WorldWideScience

Sample records for canonical low-hard state

  1. A magnetic model for low/hard state of black hole binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Ye, Yong-Chun; Huang, Chang-Yin; Cao, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    A magnetic model for low/hard state (LHS) of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs),H1743-322 and GX 339-4, is proposed based on the transportation of magnetic field from a companion into an accretion disk around a black hole (BH). This model consists of a truncated thin disk with an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The spectral profiles of the sources are fitted in agreement with the data observed at four different dates corresponding to the rising phase of the LHS. In addition, the association of the LHS with quasi-steady jet is modelled based on transportation of magnetic field, where the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes are invoked to drive the jets from BH and inner ADAF. It turns out that the steep radio/X-ray correlations observed in H1743-322 and GX 339-4 can be interpreted based on our model.

  2. A magnetic model for low/hard state of black hole binaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yong-Chun; Wang, Ding-Xiong; Huang, Chang-Yin; Cao, Xiao-Feng

    2016-03-01

    A magnetic model for the low/hard state (LHS) of two black hole X-ray binaries (BHXBs), H1743-322 and GX 339-4, is proposed based on transport of the magnetic field from a companion into an accretion disk around a black hole (BH). This model consists of a truncated thin disk with an inner advection-dominated accretion flow (ADAF). The spectral profiles of the sources are fitted in agreement with the data observed at four different dates corresponding to the rising phase of the LHS. In addition, the association of the LHS with a quasi-steady jet is modeled based on transport of magnetic field, where the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) and Blandford-Payne (BP) processes are invoked to drive the jets from BH and inner ADAF. It turns out that the steep radio/X-ray correlations observed in H1743-322 and GX 339-4 can be interpreted based on our model.

  3. Low/Hard State Spectra of GRO J1655-40 Observed with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Mizuno, Tsunefumi; Hirasawa, Ayumi; Kitamoto, Shunji; Sudoh, Keisuke; Ogita, Takayuki; Kubota, Aya; Makishima, Kazuo; Itoh, Takeshi; Parmar, Arvind N; Ebisawa, Ken; Naik, Sachindra; Dotani, Tadayasu; Kokubun, Motohide; Ohnuki, Kousuke; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Yaqoob, Tahir; Angelini, Lorella; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Kotani, Taro; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Namiki, Masaaki; Kohmura, Takayoshi; Negoro, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    The Galactic black-hole binary GRO J1655$-$40 was observed with Suzaku on 2005 September 22--23, for a net exposure of 35 ks with the X-ray Imaging Spectrometer (XIS) and 20 ks with the Hard X-ray Detector (HXD). The source was detected over a broad and continuous energy range of 0.7--300 keV, with an intensity of $\\sim$50 mCrab at 20 keV. At a distance of 3.2 kpc, the 0.7--300 keV luminosity is $ \\sim 5.1 \\times 10^{36}$ erg s$^{-1}$ ($\\sim 0.7$ % of the Eddington luminosity for a 6 $M_{\\odot}$ black hole). The source was in a typical low/hard state, exhibiting a power-law shaped continuum with a photon index of $\\sim 1.6$. During the observation, the source intensity gradually decreased by 25% at energies above $\\sim 3$ keV, and by 35% below 2 keV. This, together with the soft X-ray spectra taken with the XIS, suggests the presence of an independent soft component that can be represented by emission from a cool ($\\sim 0.2$ keV) disk. The hard X-ray spectra obtained with the HXD reveal a high-energy spectral...

  4. Rapid Spectral Changes of Cygnus X-1 in the Low/Hard State with Suzaku

    CERN Document Server

    Yamada, S; Torii, S; Noda, H; Mineshige, S; Makishima, K

    2013-01-01

    Rapid spectral changes in the hard X-ray on a time scale down to ~0.1 s are studied by applying "shot analysis" technique to the Suzaku observations of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1, performed on 2008 April 18 during the low/hard state. We successfully obtained the shot profiles covering 10--200 keV with the Suzaku HXD-PIN and HXD-GSO detector. It is notable that the 100-200 keV shot profile is acquired for the first time owing to the HXD-GSO detector. The intensity changes in a time-symmetric way, though the hardness does in a time-asymmetric way. When the shot-phase-resolved spectra are quantified with the Compton model, the Compton y-parameter and the electron temperature are found to decrease gradually through the rising phase of the shot, while the optical depth appears to increase. All the parameters return to their time-averaged values immediately within 0.1 s past the shot peak. We have not only confirmed this feature previously found in energies below ~60 keV, but also found that the spectral chan...

  5. Powerful jets from black hole X-ray binaries in Low/Hard X-ray states

    OpenAIRE

    Fender, R. P.

    2000-01-01

    Four persistent (Cygnus X-1, GX 339-4, GRS 1758-258 and 1E 1740.7-2942) and three transient (GS 2023+38, GRO J0422+32 and GS 1354-64) black hole X-ray binary systems have been extensively observed at radio wavelengths during extended periods in the Low/Hard X-ray state, which is characterised in X-rays by a hard power-law spectrum and strong variability. All seven systems show a persistent flat or inverted (in the sense that spectral index alpha >= 0) radio spectrum in this state, markedly di...

  6. Simultaneous independent measurements of a truncated inner accretion disc in the low/hard state of GX 399$-$4

    CERN Document Server

    Plant, D S; Fender, R P

    2014-01-01

    We present results from three recent XMM-Newton observations of GX 339$-$4 in the low/hard state, taken during the decay of a bright (peak $\\sim 0.05$ L$_{\\rm Edd}$) failed outburst. Uniquely, these are the first XMM-Newton EPIC-pn observations of this source using an imaging mode, which significantly enhances the quality of the data at hand. In particular, thanks to the larger available bandpass, this allows an unprecedented constraint of the thermal accretion disc component, and the level of photoelectric absorption. We simultaneously measured the inner radius of the accretion disc via the broadened Fe K$\\alpha$ line and the disc component. The two methods agree, and the measured radii show good consistency over the three epochs. We find that the inner radius is at 20-30 $r_{\\rm g}$, adding to the growing direct evidence for truncation of the inner accretion disc in the low/hard state.

  7. NuSTAR and integral observations of a low/hard state of 1E1740.7-2942

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microquasar 1E1740.7-2942, also known as the 'Great Annihilator,' was observed by NuSTAR in the summer of 2012. We have analyzed in detail two observations taken ∼2 weeks apart, for which we measure hard and smooth spectra typical of the low/hard state. A few weeks later the source flux declined significantly. Nearly simultaneous coverage by INTEGRAL is available from its Galactic Center monitoring campaign lasting ∼2.5 months. These data probe the hard state spectrum from 1E1740.7-2942 before the flux decline. We find good agreement between the spectra taken with IBIS/ISGRI and NuSTAR, with the measurements being compatible with a change in flux with no spectral variability. We present a detailed analysis of the NuSTAR spectral and timing data and upper limits for reflection of the high energy emission. We show that the high energy spectrum of this X-ray binary is well described by thermal Comptonization.

  8. New Constraints on the Black Hole Low/Hard State Inner Accretion Flow with NuSTAR

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, J M; Bachetti, M; Wilkins, D; Boggs, S E; Chistensen, F E; Craig, W W; Fabian, A C; Grefenstette, B W; Hailey, C J; Harrison, F A; Kara, E; King, A L; Stern, D K; Zhang, W W

    2014-01-01

    We report on an observation of the Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1739-278 during its 2014 outburst, obtained with NuSTAR. The source was captured at the peak of a rising "low/hard" state, at a flux of ~0.3 Crab. A broad, skewed iron line and disk reflection spectrum are revealed. Fits to the sensitive NuSTAR spectra with a number of relativistically blurred disk reflection models yield strong geometrical constraints on the disk and hard X-ray "corona". Two models that explicitly assume a "lamppost" corona find its base to have a vertical height above the black hole of h = 5 (+7, -2) GM/c^2 and h = 18 +/-4 GM/c^2 (90% confidence errors); models that do not assume a "lamppost" return emissivity profiles that are broadly consistent with coronae of this size. Given that X-ray microlensing studies of quasars and reverberation lags in Seyferts find similarly compact coronae, observations may now signal that compact coronae are fundamental across the black hole mass scale. All of the models fit to GRS 1739-278 f...

  9. Rapid optical and X-ray timing observations of GX 339−4: multicomponent optical variability in the low/hard state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Gandhi; V.S. Dhillon; M. Durant; A.C. Fabian; A. Kubota; K. Makishima; J. Malzac; T.R. Marsh; J.M. Miller; T. Shahbaz; H.C. Spruit; P. Casella

    2010-01-01

    A rapid timing analysis of Very Large Telescope (VLT)/ULTRACAM (optical) and RXTE (X-ray) observations of the Galactic black hole binary GX 339−4 in the low/hard, post-outburst state of 2007 June is presented. The optical light curves in the r′, g′ and u′ filters show slow (∼20 s) quasi-periodic var

  10. NEW CONSTRAINTS ON THE BLACK HOLE LOW/HARD STATE INNER ACCRETION FLOW WITH NuSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J. M.; King, A. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 500 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1042 (United States); Tomsick, J. A.; Boggs, S. E. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bachetti, M. [Universite de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31100 Toulouse (France); Wilkins, D. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, Saint Mary' s University, Halifax, NS. B3H 3C3 (Canada); Christensen, F. E. [Danish Technical University, DK-2800, Lyngby (Denmark); Craig, W. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore CA (United States); Fabian, A. C.; Kara, E. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A. [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Hailey, C. J. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Stern, D. K [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Zhang, W. W., E-mail: jonmm@umich.edu [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-01-20

    We report on an observation of the Galactic black hole candidate GRS 1739–278 during its 2014 outburst, obtained with NuSTAR. The source was captured at the peak of a rising ''low/hard'' state, at a flux of ∼0.3 Crab. A broad, skewed iron line and disk reflection spectrum are revealed. Fits to the sensitive NuSTAR spectra with a number of relativistically blurred disk reflection models yield strong geometrical constraints on the disk and hard X-ray ''corona''. Two models that explicitly assume a ''lamp post'' corona find its base to have a vertical height above the black hole of h=5{sub −2}{sup +7} GM/c{sup 2} and h = 18 ± 4 GM/c {sup 2} (90% confidence errors); models that do not assume a ''lamp post'' return emissivity profiles that are broadly consistent with coronae of this size. Given that X-ray microlensing studies of quasars and reverberation lags in Seyferts find similarly compact coronae, observations may now signal that compact coronae are fundamental across the black hole mass scale. All of the models fit to GRS 1739–278 find that the accretion disk extends very close to the black hole—the least stringent constraint is r{sub in}=5{sub −4}{sup +3} GM/c{sup 2}. Only two of the models deliver meaningful spin constraints, but a = 0.8 ± 0.2 is consistent with all of the fits. Overall, the data provide especially compelling evidence of an association between compact hard X-ray coronae and the base of relativistic radio jets in black holes.

  11. MAXI observations of long-term variations of Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard and the high/soft states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Juri; Mihara, Tatehiro; Kitamoto, Shunji; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The long-term X-ray variability of the black hole binary Cygnus X-1 was studied with five years of MAXI data from 2009 to 2014, which include substantial periods of the high/soft state, as well as the low/hard state. In each state, normalized power spectrum densities (NPSDs) were calculated in three energy bands of 2-4 keV, 4-10 keV, and 10-20 keV. The NPSDs for frequencies from 10-7 Hz to 10-4 Hz are all approximated by a power-law function with an index -1.35-1.29. The fractional RMS variation η, calculated in the above frequency range, was found to show the following three properties: (1) η slightly decreases with energy in the low/hard state; (2) η increases towards higher energies in the high/soft state; and (3) in the 10-20 keV band, η is three times higher in the high/soft state than in the low/hard state. These properties were confirmed through studies of intensity-correlated changes of the MAXI spectra. Of these three findings, the first one is consistent with that seen in the short-term variability during the low/hard state. The latter two can be understood as a result of high variability of the hard-tail component seen in the high/soft state with the above very low frequency range, although the origin of the variability remains inconclusive.

  12. MAXI observations of long-term variations of Cygnus X-1 in the low/hard and the high/soft states

    CERN Document Server

    Sugimoto, Juri; Kitamoto, Shunji; Matsuoka, Masaru; Sugizaki, Mutsumi; Negoro, Hitoshi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Makishima, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Long-term X-ray variability of the black hole binary, Cygnus X-1, was studied with five years of MAXI data from 2009 to 2014, which include substantial periods of the high/soft state, as well as the low/hard state. In each state, Normalized Power Spectrum densities (NPSDs) were calculated in three energy bands of 2-4 keV, 4-10 keV and 10-20 keV. The NPSDs in a frequency from 1e-7 Hz to 1e-4 Hz are all approximated by a power-law function with an index -1.35 ~ -1.29. The fractional RMS variation ($\\eta$), calculated in the above frequency range, was found to show the following three properties; (1) $\\eta$ slightly decreases with energy in the low/hard state; (2) $\\eta$ increases towards higher energies in the high/soft state; and (3) in the 10-20 keV band, $\\eta$ is 3 times higher in the high/soft state than in the low/hard state. These properties were confirmed through studies of intensity-correlated changes of the MAXI spectra. Of these three findings, the first one is consistent with that seen in the short-...

  13. Low-Luminosity AGN as analogues of Galactic Black Holes in the low/hard state: Evidence from X-ray timing of NGC 4258

    CERN Document Server

    Markowitz, A

    2005-01-01

    We present a broadband power spectral density function (PSD) measured from extensive RXTE monitoring data of the low-luminosity AGN NGC 4258, which has an accurate, maser-determined black hole mass of 3.9+/-0.1 * 10^7 solar masses. We constrain the PSD break timescale to be greater than 4.5 d at >90% confidence, which appears to rule out the possibility that NGC 4258 is an analogue of black hole X-ray binaries (BHXRBs) in the high/soft state. In this sense, the PSD of NGC 4258 is different to those of some more-luminous Seyferts, which appear similar to the PSDs of high/soft state X-ray binaries. This result supports previous analogies between LLAGN and X-ray binaries in the low/hard state based on spectral energy distributions, indicating that the AGN/BHXRB analogy is valid across a broad range of accretion rates.

  14. Canonical Quantum Teleportation of Two-Particle Arbitrary State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Xiang; ZHU Shi-Qun

    2005-01-01

    The canonical quantum teleportation of two-particle arbitrary state is realized by means of phase operator and number operator. The maximally entangled eigenstates between the difference of phase operators and the sum of number operators are considered as the quantum channels. In contrast to the standard quantum teleportation, the different unitary local operation of canonical teleportation can be simplified by a general expression.

  15. NuSTAR and INTEGRAL observations of a low/hard state of 1E1740.7-2942

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natalucci, Lorenzo; Tomsick, John A.; Bazzano, Angela;

    2014-01-01

    declined significantly. Nearly simultaneous coverage by INTEGRAL is available from its Galactic Center monitoring campaign lasting ~2.5 months. These data probe the hard state spectrum from 1E1740.7-2942 before the flux decline. We find good agreement between the spectra taken with IBIS/ISGRI and Nu......STAR, with the measurements being compatible with a change in flux with no spectral variability. We present a detailed analysis of the NuSTAR spectral and timing data and upper limits for reflection of the high energy emission. We show that the high energy spectrum of this X-ray binary is well described by...

  16. Spectral and timing properties of the black hole X-ray binary H1743–322 in the low/hard state studied with Suzaku

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the results from Suzaku observations of the Galactic black hole X-ray binary H1743–322 in the low/hard state during its outburst in 2012 October. We appropriately take into account the effects of dust scattering to accurately analyze the X-ray spectra. The time-averaged spectra in the 1-200 keV band are dominated by a hard power-law component of a photon index of ≈1.6 with a high-energy cutoff at ≈60 keV, which is well described with the Comptonization of the disk emission by the hot corona. We estimate the inner disk radius from the multi-color disk component, and find that it is 1.3-2.3 times larger than the radius in the high/soft state. This suggests that the standard disk was not extended to the innermost stable circular orbit. A reflection component from the disk is detected with R = Ω/2π ≈ 0.6 (Ω is the solid angle). We also successfully estimate the stable disk component independent of the time-averaged spectral modeling by analyzing short-term spectral variability on a ∼1 s timescale. A weak low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation at 0.1-0.2 Hz is detected, whose frequency is found to correlate with the X-ray luminosity and photon index. This result may be explained by the evolution of the disk truncation radius.

  17. X-Ray and Near-Infrared Observations of GX 339-4 in the Low/Hard State with Suzaku and IRSF

    CERN Document Server

    Shidatsu, Megumi; Tazaki, Fumie; Yoshikawa, Tatsuhito; Nagayama, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsuya; Oi, Nagisa; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Kubota, Aya; Cottam, Jean; Remillard, Ronald; Negoro, Hitoshi

    2011-01-01

    X-ray and near-infrared ($J$-$H$-$K_{\\rm s}$) observations of the Galactic black hole binary GX 339--4 in the low/hard state were performed with Suzaku and IRSF in 2009 March. The spectrum in the 0.5--300 keV band is dominated by thermal Comptonization of multicolor disk photons, with a small contribution from a direct disk component, indicating that the inner disk is almost fully covered by hot corona with an electron temperature of $\\approx$175 keV. The Comptonizing corona has at least two optical depths, $\\tau \\approx 1,0.4$. Analysis of the iron-K line profile yields an inner disk radius of $(13.3^{+6.4}_{-6.0}) R_{\\rm g}$ ($R_{\\rm g} $ represents the gravitational radius $GM/c^2$), with the best-fit inclination angle of $\\approx50^\\circ$. This radius is consistent with that estimated from the continuum fit by assuming the conservation of photon numbers in Comptonization. Our results suggest that the standard disk of GX 339--4 is likely truncated before reaching the innermost stable circular orbit (for a ...

  18. Repeated Short-term Spectral Softening in the Low/Hard State of the Galactic Black-Hole Candidate Swift J1753.5-0127

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshikawa, Akifumi; Nakahira, Satoshi; Matsuoka, Masaru; Negoro, Hitoshi; Mihara, Tatehiro; Tamagawa, Toru

    2015-01-01

    We report MAXI and Swift observations of short-term spectral softenings of the galactic black-hole X-ray binary Swift J1753.5-0127 in the low/hard state. These softening events are characterized by a simultaneous increase of soft X-rays (2-4 keV) and a decrease of hard X-rays (15-50 keV) lasting for a few tens of days. The X-ray energy spectra during the softening periods can be reproduced with a model consisting of a multi-color disk blackbody and its Comptonized component. The fraction of the Comptonized component decreased from 0.30 to 0.15 when the spectrum became softer; meanwhile the inner disk temperature (Tin) increased from 0.2 to 0.45 keV. These results imply that the softening events are triggered by a short-term increase of the mass accretion rate. During the observed spectral softening events, the disk flux (F) and Tin did not obey the relation: F is proportional to Tin^4, suggesting that the inner disk radius does not reach the innermost stable circular orbit.

  19. Rapid optical and X-ray timing observations of GX 339-4: multi-component optical variability in the low/hard state

    CERN Document Server

    Gandhi, P; Durant, M; Fabian, A C; Kubota, A; Makishima, K; Malzac, J; Marsh, T R; Miller, J M; Shahbaz, T; Spruit, H C; Casella, P

    2010-01-01

    A rapid timing analysis of VLT/ULTRACAM and RXTE observations of the black hole binary GX 339-4 in its 2007 low/hard state is presented. The optical light curves in the r', g' and u' filters show slow (~20 s) quasi-periodic variability. Upon this is superposed fast flaring activity on times approaching the best time resolution probed (~50 ms) and with maximum strengths of more than twice the local mean. Power spectral analysis over ~0.004-10 Hz is presented, and shows that although the average optical variability amplitude is lower than that in X-rays, the peak variability power emerges at a higher Fourier frequency in the optical. Energetically, we measure a large optical vs. X-ray flux ratio, higher than that seen when the source was fully jet-dominated. Such a large ratio cannot be easily explained with a disc alone. The optical:X-ray cross-spectrum shows a markedly different behaviour above and below ~0.2 Hz. The peak of the coherence function above this threshold is associated with a short optical time l...

  20. Quantum oscillators in the canonical coherent states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main characteristics of the quantum oscillator coherent states including the two-particle Calogero interaction are investigated. We show that these Calogero coherent states are the eigenstates of the second-order differential annihilation operator which is deduced via Wigner-Heisenberg algebraic technique and correspond exactly to the pure uncharged-bosonic states. They posses the important properties of non-orthogonality and completeness. The minimum uncertainty relation for the Wigner oscillator coherent states are investigated. New sets of even and odd coherent states are point out. (author)

  1. Three-qubit pure-state canonical forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we analyse the canonical forms into which any pure three-qubit state can be cast. The minimal forms, i.e. the ones with the minimal number of product states built from local bases, are also presented and lead to a complete classification of pure three-qubit states. This classification is related to the values of the polynomial invariants under local unitary transformations by a one-to-one correspondence. (author)

  2. Spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of GX 339-4 in the low/hard state during the outburst of 2013: Disk truncation radius and other issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, R.

    2015-07-01

    We analyze three XMM-Newton observations of the black-hole binary source GX 339-4 taken during the decay phase of 2013 outburst when the source was in a low/hard state. Our analysis indicates a large truncation radius (˜ 10-50 r_{g}) for the three observations, which is in agreement with that obtained by Plant et al. (2014) for the same observations. We further extend the result in favour of the standard accretion scenario of the low/hard state. We find the reflection fraction to be small, which is consistent with the hot plasma filling the part of the source below the truncation radius. We further test our result against various models e.g., radius-dependent ionization and various ISM abundances. Finally, we try to find conditions of the inclination and the elemental abundance under which our fits are consistent with the mass function results of the source.

  3. Representations of Canonical Commutation Relations Describing Infinite Coherent States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joye, Alain; Merkli, Marco

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the infinite volume limit of quantized photon fields in multimode coherent states. We show that for states containing a continuum of coherent modes, it is mathematically and physically natural to consider their phases to be random and identically distributed. The infinite volume states give rise to Hilbert space representations of the canonical commutation relations which we construct concretely. In the case of random phases, the representations are random as well and can be expressed with the help of Itô stochastic integrals. We analyze the dynamics of the infinite state alone and the open system dynamics of small systems coupled to it. We show that under the free field dynamics, initial phase distributions are driven to the uniform distribution. We demonstrate that coherences in small quantum systems, interacting with the infinite coherent state, exhibit Gaussian time decay. The decoherence is qualitatively faster than the one caused by infinite thermal states, which is known to be exponentially rapid only. This emphasizes the classical character of coherent states.

  4. Coherent states of the q-canonical commutation relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the q-deformed canonical commutation relations a(f)a†(g)=(1-q) left angle f,g right angle 1+qa†(g)a(f) for f,g in some Hilbert space H we consider representations generated from a vector Ω satisfying a(f)Ω= left angle f,φ right angle Ω, where φ element of H. We show that such a representation exists if and only if parallel φ parallel ≤1. Moreover, for parallel φ parallel *-algebra for the relations has a largest proper, closed, two-sided ideal. The quotient by this ideal is a natural q-analogue of the Cuntz algebra (obtained for q=0). We discuss the conjecture that, for d<∞, this analogue should, in fact, be equal to the Cuntz algebra itself. In the limiting cases q=±1 we determine all irreducible representations of the relations, and characterize those which can be obtained via coherent states. (orig.)

  5. Optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the black hole GX 339-4 II. The spectrocopic content in the low/hard and high/soft states

    CERN Document Server

    Rahoui, Farid; Lee, Julia C

    2014-01-01

    As a complement to our optical and near-infrared study of the continuum properties of GX 339-4 in the two hard and one soft state observations made by the ESO/VLT FORS2 and ISAAC in early 2010, we report here on the results of our spectral line analysis for the same observations. In the soft state, the presence of strong Balmer, Paschen and Brackett emission lines points to the optical and near-infrared spectra stemming from the irradiated chromosphere of the optically thick and geometrically thin accretion disc. Most of these HI features are still detected in emission in both hard states but are veiled by the compact jets continuum. We also confirm the presence of a broad Hbeta absorption feature, prominent in the soft state and shallower in the first hard state, which we argue forms in the deep layers of the optically thick accretion disc. However, this trough is absent in the second hard state, a likely consequence of the formation of a geometrically thick extended envelope that arises above the disc plane...

  6. Spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of GX 339-4 in the low/hard state: disc truncation and reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Rupal; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    2016-05-01

    We analyse all available observations of GX 339-4 by XMM-Newton in the hard spectral state. We jointly fit the spectral data by Comptonization and the currently best reflection code, relxill. We consider in detail a contribution from a standard blackbody accretion disc, testing whether its inner radius can be set equal to that of the reflector. However, this leads to an unphysical behaviour of the disc truncation radius, implying the soft X-ray component is not a standard blackbody disc. This appears to be due to irradiation by the hard X-rays, which strongly dominate the total emission. We consider a large array of models, testing, e.g. the effects of the chosen energy range, of adding unblurred reflection, and assuming a lamp-post geometry. We find the effects of relativistic broadening to be relatively weak in all cases. In the coronal models, we find the inner radius to be large. In the lamp-post model, the inner radius is unconstrained, but when fixed to the innermost stable orbit, the height of the source is large, which also implies a weak relativistic broadening. In the former models, the inner radius correlates with the X-ray hardness ratio, which is consistent with the presence of a truncated disc turning into a complete disc in the soft state. We also find the degree of the disc ionization to anticorrelate with the hardness, leading to strong spectral broadening due to scattering of reflected photons in the reflector in the softest studied states.

  7. Spectral analysis of the XMM-Newton data of GX 339-4 in the low/hard state: disc truncation and reflection

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Rupal

    2015-01-01

    We analyse all available observations of GX 339--4 by XMM-Newton in the hard spectral state. We jointly fit the spectral data by Comptonisation and the currently best reflection code, relxill. We consider in detail a contribution from a standard blackbody accretion disc, testing whether its inner radius can be set equal to that of the reflector. However, this leads to an unphysical behaviour of the disc truncation radius, implying the soft X-ray component is not a standard blackbody disc. This is due to irradiation by the hard X-rays, which strongly dominate the total emission. We thus treat the soft component phenomenologically. We consider a large array of models, testing, e.g., the effects of the chosen energy range, the radial irradiation profile, adding unblurred reflection, and assuming a lamppost geometry. We find the effects of relativistic broadening to be relatively weak in all cases. In the coronal models, we find the inner radius to be large. In the lamppost model, the inner radius is unconstraine...

  8. Chandra X-ray spectroscopy of the focused wind in the Cygnus X-1 system I. The non-dip spectrum in the low/hard state

    CERN Document Server

    Hanke, Manfred; Nowak, Michael A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S; Lee, Julia C

    2008-01-01

    We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system Cygnus X-1/HDE 226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). Cyg X-1 was in its spectrally hard state and the observation was performed during superior conjunction of the black hole, allowing for the spectroscopic analysis of the accreted stellar wind along the line of sight. A significant part of the observation covers X-ray dips as commonly observed for Cyg X-1 at this orbital phase, however, here we only analyze the high count rate non-dip spectrum. The full 0.5-10 keV continuum can be described by a single model consisting of a disk, a narrow and a relativistically broadened Fe Kalpha line, and a power law component, which is consistent with simultaneous RXTE broad band data. We detect absorption edges from overabundant neutral O, Ne and Fe, and absorption line series from highly ionized ions and infer column densities and Doppler shifts. With emission lines of He-like Mg XI, we detect t...

  9. Chandra X-ray Spectroscopy of the Focused Wind In the Cygnus X-1 System I. The Non-Dip Spectrum in the Low/Hard State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanke, Manfred; Wilms, Jorn; Nowak, Michael A.; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schultz, Norbert S.; Lee, Julia C.

    2008-01-01

    We present analyses of a 50 ks observation of the supergiant X-ray binary system CygnusX-1/HDE226868 taken with the Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETGS). CygX-1 was in its spectrally hard state and the observation was performed during superior conjunction of the black hole, allowing for the spectroscopic analysis of the accreted stellar wind along the line of sight. A significant part of the observation covers X-ray dips as commonly observed for CygX-1 at this orbital phase, however, here we only analyze the high count rate non-dip spectrum. The full 0.5-10 keV continuum can be described by a single model consisting of a disk, a narrow and a relativistically broadened Fe K line, and a power law component, which is consistent with simultaneous RXTE broad band data. We detect absorption edges from overabundant neutral O, Ne and Fe, and absorption line series from highly ionized ions and infer column densities and Doppler shifts. With emission lines of He-like Mg XI, we detect two plasma components with velocities and densities consistent with the base of the spherical wind and a focused wind. A simple simulation of the photoionization zone suggests that large parts of the spherical wind outside of the focused stream are completely ionized, which is consistent with the low velocities (<200 km/s) observed in the absorption lines, as the position of absorbers in a spherical wind at low projected velocity is well constrained. Our observations provide input for models that couple the wind activity of HDE 226868 to the properties of the accretion flow onto the black hole.

  10. Is the plateau state in GRS 1915+105 equivalent to canonical hard states?

    OpenAIRE

    van Oers, Pieter; Markoff, Sera; Maitra, Dipankar; Rahoui, Farid; Nowak, Michael; Wilms, Jörn; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J.; Rodriguez, Jerome; Dhawan, Vivek; Harlaftis, Emilios

    2010-01-01

    GRS1915+105 is a very peculiar black hole binary that exhibits accretion-related states that are not observed in any other stellar-mass black hole system. One of these states, however -- referred to as the plateau state -- may be related to the canonical hard state of black hole X-ray binaries. Both the plateau and hard state are associated with steady, relatively lower X-ray emission and flat/inverted radio emission, that is sometimes resolved into compact, self-absorbed jets. However, while...

  11. Canonical form of three-fermion pure-states with six single particle states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a canonical form for pure states in ∧3(C6), the three-fermion system with six single particle states, under local unitary (LU) transformations, i.e., the unitary group U(6). We also construct a minimal set of generators of the algebra of polynomial U(6)-invariants on ∧3(C6). It turns out that this algebra is isomorphic to the algebra of polynomial LU-invariants of three-qubits which are additionally invariant under qubit permutations. As a consequence of this surprising fact, we deduce that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the U(6)-orbits of pure three-fermion states in ∧3(C6) and the LU orbits of pure three-qubit states when qubit permutations are allowed. As an important byproduct, we obtain a new canonical form for pure three-qubit states under LU transformations U(2) × U(2) × U(2) (no qubit permutations allowed)

  12. State-Vector Space and Canonical Coherent States in Noncommutative Plane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The structure of the state-vector space of identical bosons in noncommutative spaces is investigated. To maintain Bose-Einstein statistics the commutation relations of phase space variables should simultaneously include coordinate-coordinate non-commutativity and momentum-momentum non-commutativity, which leads to a kind of de-formed Heisenberg-Weyl algebra. Although there is no ordinary number representation in this state-vector space, several set of orthogonal and complete state-vectors can be derived which are common eigenvectors of corresponding pairs of commuting Hermitian operators. As a simple application of this state-vector space, an explicit form of two-dimensional canonical coherent state is constructed and its properties are discussed.

  13. Hamiltonian models of multiphoton processes and four--photon squeezed states via nonlinear canonical transformations

    OpenAIRE

    De Siena, Silvio; Di Lisi, Antonio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    We introduce nonlinear canonical transformations that yield effective Hamiltonians of multiphoton down conversion processes, and we define the associated non-Gaussian multiphoton squeezed states as the coherent states of the multiphoton Hamiltonians. We study in detail the four-photon processes and the associated non-Gaussian four-photon squeezed states. The realization of squeezing, the behavior of the field statistics, and the structure of the phase space distributions show that these state...

  14. Is the plateau state in GRS 1915+105 equivalent to canonical hard states?

    CERN Document Server

    van Oers, Pieter; Maitra, Dipankar; Rahoui, Farid; Nowak, Michael; Wilms, Jörn; Castro-Tirado, Alberto J; Rodriguez, Jerome; Dhawan, Vivek; Harlaftis, Emilios

    2010-01-01

    GRS1915+105 is a very peculiar black hole binary that exhibits accretion-related states that are not observed in any other stellar-mass black hole system. One of these states, however -- referred to as the plateau state -- may be related to the canonical hard state of black hole X-ray binaries. Both the plateau and hard state are associated with steady, relatively lower X-ray emission and flat/inverted radio emission, that is sometimes resolved into compact, self-absorbed jets. However, while generally black hole binaries quench their jets when the luminosity becomes too high, GRS1915+105 seems to sustain them despite the fact that it accretes at near- or super-Eddington rates. In order to investigate the relationship between the plateau and the hard state, we fit two multi-wavelength observations using a steady-state outflow-dominated model, developed for hard state black hole binaries. The data sets consist of quasi-simultaneous observations in radio, near-infrared and X-ray bands. Interestingly, we find bo...

  15. Work fluctuations for Bose particles in grand canonical initial states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Juyeon; Kim, Yong Woon; Talkner, Peter

    2012-05-01

    We consider bosons in a harmonic trap and investigate the fluctuations of the work performed by an adiabatic change of the trap curvature. Depending on the reservoir conditions such as temperature and chemical potential that provide the initial equilibrium state, the exponentiated work average (EWA) defined in the context of the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality may diverge if the trap becomes wider. We investigate how the probability distribution function (PDF) of the work signals this divergence. It is shown that at low temperatures the PDF is highly asymmetric with a steep fall-off at one side and an exponential tail at the other side. For high temperatures it is closer to a symmetric distribution approaching a Gaussian form. These properties of the work PDF are discussed in relation to the convergence of the EWA and to the existence of the hypothetical equilibrium state to which those thermodynamic potential changes refer that enter both the Crooks relation and the Jarzynski equality. PMID:23004703

  16. Hamiltonian models of multiphoton processes and four--photon squeezed states via nonlinear canonical transformations

    CERN Document Server

    De Siena, S; Illuminati, F; Siena, Silvio De; Lisi, Antonio Di; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2002-01-01

    We introduce nonlinear canonical transformations that yield effective Hamiltonians of multiphoton down conversion processes, and we define the associated non-Gaussian multiphoton squeezed states as the coherent states of the multiphoton Hamiltonians. We study in detail the four-photon processes and the associated non-Gaussian four-photon squeezed states. The realization of squeezing, the behavior of the field statistics, and the structure of the phase space distributions show that these states realize a natural four-photon generalization of the two-photon squeezed states.

  17. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n-mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [F. Dell'Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004)], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization

  18. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states

    Science.gov (United States)

    dell'Anno, Fabio; de Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-03-01

    We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local-oscillator angle; for n -mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixing of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems, and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non-Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local-oscillator angle allows us to vary at will the statistical properties of such states. We discuss the relevance of the formalism for the study of degenerate (up-)down-conversion processes. In a companion paper [ F. Dell’Anno, S. De Siena, and F. Illuminati, 69, 033813 (2004) ], we provide the extension of the nonlinear canonical formalism to multimode systems, we introduce the associated heterodyne multiphoton squeezed states, and we discuss their possible experimental realization.

