Luo, Chongliang; Liu, Jin; Dey, Dipak K; Chen, Kun
2016-07-01
In many fields, multi-view datasets, measuring multiple distinct but interrelated sets of characteristics on the same set of subjects, together with data on certain outcomes or phenotypes, are routinely collected. The objective in such a problem is often two-fold: both to explore the association structures of multiple sets of measurements and to develop a parsimonious model for predicting the future outcomes. We study a unified canonical variate regression framework to tackle the two problems simultaneously. The proposed criterion integrates multiple canonical correlation analysis with predictive modeling, balancing between the association strength of the canonical variates and their joint predictive power on the outcomes. Moreover, the proposed criterion seeks multiple sets of canonical variates simultaneously to enable the examination of their joint effects on the outcomes, and is able to handle multivariate and non-Gaussian outcomes. An efficient algorithm based on variable splitting and Lagrangian multipliers is proposed. Simulation studies show the superior performance of the proposed approach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in an [Formula: see text] intercross mice study and an alcohol dependence study. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Canonical Information Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2015-01-01
Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables is ...
Regularized Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis
Tenenhaus, Arthur; Tenenhaus, Michel
2011-01-01
Regularized generalized canonical correlation analysis (RGCCA) is a generalization of regularized canonical correlation analysis to three or more sets of variables. It constitutes a general framework for many multi-block data analysis methods. It combines the power of multi-block data analysis methods (maximization of well identified criteria) and…
Generalized canonical correlation analysis with missing values
M. van de Velden (Michel); Y. Takane
2012-01-01
textabstractGeneralized canonical correlation analysis is a versatile technique that allows the joint analysis of several sets of data matrices. The generalized canonical correlation analysis solution can be obtained through an eigenequation and distributional assumptions are not required. When
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Shetty, Nisha; Gislum, René
2011-01-01
studies. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) is the major crop in vegetable seed production in Denmark and two seed lots with viability percentages of 90% and 97% were chosen for examination by single seed NIR spectroscopy. Lipids play a major role in both ageing and germination. During accelerated ageing......, lipid peroxidation leads to deterioration of cell membranes and contributes in that way to reducing seed viability of the seed sample. These biochemical changes may be the reason for a clear grouping between aged and non-aged seeds when performing the extended canonical variates analysis (ECVA......). Assigning the difference of scatter corrected absorbance spectra from aged and non-aged seeds also lead to CH2, CH3 and HC=CH structures, which are some of the functional groups in lipids. In the ECVA plot, there was a clear difference between seeds with and without a pericarp. Evaluating the spectra...
Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis
Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.
2011-01-01
1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent
Zhang, Jing; Liang, Lichen; Anderson, Jon R; Gatewood, Lael; Rottenberg, David A; Strother, Stephen C
2008-01-01
As functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) becomes widely used, the demands for evaluation of fMRI processing pipelines and validation of fMRI analysis results is increasing rapidly. The current NPAIRS package, an IDL-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation framework, lacks system interoperability and the ability to evaluate general linear model (GLM)-based pipelines using prediction metrics. Thus, it can not fully evaluate fMRI analytical software modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.GLM. In order to overcome these limitations, a Java-based fMRI processing pipeline evaluation system was developed. It integrated YALE (a machine learning environment) into Fiswidgets (a fMRI software environment) to obtain system interoperability and applied an algorithm to measure GLM prediction accuracy. The results demonstrated that the system can evaluate fMRI processing pipelines with univariate GLM and multivariate canonical variates analysis (CVA)-based models on real fMRI data based on prediction accuracy (classification accuracy) and statistical parametric image (SPI) reproducibility. In addition, a preliminary study was performed where four fMRI processing pipelines with GLM and CVA modules such as FSL.FEAT and NPAIRS.CVA were evaluated with the system. The results indicated that (1) the system can compare different fMRI processing pipelines with heterogeneous models (NPAIRS.GLM, NPAIRS.CVA and FSL.FEAT) and rank their performance by automatic performance scoring, and (2) the rank of pipeline performance is highly dependent on the preprocessing operations. These results suggest that the system will be of value for the comparison, validation, standardization and optimization of functional neuroimaging software packages and fMRI processing pipelines.
Canonical analysis based on mutual information
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack
2015-01-01
combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. While CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates...
Generalized canonical correlation analysis with missing values
M. van de Velden (Michel); Y. Takane
2009-01-01
textabstractTwo new methods for dealing with missing values in generalized canonical correlation analysis are introduced. The first approach, which does not require iterations, is a generalization of the Test Equating method available for principal component analysis. In the second approach,
Generalized canonical analysis based on optimizing matrix correlations and a relation with IDIOSCAL
Kiers, Henk A.L.; Cléroux, R.; Ten Berge, Jos M.F.
1994-01-01
Carroll's method for generalized canonical analysis of two or more sets of variables is shown to optimize the sum of squared inner-product matrix correlations between a consensus matrix and matrices with canonical variates for each set of variables. In addition, the method that analogously optimizes
Convergence analysis of canonical genetic algorithms.
Rudolph, G
1994-01-01
This paper analyzes the convergence properties of the canonical genetic algorithm (CGA) with mutation, crossover and proportional reproduction applied to static optimization problems. It is proved by means of homogeneous finite Markov chain analysis that a CGA will never converge to the global optimum regardless of the initialization, crossover, operator and objective function. But variants of CGA's that always maintain the best solution in the population, either before or after selection, are shown to converge to the global optimum due to the irreducibility property of the underlying original nonconvergent CGA. These results are discussed with respect to the schema theorem.
Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis
Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man
2016-05-01
A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charlene C Lew
2006-04-01
Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between the scales of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI and those of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (CASI. The scores of 202 South African adults for the two inventories were subjected to a canonical correlation analysis. Two canonical variates made statistically significant contributions to the explanation of the relationships between the two sets of variables. Inspection of the correlations of the original variables with the first canonical variate suggested that a high level of career concerns in general, as measured by the ACCI, is associated with high levels of career worries, more geographical barriers, a low risk-taking style and a non-dominant interpersonal style, as measured by the CASI. The second canonical variate suggested that concerns with career exploration and advancement of one’s career is associated with low job satisfaction, low family commitment, high work involvement, and a dominant style at work.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zwinderman Aeilko H
2009-09-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background We generalized penalized canonical correlation analysis for analyzing microarray gene-expression measurements for checking completeness of known metabolic pathways and identifying candidate genes for incorporation in the pathway. We used Wold's method for calculation of the canonical variates, and we applied ridge penalization to the regression of pathway genes on canonical variates of the non-pathway genes, and the elastic net to the regression of non-pathway genes on the canonical variates of the pathway genes. Results We performed a small simulation to illustrate the model's capability to identify new candidate genes to incorporate in the pathway: in our simulations it appeared that a gene was correctly identified if the correlation with the pathway genes was 0.3 or more. We applied the methods to a gene-expression microarray data set of 12, 209 genes measured in 45 patients with glioblastoma, and we considered genes to incorporate in the glioma-pathway: we identified more than 25 genes that correlated > 0.9 with canonical variates of the pathway genes. Conclusion We concluded that penalized canonical correlation analysis is a powerful tool to identify candidate genes in pathway analysis.
Unseemly acts of canonized monarchs: an experience of theological analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolsky Evgeny Vladimirovich
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The article discuses an "unpopular" aspect of hagiology-crimes and other nefarious acts of canonized monarchs. The analysis solves a theological dilemma: how can atrocities unite with Holiness. It is noted that if real or alleged crimes are attributed to the monarch who completed his life in martyrdom, the question of his canonization automatically disappears because the martyrdom cleans all the sins. Examples of such case are Saint Michael of Chernigov, Andrei Bogolyubsky, Nicholas II.
Group sparse canonical correlation analysis for genomic data integration.
Lin, Dongdong; Zhang, Jigang; Li, Jingyao; Calhoun, Vince D; Deng, Hong-Wen; Wang, Yu-Ping
2013-08-12
The emergence of high-throughput genomic datasets from different sources and platforms (e.g., gene expression, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP), and copy number variation (CNV)) has greatly enhanced our understandings of the interplay of these genomic factors as well as their influences on the complex diseases. It is challenging to explore the relationship between these different types of genomic data sets. In this paper, we focus on a multivariate statistical method, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) method for this problem. Conventional CCA method does not work effectively if the number of data samples is significantly less than that of biomarkers, which is a typical case for genomic data (e.g., SNPs). Sparse CCA (sCCA) methods were introduced to overcome such difficulty, mostly using penalizations with l-1 norm (CCA-l1) or the combination of l-1and l-2 norm (CCA-elastic net). However, they overlook the structural or group effect within genomic data in the analysis, which often exist and are important (e.g., SNPs spanning a gene interact and work together as a group). We propose a new group sparse CCA method (CCA-sparse group) along with an effective numerical algorithm to study the mutual relationship between two different types of genomic data (i.e., SNP and gene expression). We then extend the model to a more general formulation that can include the existing sCCA models. We apply the model to feature/variable selection from two data sets and compare our group sparse CCA method with existing sCCA methods on both simulation and two real datasets (human gliomas data and NCI60 data). We use a graphical representation of the samples with a pair of canonical variates to demonstrate the discriminating characteristic of the selected features. Pathway analysis is further performed for biological interpretation of those features. The CCA-sparse group method incorporates group effects of features into the correlation analysis while performs individual feature
Multiset Canonical Correlations Analysis and Multispectral, Truly Multitemporal Remote Sensing Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2002-01-01
This paper describes two- and multiset canonical correlations analysis (CCA) for data fusion, multi-source, multiset or multi-temporal exploratory data analysis. These techniques transform multivariate multiset data into new orthogonal variables called canonical variates (CVs) which when applied....... This difference is ascribed to the noise structure in the data. The CCA methods are related to partial least squares (PLS) methods. The paper very briefly describes multiset CCA based multiset PLS. Also, the CCA methods can be applied as multivariate extensions to empirical orthogonal functions (EOF) techniques....... (Multiset) CCA is well suited for inclusion in geographical information systems, GIS....
Model of canonical profiles for time-dependent problems with variation of the total current
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dnestrovskii, Yu.D.; Lysenko, S.E.
1992-01-01
The regimes in which the current varies in TFTR, JET, and ASDEX are analyzed. It is shown that the principle of profile consistency holds at the periphery of the plasma column, and the shape of the canonical profile is determined by the value of the safety factor q in the gradient region. A modified transport model is developed for the canonical profiles, which allows the time lag of the energy content of the plasma with relative to the current variation to be explained reasonably. 9 refs., 8 figs
Canonical correlation analysis of course and teacher evaluation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sliusarenko, Tamara; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
2010-01-01
At the Technical University of Denmark course evaluations are performed by the students on a questionnaire. On one form the students are asked specific questions regarding the course. On a second form they are asked specific questions about the teacher. This study investigates the extent to which...... information obtained from the course evaluation form overlaps with information obtained from the teacher evaluation form. Employing canonical correlation analysis it was found that course and teacher evaluations are correlated. However, the structure of the canonical correlation is subject to change...... with changes in teaching methods from one year to another....
Nonlinear canonical correlation analysis with k sets of variables
van der Burg, Eeke; de Leeuw, Jan
1987-01-01
The multivariate technique OVERALS is introduced as a non-linear generalization of canonical correlation analysis (CCA). First, two sets CCA is introduced. Two sets CCA is a technique that computes linear combinations of sets of variables that correlate in an optimal way. Two sets CCA is then
Canonical correspondence analysis and related multivariate methods in aquatic ecology
Braak, Ter Cajo J.F.; Verdonschot, Piet F.M.
1995-01-01
Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) is a multivariate method to elucidate the relationships between biological assemblages of species and their environment. The method is designed to extract synthetic environmental gradients from ecological data-sets. The gradients are the basis for succinctly
Bitcoin Market Volatility Analysis Using Grand Canonical Minority Game
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo Ortisi
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we propose to use the Grand Canonical Minority Game (GCMG, a highly simplified financial market model as a model of bitcoin market to show how the lack of an income for “miners”, similar to yield earned by bond holders, could be a structural reason for high volatility of bitcoin price in a reference currency. Coherently with present analysis, the introduction of future contracts on bitcoin would have the effect of reducing the overall market volatility.
Canonical correlation analysis for gene-based pleiotropy discovery.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jose A Seoane
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Genome-wide association studies have identified a wealth of genetic variants involved in complex traits and multifactorial diseases. There is now considerable interest in testing variants for association with multiple phenotypes (pleiotropy and for testing multiple variants for association with a single phenotype (gene-based association tests. Such approaches can increase statistical power by combining evidence for association over multiple phenotypes or genetic variants respectively. Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA measures the correlation between two sets of multidimensional variables, and thus offers the potential to combine these two approaches. To apply CCA, we must restrict the number of attributes relative to the number of samples. Hence we consider modules of genetic variation that can comprise a gene, a pathway or another biologically relevant grouping, and/or a set of phenotypes. In order to do this, we use an attribute selection strategy based on a binary genetic algorithm. Applied to a UK-based prospective cohort study of 4286 women (the British Women's Heart and Health Study, we find improved statistical power in the detection of previously reported genetic associations, and identify a number of novel pleiotropic associations between genetic variants and phenotypes. New discoveries include gene-based association of NSF with triglyceride levels and several genes (ACSM3, ERI2, IL18RAP, IL23RAP and NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes. In multiple-phenotype analyses we find association of NRG1 with left ventricular hypertrophy phenotypes, fibrinogen and urea and pleiotropic relationships of F7 and F10 with Factor VII, Factor IX and cholesterol levels.
Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis Forecast of Temperature
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) temperature forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface temperature anomalies. The ECCA uses Canonical...
A multimodal stress monitoring system with canonical correlation analysis.
Unsoo Ha; Changhyeon Kim; Yongsu Lee; Hyunki Kim; Taehwan Roh; Hoi-Jun Yoo
2015-08-01
The multimodal stress monitoring headband is proposed for mobile stress management system. It is composed of headband and earplugs. Electroencephalography (EEG), hemoencephalography (HEG) and heart-rate variability (HRV) can be achieved simultaneously in the proposed system for user status estimation. With canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and temporal-kernel CCA (tkCCA) algorithm, those different signals can be combined for maximum correlation. Thanks to the proposed combination algorithm, the accuracy of the proposed system increased up to 19 percentage points than unimodal monitoring system in n-back task.
Decoding the auditory brain with canonical component analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
de Cheveigné, Alain; Wong, Daniel D E; Di Liberto, Giovanni M
2018-01-01
The relation between a stimulus and the evoked brain response can shed light on perceptual processes within the brain. Signals derived from this relation can also be harnessed to control external devices for Brain Computer Interface (BCI) applications. While the classic event-related potential (ERP......) is appropriate for isolated stimuli, more sophisticated "decoding" strategies are needed to address continuous stimuli such as speech, music or environmental sounds. Here we describe an approach based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) that finds the optimal transform to apply to both the stimulus...
Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis
Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho
2017-08-01
Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Sparse canonical correlation analysis: new formulation and algorithm.
Chu, Delin; Liao, Li-Zhi; Ng, Michael K; Zhang, Xiaowei
2013-12-01
In this paper, we study canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which is a powerful tool in multivariate data analysis for finding the correlation between two sets of multidimensional variables. The main contributions of the paper are: 1) to reveal the equivalent relationship between a recursive formula and a trace formula for the multiple CCA problem, 2) to obtain the explicit characterization for all solutions of the multiple CCA problem even when the corresponding covariance matrices are singular, 3) to develop a new sparse CCA algorithm, and 4) to establish the equivalent relationship between the uncorrelated linear discriminant analysis and the CCA problem. We test several simulated and real-world datasets in gene classification and cross-language document retrieval to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is competitive with the state-of-the-art sparse CCA algorithms.
Frequency recognition in SSVEP-based BCI using multiset canonical correlation analysis.
Zhang, Yu; Zhou, Guoxu; Jin, Jing; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej
2014-06-01
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been one of the most popular methods for frequency recognition in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). Despite its efficiency, a potential problem is that using pre-constructed sine-cosine waves as the required reference signals in the CCA method often does not result in the optimal recognition accuracy due to their lack of features from the real electro-encephalo-gram (EEG) data. To address this problem, this study proposes a novel method based on multiset canonical correlation analysis (MsetCCA) to optimize the reference signals used in the CCA method for SSVEP frequency recognition. The MsetCCA method learns multiple linear transforms that implement joint spatial filtering to maximize the overall correlation among canonical variates, and hence extracts SSVEP common features from multiple sets of EEG data recorded at the same stimulus frequency. The optimized reference signals are formed by combination of the common features and completely based on training data. Experimental study with EEG data from 10 healthy subjects demonstrates that the MsetCCA method improves the recognition accuracy of SSVEP frequency in comparison with the CCA method and other two competing methods (multiway CCA (MwayCCA) and phase constrained CCA (PCCA)), especially for a small number of channels and a short time window length. The superiority indicates that the proposed MsetCCA method is a new promising candidate for frequency recognition in SSVEP-based BCIs.
Canonical analysis of sentinel-1 radar and sentinel-2 optical data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus
2017-01-01
This paper gives results from joint analyses of dual polarimety synthetic aperture radar data from the Sentinel-1 mission and optical data from the Sentinel-2 mission. The analyses are carried out by means of traditional canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and canonical information analysis (CIA...
Šarac, Z.; Bojović, S.; Nikolić, B.; Zlatković, B.; Marin, P.
2014-01-01
The canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) was performed in order to check the hypothesis of chemical separation infraspecific taxa of Pinus nigra J.F. Arnold (ssp. nigra, var. gocensis, ssp. pallasiana, and var. banatica) in Serbia based on variability of the needle terpenes. The CDA, which maximizes variations between a priori groups, showed division of seven native P. nigra populations into three groups, which belong to three taxonomically recognized taxa (ssp. nigra, ssp. pallasiana, and v...
Bin, Jun; Li, Xin; Fan, Wei; Zhou, Ji-Heng; Wang, Cheng-Wei
2017-06-21
Calibration model transfer has played a prominent role in the practical application of NIR spectral analysis. The change of instruments and sample physical states may lead to variation of the NIR spectrum, which results in the applicability of the model in judicatory practice being unsatisfactory. Therefore, a transfer for the calibration model considering both the variation of instruments and sample states is a necessity to ensure its availability. In this paper, a novel approach, namely canonical correlation analysis coupled with wavelet transform (WTCCA), was proposed for calibration transfer between two near infrared spectrometers (a portable and a laboratory instrument), and simultaneously, among three physical states (tobacco powder, tobacco filament and intact leaf) to determine the content of total sugars, reducing sugars, and nicotine in tobacco leaf samples, respectively. Wavelet transform (WT) is introduced to reduce noise and deduct background shifts from the spectra by compression, and then, calibration transfer by canonical correlation analysis (CTCCA) extracts the compressed spectral similarities using canonical scores for spectra correction. Three similar standardization algorithms, including piecewise direct standardization (PDS), piecewise direct standardization with wavelet transform (WTPDS), and CTCCA were compared with WTCCA to evaluate its relative performance. The obtained results showed that the employment of WTCCA yielded the lowest root mean standard error of prediction (RMSEP) on the three analytes in three physical states. For the tobacco powder dataset, the RMSEP values had a reduction of 25.83%, 13.96%, and 14.22% compared with the values of direct prediction without spectra transfer, respectively. For the tobacco filament dataset, the corresponding values were decreased by 18.06%, 14.90%, and 13.61% and for the intact leaf dataset, the values had dropped by 10.70%, 18.21%, and 28.21%, respectively. In summary, the comprehensive
Finding Efficient Nonlinear Visual Operators using Canonical Correlation Analysis
Borga, Magnus; Knutsson, Hans
2000-01-01
This paper presents a general strategy for designing efficient visual operators. The approach is highly task oriented and what constitutes the relevant information is defined by a set of examples. The examples are pairs of images displaying a strong dependence in the chosen feature but are otherwise independent. Particularly important concepts in the work are mutual information and canonical correlation. Visual operators learned from examples are presented, e.g. local shift invariant orientat...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) precipitation forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface precipitation anomalies. The ECCA uses...
Azimi-Sadjadi, Mahmood R.; Pezeshki, Ali; Wade, Robert L.
2004-09-01
Sparse array processing methods are typically used to improve the spatial resolution of sensor arrays for the estimation of direction of arrival (DOA). The fundamental assumption behind these methods is that signals that are received by the sparse sensors (or a group of sensors) are coherent. However, coherence may vary significantly with the changes in environmental, terrain, and, operating conditions. In this paper canonical correlation analysis is used to study the variations in coherence between pairs of sub-arrays in a sparse array problem. The data set for this study is a subset of an acoustic signature data set, acquired from the US Army TACOM-ARDEC, Picatinny Arsenal, NJ. This data set is collected using three wagon-wheel type arrays with five microphones. The results show that in nominal operating conditions, i.e. no extreme wind noise or masking effects by trees, building, etc., the signals collected at different sensor arrays are indeed coherent even at distant node separation.
Jacobs, Glenn
2009-01-01
This analysis assesses the factors underlying Charles Horton Cooley's place in the sociological canon as they relate to George Herbert Mead's puzzling diatribe-echoed in secondary accounts-against Cooley's social psychology and view of the self published scarcely a year after his death. The illocutionary act of publishing his critique stands as an effort to project the image of Mead's intellectual self and enhance his standing among sociologists within and outside the orbit of the University of Chicago. It expressed Mead's ambivalence toward his precursor Cooley, whose influence he never fully acknowledged. In addition, it typifies the contending fractal distinctions of the scientifically discursive versus literary styles of Mead and Cooley, who both founded the interpretive sociological tradition. The contrasting styles and attitudes toward writing of the two figures are discussed, and their implications for the problems of scale that have stymied the symbolic interactionist tradition are explored.
A framework for analyzing seasonal prediction through canonical event analysis
Wood, Eric; Roundy, Joshua; Yuan, Xing
2014-05-01
Hydrologic extremes in the form of wet and dry periods (flood and drought prone periods) have large impacts on society. The ability to predict such periods allows for preparations that can reduce the severity of these events on society. Such preparations require predictions at a seasonal timescales. While seasonal predictions from global climate models can provide forecasts at such timescales; their skill varies seasonally and spatially, which severely limits their practical use. A better understanding of when and where climate models are skillful is assessed through hindcasts, which are usually limited to less than 30 years and are therefore prone to randomness and uncertainty. Until now, most hindcast analyses used to assess seasonal forecast skill have focused on a single temporal or spatial resolution ? often the model resolution ? even though it?s recognized that the fidelity of forecast skill deceases with lead time. In this work, we analyze ?canonical? forecast events, which are defined as space-time averaged forecasts that range from 2-week forecasts at leads 0 to 7 months to single 8 month seasonal average forecast (52 events), and spatially from forecasts for a single grid to an average forecast for an 8x8 grid area (9 events). Together this results in 468 canonical events per forecast, and 5612 events per year. To better understand the seasonal space-time skill, a probabilistic predictability metric based on model skill was developed across temporal and spatial scales; i.e. for the canonical events. This probabilistic predictability metric is demonstrated using the 28 year hindcast data set from NCEP?s Climate Forecast System version 2 for forecast of precipitation and daily maximum and minimum temperature. Additionally, the attribution of this skill to the El-Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) over the contiguous United States is also explored. The results show clear seasonal and spatial patterns of predictability that vary with each forecast variable and
Combes, Sylvie; González, Ignacio; Déjean, Sébastien; Baccini, Alain; Jehl, Nathalie; Juin, Hervé; Cauquil, Laurent; Gabinaud, Béatrice; Lebas, François; Larzul, Catherine
2008-11-01
Meat from rabbits reared either according to a standard (STAND) or a high quality norm (LABEL) or a low growth breeding (RUSSE) system were submitted to a sensory evaluation and to a large set of physicochemical measurements (weight of retail cuts, colour parameters, ultimate pH, femur flexure test, Warner-Bratzler shear test, water holding capacities and cooking losses). STAND rabbit meat exhibited the most juicy meat in back and in leg (pLABEL>RUSSE. Canonical correlation analysis showed strong correlations between physicochemical and sensory variables (R(2)=0.73 and 0.68 between the two first pairs of canonical variates). Especially, sensory tenderness and WB shear test variables assessed on raw longissimus muscle (LL) were correlated. Fibrous attribute in back was correlated with cooking loss in LL. When analysed separately only RUSSE rabbits exhibited the same relations between variables as those calculated in whole dataset.
Canonical integration and analysis of periodic maps using non-standard analysis and life methods
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Forest, E.; Berz, M.
1988-06-01
We describe a method and a way of thinking which is ideally suited for the study of systems represented by canonical integrators. Starting with the continuous description provided by the Hamiltonians, we replace it by a succession of preferably canonical maps. The power series representation of these maps can be extracted with a computer implementation of the tools of Non-Standard Analysis and analyzed by the same tools. For a nearly integrable system, we can define a Floquet ring in a way consistent with our needs. Using the finite time maps, the Floquet ring is defined only at the locations s/sub i/ where one perturbs or observes the phase space. At most the total number of locations is equal to the total number of steps of our integrator. We can also produce pseudo-Hamiltonians which describe the motion induced by these maps. 15 refs., 1 fig.
Change detection in bi-temporal data by canonical information analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack
2015-01-01
combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. Where CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates...
Group Study of Simulated Driving fMRI Data by Multiset Canonical Correlation Analysis.
Li, Yi-Ou; Adalı, Tulay; Calhoun, Vince D
2012-07-01
In this work, we apply a novel statistical method, multiset canonical correlation analysis (M-CCA), to study a group of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) datasets acquired during simulated driving task. The M-CCA method jointly decomposes fMRI datasets from different subjects/sessions into brain activation maps and their associated time courses, such that the correlation in each group of estimated activation maps across datasets is maximized. Therefore, the functional activations across all datasets are extracted in the order of consistency across different dataset. On the other hand, M-CCA preserves the uniqueness of the functional maps estimated from each dataset by avoiding concatenation of different datasets in the analysis. Hence, the cross-dataset variation of the functional activations can be used to test the hypothesis of functional-behavioral association. In this work, we study 120 simulated driving fMRI datasets and identify parietal-occipital regions and frontal lobe as the most consistently engaged areas across all the subjects and sessions during simulated driving. The functional-behavioral association study indicates that all the estimated brain activations are significantly correlated with the steering operation during the driving task. M-CCA thus provides a new approach to investigate the complex relationship between the brain functions and multiple behavioral variables, especially in naturalistic tasks as demonstrated by the simulated driving study.
Ali Gohary; Kambiz Heidarzadeh Hanzaee
2014-01-01
This study examines the relationship between Big Five personality traits with shopping motivation variables consisting of compulsive and impulsive buying, hedonic and utilitarian shopping values. Two hundred forty seven college students were recruited to participate in this research. Bivariate correlation demonstrates an overlap between personality traits; consequently, canonical correlation was performed to prevent this phenomenon. The results of multiple regression analysis suggested consci...
Optimal Class Separation in Hyperspectral Image Data: Iterated Canonical Discriminant Analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Müller, Andreas
This paper describes canonical discriminant analysis and sketches an iterative version which is then applied to obtain optimal separation between a region, here examplified by either “water” or “wood/trees” and the rest of a HyMap image. We show that the iterative version greatly enhances...
Generalized canonical correlation analysis of matrices with missing rows : A simulation study
van de Velden, Michel; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.
A method is presented for generalized canonical correlation analysis of two or more matrices with missing rows. The method is a combination of Carroll's (1968) method and the missing data approach of the OVERALS technique (Van der Burg, 1988). In a simulation study we assess the performance of the
Tang, Dong; Mao, Liang; Zhi, Yue-e; Zhang, Jin-Zhong; Zhou, Pei; Chai, Xiao-Tong
2014-12-01
The salinity characteristics of greenhouse soils with cropping obstacles in Shanghai suburb were investigated and analyzed. The salinity contents of the salinization greenhouse soils showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing with the increasing cropping duration. The salinized soils mainly included slightly salted, mildly salted and salted soils, which accounted for 17.39%, 56.52% and 13.04%, respectively. Among them, the degree of salinity in greenhouse soil planted with asparagus in Chongming County was the highest. Among the salt ions in greenhouse soils, the cations were mainly Ca2+ and Na+, while the anions were mainly NO3- and SO4(2-). The degree of salinity was mainly influenced by fertilization mode, cropping duration, crop type and management level, which led to the great variation in the salinity contents and salt ions. Canonical correspondence analysis found that the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+ and NO3- in greenhouse soils were greatly affected by cropping duration, and the degree of salinity would be enhanced and attenuated with long-term application of single fertilizer and mixed application of chemical fertilizer and organic manure, respectively. The greenhouse soils in Shanghai suburb could be classified as four patterns influenced by the relationship between salinity ions and samples, and the most soils were influenced by Ca2+, Mg2+, NO3- and Cl-, which required to be primarily controlled.
Deleus, Filip; Van Hulle, Marc M
2011-04-15
In this paper we describe a method for functional connectivity analysis of fMRI data between given brain regions-of-interest (ROIs). The method relies on nonnegativity constrained- and spatially regularized multiset canonical correlation analysis (CCA), and assigns weights to the fMRI signals of the ROIs so that their representative signals become simultaneously maximally correlated. The different pairwise correlations between the representative signals of the ROIs are combined using the maxvar approach for multiset CCA, which has been shown to be equivalent to the generalized eigenvector formulation of CCA. The eigenvector in the maxvar approach gives an indication of the relative importance of each ROI in obtaining a maximal overall correlation, and hence, can be interpreted as a functional connectivity pattern of the ROIs. The successive canonical correlations define subsequent functional connectivity patterns, in decreasing order of importance. We apply our method on synthetic data and real fMRI data and show its advantages compared to unconstrained CCA and to PCA. Furthermore, since the representative signals for the ROIs are optimized for maximal correlation they are also ideally suited for further effective connectivity analyses, to assess the information flows between the ROIs in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Canonical and symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Escalante, Alberto; Osmart Ochoa-Gutiérrez, H.
2017-01-01
In this paper a detailed Hamiltonian analysis of three-dimensional gravity without dynamics proposed by V. Hussain is performed. We report the complete structure of the constraints and the Dirac brackets are explicitly computed. In addition, the Faddeev–Jackiw symplectic approach is developed; we report the complete set of Faddeev–Jackiw constraints and the generalized brackets, then we show that the Dirac and the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets coincide to each other. Finally, the similarities and advantages between Faddeev–Jackiw and Dirac’s formalism are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • We report the symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics. • We report the Faddeev–Jackiw constraints. • A pure Dirac’s analysis is performed. • The complete structure of Dirac’s constraints is reported. • We show that symplectic and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other.
Canonical and symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escalante, Alberto, E-mail: aescalan@ifuap.buap.mx [Instituto de Física, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado Postal J-48 72570, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Osmart Ochoa-Gutiérrez, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Apartado postal 1152, 72001 Puebla, Pue. (Mexico)
2017-03-15
In this paper a detailed Hamiltonian analysis of three-dimensional gravity without dynamics proposed by V. Hussain is performed. We report the complete structure of the constraints and the Dirac brackets are explicitly computed. In addition, the Faddeev–Jackiw symplectic approach is developed; we report the complete set of Faddeev–Jackiw constraints and the generalized brackets, then we show that the Dirac and the generalized Faddeev–Jackiw brackets coincide to each other. Finally, the similarities and advantages between Faddeev–Jackiw and Dirac’s formalism are briefly discussed. - Highlights: • We report the symplectic analysis for three dimensional gravity without dynamics. • We report the Faddeev–Jackiw constraints. • A pure Dirac’s analysis is performed. • The complete structure of Dirac’s constraints is reported. • We show that symplectic and Dirac’s brackets coincide to each other.
Drivers and Outcomes of Scenario Planning: A Canonical Correlation Analysis
Chermack, Thomas J.; Nimon, Kim
2013-01-01
Purpose: The paper's aim is to report a research study on the mediator and outcome variable sets in scenario planning. Design/methodology/approach: This is a cannonical correlation analysis (CCA) Findings Two sets of variables; one as a predictor set that explained a significant amount of variability in the second, or outcome set of variables were…
Linear and Nonlinear Multiset Canonical Correlation Analysis (invited talk)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hilger, Klaus Baggesen; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Larsen, Rasmus
2002-01-01
This paper deals with decompositioning of multiset data. Friedman's alternating conditional expectations (ACE) algorithm is extended to handle multiple sets of variables of different mixtures. The new algorithm finds estimates of the optimal transformations of the involved variables that maximize...... the sum of the pair-wise correlations over all sets. The new algorithm is termed multi-set ACE (MACE) and can find multiple orthogonal eigensolutions. MACE is a generalization of the linear multiset correlations analysis (MCCA). It handles multivariate multisets of arbitrary mixtures of both continuous...
Ronquist, Scott; Meixner, Walter; Rajapakse, Indika; Snyder, John
2017-07-01
The human genome is dynamic in structure, complicating researcher's attempts at fully understanding it. Time series "Fluorescent in situ Hybridization" (FISH) imaging has increased our ability to observe genome structure, but due to cell type and experimental variability this data is often noisy and difficult to analyze. Furthermore, computational analysis techniques are needed for homolog discrimination and canonical framework detection, in the case of time-series images. In this paper we introduce novel ideas for nucleus imaging analysis, present findings extracted using dynamic genome imaging, and propose an objective algorithm for high-throughput, time-series FISH imaging. While a canonical framework could not be detected beyond statistical significance in the analyzed dataset, a mathematical framework for detection has been outlined with extension to 3D image analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Avicenna and cataracts: a new analysis of contributions to diagnosis and treatment from the canon.
Nejabat, M; Maleki, B; Nimrouzi, M; Mahbodi, A; Salehi, A
2012-05-01
Physicians in ancient Persia played an important role in the development of medicine in the medieval era. One of the most influential figures of this era was Abu Ali Sina or Ibn Sina, known as Avicenna in the western world. The author of more than 200 books on medicine and philosophy, Avicenna followed and further expanded on the tradition of western philosophy and medicine introduced by Aristotle, Hippocrates and Galen. Few researchers have looked into the different medical issues in his best known work, the Canon of Medicine, particularly with regard to ophthalmology. In this analysis, Avicenna's views on and contributions to the diagnosis and treatment of cataracts in his Canon were elucidated. We first reviewed an electronic copy of the Canon and then reviewed other important sources in traditional medicine including the Kamel-al-Sanaeh, Al-Havi (Continents) and Zakhireh-kharazmshahi, available in the Avicenna Special Traditional Medicine Library of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. We also searched Medline, Embase, Scopus, Iranmedex and Science Iranian Database (SID) with these keywords: "traditional medicine," "Avicenna," "cataract", "Canon", "history", "ophthalmology" and "eye disorders". According to the Canon, nozul-al-maa or cataract is an obstructive disease in which external moisture accumulates between the aqueous humor and the corneal membrane and prevents images from entering the eye. Avicenna classified cataracts on the basis of size, density and color. According to size, he identified two types of cataracts including complete and partial obstruction. According to the Canon, surgical intervention was necessary only for certain indications. Avicenna believed that opacity in the initial stages of cataract could be diminished by medicines and foods, and described several medicines for cataracts. He believed that surgery should be postponed until the liquid accumulation stopped, and the cataract reached its mature state. After surgery, according to
Chen, Jun; Bushman, Frederic D; Lewis, James D; Wu, Gary D; Li, Hongzhe
2013-04-01
Motivated by studying the association between nutrient intake and human gut microbiome composition, we developed a method for structure-constrained sparse canonical correlation analysis (ssCCA) in a high-dimensional setting. ssCCA takes into account the phylogenetic relationships among bacteria, which provides important prior knowledge on evolutionary relationships among bacterial taxa. Our ssCCA formulation utilizes a phylogenetic structure-constrained penalty function to impose certain smoothness on the linear coefficients according to the phylogenetic relationships among the taxa. An efficient coordinate descent algorithm is developed for optimization. A human gut microbiome data set is used to illustrate this method. Both simulations and real data applications show that ssCCA performs better than the standard sparse CCA in identifying meaningful variables when there are structures in the data.
Calibration model transfer for near-infrared spectra based on canonical correlation analysis.
Fan, Wei; Liang, Yizeng; Yuan, Dalin; Wang, Jiajun
2008-08-08
In order to solve the calibration transformation problem in near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, a method based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for calibration model transfer is developed in this work. Two real NIR data sets were tested. A comparative study between the proposed method and piecewise direct standardization (PDS) was conducted. It is shown that the transfer results obtained with the proposed method based on CCA were better than those obtained by PDS when the subset had sufficient samples.
Woldesellasse, H. T.; Marpu, P. R.; Ouarda, T.
2016-12-01
Wind is one of the crucial renewable energy sources which is expected to bring solutions to the challenges of clean energy and the global issue of climate change. A number of linear and nonlinear multivariate techniques has been used to predict the stochastic character of wind speed. A wind forecast with good accuracy has a positive impact on the reduction of electricity system cost and is essential for the effective grid management. Over the past years, few studies have been done on the assessment of teleconnections and its possible effects on the long-term wind speed variability in the UAE region. In this study Nonlinear Canonical Correlation Analysis (NLCCA) method is applied to study the relationship between global climate oscillation indices and meteorological variables, with a major emphasis on wind speed and wind direction, of Abu Dhabi, UAE. The wind dataset was obtained from six ground stations. The first mode of NLCCA is capable of capturing the nonlinear mode of the climate indices at different seasons, showing the symmetry between the warm states and the cool states. The strength of the nonlinear canonical correlation between the two sets of variables varies with the lead/lag time. The performance of the models is assessed by calculating error indices such as the root mean square error (RMSE) and Mean absolute error (MAE). The results indicated that NLCCA models provide more accurate information about the nonlinear intrinsic behaviour of the dataset of variables than linear CCA model in terms of the correlation and root mean square error. Key words: Nonlinear Canonical Correlation Analysis (NLCCA), Canonical Correlation Analysis, Neural Network, Climate Indices, wind speed, wind direction
Du, Lei; Zhang, Tuo; Liu, Kefei; Yao, Xiaohui; Yan, Jingwen; Risacher, Shannon L; Guo, Lei; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li
2016-01-01
Discovering bi-multivariate associations between genetic markers and neuroimaging quantitative traits is a major task in brain imaging genetics. Sparse Canonical Correlation Analysis (SCCA) is a popular technique in this area for its powerful capability in identifying bi-multivariate relationships coupled with feature selection. The existing SCCA methods impose either the ℓ 1 -norm or its variants. The ℓ 0 -norm is more desirable, which however remains unexplored since the ℓ 0 -norm minimization is NP-hard. In this paper, we impose the truncated ℓ 1 -norm to improve the performance of the ℓ 1 -norm based SCCA methods. Besides, we propose two efficient optimization algorithms and prove their convergence. The experimental results, compared with two benchmark methods, show that our method identifies better and meaningful canonical loading patterns in both simulated and real imaging genetic analyse.
Misaki, Masaya; Wallace, Gregory L; Dankner, Nathan; Martin, Alex; Bandettini, Peter A
2012-04-15
To investigate patterns and correlates of cortical thickness in adolescent males with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) versus matched typically developing controls, we applied kernel canonical correlation analysis to whole brain cortical thickness with the explaining variables of diagnosis, age, full-scale IQ, and their interactions. The analysis found that canonical variates (patterns of cortical thickness) correlated with each of these variables. The diagnosis- and age-by-diagnosis-related canonical variates showed thinner cortex for participants with ASD, which is consistent with previous studies using a univariate analysis. In addition, the multivariate statistics found larger affected regions with higher sensitivity than those found using univariate analysis. An IQ-related effect was also found with the multivariate analysis. The effects of IQ and age-by-IQ interaction on cortical thickness differed between the diagnostic groups. For typically developing adolescents, IQ was positively correlated with cortical thickness in orbitofrontal, postcentral and superior temporal regions, and greater thinning with age was seen in dorsal frontal areas in the superior IQ (>120) group. These associations between IQ and cortical thickness were not seen in the ASD group. Differing relationships between IQ and cortical thickness implies independent associations between measures of intelligence and brain structure in ASD versus typically developing controls. We discuss these findings vis-à-vis prior results obtained utilizing univariate methods. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Du, Lei; Huang, Heng; Yan, Jingwen; Kim, Sungeun; Risacher, Shannon L; Inlow, Mark; Moore, Jason H; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li
2016-05-15
Structured sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA) models have been used to identify imaging genetic associations. These models either use group lasso or graph-guided fused lasso to conduct feature selection and feature grouping simultaneously. The group lasso based methods require prior knowledge to define the groups, which limits the capability when prior knowledge is incomplete or unavailable. The graph-guided methods overcome this drawback by using the sample correlation to define the constraint. However, they are sensitive to the sign of the sample correlation, which could introduce undesirable bias if the sign is wrongly estimated. We introduce a novel SCCA model with a new penalty, and develop an efficient optimization algorithm. Our method has a strong upper bound for the grouping effect for both positively and negatively correlated features. We show that our method performs better than or equally to three competing SCCA models on both synthetic and real data. In particular, our method identifies stronger canonical correlations and better canonical loading patterns, showing its promise for revealing interesting imaging genetic associations. The Matlab code and sample data are freely available at http://www.iu.edu/∼shenlab/tools/angscca/ shenli@iu.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anna Maria Stellacci
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Hyperspectral (HS data represents an extremely powerful means for rapidly detecting crop stress and then aiding in the rational management of natural resources in agriculture. However, large volume of data poses a challenge for data processing and extracting crucial information. Multivariate statistical techniques can play a key role in the analysis of HS data, as they may allow to both eliminate redundant information and identify synthetic indices which maximize differences among levels of stress. In this paper we propose an integrated approach, based on the combined use of Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA, to investigate HS plant response and discriminate plant status. The approach was preliminary evaluated on a data set collected on durum wheat plants grown under different nitrogen (N stress levels. Hyperspectral measurements were performed at anthesis through a high resolution field spectroradiometer, ASD FieldSpec HandHeld, covering the 325-1075 nm region. Reflectance data were first restricted to the interval 510-1000 nm and then divided into five bands of the electromagnetic spectrum [green: 510-580 nm; yellow: 581-630 nm; red: 631-690 nm; red-edge: 705-770 nm; near-infrared (NIR: 771-1000 nm]. PCA was applied to each spectral interval. CDA was performed on the extracted components to identify the factors maximizing the differences among plants fertilised with increasing N rates. Within the intervals of green, yellow and red only the first principal component (PC had an eigenvalue greater than 1 and explained more than 95% of total variance; within the ranges of red-edge and NIR, the first two PCs had an eigenvalue higher than 1. Two canonical variables explained cumulatively more than 81% of total variance and the first was able to discriminate wheat plants differently fertilised, as confirmed also by the significant correlation with aboveground biomass and grain yield parameters. The combined
Non-linear canonical correlation for joint analysis of MEG signals from two subjects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina eCampi
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We consider the problem of analysing magnetoencephalography (MEG data measured from two persons undergoing the same experiment, and we propose a method that searches for sources with maximally correlated energies. Our method is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA, which provides linear transformations, one for each subject, such that the correlation between the transformed MEG signals is maximized. Here, we present a nonlinear version of CCA which measures the correlation of energies. Furthermore, we introduce a delay parameter in the modelto analyse, e.g., leader-follower changes in experiments where the two subjects are engaged in social interaction.
Karageorgiou, Elissaios; Lewis, Scott M.; Riley McCarten, J.; Leuthold, Arthur C.; Hemmy, Laura S.; McPherson, Susan E.; Rottunda, Susan J.; Rubins, David M.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.
2012-10-01
In previous work (Georgopoulos et al 2007 J. Neural Eng. 4 349-55) we reported on the use of magnetoencephalographic (MEG) synchronous neural interactions (SNI) as a functional biomarker in Alzheimer's dementia (AD) diagnosis. Here we report on the application of canonical correlation analysis to investigate the relations between SNI and cognitive neuropsychological (NP) domains in AD patients. First, we performed individual correlations between each SNI and each NP, which provided an initial link between SNI and specific cognitive tests. Next, we performed factor analysis on each set, followed by a canonical correlation analysis between the derived SNI and NP factors. This last analysis optimally associated the entire MEG signal with cognitive function. The results revealed that SNI as a whole were mostly associated with memory and language, and, slightly less, executive function, processing speed and visuospatial abilities, thus differentiating functions subserved by the frontoparietal and the temporal cortices. These findings provide a direct interpretation of the information carried by the SNI and set the basis for identifying specific neural disease phenotypes according to cognitive deficits.
Noether analysis of the twisted Hopf symmetries of canonical noncommutative spacetimes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Gubitosi, Giulia; Marciano, Antonino; Martinetti, Pierre; Mercati, Flavio; Briscese, Fabio
2008-01-01
We study the twisted Hopf-algebra symmetries of observer-independent canonical spacetime noncommutativity, for which the commutators of the spacetime coordinates take the form [x^ μ ,x^ ν ]=iθ μν with observer-independent (and coordinate-independent) θ μν . We find that it is necessary to introduce nontrivial commutators between transformation parameters and spacetime coordinates, and that the form of these commutators implies that all symmetry transformations must include a translation component. We show that with our noncommutative transformation parameters the Noether analysis of the symmetries is straightforward, and we compare our canonical-noncommutativity results with the structure of the conserved charges and the ''no-pure-boost'' requirement derived in a previous study of κ-Minkowski noncommutativity. We also verify that, while at intermediate stages of the analysis we do find terms that depend on the ordering convention adopted in setting up the Weyl map, the final result for the conserved charges is reassuringly independent of the choice of Weyl map and (the corresponding choice of) star product.
Silva, L A; Peixoto, L A; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Laviola, B G; Bhering, L L
2017-03-22
Jatropha is a species with great potential for biodiesel production, and the knowledge on how the main agronomic traits are correlated will contribute to its improvement. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters of the traits: plant height at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection on the row at 12 and 40 months, canopy projection between the row at 12 and 40 months, number of branches at 40 months, grain yield, and oil yield; to verify the existence of phenotypic correlation between these traits; to verify the influence of the morphological traits on oil yield by means of path analysis; and to evaluate the relationship between the productive traits in Jatropha and the morphological traits measured at different ages. Sixty-seven half-sib families were evaluated using a completely randomized block design with two replications and five plants per plot. Analysis of variance was used to estimate the genetic value. Phenotypic correlations were given by the Pearson correlation between traits. For the canonical correlation analysis, two groups of traits were established: group I, consisting of traits of economic importance for the culture, and group II, consisting of morphological traits. Path analysis was carried out considering oil yield as the main dependent variable. Genetic variability was observed among Jatropha families. Productive traits can be indirectly selected via morphological traits due to the correlation between these two groups of traits. Therefore, canonical correlations and path analysis are two strategies that may be useful in Jatropha-breeding program when the objective is to select productive traits via morphological traits.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ali Gohary
2014-10-01
Full Text Available This study examines the relationship between Big Five personality traits with shopping motivation variables consisting of compulsive and impulsive buying, hedonic and utilitarian shopping values. Two hundred forty seven college students were recruited to participate in this research. Bivariate correlation demonstrates an overlap between personality traits; consequently, canonical correlation was performed to prevent this phenomenon. The results of multiple regression analysis suggested conscientiousness, neuroticism and openness as predictors of compulsive buying, impulsive buying and utilitarian shopping values. In addition, the results showed significant differences between males and females on conscientiousness, neuroticism, openness, compulsive buying and hedonic shopping value. Besides, using hierarchical regression analysis, we examined sex as moderator between Big Five personality traits and shopping variables, but we didn’t find sufficient evidence to prove it.
A learning algorithm for adaptive canonical correlation analysis of several data sets.
Vía, Javier; Santamaría, Ignacio; Pérez, Jesús
2007-01-01
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a classical tool in statistical analysis to find the projections that maximize the correlation between two data sets. In this work we propose a generalization of CCA to several data sets, which is shown to be equivalent to the classical maximum variance (MAXVAR) generalization proposed by Kettenring. The reformulation of this generalization as a set of coupled least squares regression problems is exploited to develop a neural structure for CCA. In particular, the proposed CCA model is a two layer feedforward neural network with lateral connections in the output layer to achieve the simultaneous extraction of all the CCA eigenvectors through deflation. The CCA neural model is trained using a recursive least squares (RLS) algorithm. Finally, the convergence of the proposed learning rule is proved by means of stochastic approximation techniques and their performance is analyzed through simulations.
The integrated model of sport confidence: a canonical correlation and mediational analysis.
Koehn, Stefan; Pearce, Alan J; Morris, Tony
2013-12-01
The main purpose of the study was to examine crucial parts of Vealey's (2001) integrated framework hypothesizing that sport confidence is a mediating variable between sources of sport confidence (including achievement, self-regulation, and social climate) and athletes' affect in competition. The sample consisted of 386 athletes, who completed the Sources of Sport Confidence Questionnaire, Trait Sport Confidence Inventory, and Dispositional Flow Scale-2. Canonical correlation analysis revealed a confidence-achievement dimension underlying flow. Bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals in AMOS 20.0 were used in examining mediation effects between source domains and dispositional flow. Results showed that sport confidence partially mediated the relationship between achievement and self-regulation domains and flow, whereas no significant mediation was found for social climate. On a subscale level, full mediation models emerged for achievement and flow dimensions of challenge-skills balance, clear goals, and concentration on the task at hand.
Chen, Zhiwen
2017-01-01
Zhiwen Chen aims to develop advanced fault detection (FD) methods for the monitoring of industrial processes. With the ever increasing demands on reliability and safety in industrial processes, fault detection has become an important issue. Although the model-based fault detection theory has been well studied in the past decades, its applications are limited to large-scale industrial processes because it is difficult to build accurate models. Furthermore, motivated by the limitations of existing data-driven FD methods, novel canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and projection-based methods are proposed from the perspectives of process input and output data, less engineering effort and wide application scope. For performance evaluation of FD methods, a new index is also developed. Contents A New Index for Performance Evaluation of FD Methods CCA-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Stationary Processes Projection-based FD Method for the Monitoring of Dynamic Processes Benchmark Study and Real-Time Implementat...
Zhe Fan; Zhong Wang; Guanglin Li; Ruomei Wang
2016-08-01
Motion classification system based on surface Electromyography (sEMG) pattern recognition has achieved good results in experimental condition. But it is still a challenge for clinical implement and practical application. Many factors contribute to the difficulty of clinical use of the EMG based dexterous control. The most obvious and important is the noise in the EMG signal caused by electrode shift, muscle fatigue, motion artifact, inherent instability of signal and biological signals such as Electrocardiogram. In this paper, a novel method based on Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) was developed to eliminate the reduction of classification accuracy caused by electrode shift. The average classification accuracy of our method were above 95% for the healthy subjects. In the process, we validated the influence of electrode shift on motion classification accuracy and discovered the strong correlation with correlation coefficient of >0.9 between shift position data and normal position data.
Comparison of JADE and canonical correlation analysis for ECG de-noising.
Kuzilek, Jakub; Kremen, Vaclav; Lhotska, Lenka
2014-01-01
This paper explores differences between two methods for blind source separation within frame of ECG de-noising. First method is joint approximate diagonalization of eigenmatrices, which is based on estimation of fourth order cross-cummulant tensor and its diagonalization. Second one is the statistical method known as canonical correlation analysis, which is based on estimation of correlation matrices between two multidimensional variables. Both methods were used within method, which combines the blind source separation algorithm with decision tree. The evaluation was made on large database of 382 long-term ECG signals and the results were examined. Biggest difference was found in results of 50 Hz power line interference where the CCA algorithm completely failed. Thus main power of CCA lies in estimation of unstructured noise within ECG. JADE algorithm has larger computational complexity thus the CCA perfomed faster when estimating the components.
Suefusa, Kaori; Tanaka, Toshihisa
2016-08-01
Brain-computer interfacing (BCI) based on steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) is one of the most practical BCIs because of its high recognition accuracies and little training of a user. Mixed frequency and phase coding which can implement a number of commands and achieve a high information transfer rate (ITR) has recently been gaining much attention. In order to implement mixed-coded SSVEP-BCI as a reliable interface, it is important to detect commands fast and accurately. This paper presents a novel method to recognize mixed-coded SSVEPs which achieves high performance. The method employs multiset canonical correlation analysis to obtain spatial filters which enhance SSVEP components. An experiment with a mixed-coded SSVEP-BCI was conducted to evaluate performance of the proposed method compared with the previous work. The experimental results showed that the proposed method achieved significantly higher command recognition accuracy and ITR than the state-of-the-art.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ignacio Santamaría
2008-04-01
Full Text Available This paper treats the identification of nonlinear systems that consist of a cascade of a linear channel and a nonlinearity, such as the well-known Wiener and Hammerstein systems. In particular, we follow a supervised identification approach that simultaneously identifies both parts of the nonlinear system. Given the correct restrictions on the identification problem, we show how kernel canonical correlation analysis (KCCA emerges as the logical solution to this problem. We then extend the proposed identification algorithm to an adaptive version allowing to deal with time-varying systems. In order to avoid overfitting problems, we discuss and compare three possible regularization techniques for both the batch and the adaptive versions of the proposed algorithm. Simulations are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented algorithm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xisheng Yu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The paper by Liu (2010 introduces a method termed the canonical least-squares Monte Carlo (CLM which combines a martingale-constrained entropy model and a least-squares Monte Carlo algorithm to price American options. In this paper, we first provide the convergence results of CLM and numerically examine the convergence properties. Then, the comparative analysis is empirically conducted using a large sample of the S&P 100 Index (OEX puts and IBM puts. The results on the convergence show that choosing the shifted Legendre polynomials with four regressors is more appropriate considering the pricing accuracy and the computational cost. With this choice, CLM method is empirically demonstrated to be superior to the benchmark methods of binominal tree and finite difference with historical volatilities.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shijun; Yao Jianhua; Liu Jiamin; Petrick, Nicholas; Van Uitert, Robert L.; Periaswamy, Senthil; Summers, Ronald M.
2009-01-01
Purpose: In computed tomographic colonography (CTC), a patient will be scanned twice--Once supine and once prone--to improve the sensitivity for polyp detection. To assist radiologists in CTC reading, in this paper we propose an automated method for colon registration from supine and prone CTC scans. Methods: We propose a new colon centerline registration method for prone and supine CTC scans using correlation optimized warping (COW) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) based on the anatomical structure of the colon. Four anatomical salient points on the colon are first automatically distinguished. Then correlation optimized warping is applied to the segments defined by the anatomical landmarks to improve the global registration based on local correlation of segments. The COW method was modified by embedding canonical correlation analysis to allow multiple features along the colon centerline to be used in our implementation. Results: We tested the COW algorithm on a CTC data set of 39 patients with 39 polyps (19 training and 20 test cases) to verify the effectiveness of the proposed COW registration method. Experimental results on the test set show that the COW method significantly reduces the average estimation error in a polyp location between supine and prone scans by 67.6%, from 46.27±52.97 to 14.98 mm±11.41 mm, compared to the normalized distance along the colon centerline algorithm (p<0.01). Conclusions: The proposed COW algorithm is more accurate for the colon centerline registration compared to the normalized distance along the colon centerline method and the dynamic time warping method. Comparison results showed that the feature combination of z-coordinate and curvature achieved lowest registration error compared to the other feature combinations used by COW. The proposed method is tolerant to centerline errors because anatomical landmarks help prevent the propagation of errors across the entire colon centerline.
