining population of the species spawns and rears in the Little Colorado River in Grand Canyon. Construction and operation of Glen Canyon Dam has altered the main-stem Colorado River in Glen and Grand Canyons. Cold, clear water releases from the dam result in a river that is generally unsuitable for successful humpback chub reproduction. During the early 1990s, nine locations within the main-stem Colorado River were identified as humpback chub aggregations—areas with a consistent and disjunct group of fish with no significant exchange of individuals with other aggregations. We monitored main-stem Colorado River aggregations of humpback chub in Grand Canyon during 2010 to 2014 and compared our results to previous investigations. Relative abundance, as described by catch per unit effort (fish per hour) of adult humpback chub at most main-stem aggregations, generally increased from the 1990s to 2014. In addition, distribution of humpback chub in the main-stem Colorado River has increased since the 1990s. Movement of humpback chub between the Little Colorado River and other aggregations likely adds fish to those aggregations. There is clear evidence of reproduction near the 30-Mile aggregation, and reproduction at Middle Granite Gorge and downstream seems likely based on catches of gravid fish and captures of very young fish, especially during relatively warm water releases from Glen Canyon Dam, 2004 to 2011. Humpback chub relative abundance at Shinumo and Havasu Creek inflows increased following translocations of young humpback chub starting in 2009. In light of this information, we modify the original nine aggregations, combining two previously separate aggregations and dropping two locations to form six distinct aggregations of humpback chub. Trends in humpback chub abundance at main-stem aggregations, relative to management actions (for example

  10. History of late Holocene earthquakes at the Willow Creek site on the Nephi segment, Wasatch fault zone, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crone, Anthony J.; Personius, Stephen F.; Duross, Christopher; Machette, Michael N.; Mahan, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    This 43-page report presents new data from the Willow Creek site that provides well-defined and narrow bounds on the times of the three youngest earthquakes on the southern strand of the Nephi segment, Wasatch Fault zone, and refines the time of the youngest earthquake to about 200 years ago. This is the youngest surface rupture on the entire Wasatch fault zone, which occurred about a century or less before European settles arrived in Utah. Two trenches at the Willow Creek site exposed three scarp-derived colluvial wedges that are evidence of three paleoearthquakes. OxCal modeling of ages from Willow Creek indicate that paleoearthquake WC1 occurred at 0.2 ± 0.1 ka, WC2 occurred at 1.2 ± 0.1 ka, and WC3 occurred at 1.9 ± 0.6 ka. Stratigraphic constraints on the time of paleoearthquake WC4 are extremely poor, so OxCal modeling only yields a broadly constrained age of 4.7 ± 1.8 ka. Results from the Willow Creek site significantly refine the times of late Holocene earthquakes on the Southern strand of the Nephi segment, and this result, when combined with a reanalysis of the stratigraphic and chronologic information from previous investigations at North Creek and Red Canyon, yield a stronger basis of correlating individual earthquakes between all three sites.

  11. ACUMEN 2012: Atlantic Canyons Undersea Mapping Expeditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Between February and August 2012, a team of NOAA and external partners will conduct a mapping ‘blitz’ focused on deepwater canyons off the northeastern...

  12. 78 FR 7775 - Boulder Canyon Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    .... \\1\\ 75 FR 57912 (September 23, 2010). \\2\\ 133 FERC ] 62,229. The proposed BCP electric service base... in power rate adjustments (10 CFR part 903) were published on September 18, 1985 (50 FR 87835... Area Power Administration Boulder Canyon Project AGENCY: Western Area Power Administration, DOE....

  13. 2012 Whitewater Baldy Post Fire, Canyon Creek Mountains SW NW, RGB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains imagery for the Gila National Forest, Catron and Grant County, New Mexico. The imagery was flown to provide coverage after the 2012...

  14. 2012 Whitewater Baldy Post Fire, Canyon Creek Mountains SE SW, RGB

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This dataset contains imagery for the Gila National Forest, Catron and Grant County, New Mexico. The imagery was flown to provide coverage after the 2012...

  15. Supplement Analysis for the Watershed Management Program EIS - John Day Watershed Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    2004-08-04

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is proposing to fund the John Day Watershed Restoration Program, which includes projects to improve watershed conditions, resulting in improved fish and wildlife habitat. The project was planned and coordinated by the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs through the John Day Basin Office in Prairie City, Oregon. A variety of activities will be implemented, described below. The project will involve the installation of four permanent lay flat diversions (structures) to replace temporary diversions. Two structures would be constructed in Beech Creek, one in Little Beech Creek and one in the John Day River. The structures will replace temporary pushup dams, which were constructed annually of various materials. Installation of the permanent diversion structures eliminates the stream-disturbing activities associated with annual installation of temporary structures. They also will enable fish passage in all flow conditions, an improvement over the temporary structures which can obstruct fish passage under some conditions. Five scour chains will be installed in six sites within the John Day River. The chains will be 3 feet long and consist of 1/4 inch chain. They will be buried within the streambed to monitor the movement of material in the streambed. Other activities that will be implemented include: Installation of off-site water systems in areas where fencing and revegetation projects are implemented, in order to restrict livestock access to waterways; construction of facilities to return irrigation flows to the Johns Day River, including the installation of pipe to replace failing drains or return ditches; installation of pumps to replace temporary diversions; and removal of junipers from approximately 500 acres per year by hand felling.

  16. Anatomy of La Jolla submarine canyon system; offshore southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, C.K.; Caress, D.W.; Lundsten, E.; Gwiazda, R.; Anderson, K.; McGann, M.; Conrad, J.; Edwards, B.; Sumner, E.J.

    2013-01-01

    An autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) carrying a multibeam sonar and a chirp profiler was used to map sections of the seafloor within the La Jolla Canyon, offshore southern California, at sub-meter scales. Close-up observations and sampling were conducted during remotely operated vehicle (ROV) dives. Minisparker seismic-reflection profiles from a surface ship help to define the overall geometry of the La Jolla Canyon especially with respect to the pre-canyon host sediments. The floor of the axial channel is covered with unconsolidated sand similar to the sand on the shelf near the canyon head, lacks outcrops of the pre-canyon host strata, has an almost constant slope of 1.0° and is covered with trains of crescent shaped bedforms. The presence of modern plant material entombed within these sands confirms that the axial channel is presently active. The sand on the canyon floor liquefied during vibracore collection and flowed downslope, illustrating that the sediment filling the channel can easily fail even on this gentle slope. Data from the canyon walls help constrain the age of the canyon and extent of incision. Horizontal beds of moderately cohesive fine-grained sediments exposed on the steep canyon walls are consistently less than 1.232 million years old. The lateral continuity of seismic reflectors in minisparker profiles indicate that pre-canyon host strata extend uninterrupted from outside the canyon underneath some terraces within the canyon. Evidence of abandoned channels and point bar-like deposits are noticeably absent on the inside bend of channel meanders and in the subsurface of the terraces. While vibracores from the surface of terraces contain thin (< 10 cm) turbidites, they are inferred to be part of a veneer of recent sediment covering pre-canyon host sediments that underpin the terraces. The combined use of state of the art seafloor mapping and exploration tools provides a uniquely detailed view of the morphology within an active submarine canyon.

  17. Ground water flow analysis of a mid-Atlantic outer coastal plain watershed, Virginia, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A; Reay, William G

    2002-01-01

    Models for ground water flow (MODFLOW) and particle tracking (MODPATH) were used to determine ground water flow patterns, principal ground water discharge and recharge zones, and estimates of ground water travel times in an unconfined ground water system of an outer coastal plain watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula, Virginia. By coupling recharge and discharge zones within the watershed, flowpath analysis can provide a method to locate and implement specific management strategies within a watershed to reduce ground water nitrogen loading to surface water. A monitoring well network was installed in Eyreville Creek watershed, a first-order creek, to determine hydraulic conductivities and spatial and temporal variations in hydraulic heads for use in model calibration. Ground water flow patterns indicated the convergence of flow along the four surface water features of the watershed; primary discharge areas were in the nontidal portions of the watershed. Ground water recharge zones corresponded to the surface water features with minimal development of a regional ground water system. Predicted ground water velocities varied between water features. Some ground water residence times exceeded 100 years, although average residence times ranged between 16 and 21 years; approximately 95% of the ground water resource would reflect land use activities within the last 50 years.

  18. The Use of Numerical Modeling to Address Surface and Subsurface Water Contamination due to Fracwater Spills in Larry's Creek, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, C. A.; Arjmand, S.; Abad, J. D.

    2012-12-01

    Because of its relatively low carbon dioxide emissions, natural gas is considered to be more efficient and environmentally friendly than other non-renewable fuels. As a result of this, among other factors, in recent years natural gas has become one of the world's primary energy sources. In the United States, drilling to extract natural gas has substantially increased over the past few years. In the Marcellus Shale, unconventional gas is currently extracted by using two new techniques: horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing. Today, fracking fluids which have been applied as part of the hydraulic fracturing process to fracture the shale rock and release the gas, pose a major environmental concern. These fluids are highly contaminated with radionuclides and toxic metals and any exposure of this highly polluted water to surface water or soil could heavily contaminate the media. The area selected for the current study is the Larry's Creek, located in Lycoming County in Pennsylvania. Larry's Creek Watershed was adversely affected by coal and iron mines activities in the 19th century. Though, the water quality in this creek was considered to be good as of 2006. Recently, oil and gas drilling activities have raised concerns about the creek's water quality again. A major environmental hazard is the freshwater contamination by frac/flowback water. Drilling companies are using impoundments on site to keep fracwater, and to store and evaporate flowback water. However, these ponds may fail or leak due to construction problems and/or accidents. Close to Saladasburg, Larry's Creek's stream was observed running rich with clay in October 19, 2011. Historical measurements show very high turbidity during this period which has raised questions about water contamination by the gas industry activities in the upper stream of the watershed. An interstate watershed agency has reported spills in Wolf Run in different drilling sites in the Larry's Creek basin. The focus of this study

  19. Sedimentation in Rio La Venta Canyon in Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir, Chiapas, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    de La Fuente, J. A.; Lisle, T.; Velasquez, J.; Allison, B. L.; Miller, A.

    2002-12-01

    Sedimentation of Rio La Venta as it enters the Netzahualcoyotl Reservoir in Chiapas, Mexico, threatens a unique part of the aquatic ecosystem. Rio La Venta enters the reservoir via a narrow canyon about 16 km long with spectacular, near-vertical limestone bluffs up to 320 m high and inhabited by the flora and fauna of a pristine tropical forest. Karst terrain underlies most of the Rio La Venta basin in the vicinity of the reservoir, while deeply weathered granitic terrain underlies the Rio Negro basin, and the headwaters of the Rio La Venta to the south. The Rio Negro joins Rio La Venta 3 km downstream of the upper limit of the reservoir and delivers the bulk of the total clastic sediment (mostly sand and finer material). The canyon and much of the contributing basin lie within the Reserva de la Biosfera, Selva El Ocote, administered by the Comision Nacional de Areas Naturales Protegidas, part of the Secretaria de Medioambiente y Recursos Naturales. The Klamath National Forest Forest has cooperated with its Mexican counterparts since 1993 in natural resource management, neo-tropical bird inventories, wildfire management, and more recently in watershed analyses. Rates of sedimentation are estimated from bathymetric surveys conducted in March, 2002. A longitudinal profile down the inundated canyon during a high reservoir level shows an inflection from a slope of 0.0017 to one of 0.0075 at 7.2 km downstream of the mouth of Rio Negro. The bed elevation at this point corresponds to the lowest reservoir level, suggesting that the gentler sloping bed upstream is formed by fluvial processes during drawdown and that downstream by pluvial processes. Using accounts that boats could access Rio Negro during low water levels in 1984, we estimate an annual sedimentation rate of roughly 3 million cubic meters per year. This suggests that boats might no longer be able to access the most spectacular section of canyon upstream of Rio Negro within a decade, depending on how the

  20. California State Waters Map Series—Monterey Canyon and vicinity, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dartnell, Peter; Maier, Katherine L.; Erdey, Mercedes D.; Dieter, Bryan E.; Golden, Nadine E.; Johnson, Samuel Y.; Hartwell, Stephen R.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Ritchie, Andrew C.; Finlayson, David P.; Kvitek, Rikk G.; Sliter, Ray W.; Greene, H. Gary; Davenport, Clifton W.; Endris, Charles A.; Krigsman, Lisa M.; Dartnell, Peter; Cochran, Susan A.

    2016-06-10

    map area also includes Portuguese Ledge and Soquel Canyon State Marine Conservation Areas. Designated conservation and (or) recreation areas in the onshore part of the map area include Salinas River National Wildlife Refuge, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Conservation Area, Elkhorn Slough State Marine Reserve, Moss Landing Wildlife Area, Zmudowski and Salinas River State Beaches, and Marina Dunes Preserve.Monterey Bay, a geologically complex area within a tectonically active continental margin, lies between two major, converging strike-slip faults. The northwest-striking San Andreas Fault lies about 34 km east of Monterey Bay; this section of the fault ruptured in both the 1989 M6.9 Loma Prieta earthquake and the 1906 M7.8 great California earthquake. The northwest-striking San Gregorio Fault crosses Monterey Canyon west of Monterey Bay. Between these two regional faults, strain is accommodated by the northwest-striking Monterey Bay Fault Zone. Deformation associated with these major regional faults and related structures has resulted in uplift of the Santa Cruz Mountains, as well as the granitic highlands of the Monterey peninsula.Monterey Canyon begins in the nearshore area directly offshore of Moss Landing and Elkhorn Slough, and it can be traced for more than 400 km seaward, out to water depths of more than 4,000 m. Within the map area, the canyon can be traced for about 42 km to a water depth of about 1,520 m. The head of the canyon consists of three branches that begin about 150 m offshore of Moss Landing Harbor. At 500 m offshore, the canyon is already 70 m deep and 750 m wide. Large sand waves, which have heights from 1 to 3 m and wavelengths of about 50 m, are present along the channel axis in the upper 4 km of the canyon.Soquel Canyon is the most prominent tributary of Monterey Canyon within the map area. The head of Soquel Canyon is isolated from coastal watersheds and, thus, is considered inactive as a conduit for coarse sediment transport.North and south of

  1. Watersheds in disordered media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José S. Andrade Jr.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watershedsseparating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have beenused to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes betweencountries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance,slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in awatershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arisesnaturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide,and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields suchas image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scalingproperties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a moreprofound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed andstatistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of awatershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometricaland physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificialmodel landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be ingood qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.

  2. Allegheny County Watershed Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset demarcates the 52 isolated sub-Watersheds of Allegheny County that drain to single point on the main stem rivers. Created by 3 Rivers 2nd Nature based...

  3. Designing for Watershed Inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzin, Alec; Shive, Louise

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we describe a collaborative design initiative with three secondary school teachers to promote the use of Web-based inquiry in the context of a watershed investigation. Design interviews that focus on instructional goals and pedagogical beliefs of classroom teachers were conducted. The interview protocol used a curricular framework…

  4. Water-use analysis program for the Neshaminy Creek basin, Bucks and Montgomery counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreffler, Curtis L.

    1996-01-01

    A water-use analysis computer program was developed for the Neshaminy Creek Basin to assist in managing and allocating water resources in the basin. The program was developed for IBM-compatible personal computers. Basin analysis and the methodologies developed for the Neshaminy Creek Basin can be transferred to other watersheds. The development and structure of the water-use analysis program is documented in this report. The report also serves as a user's guide. The program uses common relational database-management software that allows for water use-data input, editing, updating and output and can be used to generate a watershed water-use analysis report. The watershed-analysis report lists summations of public-supply well withdrawals; a combination of industrial, commercial, institutional, and ground-water irrigation well withdrawals; spray irrigation systems; a combination of public, industrial, and private surface-water withdrawals; wastewater-tratement-facility dishcarges; estimates of aggregate domestic ground-water withdrawals on an areal basin or subbasin basis; imports and exports of wastewater across basin or subbasin divides; imports and exports of public water supplies across basin or subbasin divides; estimates of evaporative loss and consumptive loss from produce incorporation; industrial septic-system discharges to ground water; and ground-water well-permit allocations.

  5. Characterization of an Active Thermal Erosion Site, Caribou Creek, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busey, R.; Bolton, W. R.; Cherry, J. E.; Hinzman, L. D.

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this project is to estimate volume loss of soil over time from this site, provide parameterizations on erodibility of ice rich permafrost and serve as a baseline for future landscape evolution simulations. Located in the zone of discontinuous permafrost, the interior region of Alaska (USA) is home to a large quantity of warm, unstable permafrost that is both high in ice content and has soil temperatures near the freezing point. Much of this permafrost maintains a frozen state despite the general warming air temperature trend in the region due to the presence of a thick insulating organic mat and a dense root network in the upper sub-surface of the soil column. At a rapidly evolving thermo-erosion site, located within the Caribou-Poker Creeks Research Watershed (part of the Bonanza Creek LTER) near Chatanika, Alaska (N65.140, W147.570), the protective organic layer and associated plants were disturbed by an adjacent traditional use trail and the shifting of a groundwater spring. These triggers have led to rapid geomorphological change on the landscape as the soil thaws and sediment is transported into the creek at the valley bottom. Since 2006 (approximately the time of initiation), the thermal erosion has grown to 170 meters length, 3 meters max depth, and 15 meters maximum width. This research combines several data sets: DGPS survey, imagery from an extremely low altitude pole-based remote sensing (3 to 5 meters above ground level), and imagery from an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS) at about 60m altitude.

  6. 3D View of Grand Canyon, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The Grand Canyon is one of North America's most spectacular geologic features. Carved primarily by the Colorado River over the past six million years, the canyon sports vertical drops of 5,000 feet and spans a 445-kilometer-long stretch of Arizona desert. The strata along the steep walls of the canyon form a record of geologic time from the Paleozoic Era (250 million years ago) to the Precambrian (1.7 billion years ago).The above view was acquired by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument aboard the Terra spacecraft. Visible and near infrared data were combined to form an image that simulates the natural colors of water and vegetation. Rock colors, however, are not accurate. The image data were combined with elevation data to produce this perspective view, with no vertical exaggeration, looking from above the South Rim up Bright Angel Canyon towards the North Rim. The light lines on the plateau at lower right are the roads around the Canyon View Information Plaza. The Bright Angel Trail, which reaches the Colorado in 11.3 kilometers, can be seen dropping into the canyon over Plateau Point at bottom center. The blue and black areas on the North Rim indicate a forest fire that was smoldering as the data were acquired on May 12, 2000.Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., is the U.S. Science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as

  7. STRUCTURE AND COMPOSITION OF A WATERSHED-SCALE SEDIMENT INFORMATION NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A "Watershed-Scale Sediment Information Network" (WaSSIN), designed to complement UNESCO's International Sedimentation Initiative, was endorsed as an initial project by the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research. WaSSIN is to address global fluvial-sediment information needs through a network approach based on consistent protocols for the collection,analysis, and storage of fluvial-sediment and ancillary information at smaller spatial scales than those of the International Sedimentation Initiative. As a second step of implementation, it is proposed herein that the WaSSIN have a general structure of two components, (1) monitoring and data acquisition and (2) research. Monitoring is to be conducted in small watersheds, each of which has an established database for discharge of water and suspended sediment and possibly for bed load, bed material, and bed topography. Ideally, documented protocols have been used for collecting,analyzing, storing, and sharing the derivative data. The research component is to continue the collection and interpretation of data, to compare those data among candidate watersheds, and to determine gradients of fluxes and processes among the selected watersheds. To define gradients and evaluate processes, the initial watersheds will have several common attributes. Watersheds of the first group will be: (1) six to ten in number, (2) less than 1000 km2 in area, (3) generally in mid-latitudes of continents, and (4) of semiarid climate. Potential candidate watersheds presently include the Weany Creek Basin, northeastern Australia, the Zhi Fanggou catchment, northern China,the Eshtemoa Watershed, southern Israel, the Metsemotlhaba River Basin, Botswana, the Aiuaba Experimental Basin, Brazil, and the Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed, southwestern United States.

  8. Baseline for Climate Change: Modeling Watershed Aquatic Biodiversity Relative to Environmental and Anthropogenic Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurakis, Eugene G

    2010-10-01

    Objectives of the two-year study were to (1) establish baselines for fish and macroinvertebrate community structures in two mid-Atlantic lower Piedmont watersheds (Quantico Creek, a pristine forest watershed; and Cameron Run, an urban watershed, Virginia) that can be used to monitor changes relative to the impacts related to climate change in the future; (2) create mathematical expressions to model fish species richness and diversity, and macroinvertebrate taxa and macroinvertebrate functional feeding group taxa richness and diversity that can serve as a baseline for future comparisons in these and other watersheds in the mid-Atlantic region; and (3) heighten people’s awareness, knowledge and understanding of climate change and impacts on watersheds in a laboratory experience and interactive exhibits, through internship opportunities for undergraduate and graduate students, a week-long teacher workshop, and a website about climate change and watersheds. Mathematical expressions modeled fish and macroinvertebrate richness and diversity accurately well during most of the six thermal seasons where sample sizes were robust. Additionally, hydrologic models provide the basis for estimating flows under varying meteorological conditions and landscape changes. Continuations of long-term studies are requisite for accurately teasing local human influences (e.g. urbanization and watershed alteration) from global anthropogenic impacts (e.g. climate change) on watersheds. Effective and skillful translations (e.g. annual potential exposure of 750,000 people to our inquiry-based laboratory activities and interactive exhibits in Virginia) of results of scientific investigations are valuable ways of communicating information to the general public to enhance their understanding of climate change and its effects in watersheds.

  9. Efficiency of Evolutionary Algorithms for Calibration of Watershed Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, M.; Arabi, M.