  19. Structure of multiphoton quantum optics. I. Canonical formalism and homodyne squeezed states

    CERN Document Server

    Dell'Anno, F; Illuminati, F; Anno, Fabio Dell'; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2004-01-01

    We introduce a formalism of nonlinear canonical transformations for general systems of multiphoton quantum optics. For single-mode systems the transformations depend on a tunable free parameter, the homodyne local oscillator angle; for n-mode systems they depend on n heterodyne mixing angles. The canonical formalism realizes nontrivial mixings of pairs of conjugate quadratures of the electromagnetic field in terms of homodyne variables for single-mode systems; and in terms of heterodyne variables for multimode systems. In the first instance the transformations yield nonquadratic model Hamiltonians of degenerate multiphoton processes and define a class of non Gaussian, nonclassical multiphoton states that exhibit properties of coherence and squeezing. We show that such homodyne multiphoton squeezed states are generated by unitary operators with a nonlinear time evolution that realizes the homodyne mixing of a pair of conjugate quadratures. Tuning of the local oscillator angle allows to vary at will the statist...

  20. Physical states in the canonical tensor model from the perspective of random tensor networks

    CERN Document Server

    Narain, Gaurav; Sato, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Tensor models, generalization of matrix models, are studied aiming for quantum gravity in dimensions larger than two. Among them, the canonical tensor model is formulated as a totally constrained system with first-class constraints, the algebra of which resembles the Dirac algebra of general relativity. When quantized, the physical states are defined to be vanished by the quantized constraints. In explicit representations, the constraint equations are a set of partial differential equations for physical wave-functions, which do not seem straightforward to solve due to their non-linear character. In this paper, after providing some explicit solutions for N = 2,3, we show that certain scale-free integration of partition functions of statistical systems on random networks, or random tensor networks more generally, provides a series of solutions for general N. Then, by generalizing this form, we also obtain various solutions for general N. Moreover, we show that the solutions for the cases with a cosmological con...

  1. Optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the black hole GX 339-4: I. A focus on the continuum in the low/hard and high/soft states

    CERN Document Server

    Rahoui, F; Corbel, S; Bel, M Cadolle; Tomsick, J A; Lee, J C; Rodriguez, J; Russell, D M; Migliari, S

    2012-01-01

    The microquasar GX 339-4, known to exhibit powerful compact jets that dominate its radio to near-infrared emission, entered an outburst in 2010 for the fifth time in about fifteen years. An extensive radio to X-ray multi-wavelength campaign was immediately triggered, and we report here on ESO/FORS2+ISAAC optical and near-infrared spectroscopic observations, supported by ATCA radio and RXTE/Swift X-ray quasi-simultaneous data. GX 339-4 was observed at three different epochs, once in the soft state and twice in the hard state. In the soft state, the optical and near-infrared continuum is largely consistent with the Raleigh-Jeans tail of a thermal process. As an explanation, we favour irradiation of the outer accretion disc by its inner regions, enhanced by disc warping. An excess is also present at low frequencies, likely due to a M subgiant companion star. During the first hard state, the optical/near-infrared continuum is well-described by the optically thin synchrotron emission of the compact jet combined wi...

  2. Quantum Decoherence and Thermalization at Finite Temperature within the Canonical Thermal State Ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Novotny, M A; Yuan, S; Miyashita, S; De Raedt, H; Michielsen, K

    2016-01-01

    We study measures of decoherence and thermalization of a quantum system $S$ in the presence of a quantum environment (bath) $E$. The entirety $S$$+$$E$ is prepared in a canonical thermal state at a finite temperature, that is the entirety is in a steady state. Both our numerical results and theoretical predictions show that measures of the decoherence and the thermalization of $S$ are generally finite, even in the thermodynamic limit, when the entirety $S$$+$$E$ is at finite temperature. Notably, applying perturbation theory with respect to the system-environment coupling strength, we find that under common Hamiltonian symmetries, up to first order in the coupling strength it is sufficient to consider $S$ uncoupled from $E$, but entangled with $E$, to predict decoherence and thermalization measures of $S$. This decoupling allows closed form expressions for perturbative expansions for the measures of decoherence and thermalization in terms of the free energies of $S$ and of $E$. Large-scale numerical results f...

  3. Quantum decoherence and thermalization at finite temperature within the canonical-thermal-state ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotny, M. A.; Jin, F.; Yuan, S.; Miyashita, S.; De Raedt, H.; Michielsen, K.

    2016-03-01

    We study measures of decoherence and thermalization of a quantum system S in the presence of a quantum environment (bath) E . The entirety S +E is prepared in a canonical-thermal state at a finite temperature; that is, the entirety is in a steady state. Both our numerical results and theoretical predictions show that measures of the decoherence and the thermalization of S are generally finite, even in the thermodynamic limit, when the entirety S +E is at finite temperature. Notably, applying perturbation theory with respect to the system-environment coupling strength, we find that under common Hamiltonian symmetries, up to first order in the coupling strength it is sufficient to consider S uncoupled from E , but entangled with E , to predict decoherence and thermalization measures of S . This decoupling allows closed-form expressions for perturbative expansions for the measures of decoherence and thermalization in terms of the free energies of S and of E . Large-scale numerical results for both coupled and uncoupled entireties with up to 40 quantum spins support these findings.

  4. Optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the black hole GX 339-4 - I. A focus on the continuum in the low/hard and high/soft states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahoui, F.; Coriat, M.; Corbel, S.; Cadolle Bel, M.; Tomsick, J. A.; Lee, J. C.; Rodriguez, J.; Russell, D. M.; Migliari, S.

    2012-05-01

    The microquasar GX 339-4, known to exhibit powerful compact jets that dominate its radio to near-infrared emission, entered an outburst in 2010 for the fifth time in about 15 yr. An extensive radio to X-ray multiwavelength campaign was immediately triggered, and we report here on European Southern Observatory/FORS2+ISAAC optical and near-infrared spectroscopic observations, supported by Australia Telescope Compact Array radio and Rossi X-ray Timing Experiment/Swift X-ray quasi-simultaneous data. GX 339-4 was observed at three different epochs, once in the soft state and twice in the hard state. In the soft state, the optical and near-infrared continuum is largely consistent with the Raleigh-Jeans tail of a thermal process. As an explanation, we favour irradiation of the outer accretion disc by its inner regions, enhanced by disc warping. An excess is also present at low frequencies, likely due to an M subgiant companion star. During the first hard state, the optical/near-infrared continuum is well described by the optically thin synchrotron emission of the compact jet combined with disc irradiation and perhaps another component peaking in the ultraviolet. The spectral break where the jet transits from the optically thick to thin regimes, located below 1.20 × 1014 Hz, is not detected and the extension of the optically thin synchrotron is consistent with the 3-50 keV spectrum. In contrast, the emission during the second hard state is more difficult to understand and points towards a more complex jet continuum. In both cases, the near-infrared continuum is found to be variable at time-scales at least as short as 20 s, although these variabilities are smoothed out beyond a few hundred seconds. This implies rapid variations - in flux and frequency - of the location of the spectral break, i.e. dramatic short time-scale changes of the physical conditions at the base of the jet, such as the magnetic field and/or the base radius. a Same as DISKBB.

  5. Chandra X-Ray Spectroscopy of the Focused Wind in the Cygnus X-1 System. II. The Nondip Spectrum in the Low/Hard State - Modulations with Orbital Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Miškovičová, Ivica; Hanke, Manfred; Nowak, Michael A; Pottschmidt, Katja; Schulz, Norbert S; Grinberg, Victoria; Duro, Refiz; Madej, Oliwia K; Lohfink, Anne M; Rodriguez, Jérôme; Bel, Marion Cadolle; Bodaghee, Arash; Tomsick, John A; Lee, Julia C; Brown, Gregory V; Wilms, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    The accretion onto the black hole in the system HDE 226868/Cygnus X-1 is powered by the strong line driven stellar wind of the O-type donor star. We study the X-ray properties of the stellar wind in the hard state of Cyg X-1 as determined with data from the Chandra High Energy Transmission Gratings. Large density and temperature inhomogeneities are present in the wind, with a fraction of the wind consisting of clumps of matter with higher density and lower temperature embedded in a photoionized gas. Absorption dips observed in the light curve are believed to be caused by these clumps. This work concentrates on the non-dip spectra as a function of orbital phase. The spectra show lines of H-like and He-like ions of S, Si, Na, Mg, Al and highly ionized Fe (Fe xvii-Fe xxiv). We measure velocity shifts, column densities, and thermal broadening of the line series. The excellent quality of these five observations allows us to investigate the orbital phase dependence of these parameters. We show that the absorber is ...

  6. Communication: Reduced density matrices in molecular systems: Grand-canonical electron states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand-canonical like descriptions of many electron atomic and molecular open systems which are characterized by a non-integer number of electrons are presented. Their associated reduced density matrices (RDMs) are obtained by introducing the contracting mapping for this type of distributions. It is shown that there is loss of information when connecting RDMs of different order by partial contractions. The energy convexity property of these systems simplifies the description. Consequently, this formulation opens the possibility to a new look for chemical descriptors such as chemical potential and reactivity among others. Examples are presented to discuss the theoretical aspects of this work

  7. Study of non-canonical scalar field model using various parametrizations of dark energy equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al Mamon, Abdulla; Das, Sudipta [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India)

    2015-06-15

    In this present work, we try to build up a cosmological model using a non-canonical scalar field within the framework of a spatially flat FRW space-time. In this context, we have considered four different parametrizations of the equation of state parameter of the non-canonical scalar field. Under this scenario, analytical solutions for various cosmological parameters have been found out. It has been found that the deceleration parameter shows a smooth transition from a positive value to some negative value which indicates that the universe was undergoing an early deceleration followed by late time acceleration which is essential for the structure formation of the universe. With these four parametrizations, the future evolution of the models are also discussed. It has been found that one of the models (Generalized Chaplygin gas model, GCG) mimics the concordance ΛCDM in the near future, whereas two other models (CPL and JBP) diverge due to future singularity. Finally, we have studied these theoretical models with the latest datasets from SN Ia + H(z) + BAO/CMB. (orig.)

  8. Study of non-canonical scalar field model using various parametrizations of dark energy equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this present work, we try to build up a cosmological model using a non-canonical scalar field within the framework of a spatially flat FRW space-time. In this context, we have considered four different parametrizations of the equation of state parameter of the non-canonical scalar field. Under this scenario, analytical solutions for various cosmological parameters have been found out. It has been found that the deceleration parameter shows a smooth transition from a positive value to some negative value which indicates that the universe was undergoing an early deceleration followed by late time acceleration which is essential for the structure formation of the universe. With these four parametrizations, the future evolution of the models are also discussed. It has been found that one of the models (Generalized Chaplygin gas model, GCG) mimics the concordance ΛCDM in the near future, whereas two other models (CPL and JBP) diverge due to future singularity. Finally, we have studied these theoretical models with the latest datasets from SN Ia + H(z) + BAO/CMB. (orig.)

  9. Obtention of Schroedinger-Cat-Like-States through canonical transformations in the quantum phase space; Obtencion de estados tipo gato de Schroedinger mediante transformaciones canonicas en el espacio fase cuantico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuniga S, A. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Departamento de Fisica, Escuela Superior de Fisica y Matematicas, Edificio 9, Unidad Profesional Adolfo Lopez Mateos, 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    Employing canonical transformations defined in the coherent-state representation of quantum mechanics, we introduce Schroedinger-Cat- Like-States. The squeezed displaced number states with real squeezing parameter are contained in these states. (Author)

  10. Innovation and Selection: Symphony Orchestras and the Construction of the Musical Canon in the United States (1879-1959)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremp, Pierre-Antoine

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the determinants of innovation and success of innovation in the field of U.S. symphony orchestras from 1879 through 1959: why did major orchestras (N = 27) innovate by introducing works of new composers to the repertoire instead of sticking to canonical pieces? Can organizational processes account for the selection and the…

  11. Constrained Canonical Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSarbo, Wayne S.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    A variety of problems associated with the interpretation of traditional canonical correlation are discussed. A response surface approach is developed which allows for investigation of changes in the coefficients while maintaining an optimum canonical correlation value. Also, a discrete or constrained canonical correlation method is presented. (JKS)

  12. 37 CFR 10.46 - Canon 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Responsibility § 10.46 Canon 3. A practitioner should assist in preventing the unauthorized practice of law. ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canon 3. 10.46 Section 10.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  13. 37 CFR 10.83 - Canon 7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Responsibility § 10.83 Canon 7. A practitioner should represent a client zealously within the bounds of the law. ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canon 7. 10.83 Section 10.83 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  14. Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods: II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have previously presented a methodology for extending canonical Monte Carlo methods inspired by a suitable extension of the canonical fluctuation relation C = β2(δE2) compatible with negative heat capacities, C α, as is shown in the particular case of the 2D seven-state Potts model where the exponent α = 0.14–0.18

  15. Canonical Correlation Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Rainforth, Tom; Wood, Frank

    2015-01-01

    We introduce canonical correlation forests (CCFs), a new decision tree ensemble method for classification. Individual canonical correlation trees are binary decision trees with hyperplane splits based on canonical correlation components. Unlike axis-aligned alternatives, the decision surfaces of CCFs are not restricted to the coordinate system of the input features and therefore more naturally represent data with correlation between the features. Additionally we introduce a novel alternative ...

  16. Triality and the grand canonical ensemble in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    QCD in the usual finite temperature formulation is using the grand canonical ensemble with chemical potential zero. We demonstrate that this description may give wrong predictions. QCD in the canonical formulation does not explicitly break Z(3) symmetry. It behaves in this sense like pure gluonic QCD. There are no metastable states in the canonical ensemble description as predicted in the grand canonical ensemble formalism. ((orig.))

  17. Canonical-ensemble state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) strategy for problems with more diabatic than adiabatic states: Charge-bond resonance in monomethine cyanines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews basic results from a theory of the a priori classical probabilities (weights) in state-averaged complete active space self-consistent field (SA-CASSCF) models. It addresses how the classical probabilities limit the invariance of the self-consistency condition to transformations of the complete active space configuration interaction (CAS-CI) problem. Such transformations are of interest for choosing representations of the SA-CASSCF solution that are diabatic with respect to some interaction. I achieve the known result that a SA-CASSCF can be self-consistently transformed only within degenerate subspaces of the CAS-CI ensemble density matrix. For uniformly distributed (“microcanonical”) SA-CASSCF ensembles, self-consistency is invariant to any unitary CAS-CI transformation that acts locally on the ensemble support. Most SA-CASSCF applications in current literature are microcanonical. A problem with microcanonical SA-CASSCF models for problems with “more diabatic than adiabatic” states is described. The problem is that not all diabatic energies and couplings are self-consistently resolvable. A canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF strategy is proposed to solve the problem. For canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibrated ensemble is a Boltzmann density matrix parametrized by its own CAS-CI Hamiltonian and a Lagrange multiplier acting as an inverse “temperature,” unrelated to the physical temperature. Like the convergence criterion for microcanonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF, the equilibration condition for canonical-ensemble SA-CASSCF is invariant to transformations that act locally on the ensemble CAS-CI density matrix. The advantage of a canonical-ensemble description is that more adiabatic states can be included in the support of the ensemble without running into convergence problems. The constraint on the dimensionality of the problem is relieved by the introduction of an energy constraint. The method is illustrated with a complete active space

  18. El canon literario peruano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos García-Bedoya Maguiña

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Canon es un concepto clave en la historia literaria. En el presente artículo,se revisa la evolución histórica del canon literario peruano. Es solo con la llamada República Aristocrática, en las primeras décadas del siglo XX, que cabe hablar en el caso peruano de la formación de un auténtico canon nacional. El autor denomina a esta primera versión del canon literario peruano como canon oligárquico y destaca la importancia de la obra de Riva Agüero y de Ventura García Calderón en su configuración. Es solo más tarde, desde los años 20 y de modo definitivo desde los años 50, que puede hablarse de la emergencia de un nuevo canon literarioal que el autor propone determinar canon posoligárquico.

  19. Radio/X-ray correlation in the low/hard state of GX 339-4

    OpenAIRE

    Corbel, S.; Nowak, M A; Fender, R. P.; Tzioumis, A. K.; Markoff, S. B.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of a long-term study of the black hole candidate GX 339-4 using simultaneous radio (from the Australia Telescope Compact Array) and X-ray (from the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer and BeppoSAX) observations performed between 1997 and 2000. We find strong evidence for a correlation between these two emission regimes that extends over more than three decades in X-ray flux, down to the quiescence level of GX 339-4. This is the strongest evidence to date for such strong couplin...

  20. Canonical Information Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Jacob Schack; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg

    2015-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis is an established multivariate statistical method in which correlation between linear combinations of multivariate sets of variables is maximized. In canonical information analysis introduced here, linear correlation as a measure of association between variables is...... replaced by the information theoretical, entropy based measure mutual information, which is a much more general measure of association. We make canonical information analysis feasible for large sample problems, including for example multispectral images, due to the use of a fast kernel density estimator...... for entropy estimation. Canonical information analysis is applied successfully to (1) simple simulated data to illustrate the basic idea and evaluate performance, (2) fusion of weather radar and optical geostationary satellite data in a situation with heavy precipitation, and (3) change detection in...

  1. Canonical Big Operators

    OpenAIRE

    Bertot, Yves; Gonthier, Georges; Ould Biha, Sidi; Pasca, Ioana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present an approach to describe uniformly iterated “big” operations and to provide lemmas that encapsulate all the commonly used reasoning steps on these constructs. We show that these iterated operations can be handled generically using the syntactic notation and canonical structure facilities provided by the Coq system. We then show how these canonical big operations played a crucial enabling role in the study of various parts of linear algebra and multi-dimensional real a...

  2. Canonical proper time quantum gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindesay, James

    2015-05-01

    At the root of the tensions involved in modeling the quantum dynamics of gravitating systems are the subtleties of quantum locality. Quantum mechanics describes physical phenomena using a theory of non-local phase relationships (non-local in the sense that quantum states maintain a space-like coherence that is acausal). However, the principle of equivalence in general relativity asserts that freely falling frames are locally inertial frames of reference. Thus, gravitating systems are often described using constituents that are freely falling, undergoing geodesic motion defining well localized trajectories. The canonical proper time formulation of relativistic dynamics is particularly useful for describing such inertial constituents using the coordinates of non-inertial observers. The physics of the simplest of gravitating inertial quantum systems, consistent with presented experimental evidence, will be examined. Subsequently, descriptions of both weakly and strongly gravitating quantum systems will be developed using canonical proper gravitation.

  3. Relations between canonical and non-canonical inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gwyn, Rhiannon [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Potsdam (Germany); Rummel, Markus [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Westphal, Alexander [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group

    2012-12-15

    We look for potential observational degeneracies between canonical and non-canonical models of inflation of a single field {phi}. Non-canonical inflationary models are characterized by higher than linear powers of the standard kinetic term X in the effective Lagrangian p(X,{phi}) and arise for instance in the context of the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action in string theory. An on-shell transformation is introduced that transforms non-canonical inflationary theories to theories with a canonical kinetic term. The 2-point function observables of the original non-canonical theory and its canonical transform are found to match in the case of DBI inflation.

  4. Relations between canonical and non-canonical inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We look for potential observational degeneracies between canonical and non-canonical models of inflation of a single field φ. Non-canonical inflationary models are characterized by higher than linear powers of the standard kinetic term X in the effective Lagrangian p(X,φ) and arise for instance in the context of the Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) action in string theory. An on-shell transformation is introduced that transforms non-canonical inflationary theories to theories with a canonical kinetic term. The 2-point function observables of the original non-canonical theory and its canonical transform are found to match in the case of DBI inflation.

  5. Dibaryons as canonically quantized biskyrmions

    CERN Document Server

    Krupovnickas, T; Riska, D O

    2000-01-01

    The characteristic feature of the ground state configuration of the Skyrme model description of nuclei is the absence of recognizable individual nucleons. The ground state of the skyrmion with baryon number 2 is axially symmetric, and is well approximated by a simple rational map, which represents a direct generalization of Skyrme's hedgehog ansatz for the nucleon. If the Lagrangian density is canonically quantized this configuration may support excitations that lie close and possible below the threshold for pion decay, and therefore describe dibaryons. The quantum corrections stabilize these solutions, the mass density of which have the correct exponential fall off at large distances.

  6. Canonical field theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Setthivoine

    2015-11-01

    A new canonical field theory has been developed to help interpret the interaction between plasma flows and magnetic fields. The theory augments the Lagrangian of general dynamical systems to rigourously demonstrate that canonical helicity transport is valid across single particle, kinetic and fluid regimes, on scales ranging from classical to general relativistic. The Lagrangian is augmented with two extra terms that represent the interaction between the motion of matter and electromagnetic fields. The dynamical equations can then be re-formulated as a canonical form of Maxwell's equations or a canonical form of Ohm's law valid across all non-quantum regimes. The field theory rigourously shows that helicity can be preserved in kinetic regimes and not only fluid regimes, that helicity transfer between species governs the formation of flows or magnetic fields, and that helicity changes little compared to total energy only if density gradients are shallow. The theory suggests a possible interpretation of particle energization partitioning during magnetic reconnection as canonical wave interactions. This work is supported by US DOE Grant DE-SC0010340.

  7. Canonical affordances in context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Costall

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available James Gibson’s concept of affordances was an attempt to undermine the traditional dualism of the objective and subjective. Gibson himself insisted on the continuity of “affordances in general” and those attached to human artifacts. However, a crucial distinction needs to be drawn between “affordances in general” and the “canonical affordances” that are connected primarily to artifacts. Canonical affordances are conventional and normative. It is only in such cases that it makes sense to talk of the affordance of the object. Chairs, for example, are for sitting-on, even though we may also use them in many other ways. A good deal of confusion has arisen in the discussion of affordances from (1 the failure to recognize the normative status of canonical affordances and (2 then generalizing from this special case.

  8. Canonical variate regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Chongliang; Liu, Jin; Dey, Dipak K; Chen, Kun

    2016-07-01

    In many fields, multi-view datasets, measuring multiple distinct but interrelated sets of characteristics on the same set of subjects, together with data on certain outcomes or phenotypes, are routinely collected. The objective in such a problem is often two-fold: both to explore the association structures of multiple sets of measurements and to develop a parsimonious model for predicting the future outcomes. We study a unified canonical variate regression framework to tackle the two problems simultaneously. The proposed criterion integrates multiple canonical correlation analysis with predictive modeling, balancing between the association strength of the canonical variates and their joint predictive power on the outcomes. Moreover, the proposed criterion seeks multiple sets of canonical variates simultaneously to enable the examination of their joint effects on the outcomes, and is able to handle multivariate and non-Gaussian outcomes. An efficient algorithm based on variable splitting and Lagrangian multipliers is proposed. Simulation studies show the superior performance of the proposed approach. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in an [Formula: see text] intercross mice study and an alcohol dependence study. PMID:26861909

  9. The canonical and grand canonical models for nuclear multifragmentation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Chaudhuri; S Das Gupta

    2010-08-01

    Many observables seen in intermediate energy heavy-ion collisions can be explained on the basis of statistical equilibrium. Calculations based on statistical equilibrium can be implemented in microcanonical ensemble, canonical ensemble or grand canonical ensemble. This paper deals with calculations with canonical and grand canonical ensembles. A recursive relation developed recently allows calculations with arbitrary precision for many nuclear problems. Calculations are done to study the nature of phase transition in nuclear matter.

  10. Thermal histories causing low hardness and the minimum hardness requirement in a modified 9Cr1Mo steel for boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a Mod.9Cr1Mo steel widely applied to boiler components, low hardness problem related with manufacturing and fabrication processes has become a critical issue recently. In this study, hardness, microstructure, tensile and creep rupture tests have been performed using specimens experienced various thermal cycles to investigate the detailed mechanism causing low hardness values of 150 to 170 Hv and the minimum hardness requirement from a standpoint of tensile and allowable stresses. Low hardness values were mainly attributed to the formation of ferrite structure on cooling after heating at intercritical temperature just above the Ac1, 850 .deg. C. Ferrite transformation on cooling after intercritical heating occurred even at the relatively faster cooling compared to normal heating above the Ac3 since the nose of ferrite transformation in the CCT curve moved to the left due to the very low carbon content in austenite phase formed at intercritical temperature. Low hardness value of 160's Hv occurred occasionally in practical applications was observed at a cooling rate of below 0.167 deg. C/sec(10 .deg. C/min) after intercritical heating. At least 190 Hv of hardness values or more were needed to satisfy tensile properties and maximum allowable stresses specified in ASME B and PV code

  11. Quaternion Linear Canonical Transform Application

    OpenAIRE

    Bahri, Mawardi

    2015-01-01

    Quaternion linear canonical transform (QLCT) is a generalization of the classical linear canonical transfom (LCT) using quaternion algebra. The focus of this paper is to introduce an application of the QLCT to study of generalized swept-frequency filter

  12. Realizations of the Canonical Representation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M K Vemuri

    2008-02-01

    A characterisation of the maximal abelian subalgebras of the bounded operators on Hilbert space that are normalised by the canonical representation of the Heisenberg group is given. This is used to classify the perfect realizations of the canonical representation.

  13. Rhythmic canons and modular tiling

    OpenAIRE

    Caure, Hélianthe

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a contribution to the study of modulo p tiling. Many mathematical and computational tools were used for the study of rhythmic tiling canons. Recent research has mainly focused in finding tiling without inner periodicity, being called Vuza canons. Those canons are a constructive basis for all rhythmic tiling canons, however, they are really difficult to obtain. Best current method is a brut force exploration that, despite a few recent enhancements, is exponential. Many technics ...

  14. Canonical quantization of macroscopic electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Philbin, Thomas Gerard

    2010-01-01

    Application of the standard canonical quantization rules of quantum field theory to macroscopic electromagnetism has encountered obstacles due to material dispersion and absorption. This has led to a phenomenological approach to macroscopic quantum electrodynamics where no canonical formulation is attempted. In this paper macroscopic electromagnetism is canonically quantized. The results apply to any linear, inhomogeneous, magnetodielectric medium with dielectric functions that obey the Krame...

  15. Stroke in Canon of Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alorizi, Seyed Morteza Emami; Nimruzi, Majid

    2016-01-01

    Background: Stroke has a huge negative impact on the society and more adversely affect women. There is scarce evidence about any neuroprotective effects of commonly used drug in acute stroke. Bushnell et al. provided a guideline focusing on the risk factors of stroke unique to women, including reproductive factors, metabolic syndrome, obesity, atrial fibrillation, and migraine with aura. The ten variables cited by Avicenna in Canon of Medicine would compensate for the gaps mentioned in this guideline. The prescribed drugs should be selected qualitatively opposite to Mizaj (warm-cold and wet-dry qualities induced by disease state) of the disease and according to ten variables, including the nature of the affected organ, intensity of disease, sex, age, habit, season, place of living, occupation, stamina and physical status. Methods: Information related to stroke was searched in Canon of Medicine, which is an outstanding book in traditional Persian medicine written by Avicenna. Results: A hemorrhagic stroke is the result of increasing sanguine humor in the body. Sanguine has warm-wet quality, and should be treated with food and drugs that quench the abundance of blood in the body. An acute episode of ischemic stroke is due to the abundance of phlegm that causes a blockage in the cerebral vessels. Phlegm has cold-wet quality and treatment should be started with compound medicines that either solve the phlegm or eject it from the body. Conclusion: Avicenna has cited in Canon of Medicine that women have cold and wet temperament compared to men. For this reason, they are more prone to accumulation of phlegm in their body organs including the liver, joints and vessels, and consequently in the risk of fatty liver, degenerative joint disease, atherosclerosis, and stroke especially the ischemic one. This is in accordance with epidemiological studies that showed higher rate of ischemic stroke in women rather than hemorrhagic one. PMID:26722147

  16. Revisiting Canonical Quantization

    OpenAIRE

    Klauder, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional canonical quantization procedures directly link various c-number and q-number quantities. Here, we advocate a different association of classical and quantum quantities that renders classical theory a natural subset of quantum theory with \\hbar>0, in conformity with the real world wherein nature has chosen \\hbar>0 rather than \\hbar=0. While keeping the good results of conventional procedures, some examples are presented for which the new procedures offer better results than conven...

  17. Canonical Infinitesimal Deformations

    OpenAIRE

    Ran, Ziv

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives a canonical construction, in terms of additive cohomological functors, of the universal formal deformation of a compact complex manifold without vector fields (more generally of a faithful $g$-module, where $g$ is a sheaf of Lie algebras without sections). The construction is based on a certain (multivariate) Jacobi complex $J(g)$ associatd to $g$: indeed ${\\mathbb C}\\oplus {\\mathbb H}^0(J(g))^*$ is precisely the base ring of the universal deformation.

  18. [Epilepsy and Canon Law].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonduelle, M

    1987-01-01

    The Canon Law (Codex Iuris Canonici), promulgated in 1917, was a classification of laws and jurisprudence which ruled the early Church, governed the ecclesiastical condition of Roman Church until its reorganisation in 1983. It forbade to be ordained or to exercise orders already received to "those who are or were epileptics either not quite in their right mind or possessed by the Evil One". All the context and in particular the paragraph which treated of bodily lacks, indicated that between these three conditions, there was juxtaposition and no confusion. The texts specified the foundations of these dispositions, not in a malefic view of epilepsy inherited from Morbus Sacer of Antiquity, but in decency and on account of risk incured by Eucharist in case of fit. Some derogations could attenuate the severity of these dispositions--as jurisprudence had taken progresses of Epileptology and therapeutics into consideration. In the new Code of Canon Law (1983) physical disabilities were removed from the text and also possessed evil and epilepsy, the only impediment being "insanity or other psychic defect" appreciation of which is done by experts. Concerning poorly controlled epilepsies, we believe that experts will be allowed to express their opinion and a new jurisprudence will make up for the silence of the law. PMID:3310183

  19. Regularized Generalized Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenenhaus, Arthur; Tenenhaus, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Regularized generalized canonical correlation analysis (RGCCA) is a generalization of regularized canonical correlation analysis to three or more sets of variables. It constitutes a general framework for many multi-block data analysis methods. It combines the power of multi-block data analysis methods (maximization of well identified criteria) and…

  20. Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.

    2010-02-01

    In this paper, we discuss the implications of a recently obtained equilibrium fluctuation-dissipation relation for the extension of the available Monte Carlo methods on the basis of the consideration of the Gibbs canonical ensemble to account for the existence of an anomalous regime with negative heat capacities C < 0. The resulting framework appears to be a suitable generalization of the methodology associated with the so-called dynamical ensemble, which is applied to the extension of two well-known Monte Carlo methods: the Metropolis importance sampling and the Swendsen-Wang cluster algorithm. These Monte Carlo algorithms are employed to study the anomalous thermodynamic behavior of the Potts models with many spin states q defined on a d-dimensional hypercubic lattice with periodic boundary conditions, which successfully reduce the exponential divergence of the decorrelation time τ with increase of the system size N to a weak power-law divergence \\tau \\propto N^{\\alpha } with α≈0.2 for the particular case of the 2D ten-state Potts model.

  1. Canonical versus grand canonical treatment of the conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The differences between the canonical and the grand canoncial treatment of the conservation laws in the relativistic statistical thermodynamics are discussed. The possible implications on the thermodynamics description of hadronic matter created in particle or ion collisions are considered

  2. Canonical phylogenetic ordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, Norberto P

    2003-10-01

    A phylogenetic comparative method is proposed for estimating historical effects on comparative data using the partitions that compose a cladogram, i.e., its monophyletic groups. Two basic matrices, Y and X, are defined in the context of an ordinary linear model. Y contains the comparative data measured over t taxa. X consists of an initial tree matrix that contains all the xj monophyletic groups (each coded separately as a binary indicator variable) of the phylogenetic tree available for those taxa. The method seeks to define the subset of groups, i.e., a reduced tree matrix, that best explains the patterns in Y. This definition is accomplished via regression or canonical ordination (depending on the dimensionality of Y) coupled with Monte Carlo permutations. It is argued here that unrestricted permutations (i.e., under an equiprobable model) are valid for testing this specific kind of groupwise hypothesis. Phylogeny is either partialled out or, more properly, incorporated into the analysis in the form of component variation. Direct extensions allow for testing ecomorphological data controlled by phylogeny in a variation partitioning approach. Currently available statistical techniques make this method applicable under most univariate/multivariate models and metrics; two-way phylogenetic effects can be estimated as well. The simplest case (univariate Y), tested with simulations, yielded acceptable type I error rates. Applications presented include examples from evolutionary ethology, ecology, and ecomorphology. Results showed that the new technique detected previously overlooked variation clearly associated with phylogeny and that many phylogenetic effects on comparative data may occur at particular groups rather than across the entire tree. PMID:14530135

  3. Uncertainty relations, zero point energy and the linear canonical group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarshan, E. C. G.

    1993-01-01

    The close relationship between the zero point energy, the uncertainty relations, coherent states, squeezed states, and correlated states for one mode is investigated. This group-theoretic perspective enables the parametrization and identification of their multimode generalization. In particular the generalized Schroedinger-Robertson uncertainty relations are analyzed. An elementary method of determining the canonical structure of the generalized correlated states is presented.

  4. AN APOLOGY OF THE LITERARY CANON IN A LINGUISTIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Vladimirovich Sosnin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the principles of selecting practical material for a linguistic study aspiring to objectivity and states that in such a study orientation to the literary text is absolutely essential, as a solid corpus of literary texts is indispensable for describing complicated linguistic phenomena and mental structures standing behind them. The article puts forward the postulate that any serious study into the English language should be constructed on the English literary canon – a global textual corpus on the basis of which the greatest part of the educated speakers’ conceptual sphere is formed. At the same time, the article considers certain problems related to the Anglicist’s orientation towards the canon – its definition, limits, central and peripheral authors, the criteria of a literary work canonic status, arguments of those opposing any canonicity in literature, reconstruction of the canon in other cultures. The article also analyzes the cognitive aspect and tells about the key transformation of the English mentality, which gave rise to thinking in the terms of the time, cause-and-effect, and probability in canonic literature. The author of the article comes up with a principal conclusion: orientation to the literary canon in a linguistic study allows reconciling of linguistics and literature studies and including into the analysis nonlinguistic semiotic systems as well as idiolectal systems of conceptualizing the world in literary works.