Guo, Xujing; Yu, Huibin; Yan, Zongcheng; Gao, Hongjie; Zhang, Yizhang
2018-03-01
Accumulative fluorescence emission (AFE) spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA), second derivative and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was firstly developed into an available tool to track variations in dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractions and contents during wastewater treatment. Samples were collected from a wastewater treatment plant with a traditional anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A2O) process. The AFE spectroscopy deduced from the sum of intensities along the excitation wavelengths of fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM), could distinctly track tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, fulvic-like substances. The AFE spectroscopy with the PCA not only disaggregated DOM fractions into the tyrosine-like, tryptophan-like, microbial humic-like, fulvic-like and humic-like substances, but discriminated DOM fractions from the physical sedimentation, anaerobic/anoxic and oxic processes. Absolute areas of fluorescence components obtained by the second derivative AFF spectra had positive liner correlations with Fmax of the relevant components modeling from EEM-PARAFAC, especially the tryptophan-like (R 2 = 0.95, p < 0.01) and tyrosine-like (R 2 = 0.83, p < 0.01) substances. The CCA of the sites presented that the potential factors contained the tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like substances. This indirectly proved that the tryptophan-like and tyrosine-like substances were the dominant components of fluorescent DOM, which were further removed in A2O than the other fluorescent components. The CCA of the fluorescent components exhibited that the potential factors included the sites #1 to #6, which were located in the original wastewater, sand setting, primary sedimentation, anaerobic, anoxic, facultative units. This elaborated that the fluorescent components were mainly degraded in the physical sedimentation, anaerobic and anoxic processes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nonlinear Analysis and Variational Problems
Pardalos, Panos M
2010-01-01
The chapters in this volume, written by international experts from different fields of mathematics, are devoted to honoring George Isac, a renowned mathematician. These contributions focus on recent developments in complementarity theory, variational principles, stability theory of functional equations, nonsmooth optimization, and several other important topics at the forefront of nonlinear analysis and optimization. "Nonlinear Analysis and Variational Problems" is organized into two parts. Part I, Nonlinear Analysis, centers on stability issues for functional equations, fixed point
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hesse Morten
2005-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Personality disorders are common in substance abusers. Self-report questionnaires that can aid in the assessment of personality disorders are commonly used in assessment, but are rarely validated. Methods The Danish DIP-Q as a measure of co-morbid personality disorders in substance abusers was validated through principal components factor analysis and canonical correlation analysis. A 4 components structure was constructed based on 238 protocols, representing antagonism, neuroticism, introversion and conscientiousness. The structure was compared with (a a 4-factor solution from the DIP-Q in a sample of Swedish drug and alcohol abusers (N = 133, and (b a consensus 4-components solution based on a meta-analysis of published correlation matrices of dimensional personality disorder scales. Results It was found that the 4-factor model of personality was congruent across the Danish and Swedish samples, and showed good congruence with the consensus model. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted on a subset of the Danish sample with staff ratings of pathology. Three factors that correlated highly between the two variable sets were found. These variables were highly similar to the three first factors from the principal components analysis, antagonism, neuroticism and introversion. Conclusion The findings support the validity of the DIP-Q as a measure of DSM-IV personality disorders in substance abusers.
Shelah, Saharon
1995-01-01
The canonization theorem says that for given m,n for some m^* (the first one is called ER(n;m)) we have: for every function f with domain [{1, ...,m^*}]^n, for some A in [{1, ...,m^*}]^m, the question of when the equality f({i_1, ...,i_n})=f({j_1, ...,j_n}) (where i_1< ...
Hassan, Mahmoud; Boudaoud, Sofiane; Terrien, Jérémy; Karlsson, Brynjar; Marque, Catherine
2011-09-01
The electrohysterogram (EHG) is often corrupted by electronic and electromagnetic noise as well as movement artifacts, skeletal electromyogram, and ECGs from both mother and fetus. The interfering signals are sporadic and/or have spectra overlapping the spectra of the signals of interest rendering classical filtering ineffective. In the absence of efficient methods for denoising the monopolar EHG signal, bipolar methods are usually used. In this paper, we propose a novel combination of blind source separation using canonical correlation analysis (BSS_CCA) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) methods to denoise monopolar EHG. We first extract the uterine bursts by using BSS_CCA then the biggest part of any residual noise is removed from the bursts by EMD. Our algorithm, called CCA_EMD, was compared with wavelet filtering and independent component analysis. We also compared CCA_EMD with the corresponding bipolar signals to demonstrate that the new method gives signals that have not been degraded by the new method. The proposed method successfully removed artifacts from the signal without altering the underlying uterine activity as observed by bipolar methods. The CCA_EMD algorithm performed considerably better than the comparison methods.
Prediction of East African Seasonal Rainfall Using Simplex Canonical Correlation Analysis.
Ntale, Henry K.; Yew Gan, Thian; Mwale, Davison
2003-06-01
A linear statistical model, canonical correlation analysis (CCA), was driven by the Nelder-Mead simplex optimization algorithm (called CCA-NMS) to predict the standardized seasonal rainfall totals of East Africa at 3-month lead time using SLP and SST anomaly fields of the Indian and Atlantic Oceans combined together by 24 simplex optimized weights, and then `reduced' by the principal component analysis. Applying the optimized weights to the predictor fields produced better March-April-May (MAM) and September-October-November (SON) seasonal rain forecasts than a direct application of the same, unweighted predictor fields to CCA at both calibration and validation stages. Northeastern Tanzania and south-central Kenya had the best SON prediction results with both validation correlation and Hanssen-Kuipers skill scores exceeding +0.3. The MAM season was better predicted in the western parts of East Africa. The CCA correlation maps showed that low SON rainfall in East Africa is associated with cold SSTs off the Somali coast and the Benguela (Angola) coast, and low MAM rainfall is associated with a buildup of low SSTs in the Indian Ocean adjacent to East Africa and the Gulf of Guinea.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chin-Teng Lin
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG signals are usually contaminated with various artifacts, such as signal associated with muscle activity, eye movement, and body motion, which have a noncerebral origin. The amplitude of such artifacts is larger than that of the electrical activity of the brain, so they mask the cortical signals of interest, resulting in biased analysis and interpretation. Several blind source separation methods have been developed to remove artifacts from the EEG recordings. However, the iterative process for measuring separation within multichannel recordings is computationally intractable. Moreover, manually excluding the artifact components requires a time-consuming offline process. This work proposes a real-time artifact removal algorithm that is based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA, feature extraction, and the Gaussian mixture model (GMM to improve the quality of EEG signals. The CCA was used to decompose EEG signals into components followed by feature extraction to extract representative features and GMM to cluster these features into groups to recognize and remove artifacts. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm was demonstrated by effectively removing artifacts caused by blinks, head/body movement, and chewing from EEG recordings while preserving the temporal and spectral characteristics of the signals that are important to cognitive research.
Cai, Jia; Tang, Yi
2018-02-01
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a powerful statistical tool for detecting the linear relationship between two sets of multivariate variables. Kernel generalization of it, namely, kernel CCA is proposed to describe nonlinear relationship between two variables. Although kernel CCA can achieve dimensionality reduction results for high-dimensional data feature selection problem, it also yields the so called over-fitting phenomenon. In this paper, we consider a new kernel CCA algorithm via randomized Kaczmarz method. The main contributions of the paper are: (1) A new kernel CCA algorithm is developed, (2) theoretical convergence of the proposed algorithm is addressed by means of scaled condition number, (3) a lower bound which addresses the minimum number of iterations is presented. We test on both synthetic dataset and several real-world datasets in cross-language document retrieval and content-based image retrieval to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Numerical results imply the performance and efficiency of the new algorithm, which is competitive with several state-of-the-art kernel CCA methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sparse and smooth canonical correlation analysis through rank-1 matrix approximation
Aïssa-El-Bey, Abdeldjalil; Seghouane, Abd-Krim
2017-12-01
Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a well-known technique used to characterize the relationship between two sets of multidimensional variables by finding linear combinations of variables with maximal correlation. Sparse CCA and smooth or regularized CCA are two widely used variants of CCA because of the improved interpretability of the former and the better performance of the later. So far, the cross-matrix product of the two sets of multidimensional variables has been widely used for the derivation of these variants. In this paper, two new algorithms for sparse CCA and smooth CCA are proposed. These algorithms differ from the existing ones in their derivation which is based on penalized rank-1 matrix approximation and the orthogonal projectors onto the space spanned by the two sets of multidimensional variables instead of the simple cross-matrix product. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed algorithms are tested on simulated experiments. On these results, it can be observed that they outperform the state of the art sparse CCA algorithms.
Study on soil water characteristics of tobacco fields based on canonical correlation analysis
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Xiao-hou Shao
2009-06-01
Full Text Available In order to identify the principal factors influencing soil water characteristics (SWC and evaluate SWC effectively, the multivariate-statistical canonical correlation analysis (CCA method was used to study and analyze the correlation between SWC and soil physical and chemical properties. Twenty-two soil samples were taken from 11 main tobacco-growing areas in Guizhou Province in China and the soil water characteristic curves (SWCC and basic physical and chemical properties of the soil samples were determined. The results show that: (1 The soil bulk density, soil total porosity and soil capillary porosity have significant effects on SWC of tobacco fiels. Bulk density and total porosity are positively correlated with soil water retention characteristics (SWRC, and soil capillary porosity is positively correlated with soil water supply characteristics (SWSC. (2 Soil samples from different soil layers at the same soil sampling point show similarity or consistency in SWC. Inadequate soil water supply capability and imbalance between SWRC and SWSC are problems of tobacco soil. (3 The SWC of loamy clay are generally superior to those of silty clay loam.
Canonical Correlation Analysis Between Supply Chain Quality Management And Competitive Advantages
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chaghooshi Ahmad Jafarnejad
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Competitive environment of today’s organizations, more than ever, is extensive, and the major concern for managers is to preserve and promote the sustainable competitive advantage. Companies have an obligation to improve their product quality and have extensive and close cooperation with other companies involved in the supply chain of products. Supply chain quality management (SCQM is a systematic approach to improve the performance that integrates supply chain partners and uses the opportunity in the best way, establish linkages between upstream and downstream flows, and investigate on creating value and satisfaction of intermediaries and final customers. Furthermore, achieving competitive advantages enables an organization to create a remarkable position in market and differentiate itself from competitors. This paper aims to understand the relationships between SCQM and competitive advantage. Sixty-eight experts of 25 companies in Sahami Alyaf (SA supply chain has been participated in this research. The research method used for this article is descriptive correlation. To assess the relationships between the criteria, canonical correlation analysis was used. The result shows that the SCQM and competitive advantages have a meaningful relationship. It also shows that most important variable in the linear combination of SCQM and competitive advantages are “customer focus and quality,” respectively.
Roy, Vandana; Shukla, Shailja; Shukla, Piyush Kumar; Rawat, Paresh
2017-01-01
The motion generated at the capturing time of electro-encephalography (EEG) signal leads to the artifacts, which may reduce the quality of obtained information. Existing artifact removal methods use canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for removing artifacts along with ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and wavelet transform (WT). A new approach is proposed to further analyse and improve the filtering performance and reduce the filter computation time under highly noisy environment. This new approach of CCA is based on Gaussian elimination method which is used for calculating the correlation coefficients using backslash operation and is designed for EEG signal motion artifact removal. Gaussian elimination is used for solving linear equation to calculate Eigen values which reduces the computation cost of the CCA method. This novel proposed method is tested against currently available artifact removal techniques using EEMD-CCA and wavelet transform. The performance is tested on synthetic and real EEG signal data. The proposed artifact removal technique is evaluated using efficiency matrices such as del signal to noise ratio (DSNR), lambda ( λ ), root mean square error (RMSE), elapsed time, and ROC parameters. The results indicate suitablity of the proposed algorithm for use as a supplement to algorithms currently in use.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vandana Roy
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The motion generated at the capturing time of electro-encephalography (EEG signal leads to the artifacts, which may reduce the quality of obtained information. Existing artifact removal methods use canonical correlation analysis (CCA for removing artifacts along with ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD and wavelet transform (WT. A new approach is proposed to further analyse and improve the filtering performance and reduce the filter computation time under highly noisy environment. This new approach of CCA is based on Gaussian elimination method which is used for calculating the correlation coefficients using backslash operation and is designed for EEG signal motion artifact removal. Gaussian elimination is used for solving linear equation to calculate Eigen values which reduces the computation cost of the CCA method. This novel proposed method is tested against currently available artifact removal techniques using EEMD-CCA and wavelet transform. The performance is tested on synthetic and real EEG signal data. The proposed artifact removal technique is evaluated using efficiency matrices such as del signal to noise ratio (DSNR, lambda (λ, root mean square error (RMSE, elapsed time, and ROC parameters. The results indicate suitablity of the proposed algorithm for use as a supplement to algorithms currently in use.
3D spatially-adaptive canonical correlation analysis: Local and global methods.
Yang, Zhengshi; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Sreenivasan, Karthik; Mishra, Virendra; Curran, Tim; Byrd, Richard; Nandy, Rajesh; Cordes, Dietmar
2018-04-01
Local spatially-adaptive canonical correlation analysis (local CCA) with spatial constraints has been introduced to fMRI multivariate analysis for improved modeling of activation patterns. However, current algorithms require complicated spatial constraints that have only been applied to 2D local neighborhoods because the computational time would be exponentially increased if the same method is applied to 3D spatial neighborhoods. In this study, an efficient and accurate line search sequential quadratic programming (SQP) algorithm has been developed to efficiently solve the 3D local CCA problem with spatial constraints. In addition, a spatially-adaptive kernel CCA (KCCA) method is proposed to increase accuracy of fMRI activation maps. With oriented 3D spatial filters anisotropic shapes can be estimated during the KCCA analysis of fMRI time courses. These filters are orientation-adaptive leading to rotational invariance to better match arbitrary oriented fMRI activation patterns, resulting in improved sensitivity of activation detection while significantly reducing spatial blurring artifacts. The kernel method in its basic form does not require any spatial constraints and analyzes the whole-brain fMRI time series to construct an activation map. Finally, we have developed a penalized kernel CCA model that involves spatial low-pass filter constraints to increase the specificity of the method. The kernel CCA methods are compared with the standard univariate method and with two different local CCA methods that were solved by the SQP algorithm. Results show that SQP is the most efficient algorithm to solve the local constrained CCA problem, and the proposed kernel CCA methods outperformed univariate and local CCA methods in detecting activations for both simulated and real fMRI episodic memory data. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Choi, Ji Yeh; Hwang, Heungsun; Yamamoto, Michio; Jung, Kwanghee; Woodward, Todd S
2017-06-01
Functional principal component analysis (FPCA) and functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis (FMCCA) are data reduction techniques for functional data that are collected in the form of smooth curves or functions over a continuum such as time or space. In FPCA, low-dimensional components are extracted from a single functional dataset such that they explain the most variance of the dataset, whereas in FMCCA, low-dimensional components are obtained from each of multiple functional datasets in such a way that the associations among the components are maximized across the different sets. In this paper, we propose a unified approach to FPCA and FMCCA. The proposed approach subsumes both techniques as special cases. Furthermore, it permits a compromise between the techniques, such that components are obtained from each set of functional data to maximize their associations across different datasets, while accounting for the variance of the data well. We propose a single optimization criterion for the proposed approach, and develop an alternating regularized least squares algorithm to minimize the criterion in combination with basis function approximations to functions. We conduct a simulation study to investigate the performance of the proposed approach based on synthetic data. We also apply the approach for the analysis of multiple-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging data to obtain low-dimensional components of blood-oxygen level-dependent signal changes of the brain over time, which are highly correlated across the subjects as well as representative of the data. The extracted components are used to identify networks of neural activity that are commonly activated across the subjects while carrying out a working memory task.
Rainfall prediction of Cimanuk watershed regions with canonical correlation analysis (CCA)
Rustiana, Shailla; Nurani Ruchjana, Budi; Setiawan Abdullah, Atje; Hermawan, Eddy; Berliana Sipayung, Sinta; Gede Nyoman Mindra Jaya, I.; Krismianto
2017-10-01
Rainfall prediction in Indonesia is very influential on various development sectors, such as agriculture, fisheries, water resources, industry, and other sectors. The inaccurate predictions can lead to negative effects. Cimanuk watershed is one of the main pillar of water resources in West Java. This watersheds divided into three parts, which is a headwater of Cimanuk sub-watershed, Middle of Cimanuk sub-watershed and downstream of Cimanuk sub- watershed. The flow of this watershed will flow through the Jatigede reservoir and will supply water to the north-coast area in the next few years. So, the reliable model of rainfall prediction is very needed in this watershed. Rainfall prediction conducted with Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) method using Climate Predictability Tool (CPT) software. The prediction is every 3months on 2016 (after January) based on Climate Hazards group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data over West Java. Predictors used in CPT were the monthly data index of Nino3.4, Dipole Mode (DMI), and Monsoon Index (AUSMI-ISMI-WNPMI-WYMI) with initial condition January. The initial condition is chosen by the last data update. While, the predictant were monthly rainfall data CHIRPS region of West Java. The results of prediction rainfall showed by skill map from Pearson Correlation. High correlation of skill map are on MAM (Mar-Apr-May), AMJ (Apr-May-Jun), and JJA (Jun-Jul-Aug) which means the model is reliable to forecast rainfall distribution over Cimanuk watersheds region (over West Java) on those seasons. CCA score over those season prediction mostly over 0.7. The accuracy of the model CPT also indicated by the Relative Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve of the results of Pearson correlation 3 representative point of sub-watershed (Sumedang, Majalengka, and Cirebon), were mostly located in the top line of non-skill, and evidenced by the same of rainfall patterns between observation and forecast. So, the model of CPT with CCA method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Valter Magalhaes; Pereira, Iraci Martinez
2011-01-01
The monitoring of variables and diagnosis of sensor fault in nuclear power plants or processes industries is very important because a previous diagnosis allows the correction of the fault and, like this, to prevent the production stopped, improving operator's security and it's not provoking economics losses. The objective of this work is to build a set, using bivariate correlation and canonical correlation, which will be the set of input variables of an artificial neural network to monitor the greater number of variables. This methodology was applied to the IEA-R1 Research Reactor at IPEN. Initially, for the input set of neural network we selected the variables: nuclear power, primary circuit flow rate, control/safety rod position and difference in pressure in the core of the reactor, because almost whole of monitoring variables have relation with the variables early described or its effect can be result of the interaction of two or more. The nuclear power is related to the increasing and decreasing of temperatures as well as the amount radiation due fission of the uranium; the rods are controls of power and influence in the amount of radiation and increasing and decreasing of temperatures; the primary circuit flow rate has the function of energy transport by removing the nucleus heat. An artificial neural network was trained and the results were satisfactory since the IEA-R1 Data Acquisition System reactor monitors 64 variables and, with a set of 9 input variables resulting from the correlation analysis, it was possible to monitor 51 variables. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, Valter Magalhaes; Pereira, Iraci Martinez, E-mail: valter.costa@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2011-07-01
The monitoring of variables and diagnosis of sensor fault in nuclear power plants or processes industries is very important because a previous diagnosis allows the correction of the fault and, like this, to prevent the production stopped, improving operator's security and it's not provoking economics losses. The objective of this work is to build a set, using bivariate correlation and canonical correlation, which will be the set of input variables of an artificial neural network to monitor the greater number of variables. This methodology was applied to the IEA-R1 Research Reactor at IPEN. Initially, for the input set of neural network we selected the variables: nuclear power, primary circuit flow rate, control/safety rod position and difference in pressure in the core of the reactor, because almost whole of monitoring variables have relation with the variables early described or its effect can be result of the interaction of two or more. The nuclear power is related to the increasing and decreasing of temperatures as well as the amount radiation due fission of the uranium; the rods are controls of power and influence in the amount of radiation and increasing and decreasing of temperatures; the primary circuit flow rate has the function of energy transport by removing the nucleus heat. An artificial neural network was trained and the results were satisfactory since the IEA-R1 Data Acquisition System reactor monitors 64 variables and, with a set of 9 input variables resulting from the correlation analysis, it was possible to monitor 51 variables. (author)
Aguilar-Ciciliano, Mauricio
2013-01-01
This article analyzes the pedagogical-didactic model for the teaching of Literature in Middle School in the Salvadoran Educational system. This is part of a larger work towards a PhD project. The main goal of this project is to characterize the historical process in the construction of this model through a critical analysis of canonization sources. The findings suggest that the teaching of Literature is performed based on a historicist, pro-European, male-based approach. Among the consequence...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arjen E van't Hof
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Industrial melanism in the peppered moth (Biston betularia is an iconic case study of ecological genetics but the molecular identity of the gene determining the difference between the typical and melanic (carbonaria morphs is entirely unknown. We applied the candidate gene approach to look for associations between genetic polymorphisms within sixteen a priori melanisation gene candidates and the carbonaria morph. The genes were isolated and sequence characterised in B. betularia using degenerate PCR and from whole-transcriptome sequence. The list of candidates contains all the genes previously implicated in melanisation pattern differences in other insects, including aaNAT, DOPA-decarboxylase, ebony, tan, tyrosine hydroxylase, yellow and yellow2 (yellow-fa. Co-segregation of candidate gene alleles and carbonaria morph was tested in 73 offspring of a carbonaria male-typical female backcross. Surprisingly, none of the sixteen candidate genes was in close linkage with the locus controlling the carbonaria-typical polymorphism. Our study demonstrates that the 'carbonaria gene' is not a structural variant of a canonical melanisation pathway gene, neither is it a cis-regulatory element of these enzyme-coding genes. The implication is either that we have failed to characterize an unknown enzyme-coding gene in the melanisation pathway, or more likely, that the 'carbonaria gene' is a higher level trans-acting factor which regulates the spatial expression of one or more of the melanisation candidates in this study to alter the pattern of melanin production.
Baloğlu, Mustafa; Özteke Kozan, Hatice İrem; Kesici, Şahin
2018-01-24
The cognitive-behavioral model of problematic Internet use (PIU) proposes that psychological well-being is associated with specific thoughts and behaviors on the Internet. Hence, there is growing concern that PIU is associated with psychological impairments. Given the proposal of gender schema theory and social role theory, men and women are predisposed to experience social anxiety and engage in Internet use differently. Thus, an investigation of gender differences in these areas is warranted. According to the cognitive-behavioral model of PIU, social anxiety is associated with specific cognitions and behaviors on the Internet. Thus, an investigation of the association between social anxiety and PIU is essential. In addition, research that takes into account the multidimensional nature of social anxiety and PIU is lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to explore multivariate gender differences in and the relationships between social anxiety and PIU. Participants included 505 college students, of whom 241 (47.7%) were women and 264 (52.3%) were men. Participants' ages ranged from 18 to 22 years, with a mean age of 20.34 (SD=1.16). The Social Anxiety Scale and Problematic Internet Use Scale were used in data collection. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and canonical correlation analysis were used. Mean differences between men and women were not statistically significant in social anxiety (λ=.02, F3,501=2.47, P=.06). In all three PIU dimensions, men scored higher than women, and MANOVA shows that multivariate difference was statistically significant (λ=.94, F3,501=10.69, Psocial anxiety levels between men and women. We found that men showed more difficulties than women in terms of running away from personal problems (ie, social benefit), used the Internet more excessively, and experienced more interpersonal problems with significant others due to Internet use. We conclude that men are under a greater risk of social impairments due to PIU. Our overall
Singanamalli, Asha; Wang, Haibo; Lee, George; Shih, Natalie; Rosen, Mark; Master, Stephen; Tomaszewski, John; Feldman, Michael; Madabhushi, Anant
2014-03-01
While the plethora of information from multiple imaging and non-imaging data streams presents an opportunity for discovery of fused multimodal, multiscale biomarkers, they also introduce multiple independent sources of noise that hinder their collective utility. The goal of this work is to create fused predictors of disease diagnosis and prognosis by combining multiple data streams, which we hypothesize will provide improved performance as compared to predictors from individual data streams. To achieve this goal, we introduce supervised multiview canonical correlation analysis (sMVCCA), a novel data fusion method that attempts to find a common representation for multiscale, multimodal data where class separation is maximized while noise is minimized. In doing so, sMVCCA assumes that the different sources of information are complementary and thereby act synergistically when combined. Although this method can be applied to any number of modalities and to any disease domain, we demonstrate its utility using three datasets. We fuse (i) 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features with cerbrospinal fluid (CSF) proteomic measurements for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (n = 30), (ii) 3T Dynamic Contrast Enhanced (DCE) MRI and T2w MRI for in vivo prediction of prostate cancer grade on a per slice basis (n = 33) and (iii) quantitative histomorphometric features of glands and proteomic measurements from mass spectrometry for prediction of 5 year biochemical recurrence postradical prostatectomy (n = 40). Random Forest classifier applied to the sMVCCA fused subspace, as compared to that of MVCCA, PCA and LDA, yielded the highest classification AUC of 0.82 +/- 0.05, 0.76 +/- 0.01, 0.70 +/- 0.07, respectively for the aforementioned datasets. In addition, sMVCCA fused subspace provided 13.6%, 7.6% and 15.3% increase in AUC as compared with that of the best performing individual view in each of the three datasets, respectively. For the biochemical recurrence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, Valter Magalhaes
2011-01-01
The monitoring of variables and diagnosis of sensor fault in nuclear power plants or processes industries is very important because an early diagnosis allows the correction of the fault and, like this, do not cause the production interruption, improving operator's security and it's not provoking economics losses. The objective of this work is, in the whole of all variables monitor of a nuclear power plant, to build a set, not necessary minimum, which will be the set of input variables of an artificial neural network and, like way, to monitor the biggest number of variables. This methodology was applied to the IEA-R1 Research Reactor at IPEN. For this, the variables Power, Rate of flow of primary circuit, Rod of control/security and Difference in pressure in the core of the reactor ( Δ P) was grouped, because, for hypothesis, almost whole of monitoring variables have relation with the variables early described or its effect can be result of the interaction of two or more. The Power is related to the increasing and decreasing of temperatures as well as the amount radiation due fission of the uranium; the Rods are controls of power and influence in the amount of radiation and increasing and decreasing of temperatures and the Rate of flow of primary circuit has function of the transport of energy by removing of heat of the nucleus Like this, labeling B= {Power, Rate of flow of Primary Circuit, Rod of Control/Security and Δ P} was computed the correlation between B and all another variables monitoring (coefficient of multiple correlation), that is, by the computer of the multiple correlation, that is tool of Theory of Canonical Correlations, was possible to computer how much the set B can predict each variable. Due the impossibility of a satisfactory approximation by B in the prediction of some variables, it was included one or more variables that have high correlation with this variable to improve the quality of prediction. In this work an artificial neural network
Vahedi, Shahrum; Farrokhi, Farahman; Gahramani, Farahnaz; Issazadegan, Ali
2012-01-01
Objective: Approximately 66-80%of graduate students experience statistics anxiety and some researchers propose that many students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their academic curriculums. As such, it is likely that statistics anxiety is, in part, responsible for many students delaying enrollment in these courses for as long as possible. This paper proposes a canonical model by treating academic procrastination (AP), learning strategies (LS) as predictor variables and statistics anxiety (SA) as explained variables. Methods: A questionnaire survey was used for data collection and 246-college female student participated in this study. To examine the mutually independent relations between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety variables, a canonical correlation analysis was computed. Results: Findings show that two canonical functions were statistically significant. The set of variables (metacognitive self-regulation, source management, preparing homework, preparing for test and preparing term papers) helped predict changes of statistics anxiety with respect to fearful behavior, Attitude towards math and class, Performance, but not Anxiety. Conclusion: These findings could be used in educational and psychological interventions in the context of statistics anxiety reduction. PMID:24644468
Vahedi, Shahrum; Farrokhi, Farahman; Gahramani, Farahnaz; Issazadegan, Ali
2012-01-01
Approximately 66-80%of graduate students experience statistics anxiety and some researchers propose that many students identify statistics courses as the most anxiety-inducing courses in their academic curriculums. As such, it is likely that statistics anxiety is, in part, responsible for many students delaying enrollment in these courses for as long as possible. This paper proposes a canonical model by treating academic procrastination (AP), learning strategies (LS) as predictor variables and statistics anxiety (SA) as explained variables. A questionnaire survey was used for data collection and 246-college female student participated in this study. To examine the mutually independent relations between procrastination, learning strategies and statistics anxiety variables, a canonical correlation analysis was computed. Findings show that two canonical functions were statistically significant. The set of variables (metacognitive self-regulation, source management, preparing homework, preparing for test and preparing term papers) helped predict changes of statistics anxiety with respect to fearful behavior, Attitude towards math and class, Performance, but not Anxiety. These findings could be used in educational and psychological interventions in the context of statistics anxiety reduction.
Canonical profiles in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dnestrovskij, Yu.N.
2002-01-01
We consider the problem of the canonical profiles for tokamak plasma with arbitrary cross-section, taking into account two principles: 1) the free plasma energy minimum with the constraint of total current conservation and 2) the profile consistency. We deduce the Euler differential equation for the canonical profile of μ=1/q with two types of the boundary conditions: soft and stiff. The soft conditions correspond to the Kadomtsev solution for the circular cylinder. The stiff conditions describe a fast response of the plasma over the whole cross-section on the edge impact. Using the canonical profile of the current density, we calculate the critical gradients for the temperature, and create the transport model for the electron and ion temperatures and density. We show that, when the aspect ratio is diminished, or when the elongation increases, the canonical profiles become flatten. The similar tendency for the real profiles of the electron temperature was found in analysis of JET and START experiments. The obtained critical gradients were used to analysis of the experiments in tokamaks with moderate and tight aspect ratios. (author)
Grosse Frie, Kirstin; Janssen, Christian
2009-01-01
Based on the theoretical and empirical approach of Pierre Bourdieu, a multivariate non-linear method is introduced as an alternative way to analyse the complex relationships between social determinants and health. The analysis is based on face-to-face interviews with 695 randomly selected respondents aged 30 to 59. Variables regarding socio-economic status, life circumstances, lifestyles, health-related behaviour and health were chosen for the analysis. In order to determine whether the respondents can be differentiated and described based on these variables, a non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) was performed. The results can be described on three dimensions; Eigenvalues add up to the fit of 1.444, which can be interpreted as approximately 50 % of explained variance. The three-dimensional space illustrates correspondences between variables and provides a framework for interpretation based on latent dimensions, which can be described by age, education, income and gender. Using non-linear canonical correlation analysis, health characteristics can be analysed in conjunction with socio-economic conditions and lifestyles. Based on Bourdieus theoretical approach, the complex correlations between these variables can be more substantially interpreted and presented.
Singh, Ankita; Acharya, Nachiketa; Mohanty, Uma Charan; Mishra, Gopbandhu
2013-02-01
The emerging advances in the field of dynamical prediction of monsoon using state-of-the-art General Circulation Models (GCMs) have led to the development of various multi model ensemble techniques (MMEs). In the present study, the concept of Canonical Correlation Analysis is used for making MME (referred as Multi Model Canonical Correlation Analysis or MMCCA) for the prediction of Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) during June-July-August-September (JJAS). This method has been employed on the rainfall outputs of six different GCMs for the period 1982 to 2008. The prediction skill of ISMR by MMCCA is compared with the simple composite method (SCM) (i.e. arithmetic mean of all GCMs), which is taken as a benchmark. After a rigorous analysis through different skill metrics such as correlation coefficient and index of agreement, the superiority of MMCCA over SCM is illustrated. Performance of both models is also evaluated during six typical monsoon years and the results indicate the potential of MMCCA over SCM in capturing the spatial pattern during extreme years.
Chung, Pak-Kwong; Zhao, Yanan; Liu, Jing-Dong; Quach, Binh
This study aimed to explore the relationship between the functional fitness (FF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older adults, and to identify the key subdimensions of FF and HRQoL influencing their overall relationship. This cross-sectional study was performed among 851 independent community members (65-84 years; men=402). The Senior Fitness Test and the Short Form 36 Health Survey were used to measure FF and HRQoL, respectively. A canonical correlation analysis was conducted using seven fitness variables as predictors of eight HRQoL variables to examine the relationship between FF and HRQoL. The overall FF was positively correlated with the overall HRQoL in both men (canonical correlation=0.350) and women (canonical correlation=0.456). The up-and-go and 2-min step contributed the most to FF, and physical functioning contributed the most to HRQOL among men. Conversely, the up-and-go and 30-s chair stand contributed the most to FF, and physical functioning contributed the most to HRQoL in women. There were positive and moderate relationships between overall FF and overall HRQOL in older adults. The FF has a significant influence on HRQoL, particularly physical functioning. The main FF components influencing the relationship between FF and HRQoL in men are balance and agility and aerobic endurance, whereas in women they are balance and agility and lower extremity muscle strength. Results from this study facilitate comprehensively understanding the relationship between FF and HRQoL, and generating critical insight into HRQoL improvement from the perspective of FF enhancement. Copyright Â© 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alamgir Kabir
Full Text Available This analysis was conducted to explore the association between 5 birth size measurements (weight, length and head, chest and mid-upper arm [MUAC] circumferences as dependent variables and 10 maternal factors as independent variables using canonical correlation analysis (CCA. CCA considers simultaneously sets of dependent and independent variables and, thus, generates a substantially reduced type 1 error. Data were from women delivering a singleton live birth (n = 14,506 while participating in a double-masked, cluster-randomized, placebo-controlled maternal vitamin A or β-carotene supplementation trial in rural Bangladesh. The first canonical correlation was 0.42 (P<0.001, demonstrating a moderate positive correlation mainly between the 5 birth size measurements and 5 maternal factors (preterm delivery, early pregnancy MUAC, infant sex, age and parity. A significant interaction between infant sex and preterm delivery on birth size was also revealed from the score plot. Thirteen percent of birth size variability was explained by the composite score of the maternal factors (Redundancy, RY/X = 0.131. Given an ability to accommodate numerous relationships and reduce complexities of multiple comparisons, CCA identified the 5 maternal variables able to predict birth size in this rural Bangladesh setting. CCA may offer an efficient, practical and inclusive approach to assessing the association between two sets of variables, addressing the innate complexity of interactions.
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Marcelo Teixeira Leite
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The response surface methodology and canonical analysis were employed to find the most suitable conditions for Lactobacillus helveticus to produce lactic acid from cheese whey in batch fermentation. The analyzed variables were temperature, pH, and the concentrations of lactose and yeast extract. The experiments were carried out according to a central composite design with three center points. An empiric equation that correlated the concentration of lactic acid with the independent variables was proposed. The optimal conditions determined by the canonical analysis of the fitted model were 40°C, pH 6.8, 82 g/L of lactose, and 23.36 g/L of yeast extract. At this point, the lactic acid concentration reached 59.38 g/L. A subsequent fermentation, carried out under optimal conditions, confirmed the product concentration predicted by the adjusted model. This concentration of lactic acid is the highest ever reported for Lactobacillus helveticus ATCC 15009 in batch process using cheese whey as substrate.
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Pedro Silva Moreira MSc
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Executive functioning (EF, which is considered to govern complex cognition, and verbal memory (VM are constructs assumed to be related. However, it is not known the magnitude of the association between EF and VM, and how sociodemographic and psychological factors may affect this relationship, including in normal aging. In this study, we assessed different EF and VM parameters, via a battery of neurocognitive/psychological tests, and performed a Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA to explore the connection between these constructs, in a sample of middle-aged and older healthy individuals without cognitive impairment ( N = 563, 50+ years of age. The analysis revealed a positive and moderate association between EF and VM independently of gender, age, education, global cognitive performance level, and mood. These results confirm that EF presents a significant association with VM performance.
Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory is the first work to compile the contributions of the greatest social thinkers in the global conversation about consumption and consumer culture. A prestigious reference work, it offers original chapters by the world's most prominent thought leaders....... This book provides a solid framework for understanding the relevance of these canonical authors in social theory to facilitate analysis of consumer culture, and to act as a comprehensive reference point for consumer researchers, doctoral students and practitioners....
Prera, Alejandro J; Grimsrud, Kristine M; Thacher, Jennifer A; McCollum, Dan W; Berrens, Robert P
2014-10-01
As public land management agencies pursue region-specific resource management plans, with meaningful consideration of public attitudes and values, there is a need to characterize the complex mix of environmental attitudes in a diverse population. The contribution of this investigation is to make use of a unique household, mail/internet survey data set collected in 2007 in the Southwestern United States (Region 3 of the U.S. Forest Service). With over 5,800 survey responses to a set of 25 Public Land Value statements, canonical correlation analysis is able to identify 7 statistically distinct environmental attitudinal groups. We also examine the effect of expected changes in regional demographics on overall environmental attitudes, which may help guide in the development of socially acceptable long-term forest management policies. Results show significant support for conservationist management policies and passive environmental values, as well as a greater role for stakeholder groups in generating consensus for current and future forest management policies.
Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Shangkai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gao, Xiaorong
2015-08-01
Objective. Recently, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been widely used in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) due to its high efficiency, robustness, and simple implementation. However, a method with which to make use of harmonic SSVEP components to enhance the CCA-based frequency detection has not been well established. Approach. This study proposed a filter bank canonical correlation analysis (FBCCA) method to incorporate fundamental and harmonic frequency components to improve the detection of SSVEPs. A 40-target BCI speller based on frequency coding (frequency range: 8-15.8 Hz, frequency interval: 0.2 Hz) was used for performance evaluation. To optimize the filter bank design, three methods (M1: sub-bands with equally spaced bandwidths; M2: sub-bands corresponding to individual harmonic frequency bands; M3: sub-bands covering multiple harmonic frequency bands) were proposed for comparison. Classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) of the three FBCCA methods and the standard CCA method were estimated using an offline dataset from 12 subjects. Furthermore, an online BCI speller adopting the optimal FBCCA method was tested with a group of 10 subjects. Main results. The FBCCA methods significantly outperformed the standard CCA method. The method M3 achieved the highest classification performance. At a spelling rate of ˜33.3 characters/min, the online BCI speller obtained an average ITR of 151.18 ± 20.34 bits min-1. Significance. By incorporating the fundamental and harmonic SSVEP components in target identification, the proposed FBCCA method significantly improves the performance of the SSVEP-based BCI, and thereby facilitates its practical applications such as high-speed spelling.
Anastasiadou, Maria N; Christodoulakis, Manolis; Papathanasiou, Eleftherios S; Papacostas, Savvas S; Mitsis, Georgios D
2017-09-01
This paper proposes supervised and unsupervised algorithms for automatic muscle artifact detection and removal from long-term EEG recordings, which combine canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and wavelets with random forests (RF). The proposed algorithms first perform CCA and continuous wavelet transform of the canonical components to generate a number of features which include component autocorrelation values and wavelet coefficient magnitude values. A subset of the most important features is subsequently selected using RF and labelled observations (supervised case) or synthetic data constructed from the original observations (unsupervised case). The proposed algorithms are evaluated using realistic simulation data as well as 30min epochs of non-invasive EEG recordings obtained from ten patients with epilepsy. We assessed the performance of the proposed algorithms using classification performance and goodness-of-fit values for noisy and noise-free signal windows. In the simulation study, where the ground truth was known, the proposed algorithms yielded almost perfect performance. In the case of experimental data, where expert marking was performed, the results suggest that both the supervised and unsupervised algorithm versions were able to remove artifacts without affecting noise-free channels considerably, outperforming standard CCA, independent component analysis (ICA) and Lagged Auto-Mutual Information Clustering (LAMIC). The proposed algorithms achieved excellent performance for both simulation and experimental data. Importantly, for the first time to our knowledge, we were able to perform entirely unsupervised artifact removal, i.e. without using already marked noisy data segments, achieving performance that is comparable to the supervised case. Overall, the results suggest that the proposed algorithms yield significant future potential for improving EEG signal quality in research or clinical settings without the need for marking by expert
Lin, Nan; Zhu, Yun; Fan, Ruzong; Xiong, Momiao
2017-10-01
Investigating the pleiotropic effects of genetic variants can increase statistical power, provide important information to achieve deep understanding of the complex genetic structures of disease, and offer powerful tools for designing effective treatments with fewer side effects. However, the current multiple phenotype association analysis paradigm lacks breadth (number of phenotypes and genetic variants jointly analyzed at the same time) and depth (hierarchical structure of phenotype and genotypes). A key issue for high dimensional pleiotropic analysis is to effectively extract informative internal representation and features from high dimensional genotype and phenotype data. To explore correlation information of genetic variants, effectively reduce data dimensions, and overcome critical barriers in advancing the development of novel statistical methods and computational algorithms for genetic pleiotropic analysis, we proposed a new statistic method referred to as a quadratically regularized functional CCA (QRFCCA) for association analysis which combines three approaches: (1) quadratically regularized matrix factorization, (2) functional data analysis and (3) canonical correlation analysis (CCA). Large-scale simulations show that the QRFCCA has a much higher power than that of the ten competing statistics while retaining the appropriate type 1 errors. To further evaluate performance, the QRFCCA and ten other statistics are applied to the whole genome sequencing dataset from the TwinsUK study. We identify a total of 79 genes with rare variants and 67 genes with common variants significantly associated with the 46 traits using QRFCCA. The results show that the QRFCCA substantially outperforms the ten other statistics.
Hao, Xiaoke; Li, Chanxiu; Yan, Jingwen; Yao, Xiaohui; Risacher, Shannon L; Saykin, Andrew J; Shen, Li; Zhang, Daoqiang
2017-07-15
Neuroimaging genetics identifies the relationships between genetic variants (i.e., the single nucleotide polymorphisms) and brain imaging data to reveal the associations from genotypes to phenotypes. So far, most existing machine-learning approaches are widely used to detect the effective associations between genetic variants and brain imaging data at one time-point. However, those associations are based on static phenotypes and ignore the temporal dynamics of the phenotypical changes. The phenotypes across multiple time-points may exhibit temporal patterns that can be used to facilitate the understanding of the degenerative process. In this article, we propose a novel temporally constrained group sparse canonical correlation analysis (TGSCCA) framework to identify genetic associations with longitudinal phenotypic markers. The proposed TGSCCA method is able to capture the temporal changes in brain from longitudinal phenotypes by incorporating the fused penalty, which requires that the differences between two consecutive canonical weight vectors from adjacent time-points should be small. A new efficient optimization algorithm is designed to solve the objective function. Furthermore, we demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm on both synthetic and real data (i.e., the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort, including progressive mild cognitive impairment, stable MCI and Normal Control participants). In comparison with conventional SCCA, our proposed method can achieve strong associations and discover phenotypic biomarkers across multiple time-points to guide disease-progressive interpretation. The Matlab code is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/ibrain-cn/files/ . dqzhang@nuaa.edu.cn or shenli@iu.edu. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brain, P; Strimenopoulou, F; Ivarsson, M; Wilson, F J; Diukova, A; Wise, R G; Berry, E; Jolly, A; Hall, J E
2014-01-01
Conventional analysis of clinical resting electroencephalography (EEG) recordings typically involves assessment of spectral power in pre-defined frequency bands at specific electrodes. EEG is a potentially useful technique in drug development for measuring the pharmacodynamic (PD) effects of a centrally acting compound and hence to assess the likelihood of success of a novel drug based on pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK–PD) principles. However, the need to define the electrodes and spectral bands to be analysed a priori is limiting where the nature of the drug-induced EEG effects is initially not known. We describe the extension to human EEG data of a generalised semi-linear canonical correlation analysis (GSLCCA), developed for small animal data. GSLCCA uses data from the whole spectrum, the entire recording duration and multiple electrodes. It provides interpretable information on the mechanism of drug action and a PD measure suitable for use in PK–PD modelling. Data from a study with low (analgesic) doses of the μ-opioid agonist, remifentanil, in 12 healthy subjects were analysed using conventional spectral edge analysis and GSLCCA. At this low dose, the conventional analysis was unsuccessful but plausible results consistent with previous observations were obtained using GSLCCA, confirming that GSLCCA can be successfully applied to clinical EEG data. (paper)
Cetin, Bayram; Ilhan, Mustafa; Yilmaz, Ferat
2014-01-01
The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between the fear of receiving negative criticism and taking academic risk through canonical correlation analysis-in which a relational model was used. The participants of the study consisted of 215 university students enrolled in various programs at Dicle University's Ziya Gökalp Faculty of…
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xun Chen
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Electroencephalogram (EEG recordings are often contaminated with muscle artifacts. This disturbing muscular activity strongly affects the visual analysis of EEG and impairs the results of EEG signal processing such as brain connectivity analysis. If multichannel EEG recordings are available, then there exist a considerable range of methods which can remove or to some extent suppress the distorting effect of such artifacts. Yet to our knowledge, there is no existing means to remove muscle artifacts from single-channel EEG recordings. Moreover, considering the recently increasing need for biomedical signal processing in ambulatory situations, it is crucially important to develop single-channel techniques. In this work, we propose a simple, yet effective method to achieve the muscle artifact removal from single-channel EEG, by combining ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD with multiset canonical correlation analysis (MCCA. We demonstrate the performance of the proposed method through numerical simulations and application to real EEG recordings contaminated with muscle artifacts. The proposed method can successfully remove muscle artifacts without altering the recorded underlying EEG activity. It is a promising tool for real-world biomedical signal processing applications.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Olkhovsky
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Recent developments are reviewed and some new results are presented in the study of time in quantum mechanics and quantum electrodynamics as an observable, canonically conjugate to energy. This paper deals with the maximal Hermitian (but nonself-adjoint operator for time which appears in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics and in quantum electrodynamics for systems with continuous energy spectra and also, briefly, with the four-momentum and four-position operators, for relativistic spin-zero particles. Two measures of averaging over time and connection between them are analyzed. The results of the study of time as a quantum observable in the cases of the discrete energy spectra are also presented, and in this case the quasi-self-adjoint time operator appears. Then, the general foundations of time analysis of quantum processes (collisions and decays are developed on the base of time operator with the proper measures of averaging over time. Finally, some applications of time analysis of quantum processes (concretely, tunneling phenomena and nuclear processes are reviewed.
Mohammadi-Nejad, Ali-Reza; Hossein-Zadeh, Gholam-Ali; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid
2017-07-01
Multi-modal data fusion has recently emerged as a comprehensive neuroimaging analysis approach, which usually uses canonical correlation analysis (CCA). However, the current CCA-based fusion approaches face problems like high-dimensionality, multi-collinearity, unimodal feature selection, asymmetry, and loss of spatial information in reshaping the imaging data into vectors. This paper proposes a structured and sparse CCA (ssCCA) technique as a novel CCA method to overcome the above problems. To investigate the performance of the proposed algorithm, we have compared three data fusion techniques: standard CCA, regularized CCA, and ssCCA, and evaluated their ability to detect multi-modal data associations. We have used simulations to compare the performance of these approaches and probe the effects of non-negativity constraint, the dimensionality of features, sample size, and noise power. The results demonstrate that ssCCA outperforms the existing standard and regularized CCA-based fusion approaches. We have also applied the methods to real functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and structural MRI data of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients (n = 34) and healthy control (HC) subjects (n = 42) from the ADNI database. The results illustrate that the proposed unsupervised technique differentiates the transition pattern between the subject-course of AD patients and HC subjects with a p-value of less than 1×10 -6 . Furthermore, we have depicted the brain mapping of functional areas that are most correlated with the anatomical changes in AD patients relative to HC subjects.
Somers, Ben; Bertrand, Alexander
2016-12-01
Chronic, 24/7 EEG monitoring requires the use of highly miniaturized EEG modules, which only measure a few EEG channels over a small area. For improved spatial coverage, a wireless EEG sensor network (WESN) can be deployed, consisting of multiple EEG modules, which interact through short-distance wireless communication. In this paper, we aim to remove eye blink artifacts in each EEG channel of a WESN by optimally exploiting the correlation between EEG signals from different modules, under stringent communication bandwidth constraints. We apply a distributed canonical correlation analysis (CCA-)based algorithm, in which each module only transmits an optimal linear combination of its local EEG channels to the other modules. The method is validated on both synthetic and real EEG data sets, with emulated wireless transmissions. While strongly reducing the amount of data that is shared between nodes, we demonstrate that the algorithm achieves the same eye blink artifact removal performance as the equivalent centralized CCA algorithm, which is at least as good as other state-of-the-art multi-channel algorithms that require a transmission of all channels. Due to their potential for extreme miniaturization, WESNs are viewed as an enabling technology for chronic EEG monitoring. However, multi-channel analysis is hampered in WESNs due to the high energy cost for wireless communication. This paper shows that multi-channel eye blink artifact removal is possible with a significantly reduced wireless communication between EEG modules.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sliusarenko, Tamara; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder
correlation analysis (CCA) to investigate the association between how students evaluate the course and how students evaluate the teacher and to reveal the structure of this association. Student’s evaluation data is characterized by high correlation between the variables (questions) and insufficient sample...
Multi-set multi-temporal canonical analysis of psoriasis images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gomez, David Delgado; Maletti, Gabriela Mariel; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg
2004-01-01
to detect where changes occur. An experiment with 5 different time series collected from psoriasis patients during 4 different sessions is conducted. The analysis of the obtained results points out some patterns that can be used both to interpret and summarize the evolution of the lesion and to achieve...
DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2015-09-28
Sep 28, 2015 ... We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis. (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA ...
Generalized Canonical Time Warping.
Zhou, Feng; De la Torre, Fernando
2016-02-01
Temporal alignment of human motion has been of recent interest due to its applications in animation, tele-rehabilitation and activity recognition. This paper presents generalized canonical time warping (GCTW), an extension of dynamic time warping (DTW) and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) for temporally aligning multi-modal sequences from multiple subjects performing similar activities. GCTW extends previous work on DTW and CCA in several ways: (1) it combines CCA with DTW to align multi-modal data (e.g., video and motion capture data); (2) it extends DTW by using a linear combination of monotonic functions to represent the warping path, providing a more flexible temporal warp. Unlike exact DTW, which has quadratic complexity, we propose a linear time algorithm to minimize GCTW. (3) GCTW allows simultaneous alignment of multiple sequences. Experimental results on aligning multi-modal data, facial expressions, motion capture data and video illustrate the benefits of GCTW. The code is available at http://humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/ctw.
Van der Vyver’s analysis of rights: a case study drawn from thirteenth-century canon law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Charles J. Reid, Jr.
1999-03-01
Full Text Available In an important article published in 1988, Johan Van der Vyver challenged the prevailing reliance on Wesley Hohfeld’s taxonomy of rights. Hohfeld's division of rights into claims, powers, privileges and immunities, Van der Vyver stresses, is excessively concerned with "inter-individual legal relations” at the expense of the right-holder's relationship to the object of the right. Van der Vyver proposes instead that an assertion of right involves three distinct juridic aspects:• legal capacity, which is "the competence to occupy the offices of legal subject;• legal claim, which "comprises claims of a legal subject as against other persons to a legal object";• legal entitlement, which specifies the boundaries of the right-holder's ability to use, enjoy, consume, destroy or alienate the right in question.This article applies Van der Vyver’s taxonomy to the operations of thirteenthcentury canon law, and demonstrates that Van der Vyver’s analysis provides greater depth than Hohfeld's, in that it considers both the relationship of the person claiming a particular right and the object of that right.
Cao, Lei; Ju, Zhengyu; Li, Jie; Jian, Rongjun; Jiang, Changjun
2015-09-30
Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) has been widely applied to develop brain computer interface (BCI) systems. The essence of SSVEP recognition is to recognize the frequency component of target stimulus focused by a subject significantly present in EEG spectrum. In this paper, a novel statistical approach based on sequence detection (SD) is proposed for improving the performance of SSVEP recognition. This method uses canonical correlation analysis (CCA) coefficients to observe SSVEP signal sequence. And then, a threshold strategy is utilized for SSVEP recognition. The result showed the classification performance with the longer duration of time window achieved the higher accuracy for most subjects. And the average time costing per trial was lower than the predefined recognition time. It was implicated that our approach could improve the speed of BCI system in contrast to other methods. Comparison with existing method(s): In comparison with other resultful algorithms, experimental accuracy of SD approach was better than those using a widely used CCA-based method and two newly proposed algorithms, least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) recognition model as well as multivariate synchronization index (MSI) method. Furthermore, the information transfer rate (ITR) obtained by SD approach was higher than those using other three methods for most participants. These conclusions demonstrated that our proposed method was promising for a high-speed online BCI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Fixed point theory, variational analysis, and optimization
Al-Mezel, Saleh Abdullah R; Ansari, Qamrul Hasan
2015-01-01
""There is a real need for this book. It is useful for people who work in areas of nonlinear analysis, optimization theory, variational inequalities, and mathematical economics.""-Nan-Jing Huang, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuce, A. M.; Gonulol, A.
2016-01-01
This study aimed to determine the relationship between environmental parameters and epiphytic diatoms. Four sampling sites were selected in the littoral region of Lake Egirdir. Macrophytes were taken seasonally from July 2012 to April 2013. Submerged samples (Myriophyllum spicatum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L., Ceratophylum sp. and Valisneria sp.) were collected for the analysis of epiphytic algae. Twenty-four diatom species were identified in this study. Cocconeis pediculus Ehrenberg was identified as the most abundant epiphytic diatom on the Myriophyllum spicatum L., Potamogeton perfoliatus L., Ceratophylum sp. and Valisneria sp. Besides, physical and chemical parameters of lake water were determined. Water temperature, pH and conductivity varied from 6.9 - 26.3 degree C, 8.9-9.1, 276.1, 388.1 micro S/cm, dissolved oxygen values as 11.8 - 9.7 mg -1, respectively. Concentration of calcium, magnesium, silicon, nitrate and phosphate ranged 41.3-32.1, 36.5- 41.3, 5.7 -6.1, 1.1- 3.4 and 0.02- 0.43 mg -1, respectively. It was concluded that wave motions in aquatic environments and water quality parameters are primarily effective in the distribution of epiphytic diatoms, seasons are important in the development of some species, and macrophytes provide support for the species to attach to the surfaces according to their morphological differences, despite not being very determinative. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos García-Bedoya Maguiña
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Canon es un concepto clave en la historia literaria. En el presente artículo,se revisa la evolución histórica del canon literario peruano. Es solo con la llamada República Aristocrática, en las primeras décadas del siglo XX, que cabe hablar en el caso peruano de la formación de un auténtico canon nacional. El autor denomina a esta primera versión del canon literario peruano como canon oligárquico y destaca la importancia de la obra de Riva Agüero y de Ventura García Calderón en su configuración. Es solo más tarde, desde los años 20 y de modo definitivo desde los años 50, que puede hablarse de la emergencia de un nuevo canon literarioal que el autor propone determinar canon posoligárquico.
Nguyen, Laura A; Domaoal, Robert A; Kennedy, Edward M; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Schinazi, Raymond F; Kim, Baek
2015-03-01
Non-dividing macrophages maintain extremely low cellular deoxyribonucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) levels, but high ribonucleotide triphosphate (rNTP) concentrations. The disparate nucleotide pools kinetically forces Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1) reverse transcriptase (RT) to incorporate non-canonical rNTPs during reverse transcription. HIV-1 RT pauses near ribonucleoside monophosphates (rNMPs) embedded in the template DNA, which has previously been shown to enhance mismatch extension. Here, pre-steady state kinetic analysis shows rNTP binding affinity (Kd) of HIV-1 RT for non-canonical rNTPs was 1.4- to 43-fold lower, and the rNTP rate of incorporation (kpol) was 15- to 1551-fold slower than for dNTPs. This suggests that RT is more selective for incorporation of dNTPs rather than rNTPs. HIV-1 RT selectivity for dNTP versus rNTP is the lowest for ATP, implying that HIV-1 RT preferentially incorporates ATP when dATP concentration is limited. We observed that incorporation of a dNTP occurring one nucleotide before an embedded rNMP in the template had a 29-fold greater Kd and a 20-fold slower kpol as compared to the same template containing dNMP. This reduced the overall dNTP incorporation efficiency of HIV-1 RT by 581-fold. Finally, the RT mutant Y115F displayed lower discrimination against rNTPs due to its increase in binding affinity for non-canonical rNTPs. Overall, these kinetic results demonstrate that HIV-1 RT utilizes both substrate binding and a conformational change during: (1) enzymatic discrimination of non-canonical rNTPs from dNTPs and (2) during dNTP primer extension with DNA templates containing embedded rNMP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Classifying Linear Canonical Relations
Lorand, Jonathan
2015-01-01
In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.