    2009-12-01

    Since the promulgation of the Clean Water Act in the U.S. and other similar legislations around the world over the past three decades, watershed management programs have focused on the nexus of pollution prevention and mitigation. In this context, hydrologic/water quality models have been increasingly embedded in the decision making process. Simulation models are now commonly used to investigate the hydrologic response of watershed systems under varying climatic and land use conditions, and also to study the fate and transport of contaminants at various spatiotemporal scales. Adequate calibration and corroboration of models for various outputs at varying scales is an essential component of watershed modeling. The parameter estimation process could be challenging when multiple objectives are important. For example, improving streamflow predictions of the model at a stream location may result in degradation of model predictions for sediments and/or nutrient at the same location or other outlets. This paper aims to evaluate the applicability and efficiency of single and multi objective evolutionary algorithms for parameter estimation of complex watershed models. To this end, the Shuffled Complex Evolution (SCE-UA) algorithm, a single-objective genetic algorithm (GA), and a multi-objective genetic algorithm (i.e., NSGA-II) were reconciled with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to calibrate the model at various locations within the Wildcat Creek Watershed, Indiana. The efficiency of these methods were investigated using different error statistics including root mean square error, coefficient of determination and Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient for the output variables as well as the baseflow component of the stream discharge. A sensitivity analysis was carried out to screening model parameters that bear significant uncertainties. Results indicated that while flow processes can be reasonably ascertained, parameterization of nutrient and pesticide processes

  10. Assessing the Source-to-Stream Transport of Benzotriazoles during Rainfall and Snowmelt in Urban and Agricultural Watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajulee, Abha; Lei, Ying Duan; De Silva, Amila O; Cao, Xiaoshu; Mitchell, Carl P J; Wania, Frank

    2017-04-07

    While benzotriazoles (BTs) are ubiquitous in urban waters, their sources and transport remain poorly characterized. We aimed to elucidate the origin and hydrological pathways of BTs in Toronto, Canada, by quantifying three BTs, electrical conductivity, and δ(18)O in high-frequency streamwater samples taken during two rainfall and one snowmelt event in two watersheds with contrasting levels of urbanization. Average concentrations of total BTs (∑BT) were 1.3 to 110 times higher in the more urbanized Mimico Creek watershed relative to the primarily agricultural and suburban Little Rouge Creek. Strong correlations between upstream density of major roads and total BT concentrations or BT composition within all events implicate vehicle fluids as the key source of BTs in both watersheds. Sustained historical releases of BTs within the Mimico Creek watershed have likely led to elevated ∑BT in groundwater, with elevated concentrations observed during baseflow that are diluted by rainfall and surface runoff. In contrast, relatively constant concentrations, caused by mixing of equally contaminated baseflow and rainfall/surface runoff, are observed in the Little Rouge Creek throughout storm hydrographs, with an occasional first flush occurring at a subsite draining suburban land. During snowmelt, buildup of BTs in roadside snowpiles and preferential partitioning of BTs to the liquid phase of a melting snowpack leads to early peaks in ∑BT in both streams, except the sites in the Little Rouge Creek with low levels of vehicle traffic. Overall, a history of BT release and land use associated with urbanization have led to higher levels of BTs in urban areas and provide a glimpse into future BT dynamics in mixed use, (sub)urbanizing areas.

  11. Stream geomorphic and habitat data from a baseline study of Underwood Creek, Wisconsin, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Benjamin M.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Blount, James D.

    2015-12-07

    Geomorphic and habitat data were collected along Underwood Creek as part of a larger study of stream water quality conditions in the greater Milwaukee, Wisconsin, area. The data were collected to characterize baseline physical conditions in Underwood Creek prior to a potential discharge of wastewater return flow to the stream from the city of Waukesha, Wis. Geomorphic and habitat assessments were conducted in the summer and fall of 2012 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District. The assessments used a transect based, reach scale assessment at a total of eight reaches—six reaches along Underwood Creek and two reaches along the Menomonee River upstream and downstream of its confluence with Underwood Creek. The reach scale assessment was an updated version of the USGS National Water Quality Assessment Program habitat assessment integrated with an intensive geomorphic assessment. Channel cross sections and longitudinal profiles were surveyed along each of the eight reaches, and discharge and water temperature were measured. Additionally, a geomorphic river walk-through was completed along a 10 kilometer reach that spanned the individual assessment reaches and the sections of channel between them. The assessments and river walk-through described channel and bank stability, channel shape and size, sediment and riparian conditions along these areas of Underwood Creek and the Menomonee River. Since the time of the data collection, focus has turned to other Lake Michigan tributary watersheds for possible Waukesha return-flow discharges; however, the data collected for this effort remains a valuable asset for the baseline characterization, design, and prioritization of planned stream rehabilitation activities in Underwood Creek. The data files presented in this report include a variety of formats including geographic information system files, spreadsheets, photos, and scans of field forms.

  12. Surprise and Opportunity for Learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Melis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  13. Surprise and opportunity for learning in Grand Canyon: the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Theodore S.; Walters, Carl; Korman, Josh

    2015-01-01

    With a focus on resources of the Colorado River ecosystem below Glen Canyon Dam, the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program has included a variety of experimental policy tests, ranging from manipulation of water releases from the dam to removal of non-native fish within Grand Canyon National Park. None of these field-scale experiments has yet produced unambiguous results in terms of management prescriptions. But there has been adaptive learning, mostly from unanticipated or surprising resource responses relative to predictions from ecosystem modeling. Surprise learning opportunities may often be viewed with dismay by some stakeholders who might not be clear about the purpose of science and modeling in adaptive management. However, the experimental results from the Glen Canyon Dam program actually represent scientific successes in terms of revealing new opportunities for developing better river management policies. A new long-term experimental management planning process for Glen Canyon Dam operations, started in 2011 by the U.S. Department of the Interior, provides an opportunity to refocus management objectives, identify and evaluate key uncertainties about the influence of dam releases, and refine monitoring for learning over the next several decades. Adaptive learning since 1995 is critical input to this long-term planning effort. Embracing uncertainty and surprise outcomes revealed by monitoring and ecosystem modeling will likely continue the advancement of resource objectives below the dam, and may also promote efficient learning in other complex programs.

  14. Comparison of Hydrologic Dynamics in Forested and Agricultural Sub-watersheds of a Large Mixed-use Prairie Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, H.; Ali, G.

    2013-12-01

    The natural history of the Prairies includes the large-scale human modification of landscape biology and hydrology from first settlement to present. Forested land has been and continues to be lost and runoff is increasingly artificially drained in this intensively managed region. The impact of such modifications on hydrological dynamics has yet to be understood in such a way that measurable landscape alterations (i.e., area of forest loss, hydraulic capacity of artificial surface drains) can be linked to quantifiable alterations in event storm hydrographs or hydrological regimes. Here we focused on a large mixed-used watershed to compare the hydrological dynamics of forested sub-watersheds to those of neighboring deforested agricultural sub-watersheds within a similar geologic and pedologic setting. The chosen study site, the Catfish Creek watershed (CCW), drains a 600 km2 area located approximately 90 km north-east of Winnipeg (Manitoba, Canada) and has been extensively impacted by human activities including the continued clearing of forested land for cultivation. It is characterized as a low-relief, agro-forested watershed (~45% forest, ~40% crops, ~10% swamp, ~5% other). Surface runoff is managed in part by a network of artificial drains in both the forested and cultivated portions of this watershed. The lower CCW is naturally-vegetated by parkland forest and swamp. The eastern edge of the upper watershed is also forested and of greater relative relief; while to the west the landscape is dominated by intensive, large-scale agricultural operations on a near level landscape. Detailed topographic information was collected in 1 m LiDAR survey of the area. Through the spring of 2013, CCW was instrumented with thirteen water level recorders (15-minute frequency) and five weather stations (1-minute frequency) to monitor the precipitation-runoff dynamics from spring thaw to winter freeze-up. Water level gauging stations, 12 located in-stream and 1 located in swampland

  15. Estimating natural recharge in San Gorgonio Pass watersheds, California, 1913–2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hevesi, Joseph A.; Christensen, Allen H.

    2015-12-21

    A daily precipitation-runoff model was developed to estimate spatially and temporally distributed recharge for groundwater basins in the San Gorgonio Pass area, southern California. The recharge estimates are needed to define transient boundary conditions for a groundwater-flow model being developed to evaluate the effects of pumping and climate on the long-term availability of groundwater. The area defined for estimating recharge is referred to as the San Gorgonio Pass watershed model (SGPWM) and includes three watersheds: San Timoteo Creek, Potrero Creek, and San Gorgonio River. The SGPWM was developed by using the U.S. Geological Survey INFILtration version 3.0 (INFILv3) model code used in previous studies of recharge in the southern California region, including the San Gorgonio Pass area. The SGPWM uses a 150-meter gridded discretization of the area of interest in order to account for spatial variability in climate and watershed characteristics. The high degree of spatial variability in climate and watershed characteristics in the San Gorgonio Pass area is caused, in part, by the high relief and rugged topography of the area.

  16. Report on the Watershed Monitoring Program at the Paducah Site January-December 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kszos, L.A.; Peterson, M.J.; Ryon, M.G.; Southworth, G.R.

    1999-03-01

    Watershed Monitoring of Big Bayou and Little Bayou creeks has been conducted since 1987. The monitoring was conducted by the University of Kentucky between 1987 and 1991 and by staff of the Environmental Sciences Division (ESD) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) from 1991 to present. The goals of monitoring are to (1) demonstrate that the effluent limitations established for DOE protect and maintain the use of Little Bayour and Big Bayou creeks for frowth and propagation of fish and other aquatic life, (2) characterize potential environmental impacts, and (3) document the effects of pollution abatement facilities on stream biota. The watershed (biological) monitoring discussed in this report was conducted under DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. Future monitoring will be conducted as required by the Kentucky Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (KPDES) permit issued to the Department of Energy (DOE) in March 1998. A draft Watershed Monitoring Program plan was approved by the Kentucky Division of Water and will be finalized in 1999. The DOE permit also requires toxicity monitoring of one continuous outfall and of three intermittent outfalls on a quarterly basis. The Watershed Monitoring Program for the Paducah Site during calendar year 1998 consisted of three major tasks: (1) effluent toxicity monitoring, (2) bioaccumulation studies, and (3) ecological surveys of fish communities. This report focuses on ESD activities occurring from january 1998 to December 1998, although activities conducted outside this time period are included as appropriate.

  17. Connecting ground water influxes with fish species diversity in an urbanized watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffy, L.Y.; McGinty, A.L.; Welty, C.; Kilham, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    Valley Creek watershed is a small stream system that feeds the Schuylkill River near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The watershed is highly urbanized, including over 17 percent impervious surface cover (ISC) by area. Imperviousness in a watershed has been linked to fish community structure and integrity. Generally, above 10 to 12 percent ISC there is marked decline in fish assemblages with fish being absent above 25 percent ISC. This study quantifies the importance of ground water in maintaining fish species diversity in subbasins with over 30 percent ISC. Valley Creek contains an atypical fish assemblage in that the majority of the fish are warm-water species, and the stream supports naturally reproducing brown trout, which were introduced and stocked from the early 1900s to 1985. Fish communities were quantified at 13 stations throughout the watershed, and Simpson's species diversity index was calculated. One hundred and nine springs were located, and their flow rates measured. A cross covariance analysis between Simpson's species diversity index and spring flow rates upstream of fish stations was performed to quantify the spatial correlation between these two variables. The correlation was found to be highest at lag distances up to about 400 m and drop off significantly beyond lag distances of about 800 m.

  18. “SHANGRI-LA” IN NUJIANG CANYON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    A few hours' drive took me to a place called Bingzhongluo,the largest piece of flatland in the canyon,where the Nujiang River takes two abrupt turns, forming the first bend on the Nujiang River,which is a best known scenic spot in China. At the side of the river there is a tablet of pure white marble inscribed with words painted in bright red,reading:“Bingzhongluo,the Shangri-La.”

  19. Geomorphic controls on mercury accumulation in soils from a historically mined watershed, Central California Coast Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, J.M.; Goldhaber, M.B.; Morrison, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Historic Hg mining in the Cache Creek watershed in the Central California Coast Range has contributed to the downstream transport of Hg to the San Francisco Bay-Delta. Different aspects of Hg mobilization in soils, including pedogenesis, fluvial redistribution of sediment, volatilization and eolian transport were considered. The greatest soil concentrations (>30 mg Hg kg-1) in Cache Creek are associated with mineralized serpentinite, the host rock for Hg deposits. Upland soils with non-mineralized serpentine and sedimentary parent material also had elevated concentrations (0.9-3.7 mg Hg kg-1) relative to the average concentration in the region and throughout the conterminous United States (0.06 mg kg-1). Erosion of soil and destabilized rock and mobilization of tailings and calcines into surrounding streams have contributed to Hg-rich alluvial soil forming in wetlands and floodplains. The concentration of Hg in floodplain sediment shows sediment dispersion from low-order catchments (5.6-9.6 mg Hg kg-1 in Sulphur Creek; 0.5-61 mg Hg kg-1 in Davis Creek) to Cache Creek (0.1-0.4 mg Hg kg-1). These sediments, deposited onto the floodplain during high-flow storm events, yield elevated Hg concentrations (0.2-55 mg Hg kg-1) in alluvial soils in upland watersheds. Alluvial soils within the Cache Creek watershed accumulate Hg from upstream mining areas, with concentrations between 0.06 and 0.22 mg Hg kg-1 measured in soils ~90 km downstream from Hg mining areas. Alluvial soils have accumulated Hg released through historic mining activities, remobilizing this Hg to streams as the soils erode.

  20. Orofino Creek Passage Project Biological and Engineering Feasibility Report: Completion Report 1988.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntington, Charles W.

    1988-10-01

    If implemented, the Orofino Creek Passage Project will provide adult fish passage at barrier waterfalls on Orofino Creek, Idaho, and give anadromous salmonids access to upstream habitat. Anadromous fish are currently blocked at Orofino Falls, 8.3 km above the stream's confluence with the Clearwater River. This report summarizes results of a study to determine the potential for increasing natural production of summer steelhead (Salmo gairdneri) and spring chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha) in the Orofino Creek drainage by enhancing adult fish passage. Data on fish habitat, migration barriers, stream temperatures and fish populations in the drainage were collected during 1987 and provided a basis for estimating the potential for self-sustaining anadromous salmonid production above Orofino Falls. Between 84.7 and 103.6 km of currently inaccessible streams would be available to anadromous fish following project implementation, depending on the level of passage enhancement above Orofino Falls. These streams contain habitat of poor to good quality for anadromous salmonids. Low summer flows and high water temperatures reduce habitat quality in lower mainstem Orofino Creek. Several streams in the upper watershed have habitat that is dominated by brook trout and may be poorly utilized by steelhead or salmon. 32 refs., 20 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. The marine soundscape of the Perth Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbe, Christine; Verma, Arti; McCauley, Robert; Gavrilov, Alexander; Parnum, Iain

    2015-09-01

    The Perth Canyon is a submarine canyon off Rottnest Island in Western Australia. It is rich in biodiversity in general, and important as a feeding and resting ground for great whales on migration. Australia's Integrated Marine Observing System (IMOS) has moorings in the Perth Canyon monitoring its acoustical, physical and biological oceanography. Data from these moorings, as well as weather data from a near-by Bureau of Meteorology weather station on Rottnest Island and ship traffic data from the Australian Maritime Safety Authority were correlated to characterise and quantify the marine soundscape between 5 and 3000 Hz, consisting of its geophony, biophony and anthrophony. Overall, biological sources are a strong contributor to the soundscape at the IMOS site, with whales dominating seasonally at low (15-100 Hz) and mid frequencies (200-400 Hz), and fish or invertebrate choruses dominating at high frequencies (1800-2500 Hz) at night time throughout the year. Ships contribute significantly to the 8-100 Hz band at all times of the day, all year round, albeit for a few hours at a time only. Wind-dependent noise is significant at 200-3000 Hz; winter rains are audible underwater at 2000-3000 Hz. We discuss how passive acoustic data can be used as a proxy for ocean weather. Passive acoustics is an efficient way of monitoring animal visitation times and relative densities, and potential anthropogenic influences.

  2. Establishing a pre-mining geochemical baseline at a uranium mine near Grand Canyon National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftz, David L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    During 2012, approximately 404,000 ha of Federal Land in northern Arizona was withdrawn from consideration of mineral extraction for a 20-year period to protect the Grand Canyon watershed from potentially adverse effects of U mineral exploration and development. The development, operation, and reclamation of the Canyon Mine during the withdrawal period provide an excellent field site to understand and document off-site migration of radionuclides within the withdrawal area. As part of the Department of Interior's (DOI's) study plan for the exclusion area, the objective of our study is to utilize pre-defined decision units (DUs) in areas within and surrounding the Canyon Mine to demonstrate how newly established incremental sampling methodologies (ISM) combined with multivariate statistical methods can be used to document a repeatable and statistically defensible measure of pre-mining baseline conditions in surface soils and stream sediment samples prior to ore extraction. During the survey in June 2013, the highest pre-mining 95% upper confidence level (UCL) concentrations with respect to As, Mo, U, and V were found in the triplicate samples collected from surface soils in the mine site DU designated as M1. Gamma activities were slightly elevated in soils within the M1 DU (up to 28 μR/h); however, off-site gamma activities in soil and stream-sediment samples were lower (< 6 to 12 μR/h). Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied to 33 chemical constituents contained in the multivariate data generated from the analysis of triplicate samples collected in the soil and stream sediment DUs within and surrounding Canyon Mine. Most of the triplicate samples from individual DUs were grouped in the same dendrogram cluster when using a similarity value (SV) of 0.70 (unitless). Different group membership of triplicate samples from two of the four haul road DUs was likely the result of heterogeneity induced by non-native soil material introduced from the gravel road base

  3. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Efforts, US Geological Survey Report, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Jezorek, Ian G. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-06-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attended to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first objective was to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort included measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective was to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the fourth year of a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  4. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2002-2003 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Western Fisheries Research Center, Cook, WA)

    2003-12-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the second year of at least a three-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  5. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; US Geological Survey Reports, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2003-01-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1914. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for future genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective is to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the first year of a three-year study, this report is restricted to describing our work on the first two objectives only.

  6. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek in Association with Restoration Effors; US Geological Survey Reports, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Munz, Carrie S. (US Geological Survey, Western Fisheries Research Center, Columbia River Research Laboratory, Cook, WA)

    2006-02-01

    This project was designed to document existing habitat conditions and fish populations within the Rattlesnake Creek watershed (White Salmon River subbasin, Washington) before major habitat restoration activities are implemented and prior to the reintroduction of salmon and steelhead above Condit Dam. Returning adult salmon Oncorhynchus spp. and steelhead O. mykiss have not had access to Rattlesnake Creek since 1913. An assessment of resident trout populations should serve as a good surrogate for evaluation of factors that would limit salmon and steelhead production in the watershed. Personnel from United States Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) attend to three main objectives of the Rattlesnake Creek project. The first is to characterize stream and riparian habitat conditions. This effort includes measures of water quality, water quantity, stream habitat, and riparian conditions. The second objective is to determine the status of fish populations in the Rattlesnake Creek drainage. To accomplish this, we derived estimates of salmonid population abundance, determined fish species composition, assessed distribution and life history attributes, obtained tissue samples for genetic analysis, and assessed fish diseases in the watershed. The third objective was to use the collected habitat and fisheries information to help identify and prioritize areas in need of restoration. As this report covers the third year of at least a five-year study, it is largely restricted to describing our efforts and findings for the first two objectives.

  7. Assessing GPS Constellation Resiliency in an Urban Canyon Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    Assessing GPS Constellation Resiliency in an Urban Canyon Environment THESIS MARCH 2015 Aaron J. Burns, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-138...URBAN CANYON ENVIRONMENT THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Operational Sciences Graduate School of Engineering and Management Air Force...UNLIMITED. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-138 ASSESSING GPS CONSTELLATION RESILIENCY IN AN URBAN CANYON ENVIRONMENT Aaron J. Burns, B.S. Second Lieutenant, USAF Committee

  8. Quantifying uranium transport rates and storage of fluvially eroded mine tailings from a historic mine site in the Grand Canyon Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalak, K.; Benthem, A. J.; Walton-Day, K. E.; Jolly, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Grand Canyon region contains a large number of breccia pipes with economically viable uranium, copper, and silver concentrations. Mining in this region has occurred since the late 19th century and has produced ore and waste rock having elevated levels of uranium and other contaminants. Fluvial transport of these contaminants from mine sites is a possibility, as this arid region is susceptible to violent storms and flash flooding which might erode and mobilize ore or waste rock. In order to assess and manage the risks associated with uranium mining, it is important to understand the transport and storage rates of sediment and uranium within the ephemeral streams of this region. We are developing a 1-dimensional sediment transportation model to examine uranium transport and storage through a typical canyon system in this region. Our study site is Hack Canyon Mine, a uranium and copper mine site, which operated in the 1980's and is currently experiencing fluvial erosion of its waste rock repository. The mine is located approximately 40km upstream from the Colorado River and is in a deep, narrow canyon with a small watershed. The stream is ephemeral for the upper half of its length and sediment is primarily mobilized during flash flood events. We collected sediment samples at 110 locations longitudinally through the river system to examine the distribution of uranium in the stream. Samples were sieved to the sand size and below fraction (system to determine where uranium is preferentially stored in canyon systems. This information will quantify the downstream transport of constituents associated with the Hack Canyon waste rock and contribute to understanding the risks associated with fluvial mobilization of uranium mine waste.

  9. Watershed based intelligent scissors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieclawek, W; Pietka, E

    2015-07-01

    Watershed based modification of intelligent scissors has been developed. This approach requires a preprocessing phase with anisotropic diffusion to reduce subtle edges. Then, the watershed transform enhances the corridors. Finally, a roaming procedure, developed in this study, delineates the edge selected by a user. Due to a very restrictive set of pixels, subjected to the analysis, this approach significantly reduces the computational complexity. Moreover, the accuracy of the algorithm performance makes often one click point to be sufficient for one edge delineation. The method has been evaluated on structures as different in shape and appearance as the retina layers in OCT exams, chest and abdomen in CT and knee in MR studies. The accuracy is comparable with the traditional Life-Wire approach, whereas the analysis time decreases due to the reduction of the user interaction and number of pixels processed by the method.

  10. The Fish Canyon magma body, San Juan volcanic field, Colorado: Rejuvenation and eruption of an upper-crustal batholith

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Olivier; Dungan, M.A.; Lipman, P.W.

    2002-01-01

    More than 5000 km3 of nearly compositionally homogeneous crystalrich dacite (~68 wt % SiO2: ~45% Pl + Kfs + Qtz + Hbl + Bt + Spn + Mag + Ilm + Ap + Zrn + Po) erupted from the Fish Canyon magma body during three phases: (1) the pre-caldera Pagosa Peak Dacite (an unusual poorly fragmented pyroclastic deposit, ~ 200 km3); (2) the syn-collapse Fish Canyon Tuff (one of the largest known ignimbrites, ~ 5000 km3); (3) the post-collapse Nutras Creek Dacite (a volumetrically minor lava). The late evolution of the Fish Canyon magma is characterized by rejuvenation of a near-solidus upper-crustal intrusive body (mainly crystal mush) of batholithic dimensions. The necessary thermal input was supplied by a shallow intrusion of more mafic magma represented at the surface by sparse andesitic enclaves in late-erupted Fish Canyon Tuff and by the post-caldera Huerto Andesite. The solidified margins of this intrusion are represented by holocrystalline xenoliths with Fish Canyon mineralogy and mineral chemistry and widely dispersed partially remelted polymineralic aggregates, but dehydration melting was not an important mechanism in the rejuvenation of the Fish Canyon magma. Underlying mafic magma may have evolved H2O-F-S-Cl-rich fluids that fluxed melting in the overlying crystal mush. Manifestations of the late up-temperature magma evolution are: (1) resorbed quartz, as well as feldspars displaying a wide spectrum of textures indicative of both resorption and growth, including Rapakivi textures and reverse growth zoning (An27-28 to An32-33) at the margins of many plagioclase phenocrysts; (2) high Sr, Ba, and Eu contents in the high-SiO2 rhyolite matrix glass, which are inconsistent with extreme fractional crystallization of feldspar; (3) oscillatory and reverse growth zoning toward the margins of many euhedral hornblende phenocrysts (rimward increases from ~5??5-6 to 7??7-8??5 wt % Al2O3). Homogeneity in magma composition at the chamber-wide scale, contrasting with extreme textural

  11. Ghana Watershed Prototype Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2007-01-01

    Introduction/Background A number of satellite data sets are available through the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for monitoring land surface features. Representative data sets include Landsat, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), and Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). The Ghana Watershed Prototype Products cover an area within southern Ghana, Africa, and include examples of the aforementioned data sets along with sample SRTM derivative data sets.