  5. Canonical Energy is Quantum Fisher Information

    CERN Document Server

    Lashkari, Nima

    2015-01-01

    In quantum information theory, Fisher Information is a natural metric on the space of perturbations to a density matrix, defined by calculating the relative entropy with the unperturbed state at quadratic order in perturbations. In gravitational physics, Canonical Energy defines a natural metric on the space of perturbations to spacetimes with a Killing horizon. In this paper, we show that the Fisher information metric for perturbations to the vacuum density matrix of a ball-shaped region B in a holographic CFT is dual to the canonical energy metric for perturbations to a corresponding Rindler wedge R_B of Anti-de-Sitter space. Positivity of relative entropy at second order implies that the Fisher information metric is positive definite. Thus, for physical perturbations to anti-de-Sitter spacetime, the canonical energy associated to any Rindler wedge must be positive. This second-order constraint on the metric extends the first order result from relative entropy positivity that physical perturbations must sat...

  6. Extending canonical Monte Carlo methods: II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, L.; Curilef, S.

    2010-04-01

    We have previously presented a methodology for extending canonical Monte Carlo methods inspired by a suitable extension of the canonical fluctuation relation C = β2langδE2rang compatible with negative heat capacities, C < 0. Now, we improve this methodology by including the finite size effects that reduce the precision of a direct determination of the microcanonical caloric curve β(E) = ∂S(E)/∂E, as well as by carrying out a better implementation of the MC schemes. We show that, despite the modifications considered, the extended canonical MC methods lead to an impressive overcoming of the so-called supercritical slowing down observed close to the region of the temperature driven first-order phase transition. In this case, the size dependence of the decorrelation time τ is reduced from an exponential growth to a weak power-law behavior, \\tau (N)\\propto N^{\\alpha } , as is shown in the particular case of the 2D seven-state Potts model where the exponent α = 0.14-0.18.

  7. Canonical Approaches to Applications of the Virial Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jay R; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2016-02-11

    Canonical approaches are applied for investigation of the extraordinarily accurate electronic ground state potentials of H2(+), H2, HeH(+), and LiH using the virial theorem. These approaches will be dependent on previous investigations involving the canonical nature of E(R), the Born-Oppenheimer potential, and F(R), the associated force of E(R), that have been demonstrated to be individually canonical to high accuracy in the case of the systems investigated. Now, the canonical nature of the remaining functions in the virial theorem [the electronic kinetic energy T(R), the electrostatic potential energy V(R), and the function W(R) = RF(R)] are investigated and applied to H2, HeH(+), and LiH with H2(+) chosen as reference. The results will be discussed in the context of a different perspective of molecular bonding that goes beyond previous direct applications of the virial theorem. PMID:26788937

  8. Periodicity, the Canon and Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Scanlon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The topic according to this title is admittedly a broad one, embracing two very general concepts of time and of the cultural valuation of artistic products. Both phenomena are, in the present view, largely constructed by their contemporary cultures, and given authority to a great extent from the prestige of the past. The antiquity of tradition brings with it a certain cachet. Even though there may be peripheral debates in any given society which question the specifics of periodization or canonicity, individuals generally accept the consensus designation of a sequence of historical periods and they accept a list of highly valued artistic works as canonical or authoritative. We will first examine some of the processes of periodization and of canon-formation, after which we will discuss some specific examples of how these processes have worked in the sport of two ancient cultures, namely Greece and Mesoamerica.

  9. Existence of log canonical closures

    CERN Document Server

    Hacon, Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Let $f:X\\to U$ be a projective morphism of normal varieties and $(X,\\Delta)$ a dlt pair. We prove that if there is an open set $U^0\\subset U$, such that $(X,\\Delta)\\times_U U^0$ has a good minimal model over $U^0$ and the images of all the non-klt centers intersect $U^0$, then $(X,\\Delta)$ has a good minimal model over $U$. As consequences we show the existence of log canonical compactifications for open log canonical pairs, and the fact that the moduli functor of stable schemes satisfies the valuative criterion for properness.

  10. Gauge Theory by canonical Transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigstein, Adrian; Stoecker, Horst; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vasak, David; Hanauske, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetism, the strong and the weak interaction are commonly formulated as gauge theories in a Lagrangian description. In this paper we present an alternative formal derivation of U(1)-gauge theory in a manifestly covariant Hamilton formalism. We make use of canonical transformations as our guiding tool to formalize the gauging procedure. The introduction of the gauge field, its transformation behaviour and a dynamical gauge field Lagrangian/Hamiltonian are unavoidable consequences of this formalism, whereas the form of the free gauge Lagrangian/Hamiltonian depends on the selection of the gauge dependence of the canonically conjugate gauge fields.

  11. Case studies in canonical stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafardi, N P; Hite, J

    1985-11-01

    In facing the challenges that confront Catholic health care today, it is important to know which civil law forms will assist in preserving the Church's ministry. The proper meshing of civil law and canon law thus provides a vehicle to strengthen the apostolate's work. The case studies presented here suggest several means of applying the principles in the new Code of Canon Law to three potentially problematic situations: the merger of a Catholic and non-Catholic hospital, the leasing of a Catholic hospital to an operating company, and the use of the multicorporate format. PMID:10274590

  12. Canonical density matrix perturbation theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Anders M N; Cawkwell, M J; Rubensson, Emanuel H; Rudberg, Elias

    2015-12-01

    Density matrix perturbation theory [Niklasson and Challacombe, Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 193001 (2004)] is generalized to canonical (NVT) free-energy ensembles in tight-binding, Hartree-Fock, or Kohn-Sham density-functional theory. The canonical density matrix perturbation theory can be used to calculate temperature-dependent response properties from the coupled perturbed self-consistent field equations as in density-functional perturbation theory. The method is well suited to take advantage of sparse matrix algebra to achieve linear scaling complexity in the computational cost as a function of system size for sufficiently large nonmetallic materials and metals at high temperatures. PMID:26764847

  13. Canonical and grand canonical theory of spinodal instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of the mean field approximation to the Landau-Ginzburg-Wilson functional integral, describing the equilibrium properties of a system with a conserved order parameter, the conditions for critical instabilities in the canonical ensemble are analysed. (A.C.A.S.)

  14. Thermodynamic extension of density-functional theory. I. Canonical Massieu-Planck function, its Legendre and Massieu-Planck transforms for equilibrium state in terms of density matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Balawender, Robert

    2009-01-01

    A unified formulation of the equilibrium state of a many-electron system in terms of an ensemble (mixed-state) density matrix, which applies the maximum entropy principle combined with the use of Massieu-Planck function, is presented. The properties of the characteristic functionals for macrocanonical ensemble are established. Their extension to other ensembles is accomplished via a Legendre transform. The relations between equilibrium states defined by a formal mathematical procedure and by criteria adopted for traditional (Gibbs, Helmholtz) potentials are investigated using Massieu-Planck transform. The preeminence of the Massieu-Planck function over the traditional thermodynamic potentials is discussed in detail on an example of their second derivatives. Introduced functions are suitable for application to the extensions of the density functional theory, both at finite and zero temperatures.

  15. Resistant multiple sparse canonical correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Jacob; Replogle, Joseph; Chandler, Gabriel; Hardin, Johanna

    2016-04-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is a multivariate technique that takes two datasets and forms the most highly correlated possible pairs of linear combinations between them. Each subsequent pair of linear combinations is orthogonal to the preceding pair, meaning that new information is gleaned from each pair. By looking at the magnitude of coefficient values, we can find out which variables can be grouped together, thus better understanding multiple interactions that are otherwise difficult to compute or grasp intuitively. CCA appears to have quite powerful applications to high-throughput data, as we can use it to discover, for example, relationships between gene expression and gene copy number variation. One of the biggest problems of CCA is that the number of variables (often upwards of 10,000) makes biological interpretation of linear combinations nearly impossible. To limit variable output, we have employed a method known as sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA), while adding estimation which is resistant to extreme observations or other types of deviant data. In this paper, we have demonstrated the success of resistant estimation in variable selection using SCCA. Additionally, we have used SCCA to find multiple canonical pairs for extended knowledge about the datasets at hand. Again, using resistant estimators provided more accurate estimates than standard estimators in the multiple canonical correlation setting. R code is available and documented at https://github.com/hardin47/rmscca. PMID:26963062

  16. Romanticism, Sexuality, and the Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Kathleen K.

    1990-01-01

    Traces the Romanticism in the work and persona of film director Jean-Luc Godard. Examines the contradictions posed by Godard's politics and representations of sexuality. Asserts, that by bringing an ironic distance to the works of such canonized directors, viewers can take pleasure in those works despite their contradictions. (MM)

  17. Basic Canonical Brackets Without Canonical Conjugate Momenta: Supersymmetric Harmonic Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, A; Malik, R P

    2014-01-01

    We exploit the ideas of spin-statistics theorem, normal-ordering and the key concepts behind the symmetry principles to derive the canonical (anti)commutators for the case of a one (0 + 1)-dimensional (1D) supersymmetric (SUSY) harmonic oscillator without taking the help of the mathematical definition of the canonical conjugate momenta with respect to the bosonic and fermionic variables of this toy model for the Hodge theory (where the continuous and discrete symmetries of the theory provide the physical realizations of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry). In our present endeavor, it is the full set of continuous symmetries and their corresponding generators that lead to the derivation of basic (anti)commutators amongst the creation and annihilation operators that appear in the normal mode expansions of the dynamical variables of our theory.

  18. Statistical thermodynamics in relativistic particle and ion physics: Canonical or grand canonical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider relativistic statistical thermodynamics of an ideal Boltzmann gas consisting of the particles K, Λ, A, Σ and their antiparticles. Baryon number (B) and strangeness (S) are conserved. While any relativistic gas is necessarily grand canonical with respect to particle numbers, conservation laws can be treated canonically or grand canonically. We construct the partition function for canonical BxS conservation and compare it with the grand canonical one. It is found that the grand canonical partition function is equivalent to a large B approximation of the canonical one. The relative difference between canonical and grand canonical quantities seems to decrease like const/B (two numerical examples) and from this a simple thumb rule for computing canonical quantities from grand canonical ones is guessed. For precise calculations, an integral representation is given. (orig.)

  19. Canonical and non-canonical pathways of osteoclast formation

    OpenAIRE

    Knowles, H.J.; Athanasou, N A

    2009-01-01

    Physiological and pathological bone resorption is mediated by osteoclasts, multinucleated cells which are formed by the fusion of monocyte / macrophage precursors. The canonical pathway of osteoclast formation requires the presence of the receptor activator for NFkB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF). Noncanonical pathways of osteoclast formation have been described in which cytokines / growth factors can substitute for RANKL or M-CSF to...

  20. Concept of canon in literary studies : critical debates 1970-2000.

    OpenAIRE

    Villa, Silvia Maria Teresa

    2012-01-01

    The present thesis focuses on the critical dialogues on the literary canon developed between 1970 and 2000 in the United States as a crucial juncture for the consolidation of the notion of canon as a scholarly subject matter within the field of literary studies. By taking stock of the abundance of scholarly contributions on the literary canon produced at this time, this thesis pursues two aims: first, it initiates a process of systematisation of the scholarly material on the ca...

  1. Functional Multiple-Set Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Heungsun; Jung, Kwanghee; Takane, Yoshio; Woodward, Todd S.

    2012-01-01

    We propose functional multiple-set canonical correlation analysis for exploring associations among multiple sets of functions. The proposed method includes functional canonical correlation analysis as a special case when only two sets of functions are considered. As in classical multiple-set canonical correlation analysis, computationally, the…

  2. Non-Linear Canonical Transformations in Classical and Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brodlie, A

    2004-01-01

    $p$-Mechanics is a consistent physical theory which describes both classical and quantum mechanics simultaneously through the representation theory of the Heisenberg group. In this paper we describe how non-linear canonical transformations affect $p$-mechanical observables and states. Using this we show how canonical transformations change a quantum mechanical system. We seek an operator on the set of $p$-mechanical observables which corresponds to the classical canonical transformation. In order to do this we derive a set of integral equations which when solved will give us the coherent state expansion of this operator. The motivation for these integral equations comes from the work of Moshinsky and a variety of collaborators. We consider a number of examples and discuss the use of these equations for non-bijective transformations.

  3. Canonical computations of cerebral cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth D

    2016-04-01

    The idea that there is a fundamental cortical circuit that performs canonical computations remains compelling though far from proven. Here we review evidence for two canonical operations within sensory cortical areas: a feedforward computation of selectivity; and a recurrent computation of gain in which, given sufficiently strong external input, perhaps from multiple sources, intracortical input largely, but not completely, cancels this external input. This operation leads to many characteristic cortical nonlinearities in integrating multiple stimuli. The cortical computation must combine such local processing with hierarchical processing across areas. We point to important changes in moving from sensory cortex to motor and frontal cortex and the possibility of substantial differences between cortex in rodents vs. species with columnar organization of selectivity. PMID:26868041

  4. Three Dimensional Canonical Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Matschull, Hans-Juergen

    1995-01-01

    General aspects of vielbein representation, ADM formulation and canonical quantization of gravity are reviewed using pure gravity in three dimensions as a toy model. The classical part focusses on the role of observers in general relativity, which will later be identified with quantum observers. A precise definition of gauge symmetries and a classification of inequivalent solutions of Einstein's equations in dreibein formalism is given as well. In the quantum part the construction of the phys...

  5. Resistant Multiple Sparse Canonical Correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Jacob; Replogle, Joseph; Chandler, Gabriel; Hardin, Johanna

    2014-01-01

    Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) is a multivariate technique that takes two datasets and forms the most highly correlated possible pairs of linear combinations between them. Each subsequent pair of linear combinations is orthogonal to the preceding pair, meaning that new information is gleaned from each pair. By looking at the magnitude of coefficient values, we can find out which variables can be grouped together, thus better understanding multiple interactions that are otherwise difficu...

  6. Derivation of Mayer Series from Canonical Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian-Zhi, Wang

    2016-02-01

    Mayer derived the Mayer series from both the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble by use of the cluster expansion method. In 2002, we conjectured a recursion formula of the canonical partition function of a fluid (X.Z. Wang, Phys. Rev. E 66 (2002) 056102). In this paper we give a proof for this formula by developing an appropriate expansion of the integrand of the canonical partition function. We further derive the Mayer series solely from the canonical ensemble by use of this recursion formula.

  7. Face hallucination using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huiling; Lam, Kin-Man

    2016-05-01

    A two-step face-hallucination framework is proposed to reconstruct a high-resolution (HR) version of a face from an input low-resolution (LR) face, based on learning from LR-HR example face pairs using orthogonal canonical correlation analysis (orthogonal CCA) and linear mapping. In the proposed algorithm, face images are first represented using principal component analysis (PCA). Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) with the orthogonality property is then employed, to maximize the correlation between the PCA coefficients of the LR and the HR face pairs to improve the hallucination performance. The original CCA does not own the orthogonality property, which is crucial for information reconstruction. We propose using orthogonal CCA, which is proven by experiments to achieve a better performance in terms of global face reconstruction. In addition, in the residual-compensation process, a linear-mapping method is proposed to include both the inter- and intrainformation about manifolds of different resolutions. Compared with other state-of-the-art approaches, the proposed framework can achieve a comparable, or even better, performance in terms of global face reconstruction and the visual quality of face hallucination. Experiments on images with various parameter settings and blurring distortions show that the proposed approach is robust and has great potential for real-world applications.

  8. New constraints for canonical general relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Reisenberger, M

    1995-01-01

    Ashtekar's canonical theory of classical complex Euclidean GR (no Lorentzian reality conditions) is found to be invariant under the full algebra of infinitesimal 4-diffeomorphisms, but non-invariant under some finite proper 4-diffeos when the densitized dreibein, \\tilE^a_i, is degenerate. The breakdown of 4-diffeo invariance appears to be due to the inability of the Ashtekar Hamiltonian to generate births and deaths of \\tilE flux loops (leaving open the possibility that a new `causality condition' forbidding the birth of flux loops might justify the non-invariance of the theory). A fully 4-diffeo invariant canonical theory in Ashtekar's variables, derived from Plebanski's action, is found to have constraints that are stronger than Ashtekar's for rank\\tilE < 2. The corresponding Hamiltonian generates births and deaths of \\tilE flux loops. It is argued that this implies a finite amplitude for births and deaths of loops in the physical states of quantum GR in the loop representation, thus modifying this (part...

  9. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU Shing-Tung

    2008-01-01

    @@ Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the Coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations. For example, Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds. In order to understand complex manifolds, it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure. In general, we should have a pair (M, ds2M) where ds2M is the metric. The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries. Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  10. Canonical metrics on complex manifold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAU; Shing-Tung(Yau; S.-T.)

    2008-01-01

    Complex manifolds are topological spaces that are covered by coordinate charts where the coordinate changes are given by holomorphic transformations.For example,Riemann surfaces are one dimensional complex manifolds.In order to understand complex manifolds,it is useful to introduce metrics that are compatible with the complex structure.In general,we should have a pair(M,ds~2_M)where ds~2_M is the metric.The metric is said to be canonical if any biholomorphisms of the complex manifolds are automatically isometries.Such metrics can naturally be used to describe invariants of the complex structures of the manifold.

  11. Gauge fixing and canonical quantization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the canonical quantization of non-Abelian gauge fields in the temporal gauge A0 = 0. We impose the constraint condition of Gauss's law by performing a point transformation into any of a large class of noncovariant gauges. The Faddeev and Popov operator arises naturally in this procedure; indeed, we prove the equivalence of all gauges in this class. We discuss the nonexistence of some simple gauges and show how topological considerations reduce the theory to quantum mechanics on an infinite-dimensional periodic hypersurface

  12. The Deuteron as a Canonically Quantized Biskyrmion

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A; Norvaisas, E; Riska, D O

    2003-01-01

    The ground state configurations of the solution to Skyrme's topological soliton model for systems with baryon number larger than 1 are well approximated with rational map ans"atze, without individual baryon coordinates. Here canonical quantization of the baryon number 2 system, which represents the deuteron, is carried out in the rational map approximation. The solution, which is described by the 6 parameters of the chiral group SU(2)$times$SU(2), is stabilized by the quantum corrections. The matter density of the variational quantized solution has the required exponential large distance falloff and the quantum numbers of the deuteron. Similarly to the axially symmetric semiclassical solution, the radius and the quadrupole moment are, however, only about half as large as the corresponding empirical values. The quantized deuteron solution is constructed for representations of arbitrary dimension of the chiral group.

  13. Self-consistent thermodynamics for the Tsallis statistics in the grand canonical ensemble: Nonrelativistic hadron gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parvan, A.S. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Dubna (Russian Federation); Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Theoretical Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Moldova Academy of Sciences, Institute of Applied Physics, Chisinau (Moldova, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In the present paper, the Tsallis statistics in the grand canonical ensemble was reconsidered in a general form. The thermodynamic properties of the nonrelativistic ideal gas of hadrons in the grand canonical ensemble was studied numerically and analytically in a finite volume and the thermodynamic limit. It was proved that the Tsallis statistics in the grand canonical ensemble satisfies the requirements of the equilibrium thermodynamics in the thermodynamic limit if the thermodynamic potential is a homogeneous function of the first order with respect to the extensive variables of state of the system and the entropic variable z = 1/(q - 1) is an extensive variable of state. The equivalence of canonical, microcanonical and grand canonical ensembles for the nonrelativistic ideal gas of hadrons was demonstrated. (orig.)

  14. Integral canonical models for Spin Shimura varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Pera, Keerthi Madapusi

    2012-01-01

    We construct regular integral canonical models for Shimura varieties attached to Spin groups at (possibly ramified) odd primes. We exhibit these models as schemes of 'relative PEL type' over integral canonical models of larger Spin Shimura varieties with good reduction. Work of Vasiu-Zink then shows that the classical Kuga-Satake construction extends over the integral model and that the integral models we construct are canonical in a very precise sense. We also construct good compactification...

  15. Process modelling on a canonical basis[Process modelling; Canonical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siepmann, Volker

    2006-12-20

    Based on an equation oriented solving strategy, this thesis investigates a new approach to process modelling. Homogeneous thermodynamic state functions represent consistent mathematical models of thermodynamic properties. Such state functions of solely extensive canonical state variables are the basis of this work, as they are natural objective functions in optimisation nodes to calculate thermodynamic equilibrium regarding phase-interaction and chemical reactions. Analytical state function derivatives are utilised within the solution process as well as interpreted as physical properties. By this approach, only a limited range of imaginable process constraints are considered, namely linear balance equations of state variables. A second-order update of source contributions to these balance equations is obtained by an additional constitutive equation system. These equations are general dependent on state variables and first-order sensitivities, and cover therefore practically all potential process constraints. Symbolic computation technology efficiently provides sparsity and derivative information of active equations to avoid performance problems regarding robustness and computational effort. A benefit of detaching the constitutive equation system is that the structure of the main equation system remains unaffected by these constraints, and a priori information allows to implement an efficient solving strategy and a concise error diagnosis. A tailor-made linear algebra library handles the sparse recursive block structures efficiently. The optimisation principle for single modules of thermodynamic equilibrium is extended to host entire process models. State variables of different modules interact through balance equations, representing material flows from one module to the other. To account for reusability and encapsulation of process module details, modular process modelling is supported by a recursive module structure. The second-order solving algorithm makes it

  16. Canonical formulation and path integral for local vacuum energy sequestering

    OpenAIRE

    Bufalo, R.; Klusoň, J.; Oksanen, M.

    2016-01-01

    We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for a local formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In particular, by considering the state of the universe as a superposition of vacuum states corresponding to different values of the cosmological and gravitational constants, the path integral is extended to include integrations over the cosmological and gravitational constants. The result is an extension of the Ng-van Dam form of the path integral of unimodular gravity...

  17. Canonical curves with low apolarity

    CERN Document Server

    Ballico, Edoardo; Notari, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Let $k$ be an algebraically closed field and let $C$ be a non--hyperelliptic smooth projective curve of genus $g$ defined over $k$. Since the canonical model of $C$ is arithmetically Gorenstein, Macaulay's theory of inverse systems allows to associate to $C$ a cubic form $f$ in the divided power $k$--algebra $R$ in $g-2$ variables. The apolarity of $C$ is the minimal number $t$ of linear form in $R$ needed to write $f$ as sum of their divided power cubes. It is easy to see that the apolarity of $C$ is at least $g-2$ and P. De Poi and F. Zucconi classified curves with apolarity $g-2$ when $k$ is the complex field. In this paper, we give a complete, characteristic free, classification of curves $C$ with apolarity $g-1$ (and $g-2$).

  18. El canon de la periferia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Beatriz Lemes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Intentaremos mostrar cómo venimos trabajando con la reconstrucción de la memoria literaria de la provincia de Misiones a partir de la recopilación de los manuscritos de sus autores más representativos. Hemos utilizado para nuestra lectura, en cruce con la crítica genética, las relaciones que Fernando Ainsa establece entre canon y periferia,  espacios de la memoria y construcción de la utopía. Ainsa concibe la escritura como proceso genético que en su origen es personal, visceral y solitario, una búsqueda constante de identidad que se enriquece en contacto con el mundo, con la apertura de fronteras. Estas vinculaciones nos han permitido interpretar las prácticas sociales que fundaron actividades estéticas en la distancia de los centros de poder argentinos.This paper shows some findings of our ongoing research project dealing with the recuperation of literary memory in the province of Misiones by analysing a compilation of the literary manuscripts by the most representative authors of this northern region of Argentina. Here, we follow Fernado Ainsa’s notions of canon and periphery, of memory spaces and construction of utopias. Ainsa sees the act of writing as a genetic process for it originates within a personal, visceral, and solitary realm. For Ainsa, writing is also a permanent search for identity which becomes richer when in contact with the world, when frontiers open up. These concepts allow us to interpret the social practices that gave birth to these aesthetic projects far away from Argentina’s power centers.

  19. Revisiting Interpretation of Canonical Correlation Analysis: A Tutorial and Demonstration of Canonical Commonality Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimon, Kim; Henson, Robin K.; Gates, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    In the face of multicollinearity, researchers face challenges interpreting canonical correlation analysis (CCA) results. Although standardized function and structure coefficients provide insight into the canonical variates produced, they fall short when researchers want to fully report canonical effects. This article revisits the interpretation of…

  20. CANONICAL EXTENSIONS OF SYMMETRIC LINEAR RELATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandovici, Adrian; Davidson, KR; Gaspar, D; Stratila, S; Timotin, D; Vasilescu, FH

    2006-01-01

    The concept of canonical extension of Hermitian operators has been recently introduced by A. Kuzhel. This paper deals with a generalization of this notion to the case of symmetric linear relations. Namely, canonical regular extensions of symmetric linear relations in Hilbert spaces are studied. The

  1. Properties of the linear canonical integral transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alieva, Tatiana; Bastiaans, Martin J

    2007-11-01

    We provide a general expression and different classification schemes for the general two-dimensional canonical integral transformations that describe the propagation of coherent light through lossless first-order optical systems. Main theorems for these transformations, such as shift, scaling, derivation, etc., together with the canonical integral transforms of selected functions, are derived. PMID:17975592

  2. The Current Canon in British Romantics Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linkin, Harriet Kramer

    1991-01-01

    Describes and reports on a survey of 164 U.S. universities to ascertain what is taught as the current canon of British Romantic literature. Asserts that the canon may now include Mary Shelley with the former standard six major male Romantic poets, indicating a significant emergence of a feminist perspective on British Romanticism in the classroom.…

  3. Multiplicity fluctuations in heavy-ion collisions using canonical and grand-canonical ensemble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garg, P. [Indian Institute of Technology Indore, Discipline of Physics, School of Basic Science, Simrol (India); Mishra, D.K.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Mohanty, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Nuclear Physics Division, Mumbai (India)

    2016-02-15

    We report the higher-order cumulants and their ratios for baryon, charge and strangeness multiplicity in canonical and grand-canonical ensembles in ideal thermal model including all the resonances. When the number of conserved quanta is small, an explicit treatment of these conserved charges is required, which leads to a canonical description of the system and the fluctuations are significantly different from the grand-canonical ensemble. Cumulant ratios of total-charge and net-charge multiplicity as a function of collision energies are also compared in grand-canonical ensemble. (orig.)

  4. Multiplicity fluctuations in heavy ion collisions using canonical and grand canonical ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Garg, P; Netrakanti, P K; Mohanty, A K

    2015-01-01

    We report the higher order cumulants and their ratios for baryon, charge and strangeness multiplicity in canonical and grand-canonical ensembles in ideal thermal model including all the resonances. When the number of conserved quanta is small, an explicit treatment of these conserved charges is required, which leads to a canonical description of the system and the fluctuations are significantly different from the grand canonical ensemble. Cumulant ratios of total charge and net-charge multiplicity as a function of collision energies are also compared in grand canonical ensemble.

  5. Localizing the Latent Structure Canonical Uncertainty: Entropy Profiles for Hidden Markov Models

    CERN Document Server

    Durand, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    This report addresses state inference for hidden Markov models. These models rely on unobserved states, which often have a meaningful interpretation. This makes it necessary to develop diagnostic tools for quantification of state uncertainty. The entropy of the state sequence that explains an observed sequence for a given hidden Markov chain model can be considered as the canonical measure of state sequence uncertainty. This canonical measure of state sequence uncertainty is not reflected by the classic multivariate state profiles computed by the smoothing algorithm, which summarizes the possible state sequences. Here, we introduce a new type of profiles which have the following properties: (i) these profiles of conditional entropies are a decomposition of the canonical measure of state sequence uncertainty along the sequence and makes it possible to localize this uncertainty, (ii) these profiles are univariate and thus remain easily interpretable on tree structures. We show how to extend the smoothing algori...

  6. Canonical pseudotensors, Sparling's form and Noether currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The canonical energy - momentum and spin pseudotensors of the Einstein theory are studied in two ways. First they are studied in the framework of Lagrangian formalism. It is shown, that for first order Lagrangian and rigid basis description the canonical energy - momentum, the canonical spin, and the Noether current are tensorial quantities, and the canonial energy - momentum and spin tensors satisfy the tensorial Belinfante-Rosenfeld equations. Then the differential geometric unification and reformulation of the previous different pseudotensorial approaches is given. Finally, for any vector field on the spacetime an (m-1) form, called the Noether form is defined. (K.A.) 34 refs

  7. Differential Forms on Log Canonical Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Greb, Daniel; Kovacs, Sandor J; Peternell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with differential forms on log canonical varieties. It is shown that any p-form defined on the smooth locus of a variety with canonical or klt singularities extends regularly to any resolution of singularities. In fact, a much more general theorem for log canonical pairs is established. The proof relies on vanishing theorems for log canonical varieties and on methods of the minimal model program. In addition, a theory of differential forms on dlt pairs is developed. It is shown that many of the fundamental theorems and techniques known for sheaves of logarithmic differentials on smooth varieties also hold in the dlt setting. Immediate applications include the existence of a pull-back map for reflexive differentials, generalisations of Bogomolov-Sommese type vanishing results, and a positive answer to the Lipman-Zariski conjecture for klt spaces.

  8. Regularized canonical correlation analysis with unlabeled data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-chuan ZHOU; Hai-bin SHEN

    2009-01-01

    In standard canonical correlation analysis (CCA), the data from definite datasets are used to estimate their canonical correlation. In real applications, for example in bilingual text retrieval, it may have a great portion of data that we do not know which set it belongs to. This part of data is called unlabeled data, while the rest from definite datasets is called labeled data. We propose a novel method called regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA), which makes use of both labeled and unlabeled samples. Specifically, we learn to approximate canonical correlation as if all data were labeled. Then. we describe a generalization of RCCA for the multi-set situation. Experiments on four real world datasets, Yeast, Cloud, Iris, and Haberman, demonstrate that,by incorporating the unlabeled data points, the accuracy of correlation coefficients can be improved by over 30%.

  9. Subsets of configurations and canonical partition functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloch, J.; Bruckmann, F.; Kieburg, M.;

    2013-01-01

    We explain the physical nature of the subset solution to the sign problem in chiral random matrix theory: the subset sum over configurations is shown to project out the canonical determinant with zero quark charge from a given configuration. As the grand canonical chiral random matrix partition f...... function is independent of the chemical potential, the zero-quark-charge sector provides the full result. © 2013 American Physical Society....

  10. Canonical equations of Hamilton with beautiful symmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Guo; Guo, Qi

    2012-01-01

    The Hamiltonian formulation plays the essential role in constructing the framework of modern physics. In this paper, a new form of canonical equations of Hamilton with the complete symmetry is obtained, which are valid not only for the first-order differential system, but also for the second-order differential system. The conventional form of the canonical equations without the symmetry [Goldstein et al., Classical Mechanics, 3rd ed, Addison-Wesley, 2001] are only for the second-order differe...

  11. Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation for Three Canonical Observables

    OpenAIRE

    Kechrimparis, Spiros; Weigert, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainty relations provide fundamental limits on what can be said about the properties of quantum systems. For a quantum particle, the commutation relation of position and momentum observables entails Heisenberg's uncertainty relation. A third observable is presented which satisfies canonical commutation relations with both position and momentum. The resulting triple of pairwise canonical observables gives rise to a Heisenberg-type uncertainty relation for the product of three standard dev...

  12. An $OSp$ extension of Canonical Tensor Model

    CERN Document Server

    Narain, Gaurav

    2015-01-01

    Tensor models are generalizations of matrix models, and are studied as discrete models of quantum gravity for arbitrary dimensions. Among them, the canonical tensor model (CTM for short) is a rank-three tensor model formulated as a totally constrained system with a number of first-class constraints, which have a similar algebraic structure as the constraints of the ADM formalism of general relativity. In this paper, we formulate a super-extension of CTM as an attempt to incorporate fermionic degrees of freedom. The kinematical symmetry group is extended from $O(N)$ to $OSp(N,\\tilde N)$, and the constraints are constructed so that they form a first-class constraint super-Poisson algebra. This is a straightforward super-extension, and the constraints and their algebraic structure are formally unchanged from the purely bosonic case, except for the additional signs associated to the order of the fermionic indices and dynamical variables. However, this extension of CTM leads to the existence of negative norm state...

  13. Both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling independently promote stem cell growth in mammospheres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander M Many

    Full Text Available The characterization of mammary stem cells, and signals that regulate their behavior, is of central importance in understanding developmental changes in the mammary gland and possibly for targeting stem-like cells in breast cancer. The canonical Wnt/β-catenin pathway is a signaling mechanism associated with maintenance of self-renewing stem cells in many tissues, including mammary epithelium, and can be oncogenic when deregulated. Wnt1 and Wnt3a are examples of ligands that activate the canonical pathway. Other Wnt ligands, such as Wnt5a, typically signal via non-canonical, β-catenin-independent, pathways that in some cases can antagonize canonical signaling. Since the role of non-canonical Wnt signaling in stem cell regulation is not well characterized, we set out to investigate this using mammosphere formation assays that reflect and quantify stem cell properties. Ex vivo mammosphere cultures were established from both wild-type and Wnt1 transgenic mice and were analyzed in response to manipulation of both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signaling. An increased level of mammosphere formation was observed in cultures derived from MMTV-Wnt1 versus wild-type animals, and this was blocked by treatment with Dkk1, a selective inhibitor of canonical Wnt signaling. Consistent with this, we found that a single dose of recombinant Wnt3a was sufficient to increase mammosphere formation in wild-type cultures. Surprisingly, we found that Wnt5a also increased mammosphere formation in these assays. We confirmed that this was not caused by an increase in canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling but was instead mediated by non-canonical Wnt signals requiring the receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 and activity of the Jun N-terminal kinase, JNK. We conclude that both canonical and non-canonical Wnt signals have positive effects promoting stem cell activity in mammosphere assays and that they do so via independent signaling mechanisms.

  14. Refining inflation using non-canonical scalars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unnikrishnan, Sanil; Sahni, Varun [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India); Toporensky, Aleksey, E-mail: sanil@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: varun@iucaa.ernet.in, E-mail: atopor@rambler.ru [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow State University, Universitetsky Prospekt, 13, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation)

    2012-08-01

    This paper revisits the Inflationary scenario within the framework of scalar field models possessing a non-canonical kinetic term. We obtain closed form solutions for all essential quantities associated with chaotic inflation including slow roll parameters, scalar and tensor power spectra, spectral indices, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, etc. We also examine the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and demonstrate the existence of an inflationary attractor. Our results highlight the fact that non-canonical scalars can significantly improve the viability of inflationary models. They accomplish this by decreasing the tensor-to-scalar ratio while simultaneously increasing the value of the scalar spectral index, thereby redeeming models which are incompatible with the cosmic microwave background (CMB) in their canonical version. For instance, the non-canonical version of the chaotic inflationary potential, V(φ) ∼ λφ{sup 4}, is found to agree with observations for values of λ as large as unity! The exponential potential can also provide a reasonable fit to CMB observations. A central result of this paper is that steep potentials (such as V∝φ{sup −n}) usually associated with dark energy, can drive inflation in the non-canonical setting. Interestingly, non-canonical scalars violate the consistency relation r = −8n{sub T}, which emerges as a smoking gun test for this class of models.