A Climatological Analysis of Geoelectric Field Variations
Balch, C. C.; Cilliers, P. J.; Viljanen, A.; Thomson, A. W. P.; Gaunt, T.; Lotz, S.
2015-12-01
Geomagnetic variations induce currents that flow along natural and artificial conducting pathways including critical infrastructure such as the electrical power grid. The level of induction is controlled by the geoelectric field at the Earth's surface, which may be calculated by convolving the geomagnetic variations with an earth-conductivity model. We carry out a long-term statistical analysis of calculated geoelectric field variations using about 30 years of geomagnetic observations from selected locations. We find two dominant classes of geoelectric field events: those that are driven by shock arrival at the Earth which produces a sudden impulse or sudden storm commencement, and those that are associated with geomagnetic storm activity. We provide a historical perspective on the distribution of the geoelectric field for these types of events and compare the geoelectric field with other measures of geomagnetic activity. We also demonstrate the sensitivity of these results to different conductivity models and to geomagnetic latitude.
Fan fiction, early Greece, and the historicity of canon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ahuvia Kahane
2016-03-01
Full Text Available The historicity of canon is considered with an emphasis on contemporary fan fiction and early Greek oral epic traditions. The essay explores the idea of canon by highlighting historical variance, exposing wider conceptual isomorphisms, and formulating a revised notion of canonicity. Based on an analysis of canon in early Greece, the discussion moves away from the idea of canon as a set of valued works and toward canon as a practice of containment in response to inherent states of surplus. This view of canon is applied to the practice of fan fiction, reestablishing the idea of canonicity in fluid production environments within a revised, historically specific understanding in early oral traditions on the one hand and in digital cultures and fan fiction on the other. Several examples of early epigraphic Greek texts embedded in oral environments are analyzed and assessed in terms of their implications for an understanding of fan fiction and its modern contexts.
Relations between canonical and non-canonical inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gwyn, Rhiannon [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Potsdam (Germany); Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group
2012-12-15
We look for potential observational degeneracies between canonical and non-canonical models of inflation of a single field {phi}. Non-canonical inflationary models are characterized by higher than linear powers of the standard kinetic term X in the effective Lagrangian p(X,{phi}) and arise for instance in the context of the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action in string theory. An on-shell transformation is introduced that transforms non-canonical inflationary theories to theories with a canonical kinetic term. The 2-point function observables of the original non-canonical theory and its canonical transform are found to match in the case of DBI inflation.
Bai, Yongsheng; Kinne, Jeff; Ding, Lizhong; Rath, Ethan C; Cox, Aaron; Naidu, Siva Dharman
2017-10-03
It is generally thought that most canonical or non-canonical splicing events involving U2- and U12 spliceosomes occur within nuclear pre-mRNAs. However, the question of whether at least some U12-type splicing occurs in the cytoplasm is still unclear. In recent years next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field. The "Read-Split-Walk" (RSW) and "Read-Split-Run" (RSR) methods were developed to identify genome-wide non-canonical spliced regions including special events occurring in cytoplasm. As the significant amount of genome/transcriptome data such as, Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project, have been generated, we have advanced a newer more memory-efficient version of the algorithm, "Read-Split-Fly" (RSF), which can detect non-canonical spliced regions with higher sensitivity and improved speed. The RSF algorithm also outputs the spliced sequences for further downstream biological function analysis. We used open access ENCODE project RNA-Seq data to search spliced intron sequences against the U12-type spliced intron sequence database to examine whether some events could occur as potential signatures of U12-type splicing. The check was performed by searching spliced sequences against 5'ss and 3'ss sequences from the well-known orthologous U12-type spliceosomal intron database U12DB. Preliminary results of searching 70 ENCODE samples indicated that the presence of 5'ss with U12-type signature is more frequent than U2-type and prevalent in non-canonical junctions reported by RSF. The selected spliced sequences have also been further studied using miRBase to elucidate their functionality. Preliminary results from 70 samples of ENCODE datasets show that several miRNAs are prevalent in studied ENCODE samples. Two of these are associated with many diseases as suggested in the literature. Specifically, hsa-miR-1273 and hsa-miR-548 are associated with many diseases and cancers. Our RSF pipeline is able to detect many possible junctions
Cichonska, Anna; Rousu, Juho; Marttinen, Pekka; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitakari, Olli T; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Salomaa, Veikko; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Ripatti, Samuli; Pirinen, Matti
2016-07-01
A dominant approach to genetic association studies is to perform univariate tests between genotype-phenotype pairs. However, analyzing related traits together increases statistical power, and certain complex associations become detectable only when several variants are tested jointly. Currently, modest sample sizes of individual cohorts, and restricted availability of individual-level genotype-phenotype data across the cohorts limit conducting multivariate tests. We introduce metaCCA, a computational framework for summary statistics-based analysis of a single or multiple studies that allows multivariate representation of both genotype and phenotype. It extends the statistical technique of canonical correlation analysis to the setting where original individual-level records are not available, and employs a covariance shrinkage algorithm to achieve robustness.Multivariate meta-analysis of two Finnish studies of nuclear magnetic resonance metabolomics by metaCCA, using standard univariate output from the program SNPTEST, shows an excellent agreement with the pooled individual-level analysis of original data. Motivated by strong multivariate signals in the lipid genes tested, we envision that multivariate association testing using metaCCA has a great potential to provide novel insights from already published summary statistics from high-throughput phenotyping technologies. Code is available at https://github.com/aalto-ics-kepaco anna.cichonska@helsinki.fi or matti.pirinen@helsinki.fi Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.
Ayari-Lassueur, Sylvie
2012-01-01
Avicenna spoke on pharmacology in several works, and this article considers his discussions in the Canon, a vast synthesis of the greco-arabian medicine of his time. More precisely, it focuses on book II, which treats simple medicines. This text makes evident that the Persian physician's central preoccupation was the efficacy of the treatment, since it concentrates on the properties of medicines. In this context, the article examines their different classifications and related topics, such as the notion of temperament, central to Avicenna's thought, and the concrete effects medicines have on the body. Yet, these theoretical notions only have sense in practical application. For Avicenna, medicine is both a theoretical and a practical science. For this reason, the second book of the Canon ends with an imposing pharmacopoeia, where the properties described theoretically at the beginning of the book appear in the list of simple medicines, so that the physician can select them according to the intended treatment's goals. The article analyzes a plant from this pharmacopoeia as an example of this practical application, making evident the logic Avicenna uses in detailing the different properties of each simple medicine.
Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity
Thiemann, Thomas
2008-11-01
Preface; Notation and conventions; Introduction; Part I. Classical Foundations, Interpretation and the Canonical Quantisation Programme: 1. Classical Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity; 2. The problem of time, locality and the interpretation of quantum mechanics; 3. The programme of canonical quantisation; 4. The new canonical variables of Ashtekar for general relativity; Part II. Foundations of Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity: 5. Introduction; 6. Step I: the holonomy-flux algebra [P]; 7. Step II: quantum-algebra; 8. Step III: representation theory of [A]; 9. Step IV: 1. Implementation and solution of the kinematical constraints; 10. Step V: 2. Implementation and solution of the Hamiltonian constraint; 11. Step VI: semiclassical analysis; Part III. Physical Applications: 12. Extension to standard matter; 13. Kinematical geometrical operators; 14. Spin foam models; 15. Quantum black hole physics; 16. Applications to particle physics and quantum cosmology; 17. Loop quantum gravity phenomenology; Part IV. Mathematical Tools and their Connection to Physics: 18. Tools from general topology; 19. Differential, Riemannian, symplectic and complex geometry; 20. Semianalytical category; 21. Elements of fibre bundle theory; 22. Holonomies on non-trivial fibre bundles; 23. Geometric quantisation; 24. The Dirac algorithm for field theories with constraints; 25. Tools from measure theory; 26. Elementary introduction to Gel'fand theory for Abelean C* algebras; 27. Bohr compactification of the real line; 28. Operatir -algebras and spectral theorem; 29. Refined algebraic quantisation (RAQ) and direct integral decomposition (DID); 30. Basics of harmonic analysis on compact Lie groups; 31. Spin network functions for SU(2); 32. + Functional analytical description of classical connection dynamics; Bibliography; Index.
Baur, Brittany; Bozdag, Serdar
2015-04-01
One of the challenging and important computational problems in systems biology is to infer gene regulatory networks (GRNs) of biological systems. Several methods that exploit gene expression data have been developed to tackle this problem. In this study, we propose the use of copy number and DNA methylation data to infer GRNs. We developed an algorithm that scores regulatory interactions between genes based on canonical correlation analysis. In this algorithm, copy number or DNA methylation variables are treated as potential regulator variables, and expression variables are treated as potential target variables. We first validated that the canonical correlation analysis method is able to infer true interactions in high accuracy. We showed that the use of DNA methylation or copy number datasets leads to improved inference over steady-state expression. Our results also showed that epigenetic and structural information could be used to infer directionality of regulatory interactions. Additional improvements in GRN inference can be gleaned from incorporating the result in an informative prior in a dynamic Bayesian algorithm. This is the first study that incorporates copy number and DNA methylation into an informative prior in dynamic Bayesian framework. By closely examining top-scoring interactions with different sources of epigenetic or structural information, we also identified potential novel regulatory interactions.
Big Data Analysis of Human Genome Variations
Gojobori, Takashi
2016-01-25
Since the human genome draft sequence was in public for the first time in 2000, genomic analyses have been intensively extended to the population level. The following three international projects are good examples for large-scale studies of human genome variations: 1) HapMap Data (1,417 individuals) (http://hapmap.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/downloads/genotypes/2010-08_phaseII+III/forward/), 2) HGDP (Human Genome Diversity Project) Data (940 individuals) (http://www.hagsc.org/hgdp/files.html), 3) 1000 genomes Data (2,504 individuals) http://ftp.1000genomes.ebi.ac.uk/vol1/ftp/release/20130502/ If we can integrate all three data into a single volume of data, we should be able to conduct a more detailed analysis of human genome variations for a total number of 4,861 individuals (= 1,417+940+2,504 individuals). In fact, we successfully integrated these three data sets by use of information on the reference human genome sequence, and we conducted the big data analysis. In particular, we constructed a phylogenetic tree of about 5,000 human individuals at the genome level. As a result, we were able to identify clusters of ethnic groups, with detectable admixture, that were not possible by an analysis of each of the three data sets. Here, we report the outcome of this kind of big data analyses and discuss evolutionary significance of human genomic variations. Note that the present study was conducted in collaboration with Katsuhiko Mineta and Kosuke Goto at KAUST.
Unified correspondence and canonicity
Zhao, Z.
2018-01-01
Correspondence theory originally arises as the study of the relation between modal formulas and first-order formulas interpreted over Kripke frames. We say that a modal formula and a first-order formula correspond to each other if they are valid on the same class of Kripke frames. Canonicity theory
Cluster-based exposure variation analysis
2013-01-01
Background Static posture, repetitive movements and lack of physical variation are known risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders, and thus needs to be properly assessed in occupational studies. The aims of this study were (i) to investigate the effectiveness of a conventional exposure variation analysis (EVA) in discriminating exposure time lines and (ii) to compare it with a new cluster-based method for analysis of exposure variation. Methods For this purpose, we simulated a repeated cyclic exposure varying within each cycle between “low” and “high” exposure levels in a “near” or “far” range, and with “low” or “high” velocities (exposure change rates). The duration of each cycle was also manipulated by selecting a “small” or “large” standard deviation of the cycle time. Theses parameters reflected three dimensions of exposure variation, i.e. range, frequency and temporal similarity. Each simulation trace included two realizations of 100 concatenated cycles with either low (ρ = 0.1), medium (ρ = 0.5) or high (ρ = 0.9) correlation between the realizations. These traces were analyzed by conventional EVA, and a novel cluster-based EVA (C-EVA). Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied on the marginal distributions of 1) the EVA of each of the realizations (univariate approach), 2) a combination of the EVA of both realizations (multivariate approach) and 3) C-EVA. The least number of principal components describing more than 90% of variability in each case was selected and the projection of marginal distributions along the selected principal component was calculated. A linear classifier was then applied to these projections to discriminate between the simulated exposure patterns, and the accuracy of classified realizations was determined. Results C-EVA classified exposures more correctly than univariate and multivariate EVA approaches; classification accuracy was 49%, 47% and 52% for EVA (univariate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gaora Peadar Ó
2010-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, a number of bioinformatics methods are available to generate appropriate lists of genes from a microarray experiment. While these lists represent an accurate primary analysis of the data, fewer options exist to contextualise those lists. The development and validation of such methods is crucial to the wider application of microarray technology in the clinical setting. Two key challenges in clinical bioinformatics involve appropriate statistical modelling of dynamic transcriptomic changes, and extraction of clinically relevant meaning from very large datasets. Results Here, we apply an approach to gene set enrichment analysis that allows for detection of bi-directional enrichment within a gene set. Furthermore, we apply canonical correlation analysis and Fisher's exact test, using plasma marker data with known clinical relevance to aid identification of the most important gene and pathway changes in our transcriptomic dataset. After a 28-day dietary intervention with high-CLA beef, a range of plasma markers indicated a marked improvement in the metabolic health of genetically obese mice. Tissue transcriptomic profiles indicated that the effects were most dramatic in liver (1270 genes significantly changed; p Conclusion Bi-directional gene set enrichment analysis more accurately reflects dynamic regulatory behaviour in biochemical pathways, and as such highlighted biologically relevant changes that were not detected using a traditional approach. In such cases where transcriptomic response to treatment is exceptionally large, canonical correlation analysis in conjunction with Fisher's exact test highlights the subset of pathways showing strongest correlation with the clinical markers of interest. In this case, we have identified selenoamino acid metabolism and steroid biosynthesis as key pathways mediating the observed relationship between metabolic health and high-CLA beef. These results indicate that this type of
Canonical trivialization of gravitational gradients
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niedermaier, Max
2017-01-01
A one-parameter family of canonical transformations is constructed that reduces the Hamiltonian form of the Einstein–Hilbert action to its strong coupling limit where dynamical spatial gradients are absent. The parameter can alternatively be viewed as the overall scale of the spatial metric or as a fractional inverse power of Newton’s constant. The generating function of the canonical transformation is constructed iteratively as a powerseries in the parameter to all orders. The algorithm draws on Lie–Deprit transformation theory and defines a ‘trivialization map’ with several bonus properties: (i) Trivialization of the Hamiltonian constraint implies that of the action while the diffeomorphism constraint is automatically co-transformed. (ii) Only a set of ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to drive the iteration via a homological equation where no gauge fixing is required. (iii) In contrast to (the classical limit of) a Lagrangian trivialization map the algorithm also produces series solutions of the field equations. (iv) In the strong coupling theory temporal gauge variations are abelian, nevertheless the map intertwines with the respective gauge symmetries on the action, the field equations, and their solutions. (paper)
Canonical trivialization of gravitational gradients
Niedermaier, Max
2017-06-01
A one-parameter family of canonical transformations is constructed that reduces the Hamiltonian form of the Einstein-Hilbert action to its strong coupling limit where dynamical spatial gradients are absent. The parameter can alternatively be viewed as the overall scale of the spatial metric or as a fractional inverse power of Newton’s constant. The generating function of the canonical transformation is constructed iteratively as a powerseries in the parameter to all orders. The algorithm draws on Lie-Deprit transformation theory and defines a ‘trivialization map’ with several bonus properties: (i) Trivialization of the Hamiltonian constraint implies that of the action while the diffeomorphism constraint is automatically co-transformed. (ii) Only a set of ordinary differential equations needs to be solved to drive the iteration via a homological equation where no gauge fixing is required. (iii) In contrast to (the classical limit of) a Lagrangian trivialization map the algorithm also produces series solutions of the field equations. (iv) In the strong coupling theory temporal gauge variations are abelian, nevertheless the map intertwines with the respective gauge symmetries on the action, the field equations, and their solutions.
The canonical and grand canonical models for nuclear ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Many observables seen in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions can be explained on the basis of statistical equilibrium. Calculations based on statistical equilibrium can be implemented in microcanonical ensemble, canonical ensemble or grand canonical ensemble. This paper deals with calculations with canonical ...
Realizations of the canonical representation
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.
Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism
Philbin, Thomas Gerard
2010-01-01
Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Krame...
SVAMP: Sequence variation analysis, maps and phylogeny
Naeem, Raeece
2014-04-03
Summary: SVAMP is a stand-alone desktop application to visualize genomic variants (in variant call format) in the context of geographical metadata. Users of SVAMP are able to generate phylogenetic trees and perform principal coordinate analysis in real time from variant call format (VCF) and associated metadata files. Allele frequency map, geographical map of isolates, Tajima\\'s D metric, single nucleotide polymorphism density, GC and variation density are also available for visualization in real time. We demonstrate the utility of SVAMP in tracking a methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus outbreak from published next-generation sequencing data across 15 countries. We also demonstrate the scalability and accuracy of our software on 245 Plasmodium falciparum malaria isolates from three continents. Availability and implementation: The Qt/C++ software code, binaries, user manual and example datasets are available at http://cbrc.kaust.edu.sa/svamp. © The Author 2014.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heather J Beck
Full Text Available Analysis of the Escherichia coli transcriptome identified a unique subset of messenger RNAs (mRNAs that contain a conventional untranslated leader and Shine-Dalgarno (SD sequence upstream of the gene's start codon while also containing an AUG triplet at the mRNA's 5'- terminus (5'-uAUG. Fusion of the coding sequence specified by the 5'-terminal putative AUG start codon to a lacZ reporter gene, as well as primer extension inhibition assays, reveal that the majority of the 5'-terminal upstream open reading frames (5'-uORFs tested support some level of lacZ translation, indicating that these mRNAs can function both as leaderless and canonical SD-leadered mRNAs. Although some of the uORFs were expressed at low levels, others were expressed at levels close to that of the respective downstream genes and as high as the naturally leaderless cI mRNA of bacteriophage λ. These 5'-terminal uORFs potentially encode peptides of varying lengths, but their functions, if any, are unknown. In an effort to determine whether expression from the 5'-terminal uORFs impact expression of the immediately downstream cistron, we examined expression from the downstream coding sequence after mutations were introduced that inhibit efficient 5'-uORF translation. These mutations were found to affect expression from the downstream cistrons to varying degrees, suggesting that some 5'-uORFs may play roles in downstream regulation. Since the 5'-uAUGs found on these conventionally leadered mRNAs can function to bind ribosomes and initiate translation, this indicates that canonical mRNAs containing 5'-uAUGs should be examined for their potential to function also as leaderless mRNAs.
Statistics of canonical RNA pseudoknot structures.
Huang, Fenix W D; Reidys, Christian M
2008-08-07
In this paper we study canonical RNA pseudoknot structures. We prove central limit theorems for the distributions of the arc-numbers of k-noncrossing RNA structures with given minimum stack-size tau over n nucleotides. Furthermore we compare the space of all canonical structures with canonical minimum free energy pseudoknot structures. Our results generalize the analysis of Schuster et al. obtained for RNA secondary structures [Hofacker, I.L., Schuster, P., Stadler, P.F., 1998. Combinatorics of RNA secondary structures. Discrete Appl. Math. 88, 207-237; Jin, E.Y., Reidys, C.M., 2007b. Central and local limit theorems for RNA structures. J. Theor. Biol. 250 (2008), 547-559; 2007a. Asymptotic enumeration of RNA structures with pseudoknots. Bull. Math. Biol., 70 (4), 951-970] to k-noncrossing RNA structures. Here k2 and tau are arbitrary natural numbers. We compare canonical pseudoknot structures to arbitrary structures and show that canonical pseudoknot structures exhibit significantly smaller exponential growth rates. We then compute the asymptotic distribution of their arc-numbers. Finally, we analyze how the minimum stack-size and crossing number factor into the distributions.
Canonical problems in scattering and potential theory
Vinogradov, SS; Vinogradova, ED
2001-01-01
Although the analysis of scattering for closed bodies of simple geometric shape is well developed, structures with edges, cavities, or inclusions have seemed, until now, intractable to analytical methods. This two-volume set describes a breakthrough in analytical techniques for accurately determining diffraction from classes of canonical scatterers with comprising edges and other complex cavity features. It is an authoritative account of mathematical developments over the last two decades that provides benchmarks against which solutions obtained by numerical methods can be verified.The first volume, Canonical Structures in Potential Theory, develops the mathematics, solving mixed boundary potential problems for structures with cavities and edges. The second volume, Acoustic and Electromagnetic Diffraction by Canonical Structures, examines the diffraction of acoustic and electromagnetic waves from several classes of open structures with edges or cavities. Together these volumes present an authoritative and uni...
Canonical problems in scattering and potential theory
Vinogradov, SS; Vinogradova, ED
2002-01-01
Although the analysis of scattering for closed bodies of simple geometric shape is well developed, structures with edges, cavities, or inclusions have seemed, until now, intractable to analytical methods. This two-volume set describes a breakthrough in analytical techniques for accurately determining diffraction from classes of canonical scatterers with comprising edges and other complex cavity features. It is an authoritative account of mathematical developments over the last two decades that provides benchmarks against which solutions obtained by numerical methods can be verified.The first volume, Canonical Structures in Potential Theory, develops the mathematics, solving mixed boundary potential problems for structures with cavities and edges. The second volume, Acoustic and Electromagnetic Diffraction by Canonical Structures, examines the diffraction of acoustic and electromagnetic waves from several classes of open structures with edges or cavities. Together these volumes present an authoritative and uni...
Variational method for objective analysis of scalar variable and its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In regard to variational optimization of meteoro- logical parameter a given measure of the 'distance' between the variational scalar analysis and the standard scalar analysis is minimized. The varia- tional analysed field must at the same time satisfy some constraint. The constraint is that the differ- ence between derivative of ...
Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thiago de Paula Protásio
2012-09-01
Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.
Won, Kyoung-Jae; Choi, Inchan; LeRoy, Gary; Zee, Barry M; Sidoli, Simone; Gonzales-Cope, Michelle; Garcia, Benjamin A
2015-01-01
Histone variants play further important roles in DNA packaging and controlling gene expression. However, our understanding about their composition and their functions is limited. Integrating proteomic and genomic approaches, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the epigenetic landscapes containing the four histone variants H3.1, H3.3, H2A.Z, and macroH2A. These histones were FLAG-tagged in HeLa cells and purified using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). By adopting ChIP followed by mass spectrometry (ChIP-MS), we quantified histone post-translational modifications (PTMs) and histone variant nucleosomal ratios in highly purified mononucleosomes. Subsequent ChIP followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) was used to map the genome-wide localization of the analyzed histone variants and define their chromatin domains. Finally, we included in our study large datasets contained in the ENCODE database. We newly identified a group of regulatory regions enriched in H3.1 and the histone variant associated with repressive marks macroH2A. Systematic analysis identified both symmetric and asymmetric patterns of histone variant occupancies at intergenic regulatory regions. Strikingly, these directional patterns were associated with RNA polymerase II (PolII). These asymmetric patterns correlated with the enhancer activities measured using global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq) data. Our studies show that H2A.Z and H3.3 delineate the orientation of transcription at enhancers as observed at promoters. We also showed that enhancers with skewed histone variant patterns well facilitate enhancer activity. Collectively, our study indicates that histone variants are deposited at regulatory regions to assist gene regulation.
Structural variation analysis with strobe reads.
Ritz, Anna; Bashir, Ali; Raphael, Benjamin J
2010-05-15
Structural variation including deletions, duplications and rearrangements of DNA sequence are an important contributor to genome variation in many organisms. In human, many structural variants are found in complex and highly repetitive regions of the genome making their identification difficult. A new sequencing technology called strobe sequencing generates strobe reads containing multiple subreads from a single contiguous fragment of DNA. Strobe reads thus generalize the concept of paired reads, or mate pairs, that have been routinely used for structural variant detection. Strobe sequencing holds promise for unraveling complex variants that have been difficult to characterize with current sequencing technologies. We introduce an algorithm for identification of structural variants using strobe sequencing data. We consider strobe reads from a test genome that have multiple possible alignments to a reference genome due to sequencing errors and/or repetitive sequences in the reference. We formulate the combinatorial optimization problem of finding the minimum number of structural variants in the test genome that are consistent with these alignments. We solve this problem using an integer linear program. Using simulated strobe sequencing data, we show that our algorithm has better sensitivity and specificity than paired read approaches for structural variation identification. braphael@brown.edu
Oliveira Junior, Silvio A; Padovani, Carlos R; Rodrigues, Sergio A; Silva, Nilza R; Martinez, Paula F; Campos, Dijon Hs; Okoshi, Marina P; Okoshi, Katashi; Dal-Pai, Maeli; Cicogna, Antonio C
2013-04-15
Although hypercaloric interventions are associated with nutritional, endocrine, metabolic, and cardiovascular disorders in obesity experiments, a rational distinction between the effects of excess adiposity and the individual roles of dietary macronutrients in relation to these disturbances has not previously been studied. This investigation analyzed the correlation between ingested macronutrients (including sucrose and saturated and unsaturated fatty acids) plus body adiposity and metabolic, hormonal, and cardiovascular effects in rats with diet-induced obesity. Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats were submitted to Control (CD; 3.2 Kcal/g) and Hypercaloric (HD; 4.6 Kcal/g) diets for 20 weeks followed by nutritional evaluation involving body weight and adiposity measurement. Metabolic and hormonal parameters included glycemia, insulin, insulin resistance, and leptin. Cardiovascular analysis included systolic blood pressure profile, echocardiography, morphometric study of myocardial morphology, and myosin heavy chain (MHC) protein expression. Canonical correlation analysis was used to evaluate the relationships between dietary macronutrients plus adiposity and metabolic, hormonal, and cardiovascular parameters. Although final group body weights did not differ, HD presented higher adiposity than CD. Diet induced hyperglycemia while insulin and leptin levels remained unchanged. In a cardiovascular context, systolic blood pressure increased with time only in HD. Additionally, in vivo echocardiography revealed cardiac hypertrophy and improved systolic performance in HD compared to CD; and while cardiomyocyte size was unchanged by diet, nuclear volume and collagen interstitial fraction both increased in HD. Also HD exhibited higher relative β-MHC content and β/α-MHC ratio than their Control counterparts. Importantly, body adiposity was weakly associated with cardiovascular effects, as saturated fatty acid intake was directly associated with most cardiac remodeling
General algorithm and sensitivity analysis for variational inequalities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Muhammad Aslam Noor
1992-01-01
Full Text Available The fixed point technique is used to prove the existence of a solution for a class of variational inequalities related to odd order boundary value problems, and to suggest a general algorithm. We also study the sensitivity analysis for these variational inequalities and complementarity problems using the projection technique. Several special cases are discussed, which can be obtained from our results.
RAPD analysis of colchicine induced variation of the Dendrobium ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Variation was detected in Dendrobium Serdang Beauty V (DSB V) plantlets regenerated from protocorm like bodies (plbs) induced by various concentration levels of colchicines in the Murashige and Skoog media (MS) supplemented with 1.5 mg/L IBA. RAPD analysis detected 6 - 26% variation in the regenerants from the ...
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C.C. Cabuga
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Pomacea caniculata or Golden Apple Snail (GAS existed to be a rice pest in the Philippines and in Asia. Likewise, geographic location also contributes its increasing populations thus making it invasive among freshwater habitats and rice field areas. This study was conducted in order to describe shell shape variations and sexual dimorphism among the populations of P. caniculata. A total of 180 were randomly collected in the three lakes of Esperanza, Agusan del Sur (Lake Dakong Napo, Lake Oro, and Lake Cebulan, of which each lake comprised of 60 samples (30 males and 30 females. To determine the variations and sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of golden apple snail, coordinates was administered to relative warp analysis and the resulting data were subjected to Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA. The results show statistically significant (P<0.05 from the appended male and female dorsal and ventral/apertural portion. While male and female spire height, body size, and shell shape opening also shows significant variations. These phenotypic distinctions could be associated with geographic isolation, predation and nutrient component of the gastropods. Thus, the importance of using geometric morphometric advances in describing sexual dimorphism in the shell shape of P. caniculata.
Peiris, T. S. G.; Nanayakkara, K. A. D. S. A.
2017-09-01
Mathematics plays a key role in engineering sciences as it assists to develop the intellectual maturity and analytical thinking of engineering students and exploring the student academic performance has received great attention recently. The lack of control over covariates motivates the need for their adjustment when measuring the degree of association between two sets of variables in Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA). Thus to examine the individual effects of mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 on engineering performance in Level 2, two adjusted analyses in CCA: Part CCA and Partial CCA were applied for the raw marks of engineering undergraduates for three different disciplines, at the Faculty of Engineering, University of Moratuwa, Sri Lanka. The joint influence of mathematics in Level 1 and Level 2 is significant on engineering performance in Level 2 irrespective of the engineering disciplines. The individual effect of mathematics in Level 2 is significantly higher compared to the individual effect of mathematics in Level 1 on engineering performance in Level 2. Furthermore, the individual effect of mathematics in Level 1 can be negligible. But, there would be a notable indirect effect of mathematics in Level 1 on engineering performance in Level 2. It can be concluded that the joint effect of mathematics in both Level 1 and Level 2 is immensely beneficial to improve the overall academic performance at the end of Level 2 of the engineering students. Furthermore, it was found that the impact mathematics varies among engineering disciplines. As partial CCA and partial CCA are not widely explored in applied work, it is recommended to use these techniques for various applications.
O'Neal, Melissa Jean
Canonical correlation analysis was used to analyze data from Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) 2011 achievement databases encompassing information from fourth/eighth grades. Student achievement in life science/biology was correlated with achievement in mathematics and other sciences across three analytical areas: mathematics and science student performance, achievement in cognitive domains, and achievement in content domains. Strong correlations between student achievement in life science/biology with achievement in mathematics and overall science occurred for both high- and low-performing education systems. Hence, partial emphases on the inter-subject connections did not always lead to a better student learning outcome in STEM education. In addition, student achievement in life science/biology was positively correlated with achievement in mathematics and science cognitive domains; these patterns held true for correlations of life science/biology with mathematics as well as other sciences. The importance of linking student learning experiences between and within STEM domains to support high performance on TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 TIMSS assessments was indicated by correlations of moderate strength (57 mathematics, and other sciences. At the eighth grade level, students who built increasing levels of cognitive complexity upon firm foundations were prepared for successful learning throughout their educational careers. The results from this investigation promote a holistic design of school learning opportunities to improve student achievement in life science/biology and other science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) subjects at the elementary and middle school levels. While the curriculum can vary from combined STEM subjects to separated mathematics or science courses, both professional learning communities (PLC) for teachers and problem-based learning (PBL) for learners can be
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
María C. Vega-Hernández
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Recent studies have revealed that emotional competences are relevant to the student’s learning process and, more specifically, in the use of learning strategies (LSs. The aim of this study is twofold. First, we aim to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI and LSs applying the scales TMMS-24 and Abridged ACRA to a sample of 2334 Spanish university students, whilst also exploring possible gender differences. Second, we aim to propose a methodological alternative based on the Canonical non-symmetrical correspondence analysis (CNCA, as an alternative to the methods traditionally used in Psychology and Education. Our results show that PEI has an impact on the LS of the students. Male participants with high scores on learning support strategies are positively related to high attention, clarity, and emotional repair. However, the use of cognitive and control LS is related to low values on the PEI dimensions. For women, high scores on cognitive, control, and learning support LS are related to high emotional attention, whereas dimensions such as study habits and learning support are related to adequate emotional repair. Participants in the 18–19 and 22–23 years age groups showed similar behavior. High scores on learning support strategies are related to high values on three dimensions of the PEI, and high values of study habits show high values for clarity and low values for attention and repair. The 20–21 and older than 24 years age groups behaved similarly. High scores on learning support strategies are related to low values on clarity, and study habits show high values for clarity and repair. This article presents the relationship between PEI and LS in university students, the differences by gender and age, and CNCA as an alternative method to techniques used in this field to study this association.
Vega-Hernández, María C; Patino-Alonso, María C; Cabello, Rosario; Galindo-Villardón, María P; Fernández-Berrocal, Pablo
2017-01-01
Recent studies have revealed that emotional competences are relevant to the student's learning process and, more specifically, in the use of learning strategies (LSs). The aim of this study is twofold. First, we aim to analyze the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) and LSs applying the scales TMMS-24 and Abridged ACRA to a sample of 2334 Spanish university students, whilst also exploring possible gender differences. Second, we aim to propose a methodological alternative based on the Canonical non-symmetrical correspondence analysis (CNCA), as an alternative to the methods traditionally used in Psychology and Education. Our results show that PEI has an impact on the LS of the students. Male participants with high scores on learning support strategies are positively related to high attention, clarity, and emotional repair. However, the use of cognitive and control LS is related to low values on the PEI dimensions. For women, high scores on cognitive, control, and learning support LS are related to high emotional attention, whereas dimensions such as study habits and learning support are related to adequate emotional repair. Participants in the 18-19 and 22-23 years age groups showed similar behavior. High scores on learning support strategies are related to high values on three dimensions of the PEI, and high values of study habits show high values for clarity and low values for attention and repair. The 20-21 and older than 24 years age groups behaved similarly. High scores on learning support strategies are related to low values on clarity, and study habits show high values for clarity and repair. This article presents the relationship between PEI and LS in university students, the differences by gender and age, and CNCA as an alternative method to techniques used in this field to study this association.
Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nicolas Oury
2013-06-01
Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.
Canonical Chern-Simons gravity
Sarkar, Souvik; Vaz, Cenalo
2017-07-01
We study the canonical description of the axisymmetric vacuum in 2 +1 -dimensional gravity, treating Einstein's gravity as a Chern-Simons gauge theory on a manifold with the restriction that the dreibein is invertible. Our treatment is in the spirit of Kuchař's description of the Schwarzschild black hole in 3 +1 dimensions, where the mass and angular momentum are expressed in terms of the canonical variables and a series of canonical transformations that turn the curvature coordinates and their conjugate momenta into new canonical variables is performed. In their final form, the constraints are seen to require that the momenta conjugate to the Killing time and curvature radius vanish, and what remains is the mass, the angular momentum, and their conjugate momenta, which we derive. The Wheeler-DeWitt equation is trivial and describes time independent systems with wave functions described only by the total mass and total angular momentum.
Belardi, Katie; Watson, Linda R.; Faldowski, Richard A.; Hazlett, Heather; Crais, Elizabeth; Baranek, Grace T.; McComish, Cara; Patten, Elena; Oller, D. Kimbrough
2017-01-01
An infant's vocal capacity develops significantly during the first year of life. Research suggests early measures of pre-speech development, such as canonical babbling and volubility, can differentiate typical versus disordered development. This study offers a new contribution by comparing early vocal development in 10 infants with Fragile X…
Comprehensive analysis of the column station with depth variation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V.D. Petrenko
2011-12-01
Full Text Available In the article the results of complex analysis of the columnar station with variation of depth contour interval with research of mobile loading influencing on ceiling are represented.
DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm.
Sarkar, B K; Chakraborty, Chiranjib
2015-10-01
We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA sequence. Two related but different objects were considered: one was a particular pattern, and other was test DNA sequence. CCA found correlations between two observations of the same semantic pattern and test sequence. It is concluded that the relationship possesses maximum value in the position where the pattern exists. As a case study, the potential of CCA was demonstrated on the sequence found from HIV-1 preferred integration sites. The subsequences on the left and right flanking from the integration site were considered as the two views, and statistically significant relationships were established between these two views to elucidate the viral preference as an important factor for the correlation.
Bonito, Andrea
2012-09-01
We design and analyze variational and non-variational multigrid algorithms for the Laplace-Beltrami operator on a smooth and closed surface. In both cases, a uniform convergence for the V -cycle algorithm is obtained provided the surface geometry is captured well enough by the coarsest grid. The main argument hinges on a perturbation analysis from an auxiliary variational algorithm defined directly on the smooth surface. In addition, the vanishing mean value constraint is imposed on each level, thereby avoiding singular quadratic forms without adding additional computational cost. Numerical results supporting our analysis are reported. In particular, the algorithms perform well even when applied to surfaces with a large aspect ratio. © 2011 American Mathematical Society.
PITX2 and non-canonical Wnt pathway interaction in metastatic prostate cancer.
Vela, I; Morrissey, C; Zhang, X; Chen, S; Corey, E; Strutton, G M; Nelson, C C; Nicol, D L; Clements, J A; Gardiner, E M
2014-02-01
The non-canonical Wnt pathway, a regulator of cellular motility and morphology, is increasingly implicated in cancer metastasis. In a quantitative PCR array analysis of 84 Wnt pathway associated genes, both non-canonical and canonical pathways were activated in primary and metastatic tumors relative to normal prostate. Expression of the Wnt target gene PITX2 in a prostate cancer (PCa) bone metastasis was strikingly elevated over normal prostate (over 2,000-fold) and primary prostate cancer (over 200-fold). The elevation of PITX2 protein was also evident on tissue microarrays, with strong PITX2 immunostaining in PCa skeletal and, to a lesser degree, soft tissue metastases. PITX2 is associated with cell migration during normal tissue morphogenesis. In our studies, overexpression of individual PITX2A/B/C isoforms stimulated PC-3 PCa cell motility, with the PITX2A isoform imparting a specific motility advantage in the presence of non-canonical Wnt5a stimulation. Furthermore, PITX2 specific shRNA inhibited PC-3 cell migration toward bone cell derived chemoattractant. These experimental results support a pivotal role of PITX2A and non-canonical Wnt signaling in enhancement of PCa cell motility, suggest PITX2 involvement in homing of PCa to the skeleton, and are consistent with a role for PITX2 in PCa metastasis to soft and bone tissues. Our findings, which significantly expand previous evidence that PITX2 is associated with risk of PCa biochemical recurrence, indicate that variation in PITX2 expression accompanies and may promote prostate tumor progression and metastasis.
Periodicity, the Canon and Sport
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thomas F. Scanlon
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.
Positive geometries and canonical forms
Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Bai, Yuntao; Lam, Thomas
2017-11-01
Recent years have seen a surprising connection between the physics of scattering amplitudes and a class of mathematical objects — the positive Grassmannian, positive loop Grassmannians, tree and loop Amplituhedra — which have been loosely referred to as "positive geometries". The connection between the geometry and physics is provided by a unique differential form canonically determined by the property of having logarithmic singularities (only) on all the boundaries of the space, with residues on each boundary given by the canonical form on that boundary. The structures seen in the physical setting of the Amplituhedron are both rigid and rich enough to motivate an investigation of the notions of "positive geometries" and their associated "canonical forms" as objects of study in their own right, in a more general mathematical setting. In this paper we take the first steps in this direction. We begin by giving a precise definition of positive geometries and canonical forms, and introduce two general methods for finding forms for more complicated positive geometries from simpler ones — via "triangulation" on the one hand, and "push-forward" maps between geometries on the other. We present numerous examples of positive geometries in projective spaces, Grassmannians, and toric, cluster and flag varieties, both for the simplest "simplex-like" geometries and the richer "polytope-like" ones. We also illustrate a number of strategies for computing canonical forms for large classes of positive geometries, ranging from a direct determination exploiting knowledge of zeros and poles, to the use of the general triangulation and push-forward methods, to the representation of the form as volume integrals over dual geometries and contour integrals over auxiliary spaces. These methods yield interesting representations for the canonical forms of wide classes of positive geometries, ranging from the simplest Amplituhedra to new expressions for the volume of arbitrary convex
On the analysis of line profile variations: A statistical approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McCandliss, S.R.
1988-01-01
This study is concerned with the empirical characterization of the line profile variations (LPV), which occur in many of and Wolf-Rayet stars. The goal of the analysis is to gain insight into the physical mechanisms producing the variations. The analytic approach uses a statistical method to quantify the significance of the LPV and to identify those regions in the line profile which are undergoing statistically significant variations. Line positions and flux variations are then measured and subject to temporal and correlative analysis. Previous studies of LPV have for the most part been restricted to observations of a single line. Important information concerning the range and amplitude of the physical mechanisms involved can be obtained by simultaneously observing spectral features formed over a range of depths in the extended mass losing atmospheres of massive, luminous stars. Time series of a Wolf-Rayet and two of stars with nearly complete spectral coverage from 3940 angstrom to 6610 angstrom and with spectral resolution of R = 10,000 are analyzed here. These three stars exhibit a wide range of both spectral and temporal line profile variations. The HeII Pickering lines of HD 191765 show a monotonic increase in the peak rms variation amplitude with lines formed at progressively larger radii in the Wolf-Rayet star wind. Two times scales of variation have been identified in this star: a less than one day variation associated with small scale flickering in the peaks of the line profiles and a greater than one day variation associated with large scale asymmetric changes in the overall line profile shapes. However, no convincing period phenomena are evident at those periods which are well sampled in this time series
Methodology for dimensional variation analysis of ITER integrated systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fuentes, F. Javier, E-mail: FranciscoJavier.Fuentes@iter.org [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon—CS 90046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance (France); Trouvé, Vincent [Assystem Engineering & Operation Services, rue J-M Jacquard CS 60117, 84120 Pertuis (France); Cordier, Jean-Jacques; Reich, Jens [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon—CS 90046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance (France)
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Tokamak dimensional management methodology, based on 3D variation analysis, is presented. • Dimensional Variation Model implementation workflow is described. • Methodology phases are described in detail. The application of this methodology to the tolerance analysis of ITER Vacuum Vessel is presented. • Dimensional studies are a valuable tool for the assessment of Tokamak PCR (Project Change Requests), DR (Deviation Requests) and NCR (Non-Conformance Reports). - Abstract: The ITER machine consists of a large number of complex systems highly integrated, with critical functional requirements and reduced design clearances to minimize the impact in cost and performances. Tolerances and assembly accuracies in critical areas could have a serious impact in the final performances, compromising the machine assembly and plasma operation. The management of tolerances allocated to part manufacture and assembly processes, as well as the control of potential deviations and early mitigation of non-compliances with the technical requirements, is a critical activity on the project life cycle. A 3D tolerance simulation analysis of ITER Tokamak machine has been developed based on 3DCS dedicated software. This integrated dimensional variation model is representative of Tokamak manufacturing functional tolerances and assembly processes, predicting accurate values for the amount of variation on critical areas. This paper describes the detailed methodology to implement and update the Tokamak Dimensional Variation Model. The model is managed at system level. The methodology phases are illustrated by its application to the Vacuum Vessel (VV), considering the status of maturity of VV dimensional variation model. The following topics are described in this paper: • Model description and constraints. • Model implementation workflow. • Management of input and output data. • Statistical analysis and risk assessment. The management of the integration studies based on
Methodology for dimensional variation analysis of ITER integrated systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fuentes, F. Javier; Trouvé, Vincent; Cordier, Jean-Jacques; Reich, Jens
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Tokamak dimensional management methodology, based on 3D variation analysis, is presented. • Dimensional Variation Model implementation workflow is described. • Methodology phases are described in detail. The application of this methodology to the tolerance analysis of ITER Vacuum Vessel is presented. • Dimensional studies are a valuable tool for the assessment of Tokamak PCR (Project Change Requests), DR (Deviation Requests) and NCR (Non-Conformance Reports). - Abstract: The ITER machine consists of a large number of complex systems highly integrated, with critical functional requirements and reduced design clearances to minimize the impact in cost and performances. Tolerances and assembly accuracies in critical areas could have a serious impact in the final performances, compromising the machine assembly and plasma operation. The management of tolerances allocated to part manufacture and assembly processes, as well as the control of potential deviations and early mitigation of non-compliances with the technical requirements, is a critical activity on the project life cycle. A 3D tolerance simulation analysis of ITER Tokamak machine has been developed based on 3DCS dedicated software. This integrated dimensional variation model is representative of Tokamak manufacturing functional tolerances and assembly processes, predicting accurate values for the amount of variation on critical areas. This paper describes the detailed methodology to implement and update the Tokamak Dimensional Variation Model. The model is managed at system level. The methodology phases are illustrated by its application to the Vacuum Vessel (VV), considering the status of maturity of VV dimensional variation model. The following topics are described in this paper: • Model description and constraints. • Model implementation workflow. • Management of input and output data. • Statistical analysis and risk assessment. The management of the integration studies based on
CANONICAL BACKWARD DIFFERENTIATION SCHEMES FOR ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The schemes are based on rational interpolation obtained from canonical polynomials. They are A-stable. The test problems show that they give better results than Euler backward method and trapezoidal method near a singular point. KEY WORDS: backward differentiation scheme, collocation, initial value problems.
Romanticism, Sexuality, and the Canon.
Rowe, Kathleen K.
1990-01-01
Traces the Romanticism in the work and persona of film director Jean-Luc Godard. Examines the contradictions posed by Godard's politics and representations of sexuality. Asserts, that by bringing an ironic distance to the works of such canonized directors, viewers can take pleasure in those works despite their contradictions. (MM)
Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canonical Authors in Consumption Theory is the first work to compile the contributions of the greatest social thinkers in the global conversation about consumption and consumer culture. A prestigious reference work, it offers original chapters by the world's most prominent thought leaders and sur...
Variational analysis of regular mappings theory and applications
Ioffe, Alexander D
2017-01-01
This monograph offers the first systematic account of (metric) regularity theory in variational analysis. It presents new developments alongside classical results and demonstrates the power of the theory through applications to various problems in analysis and optimization theory. The origins of metric regularity theory can be traced back to a series of fundamental ideas and results of nonlinear functional analysis and global analysis centered around problems of existence and stability of solutions of nonlinear equations. In variational analysis, regularity theory goes far beyond the classical setting and is also concerned with non-differentiable and multi-valued operators. The present volume explores all basic aspects of the theory, from the most general problems for mappings between metric spaces to those connected with fairly concrete and important classes of operators acting in Banach and finite dimensional spaces. Written by a leading expert in the field, the book covers new and powerful techniques, whic...
Introduction and application of the multiscale coefficient of variation analysis.
Abney, Drew H; Kello, Christopher T; Balasubramaniam, Ramesh
2017-10-01
Quantifying how patterns of behavior relate across multiple levels of measurement typically requires long time series for reliable parameter estimation. We describe a novel analysis that estimates patterns of variability across multiple scales of analysis suitable for time series of short duration. The multiscale coefficient of variation (MSCV) measures the distance between local coefficient of variation estimates within particular time windows and the overall coefficient of variation across all time samples. We first describe the MSCV analysis and provide an example analytical protocol with corresponding MATLAB implementation and code. Next, we present a simulation study testing the new analysis using time series generated by ARFIMA models that span white noise, short-term and long-term correlations. The MSCV analysis was observed to be sensitive to specific parameters of ARFIMA models varying in the type of temporal structure and time series length. We then apply the MSCV analysis to short time series of speech phrases and musical themes to show commonalities in multiscale structure. The simulation and application studies provide evidence that the MSCV analysis can discriminate between time series varying in multiscale structure and length.
Variational analysis and generalized differentiation I basic theory
Mordukhovich, Boris S
2006-01-01
Contains a study of the basic concepts and principles of variational analysis and generalized differentiation in both finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional spaces. This title presents many applications to problems in optimization, equilibria, stability and sensitivity, control theory, economics, mechanics, and more.
RAPD analysis of colchicine induced variation of the Dendrobium ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2009-04-20
Apr 20, 2009 ... RAPD analysis of colchicine induced variation of the. Dendrobium Serdang beauty. Khosravi, A. R.1, Kadir, M. A.1, Kadzemin, S. B.2, Zaman, F. Q.3 and De Silva, A. E.4. 1Department of Agrotechnology, Faculty Agriculture, University Putra Malaysia. 2Department of Crop Science, Faculty Agriculture, ...
Variational method for objective analysis of scalar variable and its ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
It has been found that objectively analysed scalar ﬁeld obtained using standard method is superior to the scalar ﬁeld derived by the triangle method,whereas the derivative ﬁelds produced by triangle method are superior to the derivative ﬁelds produced using standard method. A variational objective analysis scheme has ...
Analysis of pressure variation of fluid in bounded circular reservoirs ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The result obtained at the wellbore was compared with the results obtained by Van Everdigen and Hurst. It was shown that there was a strong positive correlation between the results. The result obtained from the analysis also shows the pressure variation outside wellbore of the same reservoir. It is important to note that ...
Long-term Periodicity Analysis of Polarization Variation for Radio ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Abstract. We use the database of University of Michigan Radio As- tronomy Observatory (UMRAO) at three radio bands (4.8, 8 and 14.5. GHz) to analyse the long-term polarization variation in search of the pos- sible periodicity. Using the power spectral analysis method (PSA), the. Jurkevich method and the discrete ...
Comparative Analysis of VLF Signal Variation along Trajectory ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Comparative qualitative analysis of amplitude and phase delay variations was carried out along the trajectory of GQD/22.1 kHz and NAA/24.0 kHz VLF signal traces, propagating from Skelton (UK) and Maine (USA) toward Belgrade, induced by four isolated solar X-ray flare events occurred during the ...
Fujita, Naonobu; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Kageyama, Shun; Akira, Shizuo; Noda, Takeshi; Yoshimori, Tamotsu
2009-11-20
A single nucleotide polymorphism in Atg16L1, an autophagy-related gene (ATG), is a risk factor for Crohn disease, a major form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. However, it is still unknown how the Atg16L1 variant contributes to disease development. The Atg16L1 protein possesses a C-terminal WD repeat domain whose function is entirely unknown, and the Crohn disease-associated mutation (T300A) is within this domain. To elucidate the function of the WD repeat domain, we established an experimental system in which a WD repeat domain mutant of Atg16L1 is stably expressed in Atg16L1-deficient mouse embryonic fibroblasts. Using the system, we show that the Atg16L1 complex forms a dimeric complex and that the total Atg16L1 protein level is strictly maintained, possibly by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Furthermore, we show that an Atg16L1 WD repeat domain deletion and the T300A mutant have little impact on canonical autophagy and autophagy against Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. Therefore, we propose that Atg16L1 T300A is differentially involved in Crohn disease and canonical autophagy.
Constructing canonical bases of quantized enveloping algebras
Graaf, W.A. de
2001-01-01
An algorithm for computing the elements of a given weight of the canonical basis of a quantized enveloping algebra is described. Subsequently, a similar algorithm is presented for computing the canonical basis of a finite-dimensional module.
Mean field canonical treatments at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossignoli, R.
1990-01-01
A method is proposed to make mean field and higher order canonical treatments at finite temperature. Definite improvements are made over the usual Hartree-Fock thermal (great canonical) treatment. (Author). 10 refs., 3 figs
Titchmarsh-Weyl theory for canonical systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keshav Raj Acharya
2014-11-01
Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper is to develop Titchmarsh- Weyl theory of canonical systems. To this end, we first observe the fact that Schrodinger and Jacobi equations can be written into canonical systems. We then discuss the theory of Weyl m-function for canonical systems and establish the relation between the Weyl m-functions of Schrodinger equations and that of canonical systems which involve Schrodinger equations.
Canonical quantum gravity and consistent discretizations
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Canonical quantum gravity is an attempt to apply the rules of quantum mechanics in their most traditional canonical form to general relativity. The first question that arises concerning this field of endeavor is: why? After all, attempts to canonically quantize general relativity were done in the 1960s, notably by DeWitt following ...
Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikolaus Kriegeskorte
2015-03-01
Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These
Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Velazquez, L; Curilef, S
2010-01-01
In this paper, we discuss the implications of a recently obtained equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for the extension of the available Monte Carlo methods on the basis of the consideration of the Gibbs canonical ensemble to account for the existence of an anomalous regime with negative heat capacities C α with α≈0.2 for the particular case of the 2D ten-state Potts model
A Canonical Password Strength Measure
Panferov, Eugene
2015-01-01
We notice that the "password security" discourse is missing the most fundamental notion of the "password strength" -- it was never properly defined. We propose a canonical definition of the "password strength", based on the assessment of the efficiency of a set of possible guessing attack. Unlike naive password strength assessments our metric takes into account the attacker's strategy, and we demonstrate the necessity of that feature. This paper does NOT advise you to include "at least three ...
Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Xian-Zhi
2016-01-01
Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula. (paper)
Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble
Wang, Xian-Zhi
2016-02-01
Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.
Optimized variational analysis scheme of single Doppler radar wind data
Sasaki, Yoshi K.; Allen, Steve; Mizuno, Koki; Whitehead, Victor; Wilk, Kenneth E.
1989-01-01
A computer scheme for extracting singularities has been developed and applied to single Doppler radar wind data. The scheme is planned for use in real-time wind and singularity analysis and forecasting. The method, known as Doppler Operational Variational Extraction of Singularities is outlined, focusing on the principle of local symmetry. Results are presented from the application of the scheme to a storm-generated gust front in Oklahoma on May 28, 1987.
Sequential normal compactness versur topological normal compactness in variational analysis
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Fabian, Marián; Mordukhovich, B. S.
2003-01-01
Roč. 54, č. 6 (2003), s. 1057-1067 ISSN 0362-546X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/01/1198 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905; CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : variational analysis * sequential and topological normal compactness * Banach spaces Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.354, year: 2003
CANONICAL CORRELATION OF MORPHOLOGIC CHARACTERISTIC AND MOTORIC ABILITIES OF YOUNG JUDO ATHLETES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lulzim Ibri
2013-07-01
Full Text Available In sample from 80 young judo athletes aged from 16-17 year, was applied the system a total of 18 variables, of which 10 are morphologic characteristic and 8 motoric abilities variables, with a purpose to determinate mutual report between each other, while the information were analyzed by using canonical correlation analysis. With case of authentication statistically important relation was achieve one pair of canonical correlations statistically important. In morphologic variables field the canonical factor is interpreted in first canonical structure is the consists of variables: adipose tissue under skin of stomach (ATST, adipose tissue under skin of triceps (ATTR, adipose tissue under skin of biceps (ATBI, adipose tissue under skin of sub scapulars (ATSS, adipose tissue under skin of sub iliac a (ATSI and adipose tissue under skin of list (ATSL, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of adipose tissue: And second structure of canonical factors of anthropometric characteristics is the consists of variables: body length: body length (LEBO, length of the leg (LELE and length of the arm (LEAR, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of longitudinal dimensionality. The first structure of canonical factors in motoric variables is can not be interpreted because of low values of motor variables, while second structure of canonical factors of motoric abilities is the consists of variables: squeeze palm (SQPA, so that is interpreted as a canonical factor of strong factor in palm. Based on structure analysis of matrix results of canonical factors results were shown that to young judo athletes of this age exist statistically valid correlations between canonical factor of anthropometric variables and canonical factor of variables to motoric abilities which is (Rc=77 that is statistically valid in level (P=00.
[Phenotypic Trait Variation, Correlation and Path Analysis of Clerodendranthus spicatus].