  12. Contaminant Sources in Stream Water of a Missouri Claypan Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. R.; Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and herbicides in stream water have degraded water quality and caused serious problems affecting human and aquatic ecosystem health in the Central Claypan Region of the US Midwest. However, the contribution of specific recharge sources to stream water is not well understood in claypan-dominated watersheds. The purpose of this study was to estimate the recharge sources to Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) in north-central Missouri and investigate their importance to contaminant transport. Samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 from streams, piezometers, seep flows, and groundwater in GCEW and analyzed for major ions (including nitrate and nitrite), trace elements, stable H and O isotopes, total nitrogen (TN) and herbicides. Using an endmember mixing analysis based on conservative tracers, recharge contributions to stream flow were an average of 25% surface runoff, 44% shallow subsurface water, and 31% groundwater. TN concentrations were, on average, Atrazine concentrations were, on average, atrazine in stream water. An improved understanding of claypan hydrology and contaminant transport could lead to crop management practices that better protect surface water and groundwater in claypan-dominated watersheds.

  13. Hydrologic response of soils to precipitation at Carnation Creek, British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fannin, R. J.; Jaakkola, J.; Wilkinson, J. M. T.; Hetherington, E. D.

    2000-02-01

    The extreme hydrologic response of gravelly, sandy soils in the Carnation Creek watershed is examined from observations at 12 standpipe piezometers. The nearly continuous piezometric data are reported as a time series of monthly maximum readings. Ten locations of measurement appear to exhibit an upper limit to the pore water pressure head that is independent of rainfall intensity and duration. Two locations exhibit artesian pressures that appear directly influenced by rainfall characteristics and may last for several hours. We found the impact of individual storms to be highly variable. The spatial variation in hydrologic response is attributed to the influence of preferential flow paths in the soil matrix.

  14. Ascension Submarine Canyon, California - Evolution of a multi-head canyon system along a strike-slip continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, D.K.; Mullins, H.T.; Greene, H. Gary

    1986-01-01

    Ascension Submarine Canyon, which lies along the strike-slip (transform) dominated continental margin of central California, consists of two discrete northwestern heads and six less well defined southeastern heads. These eight heads coalesce to form a single submarine canyon near the 2700 m isobath. Detailed seismic stratigraphic data correlated with 19 rock dredge hauls from the walls of the canyon system, suggest that at least one of the two northwestern heads was initially eroded during a Pliocene lowstand of sea level ???3.8 m.y. B.P. Paleogeographic reconstructions indicate that at this time, northwestern Ascension Canyon formed the distal channel of nearby Monterey Canyon and has subsequently been offset by right-lateral, strike-slip faulting along the San Gregorio fault zone. Some of the six southwestern heads of Ascension Canyon may also have been initially eroded as the distal portions of Monterey Canyon during late Pliocene-early Pleistocene sea-level lowstands (???2.8 and 1.75 m.y. B.P.) and subsequently truncated and offset to the northwest. There have also been a minimum of two canyon-cutting episodes within the past 750,000 years, after the entire Ascension Canyon system migrated to the northwest past Monterey Canyon. We attribute these late Pleistocene erosional events to relative lowstands of sea level 750,000 and 18,000 yrs B.P. The late Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of the six southeastern heads also appears to have been controlled by structural uplift of the Ascension-Monterey basement high at the southeastern terminus of the Outer Santa Cruz Basin. We believe that uplift of this basement high sufficiently oversteepened submarine slopes to induce gravitational instability and generate mass movements that resulted in the erosion of the canyon heads. Most significantly, though, our results and interpretations support previous proposals that submarine canyons along strike-slip continental margins can originate by tectonic trunction and lateral

  15. Effects of urbanization on groundwater evolution in an urbanizing watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, D.; Banner, J. L.; Bendik, N.

    2011-12-01

    The Jollyville Plateau Salamander (Eurycea tonkawae), a candidate species for listing under the Endangered Species Act, is endemic to springs and caves within the Bull Creek Watershed of Austin, Texas. Rapid urbanization endangers known populations of this salamander. Conservation strategies lack information on the extent of groundwater contamination from anthropogenic sources in this karst watershed. Spring water was analyzed for strontium (Sr) isotopes and major ions from sites classified as "urban" or "rural" based on impervious cover estimates. Previous studies have shown that the 87Sr/86Sr value of municipal water is significantly higher than values for natural streamwater, which are similar to those for the Cretaceous limestone bedrock of the region's watersheds. We investigate the application of this relationship to understanding the effects of urbanization on groundwater quality. The use of Sr isotopes as hydrochemical tracers is complemented by major ion concentrations, specifically the dominant ions in natural groundwater (Ca and HCO3) and the ions associated with the addition of wastewater (Na and Cl). To identify high priority salamander-inhabited springs for water quality remediation, we explore the processes controlling the chemical evolution of groundwater such as municipal water inputs, groundwater-soil interactions, and solution/dissolution reactions. 87Sr/86Sr values for water samples from within the watershed range from 0.70760 to 0.70875, the highest values corresponding to sites located in the urbanized areas of the watershed. Analyses of the covariation of Sr isotopes with major ion concentrations help elucidate controls on spring water evolution. Springs located in rural portions of the watershed have low 87Sr/86Sr, high concentrations of Ca and HCO3, and low concentrations of Na and Cl. This is consistent with small inputs of municipal water. Three springs located in urban portions of the watershed have high 87Sr/86Sr, low Ca and HCO3, and

  16. Sediment budget for Murder Creek, Georgia, USA, from Pu239+240 - determined soil erosion rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, A. P.; Matissoff, G.; Ketterer, M. E.; Whiting, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    Soil inventories of the radionuclides Cs137 and Pb210 have been used in a variety of environments as indicators for erosion and depositional processes. Development of sediment budgets for entire watersheds from radionuclide data has been somewhat constrained because limited sample numbers may not adequately characterize the wide range of geomorphic conditions and land uses found in heterogeneous environments. The measurement of Pu239+240 shows great potential for developing quantitative watershed sediment budgets. With inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry, hundreds of samples may be processed in dramatically shorter times than the gamma spectrometry method used for Cs137 or alpha spectrometry method used for Pb210. We collected surface soil samples from Murder Creek in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA, to compare Pu239+240 inventories with Cs137 and Pb210 inventories for a range of land uses in a predominantly forested watershed. Excellent correlations were found for radionuclide inventories (r2 =0.88, n = 38) and high resolution (4 mm) depth profiles. The second objective was to generate a sediment budget using the full Pu239+240 dataset (n = 309). Average Pu239+240 inventories were 70.0 Bq/m2 for hardwood forest, 60.0 Bq/m2 for pine plantation, 65.1 Bq/m2 for pine forest, 66.7 Bq/m2 for row crop agriculture and 67.9 Bq/m2 for pasture. The sediment budget will be constructed by converting inventories into site-specific erosion rates. Erosion rates will be scaled up to the watershed scale using GIS coverages of land use, soil, slope, and slope position. Results will be compared with Murder Creek sediment budgets in the scientific literature generated from RUSLE erosion modeling, USGS monitoring networks and reservoir sedimentation.

  17. Simulation of streamflow and the effects of brush management on water yields in the upper Guadalupe River watershed, south-central Texas, 1995-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R.; Thompson, Florence E.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas State Soil and Water Conservation Board and the Upper Guadalupe River Authority, developed and calibrated a Soil and Water Assessment Tool watershed model of the upper Guadalupe River watershed in south-central Texas to simulate streamflow and the effects of brush management on water yields in the watershed and to Canyon Lake for 1995–2010. Model simulations were done to quantify the possible change in water yield of individual subbasins in the upper Guadalupe River watershed as a result of the replacement of ashe juniper (Juniperus ashei) with grasslands. The simulation results will serve as a tool for resource managers to guide their brush-management efforts.

  18. Habitat Restoration and Monitoring in Urban Streams: The Case of Tryon Creek in Portland, OR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios Touma, B. P.; Prescott, C.; Axtell, S.; Kondolf, G. M.

    2013-12-01

    Habitat enhancement in urban streams can be important for threatened species but challenging, because of altered catchment hydrology and urban encroachment on floodplains and channel banks. In Portland (OR) restoration actions have been undertaken at the watershed scale (e.g.: storm water management, protection of sites with high watershed value) to improve water quality, and at reach scale, when water quality and quantity are adequate, to increase habitat heterogeneity and stabilize banks. To evaluate reach-scale restoration projects in the Tryon Creek watershed, we sampled benthic macroinvertebrates and conducted habitat quality surveys pre-project and over 4 years post- project. Species sensitive to pollution and diversity of trophic groups increased after restoration. Although taxonomical diversity increased after restoration, but was still low compared to reference streams. We found no significant changes in trait proportions and functional diversity. Functional diversity, proportion of shredders and semivoltine invertebrates were significantly higher in reference streams than the restored stream reaches. We hypothesized that inputs of coarse particulate organic matter and land use at watershed scale may explain the differences in biodiversity between restored and reference stream reaches. Variables such as substrate composition, canopy cover or large wood pieces did not change from pre- to post-project, so could not explain the changes in the community. This may have been partly attributable to insensitivity of the visual estimate methods used, but likely also reflects an importance influence of watershed variables on aquatic biota - suggesting watershed actions may be more effective for the ecological recovery of streams. For future projects, we recommend multihabitat benthic sampling supported by studies of channel geomorphology to better understand stream response to restoration actions.

  19. Simulated wetland conservation-restoration effects on water quantity and quality at watershed scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xixi; Shang, Shiyou; Qu, Zhongyi; Liu, Tingxi; Melesse, Assefa M; Yang, Wanhong

    2010-07-01

    Wetlands are one of the most important watershed microtopographic features that affect hydrologic processes (e.g., routing) and the fate and transport of constituents (e.g., sediment and nutrients). Efforts to conserve existing wetlands and/or to restore lost wetlands require that watershed-level effects of wetlands on water quantity and water quality be quantified. Because monitoring approaches are usually cost or logistics prohibitive at watershed scale, distributed watershed models such as the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), enhanced by the hydrologic equivalent wetland (HEW) concept developed by Wang [Wang, X., Yang, W., Melesse, A.M., 2008. Using hydrologic equivalent wetland concept within SWAT to estimate streamflow in watersheds with numerous wetlands. Trans. ASABE 51 (1), 55-72.], can be a best resort. However, there is a serious lack of information about simulated effects using this kind of integrated modeling approach. The objective of this study was to use the HEW concept in SWAT to assess effects of wetland restoration within the Broughton's Creek watershed located in southwestern Manitoba, and of wetland conservation within the upper portion of the Otter Tail River watershed located in northwestern Minnesota. The results indicated that the HEW concept allows the nonlinear functional relations between watershed processes and wetland characteristics (e.g., size and morphology) to be accurately represented in the models. The loss of the first 10-20% of the wetlands in the Minnesota study area would drastically increase the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, total phosphorus (TP), and total nitrogen (TN). On the other hand, the justifiable reductions of the peak discharge and loadings of sediment, TP, and TN in the Manitoba study area may require that 50-80% of the lost wetlands be restored. Further, the comparison between the predicted restoration and conservation effects revealed that wetland conservation seems to deserve a higher priority

  20. 33 CFR 334.240 - Potomac River, Mattawoman Creek and Chicamuxen Creek; U.S. Naval Surface Weapons Center, Indian...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shore of Mattawoman Creek to the pilings remaining from the footbridge connecting the left bank of the... Mattawoman Creek from the pilings remaining from the footbridge to the mouth of the creek; thence in...

  1. Compilation of watershed models for tributaries to the Great Lakes, United States, as of 2010, and identification of watersheds for future modeling for the Great Lakes Restoration Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coon, William F.; Murphy, Elizabeth A.; Soong, David T.; Sharpe, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    developed by the National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Agriculture. During 2010, the USGS used the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) to create a hydrologic model for the Lake Michigan Basin to assess the probable effects of climate change on future groundwater and surface-water resources. The Water Availability Tool for Environmental Resources (WATER) model and the Analysis of Flows In Networks of CHannels (AFINCH) program also were used to support USGS GLRI projects that required estimates of streamflows throughout the Great Lakes Basin. This information on existing watershed models, along with an assessment of geologic, soils, and land-use data across the Great Lakes Basin and the identification of problems that exist in selected tributary watersheds that could be addressed by a watershed model, was used to identify three watersheds in the Great Lakes Basin for future modeling by the USGS. These watersheds are the Kalamazoo River Basin in Michigan, the Tonawanda Creek Basin in New York, and the Bad River Basin in Wisconsin. These candidate watersheds have hydrogeologic, land-type, and soil characteristics that make them distinct from each other, but that are representative of other tributary watersheds within the Great Lakes Basin. These similarities in the characteristics among nearby watersheds will enhance the usefulness of a model by improving the likelihood that parameter values from a previously modeled watershed could reliably be used in the creation of a model of another watershed in the same region. The software program Hydrological Simulation Program–Fortran (HSPF) was selected to simulate the hydrologic, sedimentary, and water-quality processes in these selected watersheds. HSPF is a versatile, process-based, continuous-simulation model that has been used extensively by the scientific community, has the ongoing technical support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and USGS, and provides a means to evaluate the

  2. Mercury Transport During Snowmelt in Three Mountain Watersheds in Northern Utah, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Packer, B. N.; Carling, G. T.; Tingey, D. G.

    2015-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) transport during snowmelt is widely recognized as a significant source of Hg to high elevation lakes and streams. However, it is not well understood to what extent Hg is associated with suspended sediment versus dissolved organic matter during snowmelt runoff. To investigate Hg transport during snowmelt, we collected samples for filtered and unfiltered total Hg (THg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in snowpack and snowmelt runoff across three snow-dominated watersheds in northern Utah: Logan River, Provo River, and Little Cottonwood Creek. The watersheds were selected to cover a range of geologic and hydrologic conditions typical of the Rocky Mountain region. Initial results show that snowpack THg concentrations were similar across the watersheds (0.87 - 1.69 ng/L) but river THg concentrations were highly variable. The Provo River showed the highest THg concentrations approaching 6 ng/L during peak flows, whereas maximum THg concentrations in the Logan River were <2 ng/L. Little Cottonwood Creek showed intermediate THg concentrations. THg and DOC showed strong positive correlation in the Provo River (R2=0.68) but were not correlated in the Logan River (R2=0.04). Notably, the Provo River showed the highest fraction of "dissolved" THg (calculated as the fraction of filtered/unfiltered concentration) averaging 75% compared with the other sites where the "dissolved" fraction was <45%. These results suggest that the majority of THg is transported in association with DOC in the Provo River but is more strongly associated with suspended sediments in the Logan River and Little Cottonwood Creek. These findings have implications for understanding Hg cycling in the Provo River watershed where Jordanelle Reservoir has fish consumption advisories due elevated Hg concentrations. The dissolved load of THg, possibly associated with DOC, is likely methylated in Jordanelle Reservoir where it bio-accumulates up the food web.

  3. Questa Baseline and Pre-Mining Ground-Water-Quality Investigation 22 - Ground-Water Budget for the Straight Creek Drainage Basin, Red River Valley, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAda, Douglas P.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2008-01-01

    In April 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) began a cooperative study to infer the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine site in the Red River Valley. The Molycorp mine has been in operation since the 1920s. Because ground-water conditions prior to mining are not available, sites analogous to the pre-mining conditions at the mine site must be studied to infer those pre-mining conditions. The Straight Creek drainage basin (watershed) was selected as the primary analog site for this study because of its similar terrain and geology to the mine site, accessibility, potential for well construction, and minimal anthropogenic activity. The purpose of this report is to present results of a water-budget analysis of the debris-flow aquifer in the Straight Creek watershed. The water budget is based on mean annual conditions and is assumed to be steady state. For this study, the Straight Creek watershed was divided into sub-watersheds on the basis of locations of seismic lines, which were used to calculate cross-section area through the Straight Creek debris-flow deposits and underlying fractured and weathered bedrock (regolith). Water-budget components were calculated for areas upstream from and between the seismic lines. Components of the water budget were precipitation, evapotranspiration, surface-water flow, and ground-water flow under a steady-state mean annual condition. Watershed yield, defined as precipitation minus evapotranspiration, was separated into surface-water flow, ground-water flow through the debris-flow deposits and regolith, and ground-water flow through fractured bedrock. The approach to this calculation was to use Darcy?s Law to calculate the flow through the cross-section area of the saturated debris-flow deposits and underlying regolith as defined by the interpreted seismic data. The amount of watershed yield unaccounted for through this section then was attributed to

  4. 36 CFR 7.4 - Grand Canyon National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grand Canyon National Park. 7.4 Section 7.4 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.4 Grand Canyon National Park. (a)...

  5. Modeling the Effect of Wider Canyons on Urban Heating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizwan Ahmed Memon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The k-? turbulence model is adopted in this study to simulate the impact of street canyon AR (Aspect Ratios on heating within street canyon. The two-dimensional model was validated for RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes and energy transport equations. The validation process confirms that the results of the model for airtemperature and wind speed could be trusted. The application of the said model is carried out to ideal street canyons of ARs (ratio of building-height-to-street-width from 0.4 to 2 with the same boundary conditions. Notably, street canyon aspect ratio was calculated by varying the street width while keeping the building height constant. Results show that the weighted-average-air-temperature within AR 0.4 was around 0.8% (i.e. 2.4K higher than that within AR 2.0. Conversely, there was strong correlation (i.e., R2>0.9 between air temperature within the street canyon and street canyon AR. Results demonstrate stronger influence of vertical velocity on heating within street canyon. Evidently, increased vertical velocity decreased the temperatures. Conversely, temperatures were higher along the leeward side of the canyon in lower ARs.

  6. Wave run up in Zones of Underwater Canyons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katline Koblev A. Julio

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The wave run up on coast and shore protection constructions in zones of underwater canyons is considered. The mathematical model of wave run up on the coast, considering distinctions in biases of underwater and surface parts of the coastal slope, allowing to receive setup parameters in zones of the underwater canyons, corresponding to data of supervision is offered.

  7. 78 FR 7810 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group.... L. 102-575) of 1992. The AMP includes a Federal advisory committee, the AMWG, a technical work...

  8. 75 FR 34476 - Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of Reclamation... Interior (Secretary) is renewing the charter for the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group is to advise and to provide recommendations to the...

  9. Distribution and Movement of Bull Trout in the Upper Jarbidge River Watershed, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M. Brady; Connolly, Patrick J.; Mesa, Matthew G.; Charrier, Jodi; Dixon, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In 2006 and 2007, we surveyed the occurrence of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus), the relative distributions of bull trout and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and stream habitat conditions in the East and West Forks of the Jarbidge River in northeastern Nevada and southern Idaho. We installed passive integrated transponder (PIT) tag interrogation systems at strategic locations within the watershed, and PIT-tagged bull trout were monitored to evaluate individual fish growth, movement, and the connectivity of bull trout between streams. Robust bull trout populations were found in the upper portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River, the West Fork Jarbidge River, and in the Pine, Jack, Dave, and Fall Creeks. Small numbers of bull trout also were found in Slide and Cougar Creeks. Bull trout were numerically dominant in the upper portions of the East Fork Jarbidge River, and in Fall, Dave, Jack, and Pine Creeks, whereas redband trout were numerically dominant throughout the rest of the watershed. The relative abundance of bull trout was notably higher at altitudes above 2,100 m. This study was successful in documenting bull trout population connectivity within the West Fork Jarbidge River, particularly between West Fork Jarbidge River and Pine Creek. Downstream movement of bull trout to the confluence of the East Fork and West Fork Jarbidge River both from Jack Creek (rkm 16.6) in the West Fork Jarbidge River and from Dave Creek (rkm 7.5) in the East Fork Jarbidge River was detected. Although bull trout exhibited some downstream movement during the spring and summer, much of their emigration occurred in the autumn, concurrent with decreasing water temperatures and slightly increasing flows. The bull trout that emigrated were mostly age-2 or older, but some age-1 fish also emigrated. Upstream movement by bull trout was detected less than downstream movement. The overall mean annual growth rate of bull trout in the East Fork and West Fork Jarbidge River was 36 mm

  10. 33 CFR 117.324 - Rice Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Rice Creek. 117.324 Section 117.324 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.324 Rice Creek. The CSX Railroad Swingbridge,...

  11. 33 CFR 117.335 - Taylor Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Taylor Creek. 117.335 Section 117.335 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.335 Taylor Creek. The draw of US441 bridge, mile...

  12. 33 CFR 117.331 - Snake Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Snake Creek. 117.331 Section 117.331 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Florida § 117.331 Snake Creek. The draw of the Snake...

  13. 33 CFR 117.841 - Smith Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Smith Creek. 117.841 Section 117.841 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements North Carolina § 117.841 Smith Creek. The draw of the...

  14. 33 CFR 117.557 - Curtis Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Curtis Creek. 117.557 Section 117.557 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.557 Curtis Creek. The draw of the I695...

  15. 33 CFR 117.555 - College Creek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false College Creek. 117.555 Section 117.555 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Maryland § 117.555 College Creek. The draws of...

  16. SPECIFIC DEGRADATION OF WATERSHEDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Boubacar KANE; Pierre Y.JULIEN

    2007-01-01

    An extensive database of reservoir sedimentation surveys throughout continental United States is compiled and analyzed to determine specific degradation SD relationships as function of mean annual rainfall R, drainage area A, and watershed slope S. The database contains 1463 field measurements and specific degradation relationships are defined as function of A, R and S. Weak trends and significant variability in the data are noticeable. Specific degradation measurements are log normally distributed with respect to R, A, and S and 95% confidence intervals are determined accordingly. The accuracy of the predictions does not significantly increase as more independent variables are added to the regression analyses.