  15. Hori method for generalized canonical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Fernandes, Sandro

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, some special features on the canonical version of Hori method, when it is applied to generalized canonical systems (systems of differential equations described by a Hamiltonian function linear in the momenta), are presented. Two different procedures, based on a new approach for the integration theory recently presented for the canonical version, are proposed for determining the new Hamiltonian and the generating function for systems whose differential equations for the coordinates describe a periodic system with one fast phase. These procedures are equivalent and they are directly related to the canonical transformations defined by the general solution of the integrable kernel of the Hamiltonian. They provide the same near-identity transformation for the coordinates obtained through the non-canonical version of Hori method. It is also shown that these procedures are connected to the classic averaging principle through a canonical transformation. As examples, asymptotic solutions of a non-linear oscillations problem and of the elliptic perturbed problem are discussed.

  16. The Emission from Inner Disk and Corona in the Low and Intermediate Spectral States of Black Hole X-ray Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Qiao, Erlin

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations reveal that a cool disk may survive in the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) for some black hole X-ray binaries in the canonical low/hard state. The spectrum is characterized by a power law with a photon index $\\Gamma \\sim 1.5-2.1$ in the range of 2-10 keV and a weak disk component with temperature of $\\sim 0.2$ keV. In this work, We revisit the formation of such a cool, optically thick, geometrically thin disk in the most inner region of black hole X-ray binaries at the low/hard state within the context of disk accretion fed by condensation of hot corona. By taking into account the cooling process associated with both Compton and conductive processes in a corona, and the irradiation of the hot corona to the disk, we calculate the structure of the corona. For viscosity parameter $\\alpha=0.2$, it's found that the inner disk can exist for accretion rate ranging from $\\dot M \\sim 0.006-0.03 \\dot M_{\\rm Edd}$, over which the electron temperatures of the corona are in the range of $1-5\\tim...

  17. Universal canonical entropy for gravitating systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Chatterjee; Parthasarathi Majumdar

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamics of general relativistic systems with boundary, obeying a Hamiltonian constraint in the bulk, is determined solely by the boundary quantum dynamics, and hence by the area spectrum. Assuming, for large area of the boundary, (a) an area spectrum as determined by non-perturbative canonical quantum general relativity (NCQGR), (b) an energy spectrum that bears a power law relation to the area spectrum, (c) an area law for the leading order microcanonical entropy, leading thermal fluctuation corrections to the canonical entropy are shown to be logarithmic in area with a universal coefficient. Since the microcanonical entropy also has universal logarithmic corrections to the area law (from quantum space-time fluctuations, as found earlier) the canonical entropy then has a universal form including logarithmic corrections to the area law. This form is shown to be independent of the index appearing in assumption (b). The index, however, is crucial in ascertaining the domain of validity of our approach based on thermal equilibrium.

  18. Covariant Gauge Fixing and Canonical Quantization

    CERN Document Server

    McKeon, D G C

    2011-01-01

    Theories that contain first class constraints possess gauge invariance which results in the necessity of altering the measure in the associated quantum mechanical path integral. If the path integral is derived from the canonical structure of the theory, then the choice of gauge conditions used in constructing Faddeev's measure cannot be covariant. This shortcoming is normally overcome either by using the "Faddeev-Popov" quantization procedure, or by the approach of Batalin-Fradkin-Fradkina-Vilkovisky, and then demonstrating that these approaches are equivalent to the path integral constructed from the canonical approach with Faddeev's measure. We propose in this paper an alternate way of defining the measure for the path integral when it is constructed using the canonical procedure for theories containing first class constraints and that this new approach can be used in conjunction with covariant gauges. This procedure follows the Faddeev-Popov approach, but rather than working with the form of the gauge tran...

  19. The random-variable canonical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alternative interpretation to Gibbs' concept of the canonical distribution for an ensemble of systems in statistical equilibrium is proposed. Whereas Gibbs' theory is based upon a consideration of systems subject to dynamical law, the present analysis relies neither on the classical equations of motion nor makes use of any a priori probability of a complexion; rather, it makes avail of the basic algebra of random variables and, specifically, invokes the law of large numbers. Thereby, a canonical distribution is derived which describes a macrosystem in probabilistic, rather than deterministic, terms, and facilitates the understanding of energy fluctuations which occur in macrosystems at an overall constant ensemble temperature. A discussion is given of a modified form of the Gibbs canonical distribution which takes full account of the effects of random energy fluctuations. It is demonstrated that the results from this modified analysis are entirely consonant with those derived from the random-variable approach. (author)

  20. A Canonical Analysis of the Massless Superparticle

    CERN Document Server

    McKeon, D G C

    2012-01-01

    The canonical structure of the action for a massless superparticle is considered in d = 2 + 1 and d = 3 + 1 dimensions. This is done by examining the contribution to the action of each of the components of the spinor {\\theta} present; no attempt is made to maintain manifest covariance. Upon using the Dirac Bracket to eliminate the second class constraints arising from the canonical momenta associated with half of these components, we find that the remaining components have canonical momenta that are all first class constraints. From these first class constraints, it is possible to derive the generator of half of the local Fermionic {\\kappa}-symmetry of Siegel; which half is contingent upon the choice of which half of the momenta associated with the components of {\\theta} are taken to be second class constraints. The algebra of the generator of this Fermionic symmetry transformation is examined.

  1. Functional linear regression via canonical analysis

    CERN Document Server

    He, Guozhong; Wang, Jane-Ling; Yang, Wenjing; 10.3150/09-BEJ228

    2011-01-01

    We study regression models for the situation where both dependent and independent variables are square-integrable stochastic processes. Questions concerning the definition and existence of the corresponding functional linear regression models and some basic properties are explored for this situation. We derive a representation of the regression parameter function in terms of the canonical components of the processes involved. This representation establishes a connection between functional regression and functional canonical analysis and suggests alternative approaches for the implementation of functional linear regression analysis. A specific procedure for the estimation of the regression parameter function using canonical expansions is proposed and compared with an established functional principal component regression approach. As an example of an application, we present an analysis of mortality data for cohorts of medflies, obtained in experimental studies of aging and longevity.

  2. Canonical quantization of gravity without 'frozen formalism'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We write down a quantum gravity equation which generalizes the Wheeler-DeWitt one in view of including a time dependence in the wave functional. The obtained equation provides a consistent canonical quantization of the 3-geometries resulting from a 'gauge-fixing' (3+1)-slicing of the space-time. Our leading idea relies on a criticism to the possibility that, in a quantum space-time, the notion of a (3+1)-slicing formalism (underlying the Wheeler-DeWitt approach) has yet a precise physical meaning. As solution to this problem we propose of adding to the gravity-matter action the so-called kinematical action (indeed in its reduced form, as implemented in the quantum regime), and then we impose the new quantum constraints. As consequence of this revised approach, the quantization procedure of the 3-geometries takes place in a fixed reference frame and the wave functional acquires a time evolution along a one-parameter family of spatial hypersurfaces filling the space-time. We show how the states of the new quantum dynamics can be arranged into an Hilbert space, whose associated inner product induces a conserved probability notion for the 3-geometries. Finally, since the constraints we quantize violate the classical symmetries (i.e., the vanishing nature of the super-Hamiltonian), then a key result is to find a (non-physical) restriction on the initial wave functional phase, ensuring that general relativity outcomes when taking the appropriate classical limit. However, we propose a physical interpretation of the kinematical variables which, based on the analogy with the so-called Gaussian reference fluid, makes allowance even for such classical symmetry violation

  3. Canonical quantization of generally covariant systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kretschmann (1917) argued that general relativity does not satisfy any relativity principle and that it is actually a theory of absolute space-time. The issues raised by Kretschmann, that of Hamiltonian dynamics and of canonical quantization of generally covariant systems, are discussed. The questions raised are: what is the role of space-time diffeomorphisms in Hamiltonian dynamics of generally covariant systems, what is the role of isometries in Hamiltonian dynamics of such systems and what happens to both problems in canonical quantization. (author)

  4. Canonic form of linear quaternion functions

    OpenAIRE

    Sangwine, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    The general linear quaternion function of degree one is a sum of terms with quaternion coefficients on the left and right. The paper considers the canonic form of such a function, and builds on the recent work of Todd Ell, who has shown that any such function may be represented using at most four quaternion coefficients. In this paper, a new and simple method is presented for obtaining these coefficients numerically using a matrix approach which also gives an alternative proof of the canonic ...

  5. Canonical transformations and Hamiltonian evolutionary systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In many Lagrangian field theories, one has a Poisson bracket defined on the space of local functionals. We find necessary and sufficient conditions for a transformation on the space of local functionals to be canonical in three different cases. These three cases depend on the specific dimensions of the vector bundle of the theory and the associated Hamiltonian differential operator. We also show how a canonical transformation transforms a Hamiltonian evolutionary system and its conservation laws. Finally, we illustrate these ideas with three examples.

  6. Canonical vs. micro-canonical sampling methods in a 2D Ising model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonical and micro-canonical Monte Carlo algorithms were implemented on a 2D Ising model. Expressions for the internal energy, U, inverse temperature, Z, and specific heat, C, are given. These quantities were calculated over a range of temperature, lattice sizes, and time steps. Both algorithms accurately simulate the Ising model. To obtain greater than three decimal accuracy from the micro-canonical method requires that the more complicated expression for Z be used. The overall difference between the algorithms is small. The physics of the problem under study should be the deciding factor in determining which algorithm to use. 13 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Communication: Generalized canonical purification for density matrix minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truflandier, Lionel A.; Dianzinga, Rivo M.; Bowler, David R.

    2016-03-01

    A Lagrangian formulation for the constrained search for the N-representable one-particle density matrix based on the McWeeny idempotency error minimization is proposed, which converges systematically to the ground state. A closed form of the canonical purification is derived for which no a posteriori adjustment on the trace of the density matrix is needed. The relationship with comparable methods is discussed, showing their possible generalization through the hole-particle duality. The appealing simplicity of this self-consistent recursion relation along with its low computational complexity could prove useful as an alternative to diagonalization in solving dense and sparse matrix eigenvalue problems.

  8. Kuidas Canon suureks kasvas / Andres Eilart

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Eilart, Andres

    2004-01-01

    Jaapani kaamerate ja büroomasinate tootja Canon Groupi arengust, tegevusest kolmes regioonis - USA-s, Euroopas ja Aasias ning ettevõtte pikaajalise edu põhjustest - ärifilosoofiast ning ajastatud tootearendusest. Vt. samas: Firma esialgne nimi oli Kwanon; Konkurendid koonduvad

  9. On the canonical treatment of Lagrangian constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The canonical treatment of dynamic systems with manifest Lagrangian constraints proposed by Berezin is applied to concrete examples: a special Lagrangian linear in velocities, relativistic particles in proper time gauge, a relativistic string in orthonormal gauge, and the Maxwell field in the Lorentz gauge

  10. Canonical Quantization of Higher-Order Lagrangians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled I. Nawafleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available After reducing a system of higher-order regular Lagrangian into first-order singular Lagrangian using constrained auxiliary description, the Hamilton-Jacobi function is constructed. Besides, the quantization of the system is investigated using the canonical path integral approximation.

  11. On the generalized Lorenz canonical form

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čelikovský, Sergej; Guanrong, Ch.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2005), s. 1271-1276. ISSN 0960-0779 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/05/0011; GA MŠk 1P05LA262 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : chaos * synchronization * canonical form Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory Impact factor: 1.938, year: 2005

  12. Infants' Recognition of Objects Using Canonical Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Atsushi; Wada, Yuji; Yang, Jiale; Otsuka, Yumiko; Dan, Ippeita; Masuda, Tomohiro; Kanazawa, So; Yamaguchi, Masami K.

    2010-01-01

    We explored infants' ability to recognize the canonical colors of daily objects, including two color-specific objects (human face and fruit) and a non-color-specific object (flower), by using a preferential looking technique. A total of 58 infants between 5 and 8 months of age were tested with a stimulus composed of two color pictures of an object…

  13. Canonical duties, liabilities of trustees and administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, F G

    1985-06-01

    The new Code of Canon Law outlines a number of duties of those who have responsibility for administering the Church's temporal goods. Before assuming office, administrators must pledge to be efficient and faithful, and they must prepare an inventory of goods belonging to the juridic person they serve. Among their duties, administrators must: Ensure that adequate insurance is provided; Use civilly valid methods to protect canonical ownership of the goods; Observe civil and canon law prescriptions as well as donors' intentions; Collect and safeguard revenues, repay debts, and invest funds securely; Maintain accurate records, keep documents secure, and prepare an annual budget; Prepare an annual report and present it to the Ordinary where prescribed; Observe civil law concerning labor and social policy, and pay employees a just and decent wage. Administrators who carry out acts that are invalid canonically are liable for such acts. The juridic person is not liable, unless it derived benefit from the transaction. Liability is especially high when the sale of property is involved or when a contract is entered into without proper cannonical consent. Although Church law is relatively powerless to punish those who have been negligent, stewards, administrators, and trustees must do all they can to be truthful to the responsibility with which they have been entrusted. PMID:10271510

  14. Conservation laws of semidiscrete canonical Hamiltonian equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many evolution partial differential equations which can be cast into Hamiltonian form. Conservation laws of these equations are related to one-parameter Hamiltonian symmetries admitted by the PDEs. The same result holds for semidiscrete Hamiltonian equations. In this paper we consider semidiscrete canonical Hamiltonian equations. Using symmetries, we find conservation laws for the semidiscretized nonlinear wave equation and Schroedinger equation. (author)

  15. Kelvin's Canonical Circulation Theorem in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, thanks to the restoration of the legitimate connection between the current density and the plasma flow velocity in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Kelvin's Circulation Theorem becomes valid in Hall MHD. The ion-flow velocity in the usual circulation integral is now replaced by the canonical ion-flow velocity.

  16. Canonical Ensemble Model for Black Hole Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jingyi Zhang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a canonical ensemble model for the black hole quantum tunnelling radiation is introduced. In this model the probability distribution function corresponding to the emission shell is calculated to second order. The formula of pressure and internal energy of the thermal system is modified, and the fundamental equation of thermodynamics is also discussed.

  17. Simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the Low/Hard State of the X-ray transient source SWIFT J1753.5-0127

    OpenAIRE

    Bel, M. Cadolle; Ribo, M.; Rodriguez, J.; Chaty, S.; Corbel, S.; Goldwurm, A; Frontera, F.; Farinelli, R.; D'Avanzo, P.; Tarana, A.; Ubertini, P.; Laurent, P.; Goldoni, P.; Mirabel, I.F.

    2006-01-01

    We report the results of simultaneous multiwavelength observations of the X-ray transient source SWIFT J1753.5-0127 performed with INTEGRAL, RXTE, NTT, REM and VLA on 2005 August 10-12. The source, which underwent an X-ray outburst since 2005 May 30, was observed during the INTEGRAL Target of Opportunity program dedicated to new X-ray novae located in the Galactic Halo. Broad-band spectra and fast timing variability properties of SWIFT J1753.5-0127 are analyzed together with the optical, near...

  18. Discovery of a broad iron line in the black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127, and the disc emission in the low/hard state revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, Beike; Soleri, Paolo; Mendez, Mariano; Belloni, Tomaso; Mostafa, Reham; Wijnands, Rudy

    2009-01-01

    We analysed simultaneous archival XMM-Newton and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations of the X-ray binary and black hole candidate Swift J1753.5-0127. In a previous analysis of the same data, a soft thermal component was found in the X-ray spectrum, and the presence of an accretion disc extendin

  19. Dragline roller track improvement. Volume I. Evaluation of low hardness dragline track materials in rolling contact. Final report, September 30, 1976-July 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunfee, J.; Leonard, L.; Rumbarger, J.

    1980-01-01

    The Franklin Research Center (FRC), a Division of the Franklin Institute, was contracted by the Bureau of Mines to improve walking dragline roller tracks. The contract was subsequently transferred to the Department of Energy. The period from September 1977 to September 1978 covered laboratory rolling contact rig tests to evaluate typical low hardness dragline track materials. The results of this work are covered by DOE/ET/9121-1 Final Report, Volume I. The period from September 1978 to July 1980 covered field measurements of dragline roller circle loadings. The results of this work are covered by DOE/ET/9121-2 Final Report, Volume II. The laboratory rolling contact rig test results indicate that forged vacuum degassed air melt steel materials are recommended over air-melt cast materials for rollers and tracks. The steels tested exhibited good freedom from sensitivity to stress raisers like brinell marks and small holes or discontinuities (Volume I). The largest unknown in a recommended method for life testing roller tracks is the condition of the upper rotating frame structure and the lower tub supporting structure.

  20. Canonical brackets of a toy model for the Hodge theory without its canonical conjugate momenta

    CERN Document Server

    Shukla, D; Malik, R P

    2014-01-01

    We consider the toy model of a rigid rotor as an example of the Hodge theory within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism and show that the internal symmetries of this theory lead to the derivation of canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators of the dynamical variables where the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta is not required. We invoke only the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and basic concepts of continuous symmetries (and their generators) to derive the canonical brackets for the model of a one (0 + 1)-dimensional (1D) rigid rotor without using the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta anywhere. Our present method of derivation of the basic brackets is conjectured to be true for a class of theories that provide a set of tractable physical examples for the Hodge theory.

  1. Canonical brackets of a toy model for the Hodge theory without its canonical conjugate momenta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, D.; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.

    2015-07-01

    We consider the toy model of a rigid rotor as an example of the Hodge theory within the framework of Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism and show that the internal symmetries of this theory lead to the derivation of canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators of the dynamical variables where the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta is not required. We invoke only the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and basic concepts of continuous symmetries (and their generators) to derive the canonical brackets for the model of a one (0 + 1)-dimensional (1D) rigid rotor without using the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta anywhere. Our present method of derivation of the basic brackets is conjectured to be true for a class of theories that provide a set of tractable physical examples for the Hodge theory.

  2. Avicenna's Canon of Medicine: a look at health, public health, and environmental sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Mohsen; Pakpour, Amir H

    2012-12-01

    Avicenna, a renowned Persian Muslim scientist has written numerous scientific papers and valuable medical books that are respected worldwide. For centuries his masterpiece, the "Canon of Medicine", has been used as a major medical reference. The Canon, as a prime encyclopedia on medicine is comprised of five books. In the introduction to the Canon, Avicenna has described the purpose of medicine as the preservation of health if it is already attained and its restoration when it is lost. He defines health as a trait or state, which results in the normal functioning of the human body and presumes that health is a steady state, whilst disease is more of a variable concept. Thus whenever we depart from a healthy state, we approach disease. A comparison of current views regarding definitions of health, disease and their components as defined by Avicenna could open new horizons for ancient, traditional medicine. The Canon contains numerous implications concerning the infrastructures of public health-related issues. For example the specifications of healthy water and air are well described in the "Canon of Medicine". To enable a better understanding of Avicenna's viewpoints about public health, we have briefly reviewed his perspective on the topics of health, disease, and environmental sanitation concerning water and air. PMID:23199255

  3. Canonical brackets of a toy model for the Hodge theory without its canonical conjugate momenta

    OpenAIRE

    D Shukla; Bhanja, T.; Malik, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the toy model of a rigid rotor as an example of the Hodge theory within the framework of the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) formalism and show that the internal symmetries of this theory lead to the derivation of canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators of the dynamical variables where the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta is not required. We invoke only the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and basic concepts of continuous symmetries...

  4. An introduction to the theory of canonical matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Turnbull, H W

    2004-01-01

    Thorough and self-contained, this penetrating study of the theory of canonical matrices presents a detailed consideration of all the theory's principal features. Topics include elementary transformations and bilinear and quadratic forms; canonical reduction of equivalent matrices; subgroups of the group of equivalent transformations; and rational and classical canonical forms. The final chapters explore several methods of canonical reduction, including those of unitary and orthogonal transformations. 1952 edition. Index. Appendix. Historical notes. Bibliographies. 275 problems.

  5. Dunkl Operators and Canonical Invariants of Reflection Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Arkady Berenstein; Yurii Burman

    2008-01-01

    Using Dunkl operators, we introduce a continuous family of canonical invariants of finite reflection groups. We verify that the elementary canonical invariants of the symmetric group are deformations of the elementary symmetric polynomials. We also compute the canonical invariants for all dihedral groups as certain hypergeometric functions.

  6. Canonical analysis based on mutual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Vestergaard, Jacob Schack

    2015-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) is an established multi-variate statistical method for finding similarities between linear combinations of (normally two) sets of multivariate observations. In this contribution we replace (linear) correlation as the measure of association between the linear...... combinations with the information theoretical measure mutual information (MI). We term this type of analysis canonical information analysis (CIA). MI allows for the actual joint distribution of the variables involved and not just second order statistics. While CCA is ideal for Gaussian data, CIA facilitates...... analysis of variables with different genesis and therefore different statistical distributions and different modalities. As a proof of concept we give a toy example. We also give an example with one (weather radar based) variable in the one set and eight spectral bands of optical satellite data in the...

  7. DNA pattern recognition using canonical correlation algorithm

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    B K Sarkar; Chiranjib Chakraborty

    2015-10-01

    We performed canonical correlation analysis as an unsupervised statistical tool to describe related views of the same semantic object for identifying patterns. A pattern recognition technique based on canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was proposed for finding required genetic code in the DNA sequence. Two related but different objects were considered: one was a particular pattern, and other was test DNA sequence. CCA found correlations between two observations of the same semantic pattern and test sequence. It is concluded that the relationship possesses maximum value in the position where the pattern exists. As a case study, the potential of CCA was demonstrated on the sequence found from HIV-1 preferred integration sites. The subsequences on the left and right flanking from the integration site were considered as the two views, and statistically significant relationships were established between these two views to elucidate the viral preference as an important factor for the correlation.

  8. Genre, canon et monstruosités

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Le numéro sept de notre revue réunit les collaborations d’Isabelle López García (posthume), transition intéressante entre canon littéraire, canon social et figuration des corps rendus monstrueux par le fléau du sida ; de Richard Cleminson, spécialiste de l’histoire de la sexualité (en annexe), ainsi que celles de plusieurs chercheures et chercheurs présent.e.s aux journées d’étude entre Toulouse et Tours : Cecilia González analyse le dialogue entre les “anciens et les modernes” à trav...

  9. Rewriting Canonical Love Stories from the Peripheries

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Karen Ya-Chu

    2013-01-01

    In her article "Rewriting Canonical Love Stories from the Peripheries" Karen Ya-Chu Yang compares postcolonial and postmodern intertextuality in Taiwanese and the Caribbean texts. Hsien-Yung Pai's "Wandering in the Garden, Waking from a Dream" (1966) and Tien-Hsin Chu's "Breakfast at Tiffany's" (1997) are two short stories which depict identity crises of first generation and second generation 外省人 (waishen gren, mainland immigrants). In these two texts disillusionment towards the center's roma...

  10. On Complex Supermanifolds with Trivial Canonical Bundle

    CERN Document Server

    Groeger, Josua

    2016-01-01

    We give an algebraic characterisation for the triviality of the canonical bundle of a complex supermanifold in terms of a certain Batalin-Vilkovisky superalgebra structure. As an application, we study the Calabi-Yau case, in which an explicit formula in terms of the Levi-Civita connection is achieved. Our methods include the use of complex integral forms and the recently developed theory of superholonomy.

  11. Canonical quantization of substrate-less fields

    CERN Document Server

    Gründler, Gerold

    2015-01-01

    An improved law for the canonical quantization of fields is presented, which is based on the distinction between fields which have a material substrate, and substrate-less fields. It is shown that the improved quantization method solves the (old) cosmological constant problem for all fields of the standard model of elementary particles and for the metric field, but not for the hypothetical inflaton fields, without compromising any of the achievements of the established quantum field theories.

  12. THEOLOGY OF CANONS IN CATHOLIC UNIVERSITIES?

    OpenAIRE

    IVÁN FEDERICO MEJÍA A

    2010-01-01

    Is it useful today, or necessary, an interpretation of the Code of Canon Law from Christology? The article examines some opposition which consider as inappropriate to search for foundations or links from "outside" the Code itself and the normal legislative living tradition of the Catholic Church. The Second Vatican Council and Pope John Paul II sponsored a theological interpretation of the Code, and this article summarizes some features of the validation, method, and the successful applicatio...

  13. A canonical representation for aggregated Markov processes

    OpenAIRE

    Larget, Bret

    1998-01-01

    A deterministic function of a Markov process is called an aggregated Markov process. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the equivalence of continuous-time aggregated Markov processes. For both discrete- and continuous-time, we show that any aggregated Markov process which satisfies mild regularity conditions can be directly converted to a canonical representation which is unique for each class of equivalent models, and furthermore, is a minimal parameterization ...

  14. Juridic status: canonical provisions, possible applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, F G

    1986-09-01

    The 1983 Code of Canon Law presents the basic legislation regarding juridic persons, which are entities brought into existence to assist in carrying out the Church's mission. Juridic persons by nature are perpetual and are not directly identified with their members. The private juridic person, a concept introduced in the 1983 code, operates collegially on behalf of its members or noncollegially on behalf of the things that constitute it. A ministry that receives private juridic status does not share as integrally in the Church's name. The latter therefore has more duties to fulfill in regard to observance of Church law, particularly that concerning the administration of temporal goods. The goods of a private juridic person, in contrast, are not ecclesiastical and thus are not subject to canon law. Instead, the private juridic persons' statutes provide norms for their administration. Canon law in establishing juridic persons enables the ministries they represent to last beyond the lives of those who initiated the ministries. Juridic persons offer both security and possibilities for concerted apostolic activity in the Church. PMID:10277620

  15. Ciliary IFT80 balances canonical versus non-canonical hedgehog signalling for osteoblast differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xue; Cao, Jay; He, Xiaoning; Serra, Rosa; Qu, Jun; Cao, Xu; Yang, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Intraflagellar transport proteins (IFT) are required for hedgehog (Hh) signalling transduction that is essential for bone development, however, how IFT proteins regulate Hh signalling in osteoblasts (OBs) remains unclear. Here we show that deletion of ciliary IFT80 in OB precursor cells (OPC) in mice results in growth retardation and markedly decreased bone mass with impaired OB differentiation. Loss of IFT80 blocks canonical Hh–Gli signalling via disrupting Smo ciliary localization, but elevates non-canonical Hh–Gαi–RhoA–stress fibre signalling by increasing Smo and Gαi binding. Inhibition of RhoA and ROCK activity partially restores osteogenic differentiation of IFT80-deficient OPCs by inhibiting non-canonical Hh–RhoA–Cofilin/MLC2 signalling. Cytochalasin D, an actin destabilizer, dramatically restores OB differentiation of IFT80-deficient OPCs by disrupting actin stress fibres and promoting cilia formation and Hh–Gli signalling. These findings reveal that IFT80 is required for OB differentiation by balancing between canonical Hh–Gli and non-canonical Hh–Gαi–RhoA pathways and highlight IFT80 as a therapeutic target for craniofacial and skeletal abnormalities. PMID:26996322

  16. Canonical formulation and path integral for local vacuum energy sequestering

    CERN Document Server

    Bufalo, R; Oksanen, M

    2016-01-01

    We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for a local formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In particular, by considering the state of the universe as a superposition of vacuum states corresponding to different values of the cosmological and gravitational constants, the path integral is extended to include integrations over the cosmological and gravitational constants. The result is an extension of the Ng-van Dam form of the path integral of unimodular gravity. It is argued to imply a relation between the fraction of the most likely values of the gravitational and cosmological constants and the average values of the energy density and pressure of matter over spacetime. Finally, we construct and analyze a BRST-exact formulation of the theory, which can be considered as a topological field theory.

  17. Canonical formulation and path integral for local vacuum energy sequestering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufalo, R.; KlusoÅ, J.; Oksanen, M.

    2016-08-01

    We establish the Hamiltonian analysis and the canonical path integral for a local formulation of vacuum energy sequestering. In particular, by considering the state of the Universe as a superposition of vacuum states corresponding to different values of the cosmological and gravitational constants, the path integral is extended to include integrations over the cosmological and gravitational constants. The result is an extension of the Ng-van Dam form of the path integral of unimodular gravity. It is argued to imply a relation between the fraction of the most likely values of the gravitational and cosmological constants and the average values of the energy density and pressure of matter over spacetime. Finally, we construct and analyze a Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin-exact formulation of the theory, which can be considered as a topological field theory.

  18. Incompatibility of the observer-based vacuum with canonical quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three new stationary coordinate systems in flat space-time, the last of six possible types, are described. The vacuum state found by canonical quantization of the scalar field in two of these systems is identical to that of Rindler coordinates, yet detectors at rest in these systems are excited in different amounts. A definition of the vacuum based on these detectors is, therefore, incompatible with canonical quantum field theory. The vacuum of the third system is identical to the Minkowski coordinate vacuum; thus, there are only two different vacua in flat space-time

  19. Canonical Notch activation in osteocytes causes osteopetrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canalis, Ernesto; Bridgewater, David; Schilling, Lauren; Zanotti, Stefano

    2016-01-15

    Activation of Notch1 in cells of the osteoblastic lineage inhibits osteoblast differentiation/function and causes osteopenia, whereas its activation in osteocytes causes a distinct osteopetrotic phenotype. To explore mechanisms responsible, we established the contributions of canonical Notch signaling (Rbpjκ dependent) to osteocyte function. Transgenics expressing Cre recombinase under the control of the dentin matrix protein-1 (Dmp1) promoter were crossed with Rbpjκ conditional mice to generate Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rbpjκ(Δ/Δ) mice. These mice did not have a skeletal phenotype, indicating that Rbpjκ is dispensable for osteocyte function. To study the Rbpjκ contribution to Notch activation, Rosa(Notch) mice, where a loxP-flanked STOP cassette is placed between the Rosa26 promoter and the NICD coding sequence, were crossed with Dmp1-Cre transgenic mice and studied in the context (Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rosa(Notch);Rbpjκ(Δ/Δ)) or not (Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rosa(Notch)) of Rbpjκ inactivation. Dmp1-Cre(+/-);Rosa(Notch) mice exhibited increased femoral trabecular bone volume and decreased osteoclasts and bone resorption. The phenotype was reversed in the context of the Rbpjκ inactivation, demonstrating that Notch canonical signaling was accountable for the phenotype. Notch activation downregulated Sost and Dkk1 and upregulated Axin2, Tnfrsf11b, and Tnfsf11 mRNA expression, and these effects were not observed in the context of the Rbpjκ inactivation. In conclusion, Notch activation in osteocytes suppresses bone resorption and increases bone volume by utilization of canonical signals that also result in the inhibition of Sost and Dkk1 and upregulation of Wnt signaling. PMID:26578715

  20. Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Florian

    2012-07-16

    In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.

  1. Canonical group quantization and boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis, we study quantization of classical systems with non-trivial phase spaces using the group-theoretical quantization technique proposed by Isham. Our main goal is a better understanding of global and topological aspects of quantum theory. In practice, the group-theoretical approach enables direct quantization of systems subject to constraints and boundary conditions in a natural and physically transparent manner -- cases for which the canonical quantization method of Dirac fails. First, we provide a clarification of the quantization formalism. In contrast to prior treatments, we introduce a sharp distinction between the two group structures that are involved and explain their physical meaning. The benefit is a consistent and conceptually much clearer construction of the Canonical Group. In particular, we shed light upon the 'pathological' case for which the Canonical Group must be defined via a central Lie algebra extension and emphasise the role of the central extension in general. In addition, we study direct quantization of a particle restricted to a half-line with 'hard wall' boundary condition. Despite the apparent simplicity of this example, we show that a naive quantization attempt based on the cotangent bundle over the half-line as classical phase space leads to an incomplete quantum theory; the reflection which is a characteristic aspect of the 'hard wall' is not reproduced. Instead, we propose a different phase space that realises the necessary boundary condition as a topological feature and demonstrate that quantization yields a suitable quantum theory for the half-line model. The insights gained in the present special case improve our understanding of the relation between classical and quantum theory and illustrate how contact interactions may be incorporated.

  2. Evidence of non-canonical NOTCH signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traustadóttir, Gunnhildur Ásta; Jensen, Charlotte H; Thomassen, Mads;

    2016-01-01

    Dlk1(+/+) and Dlk1(-/-) mouse tissues at E16.5, we demonstrated that several NOTCH signaling pathways indeed are affected by DLK1 during tissue development, and this was supported by a lower activation of NOTCH1 protein in Dlk1(+/+) embryos. Likewise, but using a distinct Dlk1-manipulated (si......Canonical NOTCH signaling, known to be essential for tissue development, requires the Delta-Serrate-LAG2 (DSL) domain for NOTCH to interact with its ligand. However, despite lacking DSL, Delta-like 1 homolog (DLK1), a protein that plays a significant role in mammalian development, has been...

  3. Canonical particle tracking in undulator fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new algebraic mapping routine for particle tracking across wiggler and undulator fields in presented. It is based on a power series expansion of the generating function to guarantee fully canonical transformations. This method is 10 to 100 times faster than integration routines, applied in tracking codes like BETA or RACETRACK. The tracking method presented is not restricted to wigglers and undulators, it can be applied to other magnetic fields as well such as fringing fields of quadrupoles or dipoles if the suggested expansion converges

  4. Kato expansion in quantum canonical perturbation theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, Andrey

    2016-06-01

    This work establishes a connection between canonical perturbation series in quantum mechanics and a Kato expansion for the resolvent of the Liouville superoperator. Our approach leads to an explicit expression for a generator of a block-diagonalizing Dyson's ordered exponential in arbitrary perturbation order. Unitary intertwining of perturbed and unperturbed averaging superprojectors allows for a description of ambiguities in the generator and block-diagonalized Hamiltonian. We compare the efficiency of the corresponding computational algorithm with the efficiencies of the Van Vleck and Magnus methods for high perturbative orders.