Wang, Yan-fang; Li, Ge; Tang, Ling; Yang, Chun-Yong; Li, Rong-Ying; Ma, Xiao-jun
2015-10-01
To investigate the phenotypic trait variation range of Clerodendranthus spicatus, and to look for phenotypic traits closely related with its yield and quality, in order to provide reference for its breeding. Randomly labelled plants of Clerodendranthus spicatus, observed its phenotypic traits and analyzed by variation, principal component, correlation and path analysis. 13 phenotypic traits in the 15 germplasms of Clerodendranthus spicatus had great variations, the variations mainly distributed in yield, growth and genetic characteristics. Correlation and path analysis showed that, the plant dry weight had an extremely significantly positive correlation with fresh weight, and a positive correlation with stem height, stem diameter and root diameter. Plant fresh weight had a majorly direct contribution to the plant dry weight, stem height, stem diameter and root diameter also had a direct contribution to the plant dry weight. The other characters, including root length, branches, the number of leaf nodes, leaf number, leaf length, leaf width, fresh weight/dry weight ratio, rosmarinic acid content and ursolic acid content all had a negatively direct contribution to the plant dry weight. Rosmarinic acid content had a positive correlation with fresh weight, and a significantly positive correlation with fresh weight/dry weight ratio. Fresh weight had a majorly direct contribution to the rosmarinic acid content, stem height and stem diameter also had a direct contribution to the plant rosmarinic acid content. The other characters, including root length, root diameter, branches, the number of leaf nodes, leaf length, leaf width, dry weight, fresh weight/dry weight ratio, and ursolic acid content all had a negatively direct contribution to the rosmarinic acid content. The phenotypic traits of Clerodendranthus spicatus had rich variations on yield, growth and genetic characteristics. When choosing good germplasm, plant fresh weight, stem height, stem diameter and plant fresh
Case study using analysis of variance to determine groups’ variations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ardelean Flavius A.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to present the analysis of a part manufactured in three shifts, which has a specific characteristic dimension, using DFSS (Design for Six Sigma ANOVA (Analysis of Variance method. In every shift, the significant characteristic, “SC”, dimension should be produced within the given tolerance. The question that arises is: “Does the shift have any influence on the “SC” dimension realization?” By using the one way ANOVA method, one can observe the variation between the means of each of the three shifts. Afterwards, specific action can be undertaken to adjust, if necessary, the differences between the shifts.
Harold Bloom : canon e influencia
Pérez Vázquez, Ángel
1998-01-01
This essay is intended as an introduction to some of the most important aspects of the critical of the North American literary critic and theorist. Harold Bloom. The point of view from which these pages are written is mainly descriptive, and, to a very limited extent, polemical as well. The essay starts by outlining Bloom's visión of the Anglo- American literary canon, as well as his main theoretical tenets and intellectual sources. The main point of focus, though, is Bloom's theory...
Li, Dapeng; Baldwin, Ian T; Gaquerel, Emmanuel
2015-07-28
Natural variation can be extremely useful in unraveling the determinants of phenotypic trait evolution but has rarely been analyzed with unbiased metabolic profiling to understand how its effects are organized at the level of biochemical pathways. Native populations of Nicotiana attenuata, a wild tobacco species, have been shown to be highly genetically diverse for traits important for their interactions with insects. To resolve the chemodiversity existing in these populations, we developed a metabolomics and computational pipeline to annotate leaf metabolic responses to Manduca sexta herbivory. We selected seeds from 43 accessions of different populations from the southwestern United States--including the well-characterized Utah 30th generation inbred accession--and grew 183 plants in the glasshouse for standardized herbivory elicitation. Metabolic profiles were generated from elicited leaves of each plant using a high-throughput ultra HPLC (UHPLC)-quadrupole TOFMS (qTOFMS) method, processed to systematically infer covariation patterns among biochemically related metabolites, as well as unknown ones, and finally assembled to map natural variation. Navigating this map revealed metabolic branch-specific variations that surprisingly only partly overlapped with jasmonate accumulation polymorphisms and deviated from canonical jasmonate signaling. Fragmentation analysis via indiscriminant tandem mass spectrometry (idMS/MS) was conducted with 10 accessions that spanned a large proportion of the variance found in the complete accession dataset, and compound spectra were computationally assembled into spectral similarity networks. The biological information captured by this networking approach facilitates the mining of the mass spectral data of unknowns with high natural variation, as demonstrated by the annotation of a strongly herbivory-inducible phenolic derivative, and can guide pathway analysis.
[Numerical analysis of morphological variation of germplasm resources of dioscorea].
Huang, Yu-Xian; Wang, Feng-Qing; Du, Jia-Fang; Hua, Shu-Mei; Lei, Fu-Gui; Xu, Xu-Ming; Liang, Kang-Jing; Zhang, Zhong-Yi
2013-02-01
Botanical characters of germplasm resources of Dioscorea were observed and compared, which could to offer reference for its genetic improvement, germplasm resource identification and classification. Based on field cultivation, twenty-four morphological traits of ninety-four Dioscorea germplasm resources were observed or determined. And the morphological differences among germplasm resources were compared by principal component analysis and cluster analysis. There were ample morphological diversity in the twenty-four traits, in especially in leaf size and tuber characters of the ninety-four Dioscorea germplasm resources. The first seven principal components which accounted for 80. 957% of total variance were extracted from the principal component analysis. The ninety-four germplasm resources could be divided into four clusters, which belonging to Dioscorea opposite, D. persimili, D. fordii and D. alata respectively. There were large morphological variation among germplasm resources on Dioscorea. Identification of germplasm resources of Dioscorea should focus on leaf size and tuber characters.
A canonical approach to forces in molecules
Walton, Jay R.; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A.; Lucchese, Robert R.; Bevan, John W.
2016-08-01
In previous studies, we introduced a generalized formulation for canonical transformations and spectra to investigate the concept of canonical potentials strictly within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Data for the most accurate available ground electronic state pairwise intramolecular potentials in H2+, H2, HeH+, and LiH were used to rigorously establish such conclusions. Now, a canonical transformation is derived for the molecular force, F(R), with H2+ as molecular reference. These transformations are demonstrated to be inherently canonical to high accuracy but distinctly different from those corresponding to the respective potentials of H2, HeH+, and LiH. In this paper, we establish the canonical nature of the molecular force which is key to fundamental generalization of canonical approaches to molecular bonding. As further examples Mg2, benzene dimer and to water dimer are also considered within the radial limit as applications of the current methodology.
Canonical duality theory unified methodology for multidisciplinary study
Latorre, Vittorio; Ruan, Ning
2017-01-01
This book on canonical duality theory provides a comprehensive review of its philosophical origin, physics foundation, and mathematical statements in both finite- and infinite-dimensional spaces. A ground-breaking methodological theory, canonical duality theory can be used for modeling complex systems within a unified framework and for solving a large class of challenging problems in multidisciplinary fields in engineering, mathematics, and the sciences. This volume places a particular emphasis on canonical duality theory’s role in bridging the gap between non-convex analysis/mechanics and global optimization. With 18 total chapters written by experts in their fields, this volume provides a nonconventional theory for unified understanding of the fundamental difficulties in large deformation mechanics, bifurcation/chaos in nonlinear science, and the NP-hard problems in global optimization. Additionally, readers will find a unified methodology and powerful algorithms for solving challenging problems in comp...
Canonical ensembles and nonzero density quantum chromodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hasenfratz, A.; Toussaint, D.
1992-01-01
We study QCD with nonzero chemical potential on 4 4 lattices by averaging over the canonical partition functions, or sectors with fixed quark number. We derive a condensed matrix of size 2x3xL 3 whose eigenvalues can be used to find the canonical partition functions. We also experiment with a weight for configuration generation which respects the Z(3) symmetry which forces the canonical partition function to be zero for quark numbers that are not multiples of three. (orig.)
A simultaneous CONCOR algorithm for the analysis of two partitioned matrices
Lafosse, R; Ten Berge, J.M.F.
2006-01-01
A standard approach to derive underlying components from two or more data matrices, holding data from the same individuals or objects, is the (generalized) canonical correlation analysis. This technique finds components (canonical variates) with maximal sums of correlations between them. The
The Meridians of Reference of Indian Astronomical Canons
Mercier, R.
The canons of Sanskrit astronomy depend on mean motions which are normally postulated to refer to the central meridian of Ujjain. The present work is a statistical analysis of these mean motions designed to discover the optimum position of the meridian, by comparison with modern mean motions. This follows earlier work done by Billard in determining the optimum year.
Genetic Variation of Oriental Tobaccos Using Multivariate Analysis
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H Hatami Maleki
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum is one of the valuable agricultural and industrial crops that there is little information about its variation. For studying genetic variation on the basis of morphological characteristics, a number of 100 exotic and endemic oriental tobacco genotypes were obtained from the germplasm collection of the Urmia Tobacco Research Center, Urmia, Iran, using simple lattice design with 2 replications. Eight traits include: stem height and diameter, leaf number per plot, leaf length and width, fresh and dry leaf weight and day to 50% flowering were examined. Principal component analysis could reduce the studied morphological traits to 5 components having 96% accumulative variance. In the first component, all traits (except stem height showed positive significant correlations with. Cluster analysis using UPGMA method distinguished genotypes in 4 different groups. Maximum distance was between groups 1 and 4. Mean comparison revealed that genotypes (Trimph and Ohdaruma belong to group 4 had the maximum value of most examined traits, therefore, they could be utilized as parents of crosses in breeding programs.
Percolation in the canonical ensemble
Hu, Hao; Blöte, Henk W. J.; Deng, Youjin
2012-12-01
We study the bond percolation problem under the constraint that the total number of occupied bonds is fixed, so that the canonical ensemble applies. We show via an analytical approach that at criticality, the constraint can induce new finite-size corrections with exponent ycan = 2yt - d both in energy-like and magnetic quantities, where yt = 1/ν is the thermal renormalization exponent and d is the spatial dimension. Furthermore, we find that while most of the universal parameters remain unchanged, some universal amplitudes, like the excess cluster number, can be modified and become non-universal. We confirm these predictions by extensive Monte Carlo simulations of the two-dimensional percolation problem which has ycan = -1/2. This article is part of ‘Lattice models and integrability’, a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical in honour of F Y Wu's 80th birthday.
Felippa, Carlos A.; Ohayon, Roger
1991-01-01
A general three-field variational principle is obtained for the motion of an acoustic fluid enclosed in a rigid or flexible container by the method of canonical decomposition applied to a modified form of the wave equation in the displacement potential. The general principle is specialized to a mixed two-field principle that contains the fluid displacement potential and pressure as independent fields. This principle contains a free parameter alpha. Semidiscrete finite-element equations of motion based on this principle are displayed and applied to the transient response and free-vibrations of the coupled fluid-structure problem. It is shown that a particular setting of alpha yields a rich set of formulations that can be customized to fit physical and computational requirements. The variational principle is then extended to handle slosh motions in a uniform gravity field, and used to derive semidiscrete equations of motion that account for such effects.
Felippa, C. A.; Ohayon, R.
1990-01-01
A general three-field variational principle is obtained for the motion of an acoustic fluid enclosed in a rigid or flexible container by the method of canonical decomposition applied to a modified form of the wave equation in the displacement potential. The general principle is specialized to a mixed two-field principle that contains the fluid displacement potential and pressure as independent fields. This principle contains a free parameter alpha. Semidiscrete finite-element equations of motion based on this principle are displayed and applied to the transient response and free-vibrations of the coupled fluid-structure problem. It is shown that a particular setting of alpha yields a rich set of formulations that can be customized to fit physical and computational requirements. The variational principle is then extended to handle slosh motions in a uniform gravity field, and used to derived semidiscrete equations of motion that account for such effects.
Variational four-dimensional analysis using quasi-geostrophic constraints
Derber, John C.
1987-01-01
A variational four-dimensional analysis technique using quasi-geostrophic models as constraints is examined using gridded fields as data. The analysis method uses a standard iterative nonlinear minimization technique to find the solution to the constraining forecast model which best fits the data as measured by a predefined functional. The minimization algorithm uses the derivative of the functional with respect to each of the initial condition values. This derivative vector is found by inserting the weighted differences between the model solution and the inserted data into a backwards integrating adjoint model. The four-dimensional analysis system was examined by applying it to fields created from a primitive equations model forecast and to fields created from satellite retrievals. The results show that the technique has several interesting characteristics not found in more traditional four-dimensional assimilation techniques. These features include a close fit of the model solution to the observations throughout the analysis interval and an insensitivity to the frequency of data insertion or the amount of data. The four-dimensional analysis technique is very versatile and can be extended to more complex problems with little theoretical difficulty.
Analysis of Δ14C variations in atmosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simon, J.; Sivo, A.; Richtarikova, M.; Holy, K.; Polaskova, A.; Bulko, M.; Hola, O.
2005-01-01
The Δ 14 C in the atmosphere have been measured and studied in two localities of Slovakia. The accomplished analysis proved the existence of the annual variations of the Δ 14 C with the attenuating amplitude and decreasing mean value. It seems to be logical and physically correct to describe the Δ 14 C time-dependence by the equation: y = Ae -at + Be -bt cos(ω 1 t + (φ)). The coefficients A, a, B, b, (φ) are listed in the table for both the localities. The observed variations of the Δ 14 C have a maximum in summer and minimum in winter .Probably it is caused by the higher requirement of the heat supply in winter season which is connected directly with the fossil CO 2 emissions and more intensive Suess effect. Summer maximum could be explained by the combination of the lower CO 2 emission rate and higher turbulent transport of the stratospheric 14 C to the troposphere. Using the Fourier harmonic analysis the amplitude spectra of the average annual variations were plotted. The obtained result shows that the variations have the high degree of symmetry. Furthermore, the obtained basic frequency ω 1 = 2π/12 [month -1 ] proves that the cyclic processes with the period of T = 12 [month] have a major influence on the 14 C amount in the troposphere. The presence of some higher-order harmonics is significant, but a physical interpretation has not yet been clear. In addition to the main frequency there are presented also 2ω 1 and 3ω 1 in Bratislava and 4ω 1 in Zlkovce data-set. The long-time average of the Δ 14 C in Zlkovce during years 1995-2004 is higher of about 6.6 o / oo than in Bratislava. It represents an unique evidence that the local CO 2 pollution affects the 14 C activity . The correlation on the level R 2 = 0,43 was found between Bratislava and Zlkovce atmospheric Δ 14 C data. (authors)
Including Torsional Anharmonicity in Canonical and Microcanonical Reaction Path Calculations.
Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G
2013-07-09
We reformulate multistructural variational transition state theory by removing the approximation of calculating torsional anharmonicity only at stationary points. The multistructural method with torsional anharmonicity is applied to calculate the reaction-path free energy of the hydrogen abstraction from the carbon-1 position in isobutanol by OH radical. The torsional potential anharmonicity along the reaction path is taken into account by a coupled torsional potential. The calculations show that it can be critical to include torsional anharmonicity in searching for canonical and microcanonical variational transition states. The harmonic-oscillator approximation fails to yield reasonable free energy curves along the reaction path.
Xie, Fei; Li, Jianping; Tian, Wenshou; Zhang, Jiankai; Sun, Cheng
2014-05-01
Some studies showed that since the 1980s Modoki activity—a different sea surface temperature anomaly pattern from canonical El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) in the tropics—has been increasing in frequency. In the light of an analysis of the observations and simulations, we found that Modoki, as a new driver of global climate change, can modulate the tropical upwelling that significantly affects mid-lower stratospheric ozone. As a result, it has an important impact on the variations of tropical total column ozone (TCO), alongside quasi-biennial oscillation or canonical ENSO. Our results suggest that, in the context of future global warming, Modoki activity may continue to be a primary driver of tropical TCO changes. Besides, it is possible can serve as a predictor of tropical TCO variations since Modoki events precede tropical ozone changes.
Prediction of ppm level electrical failure by using physical variation analysis
Hou, Hsin-Ming; Kung, Ji-Fu; Hsu, Y.-B.; Yamazaki, Y.; Maruyama, Kotaro; Toyoshima, Yuya; Chen, Chu-en
2016-03-01
their spatial correlation distance. For local variations (LV) there is no correlation, whereas for global variations (GV) the correlation distance is very large [7]-[9]. This is the first time to certificate the validation of spatial distribution from the affordable bias contour big data fundamental infrastructures. And then apply statistical techniques to dig out the variation sources. The GV come from systematic issue, which could be compensated by adaptive LT condition or OPC correction. But LV comes from random issue, which being considered as intrinsic problem such as structure, material, tool capability… etc. In this paper studying, we can find out the advanced technology node SRAM contact CD local variation (LV) dominates in total variation, about 70%. It often plays significant in-line real time catching WP-DPMO role of the product yield loss, especially for wafer edge is the worst loss within wafer distribution and causes serious reliability concern. The major root cause of variations comes from the PR material induced burr defect (LV), the second one comes from GV enhanced wafer edge short opportunity, which being attributed to three factors, first one factor is wafer edge CD deliberated enlargement for yield improvement as shown in Fig. 10. Second factor is overlaps/AA shifts due to tool capability dealing with incoming wafer's war page issue and optical periphery layout dependent working pitch issue as shown in Fig. 9 (1)., the last factor comes from wafer edge burr enhanced by wafer edge larger Photo Resistance (PR) spin centrifugal force. After implementing KPIs such as GV related AA/CD indexes as shown in Fig. 9 (1) and 10, respectively, and LV related burr index as shown in Fig. 11., we can construct the parts per million (PPM) level short probability model via multi-variables regression, canonical correlation analysis and logistic transformation. The model provides prediction of PPM level electrical failure by using in-line real time physical
The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.
Linkin, Harriet Kramer
1991-01-01
Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…
The canonical controller and its regularity
Willems, Jan C.; Belur, Madhu N.; Anak Agung Julius, A.A.J.; Trentelman, Harry L.
2003-01-01
This paper deals with properties of canonical controllers. We first specify the behavior that they implement. It follows that a canonical controller implements the desired controlled behavior if and only if the desired behavior is implementable. We subsequently investigate the regularity of the
CANONICAL EXTENSIONS OF SYMMETRIC LINEAR RELATIONS
Sandovici, Adrian; Davidson, KR; Gaspar, D; Stratila, S; Timotin, D; Vasilescu, FH
2006-01-01
The concept of canonical extension of Hermitian operators has been recently introduced by A. Kuzhel. This paper deals with a generalization of this notion to the case of symmetric linear relations. Namely, canonical regular extensions of symmetric linear relations in Hilbert spaces are studied. The
Log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheltsov, Ivan A; Shramov, Konstantin A
2008-01-01
The complex singularity exponent is a local invariant of a holomorphic function determined by the integrability of fractional powers of the function. The log canonical thresholds of effective Q-divisors on normal algebraic varieties are algebraic counterparts of complex singularity exponents. For a Fano variety, these invariants have global analogues. In the former case, it is the so-called α-invariant of Tian; in the latter case, it is the global log canonical threshold of the Fano variety, which is the infimum of log canonical thresholds of all effective Q-divisors numerically equivalent to the anticanonical divisor. An appendix to this paper contains a proof that the global log canonical threshold of a smooth Fano variety coincides with its α-invariant of Tian. The purpose of the paper is to compute the global log canonical thresholds of smooth Fano threefolds (altogether, there are 105 deformation families of such threefolds). The global log canonical thresholds are computed for every smooth threefold in 64 deformation families, and the global log canonical thresholds are computed for a general threefold in 20 deformation families. Some bounds for the global log canonical thresholds are computed for 14 deformation families. Appendix A is due to J.-P. Demailly.
Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity;
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kiefer, Claus [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universitaet zu Koeln, Zuelpicher Strasse 77, 50937 Cologne (Germany)
2008-06-21
The open problem of constructing a consistent and experimentally tested quantum theory of the gravitational field has its place at the heart of fundamental physics. The main approaches can be roughly divided into two classes: either one seeks a unified quantum framework of all interactions or one starts with a direct quantization of general relativity. In the first class, string theory (M-theory) is the only known example. In the second class, one can make an additional methodological distinction: while covariant approaches such as path-integral quantization use the four-dimensional metric as an essential ingredient of their formalism, canonical approaches start with a foliation of spacetime into spacelike hypersurfaces in order to arrive at a Hamiltonian formulation. The present book is devoted to one of the canonical approaches-loop quantum gravity. It is named modern canonical quantum general relativity by the author because it uses connections and holonomies as central variables, which are analogous to the variables used in Yang-Mills theories. In fact, the canonically conjugate variables are a holonomy of a connection and the flux of a non-Abelian electric field. This has to be contrasted with the older geometrodynamical approach in which the metric of three-dimensional space and the second fundamental form are the fundamental entities, an approach which is still actively being pursued. It is the author's ambition to present loop quantum gravity in a way in which every step is formulated in a mathematically rigorous form. The formal Leitmotiv of loop quantum gravity is background independence. Non-gravitational theories are usually quantized on a given non-dynamical background. In contrast, due to the geometrical nature of gravity, no such background exists in quantum gravity. Instead, the notion of a background is supposed to emerge a posteriori as an approximate notion from quantum states of geometry. As a consequence, the standard ultraviolet
Batch variation between branchial cell cultures: An analysis of variance
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Grosell, M.; Kristensen, L.
2003-01-01
We present in detail how a statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to sort out the effect of an unexpected batch-to-batch variation between cell cultures. Two separate cultures of rainbow trout branchial cells were grown on permeable filtersupports ("inserts"). They were supposed...... to be simple duplicates for testing the effect of two induced factors-apical or basolateral addition of radioactive precursors and different apical media-on the incorporation of 14C-acetate and 32Pphosphate intotissue lipids. Unfortunately, they did not altogether give the same result. By accepting this fact...... and introducing the observed difference between batches as one of the factors in an expanded three-dimensional ANOVA, we were able to overcome an otherwisecrucial lack of sufficiently reproducible duplicate values. We could thereby show that the effect of changing the apical medium was much more marked when...
A variational approach to the analysis of dissipative electromechanical systems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Allison
Full Text Available We develop a method for systematically constructing Lagrangian functions for dissipative mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical systems. We derive the equations of motion for some typical electromechanical systems using deterministic principles that are strictly variational. We do not use any ad hoc features that are added on after the analysis has been completed, such as the Rayleigh dissipation function. We generalise the concept of potential, and define generalised potentials for dissipative lumped system elements. Our innovation offers a unified approach to the analysis of electromechanical systems where there are energy and power terms in both the mechanical and electrical parts of the system. Using our novel technique, we can take advantage of the analytic approach from mechanics, and we can apply these powerful analytical methods to electrical and to electromechanical systems. We can analyse systems that include non-conservative forces. Our methodology is deterministic, and does does require any special intuition, and is thus suitable for automation via a computer-based algebra package.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Aguilar Ciciliano
2013-08-01
Full Text Available This article analyzes the pedagogical-didactic model for the teaching of Literature in Middle School in the Salvadoran Educational system. This is part of a larger work towards a PhD project. The main goal of this project is to characterize the historical process in the construction of this model through a critical analysis of canonization sources. The findings suggest that the teaching of Literature is performed based on a historicist, pro-European, male-based approach. Among the consequences of this type of education are progressive invisibility of women writers and the marginal status of the Salvadoran literature, despite the reformist discourse that postulates gender equality and strengthening of the national identity as central policies in the current educational project.Recibido 20 de marzo de 2013 • Corregido 14 de junio de 2013 • Aceptado 19 de junio de 2013 Este artículo analiza el modelo didáctico-pedagógico para la enseñanza de la literatura en la educación media salvadoreña. Es parte de un trabajo más amplio de tesis doctoral. El objetivo es caracterizar el proceso histórico de conformación de dicho modelo mediante un análisis crítico de las fuentes de canonización. Los hallazgos sugieren que la enseñanza de la literatura se realiza con base en un enfoque historicista, europeizante y masculino; entre las consecuencias de este tipo de enseñanza se encuentran la progresiva invisibilización de la mujer escritora y el estatus marginal que ocupa la literatura salvadoreña, pese al discurso reformista que postula la equidad de género y el fortalecimiento de la identidad nacional como políticas centrales del actual proyecto educativo.Doctor en Educación de la Universidad de Costa Rica. Máster en Derechos Humanos y Educación para la Paz. Licenciado en Letras. Investigador del Consejo de Investigaciones Científicas de la Universidad de El Salvador (CIC-UES. Actualmente labora como profesor de la Universidad de El
‘Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’
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Guo Hui
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms
Analysis of dosimetric leaf gap variation on dose rate variation for dynamic IMRT
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yang, Myung Sic; Park, Ju Kyeong; Lee, Seung Hun; Kim, Yang Su; Lee, Sun Young; Cha, Seok Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)
2016-06-15
To evaluate the position accuracy of the MLC. This study analyzed the variations of the dosimetric leaf gap(DLG) and MLC transmission factor to reflect the location of the MLC leaves according to the dose rate variation for dynamic IMRT. We used the 6 MV and 10 MV X-ray beams from linear accelerator with a Millennium 120 MLC system. We measured the variation of DLG and MLC transmission factor at depth of 10 cm for the water phantom by varying the dose rate to 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 MU/min using the CC13 and FC-65G chambers. For 6 MV X-ray beam, a result of measuring based on a dose rate 400 MU/min by varying the dose rate to 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 MU/min of the difference rate was respectively -2.59, -1.89, 0.00, -0.58, -2.89%. For 10 MV X-ray beam, the difference rate was respectively 2.52, -1.69, 0.00, +1.28, -1.98%. The difference rate of MLC transmission factor was in the range of about 1% of the measured values at the two types of energy and all of the dose rates. This study evaluated the variation of DLG and MLC transmission factor for the dose rate variation for dynamic IMRT. The difference of the MLC transmission factor according to the dose rate variation is negligible, but, the difference of the DLG was found to be large. Therefore, when randomly changing the dose rate dynamic IMRT, it may significantly affect the dose delivered to the tumor. Unless you change the dose rate during dynamic IMRT, it is thought that is to be the more accurate radiation therapy.
Analysis of Vegetation Index Variations and the Asian Monsoon Climate
Shen, Sunhung; Leptoukh, Gregory G.; Gerasimov, Irina
2012-01-01
Vegetation growth depends on local climate. Significant anthropogenic land cover and land use change activities over Asia have changed vegetation distribution as well. On the other hand, vegetation is one of the important land surface variables that influence the Asian Monsoon variability through controlling atmospheric energy and water vapor conditions. In this presentation, the mean and variations of vegetation index of last decade at regional scale resolution (5km and higher) from MODIS have been analyzed. Results indicate that the vegetation index has been reduced significantly during last decade over fast urbanization areas in east China, such as Yangtze River Delta, where local surface temperatures were increased significantly in term of urban heat Island. The relationship between vegetation Index and climate (surface temperature, precipitation) over a grassland in northern Asia and over a woody savannas in southeast Asia are studied. In supporting Monsoon Asian Integrated Regional Study (MAIRS) program, the data in this study have been integrated into Giovanni, the online visualization and analysis system at NASA GES DISC. Most images in this presentation are generated from Giovanni system.
Analysis of Idiom Variation in the Framework of Linguistic Subjectivity
Liu, Zhengyuan
2012-01-01
Idiom variation is a ubiquitous linguistic phenomenon which has raised a lot of research questions. The past approach was either formal or functional. Both of them did not pay much attention to cognitive factors of language users. By putting idiom variation in the framework of linguistic subjectivity, we have offered a new perspective in the…
Variational formulation based analysis on growth of yield front in ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The present study investigates the growth of elastic-plastic front in rotating solid disks of non-uniform thickness having exponential and parabolic geometry variation. The problem is solved through an extension of a variational method in elastoplastic regime. The formulation is based on von-Mises yield criterion and linear ...
Canonical WNT Signalling Controls Hair Follicle Spacing
Schlake, Thomas; Sick, Stefanie
2007-01-01
Canonical WNT signals play an important role in hair follicle development. In addition to being crucial for epidermal appendage initiation, they control the interfollicular spacing pattern and contribute to the spatial orientation and largely parallel alignment of hair follicles. However, owing to the complexity of canonical WNT signalling and its interconnections with other pathways, many details of hair follicle formation await further clarification. Here, we discuss the recently suggested ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander M Many
Full Text Available The characterization of mammary stem cells, and signals that regulate their behavior, is of central importance in understanding developmental changes in the mammary gland and possibly for targeting stem-like cells in breast cancer. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a signaling mechanism associated with maintenance of self-renewing stem cells in many tissues, including mammary epithelium, and can be oncogenic when deregulated. Wnt1 and Wnt3a are examples of ligands that activate the canonical pathway. Other Wnt ligands, such as Wnt5a, typically signal via non-canonical, β-catenin-independent, pathways that in some cases can antagonize canonical signaling. Since the role of non-canonical Wnt signaling in stem cell regulation is not well characterized, we set out to investigate this using mammosphere formation assays that reflect and quantify stem cell properties. Ex vivo mammosphere cultures were established from both wild-type and Wnt1 transgenic mice and were analyzed in response to manipulation of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. An increased level of mammosphere formation was observed in cultures derived from MMTV-Wnt1 versus wild-type animals, and this was blocked by treatment with Dkk1, a selective inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with this, we found that a single dose of recombinant Wnt3a was sufficient to increase mammosphere formation in wild-type cultures. Surprisingly, we found that Wnt5a also increased mammosphere formation in these assays. We confirmed that this was not caused by an increase in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling but was instead mediated by non-canonical Wnt signals requiring the receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 and activity of the Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK. We conclude that both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signals have positive effects promoting stem cell activity in mammosphere assays and that they do so via independent signaling mechanisms.
[Analysis of variation of orbital openings in contemporary skulls].
Gawlikowska-Sroka, Aleksandra
2013-01-01
The size and symmetry of the eye-socket have puzzled many medical and biological scientists. The orbit is a very complicated skull part because of the great number of bones involved in its structure, and its specific physiological function. The aim of our study was to estimate variations in the shape, size and position of the orbital openings in contemporary human skulls by using computer software. The material consisted of 80 male human skulls of the European population from the beginning of the 20th century. X-ray photographs were taken in the P-A projection, then the images were scanned and calibrated by means of MicroStation 95 Academic Edition software. Tools for measuring the vector elements were used to assess measurements: n-mf, mf-ml, mf-ek, spa--sbk and the area of the orbital opening. The orbital index and the index of morphological asymmetry were assessed. Michalski's tables were used to establish orbit features. The statistical analysis was performed using the Statistica computer software package. Measurements of the eye--socket position in relation to the mid-line were significantly more frequently larger on the left-hand side, which means a more lateral position of orbits on that side. The measurements of breadth, height and area were more frequently larger on the right side. The asymmetry index was significant for orbit width. The majority of the examined orbits were classified as hypsikonch, according to the orbital index. According to Michalski's scale, the dominant size data described orbital openings in the European population from the West Pomeranian region. The awareness of variability in this area is necessary for the correct interpretation of patients' examination results, reconstruction planning, in forensic medicine, and anthropology.
Geringer-Sameth, Alex; Koushiappas, Savvas M
2011-12-09
Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are known to be excellent targets for the detection of annihilating dark matter. We present new limits on the annihilation cross section of weakly interacting massive particles based on the joint analysis of seven Milky Way dwarfs using a frequentist Neyman construction and Pass 7 data from the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope. We exclude generic weakly interacting massive particle candidates annihilating into bb with a mass less than 40 GeV that reproduce the observed relic abundance. To within 95% systematic errors on the dark matter distribution within the dwarfs, the mass lower limit can be as low as 19 GeV or as high as 240 GeV. For annihilation into τ+ τ-, these limits become 19, 13, and 80 GeV, respectively.
Process modelling on a canonical basis[Process modelling; Canonical modelling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Siepmann, Volker
2006-12-20
possible to retrieve symbolically obtained derivatives of arbitrary process properties with respect to process parameters efficiently as a post calculation. The approach is therefore perfectly suitable to perform advanced process systems engineering tasks, such as sensitivity analysis, process optimisation, and data reconciliation. The concept of canonical modelling yields a natural definition of a general exergy state function for second law analysis. By partitioning of exergy into latent, mechanical, and chemical contributions, irreversible effects can be identified specifically, even for black-box models. The calculation core of a new process simulator called Yasim is developed and implemented. The software design follows the concepts described in the theoretical part of this thesis. Numerous exemplary process models are presented to address various subtopics of canonical modelling (author)
Empirical analysis of skin friction under variations of temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parra Alvarez, A. R. de la; Groot Viana, M. de
2014-01-01
In soil geotechnical characterization, strength parameters, cohesion (c) and internal friction angle (Φ) has been traditional measured without taking into account temperature, been a very important issue in energy geostructures. The present document analyzes the variation of these parameters in soil-concrete interface at different temperatures. A traditional shear strength case with a forced plane of failure was used. Several tests were carried out to determine the variation of skin friction in granular and cohesive oils with temperature. (Author)
Vector optimization set-valued and variational analysis
Chen, Guang-ya; Yang, Xiaogi
2005-01-01
This book is devoted to vector or multiple criteria approaches in optimization. Topics covered include: vector optimization, vector variational inequalities, vector variational principles, vector minmax inequalities and vector equilibrium problems. In particular, problems with variable ordering relations and set-valued mappings are treated. The nonlinear scalarization method is extensively used throughout the book to deal with various vector-related problems. The results presented are original and should be interesting to researchers and graduates in applied mathematics and operations research
The Literary Canon in the Age of New Media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Backe, Hans-Joachim
2015-01-01
The article offers a comparative overview of the diverging courses of the canon debate in Anglophone and Germanophone contexts. While the Anglophone canon debate has focused on the politics of canon composition, the Germanophone canon debate has been more concerned with the malleability and media...
Hospital Variation in Cesarean Delivery: A Multilevel Analysis.
Vecino-Ortiz, Andres I; Bardey, David; Castano-Yepes, Ramon
2015-12-01
To assess the issue of hospital variations in Colombia and to contribute to the methodology on health care variations by using a model that clusters the variance between hospitals while accounting for individual-level reimbursement rates and objective health-status variables. We used data on all births (N = 11,954) taking place in a contributory-regimen insurer network in Colombia during 2007. A multilevel logistic regression model was used to account for the share of unexplained variance between hospitals. In addition, an alternative variance decomposition specification was further carried out to measure the proportion of such unexplained variance due to the region effect. Hospitals account for 20% of the variation in performing cesarean sections, whereas region explains only one-third of such variance. Variables accounting for preferences on the demand side as well as reimbursement rates are found to predict the probability of performing cesarean sections. Hospital variations explain large variances within a single-payer's network. Because this insurer company is highly regarded in terms of performance and finance, these results might provide a lower bound for the scale of hospital variation in the Colombian health care market. Such lower bound provides guidance on the relevance of this issue for Colombia. Some factors such as demand-side preferences and physician reimbursement rates increase variations in health care even within a single-payer network. This is a source of inefficiencies, threatening the quality of health care and financial sustainability. The proposed methodology should be considered in further research on health care variations. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kinetic analysis of several variations of push-ups.
Ebben, William P; Wurm, Bradley; VanderZanden, Tyler L; Spadavecchia, Mark L; Durocher, John J; Bickham, Curtis T; Petushek, Erich J
2011-10-01
Push-ups are a common and practical exercise that is used to enhance fitness, including upper body strength or endurance. The kinetic characteristics of push-ups and its variations are yet to be quantified. Kinetic quantification is necessary to accurately evaluate the training load, and thus the nature of the training stimulus, for these exercise variations. This study assessed the peak vertical ground reaction forces (GRFs) of push-up variations including the regular push-up and those performed with flexed knee, feet elevated on a 30.48-cm box, and a 60.96-cm box, and hands elevated on a 30.48-cm box and a 60.96-cm box. Twenty-three recreationally fit individuals (14 men, 9 women) performed each of the 6 push-up variations in a randomized order. Peak GRF and peak GRF expressed as a coefficient of subject body mass were obtained with a force platform. Push-ups with the feet elevated produced a higher GRF than all other push-up variations (p ≤ 0.05). Push-ups with hands elevated and push-ups from the flexed knee position produced a lower GRF than all other push-up variations (p ≤ 0.05). No gender differences in response to these push-up variations were found (p > 0.05). Additionally, subject height was not related to the GRF for any of the push-up conditions (p > 0.05) other than the condition where hands were elevated on a 60.96-cm box (p ≤ 0.05; r = 0.63). These data can be used to progress the intensity of push-ups in a program and to quantify the training load as a percentage of body mass.
Common activation of canonical Wnt signaling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marina Pasca di Magliano
2007-11-01
Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is an extremely aggressive malignancy, which carries a dismal prognosis. Activating mutations of the Kras gene are common to the vast majority of human PDA. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic signaling pathway such as Hedgehog and Notch are inappropriately upregulated in this disease. The role of another embryonic signaling pathway, namely the canonical Wnt cascade, is still controversial. Here, we use gene array analysis as a platform to demonstrate general activation of the canonical arm of the Wnt pathway in human PDA. Furthermore, we provide evidence for Wnt activation in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. Our results also indicate that Wnt signaling might be activated downstream of Hedgehog signaling, which is an early event in PDA evolution. Wnt inhibition blocked proliferation and induced apoptosis of cultured adenocarcinoma cells, thereby providing evidence to support the development of novel therapeutical strategies for Wnt inhibition in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
The Bargmann transform and canonical transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Villegas-Blas, Carlos
2002-01-01
This paper concerns a relationship between the kernel of the Bargmann transform and the corresponding canonical transformation. We study this fact for a Bargmann transform introduced by Thomas and Wassell [J. Math. Phys. 36, 5480-5505 (1995)]--when the configuration space is the two-sphere S 2 and for a Bargmann transform that we introduce for the three-sphere S 3 . It is shown that the kernel of the Bargmann transform is a power series in a function which is a generating function of the corresponding canonical transformation (a classical analog of the Bargmann transform). We show in each case that our canonical transformation is a composition of two other canonical transformations involving the complex null quadric in C 3 or C 4 . We also describe quantizations of those two other canonical transformations by dealing with spaces of holomorphic functions on the aforementioned null quadrics. Some of these quantizations have been studied by Bargmann and Todorov [J. Math. Phys. 18, 1141-1148 (1977)] and the other quantizations are related to the work of Guillemin [Integ. Eq. Operator Theory 7, 145-205 (1984)]. Since suitable infinite linear combinations of powers of the generating functions are coherent states for L 2 (S 2 ) or L 2 (S 3 ), we show finally that the studied Bargmann transforms are actually coherent states transforms
Król, Magdalena; Mucha, Joanna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Homa, Agata; Bulkowska, Małgorzata; Majewska, Alicja; Gajewska, Małgorzata; Pietrzak, Marta; Perszko, Mikołaj; Romanowska, Karolina; Pawłowski, Karol; Manuali, Elisabetta; Hellmen, Eva; Motyl, Tomasz
2014-01-01
According to the current hypothesis, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are "corrupted" by cancer cells and subsequently facilitate, rather than inhibit, tumor metastasis. Because the molecular mechanisms of cancer cell-TAM interactions are complicated and controversial we aimed to better define this phenomenon. Using microRNA microarrays, Real-time qPCR and Western blot we showed that co-culture of canine mammary tumor cells with TAMs or treatment with macrophage-conditioned medium inhibited the canonical Wnt pathway and activated the non-canonical Wnt pathway in tumor cells. We also showed that co-culture of TAMs with tumor cells increased expression of canonical Wnt inhibitors in TAMs. Subsequently, we demonstrated macrophage-induced invasive growth patterns and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. Validation of these results in canine mammary carcinoma tissues (n = 50) and xenograft tumors indicated the activation of non-canonical and canonical Wnt pathways in metastatic tumors and non-metastatic malignancies, respectively. Activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway correlated with number of TAMs. We demonstrated that TAMs mediate a "switch" between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in canine mammary tumors, leading to increased tumor invasion and metastasis. Interestingly, similar changes in neoplastic cells were observed in the presence of macrophage-conditioned medium or live macrophages. These observations indicate that rather than being "corrupted" by cancer cells, TAMs constitutively secrete canonical Wnt inhibitors that decrease tumor proliferation and development, but as a side effect, they induce the non-canonical Wnt pathway, which leads to tumor metastasis. These data challenge the conventional understanding of TAM-cancer cell interactions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magdalena Król
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: According to the current hypothesis, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs are "corrupted" by cancer cells and subsequently facilitate, rather than inhibit, tumor metastasis. Because the molecular mechanisms of cancer cell-TAM interactions are complicated and controversial we aimed to better define this phenomenon. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using microRNA microarrays, Real-time qPCR and Western blot we showed that co-culture of canine mammary tumor cells with TAMs or treatment with macrophage-conditioned medium inhibited the canonical Wnt pathway and activated the non-canonical Wnt pathway in tumor cells. We also showed that co-culture of TAMs with tumor cells increased expression of canonical Wnt inhibitors in TAMs. Subsequently, we demonstrated macrophage-induced invasive growth patterns and epithelial-mesenchymal transition of tumor cells. Validation of these results in canine mammary carcinoma tissues (n = 50 and xenograft tumors indicated the activation of non-canonical and canonical Wnt pathways in metastatic tumors and non-metastatic malignancies, respectively. Activation of non-canonical Wnt pathway correlated with number of TAMs. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated that TAMs mediate a "switch" between canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling pathways in canine mammary tumors, leading to increased tumor invasion and metastasis. Interestingly, similar changes in neoplastic cells were observed in the presence of macrophage-conditioned medium or live macrophages. These observations indicate that rather than being "corrupted" by cancer cells, TAMs constitutively secrete canonical Wnt inhibitors that decrease tumor proliferation and development, but as a side effect, they induce the non-canonical Wnt pathway, which leads to tumor metastasis. These data challenge the conventional understanding of TAM-cancer cell interactions.
Principal component analysis to evaluate the spatial variation of ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Discretisation of the particle sizes is highlighted as both a challenge and an opportunity and it is recommended that it be used as a tuning parameter in gauging kaolin variations across samples and in validating new predictive modeling applications. Successful applications will depend on how clay and data scientists keep ...
Multidimensional analysis of Drosophila wing variation in Evolution ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this study, using Drosophila melanogaster isofemale lines derived from wild flies collected on both slopes of the canyon, we investigated the effect of developmental temperature upon the different components of phenotypic variation of a complex trait: the wing. Combining geometric and traditional morphometrics, we find ...
Analysis of Tide Variation Monitored by GNSS-MR
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
ZHANG Shuangcheng
2016-09-01
Full Text Available Precise monitoring of tide variation is the most of issues in the fields of Global Sea-level Observation System, ocean circulation and global climate change research. With the deepening research and rapid application of GNSS, GNSS-MR based on multipath has gradually become a new means of remote sensing for ground environment (vegetation, soil moisture, snow depth, sea level, volcano and so on with geodetic GNSS station. By analyzing the characteristics of the onshore GNSS SNR data which is caused by multipath, the inversion principle of GNSS-MR technology based on the SNR data to detect tide variation is given in this paper. The onshore GNSS station of SC02 which is located in Friday Harbor, Washington state of United States, are used to retrieve tide variation. The retrieval result is consistent with the tide gauge which is only 359m to the GNSS station. The bias is about 10cm, and the correlation coefficient is better than 0.98. Preliminary results show that GNSS-MR technology based on onshore CORS station to some extent could be real-time and continuously used to monitor the tide variation. What's more, onshore GNSS stations could be a powerful supplement for tide gauge and be used to extend GNSS application in marine remote sensing field.
Population-level analysis of gut microbiome variation
Falony, Gwen; Joossens, Marie; Vieira-Silva, Sara; Wang, Jun; Darzi, Youssef; Faust, Karoline; Kurilshchikov, Aleksandr; Bonder, Marc Jan; Valles-Colomer, Mireia; Vandeputte, Doris; Tito, Raul Y.; Chaffron, Samuel; Rymenans, Leen; Verspecht, Chlo; De Sutter, Lise; Lima-Mendez, Gipsi; D'hoe, Kevin; Jonckheere, Karl; Homola, Daniel; Garcia, Roberto; Tigchelaar, Ettje F.; Eeckhaudt, Linda; Fu, Jingyuan; Henckaerts, Liesbet; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Wijmenga, Cisca; Raes, Jeroen
2016-01-01
Fecal microbiome variation in the average, healthy population has remained under-investigated. Here, we analyzed two independent, extensively phenotyped cohorts: the Belgian Flemish Gut Flora Project (FGFP; discovery cohort; N = 1106) and the Dutch LifeLines-DEEP study (LLDeep; replication; N =
A variational analysis for large deflection of skew plates under ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In the present paper, the static behaviour of thin isotropic skew plates under uniformly distributed load is analyzed with the geometric nonlinearity of the model properly handled. A variational method based on total potential energy has been implemented through assumed displacement field. The computational work has ...
Analysis of Price Variation and Market Integration of Prosopis ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The study was conducted to provide information on price variation and market integration of Prosopis africana seed marketing for a period of four months in Makurdi Metropolis, Benue State. Nigeria. The study seek to test the hypothesis that there is no significant difference between mean amount of Prosopis africana seeds ...
Analysis of spin and gauge models with variational methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dagotto, E.; Masperi, L.; Moreo, A.; Della Selva, A.; Fiore, R.
1985-01-01
Since independent-site (link) or independent-link (plaquette) variational states enhance the order or the disorder, respectively, in the treatment of spin (gauge) models, we prove that mixed states are able to improve the critical coupling while giving the qualitatively correct behavior of the relevant parameters
Allozyme variation in Ulmus species from France: analysis of differentiation.
Machon, N; Lefranc, M; Bilger, I; Mazer, S J; Sarr, A
1997-01-01
In the present paper, the geographical structure of genetic variation in three French elm taxa is described using electrophoretic data. For three species, Ulmus laevis, U. glabra and U. minor, two kinds of analyses were performed. First, the genetic parameters (genetic diversity indices) of individuals sampled from naturally regenerating forest were compared to samples of cultivated ornamental trees. Secondly, when sample sizes were sufficient, the genetic parameters of trees sampled from different regions of France were compared to detect geographical differentiation. From these analyses, the ultimate aim was to offer recommendations concerning the conservation policies of the genetic resources of French elms. The heterozygosity of Ulmusxhollandica (the presumed hybrid between U. minor and U. glabra) was compared to its putative parent taxa to determine whether the hybrid harbours great levels of genetic variation. In spite of the ravaging effects of Dutch Elm disease in the past, all three species exhibit high levels of electrophoretic variation. The three species surveyed displayed similar levels of genetic diversity, proportions of polymorphic loci and levels of allelic diversity in trees harvested from naturally regenerated forests relative to cultivated ornamental trees. High levels of genetic diversity in U. minor within geographical regions of France were detected, with only moderate levels of genetic differentiation detected between regions. Ulmusxhollandica is not more heterozygous than either of its parent species, suggesting that extant representatives of this taxon are the result of past and ongoing backcrosses with the parental taxa. Ongoing efforts to preserve the genetic variation still present in French elms should take advantage of their high levels of electrophoretic variation and target genetically distinct, vegetatively reproducing genotypes in their natural environment.
Marketingová strategie firmy Canon na českém trhu
Vargová, Viktoria
2014-01-01
The goal of this final thesis, which is broken down into 3 chapters, is the analysis of marketing strategy for the company Canon in the Czech market. Furthermore, suggested potential improvement from observed data. In the first chapter, we familiarise ourselves with the organisation of Canon and provide basic information on its history, philosophy of the company and its Corporate Social Responsibility. The theoretical section explains important terms used at work such as marketing concept, ma...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perkins, Timothy N.; Dentener, Mieke A.; Stassen, Frank R.; Rohde, Gernot G.; Mossman, Brooke T.; Wouters, Emiel F.M.; Reynaert, Niki L.
2016-01-01
Growth and development of the mature lung is a complex process orchestrated by a number of intricate developmental signaling pathways. Wingless-type MMTV-integration site (WNT) signaling plays critical roles in controlling branching morphogenesis cell differentiation, and formation of the conducting and respiratory airways. In addition, WNT pathways are often re-activated in mature lungs during repair and regeneration. WNT- signaling has been elucidated as a crucial contributor to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as other hyper-proliferative lung diseases. Silicosis, a detrimental occupational lung disease caused by excessive inhalation of crystalline silica dust, is hallmarked by repeated cycles of damaging inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and formation of dense, hyalinized nodules of whorled collagen. However, mechanisms of epithelial cell hyperplasia and matrix deposition are not well understood, as most research efforts have focused on the pronounced inflammatory response. Microarray data from our previous studies has revealed a number of WNT-signaling and WNT-target genes altered by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we utilize pathway analysis to designate connections between genes altered by silica in WNT-signaling networks. Furthermore, we confirm microarray findings by QRT-PCR and demonstrate both activation of canonical (β-catenin) and down-regulation of non-canonical (WNT5A) signaling in immortalized (BEAS-2B) and primary (PBEC) human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that WNT-signaling and cross-talk with other pathways (e.g. Notch), may contribute to proliferative, fibrogenic and inflammatory responses to silica in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • Pathway analysis reveals silica-induced WNT-signaling in lung epithelial cells. • Silica-induced canonical WNT-signaling is mediated by autocrine/paracrine signals. • Crystalline silica decreases non-canonical WNT
Dictionary-Based Tensor Canonical Polyadic Decomposition
Cohen, Jeremy Emile; Gillis, Nicolas
2018-04-01
To ensure interpretability of extracted sources in tensor decomposition, we introduce in this paper a dictionary-based tensor canonical polyadic decomposition which enforces one factor to belong exactly to a known dictionary. A new formulation of sparse coding is proposed which enables high dimensional tensors dictionary-based canonical polyadic decomposition. The benefits of using a dictionary in tensor decomposition models are explored both in terms of parameter identifiability and estimation accuracy. Performances of the proposed algorithms are evaluated on the decomposition of simulated data and the unmixing of hyperspectral images.
Evidence of non-canonical NOTCH signaling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Traustadóttir, Gunnhildur Ásta; Jensen, Charlotte H; Thomassen, Mads
2016-01-01
suggested to interact with NOTCH1 and act as an antagonist. This non-canonical interaction is, however controversial, and evidence for a direct interaction, still lacking in mammals. In this study, we elucidated the putative DLK1-NOTCH1 interaction in a mammalian context. Taking a global approach and using...... this interaction to occur between EGF domains 5 and 6 of DLK1 and EGF domains 10-15 of NOTCH1. Thus, our data provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between DLK1 and NOTCH1 in mammals, and substantiate that non-canonical NOTCH ligands exist, adding to the complexity of NOTCH signaling....
Bainard, Jillian D; Bainard, Luke D; Henry, Thomas A; Fazekas, Aron J; Newmaster, Steven G
2012-12-01
Genome size (C-value) and endopolyploidy (endoreduplication index, EI) are known to correlate with various morphological and ecological traits, in addition to phylogenetic placement. A phylogenetically controlled multivariate analysis was used to explore the relationships between DNA content and phenotype in angiosperms. Seeds from 41 angiosperm species (17 families) were grown in a common glasshouse experiment. Genome size (2C-value and 1Cx-value) and EI (in four tissues: leaf, stem, root, petal) were determined using flow cytometry. The phylogenetic signal was calculated for each measure of DNA content, and phylogenetic canonical correlation analysis (PCCA) explored how the variation in genome size and EI was correlated with 18 morphological and ecological traits. Phylogenetic signal (λ) was strongest for EI in all tissues, and λ was stronger for the 2C-value than the 1Cx-value. PCCA revealed that EI was correlated with pollen length, stem height, seed mass, dispersal mechanism, arbuscular mycorrhizal association, life history and flowering time, and EI and genome size were both correlated with stem height and life history. PCCA provided an effective way to explore multiple factors of DNA content variation and phenotypic traits in a phylogenetic context. Traits that were correlated significantly with DNA content were linked to plant competitive ability. © 2012 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2012 New Phytologist Trust.
Canonical vs. micro-canonical sampling methods in a 2D Ising model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kepner, J.
1990-12-01
Canonical and micro-canonical Monte Carlo algorithms were implemented on a 2D Ising model. Expressions for the internal energy, U, inverse temperature, Z, and specific heat, C, are given. These quantities were calculated over a range of temperature, lattice sizes, and time steps. Both algorithms accurately simulate the Ising model. To obtain greater than three decimal accuracy from the micro-canonical method requires that the more complicated expression for Z be used. The overall difference between the algorithms is small. The physics of the problem under study should be the deciding factor in determining which algorithm to use. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs
Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
of black hole parameters, to leading order in A the canonical entropy obeys the. BHAL. As the magnitude of the cosmological constant is reduced, one approaches the so-called Hawking–Page phase transition to a 'phase' which exhibits the same thermal instability as mentioned above. In this talk, we focus on the following:.
On the generalized Lorenz canonical form
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Čelikovský, Sergej; Guanrong, Ch.
2005-01-01
Roč. 26, č. 5 (2005), s. 1271-1276 ISSN 0960-0779 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0011; GA MŠk 1P05LA262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chaos * synchronization * canonical form Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.938, year: 2005
Canonical Processes of Semantically Annotated Media Production
Hardman, L.; Obrenović, Ž.; Nack, F.; Troncy, R.; Huet, B.; Schenk, S.
2011-01-01
While many multimedia systems allow the association of semantic annotations with media assets, there is no agreed way of sharing these among systems. This chapter identifies a small number of fundamental processes of media production, which the author terms canonical processes, which can be
Kuidas Canon suureks kasvas / Andres Eilart
Eilart, Andres
2004-01-01
Jaapani kaamerate ja büroomasinate tootja Canon Groupi arengust, tegevusest kolmes regioonis - USA-s, Euroopas ja Aasias ning ettevõtte pikaajalise edu põhjustest - ärifilosoofiast ning ajastatud tootearendusest. Vt. samas: Firma esialgne nimi oli Kwanon; Konkurendid koonduvad
Conformal constraint in canonical quantum gravity
t Hooft, G.
2010-01-01
Perturbative canonical quantum gravity is considered, when coupled to a renormalizable model for matter fields. It is proposed that the functional integral over the dilaton field should be disentangled from the other integrations over the metric fields. This should generate a conformally invariant
On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbashov, B.M.
2001-01-01
The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a special Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge
On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barbashov, B.M.
2001-01-01
The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a specific Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge
Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color
Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.
2010-01-01
We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…
Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
... fluctuations, as found earlier) the canonical entropy then has a universal form including logarithmic corrections to the area law. This form is shown to be independent of the index appearing in assumption (b). The index, however, is crucial in ascertaining the domain of validity of our approach based on thermal equilibrium.
Canonical Partitions in the Restricted Linear Model
van der Genugten, B.B.
1997-01-01
In the linear model y = X + " under the restriction C = 0 a canonical partition C = [C0;C1] of the rows of C admits a simple representation of linear subspaces of values = X . Its use is shown for the identification, estimating and testing of linear combinations DB. Results are derived without
Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Similar to this is the case of ref. [12] which also uses the saddle point approximation to express the microcanonical entropy in terms of the canonical entropy [12a]. Recalling that there is at least 'circumstantial' evidence that the microcanonical entropy has a 'universal' form [13–15], identical to that obtained in ref. [6] quoted.
Variation in plasma calcium analysis in primary care in Sweden - a multilevel analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eggertsen Robert
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT is a common disease that often remains undetected and causes severe disturbance especially in postmenopausal women. Therefore, national recommendations promoting early pHPT detection by plasma calcium (P-Ca have been issued in Sweden. In this study we aimed to investigate variation of P-Ca analysis between physicians and health care centres (HCCs in primary care in county of Skaraborg, Sweden. Methods In this cross sectional study of patients' records during 2005 we analysed records from 154 629 patients attending 457 physicians at 24 HCCs. We used multilevel logistic regression analysis (MLRA and adjusted for patient, physician and HCC characteristics. Differences were expressed as median odds ratio (MOR. Results There was a substantial variation in number of P-Ca analyses between both HCCs (MORHCC 1.65 [1.44-2.07] and physicians (MORphysician 1.95 [1.85-2.08]. The odds for a P-Ca analysis were lower for male patients (OR 0.80 [0.77-0.83] and increased with the number of diagnoses (OR 25.8 [23.5-28.5]. Sex of the physician had no influence on P-Ca test ordering (OR 0.93 [0.78-1.09]. Physicians under education ordered most P-Ca analyses (OR 1.69 [1.35-2.24] and locum least (OR 0.73 [0.57-0.94]. More of the variance was attributed to the physician level than the HCC level. Different mix of patients did not explain this variance between physicians. Theoretically, if a patient were able to change both GP and HCC, the odds of a P-Ca analysis would in median increase by 2.45. Including characteristics of the patients, physicians and HCCs in the MLRA model did not explain the variance. Conclusions The physician level was more important than the HCC level for the variation in P-Ca analysis, but further exploration of unidentified contextual factors is crucial for future monitoring of practice variation.