  17. Internal tide convergence and mixing in a submarine canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterhouse, Amy

    2016-11-01

    Observations from Eel Canyon, located on the north coast of California, show that elevated turbulence in the full water column arises from the convergence of remotely-generated internal wave energy. The incoming semidiurnal and bottom-trapped diurnal internal tides generate complex interference patterns. The semidiurnal internal tide sets up a partly standing wave within the canyon due to reflection at the canyon head, dissipating all of its energy within the canyon. Dissipation in the near-bottom is associated with the diurnal trapped tide, while midwater isopycnal shear and strain is associated with the semidiurnal tide. Dissipation is elevated up to 600 m off the bottom, in contrast to observations over flat continental shelf where dissipation occurs closer to the topography. Slope canyons are sinks for internal wave energy and may have important influences on the global distribution of tidally-driven mixing.

  18. The Black Canyon of the Gunnison: Today and Yesterday

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Wallace R.

    1965-01-01

    Since the early visit of Captain John William Gunnison in the middle of the last century, the Black Canyon of the Gunnison has stirred mixed apprehension and wonder in the hearts of its viewers. It ranks high among the more awesome gorges of North America. Many great western canyons are as well remembered for their brightly colored walls as for their airy depths. Not so the Black Canyon. Though it is assuredly not black, the dark-gray tones of its walls and the hazy shadows of its gloomy depths join together to make its name well deserved. Its name conveys an impression, not a picture. After the first emotional impact of the canyon, the same questions come to the minds of most reflective viewers and in about the following order: How deep is the Black Canyon, how wide, how does it compare with other canyons, what are the rocks, how did it form, and how long did it take? Several western canyons exceed the Black Canyon in overall size. Some are longer; some are deeper; some are narrower; and a few have walls as steep. But no other canyon in North American combines the depth, narrowness, sheerness, and somber countenance of the Black Canyon. In many places the Black Canyon is as deep as it is wide. Between The Narrows and Chasm View in the Black Canyon of the Gunnison National Monument (fig. 15) it is much deeper than wide. Average depth in the monument is about 2,000 feet, ranging from a maximum of about 2,700 feet, north of Warner Point (which also is the greatest depth anywhere in the canyon), to a minimum of about 1,750 feet at The Narrows. The stretch of canyon between Pulpit Rock and Chasm View, including The Narrows, though the shallowest in the monument, is also the narrowest, has some of the steepest walls, and is, therefore, among the most impressive segments of the canyon (fig. 3). Profiles of several well-known western canyons are shown in figure 1. Deepest of these by far is Hells Canyon of the Snake, on the Idaho-Oregon border. Clearly, it dwarfs the

  19. Impacts of pinyon and juniper control on ecosystems processes in the Porter Canyon Experimental Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The opportunistic encroachment of native pinyon and juniper trees into areas formerly dominated by sagebrush has reduced the presence of shrubs and grasses, impacting critical habitat and forage availability. Pinyon and juniper currently occupy 19 million ha in the Intermountain West and prior to 18...

  20. WATERSHED SELECTION FOR ENVIRONMENTAL REHABILITATION USING MULTICRITERIA ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo da Silva Francisco

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The Anhumas creek watershed, in the region of Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil, is degraded also as a result of unplanned land use of its riparian zones, considered Permanent Preservation Areas (APP. Therefore, river flow is unstable, promoting frequent flood damages, besides the lack of several environmental functions of its APPs. Environmental recovery of a degraded area requires a comprehensive effort, often multidisciplinary. Multicriterial analysis is a tool which allows gathering a diversity of attributes of the studied subject, weighing and valuating them, helping in the decision making effort. This work aims to apply two methods of multicriteria analysis to optimize the selection of a watershed for an environmental recovery study of APPs in the Anhumas watershed. The Anhumas watershed was divided in 7 sub-basins aiming the selection of one of those to implement an environmental planning study and to establish and rank areas that should be prioritized for recovery. Thirteen environmental criteria were selected for application of multicriteria analysis using the methods of Compromise Programming (PC and Cooperative Game Theory (CGT. Relevance of each criterion to the analysis was given by a questionnaire answered by specialists. Basin selection results showed no difference neither between PC and CGT nor between mean or mode used to standardize weights given by specialists. Multicriteria analysis was effective, but allowed enough flexibility for the decision maker (DM to adjust undesired analysis distortions. After DM adjustments, the priority basins were ranked as basins 4 > 7 > 5 > 6 > 2 > 3 > 1. Important procedures when carrying out such an analysis were to avoid conceptual overlapping among different criteria, to implement appropriate value judgment for each criterion and to use decision maker expertise to supplement weights obtained with specialists.

  1. Annual compilation and analysis of hydrologic data for Escondido Creek, San Antonio River Basin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, D.R.

    1971-01-01

    History of Small Watershed Projects in Texas The U.S. Soil Conservation Service is actively engaged in the installation of flood and soil erosion reducing measures in Texas under the authority of the "Flood Control Act of 1936 and 1944" and "Watershed Protection and Flood Prevention Act" (Public Law 566), as amended. The Soil Conservation Service has found a total of approximately 3,500 floodwater-retarding structures to be physically and economically feasible in Texas. As of September 30, 1970, 1,439 of these structures had been built. This watershed-development program will have varying but important effects on the surface and ground-water resources of river basins, especially where a large number of the floodwater-retarding structures are built. Basic hydrologic data under natural and developed conditions are needed to appraise the effects of the structures on the yield and mode of occurrence of runoff. Hydrologic investigations of these small watersheds were begun by the Geological Survey in 1951 and are now being made in 12 study areas (fig. 1). These investigations are being made in cooperation with the Texas Water Development Board, the Soil Conservation Service, the San Antonio River Authority, the city of Dallas, and the Tarrant County Water Control and Improvement District No. 1. The 12 study areas were chosen to sample watershed having different rainfall, topography, geology, and soils. In five of the study areas, (North, Little Elm, Mukewater, little Pond-North Elm, and Pin Oak Creeks), streamflow and rainfall records were collected prior to construction of the floodwater-retarding structures, thus affording the opportunity for analyses of the conditions "before and after" development. A summary of the development of the floodwater-retarding structures in each study areas of September 30, 1970, is shown in table 1. Objectives of the Texas Small Watersheds Project The purpose of these investigations is to collect sufficient data to meeting the following

  2. Hanging canyons of Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada: Fault-control on submarine canyon geomorphology along active continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Peter T.; Barrie, J. Vaughn; Conway, Kim W.; Greene, H. Gary

    2014-06-01

    Faulting commonly influences the geomorphology of submarine canyons that occur on active continental margins. Here, we examine the geomorphology of canyons located on the continental margin off Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, that are truncated on the mid-slope (1200-1400 m water depth) by the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone (QCFZ). The QCFZ is an oblique strike-slip fault zone that has rates of lateral motion of around 50-60 mm/yr and a small convergent component equal to about 3 mm/yr. Slow subduction along the Cascadia Subduction Zone has accreted a prism of marine sediment against the lower slope (1500-3500 m water depth), forming the Queen Charlotte Terrace, which blocks the mouths of submarine canyons formed on the upper slope (200-1400 m water depth). Consequently, canyons along this margin are short (4-8 km in length), closely spaced (around 800 m), and terminate uniformly along the 1400 m isobath, coinciding with the primary fault trend of the QCFZ. Vertical displacement along the fault has resulted in hanging canyons occurring locally. The Haida Gwaii canyons are compared and contrasted with the Sur Canyon system, located to the south of Monterey Bay, California, on a transform margin, which is not blocked by any accretionary prism, and where canyons thus extend to 4000 m depth, across the full breadth of the slope.

  3. Canyon conditions impact carbon flows in food webs of three sections of the Nazaré canyon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oevelen, D.; Soetaert, K.E.R.; Garcia, R.; De Stigter, H.; Cunha, M.R.; Pusceddu, A.; Danovaro, R.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine canyons transport large amounts of sediment and organic matter (OM) from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain. Three carbon-based food web models were constructed for the upper (300–750 m water depth), middle (2700–3500 m) and lower section (4000–5000 m) of the Nazaré canyon (eastern

  4. Exploration of the Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick Benoit; David Blackwell

    2006-01-01

    The Upper Hot Creek Ranch (UHCR) geothermal system had seen no significant exploration activity prior to initiation of this GRED III project. Geochemical geothermometers calculated from previously available but questionable quality analyses of the UHCR hot spring waters indicated possible subsurface temperatures of +320 oF. A complex Quaternary and Holocene faulting pattern associated with a six mile step over of the Hot Creek Range near the UHCR also indicated that this area was worthy of some exploration activity. Permitting activities began in Dec. 2004 for the temperature-gradient holes but took much longer than expected with all drilling permits finally being received in early August 2005. The drilling and geochemical sampling occurred in August 2005. Ten temperature gradient holes up to 500’ deep were initially planned but higher than anticipated drilling and permitting costs within a fixed budget reduced the number of holes to five. Four of the five holes drilled to depths of 300 to 400’ encountered temperatures close to the expected regional thermal background conditions. These four holes failed to find any evidence of a large thermal anomaly surrounding the UHCR hot springs. The fifth hole, located within a narrow part of Hot Creek Canyon, encountered a maximum temperature of 81 oF at a depth of 105’ but had cooler temperatures at greater depth. Temperature data from this hole can not be extrapolated to greater depths. Any thermal anomaly associated with the UHCR geothermal system is apparently confined to the immediate vicinity of Hot Creek Canyon where challenges such as topography, a wilderness study area, and wetlands issues will make further exploration time consuming and costly. Ten water samples were collected for chemical analysis and interpretation. Analyses of three samples of the UHCR thermal give predicted subsurface temperatures ranging from 317 to 334 oF from the Na-K-Ca, silica (quartz), and Na-Li geothermometers. The fact that all

  5. Exploration of the Upper Hot Creek Ranch Geothermal Resource, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick Benoit; David Blackwell

    2005-10-31

    The Upper Hot Creek Ranch (UHCR) geothermal system had seen no significant exploration activity prior to initiation of this GRED III project. Geochemical geothermometers calculated from previously available but questionable quality analyses of the UHCR hot spring waters indicated possible subsurface temperatures of +320 oF. A complex Quaternary and Holocene faulting pattern associated with a six mile step over of the Hot Creek Range near the UHCR also indicated that this area was worthy of some exploration activity. Permitting activities began in Dec. 2004 for the temperature-gradient holes but took much longer than expected with all drilling permits finally being received in early August 2005. The drilling and geochemical sampling occurred in August 2005. Ten temperature gradient holes up to 500’ deep were initially planned but higher than anticipated drilling and permitting costs within a fixed budget reduced the number of holes to five. Four of the five holes drilled to depths of 300 to 400’ encountered temperatures close to the expected regional thermal background conditions. These four holes failed to find any evidence of a large thermal anomaly surrounding the UHCR hot springs. The fifth hole, located within a narrow part of Hot Creek Canyon, encountered a maximum temperature of 81 oF at a depth of 105’ but had cooler temperatures at greater depth. Temperature data from this hole can not be extrapolated to greater depths. Any thermal anomaly associated with the UHCR geothermal system is apparently confined to the immediate vicinity of Hot Creek Canyon where challenges such as topography, a wilderness study area, and wetlands issues will make further exploration time consuming and costly. Ten water samples were collected for chemical analysis and interpretation. Analyses of three samples of the UHCR thermal give predicted subsurface temperatures ranging from 317 to 334 oF from the Na-K-Ca, silica (quartz), and Na-Li geothermometers. The fact that all

  6. Application of risk-based multiple criteria decision analysis for selection of the best agricultural scenario for effective watershed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidi Sabbaghian, Reza; Zarghami, Mahdi; Nejadhashemi, A Pouyan; Sharifi, Mohammad Bagher; Herman, Matthew R; Daneshvar, Fariborz

    2016-03-01

    Effective watershed management requires the evaluation of agricultural best management practice (BMP) scenarios which carefully consider the relevant environmental, economic, and social criteria involved. In the Multiple Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) process, scenarios are first evaluated and then ranked to determine the most desirable outcome for the particular watershed. The main challenge of this process is the accurate identification of the best solution for the watershed in question, despite the various risk attitudes presented by the associated decision-makers (DMs). This paper introduces a novel approach for implementation of the MCDM process based on a comparative neutral risk/risk-based decision analysis, which results in the selection of the most desirable scenario for use in the entire watershed. At the sub-basin level, each scenario includes multiple BMPs with scores that have been calculated using the criteria derived from two cases of neutral risk and risk-based decision-making. The simple additive weighting (SAW) operator is applied for use in neutral risk decision-making, while the ordered weighted averaging (OWA) and induced OWA (IOWA) operators are effective for risk-based decision-making. At the watershed level, the BMP scores of the sub-basins are aggregated to calculate each scenarios' combined goodness measurements; the most desirable scenario for the entire watershed is then selected based on the combined goodness measurements. Our final results illustrate the type of operator and risk attitudes needed to satisfy the relevant criteria within the number of sub-basins, and how they ultimately affect the final ranking of the given scenarios. The methodology proposed here has been successfully applied to the Honeyoey Creek-Pine Creek watershed in Michigan, USA to evaluate various BMP scenarios and determine the best solution for both the stakeholders and the overall stream health.

  7. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chase, Katherine J.; Haj, Adel; Regan, R. Steven; Viger, Roland J.

    2016-01-01

    Study regionEastern and central Montana.Study focusFish in Northern Great Plains streams tolerate extreme conditions including heat, cold, floods, and drought; however changes in streamflow associated with long-term climate change may render some prairie streams uninhabitable for current fish species. To better understand future hydrology of these prairie streams, the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System model and output from the RegCM3 Regional Climate model were used to simulate streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana, for a baseline period (water years 1982–1999) and three future periods: water years 2021–2038 (2030 period), 2046–2063 (2055 period), and 2071–2088 (2080 period).New hydrological insights for the regionProjected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21%) for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75%) for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15%) for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44%) for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  8. Wind River Watershed Restoration : 2000-2001 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    2003-02-01

    This report focuses on work conducted in 2000 and 2001 by the U.S. Geological Survey's Columbia River Research Laboratory (USGS-CRRL) as part of the Wind River Watershed Restoration Project. The project started in the early 1990s, and has been funded through the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) since 1998. The project is a comprehensive effort involving public and private entities seeking to restore water quality and fishery resources in the Wind River subbasin through cooperative actions. Project elements include coordination, watershed assessment, restoration, monitoring, and education. In addition to USGS-CRRL, other BPA-funded entities involved with implementing project components are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), USDA Forest Service (USFS), and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). To describe the activities and accomplishments of the USGS-CRRL portion of the project, we partitioned the 2000-2001 annual report into two pieces: Report A and Report B. In Report A, we provide information on flow, temperature, and habitat conditions in the Wind River subbasin. Personnel from CRRL monitored flows at 12 sites in 2000 and 17 sites in 2001. Flow measurements were generally taken every two weeks during June through October, which allowed tracking of the descending limb of the hydrograph in late spring, through the base low flow period in summer, and the start of the ascending limb of the hydrograph in fall. We maintained a large array of water-temperature sites in the Wind River subbasin, including data from 25 thermographs in 2000 and 27 thermographs in 2001. We completed stream reach surveys on 14.0 km in 2000 and 6.1 km in 2001. Our focus for these reach surveys has been on the upper Trout Creek and upper Wind River watersheds, though some reach surveys have occurred in the Panther Creek watershed. Data generated by these reach surveys include stream width, stream gradient, large woody debris frequency, pool frequency, canopy

  9. Geomorphometric tool associated with soil types and properties spatial variability at watersheds under tropical conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Henrique Godinho Silva

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The application of quantitative methods to digital soil and geomorphological mapping is becoming an increasing trend. One of these methods, Geomorphons, was developed to identify the ten most common landforms based on digital elevation models. This study aimed to make a quantitative assessment of the relationships between Geomorphons units, determined at three spatial resolutions and nine radii, and soil types and properties of two watersheds with different soil-landscape relationships in Brazil to help soil surveying and mapping under tropical conditions. The study was conducted at Lavrinha Creek (LCW and Marcela Creek (MCW watersheds, located in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Spatial resolutions of 10, 20 and 30 m were the basis for generating Geomorphons at 9 radii of calculation for the watersheds. They were overlapped to detailed soil maps of the watersheds and a chi-square test was carried out to assess their relationship with soil types. Observation points were compared with the most highly correlated Geomorphons to also assess relationships with soil properties. Geomorphons with resolution of 30-m and radii of 20 and 50 cells, respectively for LCW and MCW, were more highly correlated with the variability of soil types, in accordance with the terrain features of these watersheds. The majority of observation points for each soil type was located in the same Geomorphon unit that was dominant when analyzing soil maps. There was less variability in soil properties between Geomorphon units, which was probably due to the highly weathered-leached stage of soils. Geomorphons can help to improve soil maps in tropical conditions when assessing soil variability due to its high correlation with tropical soil types variability.

  10. 75 FR 76650 - Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Modification of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT...: This action proposes to modify Class E airspace at Bryce Canyon, UT to accommodate Area Navigation... airspace extending upward from 700 feet above the surface at Bryce Canyon Airport, Bryce Canyon,...

  11. GPS and Satellite InSAR Observations of Landslide Activity at the Sinking Canyon in South Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, M. H.; Glenn, N. F.; Thackray, G. D.

    2014-12-01

    Multiple rotational, transitional, and lateral spread landslides have occurred in south central Idaho where basalt lava flows overly unconsolidated lake and fluvial sediments at the Sinking Canyon. The canyon is about 0.1 km deep and 0.25-1 km wide along a 4-km segment of the Salmon Falls Creek (SFC). Local topography and hydrological conditions are most likely the major triggering factors that have initiated landslides by increasing the gravitational stresses and weakening the canyon wall materials. Landslide activity has created natural dams of SFC, which in turn has resulted in forming large lakes with a potential flooding hazard to life and property downstream. In this study, we use campaign Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of 2003-2004 and Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometric (InSAR) data acquired during 1992-2007 by the European radar satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2) to identify, monitor, and analyze recent landslide activity at SFC. Results show that three main landslides have been active during the period of observation: the Salmon Falls landslide (SFL) that has been first reported in 1999, the historical 1937 landslide, and a third unnamed landslide to the north of the 1937 slide. InSAR measurements indicate that the SFL has been active during the period of our earliest interferogram (1992-1993) whereas the slide head has detached and has moved away from the eastern canyon wall about 3 cm. Over the years, the SFL body and toe have been pushed westward repetitively at rates of about 3-7 cm/yr. The toe is confined by the western canyon wall and thus is pushed upward in some years causing slight uplift (2-3 cm). Our field observations reveal many transverse and radial cracks associated with the deformation pattern caused by recurring motions. The historic 1937 slide is the largest mass wasting and is the least active landslide in the study area. The unnamed slide shows episodic activity with varying rates (0-4 cm/yr) of line-of-sight motions. This

  12. 76 FR 13524 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... FM Channel 258A at Willow Creek, California. Channel 258A can be allotted at Willow Creek, consistent... of FM Allotments under California, is amended by adding Channel 258A at Willow Creek....

  13. Questa baseline and pre-mining ground-water quality investigation. 14. Interpretation of ground-water geochemistry in catchments other than the Straight Creek catchment, Red River Valley, Taos County, New Mexico, 2002-2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordstrom, D. Kirk; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Hunt, Andrew G.; Naus, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the New Mexico Environment Department, is investigating the pre-mining ground-water chemistry at the Molycorp molybdenum mine in the Red River Valley, New Mexico. The primary approach is to determine the processes controlling ground-water chemistry at an unmined, off-site but proximal analog. The Straight Creek catchment, chosen for this purpose, consists of the same Tertiary-age quartz-sericite-pyrite altered andesite and rhyolitic volcanics as the mine site. Straight Creek is about 5 kilometers east of the eastern boundary of the mine site. Both Straight Creek and the mine site are at approximately the same altitude, face south, and have the same climatic conditions. Thirteen wells in the proximal analog drainage catchment were sampled for ground-water chemistry. Eleven wells were installed for this study and two existing wells at the Advanced Waste-Water Treatment (AWWT) facility were included in this study. Eight wells were sampled outside the Straight Creek catchment: one each in the Hansen, Hottentot, and La Bobita debris fans, four in a well cluster in upper Capulin Canyon (three in alluvial deposits and one in bedrock), and an existing well at the U.S. Forest Service Questa Ranger Station in Red River alluvial deposits. Two surface waters from the Hansen Creek catchment and two from the Hottentot drainage catchment also were sampled for comparison to ground-water compositions. In this report, these samples are evaluated to determine if the geochemical interpretations from the Straight Creek ground-water geochemistry could be extended to other ground waters in the Red River Valley , including the mine site. Total-recoverable major cations and trace metals and dissolved major cations, selected trace metals, anions, alkalinity; and iron-redox species were determined for all surface- and ground-water samples. Rare-earth elements and low-level As, Bi, Mo, Rb, Re, Sb, Se, Te, Th, U, Tl, V, W, Y, and Zr were

  14. Flood discharges and hydraulics near the mouths of Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.

    1994-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, studied the frequency and magnitude of flooding near the mouths of five tributaries to the New River in the New River Gorge National River. The 100-year peak discharge at each tributary was determined from regional frequency equations. The 100-year discharge at Wolf Creek, Craig Branch, Manns Creek, Dunloup Creek, and Mill Creek was 3,400 cubic feet per second, 640 cubic feet per second, 8,200 cubic feet per second, 7,100 cubic feet per second, and 9,400 cubic feet per second, respectively. Flood elevations for each tributary were determined by application of a steady-state, one-dimensional flow model. Manning's roughness coefficients for the stream channels ranged from 0.040 to 0.100. Bridges that would be unable to contain the 100-year flood within the bridge opening included: the State Highway 82 bridge on Wolf Creek, the second Fayette County Highway 25 bridge upstream from the confluence with New River on Dunloup Creek, and an abandoned log bridge on Mill Creek.

  15. Bottom-trawling along submarine canyons impacts deep sedimentary regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradis, Sarah; Puig, Pere; Masqué, Pere; Juan-Díaz, Xènia; Martín, Jacobo; Palanques, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Many studies highlight that fish trawling activities cause seafloor erosion, but the assessment of the remobilization of surface sediments and its relocation is still not well documented. These impacts were examined along the flanks and axes of three headless submarine canyons incised on the Barcelona continental margin, where trawling fleets have been operating for decades. Trawled grounds along canyon flanks presented eroded and highly reworked surface sediments resulting from the passage of heavy trawling gear. Sedimentation rates on the upper canyon axes tripled and quadrupled its natural (i.e. pre-industrialization) values after a substantial increase in total horsepower of the operating trawling fleets between 1960 s and 1970 s. These impacts affected the upper canyon reaches next to fishing grounds, where sediment resuspended by trawling can be transported towards the canyon axes. This study highlights that bottom trawling has the capacity to alter natural sedimentary environments by promoting sediment-starved canyon flanks, and by enhancing sedimentation rates along the contiguous axes, independently of canyons’ morphology. Considering the global mechanisation and offshore expansion of bottom trawling fisheries since the mid-20th century, these sedimentary alterations may occur in many trawled canyons worldwide, with further ecological impacts on the trophic status of these non-resilient benthic communities. PMID:28233856

  16. Watershed Boundaries - MO 2015 Metro No Discharge Watersheds (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This feature class contains watersheds associated with Missouri's use designations for streams listed in Table F - Metropolitan No-Discharge Streams of the Water...