  5. Path integrals for arbitrary canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of the path integral formulation of quantum mechanics are studied. This formalism is generalized to arbitrary canonical transformations, by means of an association between path integral probalility amplitudes and classical generators of transformations, analogous to the usual Hamiltonian time development phase space expression. Such association turns out to be equivalent to the Weyl quantization rule, and it is also shown that this formalism furnishes a path integral representation for a Lie algebra of a given set of classical generators. Some physical considerations about the path integral quantization procedure and about the relationship between classical and quantum dynamical structures are also discussed. (Author)

  6. Canonical feature selection for joint regression and multi-class identification in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Suk, Heung-Il; Lee, Seong-Whan; Shen, Dinggang

    2016-09-01

    Fusing information from different imaging modalities is crucial for more accurate identification of the brain state because imaging data of different modalities can provide complementary perspectives on the complex nature of brain disorders. However, most existing fusion methods often extract features independently from each modality, and then simply concatenate them into a long vector for classification, without appropriate consideration of the correlation among modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel method to transform the original features from different modalities to a common space, where the transformed features become comparable and easy to find their relation, by canonical correlation analysis. We then perform the sparse multi-task learning for discriminative feature selection by using the canonical features as regressors and penalizing a loss function with a canonical regularizer. In our experiments on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset, we use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images to jointly predict clinical scores of Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and also identify multi-class disease status for Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. The experimental results showed that the proposed canonical feature selection method helped enhance the performance of both clinical score prediction and disease status identification, outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26254746

  7. Canonical Transformations can Dramatically Simplify Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, John

    2016-01-01

    A useful way to keep track of the SUSY invariance of a theory is by formulating it with a BRST Poisson Bracket. It turns out that there is a crucial subtlety that is hidden in this formulation. When the theory contains a Chiral Multiplet, the relevant BRST Poisson Bracket has a very important Canonical Transformation that leaves it invariant. This Canonical Transformation takes all or part of the Scalar Field $A$ and replaces it with a Zinn Source $J_A$, and also takes the related Zinn Source $\\Gamma_A$ and replaces it with an `Antighost' Field $\\eta_A$. Naively, this looks like it is just a change of notation. But in fact the interpretation means that one has moved some of the conserved Noether SUSY current from the Field Action, and placed it partly in the Zinn Sources Action, and so the SUSY current in the Field part of the Action is no longer conserved, because the Zinn Sources do not satisfy any equations of motion. They are not quantized, because they are Sources. So it needs to be recognized that SUSY ...

  8. Sparse canonical correlation analysis: new formulation and algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Delin; Liao, Li-Zhi; Ng, Michael K; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we study canonical correlation analysis (CCA), which is a powerful tool in multivariate data analysis for finding the correlation between two sets of multidimensional variables. The main contributions of the paper are: 1) to reveal the equivalent relationship between a recursive formula and a trace formula for the multiple CCA problem, 2) to obtain the explicit characterization for all solutions of the multiple CCA problem even when the corresponding covariance matrices are singular, 3) to develop a new sparse CCA algorithm, and 4) to establish the equivalent relationship between the uncorrelated linear discriminant analysis and the CCA problem. We test several simulated and real-world datasets in gene classification and cross-language document retrieval to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. The performance of the proposed method is competitive with the state-of-the-art sparse CCA algorithms. PMID:24136440

  9. On the Analysis of Causes of Low Hardness of P91 Steel Tube and its Influence on Performance%P91钢管硬度低的原因分析及对性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王宝臣; 田旭海; 梁军; 赵慧传; 孙标

    2012-01-01

    By testing and verifying the main property of P91 seamless steel tube with low hardness and that with normal hardness, and comparing with the requirement of ASME SA335-SA335M, differences in property of P91 seamless steel tube with low hardness have been found. The paper analyzes and determines what mainly causes the low hardness of P91 seamless steel tube is that a good deal of ferritic structure exists in the metallographic structure of tubing.%通过相关试验对低硬度P91无缝钢管和正常硬度P91无缝钢管的主要性能进行验证,并与ASMESA335-SA335M的要求进行比对,获得了低硬度P91无缝钢管性能的差异,分析确定了造成P91无缝钢管硬度低的主要原因是管材的金相组织中出现了大量的铁素体组织。

  10. Extension of warm inflation to non-canonical scalar fields

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Xiao-Min

    2014-01-01

    We extend the warm inflationary scenario to the case of the non-canonical scalar fields. The equation of motion and the other basic equations of this new scenario are obtained. The Hubble damped term is enhanced in non-canonical inflation. A linear stability analysis is performed to give the proper slow roll conditions in warm non-canonical inflation. We study the density fluctuations in the new picture and obtain an approximate analytic expression of the power spectrum. The energy scale at the horizon crossing is depressed by both non-canonical effect and thermal effect, so does the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Besides the synergy, the non-canonical effect and the thermal effect are competing in the case of the warm non-canonical inflation.

  11. [Huang Yizhou's study on Nei jing (Inner Canon)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Benxiang; Huang, Youmei; Yu, Chengfen

    2002-01-01

    Being a great classical scholar of the late Qing dynasty, Huang Yizhou collated Nei jing (Inner Canon) by textual criticism. But most of his works were missing. By reviewing historical documents and literature, it has been found that his collated books include Huang di nei jing su wen jiao ben (Collated Edition of Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Huang di nei jing su wen chong jiao zheng (Recollated Huangdi's Inner Canon Plain Questions), Nei jing zhen ci (Acupuncture in Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing jiu juan ji zhu (Variorum of Nine Volumes of Huangdi's Inner Canon), Huang di nei jing ming tang (Acupuncture Chart of Huangdi's Inner Canon), and Jiu chao tai su jiao ben (Old Extremely Plain Question Recension). Many of his disciples became famous scholars in the Republican period. PMID:12015056

  12. Integral Canonical Models for Automorphic Vector Bundles of Abelian Type

    OpenAIRE

    Lovering, Tom

    2016-01-01

    We define and construct integral canonical models for automorphic vector bundles over Shimura varieties of abelian type. More precisely, we first build on Kisin's work to construct integral canonical models over rings of integers of number fields with finitely many primes inverted for Shimura varieties of abelian type with hyperspecial level at all primes we do not invert, compatible with Kisin's construction. We then define a notion of an integral canonical model for the standard principal b...

  13. The Geometry of Tangent Bundles: Canonical Vector Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongzhu Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A canonical vector field on the tangent bundle is a vector field defined by an invariant coordinate construction. In this paper, a complete classification of canonical vector fields on tangent bundles, depending on vector fields defined on their bases, is obtained. It is shown that every canonical vector field is a linear combination with constant coefficients of three vector fields: the variational vector field (canonical lift, the Liouville vector field, and the vertical lift of a vector field on the base of the tangent bundle.

  14. Canonical quantization of (2+1)-dimensional QED with a topological mass term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the canonical quantization of quantum electrodynamics in 2+1 dimensions, with a Chern-Simons topological mass term and gauge-covariant coupling to a Dirac spinor field. A gauge-fixing term is used which generates a canonical momentum for A0, so that there are no primary constraints on operator-valued fields. Gauss's law and the gauge condition A0=0 are implemented by embedding the formulation in an appropriate physical subspace, in which state vectors remain naturally in the course of time evolution. The photon propagator is derived from the canonical theory. The electric and magnetic fields are separated into parts that reflect the presence of massive photons, and other parts that are rigidly attached to charged fermions and do not consist of any observable, propagating particle excitations. The effect of rotations on charged particle states is analyzed, and the relation between the canonical and the Belinfante ''symmetric'' angular momentum is discussed. It is shown that the rotation operator can be consistently formulated so that charged particles behave like fermions, and do not acquire any arbitrary phases during rotations, even when they are dressed in the electromagnetic fields required for them to obey Gauss's law

  15. Canonical quantization of the massive vector supermultiplet: An example of higher-order derivative model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supersymmetric version of the Stueckelberg Lagrangian of the massive vector superfield leads to an example of higher-order derivative model. The canonical quantization yields massive states which compose two irreducible representations, one physical supermultiplet and another spurious. The origin of the different spurious states are investigated, especially those originating from the higher-order derivative terms. The spurious superfield is found to be decoupled when the supercurrent satisfies some appropriate conditions. (orig.)

  16. Theory of extreme correlations using canonical Fermions and path integrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The  t–J  model is studied using a novel and rigorous mapping of the Gutzwiller projected electrons, in terms of canonical electrons. The mapping has considerable similarity to the Dyson–Maleev transformation relating spin operators to canonical Bosons. This representation gives rise to a non Hermitian quantum theory, characterized by minimal redundancies. A path integral representation of the canonical theory is given. Using it, the salient results of the extremely correlated Fermi liquid (ECFL) theory, including the previously found Schwinger equations of motion, are easily rederived. Further, a transparent physical interpretation of the previously introduced auxiliary Greens function and the ‘caparison factor’, is obtained. The low energy electron spectral function in this theory, with a strong intrinsic asymmetry, is summarized in terms of a few expansion coefficients. These include an important emergent energy scale Δ0 that shrinks to zero on approaching the insulating state, thereby making it difficult to access the underlying very low energy Fermi liquid behavior. The scaled low frequency ECFL spectral function, related simply to the Fano line shape, has a peculiar energy dependence unlike that of a Lorentzian. The resulting energy dispersion obtained by maximization is a hybrid of a massive and a massless Dirac spectrum EQ∗∼γQ−√(Γ02+Q2), where the vanishing of Q, a momentum type variable, locates the kink minimum. Therefore the quasiparticle velocity interpolates between (γ∓1) over a width Γ0 on the two sides of Q=0, implying a kink there that strongly resembles a prominent low energy feature seen in angle resolved photoemission spectra (ARPES) of cuprate materials. We also propose novel ways of analyzing the ARPES data to isolate the predicted asymmetry between particle and hole excitations. -- Highlights: •Spectral function of the Extremely Correlated Fermi Liquid theory at low energy. •Electronic origin of low energy kinks in

  17. Linear canonical transforms theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kutay, M; Ozaktas, Haldun; Sheridan, John

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a clear and accessible introduction to the essential mathematical foundations of linear canonical transforms from a signals and systems perspective. Substantial attention is devoted to how these transforms relate to optical systems and wave propagation. There is extensive coverage of sampling theory and fast algorithms for numerically approximating the family of transforms. Chapters on topics ranging from digital holography to speckle metrology provide a window on the wide range of applications. This volume will serve as a reference for researchers in the fields of image and signal processing, wave propagation, optical information processing and holography, optical system design and modeling, and quantum optics. It will be of use to graduate students in physics and engineering, as well as for scientists in other areas seeking to learn more about this important yet relatively unfamiliar class of integral transformations.

  18. Towards a 'canonical' agranular cortical microcircuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah F. Beul

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on regularities in the intrinsic microcircuitry of cortical areas, variants of a 'canonical' cortical microcircuit have been proposed and widely adopted, particularly in computational neuroscience and neuroinformatics. However, this circuit is founded on striate cortex, which manifests perhaps the most extreme instance of cortical organization, in terms of a very high density of cells in highly differentiated cortical layers. Most other cortical regions have a less well differentiated architecture, stretching in gradients from the very dense eulaminate primary cortical areas to the other extreme of dysgranular and agranular areas of low density and poor laminar differentiation. It is unlikely for the patterns of inter- and intra-laminar connections to be uniform in spite of strong variations of their structural substrate. This assumption is corroborated by reports of divergence in intrinsic circuitry across the cortex. Consequently, it remains an important goal to define local microcircuits for a variety of cortical types, in particular, agranular cortical regions. As a counterpoint to the striate microcircuit, which may be anchored in an exceptional cytoarchitecture, we here outline a tentative microcircuit for agranular cortex. The circuit is based on a synthesis of the available literature on the local microcircuitry in agranular cortical areas of the rodent brain, investigated by anatomical and electrophysiological approaches. A central observation of these investigations is a weakening of interlaminar inhibition as cortical cytoarchitecture becomes less distinctive. Thus, our study of agranular microcircuitry revealed deviations from the well-known 'canonical' microcircuit established for striate cortex, suggesting variations in the intrinsic circuitry across the cortex that may be functionally relevant.

  19. The canonical formalism in covariant theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of quantizing General Relativity (GR) is a formidable one and may require for its solution a complete understanding of string theory and its relationship with the gravitational field. Here the author discusses a more conservative and localized approach based on a covariant canonical formalism developed in a number of papers in the last few years. The idea is to consider theories which can be expressed entirely in terms of differential forms and then to exploit the analogy between time derivative and exterior derivative of forms. In the case of supergravity the field variables have then a double grading, the conventional form grading and the Fermi grading. There is no preferred time direction and, in space-time dimension D + 1, the conjugate momenta of a field form of degree rho is a form of degree D - rho. This form contains the usual components of the momentum besides other components needed in order to preserve covariance. The theory leads naturally to a hamiltonian form H of degree D + 1 which can be used within formalism in order to compute canonically the exterior derivative of a field-form. Its role is therefore quite different to that of the ordinary Hamiltonian which leads instead to Lie derivatives of a field. It is however possible to relate these quantities, and it turns out that the conventional Hamiltonian is the time component of a Poincare multiplet of 3-forms which can be used in order to compute Lie derivatives in any direction. Also the authors approach is well suit for applications within the group manifold approach

  20. Linking covariant and canonical LQG II: spin foam projector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a seminal paper, Kaminski et al for the first time extended the definition of spin foam models to arbitrary boundary graphs. This is a prerequisite in order to make contact to the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity whose Hilbert space contains all these graphs. This makes it finally possible to investigate the question whether any of the presently considered spin foam models yields a rigging map for any of the presently defined Hamiltonian constraint operators. We postulate a rigging map by summing over all abstract spin foams with arbitrary but given boundary graphs. The states induced on the boundary of these spin foams can then be identified with elements in the gauge invariant Hilbert space H0 of the canonical theory. Of course, such a sum over all spin foams is potentially divergent and requires a regularization. Such a regularization can be obtained by introducing specific cut-offs and a weight for every single foam. Such a weight could be for example derived from a generalized formal group field theory allowing for arbitrary interaction terms. Since such a derivation is, however, technical involved we forgo to present a strict derivation and assume that there exist a weight satisfying certain natural axioms, most importantly a gluing property. These axioms are motivated by the requirement that spin foam amplitudes should define a rigging map (physical inner product) induced by the Hamiltonian constraint. In the analysis of the resulting object we are able to identify an elementary spin foam transfer matrix that allows to generate any finite foam as a finite power of the transfer matrix. It transpires that the sum over spin foams, as written, does not define a projector on the physical Hilbert space. This statement is independent of the concrete spin foam model and Hamiltonian constraint. However, the transfer matrix potentially contains the necessary ingredient in order to construct a proper rigging map in terms of a modified transfer matrix

  1. Linking covariant and canonical LQG II: spin foam projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiemann, Thomas; Zipfel, Antonia

    2014-06-01

    In a seminal paper, Kaminski et al for the first time extended the definition of spin foam models to arbitrary boundary graphs. This is a prerequisite in order to make contact to the canonical formulation of loop quantum gravity whose Hilbert space contains all these graphs. This makes it finally possible to investigate the question whether any of the presently considered spin foam models yields a rigging map for any of the presently defined Hamiltonian constraint operators. We postulate a rigging map by summing over all abstract spin foams with arbitrary but given boundary graphs. The states induced on the boundary of these spin foams can then be identified with elements in the gauge invariant Hilbert space {H}_0 of the canonical theory. Of course, such a sum over all spin foams is potentially divergent and requires a regularization. Such a regularization can be obtained by introducing specific cut-offs and a weight for every single foam. Such a weight could be for example derived from a generalized formal group field theory allowing for arbitrary interaction terms. Since such a derivation is, however, technical involved we forgo to present a strict derivation and assume that there exist a weight satisfying certain natural axioms, most importantly a gluing property. These axioms are motivated by the requirement that spin foam amplitudes should define a rigging map (physical inner product) induced by the Hamiltonian constraint. In the analysis of the resulting object we are able to identify an elementary spin foam transfer matrix that allows to generate any finite foam as a finite power of the transfer matrix. It transpires that the sum over spin foams, as written, does not define a projector on the physical Hilbert space. This statement is independent of the concrete spin foam model and Hamiltonian constraint. However, the transfer matrix potentially contains the necessary ingredient in order to construct a proper rigging map in terms of a modified transfer matrix.

  2. Scalable Semisupervised Functional Neurocartography Reveals Canonical Neurons in Behavioral Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frady, E Paxon; Kapoor, Ashish; Horvitz, Eric; Kristan, William B

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale data collection efforts to map the brain are underway at multiple spatial and temporal scales, but all face fundamental problems posed by high-dimensional data and intersubject variability. Even seemingly simple problems, such as identifying a neuron/brain region across animals/subjects, become exponentially more difficult in high dimensions, such as recognizing dozens of neurons/brain regions simultaneously. We present a framework and tools for functional neurocartography-the large-scale mapping of neural activity during behavioral states. Using a voltage-sensitive dye (VSD), we imaged the multifunctional responses of hundreds of leech neurons during several behaviors to identify and functionally map homologous neurons. We extracted simple features from each of these behaviors and combined them with anatomical features to create a rich medium-dimensional feature space. This enabled us to use machine learning techniques and visualizations to characterize and account for intersubject variability, piece together a canonical atlas of neural activity, and identify two behavioral networks. We identified 39 neurons (18 pairs, 3 unpaired) as part of a canonical swim network and 17 neurons (8 pairs, 1 unpaired) involved in a partially overlapping preparatory network. All neurons in the preparatory network rapidly depolarized at the onsets of each behavior, suggesting that it is part of a dedicated rapid-response network. This network is likely mediated by the S cell, and we referenced VSD recordings to an activity atlas to identify multiple cells of interest simultaneously in real time for further experiments. We targeted and electrophysiologically verified several neurons in the swim network and further showed that the S cell is presynaptic to multiple neurons in the preparatory network. This study illustrates the basic framework to map neural activity in high dimensions with large-scale recordings and how to extract the rich information necessary to perform

  3. The "cause of Jesus" (Sache Jesu as the Canon behind the Canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries G. van Aarde

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available God, and not the Bible as such, is the church's primary authority. Jesus of Nazareth is the manifestation of God in history. In a post-Aufkllirung environment one cannot escape the demand to think historically. To discern what could be seen as the "ground" offaith, one needs to distinguish the "proclaiming Jesus" from the "proclaimed Jesus", though these two aspects are dialectically intertwined. This dialeclic can be described as the "Jesus kerygma" or the "cause of Jesus". The aim of this article is to argue that if Christians focus only on the church's kerygma they base their ultimate trust upon assertions of faith, rather than upon the cause of faith. The dictum that the cause of Jesus is the canon behind the canon is explained in terms of the distinction between ''fides qua creditur" and "fides quae creditur", and postmodern historical Jesus research.

  4. Canonical correlation analysis of course and teacher evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sliusarenko, Tamara; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2010-01-01

    information obtained from the course evaluation form overlaps with information obtained from the teacher evaluation form. Employing canonical correlation analysis it was found that course and teacher evaluations are correlated. However, the structure of the canonical correlation is subject to change with...... changes in teaching methods from one year to another....

  5. The Literary Canon in the Age of New Media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backe, Hans-Joachim

    mediality of the canon. In a development that has largely gone unnoticed outside German speaking countries, new approaches for discussing current and future processes of canonization have been developed in recent years. One pivotal element of this process has been a thorough re-evaluation new media as a...

  6. Structuring Catholic Schools: Creative Imagination Meets Canon Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Phillip J.

    2010-01-01

    This paper will explore the underlying requirements of canon law for establishing and administering Catholic schools, with a view toward helping to arrive at creative solutions to the question of how best to structure these schools civilly and canonically in order to ensure their temporal, spiritual, and religious well-being, and to assure that…

  7. Grand canonical potential of a magnetized neutron gas

    CERN Document Server

    Diener, Jacobus P W

    2015-01-01

    We compute the effective action for stationary and spatially constant magnetic fields, when coupled anomalously to charge neutral fermions, by integrating out the fermions. From this the grand canonical partition function and potential of the fermions and fields are computed. This also takes care of magnetic field dependent vacuum corrections to the grand canonical potential. Possible applications to neutron stars are indicated.

  8. LCPT: a program for finding linear canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article describes a MACSYMA program to compute symbolically a canonical linear transformation between coordinate systems. The difficulties in implementation of this canonical small physics problem are also discussed, along with the implications that may be drawn from such difficulties about widespread MACSYMA usage by the community of computational/theoretical physicists

  9. Critical Literature Pedagogy: Teaching Canonical Literature for Critical Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsheim-Black, Carlin; Macaluso, Michael; Petrone, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Critical Literature Pedagogy (CLP), a pedagogical framework for applying goals of critical literacy within the context of teaching canonical literature. Critical literacies encompass skills and dispositions to understand, question, and critique ideological messages of texts; because canonical literature is often…

  10. The Asian American Fakeness Canon, 1972-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Eve

    2007-01-01

    The year 1972 can be seen to inaugurate not a tradition of Asian American New York theater, but the rich and multigenre collection of writing that the author has called "the Asian American fakeness canon." The fakeness canon refers to a collection of writings that take as one of their central points of reference the question of cultural and ethnic…

  11. A Canonical Approach to the Argument/Adjunct Distinction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Forker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an account of the argument/adjunct distinction implementing the 'canonical approach'. I identify five criteria (obligatoriness, latency, co-occurrence restrictions, grammatical relations, and iterability and seven diagnostic tendencies that can be used to distinguish canonical arguments from canonical adjuncts. I then apply the criteria and tendencies to data from the Nakh-Daghestanian language Hinuq. Hinuq makes extensive use of spatial cases for marking adjunct-like and argument-like NPs. By means of the criteria and tendencies it is possible to distinguish spatial NPs that come close to canonical arguments from those that are canonical adjuncts, and to place the remaining NPs bearing spatial cases within the argument-adjunct continuum.

  12. Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago de Paula Protásio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y. This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine shavings; red cedar shavings; sugar cane bagasse; residual bamboo cellulose pulp; coffee husk and parchment; maize harvesting wastes; and rice husk. Only the first canonical function was significant, but it presented a low canonical R². High carbon, hydrogen and sulfur contents and low nitrogen contents seem to be related to high total extractives contents of the lignocellulosic wastes. The preliminary results found in this paper indicate that the canonical correlations were not efficient to explain the correlations between the chemical elemental components and lignin contents and higher heating values.

  13. The canon as text for a biblical theology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Loader

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The novelty of the canonical approach is questioned and its fascination at least partly traced to the Reformation, as well as to the post-Reformation’s need for a clear and authoritative canon to perform the function previously performed by the church. This does not minimise the elusiveness and deeply contradictory positions both within the canon and triggered by it. On the one hand, the canon itself is a centripetal phenomenon and does play an important role in exegesis and theology. Even so, on the other hand, it not only contains many difficulties, but also causes various additional problems of a formal as well as a theological nature. The question is mooted whether the canonical approach alleviates or aggravates the dilemma. Since this approach has become a major factor in Christian theology, aspects of the Christian canon are used to gauge whether “canon” is an appropriate category for eliminating difficulties that arise by virtue of its own existence. Problematic uses and appropriations of several Old Testament canons are advanced, as well as evidence in the New Testament of a consciousness that the “old” has been surpassed(“Überbietungsbewußtsein”. It is maintained that at least the Childs version of the canonical approach fails to smooth out these and similar difficulties. As a method it can cater for the New Testament’s (superior role as the hermeneutical standard for evaluating the Old, but flounders on its inability to create the theological unity it claims can solve religious problems exposed by Old Testament historical criticism. It is concluded that canon as a category cannot be dispensed with, but is useful for the opposite of the purpose to which it is conventionally put: far from bringing about theological “unity” or producing a standard for “correct” exegesis, it requires different readings of different canons.

  14. Canonical (anti-)commutation rules in QCD abd unbroken gauge invariance, QCD - the two central anomalies and canonical structure

    CERN Document Server

    Minkowski, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The regularities at large distances of complete gauge invariance in QCD are shown to bear nontrivial consequences for the selection among inequivalent representations of canonical commutation (anticommutation) rules for gauge boson (quark) fields. The trace anomaly forces a modification of the gauge boson Lagrangean and by this of the entire associated canonical structure.

  15. El Escritor y las Normas del Canon Literario (The Writer and the Norms of the Literary Canon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Policarpo, Alcibiades

    This paper speculates about whether a literary canon exists in contemporary Latin American literature, particularly in the prose genre. The paper points to Carlos Fuentes, Gabriel Garcia Marquez, and Mario Vargas Llosa as the three authors who might form this traditional and liberal canon with their works "La Muerte de Artemio Cruz" (Fuentes),…

  16. Canonical cortical circuits: current evidence and theoretical implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Capone F

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Fioravante Capone,1,2 Matteo Paolucci,1,2 Federica Assenza,1,2 Nicoletta Brunelli,1,2 Lorenzo Ricci,1,2 Lucia Florio,1,2 Vincenzo Di Lazzaro1,2 1Unit of Neurology, Neurophysiology, Neurobiology, Department of Medicine, Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma, Rome, Italy; 2Fondazione Alberto Sordi – Research Institute for Aging, Rome, ItalyAbstract: Neurophysiological and neuroanatomical studies have found that the same basic structural and functional organization of neuronal circuits exists throughout the cortex. This kind of cortical organization, termed canonical circuit, has been functionally demonstrated primarily by studies involving visual striate cortex, and then, the concept has been extended to different cortical areas. In brief, the canonical circuit is composed of superficial pyramidal neurons of layers II/III receiving different inputs and deep pyramidal neurons of layer V that are responsible for cortex output. Superficial and deep pyramidal neurons are reciprocally connected, and inhibitory interneurons participate in modulating the activity of the circuit. The main intuition of this model is that the entire cortical network could be modeled as the repetition of relatively simple modules composed of relatively few types of excitatory and inhibitory, highly interconnected neurons. We will review the origin and the application of the canonical cortical circuit model in the six sections of this paper. The first section (The origins of the concept of canonical circuit: the cat visual cortex reviews the experiments performed in the cat visual cortex, from the origin of the concept of canonical circuit to the most recent developments in the modelization of cortex. The second (The canonical circuit in neocortex and third (Toward a canonical circuit in agranular cortex sections try to extend the concept of canonical circuit to other cortical areas, providing some significant examples of circuit functioning in different cytoarchitectonic

  17. Extending the parQ transition matrix method to grand canonical ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, René; Hoffmann, Karl Heinz

    2016-06-01

    Phase coexistence properties as well as other thermodynamic features of fluids can be effectively determined from the grand canonical density of states (DOS). We present an extension of the parQ transition matrix method in combination with the efasTM method as a very fast approach for determining the grand canonical DOS from the transition matrix. The efasTM method minimizes the deviation from detailed balance in the transition matrix using a fast Krylov-based equation solver. The method allows a very effective use of state space transition data obtained by different exploration schemes. An application to a Lennard-Jones system produces phase coexistence properties of the same quality as reference data. PMID:27415394

  18. Canonical term-structure models with observable factors and the dynamics of bond risk premiums

    OpenAIRE

    Marcello Pericoli; Marco Taboga

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of risk premiums on the German bond market, employing no-arbitrage term-structure models with both observable and unobservable state variables, recently popularized by Ang and Piazzesi (2003). We conduct a specification analisys based on a new canonical representation for this class of models. We find that risk premiums display a considerable variability over time, are strongly counter-cyclical and bear no significant relation to inflation.

  19. Critical adsorption and critical Casimir forces in the canonical ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Markus; Vasilyev, Oleg; Gambassi, Andrea; Dietrich, S.

    2016-08-01

    Critical properties of a liquid film between two planar walls are investigated in the canonical ensemble, within which the total number of fluid particles, rather than their chemical potential, is kept constant. The effect of this constraint is analyzed within mean-field theory (MFT) based on a Ginzburg-Landau free-energy functional as well as via Monte Carlo simulations of the three-dimensional Ising model with fixed total magnetization. Within MFT and for finite adsorption strengths at the walls, the thermodynamic properties of the film in the canonical ensemble can be mapped exactly onto a grand canonical ensemble in which the corresponding chemical potential plays the role of the Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint. However, due to a nonintegrable divergence of the mean-field order parameter profile near a wall, the limit of infinitely strong adsorption turns out to be not well-defined within MFT, because it would necessarily violate the constraint. The critical Casimir force (CCF) acting on the two planar walls of the film is generally found to behave differently in the canonical and grand canonical ensembles. For instance, the canonical CCF in the presence of equal preferential adsorption at the two walls is found to have the opposite sign and a slower decay behavior as a function of the film thickness compared to its grand canonical counterpart. We derive the stress tensor in the canonical ensemble and find that it has the same expression as in the grand canonical case, but with the chemical potential playing the role of the Lagrange multiplier associated with the constraint. The different behavior of the CCF in the two ensembles is rationalized within MFT by showing that, for a prescribed value of the thermodynamic control parameter of the film, i.e., density or chemical potential, the film pressures are identical in the two ensembles, while the corresponding bulk pressures are not.

  20. A single NFκB system for both canonical and non-canonical signaling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vincent Feng-Sheng Shih; Rachel Tsui; Andrew Caldwell; Alexander Hoffmann

    2011-01-01

    Two distinct nuclear factor κB(NFκB)signaling pathways have been described; the canonical pathway that mediates inflammatory responses,and the non-canonical pathway that is involved in immune cell differentiation and maturation and secondary lymphoid organogenesis.The former is dependent on the IκB kinase adaptor molecule NEMO,the latter is independent of it.Here,we review the molecular mechanisms of regulation in each signaling axis and attempt to relate the apparent regulatory logic to the physiological function.Further,we review the recent evidence for extensive cross-regulation between these two signaling axes and summarize them in a wiring diagram.These observations suggest that NEMO-dependent and-independent signaling should be viewed within the context of a single NFκB signaling system,which mediates signaling from both inflammatory and organogenic stimuli in an integrated manner.As in other regulatory biological systems,a systems approach including mathematical models that include quantitative and kinetic information will be necessary to characterize the network properties that mediate physiological function,and that may break down to cause or contribute to pathology.

  1. On the canonical quantization of local field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nonconventional extension of the canonical quantization method for local field theories is presented. Some difficulties of the conventional approach are avoided, e.g. there are no divergencies in the corresponding S-matrices. (author)

  2. Kerr black hole in canonically deformed space-time

    CERN Document Server

    Daszkiewicz, Marcin

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the Kerr black hole defined on canonically deformed space-time. Particulary, we find the corresponding event horizon, the ergosphere, the temperature and the entropy of such deformed object.

  3. Canonical singular hermitian metrics on relative logcanonical bundles

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuji, Hajime

    2010-01-01

    This supersedes 0704.0566. We prove the invariance of logarithmic plurigenera for a projective family of KLT pairs and the adjoint line bundle of KLT line bundles. The proof uses the canonical singular hermitian metrics on relative logcanonical bundles.

  4. Role of Wnt canonical pathway in hematological malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Wnt canonical signaling pathway plays a diverse role in embryonic development and maintenance of organs and tissues in adults. It has been observed that Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of many carcinomas. Moreover, Wnt/β-catenin pathway has been revealed to be associated with angiogenesis. Wnt canonical pathway signaling has great potential as a therapeutic target. It has been disclosed that some hematological malignancies, such as chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma, may occur partly due to the constitutive activation of Wnt canonical signaling pathway. This review will summarize the latest development in Wnt canonical signaling pathway and its roles in tumorigenesis and angiogenesis.

  5. Canonical Duality Theory for Solving Minimization Problem of Rosenbrock Function

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, David Y.; Zhang, Jiapu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a canonical duality theory for solving nonconvex minimization problem of Rosenbrock function. Extensive numerical results show that this benchmark test problem can be solved precisely and efficiently to obtain global optimal solutions.

  6. Asymptotic distributions in the projection pursuit based canonical correlation analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, associations between two sets of random variables based on the projection pursuit (PP) method are studied. The asymptotic normal distributions of estimators of the PP based canonical correlations and weighting vectors are derived.

  7. Ising model on random networks and the canonical tensor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a statistical system on random networks of trivalent vertices for the purpose of studying the canonical tensor model, which is a rank-three tensor model in the canonical formalism. The partition function of the statistical system has a concise expression in terms of integrals, and has the same symmetries as the kinematical ones of the canonical tensor model. We consider the simplest non-trivial case of the statistical system corresponding to the Ising model on random networks, and find that its phase diagram agrees with what is implied by regrading the Hamiltonian vector field of the canonical tensor model with N=2 as a renormalization group flow. Along the way, we obtain an explicit exact expression of the free energy of the Ising model on random networks in the thermodynamic limit by the Laplace method. This paper provides a new example connecting a model of quantum gravity and a random statistical system

  8. Integration of transient receptor potential canonical channels with lipids

    OpenAIRE

    Beech, D. J.

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels are the canonical (C) subset of the TRP proteins, which are widely expressed in mammalian cells. They are thought to be primarily involved in determining calcium and sodium entry and have wide-ranging functions that include regulation of cell proliferation, motility and contraction. The channels are modulated by a multiplicity of factors, putatively existing as integrators in the plasma membrane. This review considers the sensitivities of...

  9. Unravelling the molecular mechanisms of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Ng, S. S.

    2010-01-01

    The Canonical Wnt signaling pathway (Wnt/beta-catenin pathway) is required during embryonic development and maintenance of adult-renewing tissue homeostasis. Deregulation of this pathway is found associated with cancer and other diseases. The main goal of this thesis is to discern the regulation mechanisms of canonical Wnt signaling and thereby identify potential drug targets. We found that, neither the dissembled of Axin1, APC or GSK3 from the destruction complex nor inactivation of GSK3 and...

  10. Canonical correlations between chemical and energetic characteristics of lignocellulosic wastes

    OpenAIRE

    Thiago de Paula Protásio; Gustavo Henrique Denzin Tonoli; Mário Guimarães Júnior; Lina Bufalino; Allan Motta Couto; Paulo Fernando Trugilho

    2012-01-01

    Canonical correlation analysis is a statistical multivariate procedure that allows analyzing linear correlation that may exist between two groups or sets of variables (X and Y). This paper aimed to provide canonical correlation analysis between a group comprised of lignin and total extractives contents and higher heating value (HHV) with a group of elemental components (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur) for lignocellulosic wastes. The following wastes were used: eucalyptus shavings; pine...

  11. Using lattice methods in non-canonical quantum statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We define a natural coarse-graining procedure which can be applied to any closed equilibrium quantum system described by a density matrix ensemble and we show how the coarse-graining leads to the Gaussian and canonical ensembles. After this motivation, we present two ways of evaluating the Gaussian expectation values with lattice simulations. The first one is computationally demanding but general, whereas the second employs only canonical expectation values but it is applicable only for systems which are almost thermodynamical

  12. On Uncertainty Principle for Quaternionic Linear Canonical Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kit Ian Kou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We generalize the linear canonical transform (LCT to quaternion-valued signals, known as the quaternionic linear canonical transform (QLCT. Using the properties of the LCT we establish an uncertainty principle for the QLCT. This uncertainty principle prescribes a lower bound on the product of the effective widths of quaternion-valued signals in the spatial and frequency domains. It is shown that only a 2D Gaussian signal minimizes the uncertainty.

  13. Regression, Discriminant Analysis, and Canonical Correlation Analysis with Homals

    OpenAIRE

    Jan de Leeuw

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that the homals package in R can be used for multiple regression, multi-group discriminant analysis, and canonical correlation analysis. The homals solutions are only different from the more conventional ones in the way the dimensions are scaled by the eigenvalues.It is shown that the homals package in R can be used for multiple regression, multi-group discriminant analysis, and canonical correlation analysis. The homals solutions are only different from the more conventional ones...