Variational methods for crystalline microstructure analysis and computation
Dolzmann, Georg
2003-01-01
Phase transformations in solids typically lead to surprising mechanical behaviour with far reaching technological applications. The mathematical modeling of these transformations in the late 80s initiated a new field of research in applied mathematics, often referred to as mathematical materials science, with deep connections to the calculus of variations and the theory of partial differential equations. This volume gives a brief introduction to the essential physical background, in particular for shape memory alloys and a special class of polymers (nematic elastomers). Then the underlying mathematical concepts are presented with a strong emphasis on the importance of quasiconvex hulls of sets for experiments, analytical approaches, and numerical simulations.
Not all DDRs are created equal: Non-canonical DNA damage responses
Burgess, Rebecca C.; Misteli, Tom
2015-01-01
Summary It is commonly assumed that there is a single canonical DNA damage response (DDR) that protects cells from various types of double-strand breaks and that its activation occurs via recognition of DNA damage by the DDR machinery. Recent work suggests that both assumptions may be oversimplifications. Here, we discuss several variations of the DDR in which the pathway is activated by diverse cellular events or generates distinct signaling outcomes. The existence of multiple non-canonical DDRs provides insights into how DNA damage is sensed and suggests a highly modular organization of the DDR. PMID:26317463
ANALYSIS THE DIURNAL VARIATIONS ON SELECTED PHYSICAL AND PHYSIOLOGICAL PARAMETERS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. MAHABOOBJAN
2010-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to analyze the diurnal variations on selected physical and physiological parameters such as speed, explosive power, resting heart rate and breath holding time among college students. To achieve the purpose of this study, a total of twenty players (n=20 from Government Arts College, Salem were selected as subjects To study the diurnal variation of the players on selected physiological and performance variables, the data were collected 4 times a day with every four hours in between the times it from 6.00 to 18.00 hours were selected as another categorical variable. One way repeated measures (ANOVA was used to analyze the data. If the obtained F-ratio was significant, Seheffe’s post-hoc test was used to find out the significant difference if anyamong the paired means. The level of significance was fixed at.05 level. It has concluded that both physical and physiological parameters were significantly deferred with reference to change of temperature in a day
Statistical analysis of geomagnetic field variations during solar eclipses
Kim, Jung-Hee; Chang, Heon-Young
2018-04-01
We investigate the geomagnetic field variations recorded by INTERMAGNET geomagnetic observatories, which are observed while the Moon's umbra or penumbra passed over them during a solar eclipse event. Though it is generally considered that the geomagnetic field can be modulated during solar eclipses, the effect of the solar eclipse on the observed geomagnetic field has proved subtle to be detected. Instead of exploring the geomagnetic field as a case study, we analyze 207 geomagnetic manifestations acquired by 100 geomagnetic observatories during 39 solar eclipses occurring from 1991 to 2016. As a result of examining a pattern of the geomagnetic field variation on average, we confirm that the effect can be seen over an interval of 180 min centered at the time of maximum eclipse on a site of a geomagnetic observatory. That is, demonstrate an increase in the Y component of the geomagnetic field and decreases in the X component and the total strength of the geomagnetic field. We also find that the effect can be overwhelmed, depending more sensitively on the level of daily geomagnetic events than on the level of solar activity and/or the phase of solar cycle. We have demonstrated it by dividing the whole data set into subsets based on parameters of the geomagnetic field, solar activity, and solar eclipses. It is suggested, therefore, that an evidence of the solar eclipse effect can be revealed even at the solar maximum, as long as the day of the solar eclipse is magnetically quiet.
Quantum canonical ensemble: A projection operator approach
Magnus, Wim; Lemmens, Lucien; Brosens, Fons
2017-09-01
Knowing the exact number of particles N, and taking this knowledge into account, the quantum canonical ensemble imposes a constraint on the occupation number operators. The constraint particularly hampers the systematic calculation of the partition function and any relevant thermodynamic expectation value for arbitrary but fixed N. On the other hand, fixing only the average number of particles, one may remove the above constraint and simply factorize the traces in Fock space into traces over single-particle states. As is well known, that would be the strategy of the grand-canonical ensemble which, however, comes with an additional Lagrange multiplier to impose the average number of particles. The appearance of this multiplier can be avoided by invoking a projection operator that enables a constraint-free computation of the partition function and its derived quantities in the canonical ensemble, at the price of an angular or contour integration. Introduced in the recent past to handle various issues related to particle-number projected statistics, the projection operator approach proves beneficial to a wide variety of problems in condensed matter physics for which the canonical ensemble offers a natural and appropriate environment. In this light, we present a systematic treatment of the canonical ensemble that embeds the projection operator into the formalism of second quantization while explicitly fixing N, the very number of particles rather than the average. Being applicable to both bosonic and fermionic systems in arbitrary dimensions, transparent integral representations are provided for the partition function ZN and the Helmholtz free energy FN as well as for two- and four-point correlation functions. The chemical potential is not a Lagrange multiplier regulating the average particle number but can be extracted from FN+1 -FN, as illustrated for a two-dimensional fermion gas.
Systems genetics analysis of pharmacogenomics variation during antidepressant treatment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Madsen, M. B.; Kogelman, L. J. A.; Kadarmideen, H. N.
2018-01-01
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most widely used antidepressants, but the efficacy of the treatment varies significantly among individuals. It is believed that complex genetic mechanisms play a part in this variation. We have used a network based approach to unravel...... the involved genetic components. Moreover, we investigated the potential difference in the genetic interaction networks underlying SSRI treatment response over time. We found four hub genes (ASCC3, PPARGC1B, SCHIP1 and TMTC2) with different connectivity in the initial SSRI treatment period (baseline to week 4......) compared with the subsequent period (4-8 weeks after initiation), suggesting that different genetic networks are important at different times during SSRI treatment. The strongest interactions in the initial SSRI treatment period involved genes encoding transcriptional factors, and in the subsequent period...
Remarks on variational sensitivity analysis of elastoplastic deformations
Barthold, Franz-Joseph; Liedmann, Jan
2017-10-01
Design optimisation of structures and materials becomes more important in most engineering disciplines, especially in forming. The treatment of inelastic, path-dependent materials is a recent topic in this connection. Unlike purely elastic materials, it is necessary to store and analyse the deformation history in order to appropriately describe path-dependent material behaviour. For structural optimisation with design variables such as the outer shape of a structure, the boundary conditions and the material properties, it is necessary to compute sensitivities of all quantities of influence to use gradient based optimisation algorithms. Considering path-dependent materials, this includes the sensitivities of internal variables that represent the deformation history. We present an algorithm to compute afore-mentioned sensitivities, based on variational principles, in the context of finite deformation elastoplasticity. The novel approach establishes the possibility of design exploration using singular value decomposition.
Analysis of DNA methylation variation in sibling tobacco ( Nicotiana ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphism (MSAP) analysis were used to investigate the genome of two sibling tobacco cultivars, Yunyan85 and Yunyan87, their parent K326 and the other tobacco cultivar NC89. AFLP analysis indicated that, the genome primary ...
High resolution analysis of temporal variation of airborne radionuclides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komura, K.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Manikandan, M.; Murata, Y.; Iida, T.; Moriizumi, J.
2004-01-01
One of the application of ultra low-background gamma spectrometry, we tried to measure temporal variation of airborne radionuclides at intervals of 1 to few hours in extreme case. Airborne radionuclides were collected on a filter paper made of quartz fiber at the Low Level Radioactivity Laboratory (LLRL), Kanazawa Univ. in Tatsunokuchi (since Nov. 2002), Hegra Island located 50 km from Noto peninsula (since Apr. 2003) to investigate influence of Asian continent and Shishiku plateau at 640 m above sea to know vertical difference (since Sep., 2003). Pb-210, Pb-212 and Be-7 were measured nondestructively by ultra low background Ge detectors in Ogoya Underground Laboratory (270 meter water Concentration of Rn-222 was monitored 1 hour intervals and wind direction and speed were recorded 10 min or 2 min intervals (Hegra Is.) as support data in data analyses. In the regular monitoring, sampling was made at 1-2 day (LLRL and Shishiku) or 1 week intervals (Hegra) to know daily and seasonal variations and similarity or difference between sampling locations. When drastic meteorological change, such as passage of front or typhoon, occurrence of inversion layer and snow fall etc., short sampling at 1-2 hours of intervals was conducted to find the corrlation with meteorological factors at single point or 2 points simultaneously. As a results, it was found that concentrations of Pb-210, Po-210, Pb-212 and Be-7 were found to vary very quickly in a short time (see Figure below) due mainly to horizontal or vertical mixing of air-masses. (authors)
Statistical analysis of aerosol species, trace gasses, and meteorology in Chicago.
Binaku, Katrina; O'Brien, Timothy; Schmeling, Martina; Fosco, Tinamarie
2013-09-01
Both canonical correlation analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to atmospheric aerosol and trace gas concentrations and meteorological data collected in Chicago during the summer months of 2002, 2003, and 2004. Concentrations of ammonium, calcium, nitrate, sulfate, and oxalate particulate matter, as well as, meteorological parameters temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and humidity were subjected to CCA and PCA. Ozone and nitrogen oxide mixing ratios were also included in the data set. The purpose of statistical analysis was to determine the extent of existing linear relationship(s), or lack thereof, between meteorological parameters and pollutant concentrations in addition to reducing dimensionality of the original data to determine sources of pollutants. In CCA, the first three canonical variate pairs derived were statistically significant at the 0.05 level. Canonical correlation between the first canonical variate pair was 0.821, while correlations of the second and third canonical variate pairs were 0.562 and 0.461, respectively. The first canonical variate pair indicated that increasing temperatures resulted in high ozone mixing ratios, while the second canonical variate pair showed wind speed and humidity's influence on local ammonium concentrations. No new information was uncovered in the third variate pair. Canonical loadings were also interpreted for information regarding relationships between data sets. Four principal components (PCs), expressing 77.0 % of original data variance, were derived in PCA. Interpretation of PCs suggested significant production and/or transport of secondary aerosols in the region (PC1). Furthermore, photochemical production of ozone and wind speed's influence on pollutants were expressed (PC2) along with overall measure of local meteorology (PC3). In summary, CCA and PCA results combined were successful in uncovering linear relationships between meteorology and air pollutants in Chicago and
Rethinking National Literatures and the Literary Canon in Scandinavia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heede, Dag
Anthology exploring the concept of "The Nordic" and their literary canons, national self-understanding and identity......Anthology exploring the concept of "The Nordic" and their literary canons, national self-understanding and identity...
Canonical sound speed profile for the central Bay of Bengal
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Murty, T.V.R.; PrasannaKumar, S.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Sastry, J.S.; De Figueiredo, R.J.P.
Following Munk's canonical theory, an algorithm has been presented for computing sound channel parameters in the western and southern Bay of Bengal. The estimated canonical sound speed profile using these parameters has been compared with computed...
Variations in Kinematics during Clinical Gait Analysis in Stroke Patients
Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Bonnyaud, C?line; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael
2013-01-01
In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-tem...
Variations in Kinematics during Clinical Gait Analysis in Stroke Patients
Boudarham, Julien; Roche, Nicolas; Pradon, Didier; Bonnyaud, Céline; Bensmail, Djamel; Zory, Raphael
2013-01-01
In addition to changes in spatio-temporal and kinematic parameters, patients with stroke exhibit fear of falling as well as fatigability during gait. These changes could compromise interpretation of data from gait analysis. The aim of this study was to determine if the gait of hemiplegic patients changes significantly over successive gait trials. Forty two stroke patients and twenty healthy subjects performed 9 gait trials during a gait analysis session. The mean and variability of spatio-temporal and kinematic joint parameters were analyzed during 3 groups of consecutive gait trials (1–3, 4–6 and 7–9). Principal component analysis was used to reduce the number of variables from the joint kinematic waveforms and to identify the parts of the gait cycle which changed during the gait analysis session. The results showed that i) spontaneous gait velocity and the other spatio-temporal parameters significantly increased, and ii) gait variability decreased, over the last 6 gait trials compared to the first 3, for hemiplegic patients but not healthy subjects. Principal component analysis revealed changes in the sagittal waveforms of the hip, knee and ankle for hemiplegic patients after the first 3 gait trials. These results suggest that at the beginning of the gait analysis session, stroke patients exhibited phase of adaptation,characterized by a “cautious gait” but no fatigue was observed. PMID:23799100
Analysis of Daily Setup Variation With Tomotherapy Megavoltage Computed Tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhou Jining; Uhl, Barry; Dewit, Kelly; Young, Mark; Taylor, Brian; Fei Dingyu; Lo, Y-C
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate different setup uncertainties for various anatomic sites with TomoTherapy (registered) pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) and to provide optimal margin guidelines for these anatomic sites. Ninety-two patients with tumors in head and neck (HN), brain, lung, abdominal, or prostate regions were included in the study. MVCT was used to verify patient position and tumor target localization before each treatment. With the anatomy registration tool, MVCT provided real-time tumor shift coordinates relative to the positions where the simulation CT was performed. Thermoplastic facemasks were used for HN and brain treatments. Vac-Lok TM cushions were used to immobilize the lower extremities up to the thighs for prostate patients. No respiration suppression was administered for lung and abdomen patients. The interfractional setup variations were recorded and corrected before treatment. The mean interfractional setup error was the smallest for HN among the 5 sites analyzed. The average 3D displacement in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions for the 5 sites ranged from 2.2-7.7 mm for HN and lung, respectively. The largest movement in the lung was 2.0 cm in the longitudinal direction, with a mean error of 6.0 mm and standard deviation of 4.8 mm. The mean interfractional rotation variation was small and ranged from 0.2-0.5 deg., with the standard deviation ranging from 0.7-0.9 deg. Internal organ displacement was also investigated with a posttreatment MVCT scan for HN, lung, abdomen, and prostate patients. The maximum 3D intrafractional displacement across all sites was less than 4.5 mm. The interfractional systematic errors and random errors were analyzed and the suggested margins for HN, brain, prostate, abdomen, and lung in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions were between 4.2 and 8.2 mm, 5.0 mm and 12.0 mm, and 1.5 mm and 6.8 mm, respectively. We suggest that TomoTherapy (registered) pretreatment
Analysis of daily setup variation with tomotherapy megavoltage computed tomography.
Zhou, Jining; Uhl, Barry; Dewit, Kelly; Young, Mark; Taylor, Brian; Fei, Ding-Yu; Lo, Yeh-Chi
2010-01-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate different setup uncertainties for various anatomic sites with TomoTherapy pretreatment megavoltage computed tomography (MVCT) and to provide optimal margin guidelines for these anatomic sites. Ninety-two patients with tumors in head and neck (HN), brain, lung, abdominal, or prostate regions were included in the study. MVCT was used to verify patient position and tumor target localization before each treatment. With the anatomy registration tool, MVCT provided real-time tumor shift coordinates relative to the positions where the simulation CT was performed. Thermoplastic facemasks were used for HN and brain treatments. Vac-Lok cushions were used to immobilize the lower extremities up to the thighs for prostate patients. No respiration suppression was administered for lung and abdomen patients. The interfractional setup variations were recorded and corrected before treatment. The mean interfractional setup error was the smallest for HN among the 5 sites analyzed. The average 3D displacement in lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions for the 5 sites ranged from 2.2-7.7 mm for HN and lung, respectively. The largest movement in the lung was 2.0 cm in the longitudinal direction, with a mean error of 6.0 mm and standard deviation of 4.8 mm. The mean interfractional rotation variation was small and ranged from 0.2-0.5 degrees, with the standard deviation ranging from 0.7-0.9 degrees. Internal organ displacement was also investigated with a posttreatment MVCT scan for HN, lung, abdomen, and prostate patients. The maximum 3D intrafractional displacement across all sites was less than 4.5 mm. The interfractional systematic errors and random errors were analyzed and the suggested margins for HN, brain, prostate, abdomen, and lung in the lateral, longitudinal, and vertical directions were between 4.2 and 8.2 mm, 5.0 mm and 12.0 mm, and 1.5 mm and 6.8 mm, respectively. We suggest that TomoTherapy pretreatment MVCT can be used to
An introduction to the theory of canonical matrices
Turnbull, H W
2004-01-01
Thorough and self-contained, this penetrating study of the theory of canonical matrices presents a detailed consideration of all the theory's principal features. Topics include elementary transformations and bilinear and quadratic forms; canonical reduction of equivalent matrices; subgroups of the group of equivalent transformations; and rational and classical canonical forms. The final chapters explore several methods of canonical reduction, including those of unitary and orthogonal transformations. 1952 edition. Index. Appendix. Historical notes. Bibliographies. 275 problems.
Minimal canonical comprehensive Gröbner systems
Manubens, Montserrat; Montes, Antonio
2009-01-01
This is the continuation of Montes' paper "On the canonical discussion of polynomial systems with parameters''. In this paper, we define the Minimal Canonical Comprehensive Gröbner System of a parametric ideal and fix under which hypothesis it exists and is computable. An algorithm to obtain a canonical description of the segments of the Minimal Canonical CGS is given, thus completing the whole MCCGS algorithm (implemented in Maple and Singular). We show its high utility for applications, suc...
A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae).
Hillig, Karl W; Mahlberg, Paul G
2004-06-01
Cannabinoids are important chemotaxonomic markers unique to Cannabis. Previous studies show that a plant's dry-weight ratio of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) to cannabidiol (CBD) can be assigned to one of three chemotypes and that alleles B(D) and B(T) encode alloenzymes that catalyze the conversion of cannabigerol to CBD and THC, respectively. In the present study, the frequencies of B(D) and B(T) in sample populations of 157 Cannabis accessions were determined from CBD and THC banding patterns, visualized by starch gel electrophoresis. Gas chromatography was used to quantify cannabinoid levels in 96 of the same accessions. The data were interpreted with respect to previous analyses of genetic and morphological variation in the same germplasm collection. Two biotypes (infraspecific taxa of unassigned rank) of C. sativa and four biotypes of C. indica were recognized. Mean THC levels and the frequency of B(T) were significantly higher in C. indica than C. sativa. The proportion of high THC/CBD chemotype plants in most accessions assigned to C. sativa was 25%. Plants with relatively high levels of tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV) and/or cannabidivarin (CBDV) were common only in C. indica. This study supports a two-species concept of Cannabis.
Canonical WNT signalling controls hair follicle spacing.
Schlake, Thomas; Sick, Stefanie
2007-01-01
Canonical WNT signals play an important role in hair follicle development. In addition to being crucial for epidermal appendage initiation, they control the interfollicular spacing pattern and contribute to the spatial orientation and largely parallel alignment of hair follicles. However, owing to the complexity of canonical WNT signalling and its interconnections with other pathways, many details of hair follicle formation await further clarification. Here, we discuss the recently suggested reaction-diffusion (RD) mechanism of spatial hair follicle arrangement in the light of yet unpublished data and conclusions. They clearly demonstrate that the observed hair follicle clustering in dickkopf (DKK) transgenic mice cannot be explained by any trivial process caused by protein overexpression, thereby further supporting our model of hair follicle spacing. Furthermore, we suggest future experiments to challenge the RD model of spatial follicle arrangement.
Long-term Periodicity Analysis of Polarization Variation for Radio ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Using the power spectral analysis method (PSA), the Jurkevich method and the discrete correlation function (DCF) method, we find that there are 16 sources lying in periodicity. The results show the astrophysically meaningful periodicity covering 2.1 years to 16.2 years at 4.8 GHz, 2.8 years to 16.3 years at ...
Sequence length variation, indel costs, and congruence in sensitivity analysis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Aagesen, Lone; Petersen, Gitte; Seberg, Ole
2005-01-01
The behavior of two topological and four character-based congruence measures was explored using different indel treatments in three empirical data sets, each with different alignment difficulties. The analyses were done using direct optimization within a sensitivity analysis framework in which...
Analysis of genetic variation in Erianthus arundinaceum by random ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
STORAGESEVER
2008-10-06
Oct 6, 2008 ... MATERIALS AND METHODS. Fifty-one E. arundinaceum accessions were used in the RAPD analysis. Figure 1. Plant materials planted in the sugarcane germ- plasm garden of Yunnan Agricultural University (YAU). Name and origin of the accessions are shown in Table 1. DNA was extracted from leaves ...
Analysis of the intersexual variation in Thalassophryne maculosa fish venoms.
Lopes-Ferreira, Mônica; Sosa-Rosales, Ines; Bruni, Fernanda M; Ramos, Anderson D; Vieira Portaro, Fernanda Calheta; Conceição, Katia; Lima, Carla
2016-06-01
Gender related variation in the molecular composition of venoms and secretions have been described for some animal species, and there are some evidences that the difference in the toxin (s) profile among males and females may be related to different physiopathological effects caused by the envenomation by either gender. In order to investigate whether this same phenomenon occurs to the toadfish Thalassophryne maculosa, we have compared some biological and biochemical properties of female and male venoms. Twenty females and males were collected in deep waters of the La Restinga lagoon (Venezuela) and, after protein concentration assessed, the induction of toxic activities in mice and the biochemical properties were analyzed. Protein content is higher in males than in females, which may be associated to a higher size and weight of the male body. In vivo studies showed that mice injected with male venoms presented higher nociception when compared to those injected with female venoms, and both venoms induced migration of macrophages into the paw of mice. On the other hand, mice injected with female venoms had more paw edema and extravasation of Evans blue in peritoneal cavity than mice injected with male venoms. We observed that the female venoms had more capacity for necrosis induction when compared with male venoms. The female samples present a higher proteolytic activity then the male venom when gelatin, casein and FRETs were used as substrates. Evaluation of the venoms of females and males by SDS-PAGE and chromatographic profile showed that, at least three components (present in two peaks) are only present in males. Although the severity of the lesion, characterized by necrosis development, is related with the poisoning by female specimens, the presence of exclusive toxins in the male venoms could be associated with the largest capacity of nociception induction by this sample. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Analysis of longitudinal variations in North Pacific alkalinity
Fry, C.; Tyrrell, T.; Achterberg, E. P.
2016-02-01
Carbon measurements in the ocean lack the coverage of physical measurements, so approximate alkalinity is predicted where data is unavailable. Surface alkalinity in the North Pacific is poorly characterised by predictive algorithms. Understanding the processes affecting alkalinity in this area can improve the equations. We investigated the causes of regional variations in alkalinity using GLODAPv2. We tested different hypotheses for the causes of three longitudinal phenomena in surface ocean values of Alk*, a tracer of calcium carbonate cycling. These phenomena are: (a) an increase in Alk* from east to west at 50°N, (b) an increase in Alk* from west to east at 30°N, and (c) a lack of a strong increase in Alk* from west to east in the equatorial upwelling area. We found that the most likely cause of higher Alk* on the western side of the subpolar North Pacific (at 50°N) is that denser isopycnals with higher Alk* lie at shallower depths on the western side than the eastern side. At 30°N, the main cause of higher Alk* on the eastern side of the basin is upwelling along the continental shelf of southwestern North America. Along the equator, our analyses suggest that the absence of a strong east-west trend is because the more intense upwelling on the eastern side of the basin does not, under normal conditions, lead to strong elevation of Alk*. However, surface Alk* is more strongly elevated in the eastern Equatorial Pacific during negative phases of the El-Nino-Southern Oscillation, probably because the upwelled water comes from greater depth at these times.
Canonical Duality Theory for Topology Optimization
Gao, David Yang
2016-01-01
This paper presents a canonical duality approach for solving a general topology optimization problem of nonlinear elastic structures. By using finite element method, this most challenging problem can be formulated as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem (MINLP), i.e. for a given deformation, the first-level optimization is a typical linear constrained 0-1 programming problem, while for a given structure, the second-level optimization is a general nonlinear continuous minimization pro...
A canonical representation for aggregated Markov processes
Larget, Bret
1998-01-01
A deterministic function of a Markov process is called an aggregated Markov process. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of continuous-time aggregated Markov processes. For both discrete- and continuous-time, we show that any aggregated Markov process which satisfies mild regularity conditions can be directly converted to a canonical representation which is unique for each class of equivalent models, and furthermore, is a minimal parameterization ...
New constraints for canonical general relativity
Reisenberger, Michael
1995-01-01
Ashtekar's canonical theory of classical complex Euclidean GR (no Lorentzian reality conditions) is found to be invariant under the full algebra of infinitesimal 4-diffeomorphisms, but non-invariant under some finite proper 4-diffeos when the densitized dreibein, $\\tilE^a_i$, is degenerate. The breakdown of 4-diffeo invariance appears to be due to the inability of the Ashtekar Hamiltonian to generate births and deaths of $\\tilE$ flux loops (leaving open the possibility that a new `causality c...
Canonical energy is quantum Fisher information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashkari, Nima; Raamsdonk, Mark Van
2016-01-01
In quantum information theory, Fisher Information is a natural metric on the space of perturbations to a density matrix, defined by calculating the relative entropy with the unperturbed state at quadratic order in perturbations. In gravitational physics, Canonical Energy defines a natural metric on the space of perturbations to spacetimes with a Killing horizon. In this paper, we show that the Fisher information metric for perturbations to the vacuum density matrix of a ball-shaped region B in a holographic CFT is dual to the canonical energy metric for perturbations to a corresponding Rindler wedge R B of Anti-de-Sitter space. Positivity of relative entropy at second order implies that the Fisher information metric is positive definite. Thus, for physical perturbations to anti-de-Sitter spacetime, the canonical energy associated to any Rindler wedge must be positive. This second-order constraint on the metric extends the first order result from relative entropy positivity that physical perturbations must satisfy the linearized Einstein’s equations.
[Genetic variation and clustal analysis of Trichomonas vaginalis cysteine proteases].
Jia, Wan-Zhong; Li, Zhi; Zhao, Liang; Lun, Zhao-Rong
2008-06-30
To clone the genes coding for cysteine proteases (CPs, TvCPs) from Trichomonas vaginalis and to analyze their genetic variations with the related sequences from NCBI database (GenBank) and T. vaginalis Genome Project database from The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR). TvCP genes were amplified using PCR, and inserted into vector pET28b or pBS-T. The recombinant plasmids were then transformed to Escherichia coli BL21 or Topl0 strain. The recombinant plasmids were used for sequencing. Homologous TvCP genes were blasted based on NCBI GenBank and TIGR T. vaginalis Genome Project database. The sequences of cloned TvCP genes were aligned and clustered by Clustal X (1.83 version) with retrieved sequences. Comparisons of amino acids among cathepsin L-like TvCPs, human L-like cathepsins and papaya papain were performed using DNAstar software, and their phylogenic tree was constructed based on neighbor-joining method using Clustal X. Two TvCP3 clones and one TvCP2 had a high identity of more than 99% with their responding TvCPs. Three clones of TvCP4 genes, GZ-CP4-clone 1-3, belonged to two members of a family showing a high percentage identity of more than 97.5% with the sequences of TvCP4 genes from databases (GenBank and TIGR) both at amino acid and nucleotide levels. Nine homologous TvCP4 pro-enzymes with 304 amino acids and other two members with deletions of N-terminal sequence existed in T. vaginalis sharing a similarity of 62.3-96.7% amino acids, which may evolve by means of gene replication and deletion. TvCP1-4, TvCP12, TvCP25 and CP65 had an identity of 61-88.2% at amino acid levels. So far, all reported sequences of C1 family from T. vaginalis belonged to capanthesin L-like subfamily with the same enzymatic active sites, conserved cysteine residues and similar structural features such as ERFNIN-like motif in pro-enzyme region, suggesting that they might result from gene duplication and mutations. TvCPs belong to cathepsin L-like family with genetic diversity
Variations analysis of the Society's preference structure regarding environmental issues
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angel S, Enrique; Zambrano B, Ana Maria
2005-01-01
Society's preference structure regarding environmental issues is understood as the relative importance the society gives to various topics that collectively conform the environmental issues. Based on the hypothesis that this structure behavior and its definition vary with time, proposals are presented related to the concepts and a working plan allowing performing the structure's dynamic analysis. A method is described to gather information based on the systematic reading of a nation wide newspaper during a period time. A comparison is done between the resulting structure and several aspects as the environmental legislation, government plans and summits and environmental milestones
Implicit functions and solution mappings a view from variational analysis
Dontchev, Asen L
2014-01-01
The implicit function theorem is one of the most important theorems in analysis and its many variants are basic tools in partial differential equations and numerical analysis. This second edition of Implicit Functions and Solution Mappings presents an updated and more complete picture of the field by including solutions of problems that have been solved since the first edition was published, and places old and new results in a broader perspective. The purpose of this self-contained work is to provide a reference on the topic and to provide a unified collection of a number of results which are currently scattered throughout the literature. Updates to this edition include new sections in almost all chapters, new exercises and examples, updated commentaries to chapters and an enlarged index and references section. From reviews of the first edition: “The book commences with a helpful context-setting preface followed by six chapters. Each chapter starts with a useful preamble and concludes with a careful and ins...
Canonical forms for single-qutrit Clifford+T operators
Glaudell, Andrew N.; Ross, Neil J.; Taylor, Jacob M.
2018-01-01
We introduce canonical forms for single qutrit Clifford+T circuits and prove that every single-qutrit Clifford+T operator admits a unique such canonical form. We show that our canonical forms are T-optimal in the sense that among all the single-qutrit Clifford+T circuits implementing a given operator our canonical form uses the least number of T gates. Finally, we provide an algorithm which inputs the description of an operator (as a matrix or a circuit) and constructs the canonical form for ...
High-resolution analysis of the human retina miRNome reveals isomiR variations and novel microRNAs
Karali, Marianthi; Persico, Maria; Mutarelli, Margherita; Carissimo, Annamaria; Pizzo, Mariateresa; Singh Marwah, Veer; Ambrosio, Concetta; Pinelli, Michele; Carrella, Diego; Ferrari, Stefano; Ponzin, Diego; Nigro, Vincenzo; di Bernardo, Diego; Banfi, Sandro
2016-01-01
MicroRNAs play a fundamental role in retinal development and function. To characterise the miRNome of the human retina, we carried out deep sequencing analysis on sixteen individuals. We established the catalogue of retina-expressed miRNAs, determined their relative abundance and found that a small number of miRNAs accounts for almost 90% of the retina miRNome. We discovered more than 3000 miRNA variants (isomiRs), encompassing a wide range of sequence variations, which include seed modifications that are predicted to have an impact on miRNA action. We demonstrated that a seed-modifying isomiR of the retina-enriched miR-124-3p was endowed with different targeting properties with respect to the corresponding canonical form. Moreover, we identified 51 putative novel, retina-specific miRNAs and experimentally validated the expression for nine of them. Finally, a parallel analysis of the human Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE)/choroid, two tissues that are known to be crucial for retina homeostasis, yielded notably distinct miRNA enrichment patterns compared to the retina. The generated data are accessible through an ad hoc database. This study is the first to reveal the complexity of the human retina miRNome at nucleotide resolution and constitutes a unique resource to assess the contribution of miRNAs to the pathophysiology of the human retina. PMID:26819412
Ethnic Rhinoplasty in Female Patients: The Neoclassical Canons Revisited.
Saad, Ahmad; Hewett, Sierra; Nolte, Megan; Delaunay, Flore; Saad, Mariam; Cohen, Steven R
2018-04-01
Despite the substantial amount of research devoted to objectively defining facial attractiveness, the canons have remained a paradigm of aesthetic facial analysis, yet their omnipresence in clinical assessments revealed their limitations outside of a subset of North American Caucasians, leading to criticism about their validity as a standard of facial beauty. In an effort to introduce more objective treatment planning into ethnic rhinoplasty, we compared neoclassical canons and other current standards pertaining to nasal proportions to anatomic proportions of attractive individuals from seven different ethnic backgrounds. Beauty pageant winners (Miss Universe and Miss World nominees) between 2005 and 2015 were selected and assigned to one of seven regionally defined ethnic groups. Anteroposterior and lateral images were obtained through Google, Wikipedia, Miss Universe, and Miss World Web sites. Anthropometry of facial features was performed via Adobe Photoshop TM. Individual facial measurements were then standardized to proportions and compared to the neoclassical canons. Our data reflected an ethnic-dependent preference for the multiple fitness model. Wide-set eyes, larger mouth widths, and smaller noses were significantly relevant in Eastern Mediterranean and European ethnic groups. Exceptions lied within East African and Asian groups. As in the attractive face, the concept of the ideal nasal anatomy varies between different ethnicities. Using objective criteria and proportions of beauty to plan and execute rhinoplasty in different ethnicities can help the surgeon plan and deliver results that are in harmony with patients' individual background and facial anatomy. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .
Genetic variation analysis of the Bali street dog using microsatellites
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Wilton Alan N
2005-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 800,000 primarily feral dogs live on the small island of Bali. To analyze the genetic diversity in this population, forty samples were collected at random from dogs in the Denpasar, Bali region and tested using 31 polymorphic microsatellites. Australian dingoes and 28 American Kennel Club breeds were compared to the Bali Street Dog (BSD for allelic diversity, heterozygosities, F-statistics, GST estimates, Nei's DA distance and phylogenetic relationships. Results The BSD proved to be the most heterogeneous, exhibiting 239 of the 366 total alleles observed across all groups and breeds and had an observed heterozygosity of 0.692. Thirteen private alleles were observed in the BSD with an additional three alleles observed only in the BSD and the Australian dingo. The BSD was related most closely to the Chow Chow with a FST of 0.088 and also with high bootstrap support to the Australian dingo and Akita in the phylogenetic analysis. Conclusions This preliminary study into the diversity and relationship of the BSD to other domestic and feral dog populations shows the BSD to be highly heterogeneous and related to populations of East Asian origin. These results indicate that a viable and diverse population of dogs existed on the island of Bali prior to its geographic isolation approximately 12,000 years ago and has been little influenced by domesticated European dogs since that time.
Caballero, J.L. (Juan Luis)
2009-01-01
En los últimos decenios se han multiplicado las publicaciones sobre el canon bíblico. Uno de los detonantes han sido los estudios sobre el «canon» del Antiguo Testamento. Sin embargo, la misma palabra «canon» sigue usándose de una forma ambigua. Por un lado, es necesario distinguir entre «escritura», «canónico» y «canon». Por otro, deben complementarse las cuestiones históricas con las teológicas. Los datos sobre la formación del canon, tales como las forma...
Comprehensive analysis of NuMA variation in breast cancer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kilpivaara, Outi; Rantanen, Matias; Tamminen, Anitta; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli
2008-01-01
A recent genome wide case-control association study identified NuMA region on 11q13 as a candidate locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Specifically, the variant Ala794Gly was suggested to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In order to evaluate the NuMa gene for breast cancer susceptibility, we have here screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of NuMa in 92 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the identified variants. Five missense variants were further screened in 341 breast cancer cases with a positive family history and 368 controls. We examined the frequency of Ala794Gly in an extensive series of familial (n = 910) and unselected (n = 884) breast cancer cases and controls (n = 906), with a high power to detect the suggested breast cancer risk. We also tested if the variant is associated with histopathologic features of breast tumors. Screening of NuMA resulted in identification of 11 exonic variants and 12 variants in introns or untranslated regions. Five missense variants that were further screened in breast cancer cases with a positive family history and controls, were each carried on a unique haplotype. None of the variants, or the haplotypes represented by them, was associated with breast cancer risk although due to low power in this analysis, very low risk alleles may go unrecognized. The NuMA Ala794Gly showed no difference in frequency in the unselected breast cancer case series or familial case series compared to control cases. Furthermore, Ala794Gly did not show any significant association with histopathologic characteristics of the tumors, though Ala794Gly was slightly more frequent among unselected cases with lymph node involvement. Our results do not support the role of NuMA variants as breast cancer susceptibility alleles
Comprehensive analysis of NuMA variation in breast cancer.
Kilpivaara, Outi; Rantanen, Matias; Tamminen, Anitta; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli
2008-03-10
A recent genome wide case-control association study identified NuMA region on 11q13 as a candidate locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Specifically, the variant Ala794Gly was suggested to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer. In order to evaluate the NuMa gene for breast cancer susceptibility, we have here screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of NuMa in 92 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the identified variants. Five missense variants were further screened in 341 breast cancer cases with a positive family history and 368 controls. We examined the frequency of Ala794Gly in an extensive series of familial (n = 910) and unselected (n = 884) breast cancer cases and controls (n = 906), with a high power to detect the suggested breast cancer risk. We also tested if the variant is associated with histopathologic features of breast tumors. Screening of NuMA resulted in identification of 11 exonic variants and 12 variants in introns or untranslated regions. Five missense variants that were further screened in breast cancer cases with a positive family history and controls, were each carried on a unique haplotype. None of the variants, or the haplotypes represented by them, was associated with breast cancer risk although due to low power in this analysis, very low risk alleles may go unrecognized. The NuMA Ala794Gly showed no difference in frequency in the unselected breast cancer case series or familial case series compared to control cases. Furthermore, Ala794Gly did not show any significant association with histopathologic characteristics of the tumors, though Ala794Gly was slightly more frequent among unselected cases with lymph node involvement. Our results do not support the role of NuMA variants as breast cancer susceptibility alleles.
Comprehensive analysis of NuMA variation in breast cancer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aittomäki Kristiina
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A recent genome wide case-control association study identified NuMA region on 11q13 as a candidate locus for breast cancer susceptibility. Specifically, the variant Ala794Gly was suggested to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer. Methods In order to evaluate the NuMa gene for breast cancer susceptibility, we have here screened the entire coding region and exon-intron boundaries of NuMa in 92 familial breast cancer patients and constructed haplotypes of the identified variants. Five missense variants were further screened in 341 breast cancer cases with a positive family history and 368 controls. We examined the frequency of Ala794Gly in an extensive series of familial (n = 910 and unselected (n = 884 breast cancer cases and controls (n = 906, with a high power to detect the suggested breast cancer risk. We also tested if the variant is associated with histopathologic features of breast tumors. Results Screening of NuMA resulted in identification of 11 exonic variants and 12 variants in introns or untranslated regions. Five missense variants that were further screened in breast cancer cases with a positive family history and controls, were each carried on a unique haplotype. None of the variants, or the haplotypes represented by them, was associated with breast cancer risk although due to low power in this analysis, very low risk alleles may go unrecognized. The NuMA Ala794Gly showed no difference in frequency in the unselected breast cancer case series or familial case series compared to control cases. Furthermore, Ala794Gly did not show any significant association with histopathologic characteristics of the tumors, though Ala794Gly was slightly more frequent among unselected cases with lymph node involvement. Conclusion Our results do not support the role of NuMA variants as breast cancer susceptibility alleles.
Partial differential equations with variable exponents variational methods and qualitative analysis
Radulescu, Vicentiu D
2015-01-01
Partial Differential Equations with Variable Exponents: Variational Methods and Qualitative Analysis provides researchers and graduate students with a thorough introduction to the theory of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) with a variable exponent, particularly those of elliptic type. The book presents the most important variational methods for elliptic PDEs described by nonhomogeneous differential operators and containing one or more power-type nonlinearities with a variable exponent. The authors give a systematic treatment of the basic mathematical theory and constructive meth
WormQTL—public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp
Snoek, L.B.; Velde, van der K.J.; Arends, D.; Li, Y.; Beyer, A.; Elvin, M.; Fisher, J.; Hajnal, A.; Hengartner, M.; Poulin, G.; Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Schmid, T.; Schrimpf, S.; Xue, F.; Jansen, R.C.; Kammenga, J.E.; Swertz, M.A.
2013-01-01
Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the
The Application of Canonical Correlation to Two-Dimensional Contingency Tables
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Alberto F. Restori
2010-03-01
Full Text Available This paper re-introduces and demonstrates the use of Mickeys (1970 canonical correlation method in analyzing large two-dimensional contingency tables. This method of analysis supplements the traditional analysis using the Pearson chi-square. Examples and a MATLAB source listing are provided.
Black-hole horizons in modified spacetime structures arising from canonical quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bojowald, Martin; Paily, George M; Reyes, Juan D; Tibrewala, Rakesh
2011-01-01
Several properties of canonical quantum gravity modify spacetime structures, sometimes to the degree that no effective line elements exist to describe the geometry. An analysis of solutions, for instance in the context of black holes, then requires new insights. In this paper, standard definitions of horizons in spherical symmetry are first reformulated canonically, and then evaluated for solutions of equations and constraints modified by inverse-triad corrections of loop quantum gravity. When possible, a spacetime analysis is performed which reveals a mass threshold for black holes and small changes to Hawking radiation. For more general conclusions, canonical perturbation theory is developed to second order to include back-reaction from matter. The results shed light on the questions of whether renormalization of Newton's constant or other modifications of horizon conditions should be taken into account in computations of black-hole entropy in loop quantum gravity.
Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jung, Florian
2012-01-01
In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.
Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Florian
2012-07-16
In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.
ViVar: a comprehensive platform for the analysis and visualization of structural genomic variation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tom Sante
Full Text Available Structural genomic variations play an important role in human disease and phenotypic diversity. With the rise of high-throughput sequencing tools, mate-pair/paired-end/single-read sequencing has become an important technique for the detection and exploration of structural variation. Several analysis tools exist to handle different parts and aspects of such sequencing based structural variation analyses pipelines. A comprehensive analysis platform to handle all steps, from processing the sequencing data, to the discovery and visualization of structural variants, is missing. The ViVar platform is built to handle the discovery of structural variants, from Depth Of Coverage analysis, aberrant read pair clustering to split read analysis. ViVar provides you with powerful visualization options, enables easy reporting of results and better usability and data management. The platform facilitates the processing, analysis and visualization, of structural variation based on massive parallel sequencing data, enabling the rapid identification of disease loci or genes. ViVar allows you to scale your analysis with your work load over multiple (cloud servers, has user access control to keep your data safe and is easy expandable as analysis techniques advance. URL: https://www.cmgg.be/vivar/
Canonical formulation of IIB D-branes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kamimura, K.
1998-01-01
We find Wess-Zumino actions for kappa invariant type IIB D-branes in explicit forms. A simple and compact expression is obtained by the use of spinor variables which are defined as power series of differential forms. Using the Wess-Zumino actions we develop the canonical formulation and find the complete set of the constraint equations for generic type IIB Dp-branes. The conserved global supersymmetry charges are determined and the algebra containing the central charges can be obtained explicitly. (orig.)
Women and Textiles: Warping the Architectural Canon
Aron, Jamie
2012-01-01
Textiles have long been a part of the canon of Western architecture—from the folds of draped female forms in ancient Greek temples to the abstract Mayan patterns “knitted” together in Frank Lloyd Wright’s textile block houses of the 1920s. Yet just as any façade may conceal what’s inside, architecture’s shared history with weaving is often obscured. Today architecture sits at the top alongside the “fine arts” of painting and sculpture, while woven textiles occupy a less prominent position in ...
Path integrals for arbitrary canonical transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, L.A.R. de.
1980-01-01
Some aspects of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics are studied. This formalism is generalized to arbitrary canonical transformations, by means of an association between path integral probalility amplitudes and classical generators of transformations, analogous to the usual Hamiltonian time development phase space expression. Such association turns out to be equivalent to the Weyl quantization rule, and it is also shown that this formalism furnishes a path integral representation for a Lie algebra of a given set of classical generators. Some physical considerations about the path integral quantization procedure and about the relationship between classical and quantum dynamical structures are also discussed. (Author) [pt
Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikolaev, Andrey
2016-01-01
This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson’s ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.
Canonical particle tracking in undulator fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wuestefeld, G.; Bahrdt, J.
1991-01-01
A new algebraic mapping routine for particle tracking across wiggler and undulator fields in presented. It is based on a power series expansion of the generating function to guarantee fully canonical transformations. This method is 10 to 100 times faster than integration routines, applied in tracking codes like BETA or RACETRACK. The tracking method presented is not restricted to wigglers and undulators, it can be applied to other magnetic fields as well such as fringing fields of quadrupoles or dipoles if the suggested expansion converges
Canonically conjugate pairs and phase operators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoenhammer, K.
2002-01-01
For quantum mechanics on a lattice the position ('particle number') operator and the quasimomentum ('phase') operator obey canonical commutation relations (CCRs) only on a dense set of the Hilbert space. We compare exact numerical results for a particle in a linear and a quadratic potential on the lattice with the expectations, when the CCRs are assumed to be strictly obeyed. Only for sufficiently smooth eigenfunctions does this lead to reasonable results. In the long time limit the use of the CCRs can lead to a qualitatively wrong dynamics even if the initial state is in the dense set
Canonical formalism for coupled beam optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kheifets, S.A.
1989-09-01
Beam optics of a lattice with an inter-plane coupling is treated using canonical Hamiltonian formalism. The method developed is equally applicable both to a circular (periodic) machine and to an open transport line. A solution of the equation of a particle motion (and correspondingly transfer matrix between two arbitrary points of the lattice) are described in terms of two amplitude functions (and their derivatives and corresponding phases of oscillations) and four coupling functions, defined by a solution of the system of the first-order nonlinear differential equations derived in the paper. Thus total number of independent parameters is equal to ten. 8 refs
Canonical transformations and hamiltonian path integrals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prokhorov, L.V.
1982-01-01
Behaviour of the Hamiltonian path integrals under canonical transformations produced by a generator, is investigated. An exact form is determined for the kernel of the unitary operator realizing the corresponding quantum transformation. Equivalence rules are found (the Hamiltonian formalism, one-dimensional case) enabling one to exclude non-standard terms from the action. It is shown that the Hamiltonian path integral changes its form under cononical transformations: in the transformed expression besides the classical Hamiltonian function there appear some non-classical terms
Gelfand, I M
2000-01-01
Based on a series of lectures given by I. M. Gelfand at Moscow State University, this book actually goes considerably beyond the material presented in the lectures. The aim is to give a treatment of the elements of the calculus of variations in a form both easily understandable and sufficiently modern. Considerable attention is devoted to physical applications of variational methods, e.g., canonical equations, variational principles of mechanics, and conservation laws.The reader who merely wishes to become familiar with the most basic concepts and methods of the calculus of variations need on
Are neoclassical canons valid for southern Chinese faces?
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Yasas S N Jayaratne
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Proportions derived from neoclassical canons, initially described by Renaissance sculptors and painters, are still being employed as aesthetic guidelines during the clinical assessment of the facial morphology. OBJECTIVE: 1. to determine the applicability of neoclassical canons for Southern Chinese faces and 2. to explore gender differences in relation to the applicability of the neoclassical canons and their variants. METHODOLOGY: 3-D photographs acquired from 103 young adults (51 males and 52 females without facial dysmorphology were used to test applicability of four neoclassical canons. Standard anthropometric measurements that determine the facial canons were made on these 3-D images. The validity of the canons as well as their different variants were quantified. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The neoclassical cannons seldom applied to these individuals, and facial three-section and orbital canons did not apply at all. The orbitonasal canon was most frequently applicable, with a frequency of 19%. Significant sexual dimorphism was found relative to the prevalence of the variants of facial three-section and orbitonasal canons. CONCLUSION: The neoclassical canons did not appear to apply to our sample when rigorous quantitative measurements were employed. Thus, they should not be used as esthetic goals for craniofacial surgical interventions.
Analysis of genetic variation and potential applications in genome-scale metabolic modeling
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João Gonçalo Rocha Cardoso
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Genetic variation is the motor of evolution and allows organisms to overcome the environmental challenges they encounter. It can be both beneficial and harmful in the process of engineering cell factories for the production of proteins and chemicals. Throughout the history of biotechnology, there have been efforts to exploit genetic variation in our favor to create strains with favorable phenotypes. Genetic variation can either be present in natural populations or it can be artificially created by mutagenesis and selection or adaptive laboratory evolution. On the other hand, unintended genetic variation during a long term production process may lead to significant economic losses and it is important to understand how to control this type of variation. With the emergence of next-generation sequencing technologies, genetic variation in microbial strains can now be determined on an unprecedented scale and resolution by re-sequencing thousands of strains systematically. In this article, we review challenges in the integration and analysis of large-scale re-sequencing data, present an extensive overview of bioinformatics methods for predicting the effects of genetic variants on protein function, and discuss approaches for interfacing existing bioinformatics approaches with genome-scale models of cellular processes in order to predict effects of sequence variation on cellular phenotypes.
Towards Structural Analysis of Audio Recordings in the Presence of Musical Variations
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Müller Meinard
2007-01-01
Full Text Available One major goal of structural analysis of an audio recording is to automatically extract the repetitive structure or, more generally, the musical form of the underlying piece of music. Recent approaches to this problem work well for music, where the repetitions largely agree with respect to instrumentation and tempo, as is typically the case for popular music. For other classes of music such as Western classical music, however, musically similar audio segments may exhibit significant variations in parameters such as dynamics, timbre, execution of note groups, modulation, articulation, and tempo progression. In this paper, we propose a robust and efficient algorithm for audio structure analysis, which allows to identify musically similar segments even in the presence of large variations in these parameters. To account for such variations, our main idea is to incorporate invariance at various levels simultaneously: we design a new type of statistical features to absorb microvariations, introduce an enhanced local distance measure to account for local variations, and describe a new strategy for structure extraction that can cope with the global variations. Our experimental results with classical and popular music show that our algorithm performs successfully even in the presence of significant musical variations.
Canon Fodder: Young Adult Literature as a Tool for Critiquing Canonicity
Hateley, Erica
2013-01-01
Young adult literature is a tool of socialisation and acculturation for young readers. This extends to endowing "reading" with particular significance in terms of what literature should be read and why. This paper considers some recent young adult fiction with an eye to its engagement with canonical literature and its representations of…
Power, Gender, and Canon Formation in Mexico
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Cynthia Steele
1996-01-01
Full Text Available I propose to analyze Castellanos's trajectory from marginalized ethnographer and critic of "latino" society, to presidential insider and ambassador, and the first modern Mexican woman writer to be accepted into the literary canon. I will explore the intersection of politics, gender, and the (self- creation of a literary persona with regard to the following issues: 1 the tension between self-exposure and self-censorship in Castellanos's literary work; 2 Castellanos's intense and problematic relationship with her illegitimate, mestizo half-brother; 3 the coincidences and contradictions between Castellanos's journalistic account of her relationship with her servant Maria Escandon, and Maria's own oral history twenty years later; 4 the tension between depression and dependency, on the one hand, and self-assertiveness and audacity, on the other; 5 the relation between Castellanos's role as ambassador and the personal, apolitical, often frivolous character of her journalistic articles written in Israel; 6 the contradictory readings of Castellanos's death, and the respective implications for her place in the canon; and 7 the implications, for their reception, of the love letters published in Cartas a Ricardo 1994, as opposed to 1974.
New constraints for canonical general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reisenberger, M.P.
1995-01-01
Ashtekar's canonical theory of classical complex Euclidean GR (no Lorentzian reality conditions) is found to be invariant under the full algebra of infinitesimal 4-diffeomorphisms, but non-invariant under some finite proper 4-diffeos when the densitized dreibein, E a i , is degenerate. The breakdown of 4-diffeo invariance appears to be due to the inability of the Ashtekar Hamiltonian to generate births and deaths of E flux loops (leaving open the possibility that a new 'causality condition' forbidding the birth of flux loops might justify the non-invariance of the theory).A fully 4-diffeo invariant canonical theory in Ashtekar's variables, derived from Plebanski's action, is found to have constraints that are stronger than Ashtekar's for rank E< 2. The corresponding Hamiltonian generates births and deaths of E flux loops.It is argued that this implies a finite amplitude for births and deaths of loops in the physical states of quantum GR in the loop representation, thus modifying this (partly defined) theory substantially.Some of the new constraints are second class, leading to difficulties in quantization in the connection representation. This problem might be overcome in a very nice way by transforming to the classical loop variables, or the 'Faraday line' variables of Newman and Rovelli, and then solving the offending constraints.Note that, though motivated by quantum considerations, the present paper is classical in substance. (orig.)
Impacts of canonical and Modoki El Niño on tropical Atlantic SST
Amaya, Dillon J.; Foltz, Gregory R.
2014-02-01
The impacts of canonical and Modoki El Niño on tropical Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) are quantified using composite analysis. Results show that El Niño Modoki fails to produce significant warming in the tropical Atlantic, in contrast to the well known warming following canonical El Niño events. El Niño Modoki instead induces significant cooling in the northeastern tropical Atlantic and near-neutral conditions elsewhere in the tropical Atlantic. It is shown that the difference in SST response stems primarily from a much stronger Pacific/North American (PNA) teleconnection pattern and stronger atmospheric Kelvin wave response during canonical events compared to Modoki. The stronger PNA pattern and Kelvin waves during canonical events generate anomalously weak surface winds in the tropical North Atlantic, driving anomalously weak evaporative cooling and warmer SSTs. Past research has shown significant decadal variability in the frequency of noncanonical El Niños relative to canonical events. If such variability continues, it is likely that the impact of El Niño on tropical Atlantic SST will also fluctuate from one decade to the next.
Total reduplication in Japanese ideophones: An exercise in Localized Canonical Typology
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Nahyun Kwon
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Cross-linguistically, reduplication associated with iconic readings, such as plurality, iteration, and continuation, is prevalent in ideophones. However, not all reduplicative processes in ideophones are clearly iconic. Notably, both less and more iconic uses of reduplication are encountered in ordinary vocabulary resulting in the overlapping semantic functions of reduplication between ideophonic and non-ideophonic (i.e., prosaic lexical categories. Given this, the aim of this paper is not to establish one clear-cut point to distinguish ideophonic reduplication from prosaic reduplication that may be impossible, but to specify dimensions of possibilities along which several instances of ideophonic and prosaic reduplication can be calibrated, using Canonical Typology (Corbett 2003; 2005; 2006; 2007; 2012; 2015. The current paper adopts the canonical approach of typology in an innovative way – not to compare a reduplicative phenomenon across languages (classic “typology”, but within a language by drawing ideophonic and prosaic data from Japanese, which is rich in reduplication and ideophones. Measuring the canonicity values of the various occurring types of ideophonic and prosaic reduplication against six criteria for canonical ideophonic reduplication, this paper shows how many and what criteria can differentiate the two sets of phenomena. Consequently, it reveals how ideophonic and prosaic reduplication are alike or different from each other. It also demonstrates the utility of Localized Canonical Typology, for the precise description and analysis of complex categories in a single language.
E, Jianwei; Bao, Yanling; Ye, Jimin
2017-10-01
As one of the most vital energy resources in the world, crude oil plays a significant role in international economic market. The fluctuation of crude oil price has attracted academic and commercial attention. There exist many methods in forecasting the trend of crude oil price. However, traditional models failed in predicting accurately. Based on this, a hybrid method will be proposed in this paper, which combines variational mode decomposition (VMD), independent component analysis (ICA) and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA), called VMD-ICA-ARIMA. The purpose of this study is to analyze the influence factors of crude oil price and predict the future crude oil price. Major steps can be concluded as follows: Firstly, applying the VMD model on the original signal (crude oil price), the modes function can be decomposed adaptively. Secondly, independent components are separated by the ICA, and how the independent components affect the crude oil price is analyzed. Finally, forecasting the price of crude oil price by the ARIMA model, the forecasting trend demonstrates that crude oil price declines periodically. Comparing with benchmark ARIMA and EEMD-ICA-ARIMA, VMD-ICA-ARIMA can forecast the crude oil price more accurately.
Simultaneous Semi-Coupled Dictionary Learning for Matching in Canonical Space.