  17. Evaluation of flood inundation in Crystal Springs Creek, Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stonewall, Adam; Hess, Glen

    2016-05-25

    Efforts to improve fish passage have resulted in the replacement of six culverts in Crystal Springs Creek in Portland, Oregon. Two more culverts are scheduled to be replaced at Glenwood Street and Bybee Boulevard (Glenwood/Bybee project) in 2016. Recently acquired data have allowed for a more comprehensive understanding of the hydrology of the creek and the topography of the watershed. To evaluate the impact of the culvert replacements and recent hydrologic data, a Hydrologic Engineering Center-River Analysis System hydraulic model was developed to estimate water-surface elevations during high-flow events. Longitudinal surface-water profiles were modeled to evaluate current conditions and future conditions using the design plans for the culverts to be installed in 2016. Additional profiles were created to compare with the results from the most recent flood model approved by the Federal Emergency Management Agency for Crystal Springs Creek and to evaluate model sensitivity.Model simulation results show that water-surface elevations during high-flow events will be lower than estimates from previous models, primarily due to lower estimates of streamflow associated with the 0.01 and 0.002 annual exceedance probability (AEP) events. Additionally, recent culvert replacements have resulted in less ponding behind crossings. Similarly, model simulation results show that the proposed replacement culverts at Glenwood Street and Bybee Boulevard will result in lower water-surface elevations during high-flow events upstream of the proposed project. Wider culverts will allow more water to pass through crossings, resulting in slightly higher water-surface elevations downstream of the project during high-flows than water-surface elevations that would occur under current conditions. For the 0.01 AEP event, the water-surface elevations downstream of the Glenwood/Bybee project will be an average of 0.05 ft and a maximum of 0.07 ft higher than current conditions. Similarly, for the 0

  18. Evaluating Hydrologic Response of an Agricultural Watershed for Watershed Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Kumar Jha

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the hydrological assessment of an agricultural watershed in the Midwestern United States through the use of a watershed scale hydrologic model. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Maquoketa River watershed, located in northeast Iowa, draining an agriculture intensive area of about 5,000 km2. The inputs to the model were obtained from the Environmental Protection Agency’s geographic information/database system called Better Assessment Science Integrating Point and Nonpoint Sources (BASINS. Meteorological input, including precipitation and temperature from six weather stations located in and around the watershed, and measured streamflow data at the watershed outlet, were used in the simulation. A sensitivity analysis was performed using an influence coefficient method to evaluate surface runoff and baseflow variations in response to changes in model input hydrologic parameters. The curve number, evaporation compensation factor, and soil available water capacity were found to be the most sensitive parameters among eight selected parameters. Model calibration, facilitated by the sensitivity analysis, was performed for the period 1988 through 1993, and validation was performed for 1982 through 1987. The model was found to explain at least 86% and 69% of the variability in the measured streamflow data for calibration and validation periods, respectively. This initial hydrologic assessment will facilitate future modeling applications using SWAT to the Maquoketa River watershed for various watershed analyses, including watershed assessment for water quality management, such as total maximum daily loads, impacts of land use and climate change, and impacts of alternate management practices.

  19. WATER QUALITY MODELING OF SUZHOU CREEK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Water-quality models are important tools for improving river environment. In this paper, the project "Water Quality Modeling of the Suzhou Creek" was briefly described, including the choice and the principle of the model, the model study and methods, the calibration and verification of the stream model. A set of parameters about water environmental characteristic of the Suzhou Creek were put forward in the period of the third water dispatch experiment in 1999. It is necessary to point out that these parameters will change with the rehabilitation and construction of the Suzhou Creek.

  20. LOST CREEK ROADLESS AREA, CALIFORNIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muffler, L.J. Patrick; Campbell, Harry W.

    1984-01-01

    Geologic and mineral-resource investigations identified no mineral-resource potential in the Lost Creek Roadless Area, California. Sand and gravel have been mined from alluvial flood-plain deposits less than 1 mi outside the roadless area; these deposits are likely to extend into the roadless area beneath a Holocene basalt flow that may be as much as 40 ft thick. An oil and gas lease application which includes the eastern portion of the roadless area is pending. Abundant basalt in the area can be crushed and used as aggregate, but similar deposits of volcanic cinders or sand and gravel in more favorable locations are available outside the roadless area closer to major markets. No indication of coal or geothermal energy resources was identified.

  1. Post-Miocene Right Separation on the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek Faults, with Supporting Chronostratigraphy, Western San Gabriel Mountains, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Larry A.; McCulloh, Thane H.; Denison, Rodger E.; Morin, Ronald W.; Enrico, Roy J.; Barron, John A.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    The right lateral San Gabriel Fault Zone in southern California extends from the northwestern corner of the Ridge Basin southeastward to the eastern end of the San Gabriel Mountains. It bifurcates to the southeast in the northwestern San Gabriel Mountains. The northern and older branch curves eastward in the range interior. The southern younger branch, the Vasquez Creek Fault, curves southeastward to merge with the Sierra Madre Fault Zone, which separates the San Gabriel Mountains from the northern Los Angeles Basin margin. An isolated exposure of partly macrofossiliferous nearshore shallow-marine sandstone, designated the Gold Canyon beds, is part of the southwest wall of the fault zone 5.5 km northwest of the bifurcation. These beds contain multiple subordinate breccia-conglomerate lenses and are overlain unconformably by folded Pliocene-Pleistocene Saugus Formation fanglomerate. The San Gabriel Fault Zone cuts both units. Marine macrofossils from the Gold Canyon beds give an age of 5.2+-0.3 Ma by 87Sr/86Sr analyses. Magnetic polarity stratigraphy dates deposition of the overlying Saugus Formation to between 2.6 Ma and 0.78 Ma. Distinctive metaplutonic rocks of the Mount Lowe intrusive suite in the San Gabriel Range are the source of certain clasts in both the Gold Canyon beds and Saugus Formation. Angular clasts of nondurable Paleocene sandstone also occur in the Gold Canyon beds. The large size and angularity of some of the largest of both clast types in breccia-conglomerate lenses of the beds suggest landslides or debris flows from steep terrain. Sources of Mount Lowe clasts, originally to the north or northeast, are now displaced southeastward by faulting and are located between the San Gabriel and Vasquez Creek faults, indicating as much as 12+-2 km of post-Miocene Vasquez Creek Fault right separation, in accord with some prior estimates. Post-Miocene right slip thus transferred onto the Vasquez Creek Fault southeast of the bifurcation. The right separation

  2. 78 FR 5798 - Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of Petition for Enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC, Grouse Creek Wind Park II, LLC; Notice of... Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 (PURPA), Grouse Creek Wind Park, LLC and Grouse Creek Wind Park...

  3. 78 FR 20146 - Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ... COMMISSION Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project, Sweetwater County, Wyoming... in-situ recovery (ISR) of uranium at the Lost Creek Project in Sweetwater County, Wyoming. ADDRESSES.... Introduction Lost Creek ISR, LLC (LCI) is proposing to install two rotary vacuum dryers in the...

  4. CREEK Project's Internal Creek Habitat Survey for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: January 1998.

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight intertidal creeks with high densities of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated...

  5. Environmental Setting of the Morgan Creek Basin, Maryland, 2002-04

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, Tracy Connell; Brayton, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The Morgan Creek Basin is a 31-square-kilometer watershed in Kent County, Maryland on the Delmarva Peninsula. The Delmarva Peninsula covers about 15,500 square kilometers and includes most of the State of Delaware and parts of Maryland and Virginia east of the Chesapeake Bay. The Morgan Creek Basin is one of five sites selected for the study of sources, transport, and fate by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program's: Agricultural Chemicals: Sources, Transport and Fate study team (Agricultural Chemicals Team, ACT). A key component of the study is identifying the natural factors and human influences affecting water quality in the Morgan Creek Basin. The Morgan Creek Basin is in the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province, which is a nearly level seaward-sloping lowland with areas of moderate topographic relief. The study area lies within a well-drained upland region with permeable and porous soils and aquifer sediments. The soils are well suited to most field crops. Agriculture is the principal land use in the Morgan Creek Basin, as well as throughout the entire Delmarva Peninsula. Most agricultural land is used for row crops such as corn, soybeans, and small grains, and slightly less land is used for pasture and hay production involving alfalfa, clover, and various perennial grasses. There are several animal operations in the study area. Farm management practices include fertilizer and herbicide applications, different tillage practices, addition of lime, forested riparian buffers, grassed waterways, and sediment retention ponds. Irrigation in the study area is minimal. The climate of the Morgan Creek Basin is humid and subtropical, with an average annual precipitation of 1.12 meters. Overall annual precipitation is evenly distributed throughout the year, from 76 to 101 millimeters per month; however, the spring and summer (March - September) tend to be slightly wetter than the autumn and winter (October - February

  6. Comparison between Measured and Calculated Sediment Transport Rates in North Fork Caspar Creek, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, T. W.; Yarnell, S. M.; Yager, E.; Leidman, S. Z.

    2015-12-01

    Caspar Creek is a gravel-bedded stream located in the Jackson Demonstration State Forest in the coast range of California. The Caspar Creek Experimental Watershed has been actively monitored and studied by the Pacific Southwest Research Station and California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection for over five decades. Although total annual sediment yield has been monitored through time, sediment transport during individual storm events is less certain. At a study site on North Fork Caspar Creek, cross-section averaged sediment flux was collected throughout two storm events in December 2014 and February 2015 to determine if two commonly used sediment transport equations—Meyer-Peter-Müller and Wilcock—approximated observed bedload transport. Cross-section averaged bedload samples were collected approximately every hour during each storm event using a Helley-Smith bedload sampler. Five-minute composite samples were collected at five equally spaced locations along a cross-section and then sieved to half-phi sizes to determine the grain size distribution. The measured sediment flux values varied widely throughout the storm hydrographs and were consistently less than two orders of magnitude in value in comparison to the calculated values. Armored bed conditions, changing hydraulic conditions during each storm and variable sediment supply may have contributed to the observed differences.

  7. Erosion Rates Over 40-Year and 5,000-Year Timescales at Caspar Creek, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrier, K. L.; Kirchner, J. W.; Finkel, R. C.

    2002-12-01

    Erosion rate measurements are essential for modeling landscape evolution and for discerning how sediment loading affects stream ecosystems. Cosmogenic nuclides such as 10Be in stream sediments can be used to measure whole-catchment erosion rates averaged over thousands of years, a timescale that is unobservable by other methods. Comparing long-term erosion rates from cosmogenic nuclides with short-term sediment yields can shed light on erosional processes and on the effects of land use on sediment delivery to streams. Using cosmogenic 10Be, we measured erosion rates averaged over the past 5,000 years at Caspar Creek, a small (9 km2) watershed in Mendocino County, California. Sediment yields have also been measured at Caspar Creek since 1963 using sediment trapping and gauging methods. The cosmogenic 10Be signature of Caspar Creek sediments yields an average long-term erosion rate of 0.2 mm/yr. This is 2-3 times faster than erosion rates calculated from traditional stream sediment fluxes averaged over the past 40 years. The long-term rates are comparable to the uplift rate of 0.3 mm/yr inferred from marine terrace ages (Merritts and Bull 1989). These results imply that sediment delivery to streams is episodic, and that conventional sediment yields may underestimate long-term average erosion rates.

  8. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    double nozzle Pelton turbine with a 10-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 88%. This alone represents a 6% increase in overall efficiency. The old turbine operated at low efficiencies due to age and non-optimal sizing of the turbine for the water flow available to the unit. It was shut down whenever water flow dropped to less than 4-5 cfs, and at that flow, efficiency was 55 to 60%. The new turbine will operate in the range of 70 to 88% efficiency through a large portion of the existing flow range and would only have to be shut down at flow rates less than 3.7 cfs. Efficiency is expected to increase by 15-30%, depending on flow. In addition to the installation of new equipment, other goals for the project included: Increasing safety at Boulder Canyon Hydro Increasing protection of the Boulder Creek environment Modernizing and integrating control equipment into Boulder's municipal water supply system, and Preserving significant historical engineering information prior to power plant modernization. From January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2012, combined consultant and contractor personnel hours paid for by both the city and the federal government have totaled approximately 40,000. This equates roughly to seven people working full time on the project from January 2010 through December 2012. This project also involved considerable material expense (steel pipe, a variety of valves, electrical equipment, and the various components of the turbine and generator), which were not accounted for in terms of hours spent on the project. However, the material expense related to this project did help to create or preserve manufacturing/industrial jobs throughout the United States. As required by ARRA, the various components of the hydroelectric project were manufactured or substantially transformed in the U.S. BCH is eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places due in part to its unique engineering features and innovative

  9. Liquid-filled canyons on Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poggiali, V.; Mastrogiuseppe, M.; Hayes, A. G.; Seu, R.; Birch, S. P. D.; Lorenz, R.; Grima, C.; Hofgartner, J. D.

    2016-08-01

    In May 2013 the Cassini RADAR altimeter observed channels in Vid Flumina, a drainage network connected to Titan's second largest hydrocarbon sea, Ligeia Mare. Analysis of these altimeter echoes shows that the channels are located in deep (up to 570 m), steep-sided, canyons and have strong specular surface reflections that indicate they are currently liquid filled. Elevations of the liquid in these channels are at the same level as Ligeia Mare to within a vertical precision of about 0.7 m, consistent with the interpretation of drowned river valleys. Specular reflections are also observed in lower order tributaries elevated above the level of Ligeia Mare, consistent with drainage feeding into the main channel system.

  10. Screening Level Assessment of Metal Concentrations in Streambed Sediments and Floodplain Soils within the Grand Lake Watershed in Northeastern Oklahoma, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvin, Ean M; Bridge, Cas F; Garvin, Meredith S

    2017-04-01

    Metal releases have been received by the Grand Lake watershed from the Tri-State Mining District (TSMD) since the mid 1800s. To address data gaps in metal distributions in the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, streambed sediment and floodplain soil was sampled on various streams. The biomass of benthic invertebrates was highly impacted at Tar Creek, highly to moderately impacted at Spring River and Elm Creek, and unimpacted at Lost Creek and Grand Lake as a result of sediment metal concentrations. It also was found that soil metal concentrations were likely sufficient to impact plant populations at all streams. Within the Oklahoma portion of the watershed, the majority of environmental studies, remediation, and restoration efforts by local, state, and federal agencies have been primarily focused within the Tar Creek Superfund Site (TCSS) boundary. Importantly, the findings of this study highlighted the downstream extent of metals contamination as well as the resulting potential toxicities to benthic invertebrates and plants that is present outside of the TCSS boundary. Because the Oklahoma portion of the watershed comprises the jurisdictional lands of ten tribes, these results emphasized the potential tribal loss of use of benthic invertebrates and plants due to their decline in population as a result of metal toxicity. These overall findings provide an important basis for future data needs in assessing metal concentrations in aquatic and terrestrial biota that are consumed by tribal communities within the watershed to determine if certain organisms are unsafe to consume or warrant consumption advisories. This will allow risk assessors and risk managers to better understand the potential loss of use of tribal biological resources as well as improving risk-based decision making to be protective of these resources and tribal human health.

  11. Steel Creek fish, L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sayers, R.E. Jr.; Mealing, H.G. III [Normandeau Associates, Inc., New Ellenton, SC (United States)

    1992-04-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) encompasses 300 sq mi of the Atlantic Coastal plain in west-central South Carolina. The Savannah River forms the western boundary of the site. Five major tributaries of the Savannah River -- Upper Three Runs Creek, Four Mile Creek, Pen Branch, Steel Creek, and Lower Three Runs Creek -- drain the site. All but Upper Three Runs Creek receive, or in the past received, thermal effluents from nuclear production reactors. In 1985, L Lake, a 400-hectare cooling reservoir, was built on the upper reaches of Steel Creek to receive effluent from the restart of L-Reactor, and protect the lower reaches from thermal impacts. The lake has an average width of approximately 600 m and extends along the Steel Creek valley approximately 7000 m from the dam to the headwaters. Water level is maintained at a normal pool elevation of 58 m above mean sea level by overflow into a vertical intake tower that has multilevel discharge gates. The intake tower is connected to a horizontal conduit that passes through the dam and releases water into Steel Creek. The Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program was designed to meet environmental regulatory requirements associated with the restart of L-Reactor and complements the Biological Monitoring Program for L Lake. This extensive program was implemented to address portions of Section 316(a) of the Clean Water Act. The Department of Energy (DOE) must demonstrate that the operation of L-Reactor will not significantly alter the established aquatic ecosystems.

  12. Characterization and relation of precipitation, streamflow, and water-quality data at the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson and Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, Colorado, water years 2013–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Michael J.; Stogner, Robert W.; Bruce, James F.

    2016-11-29

    ñon Canyon Maneuver Site. Suspended-sediment-transport curves were used to illustrate the relation between streamflow and suspended-sediment concentration. All these sediment-transport curves showed a streamflow dependent suspended-sediment concentration relation except for the U.S. Geological Survey station Bent Canyon Creek at mouth near Timpas, CO.Water-quality data were collected and reported from seven sites on the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson and the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site during water years 2013–14. Sample results exceeding an established water-quality standard were identified. Selected water-quality properties and constituents were stratified to compare spatial variation among selected characteristics using boxplots.Trilinear diagrams were used to classify water type based on ionic concentrations of water-quality samples collected during the study period.At the U.S. Army Garrison Fort Carson and the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site, 27 samples were classified as very hard or brackish. Seven samples had a lower hardness character relative to the other samples. Four of those nine samples were collected at two U.S. Geological Survey stations (Turkey Creek near Fountain, CO, and Little Fountain Creek above Highway 115 at Fort Carson, CO), which have different geologic makeup. Three samples collected at the Piñon Canyon Maneuver Site had a markedly lower hardness likely because of dilution from an increase in streamflow.

  13. Rattlesnake Creek Management Program 12-year review

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Rattlesnake Creek Partnership (Partnership) was formed over 18 years ago to cooperatively develop and implement solutions to water resource problems within the...

  14. Spring Creek Common Allotment habitat management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Management plan for the Spring Creek Common Allotment on Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge, in McCone and Garfield Counties, Montana. This plan discusses...

  15. Contours--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetric contours for several seafloor maps of the Offshore Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  16. Fish Creek, South Fork Koyukuk, Koyukuk

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The intent of this study was to gather general information on the wildlife, human use, and terrain in the Fish Creek (east boundary) to Koyukuk (west boundary)...

  17. Bathymetry--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  18. Bathymetry Hillshade--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the bathymetry and shaded-relief maps of Offshore Scott Creek, California. The raster data file is included in...

  19. Bioassessment of Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Physical, chemical and biological components at five stations on Hollis Creek, Oktibbeha County, Mississippi were evaluated using Rapid Bioassessment Protocols (RBP)...

  20. Land Cover Classification for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  1. Active Channel for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  2. Water sample locations for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  3. Solid sample locations for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  4. Featured Partner: Saddle Creek Logistics Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    This EPA fact sheet spotlights Saddle Creek Logistics as a SmartWay partner committed to sustainability in reducing greenhouse gas emissions and air pollution caused by freight transportation, partly by growing its compressed natural gas (CNG) vehicles for

  5. Stream Centerline for Fanno Creek, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Fanno Creek is a tributary to the Tualatin River and flows though parts of the southwest Portland metropolitan area. The stream is heavily influenced by urban runoff...

  6. Sign Plan Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge Sign Plan explains how signs are used on the Refuge to help guide and educate visitors. An inventory of current signs is...

  7. Folds--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  8. Faults--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is...

  9. Habitat--Offshore Scott Creek, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the habitat map of the seafloor of the Offshore of Scott Creek map area, California. The vector data file is included in...

  10. Habitat Mapping Cruise - Hudson Canyon (HB0904, EK60)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Objectives are to: 1) perform multibeam mapping of transitional and deepwater habitats in Hudson Canyon (off New Jersey) with the National Institute of Undersea...

  11. BackscatterB [EM300]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  12. Investigations of Carbon Phases in Canyon Diablo Meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karczemska, A.; Jakubowski, T.; Ouzillou, M.; Batory, D.; Abramczyk, H.; Brozek-Pluska, B.; Kopec, M.; Kozanecki, M.; Wiosna-Salyga, G.

    2016-08-01

    X-ray diffraction, Raman mapping and micro-spectrofluorimetric studies have been used in investigations of carbon in Canyon Diablo meteorite. Results show the presence of defected diamond and not well recognized carbon phases (unclear Raman peaks).

  13. BackscatterC [7125]--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the acoustic-backscatter map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity map area, California. Backscatter data are provided as separate...

  14. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  15. Folds--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the folds for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included in...

  16. Faults--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the faults for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is included...

  17. The Trail Inventory of Leslie Canyon NWR [Cycle 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this report is to create a baseline inventory of all non-motorized trails on Leslie Canyon National Wildlife Refuge. Trails in this inventory are...

  18. Paleoshorelines--Monterey Canyon and Vicinity Map Area, California

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This part of DS 781 presents data for the paleoshorelines for the geologic and geomorphic map of Monterey Canyon and Vicinity, California. The vector data file is...

  19. Ecological-geochemical assessment of soil of the Dniester canyon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorin D.O.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available An method of calculation of background and anomalous heavy metals, petroleum products and pesticides in soil of the Dniester canyon area for the environmental assessment of the future national park.