  14. Canonical quantization of a string describing N branes at angles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesando, Igor, E-mail: ipesando@to.infn.it

    2014-12-15

    We study the canonical quantization of a bosonic string in presence of N twist fields. This generalizes the quantization of the twisted string in two ways: the in and out states are not necessarily twisted and the number of twist fields N can be bigger than 2. In order to quantize the theory we need to find the normal modes. Then we need to define a product between two modes which is conserved. Because of this we need to use the Klein–Gordon product and to separate the string coordinate into the classical and the quantum part. The quantum part has different boundary conditions than the original string coordinates but these boundary conditions are precisely those which make the operator describing the equation of motion self adjoint. The splitting of the string coordinates into a classical and quantum part allows the formulation of an improved overlap principle. Using this approach we then proceed in computing the generating function for the generic correlator with L untwisted operators and N (excited) twist fields for branes at angles. We recover as expected the results previously obtained using the path integral. This construction explains why these correlators are given by a generalization of the Wick theorem.

  15. An OSp extension of the canonical tensor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narain, Gaurav; Sasakura, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    Tensor models are generalizations of matrix models, and are studied as discrete models of quantum gravity for arbitrary dimensions. Among them, the canonical tensor model (CTM) is a rank-three tensor model formulated as a totally constrained system with a number of first-class constraints, which have a similar algebraic structure to the constraints of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism of general relativity. In this paper, we formulate a super-extension of CTM as an attempt to incorporate fermionic degrees of freedom. The kinematical symmetry group is extended from O(N) to OSp(N,tilde {N}), and the constraints are constructed so that they form a first-class-constraint super-Poisson algebra. This is a straightforward super-extension, and the constraints and their algebraic structure are formally unchanged from the purely bosonic case, except for the additional signs associated with the fermionic degrees of freedom. However, this extension contains negative norm states in the quantized case, and requires some future improvements as quantum gravity with fermions. On the other hand, various results obtained so far for the purely bosonic case should have parallels in this straightforward super-extension, such as the exact physical wave functions and the connection to randomly connected tensor networks.

  16. Canonical quantization of a string describing N branes at angles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the canonical quantization of a bosonic string in presence of N twist fields. This generalizes the quantization of the twisted string in two ways: the in and out states are not necessarily twisted and the number of twist fields N can be bigger than 2. In order to quantize the theory we need to find the normal modes. Then we need to define a product between two modes which is conserved. Because of this we need to use the Klein–Gordon product and to separate the string coordinate into the classical and the quantum part. The quantum part has different boundary conditions than the original string coordinates but these boundary conditions are precisely those which make the operator describing the equation of motion self adjoint. The splitting of the string coordinates into a classical and quantum part allows the formulation of an improved overlap principle. Using this approach we then proceed in computing the generating function for the generic correlator with L untwisted operators and N (excited) twist fields for branes at angles. We recover as expected the results previously obtained using the path integral. This construction explains why these correlators are given by a generalization of the Wick theorem

  17. Accretion of the Moon from non-canonical disks

    CERN Document Server

    Salmon, Julien

    2014-01-01

    Impacts that leave the Earth-Moon system with a large excess in angular momentum have recently been advocated as a means of generating a protolunar disc with a composition that is nearly identical to that of the Earth's mantle. We here investigate the accretion of the Moon from discs generated by such "non-canonical" impacts, which are typically more compact than discs produced by canonical impacts and have a higher fraction of their mass initially located inside the Roche limit. Our model predicts a similar overall accretional history for both canonical and non-canonical discs, with the Moon forming in three consecutive steps over hundreds of years. However, we find that, to yield a lunar-mass Moon, the more compact non-canonical discs must initially be more massive than implied by prior estimates, and only a few of the discs produced by impact simulations to date appear to meet this condition. Non-canonical impacts require that capture of the Moon into the evection resonance with the Sun reduced the Earth-M...

  18. A growth walk model for estimating the canonical partition function of interacting self-avoiding walk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, S L; Krishna, P S R; Ponmurugan, M; Murthy, K P N

    2008-01-01

    We have explained in detail why the canonical partition function of interacting self-avoiding walk (ISAW) is exactly equivalent to the configurational average of the weights associated with growth walks, such as the interacting growth walk (IGW), if the average is taken over the entire genealogical tree of the walk. In this context, we have shown that it is not always possible to factor the density of states out of the canonical partition function if the local growth rule is temperature dependent. We have presented Monte Carlo results for IGWs on a diamond lattice in order to demonstrate that the actual set of IGW configurations available for study is temperature dependent even though the weighted averages lead to the expected thermodynamic behavior of ISAW. PMID:18190183

  19. Receiving the non-Orthodox: A historical study of Greek Orthodox canon law

    OpenAIRE

    Heith-Stade, David

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the development of the practice for receiving non-Orthodox in Greek Orthodox canon law. The main argument is that the development of this canonical institution was influenced by a pneumatological realist ecclesiology. This historical study of the development of a canonical institution will shed light on how Greek Orthodox canon law has functioned in practice.

  20. The effects of colloidal SiO2 and inhibitor on the solid deposit formation in geothermal water of low hardness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Novica J.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low solubility of SiO2 and its occurrence in geothermal waters in the form of ionic, colloidal and suspended state are the main cause of the solid deposit occurrence. Certain chemical types of silica, under the influence of Fe2+, Al3+, F−, OH- ions and other micro-constituents, and due to significantly decreased solubility of SiO2, stimulate nucleation, particle growth and solid deposit formation. The aim of this paper is to inhibit the process of nucleation and solid deposit formation by adding originally designed inhibitor in the form of an emulsion, when the total concentration of the present and added colloidal SiO2 is beyond the solubility limit (120 mg/dm3. By turbidimetric, SEM, EDS and XRD analysis, the processes of solid deposit formation were investigated in Vranjska Banja (Serbia spa geothermal water source (water hardness of 4ºdH, and theoretical and practical conclusions were made.

  1. Canonical feature selection for joint regression and multi-class identification in Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; Suk, Heung-Il

    2016-01-01

    Fusing information from different imaging modalities is crucial for more accurate identification of the brain state because imaging data of different modalities can provide complementary perspectives on the complex nature of brain disorders. However, most existing fusion methods often extract features independently from each modality, and then simply concatenate them into a long vector for classification, without appropriate consideration of the correlation among modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel method to transform the original features from different modalities to a common space, where the transformed features become comparable and easy to find their relation, by canonical correlation analysis. We then perform the sparse multi-task learning for discriminative feature selection by using the canonical features as regressors and penalizing a loss function with a canonical regularizer. In our experiments on the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) dataset, we use Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET) images to jointly predict clinical scores of Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) and Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and also identify multi-class disease status for Alzheimer’s disease diagnosis. The experimental results showed that the proposed canonical feature selection method helped enhance the performance of both clinical score prediction and disease status identification, outperforming the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26254746

  2. Canonical Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent stage of hepatic stellate cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well known that hepatic stellate cells (HSC) develop into cells, which are thought to contribute to liver fibrogenesis. Recent data suggest that HSC are progenitor cells with the capacity to differentiate into cells of endothelial and hepatocyte lineages. The present study shows that β-catenin-dependent canonical Wnt signaling is active in freshly isolated HSC of rats. Mimicking of the canonical Wnt pathway in cultured HSC by TWS119, an inhibitor of the glycogen synthase kinase 3β, led to reduced β-catenin phosphorylation, induced nuclear translocation of β-catenin, elevated glutamine synthetase production, impeded synthesis of α-smooth muscle actin and Wnt5a, but promoted the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, Wnt10b, and paired-like homeodomain transcription factor 2c. In addition, canonical Wnt signaling lowered DNA synthesis and hindered HSC from entering the cell cycle. The findings demonstrate that β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling maintains the quiescent state of HSC and, similar to stem and progenitor cells, influences their developmental fate

  3. Structural evidence for non-canonical binding of Ca2+ to a canonical EF-hand of a conventional myosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debreczeni, Judit E; Farkas, László; Harmat, Veronika; Hetényi, Csaba; Hajdú, István; Závodszky, Péter; Kohama, Kazuhiro; Nyitray, László

    2005-12-16

    We have previously identified a single inhibitory Ca2+-binding site in the first EF-hand of the essential light chain of Physarum conventional myosin (Farkas, L., Malnasi-Csizmadia, A., Nakamura, A., Kohama, K., and Nyitray, L. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 27399-27405). As a general rule, conformation of the EF-hand-containing domains in the calmodulin family is "closed" in the absence and "open" in the presence of bound cations; a notable exception is the unusual Ca2+-bound closed domain in the essential light chain of the Ca2+-activated scallop muscle myosin. Here we have reported the 1.8 A resolution structure of the regulatory domain (RD) of Physarum myosin II in which Ca2+ is bound to a canonical EF-hand that is also in a closed state. The 12th position of the EF-hand loop, which normally provides a bidentate ligand for Ca2+ in the open state, is too far in the structure to participate in coordination of the ion. The structure includes a second Ca2+ that only mediates crystal contacts. To reveal the mechanism behind the regulatory effect of Ca2+, we compared conformational flexibilities of the liganded and unliganded RD. Our working hypothesis, i.e. the modulatory effect of Ca2+ on conformational flexibility of RD, is in line with the observed suppression of hydrogen-deuterium exchange rate in the Ca2+-bound form, as well as with results of molecular dynamics calculations. Based on this evidence, we concluded that Ca2+-induced change in structural dynamics of RD is a major factor in Ca2+-mediated regulation of Physarum myosin II activity. PMID:16227209

  4. Activation of the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway Induces Cementum Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Pingping; Ivanovski, Saso; Crawford, Ross; Xiao, Yin

    2015-07-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling is important in tooth development but it is unclear whether it can induce cementogenesis and promote the regeneration of periodontal tissues lost because of disease. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate the influence of canonical Wnt signaling enhancers on human periodontal ligament cell (hPDLCs) cementogenic differentiation in vitro and cementum repair in a rat periodontal defect model. Canonical Wnt signaling was induced by (1) local injection of lithium chloride; (2) local injection of sclerostin antibody; and (3) local injection of a lentiviral construct overexpressing β-catenin. The results showed that the local activation of canonical Wnt signaling resulted in significant new cellular cementum deposition and the formation of well-organized periodontal ligament fibers, which was absent in the control group. In vitro experiments using hPDLCs showed that the Wnt signaling pathway activators significantly increased mineralization, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and gene and protein expression of the bone and cementum markers osteocalcin (OCN), osteopontin (OPN), cementum protein 1 (CEMP1), and cementum attachment protein (CAP). Our results show that the activation of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway can induce in vivo cementum regeneration and in vitro cementogenic differentiation of hPDLCs. PMID:25556853

  5. General relativity as an extended canonical gauge theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckmeier, J.

    2015-04-01

    It is widely accepted that the fundamental geometrical law of nature should follow from an action principle. The particular subset of transformations of a system's dynamical variables that maintain the form of the action principle comprises the group of canonical transformations. In the context of canonical field theory, the adjective "extended" signifies that not only the fields but also the space-time geometry is subject to transformation. Thus, in order to be physical, the transition to another, possibly noninertial frame of reference must necessarily constitute an extended canonical transformation that defines the general mapping of the connection coefficients, hence the quantities that determine the space-time curvature and torsion of the respective reference frame. The canonical transformation formalism defines simultaneously the transformation rules for the conjugates of the connection coefficients and for the Hamiltonian. As will be shown, this yields unambiguously a particular Hamiltonian that is form-invariant under the canonical transformation of the connection coefficients and thus satisfies the general principle of relativity. This Hamiltonian turns out to be a quadratic function of the curvature tensor. Its Legendre-transformed counterpart then establishes a unique Lagrangian description of the dynamics of space-time that is not postulated but derived from basic principles, namely the action principle and the general principle of relativity. Moreover, the resulting theory satisfies the principle of scale invariance and is renormalizable.

  6. Improving the sampling efficiency of the Grand Canonical Simulated Quenching approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    attempted to equilibrate the chemical potential between two cells and hence allow for the calculation of coexistence curves, exploit the same idea: particle insertion (or exchange) is attempted and accepted with a Metropolis-like rule that depends exponentially on the energy change upon insertion. A well known limitation of this kind of approach is that the probability of accepting such a move decreases extremely rapidly with increasing density, due to the extremely large short-range repulsion between atoms. In response to these difficulties it became apparent that a solution to the problem might be to avoid abrupt insertions but instead to proceed gradually, so as to allow the system to react and make way for the incoming particle. In this view of things, the 'occupation' of a certain atomic site can be viewed as a continuous variable, ranging between 0 and 1, representing 'how much' of the particle is present at any given time. These ideas proved ideal in Molecular Dynamics (MD) settings because equations of motions for these occupation variables can sometimes be obtained. For example, in the case of Grand Canonical Molecular Dynamics [Cagin91], one special particle is allowed to have a fractional occupation. This can lead to either its destruction (occupation = 0) or its complex creation (occupation = 1) so as to enforce a given chemical potential. These approaches proved useful, but mostly in the liquid state where the probability of successfully inserting a new particle is sufficiently high. At higher densities, convergence proved to be hampered by very inefficient sampling. In this work, we explore the use of a related MD-based grand canonical technique, the Grand Canonical Simulated Quenching (GCSQ) of Phillpot and Rickman [Phillpot92,Phillpot94], and explore its application to the grand canonical sampling of solid state systems. We show that, in conjunction with advanced sampling techniques, GCSQ can be a useful tool to sample conformations of complex systems, such

  7. Canonical Entropy and Phase Transition of Rotating Black Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Ren; WU Yue-Qin; ZHANG Li-Chun

    2008-01-01

    Recently, the Hawking radiation of a black hole has been studied using the tunnel effect method. The radiation spectrum of a black hole is derived. By discussing the correction to spectrum of the rotating black hole, we obtain the canonical entropy. The derived canonical entropy is equal to the sum of Bekenstein-Hawking entropy and correction term. The correction term near the critical point is different from the one near others. This difference plays an important role in studying the phase transition of the black hole. The black hole thermal capacity diverges at the critical point. However, the canonical entropy is not a complex number at this point. Thus we think that the phase transition created by this critical point is the second order phase transition. The discussed black hole is a five-dimensional Kerr-AdS black hole. We provide a basis for discussing thermodynamic properties of a higher-dimensional rotating black hole.

  8. Canonical extensions of N\\'eron models of Jacobians

    CERN Document Server

    Cais, Bryden

    2009-01-01

    Let A be the N\\'eron model of an abelian variety A_K over the fraction field K of a discrete valuation ring R. Due to work of Mazur-Messing, there is a functorial way to prolong the universal extension of A_K by a vector group to a smooth and separated group scheme over R, called the canonical extension of A. In this paper, we study the canonical extension when A_K=J_K is the Jacobian of a smooth proper and geometrically connected curve X_K over K. Assuming that X_K admits a proper flat regular model X over R that has generically smooth closed fiber, our main result identifies the identity component of the canonical extension with a certain functor Pic^{\

  9. Canonical invariance of spatially covariant scalar-tensor theory

    CERN Document Server

    Saitou, Rio

    2016-01-01

    We investigate invariant canonical transformations of a spatially covariant scalar-tensor theory of gravity, called the XG theory, by which the action or the Hamiltonian and the primary constraints keep their forms invariant. We derive the Hamiltonian in a non perturbative manner and complete the Hamiltonian analysis for all regions of the theory. We confirm that the theory has at most 3 degrees of freedom in all regions of the theory as long as the theory has the symmetry under the spatial diffeormorphism. Then, we derive the invariant canonical transformation by using the infinitesimal transformation. The invariant metric transformation of the XG theory contains a vector product as well as the disformal transformation. The vector product and the disformal factor can depend on the higher order derivative terms of the scalar field and the metric. In addition, we discover the invariant canonical transformation which transforms the momentum of the metric. Using the invariant transformation, we study the relatio...

  10. Variation principle of piezothermoelastic bodies, canonical equation and homogeneous equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan-hong; ZHANG Hui-ming

    2007-01-01

    Combining the symplectic variations theory, the homogeneous control equation and isoparametric element homogeneous formulations for piezothermoelastic hybrid laminates problems were deduced. Firstly, based on the generalized Hamilton variation principle, the non-homogeneous Hamilton canonical equation for piezothermoelastic bodies was derived. Then the symplectic relationship of variations in the thermal equilibrium formulations and gradient equations was considered, and the non-homogeneous canonical equation was transformed to homogeneous control equation for solving independently the coupling problem of piezothermoelastic bodies by the incensement of dimensions of the canonical equation. For the convenience of deriving Hamilton isoparametric element formulations with four nodes, one can consider the temperature gradient equation as constitutive relation and reconstruct new variation principle. The homogeneous equation simplifies greatly the solution programs which are often performed to solve nonhomogeneous equation and second order differential equation on the thermal equilibrium and gradient relationship.

  11. On the relation between canonical and covariant loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loop quantum gravity is a background independent and non-perturbative approach towards a quantum theory of gravity that divides into a canonical and covariant (or spin foam) model. Heuristically, spin foams can be understood as the Feynman graphs of Quantum Gravity. Yet, summing over all 'histories' would lead to a projector on the physical Hilbert space of the canonical theory rather than to a true propagator due to the constraint nature of GR. Following this idea we construct a spin-foam operator acting on the kinematic Hilbert space and analyze its properties.

  12. Magnetic phase diagrams from non-collinear canonical band theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shallcross, Sam; Nordstrom, L.; Sharma, S.

    2007-01-01

    A canonical band theory of non-collinear magnetism is developed and applied to the close packed fcc and bcc crystal structures. This is a parameter-free theory where the crystal and magnetic symmetry and exchange splitting uniquely determine the electronic bands. In this way, we are able to...... construct phase diagrams of magnetic order for the fcc and bcc lattices. Several examples of non-collinear magnetism are seen to be canonical in origin, in particular, that of gamma-Fe. In this approach, the determination of magnetic stability results solely from changes in kinetic energy due to spin...

  13. Twist-4 effects in electroproduction: Canonical operators and coefficient functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interpretation of observed scaling violations in leptoproduction is complicated by the possible presence of significant higher-twist effects. We refine the machinery of the operator-product expansion sufficiently for a study of twist-4 effects. In particular, we introduce and review the advantages of a special, ''canonical'' basis. We demonstrate that the canonical basis is adequate for the necessary twist-4 perturbative calculations, and calculate the operator's tree-level coefficient functions in electroproduction. Our results establish a framework within which careful analysis of more accurate data can provide information regarding correlations among the constituents of the proton

  14. Canon Trouble: Intertextuality and Subversion in Queer as Folk

    OpenAIRE

    Ludot-Vlasak, Ronan

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on gender and queer theory, but also on cultural materialism, this article explores some intertextual references – mainly to Shakespeare and John Keats – at work in the American TV series Queer as Folk. The show recycles canonical works or figures, but considerably reconfigures them. Not only are these references pervaded with overt sexual innuendoes, but they also challenge the literary canon “from within,” regenerate it and invite us to revisit these works – to re-read them against ...

  15. Canonical extensions of the Johnson homomorphisms to the Torelli groupoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bene, Alex; Kawazumi, Nariya; Penner, Robert

    2009-01-01

    We prove that every trivalent marked bordered fatgraph comes equipped with a canonical generalized Magnus expansion in the sense of Kawazumi. This Magnus expansion is used to give canonical extensions of the higher Johnson homomorphisms τm , for m 1 , to the Torelli groupoid, and we provide...... a recursive combinatorial formula for tensor representatives of these extensions. In particular, we give an explicit 1-cocycle in the dual fatgraph complex which extends τ2 and thus answer affirmatively a question of Morita and Penner. To illustrate our techniques for calculating higher Johnson homomorphisms...

  16. GX 339-4 is still in the soft state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardini, F.; Russell, D. M.; Lewis, F.

    2015-04-01

    In October 2014 the black hole transient GX 339-4 entered a new outburst (ATel #6649). It then left the low-hard state and made a transition to the soft state (ATel #6960), which it entered in January 2015 and stayed for more than a month (ATel #7009).

  17. Canonical Relational Quantum Mechanics from Information Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Munkhammar, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we construct a theory of quantum mechanics based on Shannon information theory. We define a few principles regarding information-based frames of reference, including explicitly the concept of information covariance, and show how an ensemble of all possible physical states can be setup on the basis of the accessible information in the local frame of reference. In the next step the Bayesian principle of maximum entropy is utilized in order to constrain the dynamics. We then show, ...

  18. The canonical and alternate duals of a wavelet frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemvig, Jakob; Bownik, Marcin

    2007-01-01

    We show that there exists a frame wavelet ψ with fast decay in the time domain and compact support in the frequency domain generating a wavelet system whose canonical dual frame cannot be generated by an arbitrary number of generators. On the other hand, there exists infinitely many alternate duals...

  19. The canonical and alternate duals of a wavelet frame

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bownik, Marcin; Lemvig, Jakob

    We show that there exists a frame wavelet $\\psi$ with fast decay in the time domain and compact support in the frequency domain generating a wavelet system whose canonical dual frame cannot be generated by an arbitrary number of generators. On the other hand, there exists infinitely many alternate...

  20. The Hamiltonian Canonical Form for Euler-Lagrange Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yu

    2002-01-01

    Based on the theory of calculus of variation, some suffcient conditions are given for some Euler-Lagrangcequations to be equivalently represented by finite or even infinite many Hamiltonian canonical equations. Meanwhile,some further applications for equations such as the KdV equation, MKdV equation, the general linear Euler Lagrangeequation and the cylindric shell equations are given.

  1. IDENTIFICATION OF IDEOTYPES BY CANONICAL ANALYSIS IN Panicum maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Azevedo Martuscello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grouping of genotypes by canonical variable analysis is an important tool in breeding. It allows the grouping of individuals with similar characteristics that are associated with superior agronomic performance and may indicate the ideal profile of a plant for the region. The objective of the present study was to define, by canonical analysis, the agronomic profile of Panicum maximum plants adapted to the Agreste region. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design with 28 treatments, 22 genotypes of Panicum maximum, and cultivars Mombasa, Tanzania, Massai, Milenio, BRS Zuri, and BRS Tamani in triplicate in 4-m² plots. Plots were harvested five times and the following traits were evaluated: plant height; total, leaf, and stem; dead dry matter yields; leaf:stem ratio; leaf percentage; and volumetric density of forage. The analysis of canonical variables was performed based on the phenotypic means of the evaluated traits and on the residual variance and covariance matrix. Genotype PM34 showed higher mean leaf dry matter yield under the conditions of the Agreste of Alagoas (on average 53% higher than cultivars Mombasa, Tanzania, Milenio and Massai. It was possible to summarize the variation observed in eight agronomic characteristics in only two canonical variables accounting for 81.44 % of the data variation. The ideotype plant adapted to the conditions of the Agreste should be tall and present high leaf yield, leaf percentage, and leaf:stem ratio, and intermediate values ​​of volumetric density of forage.

  2. An Alternative Method to Predict Performance: Canonical Redundancy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson-Saunders, Beth; Doolen, Deane R.

    1981-01-01

    The relationships between predictors of performance and subsequent measures of clinical performance in medical school were examined for two classes at Southern Illinois University of Medicine. Canonical redundancy analysis was used to evaluate the association between six academic and three biographical preselection characteristics and four…

  3. Canonical path integral quantization of Einstein's gravitational field

    OpenAIRE

    Muslih, Sami I.

    2000-01-01

    The connection between the canonical and the path integral formulations of Einstein's gravitational field is discussed using the Hamilton - Jacobi method. Unlike conventional methods, it is shown that our path integral method leads to obtain the measure of integration with no $\\delta$- functions, no need to fix any gauge and so no ambiguous deteminants will appear.

  4. Canonical bases and affine Hecke algebras of type B

    CERN Document Server

    Varagnolo, Michela

    2009-01-01

    We prove a series of conjectures of Enomoto and Kashiwara on canonical bases and branching rules of affine Hecke algebras of type B. The main ingredient of the proof is a new graded Ext-algebra associated with quiver with involutions that we compute explicitly.

  5. Testing the significance of canonical axes in redundancy analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Legendre, P.; Oksanen, J.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2011-01-01

    1. Tests of significance of the individual canonical axes in redundancy analysis allow researchers to determine which of the axes represent variation that can be distinguished from random. Variation along the significant axes can be mapped, used to draw biplots or interpreted through subsequent anal

  6. Canonical orbital elements in terms of an arbitrary independent variable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, V. R.; Janin, G.

    1981-01-01

    Within the framework of the Hamiltonian mechanics in the extended phase space, a set of canonical elements of the Delaunay type is developed in terms of an arbitary independent angular variable. Application to the four classical anomalies - eccentric, true, elliptic, and mean - is presented. Particular attention is given to the generalized time equation and its conjugate energy equation.

  7. Canonical transformations in quantum field theory and solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In s sine-Gordon model we discuss a transformation which can be viewed as a quantum image of the Baecklund transformation. The soliton is described in terms of condensation of quanta; their confinement is ascribed to the non-implementability of unitary transformations among unitarily inequivalent representations of canonical commutators and to the related topological conservation law. (orig.)

  8. The Catholic School According to the Code of Canon Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocholewski, Zenon Cardinal

    2008-01-01

    For close to three decades, his Eminence Zenon Cardinal Grocholeski, worked at the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura as notary, chancellor, secretary and prefect. A professor, scholar, and canonist of exceptional ability, he is considered one of the world's most prominent experts on the Code of Canon Law. In light of his competence and…

  9. The Canon Law revisions: a reflection of the postconciliar Church?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, D F

    1979-11-01

    The postconciliar Church has approved many changes in Church life. Reactions to the proposed draft of the new canon law codes have ranged from favorable to strongly critical. The mature Catholic looks beyond the letter of the law to its spirit and purpose. PMID:488987

  10. Groups of automorphisms of the canonical commutation and anticommutation relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Observables of supersymmetric quantum mechanics are coded by taking the antisymmetric tensor product with anticommuting parameters. Next we define superunitary transformations, which mix bosonic and fermionic degrees of freedom, in order to construct automorphisms of the canonical (anti-) commutation relations. Conversely, every automorphism of the C(A)CR is implemented by an essentially unique superunitary transformation. 12 refs. (Author)

  11. AN ALGORITHM FOR JORDAN CANONICAL FORM OF A QUATERNION MATRIX

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜同松; 魏木生

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we first introduce a concept of companion vector, and studythe Jordan canonical forms of quaternion matrices by using the methods of complex representation and companion vector, not only give out a practical algorithm for Jordancanonical form J of a quaternion matrix A, but also provide a practical algorithm forcorresponding nonsingular matrix P with P- 1 AP = J.

  12. Management of pediatric radiation dose using Canon digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Canon CXDI-11 digital radiography (DR) system has been in use at Shands Hospital at the University of Florida for the past 2 1/2 years. A first clinical implementation phase was utilized to develop imaging protocols for adult patients, with a second phase incorporating pediatric chest and abdominal studies a few months later. This paper describes some of the steps taken during the modality implementation stages, as well as the methodologies and procedures utilized to monitor compliance by the technologists. The Canon DR system provides the technologist with an indication of the radiation exposure received by the detector (and thus of the patient dose) by means of an indirect exposure level number called the reached exposure (REX) value. The REX value is calculated by the system based on the default grayscale curve preselected for a given anatomical view and used by the system to optimize the appearance of the image. The brightness and contrast of the image can be modified by the user at the QC/control screen for the purpose of improving the appearance of the image. Such changes modify the actual grayscale curve (position and slope, respectively) and thus the calculated REX value. Thus, undisciplined use of the brightness and contrast functions by the technologist can render the REX value meaningless as an exposure indicator. The paper also shows how it is possible to calibrate AEC (phototimer) systems for use with the Canon DR system, and utilize the REX value as a valuable dose indicator through proper training of technologists and strict, disciplined QC of studies. A team consisting of the site's medical physicist, radiologists, and technologists, as well as Canon engineers, can work together in properly calibrating and setting up the system for the purposes of monitoring patient doses (especially pediatric) in DR studies performed in a Canon DR system. (orig.)

  13. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  14. Association Study between Lead and Zinc Accumulation at Different Physiological Systems of Cattle by Canonical Correlation and Canonical Correspondence Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, Partha; Das, Pradip Kumar; Mondal, Seema Sarkar; Karmakar, Sougata; Mazumdar, Debasis

    2010-10-01

    Pb pollution from automobile exhausts around highways is a persistent problem in India. Pb intoxication in mammalian body is a complex phenomenon which is influence by agonistic and antagonistic interactions of several other heavy metals and micronutrients. An attempt has been made to study the association between Pb and Zn accumulation in different physiological systems of cattles (n = 200) by application of both canonical correlation and canonical correspondence analyses. Pb was estimated from plasma, liver, bone, muscle, kidney, blood and milk where as Zn was measured from all these systems except bone, blood and milk. Both statistical techniques demonstrated that there was a strong association among blood-Pb, liver-Zn, kidney-Zn and muscle-Zn. From observations, it can be assumed that Zn accumulation in cattles' muscle, liver and kidney directs Pb mobilization from those organs which in turn increases Pb pool in blood. It indicates antagonistic activity of Zn to the accumulation of Pb. Although there were some contradictions between the observations obtained from the two different statistical methods, the overall pattern of Pb accumulation in various organs as influenced by Zn were same. It is mainly due to the fact that canonical correlation is actually a special type of canonical correspondence analyses where linear relationship is followed between two groups of variables instead of Gaussian relationship.

  15. Climate Prediction Center(CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis Forecast of Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) temperature forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface temperature anomalies. The ECCA uses Canonical...

  16. Canonical sound speed profile and related ray acoustic parameters in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, T.V.R.; Sadhuram, Y.; Rao, M.M.M.; Rao, B.P.; SuryaPrakash, S.; Chandramouli, P.; Murthy, K.S.R.; Prasad, K.V.S.R.

    Following Munk's canonical theory, canonical parameters (i.e., B the stratification scale and epsilon the perturbation coefficient) in adiabatic ocean are obtained using SOFAR channel parameters (i.e., C sound velocity at the channel axis, Z sub(1...

  17. Allostery through the computational microscope: cAMP activation of a canonical signalling domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrom, Robert D.; Kornev, Alexandr P.; Taylor, Susan S.; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2015-07-01

    Ligand-induced protein allostery plays a central role in modulating cellular signalling pathways. Here using the conserved cyclic nucleotide-binding domain of protein kinase A's (PKA) regulatory subunit as a prototype signalling unit, we combine long-timescale, all-atom molecular dynamics simulations with Markov state models to elucidate the conformational ensembles of PKA's cyclic nucleotide-binding domain A for the cAMP-free (apo) and cAMP-bound states. We find that both systems exhibit shallow free-energy landscapes that link functional states through multiple transition pathways. This observation suggests conformational selection as the general mechanism of allostery in this canonical signalling domain. Further, we expose the propagation of the allosteric signal through key structural motifs in the cyclic nucleotide-binding domain and explore the role of kinetics in its function. Our approach integrates disparate lines of experimental data into one cohesive framework to understand structure, dynamics and function in complex biological systems.

  18. Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) Simulation Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakov, Vesselin I.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Parallel Grand Canonical Monte Carlo (ParaGrandMC) simulation code. This is a highly scalable parallel FORTRAN code for simulating the thermodynamic evolution of metal alloy systems at the atomic level, and predicting the thermodynamic state, phase diagram, chemical composition and mechanical properties. The code is designed to simulate multi-component alloy systems, predict solid-state phase transformations such as austenite-martensite transformations, precipitate formation, recrystallization, capillary effects at interfaces, surface absorption, etc., which can aid the design of novel metallic alloys. While the software is mainly tailored for modeling metal alloys, it can also be used for other types of solid-state systems, and to some degree for liquid or gaseous systems, including multiphase systems forming solid-liquid-gas interfaces.

  19. Deprivation of ecclesiastical funeral in the Code of Canon Law of 1983

    OpenAIRE

    Kryspin Dubiel

    2015-01-01

    The article presents the canonical legislation about ecclesiastical burial. It exposes the canonical provisions concerning the fact of a christian death, referring also to the liturgical ones. The thesis was aimed at comparing the rules contained in the two codes of canon law. This document refers particularly to cases in which the church grants or denies the ecclesiastical burial with special reference to 1983 Code of Canon Law. It was taken into account the legislation issued after the code...

  20. Place Of Canon Law Of The Russian Empire In The System Io Humanitarian

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-01-01

    In the present article author examines place of canon law in the system of humanitarian sciences in the Russian Empire at the end of XVIII - early XX centuries. Author reveals interaction of canon law with philosophy, philology, jurisprudence. In particular, author shows influence of various philosophical schools on the development of the canon law science, value of foreign researches translation for the development of national science of canon law starting from the end of the XVIII century. ...

  1. Publication bias and the canonization of false facts

    CERN Document Server

    Nissen, Silas B; Gross, Kevin; Bergstrom, Carl T

    2016-01-01

    In the process of scientific inquiry, certain claims accumulate enough support to be established as facts. Unfortunately, not every claim accorded the status of fact turns out to be true. In this paper, we model the dynamic process by which claims are canonized as fact through repeated experimental confirmation. The community's confidence in a claim constitutes a Markov process: each successive published result shifts the degree of belief, until sufficient evidence accumulates to accept the claim as fact or to reject it as false. In our model, publication bias --- in which positive results are published preferentially over negative ones --- influences the distribution of published results. We find that when readers do not know the degree of publication bias and thus cannot condition on it, false claims often can be canonized as facts. Unless a sufficient fraction of negative results are published, the scientific process will do a poor job at discriminating false from true claims. This problem is exacerbated w...

  2. Canonical reduction for dilatonic gravity in 3+1 dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Scott, T C; Mann, R B; Fee, G J

    2016-01-01

    We generalize the 1+1-dimensional gravity formalism of Ohta and Mann to 3+1 dimensions by developing the canonical reduction of a proposed formalism applied to a system coupled with a set of point particles. This is done via the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner method and by eliminating the resulting constraints and imposing coordinate conditions. The reduced Hamiltonian is completely determined in terms of the particles' canonical variables (coordinates, dilaton field and momenta). It is found that the equation governing the dilaton field under suitable gauge and coordinate conditions, including the absence of transverse-traceless metric components, is a logarithmic Schroedinger equation. Thus, although different, the 3+1 formalism retains some essential features of the earlier 1+1 formalism, in particular the means of obtaining a quantum theory for dilatonic gravity.

  3. Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2016-02-01

    We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain "componential" map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory.

  4. Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations

    CERN Document Server

    Anselmi, Damiano

    2015-01-01

    We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then, we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain "componential" map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory.

  5. Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselmi, Damiano [Universita di Pisa, Dipartimento di Fisica ' ' Enrico Fermi' ' , Pisa (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain ''componential'' map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory. (orig.)