Das, Nilotpal; Mandal, Devraj; Biswas, Soma
2017-05-24
Cross-modal recognition and matching with privileged information are important challenging problems in the field of computer vision. The cross-modal scenario deals with matching across different modalities and needs to take care of the large variations present across and within each modality. The privileged information scenario deals with the situation that all the information available during training may not be available during the testing stage and hence algorithms need to leverage the extra information from the training stage itself. We show that for multi-modal data, either one of the above situations may arise if one modality is absent during testing. Here, we propose a novel framework which can handle both these scenarios seamlessly with applications to matching multi-modal data. The proposed approach jointly uses data from the two modalities to build a canonical representation which encompasses information from both the modalities. We explore four different types of canonical representations for different types of data. The algorithm computes dictionaries and canonical representation for data from both the modalities such that the transformed sparse coefficients of both the modalities are equal to that of the canonical representation. The sparse coefficients are finally matched using Mahalanobis metric. Extensive experiments on different datasets, involving RGBD, text-image and audio-image data show the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
High density LD-based structural variations analysis in cattle genome.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Salomon-Torres
Full Text Available Genomic structural variations represent an important source of genetic variation in mammal genomes, thus, they are commonly related to phenotypic expressions. In this work, ∼ 770,000 single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes from 506 animals from 19 cattle breeds were analyzed. A simple LD-based structural variation was defined, and a genome-wide analysis was performed. After applying some quality control filters, for each breed and each chromosome we calculated the linkage disequilibrium (r2 of short range (≤ 100 Kb. We sorted SNP pairs by distance and obtained a set of LD means (called the expected means using bins of 5 Kb. We identified 15,246 segments of at least 1 Kb, among the 19 breeds, consisting of sets of at least 3 adjacent SNPs so that, for each SNP, r2 within its neighbors in a 100 Kb range, to the right side of that SNP, were all bigger than, or all smaller than, the corresponding expected mean, and their P-value were significant after a Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction. In addition, to account just for homogeneously distributed regions we considered only SNPs having at least 15 SNP neighbors within 100 Kb. We defined such segments as structural variations. By grouping all variations across all animals in the sample we defined 9,146 regions, involving a total of 53,137 SNPs; representing the 6.40% (160.98 Mb from the bovine genome. The identified structural variations covered 3,109 genes. Clustering analysis showed the relatedness of breeds given the geographic region in which they are evolving. In summary, we present an analysis of structural variations based on the deviation of the expected short range LD between SNPs in the bovine genome. With an intuitive and simple definition based only on SNPs data it was possible to discern closeness of breeds due to grouping by geographic region in which they are evolving.
Castellano, Leandro; Stebbing, Justin
2013-03-01
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules that regulate gene expression. They are characterized by specific maturation processes defined by canonical and non-canonical biogenic pathways. Analysis of ∼0.5 billion sequences from mouse data sets derived from different tissues, developmental stages and cell types, partly characterized by either ablation or mutation of the main proteins belonging to miRNA processor complexes, reveals 66 high-confidence new genomic loci coding for miRNAs that could be processed in a canonical or non-canonical manner. A proportion of the newly discovered miRNAs comprises mirtrons, for which we define a new sub-class. Notably, some of these newly discovered miRNAs are generated from untranslated and open reading frames of coding genes, and we experimentally validate these. We also show that many annotated miRNAs do not present miRNA-like features, as they are neither processed by known processing complexes nor loaded on AGO2; this indicates that the current miRNA miRBase database list should be refined and re-defined. Accordingly, a group of them map on ribosomal RNA molecules, whereas others cannot undergo genuine miRNA biogenesis. Notably, a group of annotated miRNAs are Dgcr8 independent and DICER dependent endogenous small interfering RNAs that derive from a unique hairpin formed from a short interspersed nuclear element.
Covariant Canonical Method for Yang-Mills Theory Expressed as a Constrained BF-Like Theory
Escalante, Alberto; García, Irving
2012-01-01
The covariant canonical analysis for Yang-Mills theory expressed as a BF-like action is performed. We study a BF-like action, that in spite of being the coupling of two topological terms, yield, on shell to Yang-Mills action. In addition, by using the results obtained in the covariant canonical approach we study the symmetries of the action, in particular we calculate its energy-momentum tensor obtaining the same tensor found for Yang-Mills theory; then we confirm those results by using Noeth...
Covariant Canonical Method for Yang-Mills Theory Expressed as a Constrained BF-Like Theory
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alberto Escalante
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The covariant canonical analysis for Yang-Mills theory expressed as a BF-like action is performed. We study a BF-like action, that in spite of being the coupling of two topological terms, yield, on shell to Yang-Mills action. In addition, by using the results obtained in the covariant canonical approach we study the symmetries of the action, in particular we calculate its energy-momentum tensor obtaining the same tensor found for Yang-Mills theory; then we confirm those results by using Noether's theorem.
Canonical transformations in problems of quantum statistical mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sankovich, D.P.
1985-01-01
The problem of general canonical transformations in quantum systems possessing a classical analog is considered. The main role plays the Weyl representation of dynamic variables of the quantum system considered. One managed to build a general diagram of canonical transformations in a quantum case and to develop a method for reducing one or another operator to the simplest canonical form. In this case the procedure, being analogous to the Poincare-Birkhof normalization based on the Lie series theory, occurs
Canonical transformations and the gauge dependence in general gauge theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voronov, B.L.; Tyutin, I.V.
1982-01-01
Gauge-invariant renormalizability is proven for a general gauge theory with an arbitrary gauge condition. It is shown that a canonical change of the variables in the initial effective action generates just a canonical change of the variables in the renormalized action and in the vertex generating functional. It is noted that the gauge condition enters the effective action as a canonical transformation. As a consequence, a change of the gauge condition is equivalent to the canonical transformation of the renormalized action and the vertex generating functional and this fact, in turn, leads to the gauge invariance of the renormalized S matrix
Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Islamic Canon law encounters South African financing and banking institutions: Prospects and possibilities for Islamic economic empowerment and Black Economic Empowerment in a Democratic South Africa.
Canonical terminal patterning is an evolutionary novelty.
Duncan, Elizabeth J; Benton, Matthew A; Dearden, Peter K
2013-05-01
Patterning of the terminal regions of the Drosophila embryo is achieved by an exquisitely regulated signal that passes between the follicle cells of the ovary, and the developing embryo. This pathway, however, is missing or modified in other insects. Here we trace the evolution of this pathway by examining the origins and expression of its components. The three core components of this pathway: trunk, torso and torso-like have different evolutionary histories and have been assembled step-wise to form the canonical terminal patterning pathway of Drosophila and Tribolium. Trunk, torso and a gene unrelated to terminal patterning, prothoraciotrophic hormone (PTTH), show an intimately linked evolutionary history, with every holometabolous insect, except the honeybee, possessing both PTTH and torso genes. Trunk is more restricted in its phylogenetic distribution, present only in the Diptera and Tribolium and, surprisingly, in the chelicerate Ixodes scapularis, raising the possibility that trunk and torso evolved earlier than previously thought. In Drosophila torso-like restricts the activation of the terminal patterning pathway to the poles of the embryo. Torso-like evolved in the pan-crustacean lineage, but based on expression of components of the canonical terminal patterning system in the hemimetabolous insect Acyrthosiphon pisum and the holometabolous insect Apis mellifera, we find that the canonical terminal-patterning system is not active in these insects. We therefore propose that the ancestral function of torso-like is unrelated to terminal patterning and that torso-like has become co-opted into terminal patterning in the lineage leading to Coleoptera and Diptera. We also show that this co-option has not resulted in changes to the molecular function of this protein. Torso-like from the pea aphid, honeybee and Drosophila, despite being expressed in different patterns, are functionally equivalent. We propose that co-option of torso-like into restricting the activity
Analysis of indel variations in the human disease-associated genes ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In this regard, analysis of indel (insertion–deletion) variations in these genes at a popu- lation scale is of significant interest. In this study, we per- formed PCR amplifications and sequencing of the loci of these four genes using genomic DNA from 100 Korean indi- viduals. We analysed the indels in these genes and made.
Analysis of Optical Variations of BL Lac Object AO 0235+ 164
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Historical optical BVRI band data are combined on the BL Lac object AO 0235 + 164. In order to examine the possible existence of lags and correlations between variations in different optical bands from this source, a statistical analysis is performed through the Discrete Correlation Function (DCF) method.
Ketabi, Saeed; Rahavard, Shaahin
2013-01-01
Genre analysis of texts has always been significant. The current study aimed at investigating intertextuality considering cultural variations and differences in students' discourse communities. Social studies, philosophy, and biology were chosen as the representatives of social sciences, humanities and sciences. Tehran University, one of the most…
Vestad, Beate; Llorente, Alicia; Neurauter, Axl; Phuyal, Santosh; Kierulf, Bente; Kierulf, Peter; Skotland, Tore; Sandvig, Kirsten; Haug, Kari Bente F.; Øvstebø, Reidun
2017-01-01
ABSTRACT Current methods for characterisation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) need further standardisation in order to obtain an acceptable level of data comparability. Size and concentration of EVs can be determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). However, both the heterogeneity of EVs and the choice of instrument settings may cause an appreciable analytical variation. Intra-assay (within-day, n = 6) and inter-assay (day-to-day, n = 6) variations (coefficient of variation, % CV) of different preparations of EVs and artificial vesicles or beads were determined using two NanoSight NS500 instruments, located at different laboratories. All analyses were performed by the same operator. The effect of applying identical software settings or instrument-optimised settings for each sample type and instrument was also evaluated. Finally, the impact of different operators and the use of two different software versions were investigated. The intra-assay CVs were 1–12% for both EVs and artificial samples, measured on the same instrument. The overall day-to-day variation was similar for both instruments, ranging from 2% to 25%. However, significantly different results were observed between the two instruments using identical software settings. The effect of applying instrument-optimised settings reduced the mismatch between the instruments, resulting in little to no significant divergences. The impact of using different operators and software versions when analysing silica microspheres and microvesicles from monocytes using instrument-optimised settings on the same instrument did not contribute to significant variation compared to the overall day-to-day variation of one operator. Performance differences between two similar NTA instruments may display significant divergences in size and concentration measurements when analysing EVs, depending on applied instrument settings and technical conditions. The importance of developing a streamlined and standardised
Vestad, Beate; Llorente, Alicia; Neurauter, Axl; Phuyal, Santosh; Kierulf, Bente; Kierulf, Peter; Skotland, Tore; Sandvig, Kirsten; Haug, Kari Bente F; Øvstebø, Reidun
2017-01-01
Current methods for characterisation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) need further standardisation in order to obtain an acceptable level of data comparability. Size and concentration of EVs can be determined by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA). However, both the heterogeneity of EVs and the choice of instrument settings may cause an appreciable analytical variation. Intra-assay (within-day, n = 6) and inter-assay (day-to-day, n = 6) variations (coefficient of variation, % CV) of different preparations of EVs and artificial vesicles or beads were determined using two NanoSight NS500 instruments, located at different laboratories. All analyses were performed by the same operator. The effect of applying identical software settings or instrument-optimised settings for each sample type and instrument was also evaluated. Finally, the impact of different operators and the use of two different software versions were investigated. The intra-assay CVs were 1-12% for both EVs and artificial samples, measured on the same instrument. The overall day-to-day variation was similar for both instruments, ranging from 2% to 25%. However, significantly different results were observed between the two instruments using identical software settings. The effect of applying instrument-optimised settings reduced the mismatch between the instruments, resulting in little to no significant divergences. The impact of using different operators and software versions when analysing silica microspheres and microvesicles from monocytes using instrument-optimised settings on the same instrument did not contribute to significant variation compared to the overall day-to-day variation of one operator. Performance differences between two similar NTA instruments may display significant divergences in size and concentration measurements when analysing EVs, depending on applied instrument settings and technical conditions. The importance of developing a streamlined and standardised execution of
Canonical quantization of spherically symmetric dust collapse
Vaz, Cenalo; Witten, Louis
2011-12-01
Quantum gravity effects are likely to play a crucial role in determining the outcome of gravitational collapse during its final stages. In this contribution we will outline a canonical quantization of the LeMaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) models, which describe the collapse of spherical, inhomogeneous, non-rotating dust. Although there are many models of gravitational collapse, this particular class of models stands out for its simplicity and the fact that both black holes and naked singularity end states may be realized on the classical level, depending on the initial conditions. We will obtain the appropriate Wheeler-DeWitt equation and then solve it exactly, after regularization on a spatial lattice. The solutions describe Hawking radiation and provide an elegant microcanonical description of black hole entropy, but they raise other questions, most importantly concerning the nature of gravity's fundamental degrees of freedom.
Canonical Wnt signaling in diabetic retinopathy.
Chen, Qian; Ma, Jian-Xing
2017-10-01
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common eye complication of diabetes, and the pathogenic mechanism of DR is still under investigation. The canonical Wnt signaling pathway is an evolutionarily conserved pathway that plays fundamental roles in embryogenesis and adult tissue homeostasis. Wnt signaling regulates expression of multiple genes that control retinal development and eye organogenesis, and dysregulated Wnt signaling plays pathophysiological roles in many ocular diseases, including DR. This review highlights recent progress in studies of Wnt signaling in DR. We discuss Wnt signaling regulation in the retina and dysregulation of Wnt signaling associated with ocular diseases with an emphasis on DR. We also discuss the therapeutic potential of modulating Wnt signaling in DR. Continued studies in this field will advance our current understanding on DR and contribute to the development of new treatments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A simple algorithm for computing canonical forms
Ford, H.; Hunt, L. R.; Renjeng, S.
1986-01-01
It is well known that all linear time-invariant controllable systems can be transformed to Brunovsky canonical form by a transformation consisting only of coordinate changes and linear feedback. However, the actual procedures for doing this have tended to be overly complex. The technique introduced here is envisioned as an on-line procedure and is inspired by George Meyer's tangent model for nonlinear systems. The process utilizes Meyer's block triangular form as an intermedicate step in going to Brunovsky form. The method also involves orthogonal matrices, thus eliminating the need for the computation of matrix inverses. In addition, the Kronecker indices can be computed as a by-product of this transformation so it is necessary to know them in advance.
Discrete canonical transforms that are Hadamard matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Healy, John J; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo
2011-01-01
The group Sp(2,R) of symplectic linear canonical transformations has an integral kernel which has quadratic and linear phases, and which is realized by the geometric paraxial optical model. The discrete counterpart of this model is a finite Hamiltonian system that acts on N-point signals through N x N matrices whose elements also have a constant absolute value, although they do not form a representation of that group. Those matrices that are also unitary are Hadamard matrices. We investigate the manifolds of these N x N matrices under the Sp(2,R) equivalence imposed by the model, and find them to be on two-sided cosets. By means of an algorithm we determine representatives that lead to collections of mutually unbiased bases.
Troubling the canon: bisexuality and queer theory.
Gammon, Mark A; Isgro, Kirsten L
2006-01-01
This essay explores the notion that bisexuality and contemporary bisexual political movements both align and trouble canons of queer theories of sexuality and gender. This project provides an historical review and assessment of recent bisexual theorizing to highlight key themes in its evolution as well as a discussion of how these themes have shaped the relationship of bisexuality and queer theory. Drawing on this assessment and a wider discussion of GLBT scholarship, we invite critical inquiry regarding the implications of bisexual theorizing on queer theory and vice versa. We address questions of bisexual epistemologies, its discursive roles within queer theory, and its impact on queer politics and organizing. Noting bisexuality's absence in much of this research and scholarship, we suggest these projects have been limited in their ability to fully and effectively address sexual subjectivity both in theory and in its everyday lived experience.
Linear canonical transforms theory and applications
Kutay, M; Ozaktas, Haldun; Sheridan, John
2016-01-01
This book provides a clear and accessible introduction to the essential mathematical foundations of linear canonical transforms from a signals and systems perspective. Substantial attention is devoted to how these transforms relate to optical systems and wave propagation. There is extensive coverage of sampling theory and fast algorithms for numerically approximating the family of transforms. Chapters on topics ranging from digital holography to speckle metrology provide a window on the wide range of applications. This volume will serve as a reference for researchers in the fields of image and signal processing, wave propagation, optical information processing and holography, optical system design and modeling, and quantum optics. It will be of use to graduate students in physics and engineering, as well as for scientists in other areas seeking to learn more about this important yet relatively unfamiliar class of integral transformations.
Canonical momenta and numerical instabilities in particle codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Godfrey, B.B.
1975-01-01
A set of warm plasma dispersion relations appropriate to a large class of electromagnetic plasma simulation codes is derived. The numerical Cherenkov instability is shown by analytic and numerical analysis of these dispersion relations to be the most significant nonphysical effect involving transverse electromagnetic waves. The instability arises due to a spurious phase shift between resonant particles and light waves, caused by a basic incompatibility between the Lagrangian treatment of particle positions and the Eulerian treatment of particle velocities characteristic of most PIC--CIC algorithms. It is demonstrated that, through the use of canonical momentum, this mismatch is alleviated sufficiently to completely eliminate the Cherenkov instability. Collateral effects on simulation accuracy and on other numerical instabilities appear to be minor
A Canonical Ensemble Correlation Prediction Model for Seasonal Precipitation Anomaly
Shen, Samuel S. P.; Lau, William K. M.; Kim, Kyu-Myong; Li, Guilong
2001-01-01
This report describes an optimal ensemble forecasting model for seasonal precipitation and its error estimation. Each individual forecast is based on the canonical correlation analysis (CCA) in the spectral spaces whose bases are empirical orthogonal functions (EOF). The optimal weights in the ensemble forecasting crucially depend on the mean square error of each individual forecast. An estimate of the mean square error of a CCA prediction is made also using the spectral method. The error is decomposed onto EOFs of the predictand and decreases linearly according to the correlation between the predictor and predictand. This new CCA model includes the following features: (1) the use of area-factor, (2) the estimation of prediction error, and (3) the optimal ensemble of multiple forecasts. The new CCA model is applied to the seasonal forecasting of the United States precipitation field. The predictor is the sea surface temperature.
Mohammadi, Bijan; Pironneau, Olivier; Cipolla, Vittorio
2016-01-01
This book presents papers surrounding the extensive discussions that took place from the ‘Variational Analysis and Aerospace Engineering’ workshop held at the Ettore Majorana Foundation and Centre for Scientific Culture in 2015. Contributions to this volume focus on advanced mathematical methods in aerospace engineering and industrial engineering such as computational fluid dynamics methods, optimization methods in aerodynamics, optimum controls, dynamic systems, the theory of structures, space missions, flight mechanics, control theory, algebraic geometry for CAD applications, and variational methods and applications. Advanced graduate students, researchers, and professionals in mathematics and engineering will find this volume useful as it illustrates current collaborative research projects in applied mathematics and aerospace engineering.
Canonical symmetry of a constrained Hamiltonian system and canonical Ward identity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Zi-ping
1995-01-01
An algorithm for the construction of the generators of the gauge transformation of a constrained Hamiltonian system is given. The relationships among the coefficients connecting the first constraints in the generator are made clear. Starting from the phase space generating function of the Green function, the Ward identity in canonical formalism is deduced. We point out that the quantum equations of motion in canonical form for a system with singular Lagrangian differ from the classical ones whether Dirac's conjecture holds true or not. Applications of the present formulation to the Abelian and non-Abelian gauge theories are given. The expressions for PCAC and generalized PCAC of the AVV vertex are derived exactly from another point of view. A new form of the Ward identity for gauge-ghost proper vertices is obtained which differs from the usual Ward-Takahashi identity arising from the BRS invariance
Symmetric minimally entangled typical thermal states for canonical and grand-canonical ensembles
Binder, Moritz; Barthel, Thomas
2017-05-01
Based on the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG), strongly correlated quantum many-body systems at finite temperatures can be simulated by sampling over a certain class of pure matrix product states (MPS) called minimally entangled typical thermal states (METTS). When a system features symmetries, these can be utilized to substantially reduce MPS computation costs. It is conceptually straightforward to simulate canonical ensembles using symmetric METTS. In practice, it is important to alternate between different symmetric collapse bases to decrease autocorrelations in the Markov chain of METTS. To this purpose, we introduce symmetric Fourier and Haar-random block bases that are efficiently mixing. We also show how grand-canonical ensembles can be simulated efficiently with symmetric METTS. We demonstrate these approaches for spin-1 /2 X X Z chains and discuss how the choice of the collapse bases influences autocorrelations as well as the distribution of measurement values and, hence, convergence speeds.
Primary cilia are not required for normal canonical Wnt signaling in the mouse embryo.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Polloneal Jymmiel R Ocbina
2009-08-01
Full Text Available Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling in the mouse requires the microtubule-based organelle, the primary cilium. The primary cilium is assembled and maintained through the process of intraflagellar transport (IFT and the response to Shh is blocked in mouse mutants that lack proteins required for IFT. Although the phenotypes of mouse IFT mutants do not overlap with phenotypes of known Wnt pathway mutants, recent studies report data suggesting that the primary cilium modulates responses to Wnt signals.We therefore carried out a systematic analysis of canonical Wnt signaling in mutant embryos and cells that lack primary cilia because of loss of the anterograde IFT kinesin-II motor (Kif3a or IFT complex B proteins (Ift172 or Ift88. We also analyzed mutant embryos with abnormal primary cilia due to defects in retrograde IFT (Dync2h1. The mouse IFT mutants express the canonical Wnt target Axin2 and activate a transgenic canonical Wnt reporter, BAT-gal, in the normal spatial pattern and to the same quantitative level as wild type littermates. Similarly, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs derived from IFT mutants respond normally to added Wnt3a. The switch from canonical to non-canonical Wnt also appears normal in IFT mutant MEFs, as both wild-type and mutant cells do not activate the canonical Wnt reporter in the presence of both Wnt3a and Wnt5a.We conclude that loss of primary cilia or defects in retrograde IFT do not affect the response of the midgestation embryo or embryo-derived fibroblasts to Wnt ligands.
ADM Analysis of gravity models within the framework of bimetric variational formalism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovnev, Alexey; Karčiauskas, Mindaugas; Nyrhinen, Hannu J.
2015-01-01
Bimetric variational formalism was recently employed to construct novel bimetric gravity models. In these models an affine connection is generated by an additional tensor field which is independent of the physical metric. In this work we demonstrate how the ADM decomposition can be applied to study such models and provide some technical intermediate details. Using ADM decomposition we are able to prove that a linear model is unstable as has previously been indicated by perturbative analysis. Moreover, we show that it is also very difficult if not impossible to construct a non-linear model which is ghost-free within the framework of bimetric variational formalism. However, we demonstrate that viable models are possible along similar lines of thought. To this end, we consider a set up in which the affine connection is a variation of the Levi-Civita one. As a proof of principle we construct a gravity model with a massless scalar field obtained this way
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoen, M.
1995-01-01
In this article the Taylor-expansion method is introduced by which Monte Carlo (MC) simulations in the canonical ensemble can be speeded up significantly, Substantial gains in computational speed of 20-40% over conventional implementations of the MC technique are obtained over a wide range of densities in homogeneous bulk phases. The basic philosophy behind the Taylor-expansion method is a division of the neighborhood of each atom (or molecule) into three different spatial zones. Interactions between atoms belonging to each zone are treated at different levels of computational sophistication. For example, only interactions between atoms belonging to the primary zone immediately surrounding an atom are treated explicitly before and after displacement. The change in the configurational energy contribution from secondary-zone interactions is obtained from the first-order term of a Taylor expansion of the configurational energy in terms of the displacement vector d. Interactions with atoms in the tertiary zone adjacent to the secondary zone are neglected throughout. The Taylor-expansion method is not restricted to the canonical ensemble but may be employed to enhance computational efficiency of MC simulations in other ensembles as well. This is demonstrated for grand canonical ensemble MC simulations of an inhomogeneous fluid which can be performed essentially on a modern personal computer
LCPT: a program for finding linear canonical transformations. [In MACSYMA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Char, B.W.; McNamara, B.
1979-05-21
This article describes a MACSYMA program to compute symbolically a canonical linear transformation between coordinate systems. The difficulties in implementation of this canonical small physics problem are also discussed, along with the implications that may be drawn from such difficulties about widespread MACSYMA usage by the community of computational/theoretical physicists.
Geothermal resource assessment of Canon City, Colorado Area
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zacharakis, Ted G.; Pearl, Richard Howard
1982-01-01
In 1979 a program was initiated to fully define the geothermal conditions of an area east of Canon City, bounded by the mountains on the north and west, the Arkansas River on the south and Colorado Highway 115 on the east. Within this area are a number of thermal springs and wells in two distinct groups. The eastern group consists of 5 thermal artesian wells located within one mile of Colorado Highway 115 from Penrose on the north to the Arkansas river on the south. The western group, located in and adjacent to Canon City, consists of one thermal spring on the south bank of the Arkansas River on the west side of Canon City, a thermal well in the northeast corner of Canon City, another well along the banks of Four Mile Creek east of Canon City and a well north of Canon City on Four Mile Creek. All the thermal waters in the Canon City Embayment, of which the study area is part of, are found in the study area. The thermal waters unlike the cold ground waters of the Canon City Embayment, are a calcium-bicarbonate type and range in temperature from 79 F (26 C) to a high of 108 F (42 C). The total combined surface discharge o fall the thermal water in the study area is in excess of 532 acre feet (A.F.) per year.
CERN Photo Club (CPC) / Canon Contest - My View of CERN
Steyaert, Didier
2016-01-01
The CERN Photo Club has organized in collaboration with Canon Switzerland a photo contest open to all members of the CERN (Persons with a CERN access card). The only restriction is that the photos must have been taken with a CANON camera (DSLR, bridge or compact) between 1 and 31 October 2016.
A canonical-literary reading of Lamentations 5 | Kang | HTS ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This article presents a canonical and literary reading of Lamentations 5 in the context of the book of Lamentations as a whole. Following the approach by Vanhoozer (1998, 2002) based on speech-act theory, the meaning of Scripture is sought at canonical level, supervening the basic literary level. In Lamentations, as ...
LCPT: a program for finding linear canonical transformations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Char, B.W.; McNamara, B.
1979-01-01
This article describes a MACSYMA program to compute symbolically a canonical linear transformation between coordinate systems. The difficulties in implementation of this canonical small physics problem are also discussed, along with the implications that may be drawn from such difficulties about widespread MACSYMA usage by the community of computational/theoretical physicists
Canonical quantum theory of gravitational field with higher derivatives, 3
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawasaki, Shoichiro; Kimura, Tadahiko
1983-01-01
A formulation which is invariant under an additional BRS transformation with nilpotency of order two is presented for the canonical theory of the renormalizable quantum gravity with higher derivatives. The canonical quantization is carried out and various equal time (anti-) commutation relations are derived. The asymptotic fields are reanalyzed. The physical particle contents are just the same as those obtained in previous papers. (author)
Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Barr, R. Graham; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.
2010-03-01
CT scans allow for the quantitative evaluation of the anatomical bases of emphysema. Recently, a non-density based geometric measurement of lung diagphragm curvature has been proposed as a method for the quantification of emphysema from CT. This work analyzes variability of diaphragm curvature and evaluates the effectiveness of a compensation methodology for the reduction of this variability as compared to emphysema index. Using a dataset of 43 scan-pairs with less than a 100 day time-interval between scans, we find that the diaphragm curvature had a trend towards lower overall variability over emphysema index (95% CI:-9.7 to + 14.7 vs. -15.8 to +12.0), and that the variation of both measures was reduced after compensation. We conclude that the variation of the new measure can be considered comparable to the established measure and the compensation can reduce the apparent variation of quantitative measures successfully.
Canonical and Noncanonical Mechanisms of Glucocorticoid Stress Hormones Action.
2016-01-01
Hormones of stress, glucocorticoids, regulate numerous physiological processes and functions. These hormonal effects involve diverse mechanisms of action. Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are transcription factors which regulate gene expression by canonical mechanism of the hormone action through interaction with specific nucleotide sequence (GRE) in the regulatory region of the gene. The effects of the canonical mechanism develop for several hours. Non-genomic rapid effects of the hormone emerged in seconds- minuets and supposed to be associated with yet not identified receptor in the plasma membrane. In addition to these slow and rapid hormonal actions, one more slow non-canonical mechanism of glucocorticoid action become increasingly evident. This mechanism is based on protein-protein interactions of GRs with other transcription factors. The main modern concepts of canonical, non-canonical and membrane mechanisms of hormone action are discussed in the review.
A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Diana Forker
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.
Variation analysis and gene annotation of eight MHC haplotypes: the MHC Haplotype Project.
Horton, Roger; Gibson, Richard; Coggill, Penny; Miretti, Marcos; Allcock, Richard J; Almeida, Jeff; Forbes, Simon; Gilbert, James G R; Halls, Karen; Harrow, Jennifer L; Hart, Elizabeth; Howe, Kevin; Jackson, David K; Palmer, Sophie; Roberts, Anne N; Sims, Sarah; Stewart, C Andrew; Traherne, James A; Trevanion, Steve; Wilming, Laurens; Rogers, Jane; de Jong, Pieter J; Elliott, John F; Sawcer, Stephen; Todd, John A; Trowsdale, John; Beck, Stephan
2008-01-01
The human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) is contained within about 4 Mb on the short arm of chromosome 6 and is recognised as the most variable region in the human genome. The primary aim of the MHC Haplotype Project was to provide a comprehensively annotated reference sequence of a single, human leukocyte antigen-homozygous MHC haplotype and to use it as a basis against which variations could be assessed from seven other similarly homozygous cell lines, representative of the most common MHC haplotypes in the European population. Comparison of the haplotype sequences, including four haplotypes not previously analysed, resulted in the identification of >44,000 variations, both substitutions and indels (insertions and deletions), which have been submitted to the dbSNP database. The gene annotation uncovered haplotype-specific differences and confirmed the presence of more than 300 loci, including over 160 protein-coding genes. Combined analysis of the variation and annotation datasets revealed 122 gene loci with coding substitutions of which 97 were non-synonymous. The haplotype (A3-B7-DR15; PGF cell line) designated as the new MHC reference sequence, has been incorporated into the human genome assembly (NCBI35 and subsequent builds), and constitutes the largest single-haplotype sequence of the human genome to date. The extensive variation and annotation data derived from the analysis of seven further haplotypes have been made publicly available and provide a framework and resource for future association studies of all MHC-associated diseases and transplant medicine.
The canon as text for a biblical theology
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
James A. Loader
2005-10-01
Full Text Available The novelty of the canonical approach is questioned and its fascination at least partly traced to the Reformation, as well as to the post-Reformation’s need for a clear and authoritative canon to perform the function previously performed by the church. This does not minimise the elusiveness and deeply contradictory positions both within the canon and triggered by it. On the one hand, the canon itself is a centripetal phenomenon and does play an important role in exegesis and theology. Even so, on the other hand, it not only contains many difficulties, but also causes various additional problems of a formal as well as a theological nature. The question is mooted whether the canonical approach alleviates or aggravates the dilemma. Since this approach has become a major factor in Christian theology, aspects of the Christian canon are used to gauge whether “canon” is an appropriate category for eliminating difficulties that arise by virtue of its own existence. Problematic uses and appropriations of several Old Testament canons are advanced, as well as evidence in the New Testament of a consciousness that the “old” has been surpassed(“Überbietungsbewußtsein”. It is maintained that at least the Childs version of the canonical approach fails to smooth out these and similar difficulties. As a method it can cater for the New Testament’s (superior role as the hermeneutical standard for evaluating the Old, but flounders on its inability to create the theological unity it claims can solve religious problems exposed by Old Testament historical criticism. It is concluded that canon as a category cannot be dispensed with, but is useful for the opposite of the purpose to which it is conventionally put: far from bringing about theological “unity” or producing a standard for “correct” exegesis, it requires different readings of different canons.
Variation and diversity in Homo erectus: a 3D geometric morphometric analysis of the temporal bone.
Terhune, Claire E; Kimbel, William H; Lockwood, Charles A
2007-07-01
Although the level of taxonomic diversity within the fossil hominin species Homo erectus (sensu lato) is continually debated, there have been relatively few studies aiming to quantify the morphology of this species. Instead, most researchers have relied on qualitative descriptions or the evaluation of nonmetric characters, which in many cases display continuous variation. Also, only a few studies have used quantitative data to formally test hypotheses regarding the taxonomic composition of the "erectus" hypodigm. Despite these previous analyses, however, and perhaps in part due to these varied approaches for assessing variation within specimens typically referred to H. erectus (sensu lato) and the general lack of rigorous statistical testing of how variation within this taxon is partitioned, there is currently little consensus regarding whether this group is a single species, or whether it should instead be split into separate temporal or geographically delimited taxa. In order to evaluate possible explanations for variation within H. erectus, we tested the general hypothesis that variation within the temporal bone morphology of H. erectus is consistent with that of a single species, using great apes and humans as comparative taxa. Eighteen three-dimensional (3D) landmarks of the temporal bone were digitized on a total of 520 extant and fossil hominid crania. Landmarks were registered by Generalized Procrustes Analysis, and Procrustes distances were calculated for comparisons of individuals within and between the extant taxa. Distances between fossil specimens and between a priori groupings of fossils were then compared to the distances calculated within the extant taxa to assess the variation within the H. erectus sample relative to that of known species, subspecies, and populations. Results of these analyses indicate that shape variation within the entire H. erectus sample is generally higher than extant hominid intraspecific variation, and putative H. ergaster
El Escritor y las Normas del Canon Literario (The Writer and the Norms of the Literary Canon).
Policarpo, Alcibiades
This paper speculates about whether a literary canon exists in contemporary Latin American literature, particularly in the prose genre. The paper points to Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa as the three authors who might form this traditional and liberal canon with their works "La Muerte de Artemio Cruz"…
NDVI-Based analysis on the influence of human activities on vegetation variation on Hainan Island
Luo, Hongxia; Dai, Shengpei; Xie, Zhenghui; Fang, Jihua
2018-02-01
Using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) dataset, we analyzed the predicted NDVI values variation and the influence of human activities on vegetation on Hainan Island during 2001-2015. We investigated the roles of human activities in vegetation variation, particularly from 2002 when implemented the Grain-for-Greenprogram on Hainan Island. The trend analysis, linear regression model and residual analysis were used to analyze the data. The results of the study showed that (1) The predicted vegetation on Hainan Island showed an general upward trend with a linear growth rate of 0.0025/10y (pprojects. However, it indicated a growing risk of vegetation degradation in the coastal region of Hainan Island as a result of rapid urbanization, land reclamation.
Migórski, Stanisław; Sofonea, Mircea
2015-01-01
Highlighting recent advances in variational and hemivariational inequalities with an emphasis on theory, numerical analysis and applications, this volume serves as an indispensable resource to graduate students and researchers interested in the latest results from recognized scholars in this relatively young and rapidly-growing field. Particularly, readers will find that the volume’s results and analysis present valuable insights into the fields of pure and applied mathematics, as well as civil, aeronautical, and mechanical engineering. Researchers and students will find new results on well posedness to stationary and evolutionary inequalities and their rigorous proofs. In addition to results on modeling and abstract problems, the book contains new results on the numerical methods for variational and hemivariational inequalities. Finally, the applications presented illustrate the use of these results in the study of miscellaneous mathematical models which describe the contact between deformable bodies and a...
High-resolution analysis of the human retina miRNome reveals isomiR variations and novel microRNAs.
Karali, Marianthi; Persico, Maria; Mutarelli, Margherita; Carissimo, Annamaria; Pizzo, Mariateresa; Singh Marwah, Veer; Ambrosio, Concetta; Pinelli, Michele; Carrella, Diego; Ferrari, Stefano; Ponzin, Diego; Nigro, Vincenzo; di Bernardo, Diego; Banfi, Sandro
2016-02-29
MicroRNAs play a fundamental role in retinal development and function. To characterise the miRNome of the human retina, we carried out deep sequencing analysis on sixteen individuals. We established the catalogue of retina-expressed miRNAs, determined their relative abundance and found that a small number of miRNAs accounts for almost 90% of the retina miRNome. We discovered more than 3000 miRNA variants (isomiRs), encompassing a wide range of sequence variations, which include seed modifications that are predicted to have an impact on miRNA action. We demonstrated that a seed-modifying isomiR of the retina-enriched miR-124-3p was endowed with different targeting properties with respect to the corresponding canonical form. Moreover, we identified 51 putative novel, retina-specific miRNAs and experimentally validated the expression for nine of them. Finally, a parallel analysis of the human Retinal Pigment Epithelium (RPE)/choroid, two tissues that are known to be crucial for retina homeostasis, yielded notably distinct miRNA enrichment patterns compared to the retina. The generated data are accessible through an ad hoc database. This study is the first to reveal the complexity of the human retina miRNome at nucleotide resolution and constitutes a unique resource to assess the contribution of miRNAs to the pathophysiology of the human retina. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stephen D Bentley
2007-02-01
Full Text Available The bacterium Neisseria meningitidis is commonly found harmlessly colonising the mucosal surfaces of the human nasopharynx. Occasionally strains can invade host tissues causing septicaemia and meningitis, making the bacterium a major cause of morbidity and mortality in both the developed and developing world. The species is known to be diverse in many ways, as a product of its natural transformability and of a range of recombination and mutation-based systems. Previous work on pathogenic Neisseria has identified several mechanisms for the generation of diversity of surface structures, including phase variation based on slippage-like mechanisms and sequence conversion of expressed genes using information from silent loci. Comparison of the genome sequences of two N. meningitidis strains, serogroup B MC58 and serogroup A Z2491, suggested further mechanisms of variation, including C-terminal exchange in specific genes and enhanced localised recombination and variation related to repeat arrays. We have sequenced the genome of N. meningitidis strain FAM18, a representative of the ST-11/ET-37 complex, providing the first genome sequence for the disease-causing serogroup C meningococci; it has 1,976 predicted genes, of which 60 do not have orthologues in the previously sequenced serogroup A or B strains. Through genome comparison with Z2491 and MC58 we have further characterised specific mechanisms of genetic variation in N. meningitidis, describing specialised loci for generation of cell surface protein variants and measuring the association between noncoding repeat arrays and sequence variation in flanking genes. Here we provide a detailed view of novel genetic diversification mechanisms in N. meningitidis. Our analysis provides evidence for the hypothesis that the noncoding repeat arrays in neisserial genomes (neisserial intergenic mosaic elements provide a crucial mechanism for the generation of surface antigen variants. Such variation will have an
Abusam, A.A.A.; Keesman, K.J.; Straten, van G.; Spanjers, H.; Meinema, K.
2001-01-01
This paper demonstrates the application of the factorial sensitivity analysis methodology in studying the influence of variations in stoichiometric, kinetic and operating parameters on the performance indices of an oxidation ditch simulation model (benchmark). Factorial sensitivity analysis
AFLP and MS-AFLP analysis of the variation within saffron crocus (Crocus sativus L. germplasm.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Matteo Busconi
Full Text Available The presence and extent of genetic variation in saffron crocus are still debated, as testified by several contradictory articles providing contrasting results about the monomorphism or less of the species. Remarkably, phenotypic variations have been frequently observed in the field, such variations are usually unstable and can change from one growing season to another. Considering that gene expression can be influenced both by genetic and epigenetic changes, epigenetics could be a plausible cause of the alternative phenotypes. In order to obtain new insights into this issue, we carried out a molecular marker analysis of 112 accessions from the World Saffron and Crocus Collection. The accessions were grown for at least three years in the same open field conditions. The same samples were analysed using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP and Methyl Sensitive AFLP in order to search for variation at the genetic (DNA sequence and epigenetic (cytosine methylation level. While the genetic variability was low (4.23% polymorphic peaks and twelve (12 effective different genotypes, the methyl sensitive analysis showed the presence of high epigenetic variability (33.57% polymorphic peaks and twenty eight (28 different effective epigenotypes. The pattern obtained by Factorial Correspondence Analysis of AFLP and, in particular, of MS-AFLP data was consistent with the geographical provenance of the accessions. Very interestingly, by focusing on Spanish accessions, it was observed that the distribution of the accessions in the Factorial Correspondence Analysis is not random but tends to reflect the geographical origin. Two clearly defined clusters grouping accessions from the West (Toledo and Ciudad Real and accessions from the East (Cuenca and Teruel were clearly recognised.
The Schroedinger equation and canonical perturbation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graffi, S.; Paul, T.
1987-01-01
Let T 0 (ℎ,ω)+εV be the Schroedinger operator corresponding to the classical Hamiltonian H 0 (ω)+εV, where H 0 (ω) is the d-dimensional harmonic oscillator with non-resonant frequencies ω=(ω 1 ..., ω d ) and the potential V(q 1 , ..., q d ) is an entire function of order (d+l) -1 . We prove that the algorithm of classical, canonical perturbation theory can be applied to the Schroedinger equation in the Bargmann representation. As a consequence, each term of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger series near any eigenvalue of T 0 (ℎ,ω) admits a convergent expansion in powers of ℎ of initial point the corresponding term of the classical Birkhoff expansion. Moreover if V is an even polynomial, the above result and the KAM theorem show that all eigenvalues λ n (ℎ,ε) of T 0 +εV such that nℎ coincides with a KAM torus are given, up to order ε ∞ , by a quantization formula which reduces to the Bohr-Sommerfeld one up to first order terms in ℎ. (orig.)
Non-canonical inflation in supergravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gwyn, Rhiannon; Lehners, Jean-Luc
2014-01-01
We investigate the effect of non-canonical kinetic terms on inflation in supergravity. We find that the biggest impact of such higher-derivative kinetic terms is due to the corrections to the potential that they induce via their effect on the auxiliary fields, which now have a cubic equation of motion. This is in contrast to the usual (non-supersymmetric) effective field theory expansion which assumes that mass-suppressed higher-derivative terms do not affect the lower-derivative terms already present. We demonstrate with several examples that such changes in the potential can significantly modify the inflationary dynamics. Our results have immediate implications for effective descriptions of inflation derived from string theory, where higher-derivative kinetic terms are generally present. In addition we elucidate the structure of the theory in the parameter range where there are three real solutions to the auxiliary field’s equation of motion, studying the resulting three branches of the theory, and finding that one of them suffers from a singularity in the speed of propagation of fluctuations
The Anonymous Jane Austen: Duelling Canons
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Edward Copeland
2017-12-01
Full Text Available This essay initially addresses some theoretical concepts such as adaptation and appropriation. I intend to analyze how Jane Austen herself indulged in her own appropriations from the woman’s canon, in particular through a story entitled Guilt Pursued by Conscience, a tale she found in the “Lady’s Magazine” of 1802. I will show that this tale that claimed Austen’s particular attention was re-appropriated in Emma (although in the broadest sense of parody and, to a lesser extent, in Sense and Sensibility. The second part of the essay, instead, will move on to analyze how novelists of the generation that followed Austen felt free to import dialogue, characters, and plots from Austen’s works, showing no obligation to their source, just as she had done with the “Lady’s” tale. I will mention and comment on a series of novels, especially from the silver fork school, that draw from Austen’s plot, characters and happenings without acknowledging their legacy to their predecessor.
Canonical Coordinates for Retino-Cortical Magnification
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luc Florack
2014-02-01
Full Text Available A geometric model for a biologically-inspired visual front-end is proposed, based on an isotropic, scale-invariant two-form field. The model incorporates a foveal property typical of biological visual systems, with an approximately linear decrease of resolution as a function of eccentricity, and by a physical size constant that measures the radius of the geometric foveola, the central region characterized by maximal resolving power. It admits a description in singularity-free canonical coordinates generalizing the familiar log-polar coordinates and reducing to these in the asymptotic case of negligibly-sized geometric foveola or, equivalently, at peripheral locations in the visual field. It has predictive power to the extent that quantitative geometric relationships pertaining to retino-cortical magnification along the primary visual pathway, such as receptive field size distribution and spatial arrangement in retina and striate cortex, can be deduced in a principled manner. The biological plausibility of the model is demonstrated by comparison with known facts of human vision.
Finite canonical measure for nonsingular cosmologies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Page, Don N.
2011-01-01
The total canonical (Liouville-Henneaux-Gibbons-Hawking-Stewart) measure is finite for completely nonsingular Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker classical universes with a minimally coupled massive scalar field and a positive cosmological constant. For a cosmological constant very small in units of the square of the scalar field mass, most of the measure is for nearly de Sitter solutions with no inflation at a much more rapid rate. However, if one restricts to solutions in which the scalar field energy density is ever more than twice the equivalent energy density of the cosmological constant, then the number of e-folds of rapid inflation must be large, and the fraction of the measure is low in which the spatial curvature is comparable to the cosmological constant at the time when it is comparable to the energy density of the scalar field. The measure for such classical FLRWΛ-φ models with both a big bang and a big crunch is also finite. Only the solutions with a big bang that expand forever, or the time-reversed ones that contract from infinity to a big crunch, have infinite measure
SU-E-T-139: Automated Daily EPID Exit Dose Analysis Uncovers Treatment Variations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olch, A [University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)
2015-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate a fully automated EPID exit dose system for its ability to detect daily treatment deviations including patient setup, delivery, and anatomy changes. Methods: PerFRACTION (Sun Nuclear Corporation) software is a system that uses integrated EPID images taken during patient treatment and automatically pulled from the Aria database and analyzed based on user-defined comparisons. This was used to monitor 20 plans consisting of a total of 859 fields for 18 patients, for a total of 251 fractions. Nine VMAT, 5 IMRT, and 6 3D plans were monitored. The Gamma analysis was performed for each field within a plan, comparing the first fraction against each of the other fractions in each treatment course. A 2% dose difference, 1 mm distance-to-agreement, and 10% dose threshold was used. These tight tolerances were chosen to achieve a high sensitivity to treatment variations. The field passed if 93% of the pixels had a Gamma of 1 or less. Results: Twenty-nine percent of the fields failed. The average plan passing rate was 92.5%.The average 3D plan passing rate was less than for VMAT or IMRT, 84%, vs. an average of 96.2%. When fields failed, an investigation revealed changes in patient anatomy or setup variations, often also leading to variations of transmission through immobilization devices. Conclusion: PerFRACTION is a fully automated system for determining daily changes in dose transmission through the patient that requires no effort other than for the imager panel to be deployed during treatment. A surprising number of fields failed the analysis and can be attributed to important treatment variations that would otherwise not be appreciated. Further study of inter-fraction treatment variations is possible and warranted. Sun Nuclear Corporation provided a license to the software described.
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Holly J Prudden
Full Text Available Population HIV prevalence across West Africa varies substantially. We assess the national epidemiological and behavioural factors associated with this.National, urban and rural data on HIV prevalence, the percentage of younger (15-24 and older (25-49 women and men reporting multiple (2+ partners in the past year, HIV prevalence among female sex workers (FSWs, men who have bought sex in the past year (clients, and ART coverage, were compiled for 13 countries. An Ecological analysis using linear regression assessed which factors are associated with national variations in population female and male HIV prevalence, and with each other.National population HIV prevalence varies between 0 4-2 9% for men and 0 4-5.6% for women. ART coverage ranges from 6-23%. National variations in HIV prevalence are not shown to be associated with variations in HIV prevalence among FSWs or clients. Instead they are associated with variations in the percentage of younger and older males and females reporting multiple partners. HIV prevalence is weakly negatively associated with ART coverage, implying it is not increased survival that is the cause of variations in HIV prevalence. FSWs and younger female HIV prevalence are associated with client population sizes, especially older men. Younger female HIV prevalence is strongly associated with older male and female HIV prevalence.In West Africa, population HIV prevalence is not significantly higher in countries with high FSW HIV prevalence. Our analysis suggests, higher prevalence occurs where more men buy sex, and where a higher percentage of younger women, and older men and women have multiple partnerships. If a sexual network between clients and young females exists, clients may potentially bridge infection to younger females. HIV prevention should focus both on commercial sex and transmission between clients and younger females with multiple partners.
Analysis of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulphur Dioxide in Lima, Peru: Trends and Seasonal Variations
Pacsi, S.; Rappenglueck, B.
2007-12-01
This research was carried out to show a general analysis of the monthly and yearly variation (1996-2002) and the tendency of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) for the 5 stations of the air quality network of Lima. The SO2 and NO2 concentrations were measured by the Dirección General de Salud Ambiental (DIGESA), using the active sampling method and the chemical analysis has been determined by Turbidimetry and Colorimetry for the SO2 and NO2 respectively. The monthly average variation (1996-2001) of SO2 in the Lima Center station has a small annual range (32,4 mikrograms/m3) with maximum values in autumn (April) and minimum in winter (June). The NO2 presents a higher annual range (128,2 mikrograms/m3) and its minimum values occur in the summer and the maximum in spring. The annual averages analysis (2000-2002) of the air quality monitoring network of Lima shows that the SO2 and NO2 values are maximum in the Lima Center station and exceed the Peruvian air quality standard (ECAs) in 30% and 75% respectively. The yearly variation (1996-2001) in the Lima Center station show an increasing tendency in the SO2 (significant) and NO2 (not significant) values, which indicates the critical level of the air quality in Lima, therefore the implementation of the air pollution control programs is urgent.
Pool, René; Heringa, Jaap; Hoefling, Martin; Schulz, Roland; Smith, Jeremy C; Feenstra, K Anton
2012-05-05
We report on a python interface to the GROMACS molecular simulation package, GromPy (available at https://github.com/GromPy). This application programming interface (API) uses the ctypes python module that allows function calls to shared libraries, for example, written in C. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported interface to the GROMACS library that uses direct library calls. GromPy can be used for extending the current GROMACS simulation and analysis modes. In this work, we demonstrate that the interface enables hybrid Monte-Carlo/molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in the grand-canonical ensemble, a simulation mode that is currently not implemented in GROMACS. For this application, the interplay between GromPy and GROMACS requires only minor modifications of the GROMACS source code, not affecting the operation, efficiency, and performance of the GROMACS applications. We validate the grand-canonical application against MD in the canonical ensemble by comparison of equations of state. The results of the grand-canonical simulations are in complete agreement with MD in the canonical ensemble. The python overhead of the grand-canonical scheme is only minimal. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
BOOK REVIEW: Modern Canonical Quantum General Relativity
Kiefer, Claus
2008-06-01
The open problem of constructing a consistent and experimentally tested quantum theory of the gravitational field has its place at the heart of fundamental physics. The main approaches can be roughly divided into two classes: either one seeks a unified quantum framework of all interactions or one starts with a direct quantization of general relativity. In the first class, string theory (M-theory) is the only known example. In the second class, one can make an additional methodological distinction: while covariant approaches such as path-integral quantization use the four-dimensional metric as an essential ingredient of their formalism, canonical approaches start with a foliation of spacetime into spacelike hypersurfaces in order to arrive at a Hamiltonian formulation. The present book is devoted to one of the canonical approaches—loop quantum gravity. It is named modern canonical quantum general relativity by the author because it uses connections and holonomies as central variables, which are analogous to the variables used in Yang Mills theories. In fact, the canonically conjugate variables are a holonomy of a connection and the flux of a non-Abelian electric field. This has to be contrasted with the older geometrodynamical approach in which the metric of three-dimensional space and the second fundamental form are the fundamental entities, an approach which is still actively being pursued. It is the author's ambition to present loop quantum gravity in a way in which every step is formulated in a mathematically rigorous form. In his own words: 'loop quantum gravity is an attempt to construct a mathematically rigorous, background-independent, non-perturbative quantum field theory of Lorentzian general relativity and all known matter in four spacetime dimensions, not more and not less'. The formal Leitmotiv of loop quantum gravity is background independence. Non-gravitational theories are usually quantized on a given non-dynamical background. In contrast, due to
Variation in charges for 10 common blood tests in California hospitals: a cross-sectional analysis
Hsia, Renee Y; Akosa Antwi, Yaa; Nath, Julia P
2014-01-01
Objectives To determine the variation in charges for 10 common blood tests across California hospitals in 2011, and to analyse the hospital and market-level factors that may explain any observed variation. Design, setting and participants We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the degree of charge variation between hospitals for 10 common blood tests using charge data reported by all non-federal California hospitals to the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in 2011. Outcome measures Charges for 10 common blood tests at California hospitals during 2011. Results We found that charges for blood tests varied significantly between California hospitals. For example, charges for a lipid panel ranged from US$10 to US$10 169, a thousand-fold difference. Although government hospitals and teaching hospitals were found to charge significantly less than their counterparts for many blood tests, few other hospital characteristics and no market-level predictors significantly predicted charges for blood tests. Our models explained, at most, 21% of the variation between hospitals in charges for the blood test in question. Conclusions These findings demonstrate the seemingly arbitrary nature of the charge setting process, making it difficult for patients to act as true consumers in this era of ‘consumer-directed healthcare.’ PMID:25127708
Canonical quantization of gravity and a problem of scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rubakov, V.A.
1980-01-01
Linearized theory of gravity is quantized both in a naive way and as a proper limit of the Dirac-Wheeler-De Witt approach to the quantization of the full theory. The equivalence between the two approaches is established. The problem of scattering in the canonically quantized theory of gravitation is investigated. The concept of the background metric naturally appears in the canonical formalism for this case. The equivalence between canonical and path-integral approaches is established for the problem of scattering. Some kinetical properties of functionals in Wheeler superspace are studied in an appendix. (author)
Linear discriminant analysis of structure within African eggplant 'Shum'
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A MANOVA preceded linear discriminant analysis, to model each of 61 variables, as predicted by clusters and experiment to filter out non-significant traits. Four distinct clusters emerged, with a cophenetic relation coefficient of 0.87 (P<0.01). Canonical variates that best predicted the observed clusters include petiole length, ...
Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas
2013-04-02
Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored.
Michel, V.
2005-12-01
A spherical wavelet analysis of monthly GRACE gravity data is presented. We observe strong correlations to gravity variations predicted by some common hydrology models, in particular in the Amazon, Zambezi and Ganges area. A time series analysis of the predicted gravity due to surface density changes in comparison to spherical wavelet coefficients of the GRACE potential demonstrates the advantages of spherical wavelets. Whereas a spherical harmonics expansion always implicitly includes a global averaging process, wavelets represent localizing basis functions that are much better able to analyze regional variations of a considered data set. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the spherical wavelet approach due to W. Freeden and U. Windheuser can be extended to a larger set of problems including the modelling of functions on balls, i.e. not only on the spherical surface. Examples of applications, such as the volume density recovery from simulated SGG gravity data (cf. planned satellite mission GOCE) are demonstrated. References: M.J. Fengler, W. Freeden, A. Kohlhaas, V. Michel, T. Peters: Wavelet Modelling of Regional and Temporal Variations of the Earth's Gravitational Potential Observed by GRACE, Schriften zur Funktionalanalysis und Geomathematik, 21 (2005), preprint, article submitted to Journal of Geodesy, 2005. V. Michel: Regularized Wavelet--based Multiresolution Recovery of the Harmonic Mass Density Distribution from Data of the Earth's Gravitational Field at Satellite Height, Inverse Problems, 21 (2005), 997-1025.
[Genetic variation analysis of canine parvovirus VP2 gene in China].
Yi, Li; Cheng, Shi-Peng; Yan, Xi-Jun; Wang, Jian-Ke; Luo, Bin
2009-11-01
To recognize the molecular biology character, phylogenetic relationship and the state quo prevalent of Canine parvovirus (CPV), Faecal samnples from pet dogs with acute enteritis in the cities of Beijing, Wuhan, and Nanjing were collected and tested for CPV by PCR and other assay between 2006 and 2008. There was no CPV to FPV (MEV) variation by PCR-RFLP analysis in all samples. The complete ORFs of VP2 genes were obtained by PCR from 15 clinical CPVs and 2 CPV vaccine strains. All amplicons were cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the VP2 sequences showed that clinical CPVs both belong to CPV-2a subtype, and could be classified into a new cluster by amino acids contrasting which contains Tyr-->Ile (324) mutation. Besides the 2 CPV vaccine strains belong to CPV-2 subtype, and both of them have scattered variation in amino acids residues of VP2 protein. Construction of the phylogenetic tree based on CPV VP2 sequence showed these 15 CPV clinical strains were in close relationship with Korea strain K001 than CPV-2a isolates in other countries at early time, It is indicated that the canine parvovirus genetic variation was associated with location and time in some degree. The survey of CPV capsid protein VP2 gene provided the useful information for the identification of CPV types and understanding of their genetic relationship.