  20. Late Holocene Environmental History of the Los Osos Watershed, Morro Bay, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadman, E.; Reidy, L. M.; Wahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive understanding of past changes in wetland ecosystems is integral for creating policies for modern land use practices. The Morro Bay salt marsh is home to a large wetland that has experienced significant environmental impacts in the last few centuries. In this study, sediment cores from the Morro Bay salt marsh were analyzed to discern changes in environment since the time of European contact, which occurred in 1772. The marsh is fed by two creeks (Chorro and Los Osos) and their associated watersheds. Sediment cores taken from a portion of the marsh fed by Los Osos creek were analyzed and the results compared to those from previous studies on cores taken from the Chorro and Los Osos portions of the marsh. Magnetic susceptibility, loss on ignition, pollen, radiocarbon, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses were conducted. An age-depth model was established for the Los Osos cores using two radiocarbon dates, as well as Erodium cicutarium as a chronological marker. Preliminary pollen analysis from Chorro marsh cores indicates vegetation shifts at the time of contact, when the salt marsh formed. Magnetic susceptibility and XRF data indicate dramatically increased rates of erosion from the time of contact consistently until the present. Influx of non-carbonate inorganic material also indicates a rapid increase in sedimentation in the marsh starting at the time of contact. Comparison of sedimentation rates between the two creeks suggests that differences in watershed geomorphology and land use practices have had pronounced impacts on erosional processes. Over the last decade, the Morro Bay National Estuary Program (MBNEP) has taken more measures to reduce erosion and sedimentation rates in the Chorro watershed, as is reflected by reduced sedimentation rates in MBNEP data collected within the last few years. Our study helps to elucidate the impacts of anthropogenic land use change on wetland systems, and provides much needed data to policy makers seeking to

  1. H CANYON PROCESSING IN CORRELATION WITH FH ANALYTICAL LABS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinheimer, E.

    2012-08-06

    Management of radioactive chemical waste can be a complicated business. H Canyon and F/H Analytical Labs are two facilities present at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, SC that are at the forefront. In fact H Canyon is the only large-scale radiochemical processing facility in the United States and this processing is only enhanced by the aid given from F/H Analytical Labs. As H Canyon processes incoming materials, F/H Labs provide support through a variety of chemical analyses. Necessary checks of the chemical makeup, processing, and accountability of the samples taken from H Canyon process tanks are performed at the labs along with further checks on waste leaving the canyon after processing. Used nuclear material taken in by the canyon is actually not waste. Only a small portion of the radioactive material itself is actually consumed in nuclear reactors. As a result various radioactive elements such as Uranium, Plutonium and Neptunium are commonly found in waste and may be useful to recover. Specific processing is needed to allow for separation of these products from the waste. This is H Canyon's specialty. Furthermore, H Canyon has the capacity to initiate the process for weapons-grade nuclear material to be converted into nuclear fuel. This is one of the main campaigns being set up for the fall of 2012. Once usable material is separated and purified of impurities such as fission products, it can be converted to an oxide and ultimately turned into commercial fuel. The processing of weapons-grade material for commercial fuel is important in the necessary disposition of plutonium. Another processing campaign to start in the fall in H Canyon involves the reprocessing of used nuclear fuel for disposal in improved containment units. The importance of this campaign involves the proper disposal of nuclear waste in order to ensure the safety and well-being of future generations and the environment. As processing proceeds in the fall, H Canyon will have a substantial

  2. Santa Ana River Design Memorandum Number 1. Phase 2. GDM on the Santa Ana River Mainstem, Including Santiago Creek. Volume 7. Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    Santa Ysabel Creek near Mesa Grande ................... 53.9 21,100 .... ..... mGS wSp 426 San Luis Rey River at Oceanside ....................... 557...95,600 .... do ..... usS wSp 426 5 San Luis Rey River at Bonsall ......................... 512 128,OO 23 Feb 1691 (US G p 𔃾.7 s 6 San Luis Rey River...San Gabriel River at Camp Rincon ..... 102 i.,o .. ..... ,SGS C.af. i1 63 L 3 Devil’s Canyon above Cogswell Dam..................... . .. 3 -U0 .... do

  3. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  4. Diablo Canyon plant information management system and integrated communication system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, J.W.; Groff, C.

    1990-06-01

    The implementation of a comprehensive maintenance system called the plant information management system (PIMS) at the Diablo Canyon plant, together with its associated integrated communication system (ICS), is widely regarded as the most comprehensive undertaking of its kind in the nuclear industry. This paper provides an overview of the program at Diablo Canyon, an evaluation of system benefits, and highlights the future course of PIMS.

  5. Reintroduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2007 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillson, Todd D. [Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife

    2009-06-12

    Bonneville Dam and those spawning in Hamilton and Hardy creeks. Response to the federal ESA listing has been primarily through direct-recovery actions: reducing harvest, hatchery supplementation using local broodstock for populations at catastrophic risk, habitat restoration (including construction of spawning channels) and flow agreements to protect spawning and rearing areas. Both state and federal agencies have built controlled spawning areas. In 1998, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) began a chum salmon supplementation program using native stock on the Grays River. This program was expanded during 1999 - 2001 to include reintroduction into the Chinook River using eggs from the Grays River Supplementation Program. These eggs are incubated at the Grays River Hatchery, reared to release size at the Sea Resources Hatchery on the Chinook River, and the fry are released at the mouth of the Chinook River. Native steelhead, chum, and coho salmon are present in Duncan Creek, and are recognized as subpopulations of the Lower Gorge population, and are focal species in the Lower Columbia Fish Recovery Board (LCFRB) plan. Steelhead, chum and coho salmon that spawn in Duncan Creek are listed as Threatened under the ESA. Duncan Creek is classified by the LCFRB plan as a watershed for intensive monitoring (LCFRB 2004). This project was identified in the 2004 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) revised Biological Opinion (revised BiOp) to increase survival of chum salmon, 'BPA will continue to fund the program to re-introduce Columbia River chum salmon into Duncan Creek as long as NOAA Fisheries determines it to be an essential and effective contribution to reducing the risk of extinction for this ESU'. (USACE et al. 2004, page 85-86). The Governors Forum on Monitoring and Salmon Recovery and Watershed Health recommends one major population from each ESU have adult and juvenile monitoring. Duncan Creek chum salmon are identified in this plan to be

  6. Mercury in Indiana watersheds: retrospective for 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Martin R.; Baker, Nancy T.; Fowler, Kathleen K.; Egler, Amanda L.; Lampe, David C.

    2010-01-01

    exceeded the 0.3 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) methylmercury criterion in 12.4 percent of the 1,731 samples. The median wet-weight concentration in the fish-tissue samples was 0.13 mg/kg, and the maximum was 1.07 mg/kg. A coarse-scale analysis of all fish-tissue data in each watershed and a fine-scale analysis of data within 5 kilometers (km) of the downstream end of each watershed showed similar results overall. Mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples were highest in the White River watershed in southern Indiana and the Fall Creek watershed in central Indiana. In fish-tissue samples within 5 km of the downstream end of a watershed, the USEPA methylmercury criterion was exceeded by 45 percent of mercury concentrations from the White River watershed and 40 percent of the mercury concentration from the Fall Creek watershed. A clear relation between mercury concentrations in fish-tissue samples and methylmercury concentrations in water was not observed in the data from watersheds in Indiana. Average annual atmospheric mercury wet-deposition rates were mapped with data at 156 locations in Indiana and four surrounding states for 2001-2006. These maps revealed an area in southeastern Indiana with high mercury wet-deposition rates-from 15 to 19 micrograms per square meter per year (ug/m2/yr). Annual atmospheric mercury dry-deposition rates were estimated with an inferential method by using concentrations of mercury species in air samples at three locations in Indiana. Mercury dry deposition-rates were 5.6 to 13.6 ug/m2/yr and were 0.49 to 1.4 times mercury wet-deposition rates. Total mercury concentrations were detected in 96 percent of 402 samples of wastewater effluent from 50 publicly owned treatment works in the watersheds; the median concentration was 3.0 ng/L, and the maximum was 88 ng/L. When these concentrations were compared to Indiana water-quality criteria for mercury, 12 percent exceeded the 12-n

  7. Asotin Creek Instream Habitat Alteration Projects : Habitat Evaluation, Adult and Juvenile Habitat Utilization and Water Temperature Monitoring : 2001 Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bumgarner, Joseph D.

    2002-01-01

    Asotin Creek originates from a network of deeply incised streams on the slopes of the Blue Mountains of southeastern Washington. The watershed drains an area of 322 square miles that provides a mean annual flow of 74 cfs. The geomorphology of the watershed exerts a strong influence on biologic conditions for fish within the stream. Historic and contemporary land-use practices have had a profound impact on the kind, abundance, and distribution of anadromous salmonids in the watershed. Fish habitat in Asotin Creek and other local streams has been affected by agricultural development, grazing, tilling practices, logging, recreational activities and implementation of flood control structures (Neilson 1950). The Asotin Creek Model Watershed Master Plan was completed in 1994. The plan was developed by a landowner steering committee for the Asotin County Conservation District (ACCD), with technical support from various Federal, State and local entities. Actions identified within the plan to improve the Asotin Creek ecosystem fall into four main categories: (1) Stream and Riparian, (2) Forestland, (3) Rangeland, and (4) Cropland. Specific actions to be carried out within the stream and in the riparian area to improve fish habitat were: (1) create more pools, (2) increase the amount of large organic debris (LOD), (3) increase the riparian buffer zone through tree planting, and (4) increase fencing to limit livestock access. All of these actions, in combination with other activities identified in the Plan, are intended to stabilize the river channel, reduce sediment input, increase the amount of available fish habitat (adult and juvenile) and protect private property. Evaluation work described within this report was to document the success or failure of the program regarding the first two items listed (increasing pools and LOD). Beginning in 1996, the ACCD, with cooperation from local landowners and funding from Bonneville Power Administration began constructing instream

  8. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2004-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  9. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2002 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2003-04-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NPPC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  10. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2004-2005 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-06-26

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  11. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuCharme, Lynn (Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Nation, Pablo, MT)

    2006-05-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through

  12. Long-term nongeocentric axial dipole directions and a geomagnetic excursion from the Middle Pleistocene sediments of the Humboldt River Canyon, Pershing County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negrini, Robert M.; Verosub, Kenneth L.; Davis, Jonathan O.

    1987-09-01

    A paleomagnetic record has been obtained from the middle Pleistocene sediments of the Humboldt River Canyon, Pershing County, Nevada. The age of the sediments is constrained by two tephra layers, the 610,000-year-old Lava Creek tephra and the approximately 495,000-year-old Dibekulewe tephra. The magnetization of the sediments is strong and stable, and the similarity of data from replicate sections strongly suggests that the data set represents an accurate record of the magnetic field except for the presence of postmagnetization rotations of less than 10°. The influence of postmagnetization rotations was eliminated in one of the sections (HR1A) by rotating the paleomagnetic directions in accordance with the direction of the Lava Creek welded tuff previously determined from five sampling sites near Yellowstone National Park. After correcting the mean directions we observed nongeocentric axial dipole (non-GAD) mean directions of moderate amplitude (19° ± 13° in declination and 22° ± 8° in inclination) in the record from the HRlA section which may represent as much as 115,000 years of magnetic field behavior. In the youngest part of the Humboldt River Canyon sediments a zone of anomalous directions was recorded which we interpret to be a detailed record of an unconfirmed geomagnetic excursion. This record exhibits behavior consistent with that of previously reported polarity transitions. Because of the widespread nature of the tephras, especially the Lava Creek tephra, the prospects are very good for improving estimates of the magnitude and duration of the non-GAD paleomagnetic directions and, also, for confirming the excursion.

  13. Assessment of nonpoint source chemical loading potential to watersheds containing uranium waste dumps associated with uranium exploration and mining, San Rafael Swell, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael L.; Naftz, David L.; Snyder, Terry; Johnson, Greg

    2008-01-01

    During July and August of 2006, 117 solid-phase samples were collected from abandoned uranium waste dumps, geologic background sites, and adjacent streambeds in the San Rafael Swell, in southeastern Utah. The objective of this sampling program was to assess the nonpoint source chemical loading potential to ephemeral and perennial watersheds from uranium waste dumps on Bureau of Land Management property. Uranium waste dump samples were collected using solid-phase sampling protocols. After collection, solid-phase samples were homogenized and extracted in the laboratory using a field leaching procedure. Filtered (0.45 micron) water samples were obtained from the field leaching procedure and were analyzed for Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, U, V, and Zn at the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry Metals Analysis Laboratory at the University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah and for Hg at the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Laboratory, Denver, Colorado. For the initial ranking of chemical loading potential of suspect uranium waste dumps, leachate analyses were compared with existing aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards and the ratio of samples that exceeded standards to the total number of samples was determined for each element having a water-quality standard for aquatic life and drinking-water. Approximately 56 percent (48/85) of the leachate samples extracted from uranium waste dumps had one or more chemical constituents that exceeded aquatic life and drinking-water-quality standards. Most of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates were along Reds Canyon Road between Tomsich Butte and Family Butte. Twelve of the uranium waste dump sites with elevated trace-element concentrations in leachates contained three or more constituents that exceeded drinking-water-quality standards. Eighteen of the uranium waste dump sites had three or more constituents that exceeded trace

  14. Assessing changes in the Presque Isle Bay watershed fish community using a modified index of biotic integrity: before and after the elimination of combined sewer overflows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafferty, Sean D; Lybrook, Jake; Kaczmarek, Karla M; Lethaby, Mark; Wellington, Robert; Pyron, Mark

    2013-12-01

    An index of biotic integrity and species richness were used to assess changes in the Presque Isle Bay watershed fish community before and after the elimination of combined sewer overflows (CSOs). The fish community was sampled with a backpack electrofisher in 2011 at 12 stream locations on 4 tributaries of Presque Isle Bay, Erie County, Pennsylvania. All sites were previously sampled in 2001. Significant increases in species richness and index of biotic integrity (IBI) scores were observed in 2011 compared to 2001. The significant increases in species richness and IBI scores occurred following the elimination of 10 CSOs to Garrison Run, 7 CSOs to Cascade Creek, and 37 CSOs to Mill Creek. Despite the increased richness and IBI scores, the fish community remains in poor condition, which may be related to the highly urbanized land use of the watershed. Urban land uses comprise 77% of the Presque Isle Bay watershed, and in both 2011 and 2001, the watershed as a whole did not meet warm-water habitat criteria. It is unlikely that the fish community will continue to recover without addressing urbanization throughout the watershed.

  15. Parasites of fishes in the Colorado River and selected tributaries in Grand Canyon, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Sterner, Mauritz C.; Linder, Chad; Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Persons, Bill; Choudhury, Anindo; Haro, Roger

    2012-01-01

    As part of the endangered humpback chub (HBC; Gila cypha) Adaptive Management Program, a parasite survey was conducted from 28 June to 17 July 2006 in 8 tributaries and 7 adjacent sections of the main stem of the Colorado River, U.S.A. In total, 717 fish were caught, including 24 HBC. Field necropsies yielded 19 parasite species, 5 of which (Achtheres sp., Kathlaniidae gen. sp., Caryophyllaidae gen. sp., Myxidium sp., and Octomacrum sp.) are new records for Grand Canyon, Arizona, U.S.A. Spearman's correlation coefficient analyses showed no correlations between parasite burden and fork length for various combinations of fish and parasite species. Regression analyses suggest that no parasite species had a strong effect on fish length. The most diverse parasite community (n=14) was at river kilometer (Rkm) 230, near the confluence of Kanab Creek. The most diverse parasite infracommunity (n=12) was found in the non-native channel catfish (CCF; Ictaluris punctatus). Overall parasite prevalence was highest in CCF (85%) followed by that in HBC (58%). The parasite fauna of humpback chub was mainly composed of Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Ornithodiplostomum sp. metacercariae.

  16. Use of Sediment Budgets for Watershed Erosion Control Planning: A Case Study From Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, M.; McDavitt, W.

    2002-05-01

    Erosion, sedimentation and peak flow increases caused by forest management for commercial timber production may negatively affect aquatic habitat of endangered anadromous fish such as coho salmon ({\\ it O. kisutch}). This paper summarizes a portion of a Watershed Analysis study performed for Pacific Lumber Company, Scotia, CA, focusing on erosion and sedimentation processes and rates and downstream sediment routing and water quality in the Freshwater Creek watershed in northwest California. Hillslope, road and bank erosion, channel sedimentation and sediment rates were quantified using field surveys, aerial photo interpretation, and empirical modeling approaches for different elements of the study. Sediment transport rates for bedload were modeled, and sediment transport rates for suspended sediment were estimated based on size distribution of sediment inputs in relation to sizes transported in suspension. The resulting sediment budget was validated through comparison using recent short-term, high-quality estimates of suspended sediment yield collected by a community watershed group at a downstream monitoring site with technical assistance from the US Forest Service. Another check on the sediment budget was provided by bedload yield data from an adjacent watershed, Jacoby Creek. The sediment budget techniques and bedload routing models used for this study provide sediment yield estimates that are in good agreement with available data. These results suggest that sediment budget techniques that require moderate levels of fieldwork can be used to provide relatively accurate technical assessments for use in the TMDL process. The sediment budget also identifies the most significant sediment sources and suggests a framework within which effective erosion control strategies can be developed.

  17. Rapid incision of the Colorado River in Glen Canyon - insights from channel profiles, local incision rates, and modeling of lithologic controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, K.L.; Whipple, K.X.; Heimsath, A.M.; Hanks, T.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Colorado River system in southern Utah and northern Arizona is continuing to adjust to the baselevel fall responsible for the carving of the Grand Canyon. Estimates of bedrock incision rates in this area vary widely, hinting at the transient state of the Colorado and its tributaries. In conjunction with these data, we use longitudinal profiles of the Colorado and tributaries between Marble Canyon and Cataract Canyon to investigate the incision history of the Colorado in this region. We find that almost all of the tributaries in this region steepen as they enter the Colorado River. The consistent presence of oversteepened reaches with similar elevation drops in the lower section of these channels, and their coincidence within a corridor of high local relief along the Colorado, suggest that the tributaries are steepening in response to an episode of increased incision rate on the mainstem. This analysis makes testable predictions about spatial variations in incision rates; these predictions are consistent with existing rate estimates and can be used to guide further studies. We also present cosmogenic nuclide data from the Henry Mountains of southern Utah. We measured in situ 10Be concentrations on four gravel-covered strath surfaces elevated from 1 m to 110 m above Trachyte Creek. The surfaces yield exposure ages that range from approximately 2??5 ka to 267 ka and suggest incision rates that vary between 350 and 600 m/my. These incision rates are similar to other rates determined within the high-relief corridor. Available data thus support the interpretation that tributaries of the Colorado River upstream of the Grand Canyon are responding to a recent pulse of rapid incision on the Colorado. Numerical modeling of detachment-limited bedrock incision suggests that this incision pulse is likely related to the upstream-dipping lithologic boundary at the northern edge of the Kaibab upwarp. ?? 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Carbon Metabolism, Uptake Kinetics, and Export: how Watershed Form Influences Carbon Mobilization and In-Stream Transformations in Headwater Catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seybold, E. C.; McGlynn, B. L.

    2014-12-01

    Previous research has demonstrated the highly dynamic nature of hydrologic connectivity, and the vertical and spatial expansion of the active watershed area during wet periods. While activation of variable DOM and solute sources during expansion and contraction periods has been well documented in a number of systems, changes in nutrient loading to streams have rarely been linked explicitly to in-stream function. To this end, we investigated the linkages between terrestrial mobilization of DOC and DIC, in-stream biogeochemical cycling, and downstream transport across scales in two geomorphically contrasting watersheds located in Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana. We deployed a network of in-situ high frequency sensors with a focus on CO2, dissolved oxygen, fluorescent DOM, nitrate, and a suite of supporting chemical constituents every 30 minutes beginning with the onset of snowmelt and through summer baseflow recession. Our results suggest that DOM and DIC fluxes, as well as ecosystem processes such as metabolism, were coupled to watershed scale carbon accumulation and mobilization. In both watersheds, metabolism tracked the temporal trends of DOM loading from the terrestrial landscape, indicating that the streams are actively transforming allochthonous organic materials during transport. Headwater stream reaches in the watershed with more hydrologically connected riparian source areas exhibited elevated metabolism, carbon uptake, and carbon export as compared to streams in the watershed with less riparian connectivity, suggesting that the degree of riparian connectivity may explain spatial variation in metabolism and in-stream carbon cycling within and across stream networks. Ultimately, this study highlights the tight coupling between terrestrial uplands and in-stream ecosystem processes in headwater catchments, and identifies spatio-temporal variation in hydrologic connectivity as a key driver of in-stream metabolic variation. We posit that the

  19. Spatial patterns of sediment dynamics within a medium-sized watershed over an extreme storm event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Zhang, Zhirou

    2016-08-01

    In this study, we quantified spatial patterns of sediment dynamics in a watershed of 311 km2 over an extreme storm event using watershed modeling and statistical analyses. First, we calibrated a watershed model, Dynamic Watershed Simulation Model (DWSM) by comparing the predicted with calculated hydrograph and sedigraph at the outlet for this event. Then we predicted values of event runoff volume (V), peak flow (Qpeak), and two types of event sediment yields for lumped morphological units that contain 42 overland elements and 21 channel segments within the study watershed. Two overland elements and the connected channel segment form a first-order subwatershed, several of which constitute a larger nested subwatershed. Next we examined (i) the relationships between these variables and area (A), precipitation (P), mean slope (S), soil erodibility factor, and percent of crop and pasture lands for all overland elements (i.e., the small spatial scale, SSS), and (ii) those between sediment yield, Qpeak, A, P, and event runoff depth (h) for the first-order and nested subwatersheds along two main creeks of the study watershed (i.e., the larger spatial scales, LSS). We found that at the SSS, sediment yield was nonlinearly well related to A and P, but not Qpeak and h; whereas at the LSS, linear relationships between sediment yield and Qpeak existed, so did the Qpeak-A, and Qpeak-P relationships. This linearity suggests the increased connectivity from the SSS to LSS, which was caused by ignorance of channel processes within overland elements. It also implies that sediment was transported at capacity during the extreme event. So controlling sediment supply from the most erodible overland elements may not efficiently reduce the downstream sediment load.

  20. Impacts of deforestation on water balance components of a watershed on the Brazilian East Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donizete dos Reis Pereira

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian East coast was intensely affected by deforestation, which drastically cut back the original biome. The possible impacts of this process on water resources are still unknown. The purpose of this study was an evaluation of the impacts of deforestation on the main water balance components of the Galo creek watershed, in the State of Espírito Santo, on the East coast of Brazil. Considering the real conditions of the watershed, the SWAT model was calibrated with data from 1997 to 2000 and validated for the period between 2001 and 2003. The calibration and validation processes were evaluated by the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient and by the statistical parameters (determination coefficient, slope coefficient and F test of the regression model adjusted for estimated and measured flow data. After calibration and validation of the model, new simulations were carried out for three different land use scenarios: a scenario in compliance with the law (C1, assuming the preservation of PPAs (permanent preservation areas; an optimistic scenario (C2, which considers the watershed to be almost entirely covered by native vegetation; and a pessimistic scenario (C3, in which the watershed would be almost entirely covered by pasture. The scenarios C1, C2 and C3 represent a soil cover of native forest of 76, 97 and 0 %, respectively. The results were compared with the simulation, considering the real scenario (C0 with 54 % forest cover. The Nash-Sutcliffe coefficients were 0.65 and 0.70 for calibration and validation, respectively, indicating satisfactory results in the flow simulation. A mean reduction of 10 % of the native forest cover would cause a mean annual increase of approximately 11.5 mm in total runoff at the watershed outlet. Reforestation would ensure minimum flows in the dry period and regulate the maximum flow of the main watercourse of the watershed.