  6. Common activation of canonical Wnt signaling in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Pasca di Magliano

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA is an extremely aggressive malignancy, which carries a dismal prognosis. Activating mutations of the Kras gene are common to the vast majority of human PDA. In addition, recent studies have demonstrated that embryonic signaling pathway such as Hedgehog and Notch are inappropriately upregulated in this disease. The role of another embryonic signaling pathway, namely the canonical Wnt cascade, is still controversial. Here, we use gene array analysis as a platform to demonstrate general activation of the canonical arm of the Wnt pathway in human PDA. Furthermore, we provide evidence for Wnt activation in mouse models of pancreatic cancer. Our results also indicate that Wnt signaling might be activated downstream of Hedgehog signaling, which is an early event in PDA evolution. Wnt inhibition blocked proliferation and induced apoptosis of cultured adenocarcinoma cells, thereby providing evidence to support the development of novel therapeutical strategies for Wnt inhibition in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  7. Quantum canonical transformations in star-product formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study construction of the star-product version of three basic quantum canonical transformations which are known as the generators of the full canonical algebra. By considering the fact that star-product of c-number phase-space functions is in complete isomorphism to Hilbert-space operator algebra, it is shown that while the constructions of gauge and point transformations are immediate, generator of the interchanging transformation deforms this isomorphism. As an alternative approach, we study all of them within the deformed form. How to transform any c-number function under linear-nonlinear transformations and the intertwining method are shown within this argument as the complementary subjects of the text

  8. Canonical form of Euler-Lagrange equations and gauge symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of the Euler-Lagrange equations for a general Lagrangian theory (e.g. singular, with higher derivatives) is studied. For these equations we present a reduction procedure to the so-called canonical form. In the canonical form the equations are solved with respect to highest-order derivatives of nongauge coordinates, whereas gauge coordinates and their derivatives enter the right-hand sides of the equations as arbitrary functions of time. The reduction procedure reveals constraints in the Lagrangian formulation of singular systems and, in that respect, is similar to the Dirac procedure in the Hamiltonian formulation. Moreover, the reduction procedure allows one to reveal the gauge identities between the Euler-Lagrange equations. Thus, a constructive way of finding all the gauge generators within the Lagrangian formulation is presented. At the same time, it is proved that for local theories all the gauge generators are local in time operators

  9. General quantization of canonical maps on a two-torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonical maps on a two-torus in phase space are quantized under most general conditions. Recent results by Keating et al (1999 Nonlinearity 12 579) are thus fully extended in two directions: (a) The translational component of a general canonical map is included in the quantization. (b) All values of Planck's constant, consistent with the toral boundary conditions (BCs), are considered; generically, these values are rational numbers whose numerator must satisfy a number-theoretical condition. Besides the condition on Planck's constant, the quantization is possible only for particular, 'allowed' BCs on the torus. The general equation determining these BCs is derived. Allowed BCs may not exist in some cases; representative examples are the irrational skew translations and Kronecker maps. Exact versions of Egorov's theorem are shown to hold under some conditions. Composition and representation properties of the quantization scheme are studied. (author)

  10. Some reference formulas for the generating functions of canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study some properties of the canonical transformations in classical mechanics and quantum field theory and give a number of practical formulas concerning their generating functions. First, we give a diagrammatic formula for the perturbative expansion of the composition law around the identity map. Then we propose a standard way to express the generating function of a canonical transformation by means of a certain ''componential'' map, which obeys the Baker-Campbell-Hausdorff formula. We derive the diagrammatic interpretation of the componential map, work out its relation with the solution of the Hamilton-Jacobi equation and derive its time-ordered version. Finally, we generalize the results to the Batalin-Vilkovisky formalism, where the conjugate variables may have both bosonic and fermionic statistics, and describe applications to quantum field theory. (orig.)

  11. EL USO DEL CANON INTERNACIONAL DE LOS DERECHOS HUMANOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Becerra Ramírez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available El presente documento pretende hacer una aproximación a las nuevas construcciones jurídicas en la que el uso del canon internacional de los derechos humanos tiene una presencia e influencia innegable en los ordenamientos jurídicos nacionales. Esto, derivado de la coyuntura presente en la que las fuentes normativas, plasmadas en tratados, convenciones, protocolos e incluso declaraciones internacionales de derechos humanos, aunados a la jurisprudencia emanada de organismos supranacionales, se han convertido en referencia casi obligada de los operadores jurídicos de los Estados nacionales. Así, ante dicha premisa nos ocuparemos en el presente documento de analizar cómo se ha dado este proceso de articulación del ordenamiento internacional de los derechos humanos con el nacional, que ha llevado al uso del citado canon internacional para legitimar y motivar las resoluciones de parte de la jurisdicción nacional.

  12. Preserving Catholic identity in mergers--an ethical and Canon Law perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vowell, T H

    1992-03-01

    A merger or joint venture between a Catholic healthcare facility and a non-Catholic healthcare facility that provides procedures the Catholic Church believes to violate moral principles raises a number of issues to be considered by diocesan bishops. The 1983 Code of Canon Law provides bishops with guidelines to help establish the Catholicity of a Catholic hospital that has affiliated with a non-Catholic hospital. The diocesan bishop exercises his authority through a threefold ministry of teaching, sanctifying, and governing. These ministries stand as a reminder of his decision-making authority in matters that affect the spiritual state and growth of those entrusted to his care. Catholic identity, as it is presented in the Code of Canon Law, can be determined through the presence of a relationship between an institution and ecclesiastical authorities, the legal establishment of the entity, and a degree of control that the Church exercises over the institution. When evaluating a possible merger of joint venture between a Catholic hospital and a non-Catholic hospital that is performing procedures not in accord with Catholic Church teaching, the diocesan bishop must consider what limits must be observed. The good effects of the affiliation must be intended and direct, and the harmful effects must be perceived as unintended and indirect. The difficulties in determining and protecting the identity of Catholic hospitals in possible mergers or joint ventures should not prevent facilities from considering alternative forms of corporate structures. The Code of Canon Law and the Church's ethical teachings provide guidelines to ensure these possibilities. PMID:10116501

  13. Fusing Face and Periocular biometrics using Canonical correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lakshmiprabha, N. S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a novel face and periocular biometric fusion at feature level using canonical correlation analysis. Face recognition itself has limitations such as illumination, pose, expression, occlusion etc. Also, periocular biometrics has spectacles, head angle, hair and expression as its limitations. Unimodal biometrics cannot surmount all these limitations. The recognition accuracy can be increased by fusing dual information (face and periocular) from a single source (face image) us...

  14. Hierarchical computation in the canonical auditory cortical circuit

    OpenAIRE

    Atencio, Craig A.; Sharpee, Tatyana O.; Schreiner, Christoph E.

    2009-01-01

    Sensory cortical anatomy has identified a canonical microcircuit underlying computations between and within layers. This feed-forward circuit processes information serially from granular to supragranular and to infragranular layers. How this substrate correlates with an auditory cortical processing hierarchy is unclear. We recorded simultaneously from all layers in cat primary auditory cortex (AI) and estimated spectrotemporal receptive fields (STRFs) and associated nonlinearities. Spike-trig...

  15. Alphabet Sizes of Auxiliary Variables in Canonical Inner Bounds

    OpenAIRE

    Jana, Soumya

    2008-01-01

    Alphabet size of auxiliary random variables in our canonical description is derived. Our analysis improves upon estimates known in special cases, and generalizes to an arbitrary multiterminal setup. The salient steps include decomposition of constituent rate polytopes into orthants, translation of a hyperplane till it becomes tangent to the achievable region at an extreme point, and derivation of minimum auxiliary alphabet sizes based on Caratheodory's theorem.

  16. Nuclear Multifragmentation in the Non-extensive Statistics - Canonical Formulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gudima, K.K. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds - GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, BP 5027, F-14021 Caen Cedex (France); Institute of Applied Physics, Moldova Academy of Sciences, MD-2028 Kishineu (Moldova, Republic of); Parvan, A.S.; Toneev, V.D. [Institute of Applied Physics, Moldova Academy of Sciences, MD-2028 Kishineu (Moldova, Republic of); Bogolyubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Ploszajczak, M. [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds - GANIL, CEA/DSM - CNRS/IN2P3, BP 5027, F-14076 Caen Cedex (France)

    2000-04-21

    We apply the canonical quantum statistical model of nuclear multifragmentation generalized in the framework of recently proposed Tsallis non-extensive thermo-statistics for the description of nuclear multifragmentation process. The test calculation in the system with A = 197 nucleons shows strong modification of the 'critical' behaviour associated with the nuclear liquid-gas phase transition for small deviations from the conventional Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical mechanics. (authors)

  17. Canonical Relativity and the Dimensionality of the World

    OpenAIRE

    Bojowald, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of relativity, mainly in a canonical formulation, relevant for the question "Is spacetime nothing more than a mathematical space (which describes the evolution in time of the ordinary three-dimensional world) or is it a mathematical model of a real four-dimensional world with time entirely given as the fourth dimension?" are presented. The availability as well as clarity of the arguments depend on which framework is being used, for which currently special relativity, general...

  18. Canonical variables and quasilocal energy in general relativity

    OpenAIRE

    Lau, Stephen

    1993-01-01

    Recently Brown and York have devised a new method for defining quasilocal energy in general relativity. Their method yields expressions for the quasilocal energy and momentum surface densities associated with the two-boundary of a spacelike slice of a spatially bounded spacetime. These expressions are essentially Arnowitt-Deser-Misner variables, but with canonical conjugacy defined with respect to the time history of the two-boundary. This paper introduces Ashtekar-type variables on the time ...

  19. Generalized Gibbs canonical ensemble: A possible physical scenario

    OpenAIRE

    Velazquez, L.

    2007-01-01

    After reviewing some fundamental results derived from the introduction of the generalized Gibbs canonical ensemble, such as the called thermodynamic uncertainty relation, it is described a physical scenario where such a generalized ensemble naturally appears as a consequence of a modification of the energetic interchange mechanism between the interest system and its surrounding, which could be relevant within the framework of long-range interacting systems.

  20. The Canonization of German-language Digital Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hartling, Florian

    2005-01-01

    In his paper, "The Canonization of German-language Digital Literature," Florian Hartling discusses "Net Literature," a relatively young phenomenon, that has its roots in experimental visual and concrete poetry and hypertext. With the use of new media technology, this new genre of literature has acquired much interest and is now considered to be one of the most important influences in contemporary art. Not only does Net Literature connect sound, video, and animation with interactivity and allo...

  1. A canonical theory of dynamic decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eFox

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making behaviour is studied in many very different fields, from medicine and economics to psychology and neuroscience, with major contributions from mathematics and statistics, computer science, AI and other technical disciplines. However the conceptualisation of what decision-making is and methods for studying it vary greatly and this has resulted in fragmentation of the field. A theory that can accommodate various perspectives may facilitate interdisciplinary working. We present such a theory in which decision-making is articulated as a set of canonical functions that are sufficiently general to accommodate diverse viewpoints, yet sufficiently precise that they can be instantiated in different ways for specific theoretical or practical purposes. The canons cover the whole decision cycle, from the framing of a decision based on the goals, beliefs, and background knowledge of the decision maker to the formulation of decision options, establishing preferences over them, and making commitments. Commitments can lead to the initiation of new decisions and any step in the cycle can incorporate reasoning about previous decisions and the rationales for them, and lead to revising or abandoning existing commitments. The theory situates decision making with respect to other high-level cognitive capabilities like problem-solving, planning and collaborative decision-making. The canonical approach is assessed in three domains: cognitive and neuro-psychology, artificial intelligence, and decision engineering.

  2. Alla ricerca di un canone europeo tra plurilinguismo e multiculturalità

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Böhmig

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In Search of a European Canon between Multilingualism and Multiculturalism The article's aim is to point out a series of problems related to 1 the “new” Europe, 2 the “European” canon, and 3 multilingualism and multiculturalism. The author moves from the evidence that the political priority of redesigning the enlarged European Union’s new borders involves the risk to let aside the equally or even more important task to redefine the “European” roots and to establish shared cultural values, and she raises the question of what is to be considered “Europe” and “European”. Reviewing the fundamental works, which in an centripetal effort try to collect the basic myths and themes of the Western and/or European cultural space, such as Stoffe der Weltliteratur by Elisabeth Frenzel (Stuttgart 19887, Dictionnaire des Mythes Littéraires, edited by Pierre Brunel (Paris 1988, The Western Canon by Harold Bloom (New York 1994, and Europa: tema y variaciones (Madrid 2000 by José Antonio Jáuregui, the author remarks that the contribution of the Eastern European countries to what should be a common inheritance seems to be very small or even non-existent. Since this disproportion cannot be ascribed to an inadequate cultural production, the only explanation remains a prevailing one-way influence from West to East . and not vice versa . and a consequent one-sided perception by European scholars. In order to establish a complete “European” canon, it is therefore necessary to enlarge the borders toward East and to include the Slavic area. An opposite approach can be observed in language policy, which in a centrifugal effort, due to the objective difficulty to choose or produce a common European language, insists on an equal status for all European languages, from the major national languages to those of ethnic minorities, all to be preserved by means of “positive discrimination”. Besides the difficulty to govern a federation of countries

  3. The Resurrection of Jesus: do extra-canonical sources change the landscape?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F P Viljoen

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The resurrection of Jesus is assumed by the New Testament to be a historical event. Some scholars argue, however, that there was no empty tomb, but that the New Testament accounts are midrashic or mythological stories about Jesus.� In this article extra-canonical writings are investigated to find out what light it may throw on intra-canonical tradition. Many extra-canonical texts seemingly have no knowledge of the passion and resurrection, and such traditions may be earlier than the intra-canonical traditions. Was the resurrection a later invention?� Are intra-canonical texts developments of extra-canonical tradition, or vice versa?� This article demonstrates that extra-canonical texts do not materially alter the landscape of enquiry.

  4. Optical and near-infrared spectroscopy of the black hole GX 339-4 - I. A focus on the continuum in the low/hard and high/soft states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Rahoui; M. Coriat; S. Corbel; M. Cadolle Bel; J.A. Tomsick; J.C. Lee; J. Rodriguez; D.M. Russell; S. Migliari

    2012-01-01

    The microquasar GX 339−4, known to exhibit powerful compact jets that dominate its radio to near-infrared emission, entered an outburst in 2010 for the fifth time in about 15 yr. An extensive radio to X-ray multiwavelength campaign was immediately triggered, and we report here on European Southern O

  5. Regulation of mesenchymal stromal cells through fine tuning of canonical Wnt signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-A Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs have been extensively utilized for various cell therapeutic trials, but the signals regulating their stromal function remain largely unclear. Here, we show that canonical Wnt signals distinctively regulate MSCs in a biphasic manner depending on signal intensity, i.e., MSCs exhibit proliferation and progenitor self-renewal under low Wnt/β-catenin signaling, whereas they exhibit enhanced osteogenic differentiation with priming to osteoblast-like lineages under high Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Moreover, low or high levels of β-catenin in MSCs distinctly regulated the hematopoietic support of MSCs to promote proliferation or the undifferentiated state of hematopoietic progenitors, respectively. A gene expression study demonstrated that different intracellular levels of β-catenin in MSCs induce distinct transcriptomic changes in subsets of genes belonging to different gene function categories. Different β-catenin levels also induced differences in intracellular levels of the β-catenin co-factors, Tcf-1 and Lef-1. Moreover, nano-scale mass spectrometry of proteins that co-precipitated with β-catenin revealed distinctive spectra of proteins selectively interacting with β-catenin at specific expression levels. Together, these results show that Wnt/β-catenin signals can coax distinct transcription milieu to induce different transcription profiles in MSCs depending on the signal intensity and that fine-tuning of the canonical Wnt signaling intensity can regulate the phase-specific functionality of MSCs.

  6. Canonical BF-type topological field theory and fractional statistics of strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider BF-type topological field theory coupled to non-dynamical particle and string sources on spacetime manifolds of the form R1xM 3, where M 3 is a 3-manifold without boundary. Canonical quantization of the theory is carried out in the hamiltonian formalism and explicit solutions of the Schroedinger equation are obtained. We show that the Hilbert space is finite dimensional and the physical states carry a one-dimensional projective representation of the local gauge symmetries. When M 3 is homologically non-trivial the wavefunctions in addition carry a multi-dimensional projective representation, in terms of the linking matrix of the homology cycles of M 3, of the discrete group of large gauge transformations. The wavefunctions also carry a one-dimensional representation of the non-trivial linking of the particle trajectories and string surfaces in M 3. This topological field theory therefore provides a phenomenological generalization of anyons to (3+1) dimensions where the holonomies representing fractional statistics arise from the adiabatic transport of particles around strings. We also discuss a duality between large gauge transformations and these linking operations around the homology cycles of M 3, and show that this canonical quantum field theory provides novel quantum representations of the cohomology of M 3 and its associated motion group. ((orig.))

  7. Diffusion in Lennard-Jones fluids using dual control volume grand canonical molecular dynamics simulation (DCV-GCMD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new approach to calculating diffusivities, both transport as well as equilibrium, is presented. The dual control volume grand canonical molecular dynamics (or DCV-GCMD) method employs two local control volumes for chemical potential control via particle creation/destruction as in grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations. The control volumes are inserted in a standard NVT molecular dynamics simulation yielding a simulation with stochastic chemical potential control that may be thought of as a hybrid GCMC-MD approach. The geometrical control of the chemical potential enables a steady state chemical potential gradient to be established in the system. By measuring the density profile and flux, Fick's law is used to determine the diffusivity. An example calculation is presented for a simple Lennard-Jones system

  8. Does Canon Law speak of sponsorship of Catholic works?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fr Francis G Morrisey

    2007-01-01

    Though the term "sponsorship" is not used in the Code of Canon Law, it is generally accepted today that "sponsorship" entails the use of a particular name and the exercise of certain responsibilities that arise from this use. A person's good name--whether the "person" is an individual or a group--is of primary importance today; and sponsorship responsibilities are exercised in relation to what the name stands for. In the case of church ministries such as the Catholic health ministry, the term refers to works undertaken in the name of Christ, on behalf of the Catholic Church. Traditionally, sponsorship had emphasized a position of corporate strength and independence through ownership and control via reserved powers. Today, as new relations are established with other providers, a presence is required that relies more on the ability to influence. Sponsorship in canon law entails a relation to the threefold mission and ministry of the church: to teach, to sanctify, and to serve God's people. Undoubtedly, health care fits in among these elements of ecclesial service. It has generally been held that for a work to be identified as "Catholic," it must, in one way or another, be related to a juridic person in the church, such as a diocese, a religious institute, one of the institute's provinces, or even one of its established houses (canon 634). There could also be situations in which no formal juridical person is involved and yet the work is considered to be "Catholic." Lately, new entities established specifically for sponsorship purposes have been recognized either by bishops or by the Holy See. These entities, usually known as "public juridic persons" (but sometimes also called "foundations") assume the sponsorship responsibilities previously assumed by a religious institute (or one of its parts) or a diocese. In some instances, these entities also assume all the ownership and property rights previously held by the original institute or diocese. PMID:17274574

  9. Denominator function for canonical SU(3) tensor operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The definition of a canonical unit SU(3) tensor operator is given in terms of its characteristic null space as determined by group-theoretic properties of the intertwining number. This definition is shown to imply the canonical splitting conditions used in earlier work for the explicit and unique (up to +- phases) construction of all SU(3) WCG coefficients (Wigner--Clebsch--Gordan). Using this construction, an explicit SU(3)-invariant denominator function characterizing completely the canonically defined WCG coefficients is obtained. It is shown that this denominator function (squared) is a product of linear factors which may be obtained explicitly from the characteristic null space times a ratio of polynomials. These polynomials, denoted G/sup t//sub q/, are defined over three (shift) parameters and three barycentric coordinates. The properties of these polynomials (hence, of the corresponding invariant denominator function) are developed in detail: These include a derivation of their degree, symmetries, and zeros. The symmetries are those induced on the shift parameters and barycentric coordinates by the transformations of a 3 x 3 array under row interchange, column interchange, and transposition (the group of 72 operations leaving a 3 x 3 determinant invariant). Remarkably, the zeros of the general G/sup t//sub q/ polynomial are in position and multiplicity exactly those of the SU(3) weight space associated with irreducible representation [q-1,t-1,0]. The results obtained are an essential step in the derivation of a fully explicit and comprehensible algebraic expression for all SU(3) WCG coefficients

  10. Canonical commutation relations - historical aspect and new results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the paper is to describe the historical aspects of the canonical commutation relations (CCR) and to analyse the new results. The CCR are the algebraic structure (Heisenberg algebra) on the basis of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory. The following results are discussed: the Weyl form of CCR, Von Neumann's uniqueness theorem, regularity conditions, CCR representation in standard and Weyl forms, CCR in an indefinite metric space, class of CCR regular representations and CCR in the case of infinite number of degrees of freedom

  11. A canonical correlation analysis of intelligence and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Andrew S; Pierson, Eric E; Finch, W Holmes

    2011-01-01

    Executive functioning is one of the most researched and debated topics in neuropsychology. Although neuropsychologists routinely consider executive functioning and intelligence in their assessment process, more information is needed regarding the relationship between these constructs. This study reports the results of a canonical correlation study between the most widely used measure of adult intelligence, the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, 3rd edition (WAIS-III; Wechsler, 1997), and the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS; Delis, Kaplan, & Kramer, 2001). The results suggest that, despite considerable shared variability, the measures of executive functioning maintain unique variance that is not encapsulated in the construct of global intelligence. PMID:21390902

  12. The canonical structure of maximally extended supergravity in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algebra of local and rigid symmetries of N = 16 supergravity in three dimensions is discussed in detail. The conserved charges associated with the rigid E8 symmetry are constructed and shown to be physical observables in that they weakly commute with all constraints. The phase space variables, which render the constraints polynomial, are identified; they are related to the variables used in the SO(1,2) x SO(16)-invariant reformulation of d = 11 supergravity. This indicates that Ashtekar's approach to canonical gravity can be generalized to higher dimensions if suitable matter degrees of freedom are added to gravity. (orig.)

  13. The canonical structure of maximally extended supergravity in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The algebra of local and rigid symmetries of N = 16 supergravity in three dimensions is discussed in detail. The conserved charges associated with the rigid E8 symmetry are constructed and shown to be physical observables in that they weakly commute with all constraints. The phase-space variables, which render the constraints polynomial, are identified; they are related to the variables used in the SO(1,2)xSO(16)-invariant reformulation of d = 11 supergravity. This indicates that Ashtekar's approach to canonical gravity can be generalized to higher dimensions if suitable matter degrees of freedom are added to gravity. (orig.)

  14. Two channel paraunitary filter banks based on linear canonical transform

    CERN Document Server

    Shinde, Sudarshan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a two channel paraunitary filter bank is proposed, which is based on linear canonical transform, instead of discrete Fourier transform. Input-output relation for such a filter bank are derived in terms of polyphase matrices and modulation matrices. It is shown that like conventional filter banks, the LCT based paraunitary filter banks need only one filter to be designed and rest of the filters can be obtained from it. It is also shown that LCT based paraunitary filter banks can be designed by using conventional power-symmetric filter design in Fourier domain.

  15. Log canonical thresholds on varieties with bounded singularities

    CERN Document Server

    de Fernex, Tommaso; Mustata, Mircea

    2010-01-01

    We consider pairs (X,A), where X is a variety with klt singularities and A is a formal product of ideals on X with exponents in a fixed set that satisfies the Descending Chain Condition. We also assume that X has (formally) bounded singularities, in the sense that it is, formally locally, a subvariety in a fixed affine space defined by equations of bounded degree. We prove in this context a conjecture of Shokurov, predicting that the set of log canonical thresholds for such pairs satisfies the Ascending Chain Condition.

  16. Canonical formulation and conserved charges of double field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Naseer, Usman

    2015-01-01

    We provide the canonical formulation of double field theory. It is shown that this dynamics is subject to primary and secondary constraints. The Poisson bracket algebra of secondary constraints is shown to close on-shell according to the C-bracket. A systematic way of writing boundary integrals in doubled geometry is given. By including appropriate boundary terms in the double field theory Hamiltonian, expressions for conserved energy and momentum of an asymptotically flat doubled space-time are obtained and applied to a number of solutions.

  17. El canon literario mexicano en Los detectives salvajes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen de Mora

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo se examina el canon personal de Bolaño en Los detectives salvajes acerca de la literatura mexicana, a partir de la intertextualidad entendida como un rasgo característico de la narrativa postmoderna del autor. Para ello se han tenido en cuenta tanto las citas explícitas que aparecen en la novela como algunas citas implícitas fundamentales. A través del análisis de las mismas se pretende demostrar que para entender el alcance de esta obra es preciso enfrentarse a su escritura en palimpsesto.

  18. Canonical description of a second-order achromat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheifets, S.A.; Fieguth, T.H.; Ruth, R.D.

    1988-03-01

    Charged particle motion in second-order magnetic optical achromat is described using a canonical perturbation theory. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of such a device are presented. Given these conditions, the second-order matrix elements at the end of the achromat are found explicity. It is shown that all geometric matrix elements are equal to zero and all chromatic matrix elements are either also equal to zero or proportional to the corresponding chromaticity. Thus all second-order matrix elements vanish simultaneously when the two chromaticities are made to be equal to zero 13 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Two channel paraunitary filter banks based on linear canonical transform

    OpenAIRE

    Shinde, Sudarshan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper a two channel paraunitary filter bank is proposed, which is based on linear canonical transform, instead of discrete Fourier transform. Input-output relation for such a filter bank are derived in terms of polyphase matrices and modulation matrices. It is shown that like conventional filter banks, the LCT based paraunitary filter banks need only one filter to be designed and rest of the filters can be obtained from it. It is also shown that LCT based paraunitary filter banks can ...

  20. [Interaction of Ag+ ions with ribonucleotides of canonical bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokin, V A; Valeev, V A; Gladchenko, G O; Sysa, I V; Degtiar, M V; Volchok, I V; Blagoĭ, Iu P

    1999-01-01

    The interaction of Ag+ ions with ribonucleotides of canonical bases in aqueous solution was studied by differential UV spectroscopy. Atoms coordinating silver ions (N7, O6 of guanosine 5'-monophosphate, N3, O2 of cytidine 5'-monophosphate, N7, N1, N3 of adenosine 5'-monophosphate and N3 of uridine 5'-monophosphate) and the binding constants characterizing the formation of appropriate complexes were determined. The differences in the relative affinity of Ag+ ions for the atoms of nucleotide bases correlate with the potential on them. PMID:10418671

  1. Alternative representation of the linear canonical integral transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alieva, Tatiana; Bastiaans, Martin J

    2005-12-15

    Starting with the Iwasawa-type decomposition of a first-order optical system (or ABCD system) as a cascade of a lens, a magnifier, and an orthosymplectic system (a system that is both symplectic and orthogonal), a further decomposition of the orthosymplectic system in the form of a separable fractional Fourier transformer embedded between two spatial-coordinate rotators is proposed. The resulting decomposition of the entire first-order optical system then shows a physically attractive representation of the linear canonical integral transformation, which, in contrast to Collins integral, is valid for any ray transformation matrix. PMID:16389812

  2. Canonical stability in terms of singularity index for algebraic threefolds

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Meng

    2000-01-01

    Let X be a projective 3-fold with at most Q-factorial terminal singularities on which K_X is nef and big. Suppose the canonical index r(X)>1. For any positive integer m, it is interesting to consider the base point freeness and birationality of the divisor mK_X. For example, we know the following results: (1) the system |5rK_X| is base point free (Ein-Lazarsfeld-Lee); (2) |mK_X| gives a birational map for all m>4r+2 (M. Hanamura). This article aims to present a better result in direction (2)....

  3. Current commutator anomalies and chiral anomalies in the canonical formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Without recourse to the Bjorken-Johnson-Low (BJL) method, current-current and current-electric-field commutator anomalies are evaluated in chiral gauge theories in two- and four-dimensional spacetime with the help of a gauge covariant regularization method. The results are consistent with previous analyses through the BJL method, and partially confirmed Faddeev's conjecture on the commutator anomalies of the Gauss law constraint operators within the canonical formalism. The chiral anomalies of the current divergence are derived from these commutator anomalies in the Weyl gauge where current-electric-field commutator anomalies play important roles

  4. Currents, charges, and canonical structure of pseudodual chiral models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the pseudodual chiral model to illustrate a class of two-dimensional theories which have an infinite number of conservation laws but allow particle production, at variance with naive expectations. We describe the symmetries of the pseudodual model, both local and nonlocal, as transmutations of the symmetries of the usual chiral model. We refine the conventional algorithm to more efficiently produce the nonlocal symmetries of the model, and we discuss the complete local current algebra for the pseudodual theory. We also exhibit the canonical transformation which connects the usual chiral model to its fully equivalent dual, further distinguishing the pseudodual theory

  5. Canonical energy and hairy AdS black holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyun, Seungjoon; Park, Sang-A.; Yi, Sang-Heon

    2016-08-01

    We propose the modified version of the canonical energy which was introduced originally by Hollands and Wald. Our construction depends only on the Euler-Lagrange expression of the system and thus is independent of the ambiguity in the Lagrangian. After some comments on our construction, we briefly mention on the relevance of our construction to the boundary information metric in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence. We also study the stability of three-dimensional hairy extremal black holes by using our construction.

  6. The canonical ring of a 3-connected curve

    CERN Document Server

    Franciosi, Marco

    2011-01-01

    Let C be a Gorenstein curve which is either reduced or contained in a smooth algebraic surface. We show that the canonical ring R(C, \\omega_C)=\\oplus_{k \\geq 0} H^0(C, \\omega_C^k) is generated in degree 1 if C is 3-connected and not (honestly) hyperelliptic; we show moreover that R(C, L)=\\oplus_{k \\geq 0} H^0(C,L^k) is generated in degree 1 if C is reduced and L is an invertible sheaf such that deg L_{|B} \\geq 2p_a(B)+1 for every subcurve B \\subset C.

  7. Canon musical y canon musicológico desde una perspectiva de la música chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Merino Montero

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El canon y el acto de canonizar forman parte de un juicio de valor aplicable a la música de arte europea, en una tripartición que involucra al creador, su obra y el impacto de la música en un receptor o público como resultado del proceso social de comunicación. Durante muchos años la música centroeuropea y su canon representó en Latinoamérica el lenguaje musical por excelencia, al cual se subordinaban todos los otros lenguajes musicales cultivados en el continente. El proceso de canonizar lo realizaba el musicólogo, el compositor o, más raramente, los intérpretes, de manera generalmente disociada. Con la conformación de una cultura de masas de base industrial en la década de los 50, característica de la así llamada modernidad latinoamericana, y el desarrollo masivo de la creatividad en la pluralidad de tradiciones musicales cultivadas en el continente, la música de arte no constituye hoy día el único posible referente canónico. Por el contrario, los referentes canónicos en Chile y Latinoamérica están, en muchos casos, fuera de la música de arte. Esto plantea un desafío formidable a la musicología, el cual debe ser abordado mediante la convergencia disciplinaria intra y extra musicológica, además de la generación de una crítica musicológica, que sirva de base para la formulación del juicio de valor, en que se interactúen el musicólogo, el compositor y el intérpretemusic, within a tripartition involving the composer, his work and the impact of music upon an audience as a result of the social process of music comunication. For many years the music from Central Europe and its canon was considered in Latin America as the musical language par excellence. All other musics were valued by the yardstick of European art music. The canonizing was carried out by musicologists, composers or less frequently by performers, usually in a totally unrelated manner. With the establishment of a mass culture in the fifties, typical

  8. Improving the sampling efficiency of the Grand Canonical Simulated Quenching approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Danny [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Vernon, Louis J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-04-04

    attempted to equilibrate the chemical potential between two cells and hence allow for the calculation of coexistence curves, exploit the same idea: particle insertion (or exchange) is attempted and accepted with a Metropolis-like rule that depends exponentially on the energy change upon insertion. A well known limitation of this kind of approach is that the probability of accepting such a move decreases extremely rapidly with increasing density, due to the extremely large short-range repulsion between atoms. In response to these difficulties it became apparent that a solution to the problem might be to avoid abrupt insertions but instead to proceed gradually, so as to allow the system to react and make way for the incoming particle. In this view of things, the 'occupation' of a certain atomic site can be viewed as a continuous variable, ranging between 0 and 1, representing 'how much' of the particle is present at any given time. These ideas proved ideal in Molecular Dynamics (MD) settings because equations of motions for these occupation variables can sometimes be obtained. For example, in the case of Grand Canonical Molecular Dynamics [Cagin91], one special particle is allowed to have a fractional occupation. This can lead to either its destruction (occupation = 0) or its complex creation (occupation = 1) so as to enforce a given chemical potential. These approaches proved useful, but mostly in the liquid state where the probability of successfully inserting a new particle is sufficiently high. At higher densities, convergence proved to be hampered by very inefficient sampling. In this work, we explore the use of a related MD-based grand canonical technique, the Grand Canonical Simulated Quenching (GCSQ) of Phillpot and Rickman [Phillpot92,Phillpot94], and explore its application to the grand canonical sampling of solid state systems. We show that, in conjunction with advanced sampling techniques, GCSQ can be a useful tool to sample conformations of

  9. Families of canonically polarized manifolds over log Fano varieties

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmann, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Let (X,D) be a dlt pair, where X is a normal projective variety. Let S denote the support of the rounddown of D, and K the canonical divisor of X. We show that any smooth family of canonically polarized varieties over X\\S is isotrivial if the divisor -(K+D) is ample. This result extends results of Viehweg-Zuo and Kebekus-Kovacs. To prove this result we show that any extremal ray of the moving cone is generated by a family of curves, and these curves are contracted after a certain run of the minimal model program. In the log Fano case, this generalizes a theorem by Araujo from the klt to the dlt case. In order to run the minimal model program, we have to switch to a Q-factorialization of X. As Q-factorializations are generally not unique, we use flops to pass from one Q-factorialization to another, proving the existence of a Q-factorialization suitable for our purposes.

  10. Canonical RNA Pseudoknot Structures with Arc Length $\\geq 4$

    CERN Document Server

    Reidys, Christian M; Zhao, Albus Y Y

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we compute the generating function of the arguably most important target class of folding algorithms into RNA pseudoknot structures. This class consists of $k$-noncrossing, canonical RNA structures having minimum arc length four and generalizes directly the canonical secondary structures, studied by Schuster {\\it et al.} \\cite{Schuster:98}. The combinatorics of this class is important since, in analogy to the case of secondary structures, generic properties of genotype phenotype maps into RNA pseudoknot structures, like shape space covering \\cite{Schuster:94} and neutral networks \\cite{Reidys:97a} are a result of the combinatorics and not of the particulars of energy parameters. Let ${\\sf Q}_k(n)$ denote the number of these structures over $n$ vertices. We derive exact enumeration results as well as the asymptotic formula ${\\sf Q}_k(n)\\sim c_k n^{-(k-1)^2-\\frac{k-1}{2}}(\\gamma_{\\theta,k})^{-n}$ for $k=3, ..., 9$ and derive a new proof of Schuster's result, ${\\sf Q}_2(n)\\sim 1.4848\\, n^{-3/2}\\,1...