Systematic documentation and analysis of human genetic variation using the microattribution approach
Giardine, Belinda; Borg, Joseph; Higgs, Douglas R.; Peterson, Kenneth R.; Maglott, Donna; Basak, A. Nazli; Clark, Barnaby; Faustino, Paula; Felice, Alex E.; Francina, Alain; Gallivan, Monica V. E.; Georgitsi, Marianthi; Gibbons, Richard J.; Giordano, Piero C.; Harteveld, Cornelis L.; Joly, Philippe; Kanavakis, Emmanuel; Kollia, Panagoula; Menzel, Stephan; Miller, Webb; Moradkhani, Kamran; Old, John; Papachatzopoulou, Adamantia; Papadakis, Manoussos N.; Papadopoulos, Petros; Pavlovic, Sonja; Philipsen, Sjaak; Radmilovic, Milena; Riemer, Cathy; Schrijver, Iris; Stojiljkovic, Maja; Thein, Swee Lay; Traeger-Synodinos, Jan; Tully, Ray; Wada, Takahito; Waye, John; Wiemann, Claudia; Zukic, Branka; Chui, David H. K.; Wajcman, Henri; Hardison, Ross C.; Patrinos, George P.
2013-01-01
We developed a series of interrelated locus-specific databases to store all published and unpublished genetic variation related to these disorders, and then implemented microattribution to encourage submission of unpublished observations of genetic variation to these public repositories 1. A total of 1,941 unique genetic variants in 37 genes, encoding globins (HBA2, HBA1, HBG2, HBG1, HBD, HBB) and other erythroid proteins (ALOX5AP, AQP9, ARG2, ASS1, ATRX, BCL11A, CNTNAP2, CSNK2A1, EPAS1, ERCC2, FLT1, GATA1, GPM6B, HAO2, HBS1L, KDR, KL, KLF1, MAP2K1, MAP3K5, MAP3K7, MYB, NOS1, NOS2, NOS3, NOX3, NUP133, PDE7B, SMAD3, SMAD6, and TOX) are currently documented in these databases with reciprocal attribution of microcitations to data contributors. Our project provides the first example of implementing microattribution to incentivise submission of all known genetic variation in a defined system. It has demonstrably increased the reporting of human variants and now provides a comprehensive online resource for systematically describing human genetic variation in the globin genes and other genes contributing to hemoglobinopathies and thalassemias. The large repository of previously reported data, together with more recent data, acquired by microattribution, demonstrates how the comprehensive documentation of human variation will provide key insights into normal biological processes and how these are perturbed in human genetic disease. Using the microattribution process set out here, datasets which took decades to accumulate for the globin genes could be assembled rapidly for other genes and disease systems. The principles established here for the globin gene system will serve as a model for other systems and the analysis of other common and/or complex human genetic diseases. PMID:21423179
Streamlined mean field variational Bayes for longitudinal and multilevel data analysis.
Lee, Cathy Yuen Yi; Wand, Matt P
2016-07-01
Streamlined mean field variational Bayes algorithms for efficient fitting and inference in large models for longitudinal and multilevel data analysis are obtained. The number of operations is linear in the number of groups at each level, which represents a two orders of magnitude improvement over the naïve approach. Storage requirements are also lessened considerably. We treat models for the Gaussian and binary response situations. Our algorithms allow the fastest ever approximate Bayesian analyses of arbitrarily large longitudinal and multilevel datasets, with little degradation in accuracy compared with Markov chain Monte Carlo. The modularity of mean field variational Bayes allows relatively simple extension to more complicated scenarios. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
From Classical to Quantum: New Canonical Tools for the Dynamics of Gravity
Höhn, P. A.
2012-05-01
In a gravitational context, canonical methods offer an intuitive picture of the dynamics and simplify an identification of the degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, extracting dynamical information from background independent approaches to quantum gravity is a highly non-trivial challenge. In this thesis, the conundrum of (quantum) gravitational dynamics is approached from two different directions by means of new canonical tools. This thesis is accordingly divided into two parts: In the first part, a general canonical formalism for discrete systems featuring a variational action principle is developed which is equivalent to the covariant formulation following directly from the action. This formalism can handle evolving phase spaces and is thus appropriate for describing evolving lattices. Attention will be devoted to a characterization of the constraints, symmetries and degrees of freedom appearing in such discrete systems which, in the case of evolving phase spaces, is time step dependent. The advantage of this formalism is that it does not depend on the particular discretization and, hence, is suitable for coarse graining procedures. This formalism is applicable to discrete mechanics, lattice field theories and discrete gravity models---underlying some approaches to quantum gravity---and, furthermore, may prove useful for numerical imple mentations. For concreteness, these new tools are employed to formulate Regge Calculus canonically as a theory of the dynamics of discrete hypersurfaces in discrete spacetimes, thereby removing a longstanding obstacle to connecting covariant simplicial gravity models with canonical frameworks. This result is interesting in view of several background independent approaches to quantum gravity. In addition, perturbative expansions around symmetric background solutions of Regge Calculus are studied up to second order. Background gauge modes generically become propagating at second order as a consequence of a symmetry breaking. In the
A Nationwide Analysis of Cost Variation for Autologous Free Flap Breast Reconstruction.
Billig, Jessica I; Lu, Yiwen; Momoh, Adeyiza O; Chung, Kevin C
2017-11-01
Cost variation among hospitals has been demonstrated for surgical procedures. Uncovering these differences has helped guide measures taken to reduce health care spending. To date, the fiscal consequence of hospital variation for autologous free flap breast reconstruction is unknown. To investigate factors that influence cost variation for autologous free flap breast reconstruction. A secondary cross-sectional analysis was performed using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project National Inpatient Sample database from 2008 to 2010. The dates of analysis were September 2016 to February 2017. The setting was a stratified sample of all US community hospitals. Participants were female patients who were diagnosed as having breast cancer or were at high risk for breast cancer and underwent autologous free flap breast reconstruction. Variables of interest included demographic data, hospital characteristics, length of stay, complications (surgical and systemic), and inpatient cost. The study used univariate and generalized linear mixed models to examine associations between patient and hospital characteristics and cost. A total of 3302 patients were included in the study, with a median age of 50 years (interquartile range, 44-57 years). The mean cost for autologous free flap breast reconstruction was $22 677 (interquartile range, $14 907-$33 391). Flap reconstructions performed at high-volume hospitals were significantly more costly than those performed at low-volume hospitals ($24 360 vs $18 918, P cost (Exp[β], 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11; P = .003). Fewer surgical complications (16.4% [169 of 1029] vs 23.7% [278 of 1174], P cost variation among patients undergoing autologous free flap breast reconstruction. Experience, as measured by a hospital's volume, provides quality health care with fewer complications but is more costly. Longer length of stay contributed to regional cost variation and may be a target for decreasing expenditure, without
White, Helen E; Saibil, Helen R; Ignatiou, Athanasios; Orlova, Elena V
2004-02-13
Macromolecules may occupy conformations with structural differences that cannot be resolved biochemically. The separation of mixed molecular populations is a pressing problem in single-particle analysis. Until recently, the task of distinguishing small structural variations was intractable, but developments in cryo-electron microscopy hardware and software now make it possible to address this problem. We have developed a general strategy for recognizing and separating structures of variable size from cryo-electron micrographs of single particles. The method uses a combination of statistical analysis and projection matching to multiple models. Identification of size variations by multivariate statistical analysis was used to do an initial separation of the data and generate starting models by angular reconstitution. Refinement was performed using alternate projection matching to models and angular reconstitution of the separated subsets. The approach has been successful at intermediate resolution, taking it within range of resolving secondary structure elements of proteins. Analysis of simulated and real data sets is used to illustrate the problems encountered and possible solutions. The strategy developed was used to resolve the structures of two forms of a small heat shock protein (Hsp26) that vary slightly in diameter and subunit packing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hemant Pathak
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Groundwater is one of the major resources of the drinking water in Sagar city (India.. In this study 15 sampling station were selected for the investigations on 14 chemical parameters. The work was carried out during different months of the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in June 2009 to June 2010. The multivariate statistics such as principal component and cluster analysis were applied to the datasets to investigate seasonal variations in groundwater quality. Principal axis factoring has been used to observe the mode of association of parameters and their interrelationships, for evaluating water quality. Average value of BOD, COD, ammonia and iron was high during entire study period. Elevated values of BOD and ammonia in monsoon, slightly more value of BOD in post-monsoon, BOD, ammonia and iron in pre-monsoon period reflected contribution on temporal effect on groundwater. Results of principal component analysis evinced that all the parameters equally and significantly contribute to groundwater quality variations. Factor 1 and factor 2 analysis revealed the DO value deteriorate due to organic load (BOD/Ammonia in different seasons. Hierarchical cluster analysis grouped 15 stations into four clusters in monsoon, five clusters in post-monsoon and five clusters in pre-monsoon with similar water quality features. Clustered group at monsoon, post-monsoon and pre-monsoon consisted one station exhibiting significant spatial variation in physicochemical composition. The anthropogenic nitrogenous species, as fallout from modernization activities. The study indicated that the groundwater sufficiently well oxygenated and nutrient-rich in study places.
Canonical and Non-Canonical Autophagy in HIV-1 Replication Cycle.
Leymarie, Olivier; Lepont, Leslie; Berlioz-Torrent, Clarisse
2017-09-23
Autophagy is a lysosomal-dependent degradative process essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis, and is a key player in innate and adaptive immune responses to intracellular pathogens such as human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). In HIV-1 target cells, autophagy mechanisms can (i) selectively direct viral proteins and viruses for degradation; (ii) participate in the processing and presentation of viral-derived antigens through major histocompatibility complexes; and (iii) contribute to interferon production in response to HIV-1 infection. As a consequence, HIV-1 has evolved different strategies to finely regulate the autophagy pathway to favor its replication and dissemination. HIV-1 notably encodes accessory genes encoding Tat, Nef and Vpu proteins, which are able to perturb and hijack canonical and non-canonical autophagy mechanisms. This review outlines the current knowledge on the complex interplay between autophagy and HIV-1 replication cycle, providing an overview of the autophagy-mediated molecular processes deployed both by infected cells to combat the virus and by HIV-1 to evade antiviral response.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A. III; Arias, Tomas A.
2017-01-01
First-principles calculations combining density-functional theory and continuum solvation models enable realistic theoretical modeling and design of electrochemical systems. When a reaction proceeds in such systems, the number of electrons in the portion of the system treated quantum mechanically changes continuously, with a balancing charge appearing in the continuum electrolyte. A grand-canonical ensemble of electrons at a chemical potential set by the electrode potential is therefore the ideal description of such systems that directly mimics the experimental condition. We present two distinct algorithms: a self-consistent field method and a direct variational free energy minimization method using auxiliary Hamiltonians (GC-AuxH), to solve the Kohn-Sham equations of electronic density-functional theory directly in the grand canonical ensemble at fixed potential. Both methods substantially improve performance compared to a sequence of conventional fixed-number calculations targeting the desired potential, with the GC-AuxH method additionally exhibiting reliable and smooth exponential convergence of the grand free energy. Lastly, we apply grand-canonical density-functional theory to the under-potential deposition of copper on platinum from chloride-containing electrolytes and show that chloride desorption, not partial copper monolayer formation, is responsible for the second voltammetric peak.
Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A.; Arias, Tomas A.
2017-03-01
First-principles calculations combining density-functional theory and continuum solvation models enable realistic theoretical modeling and design of electrochemical systems. When a reaction proceeds in such systems, the number of electrons in the portion of the system treated quantum mechanically changes continuously, with a balancing charge appearing in the continuum electrolyte. A grand-canonical ensemble of electrons at a chemical potential set by the electrode potential is therefore the ideal description of such systems that directly mimics the experimental condition. We present two distinct algorithms: a self-consistent field method and a direct variational free energy minimization method using auxiliary Hamiltonians (GC-AuxH), to solve the Kohn-Sham equations of electronic density-functional theory directly in the grand canonical ensemble at fixed potential. Both methods substantially improve performance compared to a sequence of conventional fixed-number calculations targeting the desired potential, with the GC-AuxH method additionally exhibiting reliable and smooth exponential convergence of the grand free energy. Finally, we apply grand-canonical density-functional theory to the under-potential deposition of copper on platinum from chloride-containing electrolytes and show that chloride desorption, not partial copper monolayer formation, is responsible for the second voltammetric peak.
Sundararaman, Ravishankar; Goddard, William A; Arias, Tomas A
2017-03-21
First-principles calculations combining density-functional theory and continuum solvation models enable realistic theoretical modeling and design of electrochemical systems. When a reaction proceeds in such systems, the number of electrons in the portion of the system treated quantum mechanically changes continuously, with a balancing charge appearing in the continuum electrolyte. A grand-canonical ensemble of electrons at a chemical potential set by the electrode potential is therefore the ideal description of such systems that directly mimics the experimental condition. We present two distinct algorithms: a self-consistent field method and a direct variational free energy minimization method using auxiliary Hamiltonians (GC-AuxH), to solve the Kohn-Sham equations of electronic density-functional theory directly in the grand canonical ensemble at fixed potential. Both methods substantially improve performance compared to a sequence of conventional fixed-number calculations targeting the desired potential, with the GC-AuxH method additionally exhibiting reliable and smooth exponential convergence of the grand free energy. Finally, we apply grand-canonical density-functional theory to the under-potential deposition of copper on platinum from chloride-containing electrolytes and show that chloride desorption, not partial copper monolayer formation, is responsible for the second voltammetric peak.
Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R.; Guo, Shanchun; Watters, Amber; Zhou, Weiqiang; Leibovich, Samuel J.
2010-01-01
High levels of VEGF and leptin are strongly linked to worse prognosis of breast cancer. Leptin signalling up-regulates VEGF in human and mouse mammary tumor cells (MT), but the specific molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. Pharmacologic and genetic approaches were used to dissect the mechanism of leptin regulation of VEGF protein and mRNA in MT (4T1, EMT6 and MMT). A series of VEGF-promoter Luc-reporters (full-length and transcription factor-binding deletions) were transfected into MT to analyze leptin regulation of VEGF transcription. Deletion analysis of VEGF promoter and RNA knockdown shows that HIF-1α and NFκB are essentials for leptin regulation of VEGF. Leptin activation of HIF-1α was mainly linked to canonic (MAPK, PI-3K) and non-canonic (PKC, JNK and p38 MAP) signalling pathways. Leptin non-canonic signalling pathways (JNK, p38 MAP and to less extent PKC) were linked to NFκB activation. SP1 was involved in leptin regulation of VEGF in 4T1 cells. AP1 was not involved and AP2 repressed leptin-induced increase of VEGF. Overall, these data suggest that leptin signalling regulates VEGF mainly through HIF-1α and NFκB. These results delineate a comprehensive mechanism for leptin regulation of VEGF in MT. Disruption of leptin signalling could be used as a novel way to treat breast cancer. PMID:20466060
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Paulo Fernando Trugilho
2003-01-01
Full Text Available The analysis of canonical correlation measures the existence and the intensity of the association between two groups of variables. The research objectified to evaluate thecanonical correlation between chemical and physical characteristics and fiber dimensional ofwood of Eucalyptus grandis and Eucalyptus saligna clones, verifying the interdependenceamong the groups of studied variables. The analysis indicated that the canonical correlationswere high and that in two cases the first and second pair were significant at the level of 1% ofprobability. The analysis of canonical correlation showed that the groups are notindependent. The intergroup associations indicated that the wood of high insoluble lignin contentand low ash content is associated with the high radial and tangential contraction and highbasic density wood.
Deviations from Wick's theorem in the canonical ensemble
Schönhammer, K.
2017-07-01
Wick's theorem for the expectation values of products of field operators for a system of noninteracting fermions or bosons plays an important role in the perturbative approach to the quantum many-body problem. A finite-temperature version holds in the framework of the grand canonical ensemble, but not for the canonical ensemble appropriate for systems with fixed particle number such as ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices. Here we present formulas for expectation values of products of field operators in the canonical ensemble using a method in the spirit of Gaudin's proof of Wick's theorem for the grand canonical case. The deviations from Wick's theorem are examined quantitatively for two simple models of noninteracting fermions.
An efficient algorithm for calculation of the Luenberger canonical form.
Jordan, D.; Sridhar, B.
1973-01-01
A new algorithm is presented to obtain the Luenberger canonical form for multivariable systems. A distinct feature of the method is that the canonical form is obtained directly and, if necessary, the similarity transformation can be computed. There is a substantial reduction in the amount of computation compared to Luenberger's method. The reduced computations along with Gaussian techniques lend greater inherent accuracy and the ability to refine the solution with additional computations. An example is presented to illustrate the technique.
Canonical forms of tensor representations and spontaneous symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cummins, C.J.
1986-01-01
An algorithm for constructing canonical forms for any tensor representation of the classical compact Lie groups is given. This method is used to find a complete list of the symmetry breaking patterns produced by Higgs fields in the third-rank antisymmetric representations of U(n), SU(n) and SO(n) for n<=7. A simple canonical form is also given for kth-rank symmetric tensor representations. (author)
Canonical transformations method in the potential scattering problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pavlenko, Yu.G.
1984-01-01
Canonical formalism of the first order is used in the present paper to solve the problem of scattering and other problems of quantum mechanics. The theory of canonical transformations (CT) being the basis of hamiltonian approach permits to develop several methods of integration being beyond the scope of the standard theory of perturbations. In this case it is essential for numerical counting that the theory permits to obtain algorithm for plotting highest approximations
Canonical algorithms for numerical integration of charged particle motion equations
Efimov, I. N.; Morozov, E. A.; Morozova, A. R.
2017-02-01
A technique for numerically integrating the equation of charged particle motion in a magnetic field is considered. It is based on the canonical transformations of the phase space in Hamiltonian mechanics. The canonical transformations make the integration process stable against counting error accumulation. The integration algorithms contain a minimum possible amount of arithmetics and can be used to design accelerators and devices of electron and ion optics.
An optimization approach for fitting canonical tensor decompositions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson
2009-02-01
Tensor decompositions are higher-order analogues of matrix decompositions and have proven to be powerful tools for data analysis. In particular, we are interested in the canonical tensor decomposition, otherwise known as the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC decomposition (CPD), which expresses a tensor as the sum of component rank-one tensors and is used in a multitude of applications such as chemometrics, signal processing, neuroscience, and web analysis. The task of computing the CPD, however, can be difficult. The typical approach is based on alternating least squares (ALS) optimization, which can be remarkably fast but is not very accurate. Previously, nonlinear least squares (NLS) methods have also been recommended; existing NLS methods are accurate but slow. In this paper, we propose the use of gradient-based optimization methods. We discuss the mathematical calculation of the derivatives and further show that they can be computed efficiently, at the same cost as one iteration of ALS. Computational experiments demonstrate that the gradient-based optimization methods are much more accurate than ALS and orders of magnitude faster than NLS.
The constrained space orbital variation analysis for periodic ab initio calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz Hernandez, N.; Zicovich-Wilson, Claudio Marcelo; Fdez Sanz, Javier
2006-01-01
The constrained space orbital variation (CSOV) method for the analysis of the interaction energy has been implemented in the periodic ab initio CRYSTAL03 code. The method allows for the partition of the energy of two interacting chemical entities, represented in turn by periodic models, into contributions which account for electrostatic effects, mutual polarization and charge transfer. The implementation permits one to carry out the analysis both at the Hartree-Fock and density functional theory levels, where in the latter the most popular exchange-correlation functionals can be used. As an illustrating example, the analysis of the interaction between CO and the MgO (001) surface has been considered. As expected by the almost fully ionic character of the support, our periodic CSOV results, in general agree with those previously obtained using the embedded cluster approach, showing the reliability of the present implementation
Nader, Christelle Abou; Loutfi, Hadi; Pellen, Fabrice; Jeune, Bernard Le; Le Brun, Guy; Lteif, Roger; Abboud, Marie
2017-10-13
In this paper, we report measurements of wine viscosity, correlated to polarized laser speckle results. Experiments were performed on white wine samples produced with a single grape variety. Effects of the wine making cellar, the grape variety, and the vintage on wine Brix degree, alcohol content, viscosity, and speckle parameters are considered. We show that speckle parameters, namely, spatial contrast and speckle decorrelation time, as well as the inertia moment extracted from the temporal history speckle pattern, are mainly affected by the alcohol and sugar content and hence the wine viscosity. Principal component analysis revealed a high correlation between laser speckle results on the one hand and viscosity and Brix degree values on the other. As speckle analysis proved to be an efficient method of measuring the variation of the viscosity of white mono-variety wine, one can therefore consider it as an alternative method to wine sensory analysis.
Canonical three-body angular basis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matveenko, A.V.
2001-01-01
Three-body problems are basic for the quantum mechanics of molecular, atomic, or nuclear systems. We demonstrate that their variational solution for rotational states can be greatly simplified. A special choice of coordinates (hyperspherical) and of the kinematics (body-fixed coordinate frame) allows one to choose basis functions in a form that makes the angular coupling trivial. (author)
Spain, S L; Pedroso, I; Kadeva, N; Miller, M B; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Stergiakouli, E; Smith, G D; Putallaz, M; Lubinski, D; Meaburn, E L; Plomin, R; Simpson, M A
2016-01-01
Although individual differences in intelligence (general cognitive ability) are highly heritable, molecular genetic analyses to date have had limited success in identifying specific loci responsible for its heritability. This study is the first to investigate exome variation in individuals of extremely high intelligence. Under the quantitative genetic model, sampling from the high extreme of the distribution should provide increased power to detect associations. We therefore performed a case–control association analysis with 1409 individuals drawn from the top 0.0003 (IQ >170) of the population distribution of intelligence and 3253 unselected population-based controls. Our analysis focused on putative functional exonic variants assayed on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We did not observe any individual protein-altering variants that are reproducibly associated with extremely high intelligence and within the entire distribution of intelligence. Moreover, no significant associations were found for multiple rare alleles within individual genes. However, analyses using genome-wide similarity between unrelated individuals (genome-wide complex trait analysis) indicate that the genotyped functional protein-altering variation yields a heritability estimate of 17.4% (s.e. 1.7%) based on a liability model. In addition, investigation of nominally significant associations revealed fewer rare alleles associated with extremely high intelligence than would be expected under the null hypothesis. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that rare functional alleles are more frequently detrimental than beneficial to intelligence. PMID:26239293
Analysis of Long-Term Temperature Variations in the Human Body.
Dakappa, Pradeepa Hoskeri; Mahabala, Chakrapani
2015-01-01
Body temperature is a continuous physiological variable. In normal healthy adults, oral temperature is estimated to vary between 36.1°C and 37.2°C. Fever is a complex host response to many external and internal agents and is a potential contributor to many clinical conditions. Despite being one of the foremost vital signs, temperature and its analysis and variations during many pathological conditions has yet to be examined in detail using mathematical techniques. Classical fever patterns based on recordings obtained every 8-12 h have been developed. However, such patterns do not provide meaningful information in diagnosing diseases. Because fever is a host response, it is likely that there could be a unique response to specific etiologies. Continuous long-term temperature monitoring and pattern analysis using specific analytical methods developed in engineering and physics could aid in revealing unique fever responses of hosts and in different clinical conditions. Furthermore, such analysis can potentially be used as a novel diagnostic tool and to study the effect of pharmaceutical agents and other therapeutic protocols. Thus, the goal of our article is to present a comprehensive review of the recent relevant literature and analyze the current state of research regarding temperature variations in the human body.
Spain, S L; Pedroso, I; Kadeva, N; Miller, M B; Iacono, W G; McGue, M; Stergiakouli, E; Davey Smith, G; Putallaz, M; Lubinski, D; Meaburn, E L; Plomin, R; Simpson, M A
2016-08-01
Although individual differences in intelligence (general cognitive ability) are highly heritable, molecular genetic analyses to date have had limited success in identifying specific loci responsible for its heritability. This study is the first to investigate exome variation in individuals of extremely high intelligence. Under the quantitative genetic model, sampling from the high extreme of the distribution should provide increased power to detect associations. We therefore performed a case-control association analysis with 1409 individuals drawn from the top 0.0003 (IQ >170) of the population distribution of intelligence and 3253 unselected population-based controls. Our analysis focused on putative functional exonic variants assayed on the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip. We did not observe any individual protein-altering variants that are reproducibly associated with extremely high intelligence and within the entire distribution of intelligence. Moreover, no significant associations were found for multiple rare alleles within individual genes. However, analyses using genome-wide similarity between unrelated individuals (genome-wide complex trait analysis) indicate that the genotyped functional protein-altering variation yields a heritability estimate of 17.4% (s.e. 1.7%) based on a liability model. In addition, investigation of nominally significant associations revealed fewer rare alleles associated with extremely high intelligence than would be expected under the null hypothesis. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that rare functional alleles are more frequently detrimental than beneficial to intelligence.
Explaining cross-national variations in tax morality in the European Union: an exploratory analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Colin C. Williams
2014-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to conduct an exploratory analysis of factors that might explain the cross-national variations in the level tax morality across the European Union. In order to do this, three competing explanations for the cross-national variations in tax morality will be evaluated which variously view lower levels of tax morality to be a result of either: under-development (a modernisation explanation; high taxes, state corruption and too much state interference (a neo-liberal explanation, or too little state redistribution and intervention to protect citizens (a structuralist explanation. Evaluating the cross-national variations in tax morality reported in a 2007 Eurobarometer survey using multilevel econometric techniques, the finding is that the tax morality of a baseline European citizen is higher in more developed and less corrupt nations and in countries with higher levels of taxation, social protection and redistribution. The outcome is a call for a synthesis of the three explanations in the form of a new neo-modernisation explanation which, contrary to neo-liberal discourse, argues that developed nations with higher levels of taxation, greater levels of social protection and higher levels of redistribution have higher levels of tax morality. The tentative policy implications are then discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gratreau, P.
1987-01-01
The motion of charged particles in a magnetized plasma column, such as that of a magnetic mirror trap or a tokamak, is determined in the framework of the canonical perturbation theory through a method of variation of constants which preserves the energy conservation and the symmetry invariance. The choice of a frame of coordinates close to that of the magnetic coordinates allows a relatively precise determination of the guiding-center motion with a low-ordered approximation in the adiabatic parameter. A Hamiltonian formulation of the motion equations is obtained
Genetic variation of space flight carried rice and mutant analysis by AFLP molecular marker
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pu Zhigang; Zhang Zhiyong; Xiang Yuewu; Zhang Zhixiong; Cai Pingzhong; Wen Chunmiao; Zheng Jiakui
2006-01-01
Rice seeds were carried by 'Shenzhou No.3' space shuttle, a mutant with golden chaff, stem and leaf was selected and named Golden 1 after the seeds returned to the earth. Except the golden color, other traits of Golden 1 are no obviously different with its original material H9808. Genetic analysis identified that color variation was control by a pair of recessive gene. The DNA fragments of the mutant were compared with its parent by AFLP molecular markers. Five specific bands were found through a serial selection. (authors)
Lebiedzik, Catherine
1995-01-01
Development of design tools to furnish optimal acoustic environments for lightweight aircraft demands the ability to simulate the acoustic system on a workstation. In order to form an effective mathematical model of the phenomena at hand, we have begun by studying the propagation of acoustic waves inside closed spherical shells. Using a fully-coupled fluid-structure interaction model based upon variational principles, we have written a finite element analysis program and are in the process of examining several test cases. Future investigations are planned to increase model accuracy by incorporating non-linear and viscous effects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fofanov Viacheslav Y
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Structural variations caused by a wide range of physico-chemical and biological sources directly influence the function of a protein. For enzymatic proteins, the structure and chemistry of the catalytic binding site residues can be loosely defined as a substructure of the protein. Comparative analysis of drug-receptor substructures across and within species has been used for lead evaluation. Substructure-level similarity between the binding sites of functionally similar proteins has also been used to identify instances of convergent evolution among proteins. In functionally homologous protein families, shared chemistry and geometry at catalytic sites provide a common, local point of comparison among proteins that may differ significantly at the sequence, fold, or domain topology levels. Results This paper describes two key results that can be used separately or in combination for protein function analysis. The Family-wise Analysis of SubStructural Templates (FASST method uses all-against-all substructure comparison to determine Substructural Clusters (SCs. SCs characterize the binding site substructural variation within a protein family. In this paper we focus on examples of automatically determined SCs that can be linked to phylogenetic distance between family members, segregation by conformation, and organization by homology among convergent protein lineages. The Motif Ensemble Statistical Hypothesis (MESH framework constructs a representative motif for each protein cluster among the SCs determined by FASST to build motif ensembles that are shown through a series of function prediction experiments to improve the function prediction power of existing motifs. Conclusions FASST contributes a critical feedback and assessment step to existing binding site substructure identification methods and can be used for the thorough investigation of structure-function relationships. The application of MESH allows for an automated
Proteomic analysis of day-night variations in protein levels in the rat pineal gland
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Morten; Sparre, Thomas; Bache, Nicolai
2007-01-01
. Of 1747 protein spots revealed by electrophoresis, densitometric analysis showed the up-regulation of 25 proteins during nighttime and of 35 proteins during daytime. Thirty-seven of the proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. The proteins up-regulated during the night are involved in the Krebs cycle......, energy transduction, calcium binding, and intracellular transport. During the daytime, enzymes involved in glycolysis, electron transport, and also the Krebs cycle were up-regulated as well as proteins taking part in RNA binding and RNA processing. Our data show a prominent day-night variation...
Interpretation of engine cycle-to-cycle variation by chaotic time series analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Daw, C.S.; Kahl, W.K.
1990-01-01
In this paper we summarize preliminary results from applying a new mathematical technique -- chaotic time series analysis (CTSA) -- to cylinder pressure data from a spark-ignition (SI) four-stroke engine fueled with both methanol and iso-octane. Our objective is to look for the presence of deterministic chaos'' dynamics in peak pressure variations and to investigate the potential usefulness of CTSA as a diagnostic tool. Our results suggest that sequential peak cylinder pressures exhibit some characteristic features of deterministic chaos and that CTSA can extract previously unrecognized information from such data. 18 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.
Analysis of the average daily radon variations in the soil air
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holy, K.; Matos, M.; Boehm, R.; Stanys, T.; Polaskova, A.; Hola, O.
1998-01-01
In this contribution the search of the relation between the daily variations of the radon concentration and the regular daily oscillations of the atmospheric pressure are presented. The deviation of the radon activity concentration in the soil air from the average daily value reaches only a few percent. For the dry summer months the average daily course of the radon activity concentration can be described by the obtained equation. The analysis of the average daily courses could give the information concerning the depth of the gas permeable soil layer. The soil parameter is determined by others method with difficulty
Suseela, Y V; Narayanaswamy, Nagarjun; Pratihar, Sumon; Govindaraju, Thimmaiah
2018-02-05
The structural diversity and functional relevance of nucleic acids (NAs), mainly deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), are indispensable for almost all living organisms, with minute aberrations in their structure and function becoming causative factors in numerous human diseases. The standard structures of NAs, termed canonical structures, are supported by Watson-Crick hydrogen bonding. Under special physiological conditions, NAs adopt distinct spatial organisations, giving rise to non-canonical conformations supported by hydrogen bonding other than the Watson-Crick type; such non-canonical structures have a definite function in controlling gene expression and are considered as novel diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Development of molecular probes for these canonical and non-canonical DNA/RNA structures has been an active field of research. Among the numerous probes studied, probes with turn-on fluorescence in the far-red (600-750 nm) region are highly sought-after due to minimal autofluorescence and cellular damage. Far-red fluorescent probes are vital for real-time imaging of NAs in live cells as they provide good resolution and minimal perturbation of the cell under investigation. In this review, we present recent advances in the area of far-red fluorescent probes of DNA/RNA and non-canonical G-quadruplex structures. For the sake of continuity and completeness, we provide a brief overview of visible fluorescent probes. Utmost importance is given to design criteria, characteristic properties and biological applications, including in cellulo imaging, apart from critical discussion on limitations of the far-red fluorescent probes. Finally, we offer current and future prospects in targeting canonical and non-canonical NAs specific to cellular organelles, through sequence- and conformation-specific far-red fluorescent probes. We also cover their implications in chemical and molecular biology, with particular focus on decoding various disease
Coherent states for canonical quantum general relativity and the infinite tensor product extension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sahlmann, H.; Thiemann, T.; Winkler, O.
2001-01-01
We summarize a recently proposed concrete programme for investigating the (semi)classical limit of canonical, Lorentzian, continuum quantum general relativity in four spacetime dimensions. The analysis is based on a novel set of coherent states labelled by graphs. These fit neatly together with an Infinite Tensor Product (ITP) extension of the currently used Hilbert space. The ITP construction enables us to give rigorous meaning to the infinite volume (thermodynamic) limit of the theory which has been out of reach so far
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Yunbo Chu
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Economic evaluation in the form of cost-effectiveness analysis has become a popular means to inform decisions in healthcare. With multi-regional clinical trials in a global development program becoming a new venue for drug efficacy testing in recent decades, questions in methods for cost-effectiveness analysis in the multi-regional clinical trials setting also emerge. This paper addresses some challenges from variation across regions in cost effectiveness analysis in multi-regional clinical trials. Several discussion points are raised for further attention and a multi-regional clinical trial example is presented to illustrate the implications in industrial application. A general message is delivered to call for a depth discussion by all stakeholders to reach an agreement on a good practice in cost-effectiveness analysis in the multi-regional clinical trials. Meanwhile, we recommend an additional consideration of cost-effectiveness analysis results based on the clinical evidence from a certain homogeneous population as sensitivity or scenario analysis upon data availability.
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Xian Zhang
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Niche adaptation has long been recognized to drive intra-species differentiation and speciation, yet knowledge about its relatedness with hereditary variation of microbial genomes is relatively limited. Using Leptospirillum ferriphilum species as a case study, we present a detailed analysis of genomic features of five recognized strains. Genome-to-genome distance calculation preliminarily determined the roles of spatial distance and environmental heterogeneity that potentially contribute to intra-species variation within L. ferriphilum species at the genome level. Mathematical models were further constructed to extrapolate the expansion of L. ferriphilum genomes (an ‘open’ pan-genome, indicating the emergence of novel genes with new sequenced genomes. The identification of diverse mobile genetic elements (MGEs (such as transposases, integrases, and phage-associated genes revealed the prevalence of horizontal gene transfer events, which is an important evolutionary mechanism that provides avenues for the recruitment of novel functionalities and further for the genetic divergence of microbial genomes. Comprehensive analysis also demonstrated that the genome reduction by gene loss in a broad sense might contribute to the observed diversification. We thus inferred a plausible explanation to address this observation: the community-dependent adaptation that potentially economizes the limiting resources of the entire community. Now that the introduction of new genes is accompanied by a parallel abandonment of some other ones, our results provide snapshots on the biological fitness cost of environmental adaptation within the L. ferriphilum genomes. In short, our genome-wide analyses bridge the relation between genetic variation of L. ferriphilum with its evolutionary adaptation.
Zhang, Yanliang; Xu, Qiuyue; Cai, Xuemei; Li, Yixun; Song, Guibo; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Rongchen; Dai, Yong; Duan, Yong
2015-12-01
To analyze genomic copy number variations (CNVs) in two sisters with primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism. G-banding was performed for karyotype analysis. The whole genome of the two sisters were scanned and analyzed by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH). The results were confirmed with real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). No abnormality was found by conventional G-banded chromosome analysis. Array-CGH has identified 11 identical CNVs from the sisters which, however, overlapped with CNVs reported by the Database of Genomic Variants (http://projects.tcag.ca/variation/). Therefore, they are likely to be benign. In addition, a -8.44 Mb 9p11.1-p13.1 duplication (38,561,587-47,002,387 bp, hg18) and a -80.9 kb 4q13.2 deletion (70,183,990-70,264,889 bp, hg18) were also detected in the elder and younger sister, respectively. The relationship between such CNVs and primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism was however uncertain. RT-qPCR results were in accordance with array-CGH. Two CNVs were detected in two sisters by array-CGH, for which further studies are needed to clarify their correlation with primary amenorrhea and hyperandrogenism.
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Thanwa Wongsuk
Full Text Available The Scedosporium apiospermum species complex is an emerging filamentous fungi that has been isolated from environment. It can cause a wide range of infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised individuals. We aimed to study the genetic variation and relationships between 48 strains of S. apiospermum sensu stricto isolated from soil in Bangkok, Thailand. For PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis, we used the following genes: actin; calmodulin exons 3 and 4; the second largest subunit of the RNA polymerase II; ß-tubulin exon 2-4; manganese superoxide dismutase; internal transcribed spacer; transcription elongation factor 1α; and beta-tubulin exons 5 and 6. The present study is the first phylogenetic analysis of relationships among S. apiospermum sensu stricto in Thailand and South-east Asia. This result provides useful information for future epidemiological study and may be correlated to clinical manifestation.
Canonical structure and extra mode of generalized unimodular gravity
Bufalo, Rodrigo; Oksanen, Markku
2018-02-01
We consider a recently proposed generalization of unimodular gravity, where the lapse function is constrained to be equal to a function of the determinant of the spatial metric f (h ), as a potential origin of a dark fluid with a generally h -dependent equation of state parameter. We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for the theory. All the special cases that do not match unimodular gravity involve the violation of general covariance, and consequently the physical content of the theory is changed significantly. Particularly, the case of a constant function f is shown to contain an extra physical degree of freedom in each point of space. Physical consequences of the extra degree of freedom are studied in a linearized theory, where the extra mode is carried by the trace of the metric perturbation. The trace mode does not propagate as a wave, since it satisfies an elliptic partial differential equation in spacetime. Consequently, the trace perturbation is shown to grow exponentially with time, which implies instability. The case of a general f (h ) involves additional second-class constraints, which implies the presence of an extra global degree of freedom that depends only on time (instead of the extra local degree of freedom in the case of a constant f ).
Grand canonical validation of the bipartite international trade network
Straka, Mika J.; Caldarelli, Guido; Saracco, Fabio
2017-08-01
Devising strategies for economic development in a globally competitive landscape requires a solid and unbiased understanding of countries' technological advancements and similarities among export products. Both can be addressed through the bipartite representation of the International Trade Network. In this paper, we apply the recently proposed grand canonical projection algorithm to uncover country and product communities. Contrary to past endeavors, our methodology, based on information theory, creates monopartite projections in an unbiased and analytically tractable way. Single links between countries or products represent statistically significant signals, which are not accounted for by null models such as the bipartite configuration model. We find stable country communities reflecting the socioeconomic distinction in developed, newly industrialized, and developing countries. Furthermore, we observe product clusters based on the aforementioned country groups. Our analysis reveals the existence of a complicated structure in the bipartite International Trade Network: apart from the diversification of export baskets from the most basic to the most exclusive products, we observe a statistically significant signal of an export specialization mechanism towards more sophisticated products.
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W. Castaings
2009-04-01
Full Text Available Variational methods are widely used for the analysis and control of computationally intensive spatially distributed systems. In particular, the adjoint state method enables a very efficient calculation of the derivatives of an objective function (response function to be analysed or cost function to be optimised with respect to model inputs.
In this contribution, it is shown that the potential of variational methods for distributed catchment scale hydrology should be considered. A distributed flash flood model, coupling kinematic wave overland flow and Green Ampt infiltration, is applied to a small catchment of the Thoré basin and used as a relatively simple (synthetic observations but didactic application case.
It is shown that forward and adjoint sensitivity analysis provide a local but extensive insight on the relation between the assigned model parameters and the simulated hydrological response. Spatially distributed parameter sensitivities can be obtained for a very modest calculation effort (~6 times the computing time of a single model run and the singular value decomposition (SVD of the Jacobian matrix provides an interesting perspective for the analysis of the rainfall-runoff relation.
For the estimation of model parameters, adjoint-based derivatives were found exceedingly efficient in driving a bound-constrained quasi-Newton algorithm. The reference parameter set is retrieved independently from the optimization initial condition when the very common dimension reduction strategy (i.e. scalar multipliers is adopted.
Furthermore, the sensitivity analysis results suggest that most of the variability in this high-dimensional parameter space can be captured with a few orthogonal directions. A parametrization based on the SVD leading singular vectors was found very promising but should be combined with another regularization strategy in order to prevent overfitting.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
WenJun Zhang
2017-09-01
Full Text Available In present study I used the data from CHM-DATA, the interactive database of 1127 Chinese herbal medicines. Canonical correlation functions were determined for taste attribute class (7 taste attributes, medicinal property class (5 medicinal properties, chemical composition class (22 chemical composition categories, meridians and colleterals class (12 meridians and colleterals, and medicinal function class (77 medicinal functions. Linear eignmodels were also developed for Chinese herbal medicines. Theoretically the attribute values of any Chinese herbal medicines meet the corresponding linear eignmodel. Matlab codes for canonical correlation analysis and linear eignmodel were given. Finally, the canonical correlation network for attribute classes of Chinese herbal medicines was constructed.
El canon fílmico a la luz de las teorías sistémicas: una propuesta metodológica
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Mario de la Torre Espinosa
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In Film Theory, the debate about the canon is stuck in the creation of lists by professionals or critics. In contrast to this, the Polysystem Theory proposes tools for developing alternative methodologies that lead us to a clear understanding of the canonization process. The analysis of the factors of the cultural system makes possible a precise and true approach to this phenomenon, where the mentioned lists are only additional elements present in this context, and the intersystemic interference becomes the most sophisticated sign of canonization.
Inverse Transient Analysis for Classification of Wall Thickness Variations in Pipelines
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Jeffrey Tuck
2013-12-01
Full Text Available Analysis of transient fluid pressure signals has been investigated as an alternative method of fault detection in pipeline systems and has shown promise in both laboratory and field trials. The advantage of the method is that it can potentially provide a fast and cost effective means of locating faults such as leaks, blockages and pipeline wall degradation within a pipeline while the system remains fully operational. The only requirement is that high speed pressure sensors are placed in contact with the fluid. Further development of the method requires detailed numerical models and enhanced understanding of transient flow within a pipeline where variations in pipeline condition and geometry occur. One such variation commonly encountered is the degradation or thinning of pipe walls, which can increase the susceptible of a pipeline to leak development. This paper aims to improve transient-based fault detection methods by investigating how changes in pipe wall thickness will affect the transient behaviour of a system; this is done through the analysis of laboratory experiments. The laboratory experiments are carried out on a stainless steel pipeline of constant outside diameter, into which a pipe section of variable wall thickness is inserted. In order to detect the location and severity of these changes in wall conditions within the laboratory system an inverse transient analysis procedure is employed which considers independent variations in wavespeed and diameter. Inverse transient analyses are carried out using a genetic algorithm optimisation routine to match the response from a one-dimensional method of characteristics transient model to the experimental time domain pressure responses. The accuracy of the detection technique is evaluated and benefits associated with various simplifying assumptions and simulation run times are investigated. It is found that for the case investigated, changes in the wavespeed and nominal diameter of the
Variational transition state theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Truhlar, D.G.
1986-01-01
This project is concerned with the development and applications of generalized transition state theory and multidimensional tunneling approximations to chemical reaction rates. They have developed and implemented several practical versions of variational transition state theory (VTST), namely canonical variational theory (CVT), improved canonical variational theory (ICVT), and microcanonical variational theory (μVT). They have also developed and implemented several accurate multidimensional semiclassical tunneling approximations, the most accurate of which are the small-curvature semiclassical adiabatic (SCSA), large-curvature version-3 (LC3), and least-action (LA) approximations. They have applied the methods to thermal rate constants, using transmission coefficients based on ground-state tunneling, and they have also presented and applied adiabatic and diabatic extensions to calculated rate constants for vibrationally excited reactants. Their general goal is to develop accurate methods for calculating chemical reaction rate constants that remain practical even for reasonably complicated molecules. The approximations mentioned above yield rate constants for systems whose potential energy surface is known or assumed. Thus a second, equally important aspect of their work is the determination or modeling, semi-empirically and/or from electronic structure calculations, of potential energy surfaces
Smith, Amanda L.; Benazzi, Stefano; Ledogar, Justin A.; Tamvada, Kelli; Smith, Leslie C. Pryor; Weber, Gerhard W.; Spencer, Mark A.; Dechow, Paul C.; Grosse, Ian R.; Ross, Callum F.; Richmond, Brian G.; Wright, Barth W.; Wang, Qian; Byron, Craig; Slice, Dennis E.; Strait, David S.
2014-01-01
In a broad range of evolutionary studies, an understanding of intraspecific variation is needed in order to contextualize and interpret the meaning of variation between species. However, mechanical analyses of primate crania using experimental or modeling methods typically encounter logistical constraints that force them to rely on data gathered from only one or a few individuals. This results in a lack of knowledge concerning the mechanical significance of intraspecific shape variation that limits our ability to infer the significance of interspecific differences. This study uses geometric morphometric methods (GM) and finite element analysis (FEA) to examine the biomechanical implications of shape variation in chimpanzee crania, thereby providing a comparative context in which to interpret shape-related mechanical variation between hominin species. Six finite element models (FEMs) of chimpanzee crania were constructed from CT scans following shape-space Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of a matrix of 709 Procrustes coordinates (digitized onto 21 specimens) to identify the individuals at the extremes of the first three principal components. The FEMs were assigned the material properties of bone and were loaded and constrained to simulate maximal bites on the P3 and M2. Resulting strains indicate that intraspecific cranial variation in morphology is associated with quantitatively high levels of variation in strain magnitudes, but qualitatively little variation in the distribution of strain concentrations. Thus, interspecific comparisons should include considerations of the spatial patterning of strains rather than focus only their magnitude. PMID:25529239
Spin glass transition in canonical AuFe alloys: A numerical study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Kai-Cheng; Li, Yong-Feng; Liu, Gui-Bin; Zhu, Yan
2012-01-01
Although spin glass transitions have long been observed in diluted magnetic alloys, e.g. AuFe and CuMn alloys, previous numerical studies are not completely consistent with the experiment results. The abnormal critical exponents of the alloys remain still puzzling. By employing parallel tempering algorithm with finite-size scaling analysis, we investigated the phase transitions in canonical AuFe alloys. Our results strongly support that spin glass transitions occur at finite temperatures in the alloys. The calculated critical exponents agree well with those obtained from experiments. -- Highlights: ► By simulation we investigated the abnormal critical exponents observed in canonical SG alloys. ► The critical exponents obtained from our simulations agree well with those measured from experiments. ► Our results strongly support that RKKY interactions lead to SG transitions at finite temperatures.
da Silva Fernandes, S.; das Chagas Carvalho, F.; Bateli Romão, J. V.
2018-04-01
A numerical-analytical procedure based on infinitesimal canonical transformations is developed for computing optimal time-fixed low-thrust limited power transfers (no rendezvous) between coplanar orbits with small eccentricities in an inverse-square force field. The optimization problem is formulated as a Mayer problem with a set of non-singular orbital elements as state variables. Second order terms in eccentricity are considered in the development of the maximum Hamiltonian describing the optimal trajectories. The two-point boundary value problem of going from an initial orbit to a final orbit is solved by means of a two-stage Newton-Raphson algorithm which uses an infinitesimal canonical transformation. Numerical results are presented for some transfers between circular orbits with moderate radius ratio, including a preliminary analysis of Earth-Mars and Earth-Venus missions.
CANONIC RELATIONS OF CONATIVE CHARACTERISTICS AND SUCCESS IN WATER POLO
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Dragan Toskić
2012-06-01
Full Text Available The aim of our research was to determine the connection between the conative characteristics and success in water polo. The sample of participants for this research can be defined as the population of water polo swimmers (N=60 aged 16 to 18 years, who were only included in the study under the condition that they had taken part in the water polo training process for a period of at least four years. In order to evaluate their conative regulatory mechanisms, we relied on six primary variables: the activity regulator (EPSILON, the organic function regulator (HI, the defense reaction regulator (ALFA, the attack reaction regulator (SIGMA, the system for the coordination of regulatory functions (DELTA, the system for the integration of regulatory functions (ETA, all of which were selected so that the structure of the analysis could be carried out on the basis of the cybernetic. For the evaluation of the criterion variables, we used two variables. The first variable represents the relationship between the number of times a participant played for his team and the number of achieved victories during these matches, and the second variable represents the evaluation of technical ability on the basis of the participants’ performance on certain tests related to water polo. The relations between conative characteristics and success in water polo were determined using a canonical correlation analysis. A correlation analysis was carried out and it indicated a very high correlation between conative characteristics and success in water polo. During the training and competitive process of water polo players, the training components were well balanced, which could mean that they were optimally focused on the development of the relevant motor skills, which correlate with conative characteristics and make up the basis for the training process of water polo players.
Fedi, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Johnston, M.; La Manna, M.
Many studies have shown a clear correlation between volcanic and/or seismic activ- ity and time variations of local geomagnetic fields, called seismomagnetic (SM) and /or volcanomagnetic (VM) effects. SM and VM can be generated from various phys- ical process, such as piezomagnetism, tectonomagnetism and electrokinetism. Rele- vant parameters are the event duration, the event magnitude and the magnetometer sample rate. Here, we present some results obtained from a non-stationary analysis of geomagnetic time series that focuses on automatic detection of possible SM and VM events. Several approaches are considered. The first one, based on the continuous wavelet transform, provides us with a multiresolution lecture of the signal, expanded in time-scale space. The second uses a time-variant adaptive algorithm (RLS) that al- lows the detection of some time intervals where important statistical variations of the signal occur. Finally, we investigate a third technique relying on multifractal analy- sis. This latter allows estimation of local regularity of a time series path, in order to detect unusual singularities. Different multifractal models were used for testing the methodology, such as multifractional Brownian Motions (mbmSs), before applying it to synthetic simulations of geomagnetic signals. In our simulations, we took into account theoretical SM and/or VM effects deriving from fault rupture and overpres- sured magma chambers. We applied these methodologies to two different real world data sets, recorded on Mt Etna (volcanic area) during the volcanic activity occurred in 1981, and in North Palm Springs (seismic area) during the seism of July 8th 1986, respectively. In both cases, all techniques were effective in automatically identifying the geomagnetic time-variations likely inferred by volcanic and/or seismic activity and the results are in good agreement with the indices provided by real volcanic and seismic measurements.
Slow roll in simple non-canonical inflation
Barenboim, Gabriela; Kinney, William H.
2007-03-01
We consider inflation using a class of non-canonical Lagrangians for which the modification to the kinetic term depends on the field, but not its derivatives. We generalize the standard Hubble slow roll expansion to the non-canonical case and derive expressions for observables in terms of the generalized slow roll parameters. We apply the general results to the illustrative case of 'slinky' inflation, which has a simple, exactly solvable, non-canonical representation. However, when transformed into a canonical basis, slinky inflation consists of a field oscillating on a multi-valued potential. We calculate the power spectrum of curvature perturbations for slinky inflation directly in the non-canonical basis, and show that the spectrum is approximately a power law on large scales, with a 'blue' power spectrum. On small scales, the power spectrum exhibits strong oscillatory behaviour. This is an example of a model in which the widely used solution of Garriga and Mukhanov gives the wrong answer for the power spectrum.
Samani, A; Kawczyński, A; Chmura, J; Madeleine, P
2012-01-01
Eleven healthy volunteers took part in three sessions where computer work was performed for 10 min in each session. The recordings were made on two consecutive days. After the first session, the subjects underwent a series of high intensity eccentric exercises of shoulder elevation to induce muscle soreness. The second session was performed immediately after the exercises and third session 24 hours after the exercise. Surface electromyography (EMG) of descending and ascending trapezius, deltoideus anterior and serratus anterior was recorded. Exposure variation analysis (EVA) centroid and marginal distribution was computed. Principle component analysis (PCA) was performed on both cases. Describing more than 80% of variance, first eight components for EVA marginal distributions and first four ones for EVA centroid were picked to be investigated. The sole EVA amplitude levels played a practically significant role to describe the variation in EVA marginal distribution. However, a significant pattern of load redistribution to superficial muscles was not found. This may suggest investigating the role of deep muscles in redistribution of load during computer work in response to high level eccentric contractions.
A variational Bayes algorithm for fast and accurate multiple locus genome-wide association analysis
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Mezey Jason G
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The success achieved by genome-wide association (GWA studies in the identification of candidate loci for complex diseases has been accompanied by an inability to explain the bulk of heritability. Here, we describe the algorithm V-Bay, a variational Bayes algorithm for multiple locus GWA analysis, which is designed to identify weaker associations that may contribute to this missing heritability. Results V-Bay provides a novel solution to the computational scaling constraints of most multiple locus methods and can complete a simultaneous analysis of a million genetic markers in a few hours, when using a desktop. Using a range of simulated genetic and GWA experimental scenarios, we demonstrate that V-Bay is highly accurate, and reliably identifies associations that are too weak to be discovered by single-marker testing approaches. V-Bay can also outperform a multiple locus analysis method based on the lasso, which has similar scaling properties for large numbers of genetic markers. For demonstration purposes, we also use V-Bay to confirm associations with gene expression in cell lines derived from the Phase II individuals of HapMap. Conclusions V-Bay is a versatile, fast, and accurate multiple locus GWA analysis tool for the practitioner interested in identifying weaker associations without high false positive rates.
MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS OF THE PHYSICO MECHANICAL PARAMETERS VARIATION FOR HYDROPHOBIC TEXTILE
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AILENI Raluca Maria
2017-05-01
Full Text Available This work presents a multivariate analyse regarding textile surfaces treated with fluorocarbon chemicals in order to obtain hydrophobic effect. The hydrophobic characteristics of the textile samples (cotton 100% were obtained after hydrophobization treatement in the laboratory, by using chemicals based on fluorocarbon and by process parameters variation (temperature, time. Experimental data were evaluated by means of laboratory tests and multivariate analysis in order to observe covariance and the connections between the process parameters and the final characteristics of the fabric hydrophobizated. For evaluating the hydrophobic effect, some investigations were performed by qualitative method Spraytest for determinating the resistance to surface wetting in accordance with the standard SR EN ISO 4920-2013, air permeability according to SR EN ISO 9237:1999 standard and contact angle computing by using the device VCA Optima for contact angle measuring, in accordance to the standard ASTM D7490-2008. In order to highlight the morphological changes that appear on the cotton fibers, samples were examined using scanning electron microscopy device (SEM with the magnitude of X2000 X4000, X8000. The purpose of multivariate analysis for parameters and influence factors for hydrophobization process, based on fluorocarbon, is to obtain information relating to the dependent variables and independent, which influence the process. We establish some dependence between parameters (contact angle, spray test resistance, air permeability by using covariance matrix analysis. This analysis shows that contact angle and the resistance to spray test are in direct dependence and in reverse dependence with the air permeability.
Expression of canonical WNT/β-CATENIN signaling components in the developing human lung
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Zhang Mingfeng
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The WNT/β-CATENIN signaling cascade is crucial for the patterning of the early lung morphogenesis in mice, but its role in the developing human lung remains to be determined. In this study, expression patterns of canonical WNT/β-CATENIN signaling components, including WNT ligands (WNT2, WNT7B, receptors ( FZD4, FZD7, LRP5, LRP6, transducers ( DVL2, DVL3, GSK-3β, β-CATENIN, APC, AXIN2, transcription factors ( TCF4, LEF1 and antagonists ( SOSTDC1 were examined in human embryonic lung at 7, 12, 17 and 21 weeks of gestation (W by real-time qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Results qRT-PCR analysis showed that some of these components were gradually upregulated, while some were significantly downregulated from the 7 W to the 12 W. However, most components reached a high level at 17 W, with a subsequent decrease at 21 W. In situ hybridization showed that the canonical WNT ligands and receptors were predominantly located in the peripheral epithelium, whereas the canonical WNT signal transducers and transcription factors were not only detected in the respiratory epithelium, but some were also scattered at low levels in the surrounding mesenchyme in the developing human lung. Furthermore, Western blot, qRT-PCR and histological analysis demonstrated that the β-CATENIN-dependent WNT signaling in embryonic human lung was activated in vitro by CHIR 99021 stimulation. Conclusions This study of the expression patterns and in vitro activity of the canonical WNT/β-CATENIN pathways suggests that these components play an essential role in regulation of human lung development.