  1. Wind River Watershed Restoration Project; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Jim

    2004-02-01

    The goal of the Wind River project is to preserve, protect and restore Wind River steelhead. In March, 1998, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed the steelhead of the lower Columbia as 'threatened' under the Endangered Species Act. In 1997, the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife rated the status of the Wind River summer run steelhead as critical. Due to the status of this stock, the Wind River summer steelhead have the highest priority for recovery and restoration in the state of Washington's Lower Columbia Steelhead Conservation Initiative. The Wind River Project includes four cooperating agencies. Those are the Underwood Conservation District (UCD), United States Geological Service (USGS), US Forest Service (USFS), and Washington State Department of Fish & Wildlife (WDFW). Tasks include monitoring steelhead populations (USGS and WDFW), Coordinating a Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Group (UCD), evaluating physical habitat conditions (USFS and UCD), assessing watershed health (all), reducing road sediments sources (USFS), rehabilitating riparian corridors, floodplains, and channel geometry (UCD, USFS), evaluate removal of Hemlock Dam (USFS), and promote local watershed stewardship (UCD, USFS). UCD's major efforts have included coordination of the Wind River Watershed Committee and Technical Advisory Committee (TAC), water temperature and water chemistry monitoring, riparian habitat improvement projects, and educational activities. Our coordination work enables the local Watershed Committee and TAC to function and provide essential input to Agencies, and our habitat improvement work focuses on riparian revegetation. Water chemistry and temperature data collection provide information for monitoring watershed conditions and fish habitat, and are comparable with data gathered in previous years. Water chemistry information collected on Trout Creek should, with 2 years data, determine whether pH levels make conditions

  2. The Watershed Algorithm for Image Segmentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    OU Yan; LIN Nan

    2007-01-01

    This article introduced the watershed algorithm for the segmentation, illustrated the segmation process by implementing this algorithm. By comparing with another three related algorithm, this article revealed both the advantages and drawbacks of the watershed algorithm.

  3. NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This NYC Reservoirs Watershed Areas (HUC 12) GIS layer was derived from the 12-Digit National Watershed Boundary Database (WBD) at 1:24,000 for EPA Region 2 and...

  4. DNR Watersheds - DNR Level 02 - HUC 04

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data consists of watershed delineations in one seamless dataset of drainage areas called Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) Level 02 Watersheds....

  5. 2013 Bridge Creek, OR 4-Band Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In March 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by Woolpert, Inc. (Woolpert) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data and digital imagery in...

  6. Circulation in Vilkitsky Canyon in the eastern Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janout, Markus; Hölemann, Jens

    2016-04-01

    The eastern Arctic Ocean is characterized by steep continental slopes and vast shallow shelf seas that receive a large amount of riverine freshwater from some of the largest rivers on earth. The northwestern Laptev Sea is of particular interest, as it is a freshwater transport pathway for a swift surface-intensified current from the Kara Sea toward the Arctic Basin, as was recently highlighted by high-resolution model studies. The region features complex bathymetry including a narrow strait and a large submarine canyon, strong tides, polynyas and severe sea ice conditions throughout much of the year. A year-long mooring record as well as detailed hydrographic shipboard measurements resulted from summer expeditions to the area in 2013 and 2014, and now provide a detailed picture of the region's water properties and circulation. The hydrography is characterized by riverine Kara Sea freshwater near the surface in the southern part of the canyon, while warmer (~0°C) saline Atlantic-derived waters dominate throughout the canyon at depths >150m. Cold shelf-modified waters near the freezing point are found along the canyon edges. The mean flow at the 300 m-deep mooring location near the southern edge of the canyon is swift (30 cm/s) and oriented eastward near the surface as suggested by numerical models, while the deeper flow follows the canyon topography towards the north-east. Wind-driven deviations from the mean flow coincide with sudden changes in temperature and salinity. This study characterizes the general circulation in Vilkitsky Canyon and investigates its potential as a conduit for upwelling of Atlantic-derived waters from the Arctic Basin to the Laptev Sea shelf.

  7. Geology of the Hamm Canyon quadrangle, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cater, Fred W.

    1953-01-01

    The Hamm Canyon quadrangle is on eof eighteen 7 1/2-minute quadrangles covering the principal carnotite-producing area of southwestern Colorado. The geology of these quadrangles was mapped by the U.S. Geological Survey for the Atomic Energy Commission as part of a comprehensive study of carnotite deposits. The rocks exposed in the eighteen quadrangles consist of crystalline rocks of pre-Cambrian age and sedimentary rocks that range in age from late Paleozoic to Quaternary. Over much of the area the sedimentary rocks are flat lying, but in places the rocks are disrupted by high-angle faults, and northwest-trending folds. Conspicuous among the folds are large anticlines having cores of intrusive salt and gypsum. Most of the carnotite deposits are confined to the Salt Wash sandstone member of the Jurassic Morrison formation. Within this sandstone, most of the deposits are spottily distributed through an arcuate zone known as the "Uravan Mineral Belt". Individual deposits range in size from irregular masses containing only a few tons of ore to large, tabular masses containing many thousands of tons. The ore consists largely of sandstone selectively impregnated and in part replaced by uranium and vanadium minerals. Most of the deposits appear to be related to certain sedimentary structures in sandstones of favorable composition.

  8. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  9. Rainfall Runoff Modelling for Cedar Creek using HEC-HMS model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, P.; Kalra, A.

    2015-12-01

    Rainfall-runoff modelling studies are carried out for the purpose of basin and river management. Different models have been effectively used to examine relationships between rainfall and runoff. Cedar Creek Watershed Basin, the largest tributary of St. Josephs River, located in northeastern Indiana, was selected as a study area. The HEC-HMS model developed by US Army Corps of Engineers was used for the hydrological modelling. The national elevation and national hydrography data was obtained from United States Geological Survey National Map Viewer and the SSURGO soil data was obtained from United States Department of Agriculture. The watershed received hypothetical uniform rainfall for a duration of 13 hours. The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number and Unit Hydrograph methods were used for simulating surface runoff. The simulation provided hydrological details about the quantity and variability of runoff in the watershed. The runoff for different curve numbers was computed for the same basin and rainfall, and it was found that outflow peaked at an earlier time with a higher value for higher curve numbers than for smaller curve numbers. It was also noticed that the impact on outflow values nearly doubled with an increase of curve number of 10 for each subbasin in the watershed. The results from the current analysis may aid water managers in effectively managing the water resources within the basin. 1 Graduate Student, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Southern Illinois University Carbondale, Carbondale, Illinois, 62901-6603 2 Development Review Division, Clark County Public Works, 500 S. Grand Central Parkway, Las Vegas, NV 89155, USA

  10. Final Technical Report - Modernization of the Boulder Canyon Hydroelectric Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taddeucci, Joe [Dept. of Public Works, Boulder, CO (United States). Utilities Division

    2013-03-29

    double nozzle Pelton turbine with a 10-to-1 flow turndown and a maximum turbine/generator efficiency of 88%. This alone represents a 6% increase in overall efficiency. The old turbine operated at low efficiencies due to age and non-optimal sizing of the turbine for the water flow available to the unit. It was shut down whenever water flow dropped to less than 4-5 cfs, and at that flow, efficiency was 55 to 60%. The new turbine will operate in the range of 70 to 88% efficiency through a large portion of the existing flow range and would only have to be shut down at flow rates less than 3.7 cfs. Efficiency is expected to increase by 15-30%, depending on flow. In addition to the installation of new equipment, other goals for the project included: Increasing safety at Boulder Canyon Hydro Increasing protection of the Boulder Creek environment Modernizing and integrating control equipment into Boulder's municipal water supply system, and Preserving significant historical engineering information prior to power plant modernization. From January 1, 2010 through December 31, 2012, combined consultant and contractor personnel hours paid for by both the city and the federal government have totaled approximately 40,000. This equates roughly to seven people working full time on the project from January 2010 through December 2012. This project also involved considerable material expense (steel pipe, a variety of valves, electrical equipment, and the various components of the turbine and generator), which were not accounted for in terms of hours spent on the project. However, the material expense related to this project did help to create or preserve manufacturing/industrial jobs throughout the United States. As required by ARRA, the various components of the hydroelectric project were manufactured or substantially transformed in the U.S. BCH is eligible for nomination to the National Register of Historic Places due in part to its unique engineering features and innovative

  11. Watershed Education for Broadcast Meteorologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamos, J. P.; Sliter, D.; Espinoza, S.; Spangler, T. C.

    2006-12-01

    The National Environmental Education and Training Organization (NEETF) published a report in 2005 that summarized the findings of ten years of NEETF and Roper Research. The report stated, "Our years of data from Roper surveys show a persistent pattern of environmental ignorance even among the most educated and influential members of society." Market research has also shown that 80% of television viewers list the weather as the primary reason for watching the local news. Broadcast meteorologists, with a broader understanding of environmental and related sciences have an opportunity to use their weathercasts to inform the public about the environment and the factors that influence environmental health. As "station scientists," broadcast meteorologists can use the weather, and people's connection to it, to broaden their understanding of the environment they live in. Weather and watershed conditions associated with flooding and drought have major human and environmental impacts. Increasing the awareness of the general public about basic aspects of the hydrologic landscape can be an important part of mitigating the adverse effects of too much or too little precipitation, and of protecting the environment as well. The concept of a watershed as a person's natural neighborhood is a very important one for understanding hydrologic and environmental issues. Everyone lives in a watershed, and the health of a watershed is the result of the interplay between weather and human activity. This paper describes an online course to give broadcast meteorologists a basic understanding of watersheds and how watersheds are impacted by weather. It discusses how to convey watershed science to a media- savvy audience as well as how to model the communication of watershed and hydrologic concepts to the public. The course uses a narrative, story-like style to present its content. It is organized into six short units of instruction, each approximately 20 minutes in duration. Each unit is

  12. Squaw Creek National Wildlife Refuge contaminant survey results

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — As part of a baseline contaminant survey of all National Wildlife Refuges (NWR) in Missouri, fish were collected at the Squaw Creek NWR from Davis and Squaw creeks...

  13. Preliminary Biotic Survey of Cane Creek, Calhoun County, AL

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A biotic survey of Cane Creek (Calhoun County, AL) was completed in the Fall (1992) and Winter (1993) at six sites within Cane Creek to determine the effects of...

  14. Steel Creek fish: L-Lake/Steel Creek Biological Monitoring Program, January 1986--December 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M.H.; Heuer, J.H.; Kissick, L.A.

    1988-03-01

    Fish samples were collected from Steel Creek during 1986 and 1987 following the impoundment of the headwaters of the stream to form L-Lake, a cooling reservoir for L-Reactor which began operating late in 1985. Electrofishing and ichthyoplankton sample stations were located throughout the creek. Fykenetting sample stations were located in the creek mouth and just above the Steel Creek swamp. Larval fish and fish eggs were collected with 0.5 m plankton nets. Multivariate analysis of the electrofishing data suggested that the fish assemblages in Steel Creek exhibited structural differences associated with proximity to L-Lake, and habitat gradients of current velocity, depth, and canopy cover. The Steel Creek corridor, a lotic reach beginning at the base of the L-Lake embankment was dominated by stream species and bluegill. The delta/swamp, formed where Steel Creek enters the Savannah River floodplain, was dominated by fishes characteristic of slow flowing waters and heavily vegetated habitats. The large channel draining the swamp supported many of the species found in the swamp plus riverine and anadromous forms.

  15. Application of HEC-HMS in a Cold Region Watershed and Use of RADARSAT-2 Soil Moisture in Initializing the Model

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan A. K. M. Bhuiyan; Heather McNairn; Jarrett Powers; Amine Merzouki

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an assessment of the applicability of using RADARSAT-2-derived soil moisture data in the Hydrologic Modelling System developed by the Hydrologic Engineering Center (HEC-HMS) for flood forecasting with a case study in the Sturgeon Creek watershed in Manitoba, Canada. Spring flooding in Manitoba is generally influenced by both winter precipitation and soil moisture conditions in the fall of the previous year. As a result, the soil moisture accounting (SMA) and the temperatur...

  16. Exposure pathways and biological receptors: baseline data for the canyon uranium mine, Coconino County, Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinck, Jo E.; Linder, Greg L.; Darrah, Abigail J.; Drost, Charles A.; Duniway, Michael C.; Johnson, Matthew J.; Méndez-Harclerode, Francisca M.; Nowak, Erika M.; Valdez, Ernest W.; Van Riper, Charles; Wolff, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Recent restrictions on uranium mining within the Grand Canyon watershed have drawn attention to scientific data gaps in evaluating the possible effects of ore extraction to human populations as well as wildlife communities in the area. Tissue contaminant concentrations, one of the most basic data requirements to determine exposure, are not available for biota from any historical or active uranium mines in the region. The Canyon Uranium Mine is under development, providing a unique opportunity to characterize concentrations of uranium and other trace elements, as well as radiation levels in biota, found in the vicinity of the mine before ore extraction begins. Our study objectives were to identify contaminants of potential concern and critical contaminant exposure pathways for ecological receptors; conduct biological surveys to understand the local food web and refine the list of target species (ecological receptors) for contaminant analysis; and collect target species for contaminant analysis prior to the initiation of active mining. Contaminants of potential concern were identified as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, thallium, uranium, and zinc for chemical toxicity and uranium and associated radionuclides for radiation. The conceptual exposure model identified ingestion, inhalation, absorption, and dietary transfer (bioaccumulation or bioconcentration) as critical contaminant exposure pathways. The biological survey of plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and small mammals is the first to document and provide ecological information on .200 species in and around the mine site; this study also provides critical baseline information about the local food web. Most of the species documented at the mine are common to ponderosa pine Pinus ponderosa and pinyon–juniper Pinus–Juniperus spp. forests in northern Arizona and are not considered to have special conservation status by state or federal agencies; exceptions

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation Map Database was developed as a primary product in the Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation...

  18. Data from Oceanographer, Lydonia, and Gilbert Canyons acquired in 1965 (SCHWARTZ65 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine canyons occur at the edge of the continental shelf and cut across the slope and rise along the U.S. east coast. Three of these canyons (Oceanographer,...

  19. Samples from the Georges Bank Canyons acquired in 1936 (STETSON36 shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Submarine canyons cut into the edge of the continental shelf and the continental slope along much of the U.S. Atlantic coast. Three canyons along the southern edge...

  20. Software Configuration Management Plan for the B-Plant Canyon Ventilation Control System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCDANIEL, K.S.

    1999-08-31

    Project W-059 installed a new B Plant Canyon Ventilation System. Monitoring and control of the system is implemented by the Canyon Ventilation Control System (CVCS). This Software Configuration Management Plan provides instructions for change control of the CVCS.

  1. 2011 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): Los Osos, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  2. 2013 Pacific Gas and Electric Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP): San Simeon, CA Central Coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Diablo Canyon Power Plant (DCPP) LiDAR and Imagery datasets are comprised of three separate LiDAR surveys: Diablo Canyon (2010), Los Osos (2011), and San Simeon...

  3. Multiagent distributed watershed management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Amigoni, F.; Cai, X.

    2012-04-01

    Deregulation and democratization of water along with increasing environmental awareness are challenging integrated water resources planning and management worldwide. The traditional centralized approach to water management, as described in much of water resources literature, is often unfeasible in most of the modern social and institutional contexts. Thus it should be reconsidered from a more realistic and distributed perspective, in order to account for the presence of multiple and often independent Decision Makers (DMs) and many conflicting stakeholders. Game theory based approaches are often used to study these situations of conflict (Madani, 2010), but they are limited to a descriptive perspective. Multiagent systems (see Wooldridge, 2009), instead, seem to be a more suitable paradigm because they naturally allow to represent a set of self-interested agents (DMs and/or stakeholders) acting in a distributed decision process at the agent level, resulting in a promising compromise alternative between the ideal centralized solution and the actual uncoordinated practices. Casting a water management problem in a multiagent framework allows to exploit the techniques and methods that are already available in this field for solving distributed optimization problems. In particular, in Distributed Constraint Satisfaction Problems (DCSP, see Yokoo et al., 2000), each agent controls some variables according to his own utility function but has to satisfy inter-agent constraints; while in Distributed Constraint Optimization Problems (DCOP, see Modi et al., 2005), the problem is generalized by introducing a global objective function to be optimized that requires a coordination mechanism between the agents. In this work, we apply a DCSP-DCOP based approach to model a steady state hypothetical watershed management problem (Yang et al., 2009), involving several active human agents (i.e. agents who make decisions) and reactive ecological agents (i.e. agents representing

  4. Contaminants in sediment, food-chain biota, and bird eggs from the Newport Bay watershed, Orange County, California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santolo, Gary M; Byron, Earl R; Ohlendorf, Harry M

    2016-02-01

    Groundwater-related discharges in the San Diego Creek/Newport Bay watershed in Orange County, California have the potential to adversely affect the surface waters within the watershed and would likely not comply with the established total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) for the watershed. In 2004 and 2005, we studied the concentrations of contaminants of TMDL concern (particularly selenium [Se]) in birds that are at risk of exposure to contaminated food items because they feed and nest in the Newport Bay watershed. Most bioaccumulation is from elevated Se in groundwater downstream of a historic terminal swamp. Se bioaccumulation was observed in all biota tested, and DDE was found in fish and bird egg samples. Effects of contaminants on fish and birds are inconclusive due to the management disturbances in the watershed (e.g., flood control) and lack of bird nesting habitat. Although a significant relationship was observed between DDE concentrations and eggshell thinning in American avocet (Recurvirostra americana) eggs, the shell thinning in avocet and other species examined was not enough to result in hatching failure. Further focused monitoring efforts will be needed to characterize the exposure and risk levels.

  5. Flood-inundation maps for Indian Creek and Tomahawk Creek, Johnson County, Kansas, 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Arin J.; Studley, Seth E.

    2016-01-25

    Digital flood-inundation maps for a 6.4-mile upper reach of Indian Creek from College Boulevard to the confluence with Tomahawk Creek, a 3.9-mile reach of Tomahawk Creek from 127th Street to the confluence with Indian Creek, and a 1.9-mile lower reach of Indian Creek from the confluence with Tomahawk Creek to just beyond the Kansas/Missouri border at State Line Road in Johnson County, Kansas, were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the city of Overland Park, Kansas. The flood-inundation maps, which can be accessed through the U.S. Geological Survey Flood Inundation Mapping Science Web site at http://water.usgs.gov/osw/flood_inundation/, depict estimates of the areal extent and depth of flooding corresponding to selected water levels (stages) at the U.S. Geological Survey streamgages on Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas. Near real time stages at these streamgages may be obtained on the Web from the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System at http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis or the National Weather Service Advanced Hydrologic Prediction Service at http://water.weather.gov/ahps/, which also forecasts flood hydrographs at these sites.Flood profiles were computed for the stream reaches by means of a one-dimensional step-backwater model. The model was calibrated for each reach by using the most current stage-discharge relations at the streamgages. The hydraulic models were then used to determine 15 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at Overland Park, Kansas; 17 water-surface profiles for Indian Creek at State Line Road, Leawood, Kansas; and 14 water-surface profiles for Tomahawk Creek near Overland Park, Kansas, for flood stages at 1-foot intervals referenced to the streamgage datum and ranging from bankfull to the next interval above the 0.2-percent annual exceedance probability flood level (500-year recurrence interval). The

  6. CREEK Project's Phytoplankton Pigment Monitoring Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina: 1997-1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — The CREEK Project began in January of 1996 and was designed to help determine the role of oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in tidal creeks of the North Inlet Estuary,...

  7. 78 FR 28897 - Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Lost Creek ISR, LLC, Lost Creek Uranium In-Situ Recovery Project; Sweetwater County, Wyoming AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Environmental assessment and finding of no...

  8. 33 CFR 110.72 - Blackhole Creek, Md.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Blackhole Creek, Md. 110.72... ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.72 Blackhole Creek, Md. The waters on the west side of Blackhole Creek, a tributary of Magothy River, southwest of a line bearing 310°30′ from the most...

  9. 75 FR 63431 - Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 Radio Broadcasting Services; Willow Creek, CA AGENCY: Federal Communications... allotment of FM Channel 258A at Willow Creek, California. Petitioner, the auction winner and permittee of Channel 253A, Willow Creek, has submitted an application to specify operation of the station on...

  10. 76 FR 9225 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-17

    ... Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 50707). The temporary deviation... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Curtis Creek, Baltimore... changing the drawbridge operation regulations of the Pennington Avenue Bridge, across Curtis Creek, mile...

  11. 75 FR 1705 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek, Baltimore, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-13

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Curtis Creek... operation of the I695 Bridge across Curtis Creek, mile 0.9, at Baltimore, MD. The deviation is necessary to... section of Curtis Creek and the bridge will not be able to open in the event of an emergency. Coast...

  12. Directed urban canyons in megacities and its applications in meteorological modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonov, Timofey; Konstantinov, Pavel; Varentsov, Mikhail

    2015-04-01

    Directed urban canyons study applies object-oriented analysis to extraction of urban canyons and introduces the concept of directed urban canyon which is then experimentally applied in urban meteorological modeling. Observation of current approach to description of urban canyon geometry is provided. Then a new theoretical approach to canyon delineation is presented that allows chaining the spaces between buildings into directed canyons that comprise three-level hierarchy. An original methodology based on triangular irregular network (TIN) is presented that allows extraction of regular and directed urban canyons from cartographic data, estimation of their geometric characteristics, including local and averaged height-width ratio, primary and secondary canyon directions. Obtained geometric properties of canyons are then applied in micro-scale temperature and wind modeling using URB-MOS model and estimation of possible wind accelerations along canyons. Extraction and analysis of directed canyons highly depends on the presence of linear street network. Thus, in the absence of this GIS layer, it should be reconstructed from another data sources. The future studies should give us an answer to the question, where the limits of directed canyons are and how they can be classified further in terms of the street longitudinal shape. For now all computations are performed in separate scripts and programs. We plan to develop comprehensive automation of described methods of urban canyon description in specialized software. The most perspective extension of proposed methodology seemes to be canyon -based analysis which is truely object-oriented. Various geometric properties of micro-, meso- and macro-scale canyons should be investigated and their applicability in urban climate modeling should be assesed. Object-oriented canyon analysis can also be applied in architectural studies, urban morphology, planning and various physical and social aspects that are concerned with human in

  13. Canyon conditions impact carbon flows in food webs of three sections of the Nazaré canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oevelen, Dick; Soetaert, Karline; Garcia, R.; de Stigter, Henko C.; Cunha, Marina R.; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2011-12-01

    Submarine canyons transport large amounts of sediment and organic matter (OM) from the continental shelf to the abyssal plain. Three carbon-based food web models were constructed for the upper (300-750 m water depth), middle (2700-3500 m) and lower section (4000-5000 m) of the Nazaré canyon (eastern Atlantic Ocean) using linear inverse modeling to examine how the food web is influenced by the characteristics of the respective canyon section. The models were based on an empirical dataset consisting of biomass and carbon processing data, and general physiological data constraints from the literature. Environmental conditions, most notably organic matter (OM) input and hydrodynamic activity, differed between the canyon sections and strongly affected the benthic food web structure. Despite the large difference in depth, the OM inputs into the food webs of the upper and middle sections were of similar magnitude (7.98±0.84 and 9.30±0.71 mmol C m -2 d -1, respectively). OM input to the lower section was however almost 6-7 times lower (1.26±0.03 mmol C m -2 d -1). Carbon processing in the upper section was dominated by prokaryotes (70% of total respiration), though there was a significant meiofaunal (21%) and smaller macrofaunal (9%) contribution. The high total faunal contribution to carbon processing resembles that found in shallower continental shelves and upper slopes, although the meiofaunal contribution is surprisingly high and suggest that high current speeds and sediment resuspension in the upper canyon favor the role of the meiofauna. The high OM input and conditions in the accreting sediments of the middle canyon section were more beneficial for megafauna (holothurians), than for the other food web compartments. The high megafaunal biomass (516 mmol C m -2), their large contribution to respiration (56% of total respiration) and secondary production (0.08 mmol C m -2 d -1) shows that these accreting sediments in canyons are megafaunal hotspots in the deep

  14. Landscape controls on nitrogen availability in a western forest watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J.; Yano, Y.; Jencso, K. G.