Sparse canonical methods for biological data integration: application to a cross-platform study
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Robert-Granié Christèle
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background In the context of systems biology, few sparse approaches have been proposed so far to integrate several data sets. It is however an important and fundamental issue that will be widely encountered in post genomic studies, when simultaneously analyzing transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics data using different platforms, so as to understand the mutual interactions between the different data sets. In this high dimensional setting, variable selection is crucial to give interpretable results. We focus on a sparse Partial Least Squares approach (sPLS to handle two-block data sets, where the relationship between the two types of variables is known to be symmetric. Sparse PLS has been developed either for a regression or a canonical correlation framework and includes a built-in procedure to select variables while integrating data. To illustrate the canonical mode approach, we analyzed the NCI60 data sets, where two different platforms (cDNA and Affymetrix chips were used to study the transcriptome of sixty cancer cell lines. Results We compare the results obtained with two other sparse or related canonical correlation approaches: CCA with Elastic Net penalization (CCA-EN and Co-Inertia Analysis (CIA. The latter does not include a built-in procedure for variable selection and requires a two-step analysis. We stress the lack of statistical criteria to evaluate canonical correlation methods, which makes biological interpretation absolutely necessary to compare the different gene selections. We also propose comprehensive graphical representations of both samples and variables to facilitate the interpretation of the results. Conclusion sPLS and CCA-EN selected highly relevant genes and complementary findings from the two data sets, which enabled a detailed understanding of the molecular characteristics of several groups of cell lines. These two approaches were found to bring similar results, although they highlighted the same
Tang, Hong; Gao, Jiao; Ruan, Chengjie; Qiu, Tianshuang; Park, Yongwan
2013-11-01
In this study, each peak/valley of a heart sound was modeled by a Gaussian curve and characterized by amplitude, timing, and supporting width. This model was applied to analyze the morphological variations induced by respiration in 12 subjects. It was observed that the morphology exhibited regular behaviors with respiration. The amplitude of the prominent peaks and valleys of S2 (the second heart sound) were commonly attenuated during expiration and were accentuated during inspiration whereas no consistent observations were obtained for S1 (the first heart sound). The supporting width of S1 commonly decreased with expiration and increased with inspiration whereas the supporting width of S2 displayed no significant changes during respiration. For all subjects, the delay of S1 increased during inspiration and decreased during expiration. However, the delay of the aortic component increased during expiration and decreased during inspiration. The pulmonary component of S2 was observed in 7 of 12 subjects, and the delay was opposite to that of the aortic component. The opposing delays yielded a splitting between the two components of S2 that increased during inspiration and decreased during expiration. The delay pattern was the most consistent observation in all subjects. These results suggest that a quantitative analysis of morphological variations, particularly the delay pattern, could be used as a non-invasive continuous monitoring method of hemodynamic change during respiratory cycles. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Nguyen, Truong Xuan; Lee, Sung-Il; Rai, Rameshwar; Kim, Nam-Soo; Kim, Jong Hwa
2016-08-01
Lilium lancifolium Thunb. (2n = 2x = 24) is a cytologically conspicuous species with both diploids and triploids in nature. Cytological and molecular genetic analyses were carried out in both diploids and triploids that were collected from 55 geographical locations in Korea, Japan, and China. While the 5S rRNA gene loci were located at duplicated loci on the long arm of chromosome 2, the 45S rRNA gene loci were present in chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, and 11. While the loci on chromosomes 1 and 7 were constant, the loci on chromosomes 2, 4, 6, 7, and 11 were variable in some plants so that the L. lancifolium accessions were grouped into 7 cytotypes in diploids and 12 cytotypes in triploids. REMAP marker analysis revealed that the diploids were classified into seven clusters, and the triploids were classified into a large cluster. Geographic, cytological, and genetic differentiations were not related in both the diploid and triploid accessions of L. lancifolium. Thus, current genetic variations occurred prior to the geographic differentiation in both diploids and triploids, and the 45S rDNA cytotype variations occurred after geographic differentiation in the current habitats of L. lancifolium.
Extrapolating cosmic ray variations and impacts on life: Morlet wavelet analysis
Zarrouk, N.; Bennaceur, R.
2009-07-01
Exposure to cosmic rays may have both a direct and indirect effect on Earth's organisms. The radiation may lead to higher rates of genetic mutations in organisms, or interfere with their ability to repair DNA damage, potentially leading to diseases such as cancer. Increased cloud cover, which may cool the planet by blocking out more of the Sun's rays, is also associated with cosmic rays. They also interact with molecules in the atmosphere to create nitrogen oxide, a gas that eats away at our planet's ozone layer, which protects us from the Sun's harmful ultraviolet rays. On the ground, humans are protected from cosmic particles by the planet's atmosphere. In this paper we give estimated results of wavelet analysis from solar modulation and cosmic ray data incorporated in time-dependent cosmic ray variation. Since solar activity can be described as a non-linear chaotic dynamic system, methods such as neural networks and wavelet methods should be very suitable analytical tools. Thus we have computed our results using Morlet wavelets. Many have used wavelet techniques for studying solar activity. Here we have analysed and reconstructed cosmic ray variation, and we have better depicted periods or harmonics other than the 11-year solar modulation cycles.
Mokhtar, Siti Shuhada; Marshall, Christian R; Phipps, Maude E; Thiruvahindrapuram, Bhooma; Lionel, Anath C; Scherer, Stephen W; Peng, Hoh Boon
2014-01-01
Copy number variation (CNV) has been recognized as a major contributor to human genome diversity. It plays an important role in determining phenotypes and has been associated with a number of common and complex diseases. However CNV data from diverse populations is still limited. Here we report the first investigation of CNV in the indigenous populations from Peninsular Malaysia. We genotyped 34 Negrito genomes from Peninsular Malaysia using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 microarray and identified 48 putative novel CNVs, consisting of 24 gains and 24 losses, of which 5 were identified in at least 2 unrelated samples. These CNVs appear unique to the Negrito population and were absent in the DGV, HapMap3 and Singapore Genome Variation Project (SGVP) datasets. Analysis of gene ontology revealed that genes within these CNVs were enriched in the immune system (GO:0002376), response to stimulus mechanisms (GO:0050896), the metabolic pathways (GO:0001852), as well as regulation of transcription (GO:0006355). Copy number gains in CNV regions (CNVRs) enriched with genes were significantly higher than the losses (P value population size, relative isolation and semi-nomadic lifestyles of this community, we speculate that these CNVs may be attributed to recent local adaptation of Negritos from Peninsular Malaysia.
Reynolds, Jonathan F; Leduc, Robert E; Kahnert, Emily K; Ludewig, Paula M
2014-01-01
A total of 11 male and 19 female violinists performed 30-second random-ordered slow and fast musical repertoire while right shoulder three-dimensional kinematic, and upper trapezius and serratus anterior surface electromyography (EMG) data were summarised using exposure variation analysis (EVA), a bivariate distribution of work time spent at categories of signal amplitude, and duration spent at a fixed category of amplitude. Sixty-two per cent of intraclass correlation coefficients [1,1] for all kinematic and EMG variables exceeded 0.75, and 40% of standard error of the measurement results were below 5%, confirming EVA reliability. When fast repertoire was played, increases in odds ratios in short duration cells were seen in 23 of 24 possible instances, and decreases in longer duration cells were seen in 17 instances in all EVA arrays using multinomial logistic regression with random effects, confirming a shift towards shorter duration. A reliable technique to assess right shoulder kinematic and EMG exposure in violinists was identified. A reliable method of measuring right shoulder motion and muscle activity exposure variation in violinists was developed which can be used to assess ergonomic risk in other occupations. Recently developed statistical methods enabled differentiation between fast and slow musical performance of standardised musical repertoire.
Tang, Ying Zhong; Egerton, Todd A; Kong, Lesheng; Marshall, Harold G
2008-01-01
Cultures of four strains of the dinoflagellate Gymnodinium aureolum (Hulburt) G. Hansen were established from the Elizabeth River, a tidal tributary of the Chesapeake Bay, USA. Light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, nuclear-encoded large sub-unit rDNA sequencing, and culturing observations were conducted to further characterize this species. Observations of morphology included: a multiple structured apical groove; a peduncle located between the emerging points of the two flagella; pentagonal and hexagonal vesicles on the amphiesma; production and germination of resting cysts; variation in the location of the nucleus within the center of the cell; a longitudinal ventral concavity; and considerable variation in cell width/length and overall cell size. A fish bioassay using juvenile sheepshead minnows detected no ichthyotoxicity from any of the strains over a 48-h period. Molecular analysis confirmed the dinoflagellate was conspecific with G. aureolum strains from around the world, and formed a cluster along with several other Gymnodinium species. Morphological evidence suggests that further research is necessary to examine the relationship between G. aureolum and a possibly closely related species Gymnodinium maguelonnense.
Simulations of a epidemic model with parameters variation analysis for the dengue fever
Jardim, C. L. T. F.; Prates, D. B.; Silva, J. M.; Ferreira, L. A. F.; Kritz, M. V.
2015-09-01
Mathematical models can be widely found in the literature for describing and analyzing epidemics. The models that use differential equations to represent mathematically such description are specially sensible to parameters involved in the modelling. In this work, an already developed model, called SIR, is analyzed when applied to a scenario of a dengue fever epidemic. Such choice is powered by the existence of useful tools presented by a variation of this original model, which allow an inclusion of different aspects of the dengue fever disease, as its seasonal characteristics, the presence of more than one strain of the vector and of the biological factor of cross-immunity. The analysis and results interpretation are performed through numerical solutions of the model in question, and a special attention is given to the different solutions generated by the use of different values for the parameters present in this model. Slight variations are performed either dynamically or statically in those parameters, mimicking hypothesized changes in the biological scenario of this simulation and providing a source of evaluation of how those changes would affect the outcomes of the epidemic in a population.
Moveout analysis of wide-azimuth data in the presence of lateral velocity variation
Takanashi, Mamoru
2012-05-01
Moveout analysis of wide-azimuth reflection data seldom takes into account lateral velocity variations on the scale of spreadlength. However, velocity lenses (such as channels and reefs) in the overburden can cause significant, laterally varying errors in the moveout parameters and distortions in data interpretation. Here, we present an analytic expression for the normal-moveout (NMO) ellipse in stratified media with lateral velocity variation. The contribution of lateral heterogeneity (LH) is controlled by the second derivatives of the interval vertical traveltime with respect to the horizontal coordinates, along with the depth and thickness of the LH layer. This equation provides a quick estimate of the influence of velocity lenses and can be used to substantially mitigate the lens-induced distortions in the effective and interval NMO ellipses. To account for velocity lenses in nonhyperbolic moveout inversion of wide-azimuth data, we propose a prestack correction algorithm that involves computation of the lens-induced traveltime distortion for each recorded trace. The overburden is assumed to be composed of horizontal layers (one of which contains the lens), but the target interval can be laterally heterogeneous with dipping or curved interfaces. Synthetic tests for horizontally layered models confirm that our algorithm accurately removes lens-related azimuthally varying traveltime shifts and errors in the moveout parameters. The developed methods should increase the robustness of seismic processing of wide-azimuth surveys, especially those acquired for fracture-characterization purposes. © 2012 Society of Exploration Geophysicists.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Liu
2013-04-01
Full Text Available We report on results from whole-exome sequencing (WES of 1,039 subjects diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD and 870 controls selected from the NIMH repository to be of similar ancestry to cases. The WES data came from two centers using different methods to produce sequence and to call variants from it. Therefore, an initial goal was to ensure the distribution of rare variation was similar for data from different centers. This proved straightforward by filtering called variants by fraction of missing data, read depth, and balance of alternative to reference reads. Results were evaluated using seven samples sequenced at both centers and by results from the association study. Next we addressed how the data and/or results from the centers should be combined. Gene-based analyses of association was an obvious choice, but should statistics for association be combined across centers (meta-analysis or should data be combined and then analyzed (mega-analysis? Because of the nature of many gene-based tests, we showed by theory and simulations that mega-analysis has better power than meta-analysis. Finally, before analyzing the data for association, we explored the impact of population structure on rare variant analysis in these data. Like other recent studies, we found evidence that population structure can confound case-control studies by the clustering of rare variants in ancestry space; yet, unlike some recent studies, for these data we found that principal component-based analyses were sufficient to control for ancestry and produce test statistics with appropriate distributions. After using a variety of gene-based tests and both meta- and mega-analysis, we found no new risk genes for ASD in this sample. Our results suggest that standard gene-based tests will require much larger samples of cases and controls before being effective for gene discovery, even for a disorder like ASD.
Exact derivation of the Hawking effect in canonical formulation
Barman, Subhajit; Hossain, Golam Mortuza; Singha, Chiranjeeb
2018-01-01
The Hawking effect is one of the most extensively studied topics in modern physics, yet it remains relatively underexplored within the framework of canonical quantization. The key difficulty lies in the fact that the Hawking effect is principally understood using the relation between the ingoing modes which leave past null infinity and the outgoing modes which arrive at future null infinity. Naturally, these modes are described using advanced and retarded null coordinates instead of the usual Schwarzschild coordinates. However, null coordinates do not lead to a true Hamiltonian that describes the evolution of these modes. In order to overcome these hurdles in a canonical formulation, we introduce here a set of near-null coordinates which allows one to perform an exact Hamiltonian-based derivation of the Hawking effect. This derivation opens up an avenue to explore the Hawking effect using different canonical quantization methods such as polymer quantization.
Escort entropies and divergences and related canonical distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bercher, J.-F.
2011-01-01
We discuss two families of two-parameter entropies and divergences, derived from the standard Renyi and Tsallis entropies and divergences. These divergences and entropies are found as divergences or entropies of escort distributions. Exploiting the nonnegativity of the divergences, we derive the expression of the canonical distribution associated to the new entropies and a observable given as an escort-mean value. We show that this canonical distribution extends, and smoothly connects, the results obtained in nonextensive thermodynamics for the standard and generalized mean value constraints. -- Highlights: → Two-parameter entropies are derived from q-entropies and escort distributions. → The related canonical distribution is derived. → This connects and extends known results in nonextensive statistics.
QCD phase transition at real chemical potential with canonical approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Atsushi [RCNP, Osaka University,Osaka, 567-0047 (Japan); Nishina Center, RIKEN,Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); School of Biomedicine, Far Eastern Federal University,Vladivostok, 690950 (Russian Federation); Oka, Shotaro [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, Rikkyo University,Toshima-ku, Tokyo 171-8501 (Japan); Taniguchi, Yusuke [Graduate School of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba,Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan)
2016-02-08
We study the finite density phase transition in the lattice QCD at real chemical potential. We adopt a canonical approach and the canonical partition function is constructed for N{sub f}=2 QCD. After derivation of the canonical partition function we calculate observables like the pressure, the quark number density, its second cumulant and the chiral condensate as a function of the real chemical potential. We covered a wide range of temperature region starting from the confining low to the deconfining high temperature; 0.65T{sub c}≤T≤3.62T{sub c}. We observe a possible signal of the deconfinement and the chiral restoration phase transition at real chemical potential below T{sub c} starting from the confining phase. We give also the convergence range of the fugacity expansion.
Variational analysis for simulating free-surface flows in a porous medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shabbir Ahmed
2003-01-01
is used to obtain a discrete form of equations for a two-dimensional domain. The matrix characteristics and the stability criteria have been investigated to develop a stable numerical algorithm for solving the governing equation. A computer programme has been written to solve a symmetric positive definite system obtained from the variational finite element analysis. The system of equations is solved using the conjugate gradient method. The solution generates time-varying hydraulic heads in the subsurface. The interfacing free surface between the unsaturated and saturated zones in the variably saturated domain is located, based on the computed hydraulic heads. Example problems are investigated. The finite element solutions are compared with the exact solutions for the example problems. The numerical characteristics of the finite element solution method are also investigated using the example problems.
SECOND-ORDER VARIATIONAL ANALYSIS IN CONIC PROGRAMMING WITH APPLICATIONS TO OPTIMALITY AND STABILITY
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Mordukhovich, B. S.; Outrata, Jiří; Ramírez, H. C.
2015-01-01
Roč. 25, č. 1 (2015), s. 76-101 ISSN 1052-6234 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/12/0671 Grant - others:Australian Research Council(AU) DP-110102011; USA National Science Foundation(US) DMS-1007132; Australian Reseach Council(AU) DP-12092508; Portuguese Foundation of Science and Technologies(PT) MAT/11109; FONDECYT Project(CL) 1110888; Universidad de Chile (CL) BASAL Project Centro de Modelamiento Matematico Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : variational analysis * second-order theory * conic programming * generalized differentiation * optimality conditions * isolated calmness * tilt stability Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 2.659, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/MTR/outrata-0439413.pdf
Boonnak, Kobporn; Suttitheptumrong, Aroonroong; Jotekratok, Ubonwan; Pattanakitsakul, Sa-Nga
2015-03-01
Screening for densoviruses (DNVs) from Aedes, Culex and Toxorhynchites mosquitoes collected in Bangkok and surrounding regions identified two clades of Aedes DNV; Ae. aegypti DNV (AaeDNV) and Ae. albopictus DNV (AalDNV) by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). From nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of PCR amplicons of a fragment of DNV capsid gene, these DNVs were shown to be new DNV genetic variations similar to AaeDNV. Isolation and identification of densoviruses from indigenous field mosquitoes reside in natural habitat should be helpful in monitoring the distribution of DNVs in important mosquitoes, especially Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus, vector for dengue and yellow fever viruses.
Dahlberg, J A; Valdes-Martinez, A; Boston, R C; Parente, E J
2011-03-01
Loss of arytenoid abduction is a common post operative complication of laryngoplasty without a definitive cause. It has been a clinical impression during laryngoplasty surgery that there is great conformational variability along the caudal edge of the Thoroughbred cricoid cartilage that could impact post operative retention of suture position. A change in suture position would probably lead to some loss of abduction. Defining any structural variability of the cricoid would be an initial step in determining whether this variability could impact on the retention of suture position. Anatomical variations in the larynx of Thoroughbred horses may be detected and measured using objective analysis and computed tomography. Larynges were harvested from 15 mature Thoroughbred horses. Helical CT scans were performed on each specimen. Three independent observers performed a series of measurements on 2D and 3D reconstruction images using digital software. Measurements included the lateral cricoid angle, the caudal cricoid prominences, the distance to the cricoid slope, the angle of the cricoarytenoid joints (CAJ), the cricoid thickness and the suture angle. Mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation and linear regression analysis were performed among all observers and all measurements. Notable conformational differences were evident on the 3D reconstructions. The highest degree of variability was found in 3 measurements: the distance to the lateral cricoid slope, the lateral cricoid angle and the cricoid thickness. A larger left CAJ angle directly and significantly correlated with a larger suture angle. There are notable conformational differences among cricoid specimens in the Thoroughbred larynx. The morphometric differences identified may impact on optimal prosthesis placement and long-term retention. Since a larger lateral cricoid angle may facilitate abduction loss secondary to a displaced and loosened suture, alternative techniques for suture placement may be of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhu, Ting Ting; Ai, Tao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tao; Li, Xiao Ming
2015-01-01
To investigate the changes in water content in the lumbar intervertebral discs by quantitative T2 MR imaging in the morning after bed rest and evening after a diurnal load. Twenty healthy volunteers were separately examined in the morning after bed rest and in the evening after finishing daily work. T2-mapping images were obtained and analyzed. An equally-sized rectangular region of interest (ROI) was manually placed in both, the anterior and the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF), in the outermost 20% of the disc. Three ROIs were placed in the space defined as the nucleus pulposus (NP). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired 2-tailed t tests were used for statistical analysis, with p < 0.05 as significantly different. T2 values significantly decreased from morning to evening, in the NP (anterior NP = -13.9 ms; central NP = -17.0 ms; posterior NP = -13.3 ms; all p < 0.001). Meanwhile T2 values significantly increased in the anterior AF (+2.9 ms; p = 0.025) and the posterior AF (+5.9 ms; p < 0.001). T2 values in the posterior AF showed the largest degree of variation among the 5 ROIs, but there was no statistical significance (p = 0.414). Discs with initially low T2 values in the center NP showed a smaller degree of variation in the anterior NP and in the central NP, than in discs with initially high T2 values in the center NP (10.0% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.037; 6.4% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.006, respectively). Segmental quantitative T2 MRI provides valuable insights into physiological aspects of normal discs.
B. Giardine (Belinda); J. Borg (Joseph); D.R. Higgs (Douglas); K.R. Peterson (Kenneth R.); J.N.J. Philipsen (Sjaak); D. Maglott (Donna); B.K. Singleton (Belinda K.); D.J. Anstee (David J.); A.N. Basak (Nazli); B.H. Clark (Bruce); F.C. Costa (Flavia C.); P. Faustino (Paula); H. Fedosyuk (Halyna); A.E. Felice (Alex); A. Francina (Alain); R. Galanello (Renzo); M.V.E. Gallivan (Monica V. E.); M. Georgitsi (Marianthi); R.J. Gibbons (Richard J.); P.C. Giordano (Piero Carlo); C.L. Harteveld (Cornelis); J.D. Hoyer (James D.); M. Jarvis (Martin); P. Joly (Philippe); E. Kanavakis (Emmanuel); P. Kollia (Panagoula); S. Menzel (Stephan); W.G. Miller (William); K. Moradkhani (Kamran); J. Old (John); A. Papachatzpoulou (Adamantia); M.N. Papadakis (Manoussos); P. Papadopoulos (Petros); S. Pavlovic (Sonja); L. Perseu (Lucia); M. Radmilovic (Milena); C. Riemer (Cathy); S. Satta (Stefania); I.A. Schrijver (Ingrid); M. Stojiljkovic (Maja); S.L. Thein; J. Traeger-Synodinos (Joanne); R. Tully (Ray); T. Wada (Takahito); J.S. Waye (John); C. Wiemann (Claudia); B. Zukic (Branka); D.H.K. Chui (David H. K.); H. Wajcman (Henri); R. Hardison (Ross); G.P. Patrinos (George)
2011-01-01
textabstractWe developed a series of interrelated locus-specific databases to store all published and unpublished genetic variation related to hemoglobinopathies and thalassemia and implemented microattribution to encourage submission of unpublished observations of genetic variation to these public
Martin, N.; Monnier, J.
2012-12-01
To be confident in the accuracy of the modelling of ice flows requires to con- front numerical experiments to actual observations. This type of flow is strongly sensitive to its input parameters such as rheological parameters and boundary conditions like the friction on the bedrock. Using optimal control theory, we build a global 4D-Var algorithm using direct and adjoint model of the variational problem thus providing local sensitivity analysis and data assimilation (see [1]). In order to compute approximation of these flows, one consider the non newtonian velocity- pressure Stokes system described using mixed finite element method. The treat- ment of the free surface is performed using an Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian de- scription with robus elastic deformation and the adjoint method is constructed by algorithmic differentiation of the direct code using Tapenade software (INRIA). We lean on prior developments of the software DassFlow (see [2]). One of the major question for inverse methods in glaciology is to infer the fric- tion coefficient at bottom through data assimilation because it cannot be measured. In other respect, our first results based on real data shows that the rheological expo- nent and/or the thermal coefficient of the constitutive law (distributed parameter) has the same type of influence (see Figure 1) and can be inferred as well. Another modeling issue lies in the dynamic of the grounding line when con- sidering the floating part of the ice domain. Then, sensitivity analysis of the model response with respect to this grounding line dynamic leads to a better understand- ing of this unstable process and its empirical modelling. We present a real data application on the Mertz ice-shelf (Antarctica). Topography and surface velocities data are being provided by B. Legrésy (see [3]). References [1] Martin, N. and Monnier, J. : A three fields finite elements solver for viscoplas- tic free surface flows and variational data assimilation. In
A Nonlinear GMRES Optimization Algorithm for Canonical Tensor Decomposition
De Sterck, Hans
2011-01-01
A new algorithm is presented for computing a canonical rank-R tensor approximation that has minimal distance to a given tensor in the Frobenius norm, where the canonical rank-R tensor consists of the sum of R rank-one components. Each iteration of the method consists of three steps. In the first step, a tentative new iterate is generated by a stand-alone one-step process, for which we use alternating least squares (ALS). In the second step, an accelerated iterate is generated by a nonlinear g...
Iterative algorithms to approximate canonical Gabor windows: Computational aspects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Janssen, A.J.E.M; Søndergaard, Peter Lempel
In this paper we investigate the computational aspects of some recently proposed iterative methods for approximating the canonical tight and canonical dual window of a Gabor frame (g,a,b). The iterations start with the window g while the iteration steps comprise the window g, the k^th iterand...... convergence constants. The iterations, initially formulated for time-continuous Gabor systems, are considered and tested in a discrete setting in which one passes to the appropriately sampled-and-periodized windows and frame operators. Furthermore, they are compared with respect to accuracy and efficiency...
Canonical extensions of the Johnson homomorphisms to the Torelli groupoid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bene, Alex; Kawazumi, Nariya; Penner, Robert
2009-01-01
We prove that every trivalent marked bordered fatgraph comes equipped with a canonical generalized Magnus expansion in the sense of Kawazumi. This Magnus expansion is used to give canonical extensions of the higher Johnson homomorphisms τm , for m 1 , to the Torelli groupoid, and we provide...... a recursive combinatorial formula for tensor representatives of these extensions. In particular, we give an explicit 1-cocycle in the dual fatgraph complex which extends τ2 and thus answer affirmatively a question of Morita and Penner. To illustrate our techniques for calculating higher Johnson homomorphisms...
Skeith, Leslie; Gonsalves, Carol
2017-11-01
Practice variation, the differences in clinical management between physicians, is one reason why patient outcomes may differ. Identifying factors that contribute to practice variation in areas of clinical uncertainty or equipoise may have implications for understanding and improving patient care. To discern what factors may influence practice variation, we completed a qualitative content analysis of all practice-pattern surveys in thrombosis medicine in the last 10years. Out of 2117 articles screened using a systematic search strategy, 33 practice-pattern surveys met eligibility criteria. Themes were identified using constant comparative analysis of qualitative data. Practice variation was noted in all 33 practice-pattern surveys. Contributing factors to variation included lack of available evidence, lack of clear and specific guideline recommendations, past experience, patient context, institutional culture and the perceived risk and benefit of a particular treatment. Additional themes highlight the value placed on expertise in challenging clinical scenarios, the complexity of practice variation and the value placed on minimizing practice variation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Structural Basis for the Canonical and Non-canonical PAM Recognition by CRISPR-Cpf1.
Yamano, Takashi; Zetsche, Bernd; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Zhang, Feng; Nishimasu, Hiroshi; Nureki, Osamu
2017-08-17
The RNA-guided Cpf1 (also known as Cas12a) nuclease associates with a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) and cleaves the double-stranded DNA target complementary to the crRNA guide. The two Cpf1 orthologs from Acidaminococcus sp. (AsCpf1) and Lachnospiraceae bacterium (LbCpf1) have been harnessed for eukaryotic genome editing. Cpf1 requires a specific nucleotide sequence, called a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), for target recognition. Besides the canonical TTTV PAM, Cpf1 recognizes suboptimal C-containing PAMs. Here, we report four crystal structures of LbCpf1 in complex with the crRNA and its target DNA containing either TTTA, TCTA, TCCA, or CCCA as the PAM. These structures revealed that, depending on the PAM sequences, LbCpf1 undergoes conformational changes to form altered interactions with the PAM-containing DNA duplexes, thereby achieving the relaxed PAM recognition. Collectively, the present structures advance our mechanistic understanding of the PAM-dependent, crRNA-guided DNA cleavage by the Cpf1 family nucleases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silvia Mazzotta
2016-10-01
Full Text Available Wnt signaling is a key regulator of vertebrate heart development; however, specific roles for human cardiomyocyte development remain uncertain. Here we use human embryonic stem cells (hESCs to analyze systematically in human cardiomyocyte development the expression of endogenous Wnt signaling components, monitor pathway activity, and dissect stage-specific requirements for canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling mechanisms using small-molecule inhibitors. Our analysis suggests that WNT3 and WNT8A, via FZD7 and canonical signaling, regulate BRACHYURY expression and mesoderm induction; that WNT5A/5B, via ROR2 and noncanonical signaling, regulate MESP1 expression and cardiovascular development; and that later in development WNT2, WNT5A/5B, and WNT11, via FZD4 and FZD6, regulate functional cardiomyocyte differentiation via noncanonical Wnt signaling. Our findings confirm in human development previously proposed roles for canonical Wnt signaling in sequential stages of vertebrate cardiomyogenesis, and identify more precise roles for noncanonical signaling and for individual Wnt signal and Wnt receptor genes in human cardiomyocyte development.
Machine learning reveals a non-canonical mode of peptide binding to MHC class II molecules.
Andreatta, Massimo; Jurtz, Vanessa I; Kaever, Thomas; Sette, Alessandro; Peters, Bjoern; Nielsen, Morten
2017-10-01
MHC class II molecules play a fundamental role in the cellular immune system: they load short peptide fragments derived from extracellular proteins and present them on the cell surface. It is currently thought that the peptide binds lying more or less flat in the MHC groove, with a fixed distance of nine amino acids between the first and last residue in contact with the MHCII. While confirming that the great majority of peptides bind to the MHC using this canonical mode, we report evidence for an alternative, less common mode of interaction. A fraction of observed ligands were shown to have an unconventional spacing of the anchor residues that directly interact with the MHC, which could only be accommodated to the canonical MHC motif either by imposing a more stretched out peptide backbone (an 8mer core) or by the peptide bulging out of the MHC groove (a 10mer core). We estimated that on average 2% of peptides bind with a core deletion, and 0·45% with a core insertion, but the frequency of such non-canonical cores was as high as 10% for certain MHCII molecules. A mutational analysis and experimental validation of a number of these anomalous ligands demonstrated that they could only fit to their MHC binding motif with a non-canonical binding core of length different from nine. This previously undescribed mode of peptide binding to MHCII molecules gives a more complete picture of peptide presentation by MHCII and allows us to model more accurately this event. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chengwei Li
Full Text Available The cellular circadian clock and systemic cues drive rhythmicity in the transcriptome of adult peripheral tissues. However, the oscillating status of the circadian clocks in fetal tissues, and their response to maternal cues, are less clear. Most clock genes do not cycle in fetal livers from mice and rats, although tissue level rhythms rapidly emerge when fetal mouse liver explants are cultured in vitro. Thus, in the fetal mouse liver, the circadian clock does not oscillate at the cellular level (but is induced to oscillate in culture. To gain a comprehensive overview of the clock status in the fetal liver during late gestation, we performed microarray analyses on fetal liver tissues. In the fetal liver we did not observe circadian rhythms of clock gene expression or many other transcripts known to be rhythmically expressed in the adult liver. Nevertheless, JTK_CYCLE analysis identified some transcripts in the fetal liver that were rhythmically expressed, albeit at low amplitudes. Upon data filtering by coefficient of variation, the expression levels for transcripts related to pancreatic exocrine enzymes and zymogen secretion were found to undergo synchronized daily fluctuations at high amplitudes. These results suggest that maternal cues influence the fetal liver, despite the fact that we did not detect circadian rhythms of canonical clock gene expression in the fetal liver. These results raise important questions on the role of the circadian clock, or lack thereof, during ontogeny.
Analysis of geomagnetic data and cosmic ray variations in periods of magnetic perturbations
Mandrikova, Oksana; Zalyaev, Timur; Solovev, Igor; Shevtsov, Boris
magnetic storms. Using the combination of the wavelet transform and neural networks, we have developed a technique of approximating the time variation of cosmic-ray data. This technique allows us to perform detailed analysis of geomagnetic data and detect anomalies in periods of high solar activity. Approximations of large-scale time variation components of cosmic-ray data have been obtained in the following form: [ c_{j,n+1}(t)=\\varphi^3_m Biggl (sum_i omega^3_{mi}\\varphi^2_i biggl (sum_l omega^2_{il}\\varphi^1_lBigl(sum_n omega^1_{ln}c_{j,n}(t)Bigr )biggr ) Biggr ) ] where c_{j,n}= ;phi_{j,n}=2(j/2) phi(2(j(t)-n)) is the scaling function, omega(1_{ln}) are the weights of the neurons of the network input layer l,omega(2_{il}) are the weights of the neurons of the network hidden layer i, omega(3_{mi}) are the weights of the neurons of the network output layer m, varphi(1_l(z)=varphi^2_i(z)=(2)/(1+exp(-2z))-1) ,varphi(3_m(z)) =a*z+b. Coefficients c_{j,n} are the result of transforming of the original function y to the space with the scale j. Analysis of long geomagnetic data from the Paratunka observatory (Kamchatka region, Russia) provided quantitative estimates of the storminess degree of the geomagnetic field before and during magnetic storms. Furthermore, we have managed to identify local weak increases of the field perturbations prior to the main phase of storms. The intensity of field perturbations rises on average 2.5 days before the onset of a storm. Abnormal time periods connected with increased solar activity have been detected in the flow of cosmic rays. Comparison of the results with the geomagnetic data has shown that the anomalies in the cosmic ray variations occur in periods of strong geomagnetic perturbations. The tools and techniques suggested in the present work, together with other methods of data -analysis will help forecast space weather, estimate more accurately the condition of the Earth’s magnetic field, and identify periods when the intensity of
Canonical, stable, general mapping using context schemes.
Novak, Adam M; Rosen, Yohei; Haussler, David; Paten, Benedict
2015-11-15
Sequence mapping is the cornerstone of modern genomics. However, most existing sequence mapping algorithms are insufficiently general. We introduce context schemes: a method that allows the unambiguous recognition of a reference base in a query sequence by testing the query for substrings from an algorithmically defined set. Context schemes only map when there is a unique best mapping, and define this criterion uniformly for all reference bases. Mappings under context schemes can also be made stable, so that extension of the query string (e.g. by increasing read length) will not alter the mapping of previously mapped positions. Context schemes are general in several senses. They natively support the detection of arbitrary complex, novel rearrangements relative to the reference. They can scale over orders of magnitude in query sequence length. Finally, they are trivially extensible to more complex reference structures, such as graphs, that incorporate additional variation. We demonstrate empirically the existence of high-performance context schemes, and present efficient context scheme mapping algorithms. The software test framework created for this study is available from https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/adamnovak/sequence-graphs/. anovak@soe.ucsc.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
[Exploration on the history of acupuncture in Chinese Buddhist Canon].
Li, Liangsong; Lin, Zhaogeng
2017-12-12
It is believed that acupuncture science of Buddhist medicine has a long history and great characteristics after the investigation, research and analysis on the historic literature of acupuncture in Chinese Buddhist Canon. The writers tried to give the statements from 4 aspects. 1. Science of acupuncture in the time of Buddha. Firstly, the Buddhist acupuncture was mentioned in the time of Buddha, including substantial acupuncture, finger acupuncture and mental acupuncture. The substantial acupuncture refers to metal needle, plant needle, stone needle, bone needle, etc. Finger acupuncture means taking finger as a needle. Mental acupuncture implies that the Buddhism idea is considered in acupuncture. Secondly, the Buddhist medicine is the combination of acupuncture and herbal medicine. The needle box had become the necessity of the medical scholars in traveling. 2. Achievements of medical Buddhists in dynasties. In the paper, 33 medical Buddhists were listed, such as AN Shigao, YU Fakai , etc. They made the great contributions to the development of Buddhist medicine of acupuncture. 3. The characteristics of Buddhist acupuncture in clinical diagnosis and treatment. 1) The combination of acupuncture and herbal medicine and this mutual supplementation; 2) Mutual treatment of acupuncture and psychological therapy; 3) Remarkable therapeutic effects of specific acupuncture techniques, such as Yan needling technique and acupotomy; 4) Medical cases of Buddhist acupuncture; and 5) Precaution of misdiagnosis and prevention of mistreatment. 4. The penetrating statement of acupuncture techniques by the Buddhists in dynasties. 1) The cause-effect theory is introduced in treatment and diagnosis by medical Buddhists. The effectiveness is achieved through causality system. 2) Cataract is treated with gold needle. 3) The medical master is not qualified if nothing to know on acupuncture. The authors believe that the substantial acupuncture techniques need to be further studied and the
Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) software : recent development and application
Watelet, Sylvain; Beckers, Jean-Marie; Barth, Alexander; Back, Örjan
2016-04-01
The Data-Interpolating Variational Analysis (DIVA) software is a tool designed to reconstruct a continuous field from discrete measurements. This method is based on the numerical implementation of the Variational Inverse Model (VIM), which consists of a minimization of a cost function, allowing the choice of the analysed field fitting at best the data sets. The problem is solved efficiently using a finite-element method. This statistical method is particularly suited to deal with irregularly-spaced observations, producing outputs on a regular grid. Initially created to work in a two-dimensional way, the software is now able to handle 3D or even 4D analysis, in order to easily produce ocean climatologies. These analyses can easily be improved by taking advantage of the DIVA's ability to take topographic and dynamic constraints into account (coastal relief, prevailing wind impacting the advection,...). DIVA is an open-source software which is continuously upgraded and distributed for free through frequent version releases. The development is funded by the EMODnet and SeaDataNet projects and include many discussions and feedback from the users community. Here, we present two recent major upgrades : the data weighting option and the bottom-based analyses. Since DIVA works with a diagonal observation error covariance matrix, it is assumed that the observation errors are uncorrelated in space and time. In practice, this assumption is not always valid especially when dealing e.g. with cruise measurements (same instrument) or with time series at a fixed geographic point (representativity error). The data weighting option proposes to decrease the weights in the analysis of such observations. Theses weights are based on an exponential function using a 3D (x,y,t) distance between several observations. A comparison between not-weighted and weighted analyses will be shown. It has been a recurrent request from the DIVA users to improve the way the analyses near the ocean bottom
Sources of variation in under-5 mortality across sub-Saharan Africa: a spatial analysis.
Burke, Marshall; Heft-Neal, Sam; Bendavid, Eran
2016-12-01
Detailed spatial understanding of levels and trends in under-5 mortality is needed to improve the targeting of interventions to the areas of highest need, and to understand the sources of variation in mortality. To improve this understanding, we analysed local-level information on child mortality across sub-Saharan Africa between 1980-2010. We used data from 82 Demographic and Health Surveys in 28 sub-Saharan African countries, including the location and timing of 3·24 million childbirths and 393 685 deaths, to develop high-resolution spatial maps of under-5 mortality in the 1980s, 1990s, and 2000s. These estimates were at a resolution of 0·1 degree latitude by 0·1 degree longitude (roughly 10 km × 10 km). We then analysed this spatial information to distinguish within-country versus between-country sources of variation in mortality, to examine the extent to which declines in mortality have been accompanied by convergence in the distribution of mortality, and to study localised drivers of mortality differences, including temperature, malaria burden, and conflict. In our sample of sub-Saharan African countries from the 1980s to the 2000s, within-country differences in under-5 mortality accounted for 74-78% of overall variation in under-5 mortality across space and over time. Mortality differed significantly across only 8-15% of country borders, supporting the role of local, rather than national, factors in driving mortality patterns. We found that by the end of the study period, 23% of the eligible children in the study countries continue to live in mortality hotspots-areas where, if current trends continue, the Sustainable Developent Goals mortality targets will not be met. In multivariate analysis, within-country mortality levels at each pixel were significantly related to local temperature, malaria burden, and recent history of conflict. Our findings suggest that sub-national determinants explain a greater portion of under-5 mortality than do country
Analysis of Long-Term Water Level Variation in Dongting Lake, China
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Qiaoqian Han
2016-07-01
Full Text Available The water level of Dongting Lake has changed because of the combined impact of climatic change and anthropogenic activities. A study of the long-term statistical properties of water level variations at Chenglingji station will help with the management of water resources in Dongting Lake. In this case, 54 years of water level data for Dongting Lake were analyzed with the non-parametric Mann–Kendall trend test, Sen’s slope test, and the Pettitt test. The results showed the following: (1 Trends in annual maximum lake water level (WLM, annual mean lake water level (WL, and annual minimum lake water level (WLm increased from 1961 to 2014; however, the three variables showed different trends from 1981 to 2014; (2 The annual change trends in Dongting Lake between 1961–2014 and 1981–2014 were found to be from approximately 0.90 cm/year to −2.27 cm/year, 1.65 cm/year to −0.79 cm/year, and 4.58 cm/year to 2.56 cm/year for WLM, WL, and WLm, respectively; (3 A greater degree of increase in water level during the dry season (November–April was found from 2003 to 2014 than from 1981 to 2002, but a smaller degree of increase, even to the point of decreasing, was found during the wet season (May–October; (4 The measured discharge data and numerical modeling results showed the operation of Three Gorge Reservoir (TGR pushed to influence partly the recent inter-annual variation of water level in Dongting Lake region, especially in the flood and dry seasons. The analysis indicated that the water level of Dongting Lake has changed in the long term with decreasing of range between WLM and WLm, and may decrease the probability of future drought and flood events. These results can provide useful information for the management of Dongting Lake.
Seasonal variation in hemodialysis initiation: A single-center retrospective analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yujiro Maeoka
Full Text Available The number of new dialysis patients has been increasing worldwide, particularly among elderly individuals. However, information on seasonal variation in hemodialysis initiation in recent decades is lacking, and the seasonal distribution of patients' conditions immediately prior to starting dialysis remains unclear. Having this information could help in developing a modifiable approach to improving pre-dialysis care. We retrospectively investigated the records of 297 patients who initiated hemodialysis at Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital from January 1st, 2009 to December 31st, 2013. Seasonal differences were assessed by χ2 or Kruskal-Wallis tests. Multiple comparison analysis was performed with the Steel test. The overall number of patients starting dialysis was greatest in winter (n = 85, 28.6%, followed by spring (n = 74, 24.9%, summer (n = 70, 23.6%, and autumn (n = 68, 22.9%, though the differences were not significant. However, there was a significant winter peak in dialysis initiation among patients aged ≥65 years, but not in those aged <65 years. Fluid overload assessed by clinicians was the most common uremic symptom among all patients, but a winter peak was only detected in patients aged ≥65 years. The body weight gain ratio showed a similar trend to fluid overload assessed by clinicians. Pulmonary edema was most pronounced in winter among patients aged ≥65 years compared with other seasons. The incidences of infection were modestly increased in summer and winter, but not statistically significant. Cardiac complications were similar in all seasons. This study demonstrated the existence of seasonal variation in dialysis initiation, with a winter peak among patients aged ≥65 years. The winter increment in dialysis initiation was mainly attributable to increased fluid overload. These findings suggest that elderly individuals should be monitored particularly closely during the winter.
Gómez-Robles, Aida; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Martinón-Torres, María; Prado-Simón, Leyre; Arsuaga, Juan Luis
2015-05-01
Lower molars have been extensively studied in the context of hominin evolution using classic and geometric morphometric analyses, 2D and 3D approaches, evaluations of the external (outer enamel surface) and internal anatomy (dentine, pulp chamber, and radicular canals), and studies of the crown and root variation. In this study, we present a 2D geometric morphometric analysis of the crown anatomy of lower first, second, and third molars of a broad sample of hominins, including Pliocene and Lower, Middle, and Upper Pleistocene species coming from Africa, Asia, and Europe. We show that shape variability increases from first to second and third molars. While first molars tend to retain a relatively stable 5-cusped conformation throughout the hominin fossil record, second and third molars show marked distal reductions in later Homo species. This trend to distal reduction is similar to that observed in previous studies of premolars and upper second and third molars, and points to a correlated reduction of distal areas across the whole postcanine dentition. Results on lower molar variation, as well as on other postcanine teeth, show certain trends in European Pleistocene populations from the Atapuerca sites. Middle Pleistocene hominins from Sima de los Huesos show Neanderthal affinities and strong dental reduction, especially in the most distal molars. The degree of dental reduction in this population is stronger than that observed in classic Neanderthals. Homo antecessor hominins from Gran Dolina-TD6 have primitive lower teeth that contrast with their more derived upper teeth. The evolutionary implications of these dental affinities are discussed in light of recent paleogenetic studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yoshida, Masa-aki; Ishikura, Yukiko; Moritaki, Takeya; Shoguchi, Eiichi; Shimizu, Kentaro K; Sese, Jun; Ogura, Atsushi
2011-09-01
Comparative genome structure analysis allows us to identify novel genes, repetitive sequences and gene duplications. To explore lineage-specific genomic changes of the molluscs that is good model for development of nervous system in invertebrate, we conducted comparative genome structure analyses of three molluscs, pygmy squid, nautilus and scallops using partial genome shotgun sequencing. Most effective elements on the genome structural changes are repetitive elements (REs) causing expansion of genome size and whole genome duplication producing large amount of novel functional genes. Therefore, we investigated variation and proportion of REs and whole genome duplication. We, first, identified variations of REs in the three molluscan genomes by homology-based and de novo RE detection. Proportion of REs were 9.2%, 4.0%, and 3.8% in the pygmy squid, nautilus and scallop, respectively. We, then, estimated genome size of the species as 2.1, 4.2 and 1.8 Gb, respectively, with 2× coverage frequency and DNA sequencing theory. We also performed a gene duplication assay based on coding genes, and found that large-scale duplication events occurred after divergence from the limpet Lottia, an out-group of the three molluscan species. Comparison of all the results suggested that RE expansion did not relate to the increase in genome size of nautilus. Despite close relationships to nautilus, the squid has the largest portion of REs and smaller genome size than nautilus. We also identified lineage-specific RE and gene-family expansions, possibly relate to acquisition of the most complicated eye and brain systems in the three species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Impact of temporal variation on design and analysis of mouse knockout phenotyping studies.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Natasha A Karp
Full Text Available A significant challenge facing high-throughput phenotyping of in-vivo knockout mice is ensuring phenotype calls are robust and reliable. Central to this problem is selecting an appropriate statistical analysis that models both the experimental design (the workflow and the way control mice are selected for comparison with knockout animals and the sources of variation. Recently we proposed a mixed model suitable for small batch-oriented studies, where controls are not phenotyped concurrently with mutants. Here we evaluate this method both for its sensitivity to detect phenotypic effects and to control false positives, across a range of workflows used at mouse phenotyping centers. We found the sensitivity and control of false positives depend on the workflow. We show that the phenotypes in control mice fluctuate unexpectedly between batches and this can cause the false positive rate of phenotype calls to be inflated when only a small number of batches are tested, when the effect of knockout becomes confounded with temporal fluctuations in control mice. This effect was observed in both behavioural and physiological assays. Based on this analysis, we recommend two approaches (workflow and accompanying control strategy and associated analyses, which would be robust, for use in high-throughput phenotyping pipelines. Our results show the importance in modelling all sources of variability in high-throughput phenotyping studies.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Rogerio Lima Mota de; Alves Junior, Edson; Mulina, Bruno Henrique Oliveira; Borges, Valerio Luiz; Carvalho, Solidonio Rodrigues de [Federal University of Uberlandia - UFU, MG (Brazil). School of Mechanical Engineering - FEMEC], e-mails: rogerio@mecanica.ufu.br, edson@mec.ufu.br, vlborges@mecanica.ufu.br, srcarvalho@mecanica.ufu.br
2010-07-01
Charcoal assumes a major role in Brazilian economic scenario. The procedure for obtaining charcoal consists in carbonization of wood at certain specific temperatures in kilns. This ancient process has a few joined technologies and the kilns for such practice do not have any control instruments, in their great majority, becoming dependent on the ability of its operators. However, in recent decades several studies have been developed to improve the practice as well as the equipment that involve and control the stages of charcoal production. In this sense, this work proposes the analysis of the thermal profiles and the gravimetric yield in three variations of a rectangular brick kiln called RAC220: traditional (without any type of instrumentation), instrumented with thermal sensors (RTD PT100) and adapted with gasifier. The goal is to correlate temperature, gravimetric yield and quality of the produced charcoal. Immediate analyses were performed to determine the amount of fixed carbon, volatile gases and ashes contents in charcoal. Through such measurement procedures, together with statistical analysis, the aim is to identify an important tool to reduce the time of charcoal production and also contributes to minimize losses and to increase the thermal efficiency of the production process. (author)
Zhu, Tingting; Ai, Tao; Zhang, Wei; Li, Tao; Li, Xiaoming
2015-01-01
To investigate the changes in water content in the lumbar intervertebral discs by quantitative T2 MR imaging in the morning after bed rest and evening after a diurnal load. Twenty healthy volunteers were separately examined in the morning after bed rest and in the evening after finishing daily work. T2-mapping images were obtained and analyzed. An equally-sized rectangular region of interest (ROI) was manually placed in both, the anterior and the posterior annulus fibrosus (AF), in the outermost 20% of the disc. Three ROIs were placed in the space defined as the nucleus pulposus (NP). Repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired 2-tailed t tests were used for statistical analysis, with p NP (anterior NP = -13.9 ms; central NP = -17.0 ms; posterior NP = -13.3 ms; all p p = 0.025) and the posterior AF (+5.9 ms; p p = 0.414). Discs with initially low T2 values in the center NP showed a smaller degree of variation in the anterior NP and in the central NP, than in discs with initially high T2 values in the center NP (10.0% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.037; 6.4% vs. 16.1%, p = 0.006, respectively). Segmental quantitative T2 MRI provides valuable insights into physiological aspects of normal discs.
FAST EDGE DETECTION AND SEGMENTATION OF TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANS THROUGH NORMAL VARIATION ANALYSIS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Che
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS utilizes light detection and ranging (lidar to effectively and efficiently acquire point cloud data for a wide variety of applications. Segmentation is a common procedure of post-processing to group the point cloud into a number of clusters to simplify the data for the sequential modelling and analysis needed for most applications. This paper presents a novel method to rapidly segment TLS data based on edge detection and region growing. First, by computing the projected incidence angles and performing the normal variation analysis, the silhouette edges and intersection edges are separated from the smooth surfaces. Then a modified region growing algorithm groups the points lying on the same smooth surface. The proposed method efficiently exploits the gridded scan pattern utilized during acquisition of TLS data from most sensors and takes advantage of parallel programming to process approximately 1 million points per second. Moreover, the proposed segmentation does not require estimation of the normal at each point, which limits the errors in normal estimation propagating to segmentation. Both an indoor and outdoor scene are used for an experiment to demonstrate and discuss the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed segmentation method.
Liao, Jingjing; Zang, Jian; Yuan, Fei; Liu, Shuang; Zhang, Yibo; Li, Haiyan; Piao, Zhongyun; Li, Hongbo
2016-07-01
Fruit color is an important index and parameter for measuring fruit quality. As an important pigment, anthocyanin is a determinant which appears in all sorts of colors of fruits in nature. Color parameters were measured using a spectrometer and used as a basis to divide the materials into three groups: reddish-orange, orange and yellow. A validated high-performance liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometric method was used for the analysis of anthocyanin in Schisandra chinensis and for determining major anthocyanin components in S. chinensis fruits, i.e. cyanidin xylosyl-glucoside (CyXylGlu), cyanidin glucosyl-rutinoside (CyGluRutin), cyanidin rutinoside (CyRutin) and cyanidin xylosyl-rutinoside (CyXylRutin). The anthocyanin contents vary obviously in different colored fruits in S. chinensis. The impact of anthocyanin on coloration of fruits was investigated by multiple regression analysis between color parameters and anthocyanin components, which indicated that CyRutin is the primary cause of fruit color variation in S. chinensis. The content and type of anthocyanin determine fruit coloration in S. chinensis, laying the early foundations for systematically interpreting the mechanism of fruit coloration in S. chinensis. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Owen, R J; Costas, M; Morgan, D D; On, S L; Hill, L R; Pearson, A D; Morgan, D R
1989-03-01
A total of 21 clinical isolates of Campylobacter pylori from Peru and the United Kingdom and two reference strains (from Australia), including the type strain (NCTC 11637T), were characterized by high resolution one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of cellular proteins. The protein patterns contained more than 40 discrete bands and the approximate molecular weights of the major bands were 22, 27, 46, 57, 60, 65 and 93 kD. The total patterns were used as the basis of numerical analysis. Most strains were clustered in four phenons at 91% similarity with the exception of six ungrouped strains. Overall similarity was high with all strains linked in the phenogram at greater than or equal to 81%. Variation among strains was attributable principally to qualitative and quantitative band differences in the 47 to 56 kD (hypervariable) region of the C. pylori protein profile. From the analysis, ten different electropherotypes (EP-types) were identified. We demonstrated that differences were detectable among isolates from widely separated geographical locations as well as from the same location, although multiple isolates from two Peruvian patients had the same electropherotype. Our results indicate that determination of protein profiles provides the basis of a reproducible method for characterization of C. pylori isolates.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Thingholm, Louise Bruun; Andersen, Lars; Makalic, Enes
2016-01-01
The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis. H......—making the assessment of disease risk against a composite genomic factor possible. The focus of this review is to provide an overview and introduction to the main strategies and to discuss where there is a need for further development.......The development and progression of cancer, a collection of diseases with complex genetic architectures, is facilitated by the interplay of multiple etiological factors. This complexity challenges the traditional single-platform study design and calls for an integrated approach to data analysis....... However, integration of heterogeneous measurements of biological variation is a non-trivial exercise due to the diversity of the human genome and the variety of output data formats and genome coverage obtained from the commonly used molecular platforms. This review article will provide an introduction...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martinez Gala, F.
2016-07-01
This paper describes the main findings of a study performed by INSIA-UPM about the improvement of the reconstruction process of real world vehicle-pedestrian accidents using PC-Crash® software, aimed to develop a software tool for the estimation of the variability of the collision speed due to the lack of real values of some parameters required during the reconstruction task. The methodology has been based on a sensibility analysis of the factors variation. A total of 9 factors have been analyzed with the objective of identifying which ones were significant. Four of them (pedestrian height, collision angle, hood height and pedestrian-road friction coefficient) were significant and were included in a full factorial experiment with the collision speed as an additional factor in order to obtain a regression model with up to third level interactions. Two different factorial experiments with the same structure have been performed because of pedestrian gender differences. The tool has been created as a collision speed predictor based on the regression models obtained, using the 4 significant factors and the projection distance measured or estimated in the accident site. The tool has been used on the analysis of real-world reconstructed accidents occurred in the city of Madrid (Spain). The results have been adequate in most cases with less than 10% of deviation between the predicted speed and the one estimated in the reconstructions. (Author)
"Where Is Vietnam?" Antiwar Poetry and the Canon.
Bibby, Michael
1993-01-01
Argues for the pervasive intervention of the Vietnam War in the cultural production of U.S. poetry. Questions the academic canon of post-World War II poetry and criticizes anthologies for ignoring Vietnam War poetry. Suggests why Vietnam War poetry has remained such an avoided subject. Lists anthologies including such poetry. (HB)
A Problem-Centered Approach to Canonical Matrix Forms
Sylvestre, Jeremy
2014-01-01
This article outlines a problem-centered approach to the topic of canonical matrix forms in a second linear algebra course. In this approach, abstract theory, including such topics as eigenvalues, generalized eigenspaces, invariant subspaces, independent subspaces, nilpotency, and cyclic spaces, is developed in response to the patterns discovered…