    2015-12-01

    Global increases in anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and declines in winter snowpack are expected to alter the productivity of montane forests in the Western U.S. In this study, we focused on the topographic controls on seasonal N patterns in a mountainous landscape. The experiment was conducted in the North Fork of the Elk Creek (NFEC) watershed within the Lubrecht Experimental Forest, located in western Montana. The NFEC is a managed watershed and was logged approximately 80 years ago; thus, this watershed offers a unique opportunity to examine topographic and biological controls on N dynamics within a relatively even aged forest. In 2014 and 2015, we examined changes in soil N dynamics in four sites that varied in aspect (north and south) and elevation (high and low). Within each site, we also examined micro-topographic controls by sampling soil from both the hollow and the side slope. From pre-snowmelt to the end of the growing season (March - October), we collected snow cores and soil cores within each site to characterize the heterogeneity of soil N. We also installed resin strips to measure the exchangeable N within the upper soils. Across the entire watershed, we found that seasonal NH4+ and NO3- concentrations were highest in April, as well as at the higher elevation sites. This pattern corresponded with higher snowpack and snow water equivalent values and was likely due to higher mineralization rates during the winter. We also found that across all four sites, hollow soils had higher NH4+ and NO3- concentrations relative to soils from the hillslope, and this was largely due to increased organic matter and high soil moisture content found in the hollows. We also found a significant interaction between time of year, site, and micro-topography, suggesting that during the early growing season, NH4+ and NO3- concentrations were largely modulated by snowpack depth, which in turn was controlled by topography. Soil NH4+ and NO3- concentrations for samples

  15. Standardized methods for Grand Canyon fisheries research 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persons, William R.; Ward, David L.; Avery, Luke A.

    2013-01-01

    This document presents protocols and guidelines to persons sampling fishes in the Grand Canyon, to help ensure consistency in fish handling, fish tagging, and data collection among different projects and organizations. Most such research and monitoring projects are conducted under the general umbrella of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Program and include studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS), National Park Service (NPS), the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), various universities, and private contractors. This document is intended to provide guidance to fieldworkers regarding protocols that may vary from year to year depending on specific projects and objectives. We also provide herein documentation of standard methods used in the Grand Canyon that can be cited in scientific publications, as well as a summary of changes in protocols since the document was first created in 2002.

  16. Bassett Creek Watershed, Hennepin County, Minnesota. Feasibility Report for Control. Appendixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-03-01

    animal life for present and future generations to enjoy are becoming increasingly rare as well as increasingly essential as urban growth continues...Theodore Wirth Park along with the Eloise Butler Wildflower Garden provide Minneapolis and Golden Valley residents with passive recreation opportunities...in Louisville, Kentucky . A very complete analysis of the effects of urbanization was made by Anderson (1968) in his study of 64 gaging stations in

  17. Management and climate change in coastal Oregon forests: The Panther Creek Watershed as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The highly productive forests of the Oregon Coast Range Mountains have been intensively harvested for many decades, and recent interest has emerged in the potential for removing harvest residue as a source of renewable woody biomass energy. However, the long-term consequences of ...

  18. Linkages between denitrification and dissolved organicmatter quality, Boulder Creek watershed, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rebecca T.; Smith, Richard L.; Aiken, George R.

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fuels the majority of in-stream microbial processes, including the removal of nitrate via denitrification. However, little is known about how the chemical composition of DOM influences denitrification rates. Water and sediment samples were collected across an ecosystem gradient, spanning the alpine to plains, in central Colorado to determine whether the chemical composition of DOM was related to denitrification rates. Laboratory bioassays measured denitrification potentials using the acetylene block technique and carbon mineralization via aerobic bioassays, while organic matter characteristics were evaluated using spectroscopic and fractionation methods. Denitrification potentials under ambient and elevated nitrate concentrations were strongly correlated with aerobic respiration rates and the percent mineralized carbon, suggesting that information about the aerobic metabolism of a system can provide valuable insight regarding the ability of the system to additionally reduce nitrate. Multiple linear regressions (MLR) revealed that under elevated nitrate concentrations denitrification potentials were positively related to the presence of protein-like fluorophores and negatively related to more aromatic and oxidized fractions of the DOM pool. Using MLR, the chemical composition of DOM, carbon, and nitrate concentrations explained 70% and 78% of the observed variability in denitrification potential under elevated and ambient nitrate conditions, respectively. Thus, it seems likely that DOM optical properties could help to improve predictions of nitrate removal in the environment. Finally, fluorescence measurements revealed that bacteria used both protein and humic-like organic molecules during denitrification providing further evidence that larger, more aromatic molecules are not necessarily recalcitrant in the environment.

  19. Estimated nitrogen and phosphorus inputs to the Fish Creek watershed, Teton County, Wyoming, 2009–15

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Sando, Roy; MacDonald, Michael J.; Girard, Carlin E.

    2016-12-15

    Nutrients, such as nitrogen and phosphorus, are essential for plant and animal growth and nourishment, but the overabundance of bioavailable nitrogen and phosphorus in water can cause adverse health and ecological effects. It is generally accepted that increased primary production of surface-water bodies because of high inputs of nutrients is now the most important polluting effect in surface water in the developed world.

  20. Minnehaha Creek Watershed SWMM5 Model Data Analysis and Future Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Green-Ampt methodology requires the specification of three parameters for each subcatchment: initial moisture deficit (IMD), suction head (Su...B, C, D), and the moisture deficit and suction head are based on the soil type (e.g. silt, loam, clay, sandy loam, etc.). These parameters apply...seasonal canopy resistance Soil moisture in the vadose zone Bucket model RE Lateral groundwater flow 2-D vertically averaged Stream/groundwater

  1. A Contaminants Survey of Three Lentic Systems within the Cypress Creek Watershed, Texas, 1993 - 1995

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In 1993, a study was initiated by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Arlington, Texas, Field Office to determine organic and metal contaminant levels within three...

  2. Biological Inventory Cape La Croix Creek Watershed, Cape Girardeau County, Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Centrics 703 - 35 1 . Permales Achnanthes minutissima 13 12 12.5 F yrnbella turgida 27 - 13.5 Pragilaria vauche2riae - 2541 127 Gornpfonema ol-ivaceum...CIIRYSOPIjYTA Mallomonas sp. - 73 5. . Centrales Melosira varians 2266 + 1131 Pennales Achnanthes sp. 20 - 10 A. lanceolata var. dubia - 170 85 A. linearis f

  3. The Natural and Cultural Environmental Resources of the Aquilla Creek Watershed, Hill County, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-11-01

    Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra) 3.12% Pecan ( Carya illinoinensis) 2.61% Red Mulberry (Morus rubra) 2.30% Post Oak (Quercus stellata) 1.99% Mesquite...Field Chess Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. Buffalo Grass Bumelia lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. var. oblongifolia (Nutt.) Clark Ironwood Carya ...cuspidata Engeim. Dodder Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bermuda Grass Daucus pusillus Michx. Rattlesnake-weed Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx.) Ma cM. Shame

  4. 75 FR 41232 - Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID; Malheur...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Deer Flat National Wildlife Refuge, Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington...). The Refuge has units located in Canyon, Owyhee, Payette, and Washington Counties, ID, and Malheur... the Snake River located in Canyon, Payette, Owyhee, and Washington Counties in ID; and Malheur...

  5. 76 FR 54487 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... of the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection...

  6. 78 FR 54482 - Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Charter Renewal, Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group AGENCY: Bureau of... the Glen Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group. The purpose of the Adaptive Management Work Group... Canyon Dam Adaptive Management Work Group is in the public interest in connection with the performance...

  7. 75 FR 39147 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT AGENCY... E airspace at Bryce Canyon, UT, to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global... Bryce Canyon, UT (74 FR 59492). The comments received prompted the FAA on April 26, 2010, to publish...

  8. 75 FR 21532 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ..., UT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Supplemental notice of proposed... surface airspace at Bryce Canyon Airport, Bryce Canyon, UT. In a NPRM published in the Federal Register... Airport, Bryce Canyon, UT (74 FR 59492). The comment period closed January 4, 2010. Two comments...

  9. 76 FR 14802 - Modification of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Modification of Class E Airspace; Bryce Canyon, UT AGENCY... airspace at Bryce Canyon, UT. Additional controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using... a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish additional controlled airspace at Bryce Canyon, UT...

  10. Test of newly developed conceptual hydrological model for simulation of rain-on-snow events in forested watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Si-min QU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A conceptual hydrological model that links the Xin’anjiang hydrological model and a physically based snow energy and mass balance model, described as the XINSNOBAL model, was developed in this study for simulating rain-on-snow events that commonly occur in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. The resultant model was applied to the Lookout Creek Watershed in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest in the western Cascade Mountains of Oregon, and its ability to simulate streamflow was evaluated. The simulation was conducted at 24-hour and one-hour time scales for the period of 1996 to 2005. The results indicated that runoff and peak discharge could be underestimated if snowpack accumulation and snowmelt under rain-on-snow conditions were not taken into account. The average deterministic coefficient of the hourly model in streamflow simulation in the calibration stage was 0.837, which was significantly improved over the value of 0.762 when the Xin’anjiang model was used alone. Good simulation performance of the XINSNOBAL model in the WS10 catchment, using the calibrated parameter of the Lookout Creek Watershed for proxy-basin testing, demonstrates that transplanting model parameters between similar watersheds can provide a useful tool for discharge forecasting in ungauged basins.

  11. CREEK Project's Oyster Biomass Database for Eight Creeks in the North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina

    Data.gov (United States)

    Baruch Institute for Marine and Coastal Sciences, Univ of South Carolina — A group of eight tidal creeks dominated by oysters, Crassostrea virginica, in North Inlet Estuary, South Carolina, USA were studied using a replicated BACI (Before -...

  12. Review of the Diablo Canyon probabilistic risk assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozoki, G.E.; Fitzpatrick, R.G.; Bohn, M.P. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sabek, M.G. [Atomic Energy Authority, Nuclear Regulatory and Safety Center, Cairo (Egypt); Ravindra, M.K.; Johnson, J.J. [EQE Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-08-01

    This report details the review of the Diablo Canyon Probabilistic Risk Assessment (DCPRA). The study was performed under contract from the Probabilistic Risk Analysis Branch, Office of Nuclear Reactor Research, USNRC by Brookhaven National Laboratory. The DCPRA is a full scope Level I effort and although the review touched on all aspects of the PRA, the internal events and seismic events received the vast majority of the review effort. The report includes a number of independent systems analyses sensitivity studies, importance analyses as well as conclusions on the adequacy of the DCPRA for use in the Diablo Canyon Long Term Seismic Program.

  13. Comparison of mineral weathering and biomass nutrient uptake in two small forested watersheds underlain by quartzite bedrock, Catoctin Mountain, Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen; Price, Jason R.

    2014-01-01

    To quantify chemical weathering and biological uptake, mass-balance calculations were performed on two small forested watersheds located in the Blue Ridge Physiographic Province in north-central Maryland, USA. Both watersheds, Bear Branch (BB) and Fishing Creek Tributary (FCT), are underlain by relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock. Such unreactive bedrock and associated low chemical-weathering rates offer the opportunity to quantify biological processes operating within the watershed. Hydrologic and stream-water chemistry data were collected from the two watersheds for the 9-year period from June 1, 1990 to May 31, 1999. Of the two watersheds, FCT exhibited both higher chemical-weathering rates and biomass nutrient uptake rates, suggesting that forest biomass aggradation was limited by the rate of chemical weathering of the bedrock. Although the chemical-weathering rate in the FCT watershed was low relative to the global average, it masked the influence of biomass base-cation uptake on stream-water chemistry. Any differences in bedrock mineralogy between the two watersheds did not exert a significant influence on the overall weathering stoichiometry. The difference in chemical-weathering rates between the two watersheds is best explained by a larger proportion of reactive phyllitic layers within the bedrock of the FCT watershed. Although the stream gradient of BB is about two-times greater than that of FCT, its influence on chemical weathering appears to be negligible. The findings of this study support the biomass nutrient uptake stoichiometry of K1.0Mg1.1Ca0.97 previously determined for the study site. Investigations of the chemical weathering of relatively unreactive quartzite bedrock may provide insight into critical zone processes.

  14. How Fern Creek Is Beating Goliath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Margaret; Galatowitsch, Patrick; Hefferin, Keri; Highland, Shanita

    2013-01-01

    The "David" is Fern Creek Elementary, a small urban school in Orlando, Florida, that serves an overwhelmingly disadvantaged student population. The "Goliaths" are the mountains of problems that many inner-city students face--poverty, homelessness, mobility, instability, limited parent involvement, and violent neighborhood…

  15. Species status of Mill Creek Elliptio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, G.M. [Academy of Natural Sciences (United States); Mulvey, M. [Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This report discusses environmental effects of the Savannah River Plant on aqautic populations in Mill Creek and surrounding tributaries. Of particular concern was the status of Elliptio. Genetics and phenotypic characteristics have shown that the current classification system is not adequate for these populations. The appendices characterize genetic variability at different loci, electrophoretic data, allele frequencies, sympatric species, and anatomical characters.

  16. Characterizing mercury concentrations and fluxes in a Coastal Plain watershed: Insights from dynamic modeling and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, H.E.; Knightes, C.D.; Conrads, P.A.; Davis, G.M.; Feaster, T.D.; Journey, C.A.; Benedict, S.T.; Brigham, M.E.; Bradley, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is one of the leading water quality concerns in surface waters of the United States. Although watershed-scale Hg cycling research has increased in the past two decades, advances in modeling watershed Hg processes in diverse physiographic regions, spatial scales, and land cover types are needed. The goal of this study was to assess Hg cycling in a Coastal Plain system using concentrations and fluxes estimated by multiple watershed-scale models with distinct mathematical frameworks reflecting different system dynamics. We simulated total mercury (HgT, the sum of filtered and particulate forms) concentrations and fluxes from a Coastal Plain watershed (McTier Creek) using three watershed Hg models and an empirical load model. Model output was compared with observed in-stream HgT. We found that shallow subsurface flow is a potentially important transport mechanism of particulate HgT during periods when connectivity between the uplands and surface waters is maximized. Other processes (e.g., stream bank erosion, sediment re-suspension) may increase particulate HgT in the water column. Simulations and data suggest that variable source area (VSA) flow and lack of rainfall interactions with surface soil horizons result in increased dissolved HgT concentrations unrelated to DOC mobilization following precipitation events. Although flushing of DOC-HgT complexes from surface soils can also occur during this period, DOC-complexed HgT becomes more important during base flow conditions. TOPLOAD simulations highlight saturated subsurface flow as a primary driver of daily HgT loadings, but shallow subsurface flow is important for HgT loads during high-flow events. Results suggest limited seasonal trends in HgT dynamics.

  17. Sediment source identification and load prediction in a mixed-use Piedmont watershed, South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarney-Castle, Kerry; Childress, Tristan M; Heaton, Christian R

    2016-10-28

    Many streams in the Piedmont region of the southeastern United States transport a disproportionately large amount of suspended sediment in response to moderately increased streamflows. Transport and deposition of excess sediment affect the stability of the channel and the health of the biological community; therefore, identifying the main source(s) of sediment and assessing the relationships between source, transport, and streamflow are critical to aquatic life and habitat management, dynamic equilibrium preservation, and development of feasible mitigation scenarios. The objectives of this study were to: (1) predict the annual suspended sediment yield and (2) identify significant contributing upland sources of sediment in the Lawsons Fork Creek basin, a 217 km(2) mixed-use watershed in the South Carolina Piedmont. A regularly monitored cross-section located in the downstream reach was equipped with a passive sediment sampler, gage-height recorder, and sediment tiles. Streamflow and sediment concentration were measured over a 24-month period under variable hydrologic regimes. Results indicated that the average annual sediment yield (168 t/km(2)/yr) is significantly higher than yields documented in Piedmont watersheds of comparable size. To identify and prioritize sources of sediment contribution, stable isotopes of nitrogen (δ(15)N) and carbon (δ(13)C) were used as tracers. Source material was compared with suspended sediment near the watershed outlet (target material) and SIAR, a Bayesian Inference model, was used to estimate source apportionment. Results of this source study indicate that approximately 60% of the total sediment load in the water column during high flow events is derived from stream bank erosion. Findings are consistent with observed unstable stream bank conditions in the watershed. This study supports the use of a dual-isotopic fingerprinting approach in tandem with traditional sediment monitoring as a cost-effective method to identify and

  18. Submarine canyons as important habitat for cetaceans, with special reference to the Gully: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors-Murphy, Hilary B.

    2014-06-01

    There has been much research interest in the use of submarine canyons by cetaceans, particularly beaked whales (family Ziphiidae), which appear to be especially attracted to canyon habitats in some areas. However, not all submarine canyons are associated with large numbers of cetaceans and the mechanisms through which submarine canyons may attract cetaceans are not clearly understood. This paper reviews some of the cetacean associations with submarine canyons that have been anecdotally described or presented in scientific literature and discusses the physical, oceanographic and biological mechanisms that may lead to enhanced cetacean abundance around these canyons. Particular attention is paid to the Gully, a large submarine canyon and Marine Protected Area off eastern Canada for which there exists some of the strongest evidence available for submarine canyons as important cetacean habitat. Studies demonstrating increased cetacean abundance in the Gully and the processes that are likely to attract cetaceans to this relatively well-studied canyon are discussed. This review provides some limited evidence that cetaceans are more likely to associate with larger canyons; however, further studies are needed to fully understand the relationship between the physical characteristics of canyons and enhanced cetacean abundance. In general, toothed whales (especially beaked whales and sperm whales) appear to exhibit the strongest associations with submarine canyons, occurring in these features throughout the year and likely attracted by concentrating and aggregating processes. By contrast, baleen whales tend to occur in canyons seasonally and are most likely attracted to canyons by enrichment and concentrating processes. Existing evidence thus suggests that at least some submarine canyons are important foraging areas for cetaceans, and should be given special consideration for cetacean conservation and protection.

  19. Hydrologic Data for Deep Creek Lake and Selected Tributaries, Garrett County, Maryland, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, William S.L.; Davies, William J.; Gellis, Allen C.; LaMotte, Andrew E.; McPherson, Wendy S.; Soeder, Daniel J.

    2010-01-01

    Deep Creek Lake, a bathymetric survey of the lake bottom was conducted in 2007. The data collected were used to generate a bathymetric map depicting depth to the lake bottom from a full pool elevation of 2,462 feet (National Geodetic Vertical Datum of 1929). Data were collected along about 90 linear miles across the lake using a fathometer and a differentially corrected global positioning system. As part of a long-term monitoring plan for all surface-water inputs to the lake, streamflow data were collected continuously at two stations constructed on Poland Run and Cherry Creek. The sites were selected to represent areas of the watershed under active development and areas that are relatively stable with respect to development. Twelve months of discharge data are provided for both streams. In addition, five water-quality parameters were collected continuously at the Poland Run station including pH, specific conductance, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity. Water samples collected at Poland Run were analyzed for sediment concentration, and the results of this analysis were used to estimate the annual sediment load into Deep Creek Lake from Poland Run. To determine sedimentation rates, cores of lake-bottom sediments were collected at 23 locations. Five of the cores were analyzed using a radiometric-dating method, allowing average rates of sedimentation to be estimated for the time periods 1925 to 2008, 1925 to 1963, and 1963 to 2008. Particle-size data from seven cores collected at locations throughout the study area were analyzed to provide information on the amount of fine material in lake-bed sediments. Groundwater levels were monitored continuously in four wells and weekly in nine additional wells during October, November, and December of 2008. Water levels were compared to recorded lake levels and precipitation during the same period to determine the effect of lake-level drawdown and recovery on the adjacent aquifer systems. Water use in the Deep Creek Lake

  20. Temporal and spatial distribution of landslides in the Redwood Creek Basin, Northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madej, Mary Ann; Medley, C. Nicholas; Patterson, Glenn; Parker, Melanie J.

    2011-01-01

    Mass movement processes are a dominant means of supplying sediment to mountainous rivers of north coastal California, but the episodic nature of landslides represents a challenge to interpreting patterns of slope instability. This study compares two major landslide events occurring in 1964-1975 and in 1997 in the Redwood Creek basin in north coastal California. In 1997, a moderate-intensity, long-duration storm with high antecedent precipitation triggered 317 landslides with areas greater than 400 m2 in the 720-km2 Redwood Creek basin. The intensity-duration threshold for landslide initiation in 1997 was consistent with previously published values. Aerial photographs (1:6,000 scale) taken a few months after the 1997 storm facilitated the mapping of shallow debris slides, debris flows, and bank failures. The magnitude and location of the 1997 landslides were compared to the distributions of landslides generated by larger floods in 1964, 1972, and 1975. The volume of landslide material produced by the 1997 storm was an order of magnitude less than that generated in the earlier period. During both periods, inner gorge hillslopes produced many landslides, but the relative contribution of tributary basins to overall landslide production differed. Slope stability models can help identify areas susceptible to failure. The 22 percent of the watershed area classified as moderately to highly unstable by the SHALSTAB slope stability model included locations that generated almost 90 percent of the landslide volume during the 1997 storm.