  11. The gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorcé Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictacted in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMDs and GPDs. As by-products, we confirm the absence of model-independent relations between TMDs and parton orbital angular momentum, recover in a much simpler way the Burkardt sum rule and derive three similar new sum rules expressing the conservation of transverse momentum.

  12. The gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictacted in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor) and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMDs and GPDs). As by-products, we confirm the absence of model-independent relations between TMDs and parton orbital angular momentum, recover in a much simpler way the Burkardt sum rule and derive three similar new sum rules expressing the conservation of transverse momentum.

  13. The gauge-invariant canonical energy-momentum tensor

    CERN Document Server

    Lorcé, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    The canonical energy-momentum tensor is often considered as a purely academic object because of its gauge dependence. However, it has recently been realized that canonical quantities can in fact be defined in a gauge-invariant way provided that strict locality is abandoned, the non-local aspect being dictacted in high-energy physics by the factorization theorems. Using the general techniques for the parametrization of non-local parton correlators, we provide for the first time a complete parametrization of the energy-momentum tensor (generalizing the purely local parametrizations of Ji and Bakker-Leader-Trueman used for the kinetic energy-momentum tensor) and identify explicitly the parts accessible from measurable two-parton distribution functions (TMDs and GPDs). As by-products, we confirm the absence of model-independent relations between TMDs and parton orbital angular momentum, recover in a much simpler way the Burkardt sum rule and derive three similar new sum rules expressing the conservation of transv...

  14. Nonbijective canonical transformations and applications to some dynamical systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first part is devoted to a presentation of a simplified formalism concerning non-bijective canonical transformations and to an interpretation of some of them in the framework on the theory of Lie algebras. In particular, the well-known Levi-Civita and Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformations are generalized to the non-compact case and to the dimensions 2, 4 and 8. The differential and geometrical properties of the so-called Hurwitz transformations as well as their interpretation in terms of Lie algebras under constraints are given. A second part is concerned with the application of certain non-bijective canonical transformations (and in particular the Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation) to some dynamical systems of interest in theoretical and in chemical physics. The applications concern especially hydrogenoid systems, free or embedded in static and uniform electromagnetic fields, and systems presenting a line of singularity (as the Hartmann system, the Aharonov-Bohm system, and the dyonium system). The Kustaanheimo-Stiefel transformation allows to convert the Schroedinger equations for the later systems into Schroedinger equations for oscillators (harmonic, anharmonic, non-harmonic) in 2 or 4 dimensions

  15. Deformed special relativity and deformed symmetries in a canonical framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we have studied the nature of kinematical and dynamical laws in κ-Minkowski spacetime from a new perspective: the canonical phase space approach. We discuss a particular form of κ-Minkowski phase space algebra that yields the κ-extended finite Lorentz transformations derived in [D. Kimberly, J. Magueijo, and J. Medeiros, Phys. Rev. D 70, 084007 (2004).]. This is a particular form of a deformed special relativity model that admits a modified energy-momentum dispersion law as well as noncommutative κ-Minkowski phase space. We show that this system can be completely mapped to a set of phase space variables that obey canonical (and not κ-Minkowski) phase space algebra and special relativity Lorentz transformation (and not κ-extended Lorentz transformation). The complete set of deformed symmetry generators are constructed that obeys an unmodified closed algebra but induce deformations in the symmetry transformations of the physical κ-Minkowski phase space variables. Furthermore, we demonstrate the usefulness and simplicity of this approach through a number of phenomenological applications both in classical and quantum mechanics. We also construct a Lagrangian for the κ-particle

  16. A Nonlinear GMRES Optimization Algorithm for Canonical Tensor Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    De Sterck, Hans

    2011-01-01

    A new algorithm is presented for computing a canonical rank-R tensor approximation that has minimal distance to a given tensor in the Frobenius norm, where the canonical rank-R tensor consists of the sum of R rank-one components. Each iteration of the method consists of three steps. In the first step, a tentative new iterate is generated by a stand-alone one-step process, for which we use alternating least squares (ALS). In the second step, an accelerated iterate is generated by a nonlinear generalized minimal residual (GMRES) approach, recombining previous iterates in an optimal way, and essentially using the stand-alone one-step process as a preconditioner. In particular, the nonlinear extension of GMRES is used that was proposed by Washio and Oosterlee in [ETNA Vol. 15 (2003), pp. 165-185] for nonlinear partial differential equation problems. In the third step, a line search is performed for globalization. The resulting nonlinear GMRES (N-GMRES) optimization algorithm is applied to dense and sparse tensor ...

  17. Engineering Stable Discrete-Time Quantum Dynamics via a Canonical QR Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognani, Saverio

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the asymptotic behavior of discrete-time, Markovian quantum systems with respect to a subspace of interest. Global asymptotic stability of subspaces is relevant to quantum information processing, in particular for initializing the system in pure states or subspace codes. We provide a linear-algebraic characterization of the dynamical properties leading to invariance and attractivity of a given quantum subspace. We then construct a design algorithm for discrete-time feedback control that allows to stabilize a target subspace, proving that if the control problem is feasible, then the algorithm returns an effective control choice. In order to prove this result, a canonical QR matrix decomposition is derived, and also used to establish the control scheme potential for the simulation of open-system dynamics.

  18. Canonical Quantization of an Open Universe Model with a Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S P

    1999-01-01

    We study canonical quantization of an open universe with a cosmological constant and minimal massless scalar field. It is found that for the exotic quantum states of the scalar field the Wheeler-DeWitt equation of the Lorentzian geometry has a classically forbidden regime extending from the cosmological singularity to a finite scale factor and then a classically allowed regime extending to infinity. We find analytically the approximate wave functions for the quantum creation of the Universe from the {\\it nothingness}. We prescribe the Hartle-Hawking's no-boundary, the Linde's and the Vilenkin's tunneling wave functions. In particular, we find the wave functions for the Euclidean geometry, whose semiclassical solutions are regular at the matching boundary with the Lorentzian geometry but singular at the cosmological singularity.

  19. Canonical quantization of nonlocal theories related to bosonization in 2 + 1D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a canonical formulation for theories whose actions contain non-integer powers of the d'Alembertian operator and which were recently shown to play a central role in 2 + 1D bosonization. We show that these theories possess an infinite number of constraints and use the Dirac method in order to obtain the classical brackets. The casual and classical Green functions are obtained and their meaning in terms of field expectation values is discussed. The Wightman functions are introduced and shown to lead to the microcausality principle. A mode expansion for the field is obtained. This permits the reobtention of the Wightman functions as vacuum expectation values of products of the basic fields. Creation and annihilation operators are naturally introduced but, as shown, they are not related to definite mass particle states. This is also confirmed by the spectral decomposition of the Wightman functions. (author). 16 refs, 1 fig

  20. A new graph-based molecular descriptor using the canonical representation of the molecule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentabli, Hamza; Saeed, Faisal; Abdo, Ammar; Salim, Naomie

    2014-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in drug design. The basic idea underlying molecular similarity is the similar property principle, which states that structurally similar molecules will exhibit similar physicochemical and biological properties. In this paper, a new graph-based molecular descriptor (GBMD) is introduced. The GBMD is a new method of obtaining a rough description of 2D molecular structure in textual form based on the canonical representations of the molecule outline shape and it allows rigorous structure specification using small and natural grammars. Simulated virtual screening experiments with the MDDR database show clearly the superiority of the graph-based descriptor compared to many standard descriptors (ALOGP, MACCS, EPFP4, CDKFP, PCFP, and SMILE) using the Tanimoto coefficient (TAN) and the basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) when searches were carried. PMID:25140330

  1. Biodegradation of tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) in completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shen-Yi; Lu, Li-An; Lin, Jih-Gaw

    2016-06-01

    This study conducted a completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process in a continuous anoxic upflow bioreactor to treat synthetic wastewater with TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide) ranging from 200 to 1000mg/L. The intermediates were analyzed for understanding the metabolic pathway of TMAH biodegradation in CANON process. In addition, (15)N-labeled TMAH was used as the substrate in a batch anoxic bioreactor to confirm that TMAH was converted to nitrogen gas in CANON process. The results indicated that TMAH was almost completely biodegraded in CANON system at different influent TMAH concentrations of 200, 500, and 1000mg/L. The average removal efficiencies of total nitrogen were higher than 90% during the experiments. Trimethylamine (TMA) and methylamine (MA) were found to be the main biodegradation intermediates of TMAH in CANON process. The production of nitrogen gas with (15)N-labeled during the batch anaerobic bioreactor indicated that CANON process successfully converted TMAH into nitrogen gas. PMID:26879202

  2. Linkage-specific conformational ensembles of non-canonical polyubiquitin chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Carlos A; Chaturvedi, Apurva; Camara, Christina M; Curtis, Joseph E; Krueger, Susan; Fushman, David

    2016-02-17

    Polyubiquitination is a critical protein post-translational modification involved in a variety of processes in eukaryotic cells. The molecular basis for selective recognition of the polyubiquitin signals by cellular receptors is determined by the conformations polyubiquitin chains adopt; this has been demonstrated for K48- and K63-linked chains. Recent studies of the so-called non-canonical chains (linked via K6, K11, K27, K29, or K33) suggest they play important regulatory roles in growth, development, and immune system pathways, but biophysical studies are needed to elucidate the physical/structural basis of their interactions with receptors. A first step towards this goal is characterization of the conformations these chains adopt in solution. We assembled diubiquitins (Ub2) comprised of every lysine linkage. Using solution NMR measurements, small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), and in silico ensemble generation, we determined population-weighted conformational ensembles that shed light on the structure and dynamics of the non-canonical polyubiquitin chains. We found that polyubiquitin is conformationally heterogeneous, and each chain type exhibits unique conformational ensembles. For example, K6-Ub2 and K11-Ub2 (at physiological salt concentration) are in dynamic equilibrium between at least two conformers, where one exhibits a unique Ub/Ub interface, distinct from that observed in K48-Ub2 but similar to crystal structures of these chains. Conformers for K29-Ub2 and K33-Ub2 resemble recent crystal structures in the ligand-bound state. Remarkably, a number of diubiquitins adopt conformers similar to K48-Ub2 or K63-Ub2, suggesting potential overlap of biological function among different lysine linkages. These studies highlight the potential power of determining function from elucidation of conformational states. PMID:26422168

  3. Generalized second law of thermodynamics for non-canonical scalar field model with corrected-entropy

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Sudipta; Debnath, Ujjal; Mamon, Abdulla Al

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have considered a non-canonical scalar field dark energy model in the framework of flat FRW background. It has also been assumed that the dark matter sector interacts with the non-canonical dark energy sector through some interaction term. Using the solutions for this interacting non-canonical scalar field dark energy model, we have investigated the validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in various scenarios using first law and area law of thermodynamics. ...

  4. On the relation of canonical and covariant formulations of Loop Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Zipfel, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) is a background independent approach towards a quantum theory of gravity that splits into a canonical and a covariant branch the latter of which is also often called spin foam model. The spin foam model can only be derived formally from a constrained BF-theory that is discretized prior to quantization so that the resulting quantum theory is not continuous while canonical LQG rests on a true representation of the continuum canonical commutation relations at the kinem...

  5. The quantum general linear supergroup, canonical bases and Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Canonical bases of the tensor powers of the natural Uq(glm|n)-module V are constructed by adapting the work of Frenkel, Khovanov and Kirrilov to the quantum supergroup setting. This result is generalized in several directions. We first construct the canonical bases of the Z2-graded symmetric algebra of V and tensor powers of this superalgebra; then construct canonical bases for the superalgebra Oq(Mm|n) of a quantum (m, n) × (m, n)-supermatrix; and finally deduce from the latter result the canonical basis of every irreducible tensor module for Uq(glm|n) by applying a quantum analogue of the Borel-Weil construction.

  6. Controlled levels of canonical Wnt signaling are required for neural crest migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maj, Ewa; Künneke, Lutz; Loresch, Elisabeth; Grund, Anita; Melchert, Juliane; Pieler, Tomas; Aspelmeier, Timo; Borchers, Annette

    2016-09-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling plays a dominant role in the development of the neural crest (NC), a highly migratory cell population that generates a vast array of cell types. Canonical Wnt signaling is required for NC induction as well as differentiation, however its role in NC migration remains largely unknown. Analyzing nuclear localization of β-catenin as readout for canonical Wnt activity, we detect nuclear β-catenin in premigratory but not migratory Xenopus NC cells suggesting that canonical Wnt activity has to decrease to basal levels to enable NC migration. To define a possible function of canonical Wnt signaling in Xenopus NC migration, canonical Wnt signaling was modulated at different time points after NC induction. This was accomplished using either chemical modulators affecting β-catenin stability or inducible glucocorticoid fusion constructs of Lef/Tcf transcription factors. In vivo analysis of NC migration by whole mount in situ hybridization demonstrates that ectopic activation of canonical Wnt signaling inhibits cranial NC migration. Further, NC transplantation experiments confirm that this effect is tissue-autonomous. In addition, live-cell imaging in combination with biophysical data analysis of explanted NC cells confirms the in vivo findings and demonstrates that modulation of canonical Wnt signaling affects the ability of NC cells to perform single cell migration. Thus, our data support the hypothesis that canonical Wnt signaling needs to be tightly controlled to enable migration of NC cells. PMID:27341758

  7. 上软下硬岩质地层浅埋大跨隧道松动压力计算%Calculation method of relaxation pressure of shallow large span tunnel in up-soft/low-hard rock stratum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志伟; 乔春生; 宋超业

    2014-01-01

    In accordance with the problems of existing methods for surrounding rock pressure of shallow large-span tunnel in up-soft/low-hard rock stratum, by using DEM (distinct element method) and orthogonal array testing method, the law and sensibilities of the failure mechanism of loose zone and the thickness of overlying weak rock stratum and the joint occurrence influencing on shape and scope of the loose zone are analyzed. In sequence, the sensibilities of factors are as follows in the magnitude order: thickness of overlying weak rock stratum, tunnel depth, angle and distance of continuous inclined joint, distance of horizontal joints in weak rock stratum. Through comparative analysis two failure modes of arch collapse and caving collapse are obtained;the boundary curves are analyzed and fit with linear and non-linear models by using the software ORIGIN, the test results show their boundary curves are power function curve and parabola curve. In accordance with caving collapse loose zone, new formulae for the length of earth surface crack and the soil strip width above the vault are formulated by using the liner least squares method. The errors of the empirical formulae are analyzed. According to the stress transfer principle, a differential trapezoid geotechnical strip is chosen as research object, the formula of surrounding rock pressure of loose zone which considering the joint occurrence and thickness of overlying weak rock stratum is deduced. Case studies show that the results of proposed method are smaller than the results of the existing representative methods.%针对现有方法在上软下硬岩质地层中浅埋大跨隧道松动压力计算方面存在的问题,通过离散元数值模拟和正交试验,分析了围岩的松动破坏机制、风化层厚度和岩体中节理分布状态对隧道松动区形状和范围的影响规律及敏感性。结果表明:影响松动区的主要因素依次为风化层厚度、隧道埋深、贯通倾斜节理的

  8. An unconventional canonical quantization of local field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conventional extension of the canonical quantization for the local field theories leads to serious mathematical and physical problems (ultraviolet catastrophes and instability of the vacuum). A new proposed method of this extension exploits maximally the principle of locality. Identical copies of the quantum counterparts of the classical mechanical system are placed at each points of a hyperspace of fixed time. The global system is synthetized by quantum statistical method. The argument of wave function, the field operator does not depend explicitely on the point of the space-time. In the perturbation theory the interaction Hamiltonian is now not global but local, thus the usual ultraviolet divergences do not appear. This formalism is an explicite example that the quantum dynamics of a system can be locally implemented, according to the physical measuring situation. (D. Gy.)

  9. Canonical Group Quantization, Rotation Generators and Quantum Indistinguishability

    CERN Document Server

    Benavides, C

    2008-01-01

    Using the method of canonical group quantization, we construct the angular momentum operators associated to configuration spaces with the topology of (i) a sphere and (ii) a projective plane. In the first case, the obtained angular momentum operators are the quantum version of Poincare's vector, i.e., the physically correct angular momentum operators for an electron coupled to the field of a magnetic monopole. In the second case, the obtained operators represent the angular momentum operators of a system of two indistinguishable spin zero quantum particles in three spatial dimensions. We explicitly show how our formalism relates to the one developed by Berry and Robbins. The relevance of the proposed formalism for an advance in our understanding of the spin-statistics connection in non-relativistic quantum mechanics is discussed.

  10. Paul Weiss and the genesis of canonical quantization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickles, Dean; Blum, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    This paper describes the life and work of a figure who, we argue, was of primary importance during the early years of field quantisation and (albeit more indirectly) quantum gravity. A student of Dirac and Born, he was interned in Canada during the second world war as an enemy alien and after his release never seemed to regain a good foothold in physics, identifying thereafter as a mathematician. He developed a general method of quantizing (linear and non-linear) field theories based on the parameters labelling an arbitrary hypersurface. This method (the `parameter formalism' often attributed to Dirac), though later discarded, was employed (and viewed at the time as an extremely important tool) by the leading figures associated with canonical quantum gravity: Dirac, Pirani and Schild, Bergmann, DeWitt, and others. We argue that he deserves wider recognition for this and other innovations.

  11. A Computer Program for a Canonical Problem in Underwater Shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Geers

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite-element/boundary-element codes are widely used to analyze the response of marine structures to underwater explosions. An important step in verifying the correctness and accuracy of such codes is the comparison of code-generated results for canonical problems with corresponding analytical or semianalytical results. At the present time, such comparisons rely on hardcopy results presented in technical journals and reports. This article describes a computer program available from SAVIAC that produces user-selected numerical results for a step-wave-excited spherical shell submerged in and (optionally filled with an acoustic fluid. The method of solution employed in the program is based on classical expansion of the field quantities in generalized Fourier series in the meridional coordinate. Convergence of the series is enhanced by judicious application of modified Cesàro summation and partial closed-form solution.

  12. Canonical momenta indicators of financial markets and neocortical EEG

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, L

    1996-01-01

    A paradigm of statistical mechanics of financial markets (SMFM) is fit to multivariate financial markets using Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA), a global optimization algorithm, to perform maximum likelihood fits of Lagrangians defined by path integrals of multivariate conditional probabilities. Canonical momenta are thereby derived and used as technical indicators in a recursive ASA optimization process to tune trading rules. These trading rules are then used on out-of-sample data, to demonstrate that they can profit from the SMFM model, to illustrate that these markets are likely not efficient. This methodology can be extended to other systems, e.g., electroencephalography. This approach to complex systems emphasizes the utility of blending an intuitive and powerful mathematical-physics formalism to generate indicators which are used by AI-type rule-based models of management.

  13. The Danish Reportive Passive as a Non-Canonical Passive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsnes, Bjarne

    Danish passive utterance and cognitive verbs allow a construction where the subject of an infinitival complement is raised: Peter siges at være bortrejst (‘Peter is said to be out of town’). Contrary to English, these verbs are not ECM-verbs or subject-to-object raising verbs in the active. The...... subject of the passive can never be construed as an object. These raising passives are termed Reportive Passives since they attribute a proposition to an (unknown) information source. Some analyses treat these passives as special constructions with an idiosyncratic semantics or even as grammaticalized...... evidentiality markers. I argue that they are fully compositional passives in Danish, but that they are non-canonical inasmuch as they raise an argument of an embedded predicate. I provide an account within the framework of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar and I suggest that such passives are motivated in...

  14. Canonical approach to the closed string non-commutativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidović Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the propagation of the closed bosonic string in the weakly curved background. We show that the closed string non-commutativity is essentially connected to the T-duality and nontrivial background. From the T-duality transformation laws, connecting the canonical variables of the original and T-dual theory, we find the structure of the Poisson brackets in the T-dual space corresponding to the fundamental Poisson brackets in the original theory. We find that the commutative original theory is equivalent to the non-commutative T-dual theory, in which Poisson brackets close on winding and momenta numbers and the coefficients are proportional to the background fluxes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171031

  15. Recovery of spectral data using weighted canonical correlation regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslahi, Niloofar; Amirshahi, Seyed Hossein; Agahian, Farnaz

    2009-05-01

    The weighted canonical correlation regression technique is employed for reconstruction of reflectance spectra of surface colors from the related XYZ tristimulus values of samples. Flexible input data based on applying certain weights to reflectance and colorimetric values of Munsell color chips has been implemented for each particular sample which belongs to Munsell or GretagMacbeth Colorchecker DC color samples. In fact, the colorimetric and spectrophotometric data of Munsell chips are selected as fundamental bases and the color difference values between the target and samples in Munsell dataset are chosen as a criterion for determination of weighting factors. The performance of the suggested method is evaluated in spectral reflectance reconstruction. The results show considerable improvements in terms of root mean square error (RMS) and goodness-of-fit coefficient (GFC) between the actual and reconstructed reflectance curves as well as CIELAB color difference values under illuminants A and TL84 for CIE1964 standard observer.

  16. On two mathematical problems of canonical quantization. IV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for solving the problem of reconstructing a measure beginning with its logarithmic derivative is presented. The method completes that of solving the stochastic differential equation via Dirichlet forms proposed by S. Albeverio and M. Rockner. As a result one obtains the mathematical apparatus for the stochastic quantization. The apparatus is applied to prove the existence of the Feynman-Kac measure of the sine-Gordon and λφ2n/(1 + κ2φ2n)-models. A synthesis of both mathematical problems of canonical quantization is obtained in the form of a second-order martingale problem for vacuum noise. It is shown that in stochastic mechanics the martingale problem is an analog of Newton's second law and enables us to find the Nelson's stochastic trajectories without determining the wave functions. 33 refs

  17. Successive canonical transformation in model two-body electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility is investigated of bypassing the no interaction theorum of Currie, Jordan and Sudarshan for direct action Lagrangians. Starting with the field theoretic description of a two-body electrodynamic problem, the field variable is solved for in terms of the particle variables, which paves the way to write an action-at-a-distance Hamiltonian for the problem. A suitable transformation is found which uncouples the field and the particle variables in the interaction up to order e2. It is shown that this transformation leaves the statement of Newton's 2nd law unchanged which also agrees with the standard results of electrodynamics. This allows for the identification of canonical variables for the proper action-at-a-distance problem. 19 references

  18. Successive canonical transformation in model two-body electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the possibility of bypassing the no-interaction theorem of Currie, Jordan, and Sudarshan for direct action Lagrangians. Starting with the field-theoretic description of a two-body electrodynamic problem, we solve for the field variables in terms of the particle variables, which paves the way to write an action-at-a-distance Hamiltonian for the problem. A suitable transformation is found which uncouples the field and the particle variables in the interaction up to order e2. It is shown that this transformation leaves the statement of Newton's second law unchanged which also agrees with the standard results of electrodynamics. This allows for the identification of canonical variables for the proper action-at-a-distance problem

  19. A NOVEL ALGORITHM FOR VOICE CONVERSION USING CANONICAL CORRELATION ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Zhihua; Yang Zhen

    2008-01-01

    A novel algorithm for voice conversion is proposed in this paper. The mapping function of spectral vectors of the source and target speakers is calculated by the Canonical Correlation Analysis(CCA) estimation based on Gaussian mixture models. Since the spectral envelope feature remains a majority of second order statistical information contained in speech after Linear Prediction Coding(LPC) analysis, the CCA method is more suitable for spectral conversion than Minimum Mean Square Error (MMSE) because CCA explicitly considers the variance of each component of the spectral vectors during conversion procedure. Both objective evaluations and subjective listening tests are conducted. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed scheme can achieve better performance than the previous method which uses MMSE estimation criterion.

  20. Linking covariant and canonical LQG II: Spin foam projector

    CERN Document Server

    Thiemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In a seminal paper, Kaminski, Kisielowski an Lewandowski for the first time extended the definition of spin foam models to arbitrary boundary graphs. This is a prerequisite in order to make contact to the canonical formulation of Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG) and allows to investigate the question whether any of the presently considered spin foam models yield a rigging map for any of the presently defined Hamiltonian constraint operators. The KKL extension cannot be described in terms of Group Field Theory (GFT) since arbitrary foams are involved while GFT is tied to simplicial complexes. Therefore one has to define the sum over spin foams with given boundary spin networks in an independent fashion using natural axioms, most importantly a gluing property for 2-complexes. These axioms are motivated by the requirement that spin foam amplitudes should define a rigging map (physical inner product) induced by the Hamiltonian constraint. This is achieved by constructing a spin foam operator based on abstract 2-complex...

  1. Improved confinement regimes within the transport model of canonical profiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The canonical profiles transport model is extended to describe various modes with improved confinement in tokamaks. A generalized profile consistency principle is proposed and a corresponding mathematical formalism is formulated. This formalism is used for the modelling of various regimes, such as H modes in DIII-D, JET and ASDEX, the hot ion mode and enhanced performance after pellet injection (PEP mode) in JET. This modelling, together with a known global scaling law, allowed the dependence of the internal model parameters on the plasma geometry and other physical variables to be established. This makes the model predictive. The approximate analytical criteria for the L → H and L → hot ion mode transitions are also obtained. (author). 32 refs, 30 figs

  2. Geometric integrator for simulations in the canonical ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Tapias, Diego; Bravetti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    In this work we introduce a geometric integrator for molecular dynamics simulations of physical systems in the canonical ensemble. In particular, we consider the equations arising from the so-called density dynamics algorithm with any possible type of thermostat and provide an integrator that preserves the invariant distribution. Our integrator thus constitutes a unified framework that allows the study and comparison of different thermostats and of their influence on the equilibrium and non-equilibrium (thermo-)dynamic properties of the system. To show the validity and the generality of the integrator, we implement it with a second-order, time-reversible method and apply it to the simulation of a Lennard-Jones system with three different thermostats, obtaining good conservation of the geometrical properties and recovering the expected thermodynamic results.

  3. Optimization on scoliosis examination on Canons DR system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Precht, Helle

    2007-01-01

    recordings of scoliosis today are carried out on CR systems even though most radiological departments have DR systems available. Theoretically speaking the two modalities are similar regarding dose and image quality. In this project consequently, the focus will be to obtain images of equal dose and quality...... at a DR system when using different receptors during the exam. This is a completely new opportunity, as it has earlier been difficult to compare distinct scintilators connected to the receptors due to unlike processing of the image. Given that Canon have released a receptor with CsI scintilator we...... study in which theory is used as a background for the test setup and later audit appraisal. Two tests are carried out on two different hospitals with each their receptor, and afterwards the results are compared. To guarantee comparable tests the results are verified through status checks and statistical...

  4. Statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions Canonical momenta indicators of electroencephalography

    CERN Document Server

    Ingber, L

    1997-01-01

    A series of papers has developed a statistical mechanics of neocortical interactions (SMNI), deriving aggregate behavior of experimentally observed columns of neurons from statistical electrical-chemical properties of synaptic interactions. While not useful to yield insights at the single neuron level, SMNI has demonstrated its capability in describing large-scale properties of short-term memory and electroencephalographic (EEG) systematics. The necessity of including nonlinear and stochastic structures in this development has been stressed. Sets of EEG and evoked potential data were fit, collected to investigate genetic predispositions to alcoholism and to extract brain signatures of short-term memory. Adaptive Simulated Annealing (ASA), a global optimization algorithm, was used to perform maximum likelihood fits of Lagrangians defined by path integrals of multivariate conditional probabilities. Canonical momenta indicators (CMI) are thereby derived for individual's EEG data. The CMI give better signal recog...

  5. Garcilaso y Cervantes en la perspectiva del canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Gálvez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este ensayo examina de modo sucinto la relación entre la obra de Miguel de Cervantes, en especial el Quijote, y la poesía de Garcilaso de la Vega en el horizonte de los valores consagrados en el canon literario de los Siglos de Oro. Para ello, primeramente se ofrece una breve semblanza biográfica e intelectual que busca establecer similitudes entre ambos autores; en segundo lugar, el texto registra diversas apariciones o “señales” garcilasianas en las páginas de la novela en sus dos partes (1605 y 1615 y las comenta con una visión al mismo tiempo crítica e histórica. El trabajo procura hacer una contribución sobre modos nuevos de analizar la tradición literaria y presta la mayor atención a las ideas cervantinas sobre la poesía.

  6. Canonical ensemble in non-extensive statistical mechanics, q > 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruseckas, Julius

    2016-09-01

    The non-extensive statistical mechanics has been used to describe a variety of complex systems. The maximization of entropy, often used to introduce the non-extensive statistical mechanics, is a formal procedure and does not easily lead to physical insight. In this article we investigate the canonical ensemble in the non-extensive statistical mechanics by considering a small system interacting with a large reservoir via short-range forces and assuming equal probabilities for all available microstates. We concentrate on the situation when the reservoir is characterized by generalized entropy with non-extensivity parameter q > 1. We also investigate the problem of divergence in the non-extensive statistical mechanics occurring when q > 1 and show that there is a limit on the growth of the number of microstates of the system that is given by the same expression for all values of q.

  7. Canonical ensemble in non-extensive statistical mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruseckas, Julius

    2016-04-01

    The framework of non-extensive statistical mechanics, proposed by Tsallis, has been used to describe a variety of systems. The non-extensive statistical mechanics is usually introduced in a formal way, using the maximization of entropy. In this paper we investigate the canonical ensemble in the non-extensive statistical mechanics using a more traditional way, by considering a small system interacting with a large reservoir via short-range forces. The reservoir is characterized by generalized entropy instead of the Boltzmann-Gibbs entropy. Assuming equal probabilities for all available microstates we derive the equations of the non-extensive statistical mechanics. Such a procedure can provide deeper insight into applicability of the non-extensive statistics.

  8. Intersubject information mapping: revealing canonical representations of complex natural stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Real-world time-continuous stimuli such as video promise greater naturalism for studies of brain function. However, modeling the stimulus variation is challenging and introduces a bias in favor of particular descriptive dimensions. Alternatively, we can look for brain regions whose signal is correlated between subjects, essentially using one subject to model another. Intersubject correlation mapping (ICM allows us to find brain regions driven in a canonical manner across subjects by a complex natural stimulus. However, it requires a direct voxel-to-voxel match between the spatiotemporal activity patterns and is thus only sensitive to common activations sufficiently extended to match up in Talairach space (or in an alternative, e.g. cortical-surface-based, common brain space. Here we introduce the more general approach of intersubject information mapping (IIM. For each brain region, IIM determines how much information is shared between the subjects' local spatiotemporal activity patterns. We estimate the intersubject mutual information using canonical correlation analysis applied to voxels within a spherical searchlight centered on each voxel in turn. The intersubject information estimate is invariant to linear transforms including spatial rearrangement of the voxels within the searchlight. This invariance to local encoding will be crucial in exploring fine-grained brain representations, which cannot be matched up in a common space and, more fundamentally, might be unique to each individual – like fingerprints. IIM yields a continuous brain map, which reflects intersubject information in fine-grained patterns. Performed on data from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI of subjects viewing the same television show, IIM and ICM both highlighted sensory representations, including primary visual and auditory cortices. However, IIM revealed additional regions in higher association cortices, namely temporal pole and orbitofrontal cortex. These

  9. The canonical status of Constantinople and its interpretation in Byzantium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Kuzenkov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The author subjects to thorough consideration the gradual change in the status of the Patriarch of Constantinople from the bishop of a minor town to the Ecumenical Patriarch possessing a certain set of administrative privileges. After giving a definition of the status of a bishop and ecclesiastical provinces in the ancient Church, the author, basing his conclusions upon canonical sources and their expositions in the Early Byzantine period, proceeds to develop the idea that the change in the bishop’s status went through several successive stages and that each new stage had its own causes, not the least important of which were of political nature. After both Rome and Constantinople, as political centers of the Roman Empire, received in the 4th century certain «privileges of honor» peculiar to capital cities, these privileges were consecutively modified into mandate of power. This process took several centuries to reach completion and was connected with the activities of the Emperors Zeno I and Justinian the Great (5th–6th centuries who legally secured the new status of the bishop of the capital city and granted him the title of Ecumenical Patriarch. After the patriarchate of Photius and the confl ict with the bishops of Rome the Patriarch of Constantinople receives the right to intrude — in certain cases — into the canonical jurisdiction of other Churches, which becomes the key change in understanding the nature of supremacy. In later times this tendency was enhanced and reached its climax in the 20th century when the Ecumenical Patriarchate began testing the ground to expand its authority to the whole of the Orthodox world, with the further perspective of turning into a kind of «Orthodox Rome».

  10. Red-Shifted Aequorin Variants Incorporating Non-Canonical Amino Acids: Applications in In Vivo Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinstead, Kristen M.; Rowe, Laura; Ensor, Charles M.; Joel, Smita; Daftarian, Pirouz; Dikici, Emre; Zingg, Jean-Marc; Daunert, Sylvia

    2016-01-01

    The increased importance of in vivo diagnostics has posed new demands for imaging technologies. In that regard, there is a need for imaging molecules capable of expanding the applications of current state-of-the-art imaging in vivo diagnostics. To that end, there is a desire for new reporter molecules capable of providing strong signals, are non-toxic, and can be tailored to diagnose or monitor the progression of a number of diseases. Aequorin is a non-toxic photoprotein that can be used as a sensitive marker for bioluminescence in vivo imaging. The sensitivity of aequorin is due to the fact that bioluminescence is a rare phenomenon in nature and, therefore, it does not suffer from autofluorescence, which contributes to background emission. Emission of bioluminescence in the blue-region of the spectrum by aequorin only occurs when calcium, and its luciferin coelenterazine, are bound to the protein and trigger a biochemical reaction that results in light generation. It is this reaction that endows aequorin with unique characteristics, making it ideally suited for a number of applications in bioanalysis and imaging. Herein we report the site-specific incorporation of non-canonical or non-natural amino acids and several coelenterazine analogues, resulting in a catalog of 72 cysteine-free, aequorin variants which expand the potential applications of these photoproteins by providing several red-shifted mutants better suited to use in vivo. In vivo studies in mouse models using the transparent tissue of the eye confirmed the activity of the aequorin variants incorporating L-4-iodophehylalanine and L-4-methoxyphenylalanine after injection into the eye and topical addition of coelenterazine. The signal also remained localized within the eye. This is the first time that aequorin variants incorporating non-canonical amino acids have shown to be active in vivo and useful as reporters in bioluminescence imaging. PMID:27367859

  11. Red-Shifted Aequorin Variants Incorporating Non-Canonical Amino Acids: Applications in In Vivo Imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen M Grinstead

    Full Text Available The increased importance of in vivo diagnostics has posed new demands for imaging technologies. In that regard, there is a need for imaging molecules capable of expanding the applications of current state-of-the-art imaging in vivo diagnostics. To that end, there is a desire for new reporter molecules capable of providing strong signals, are non-toxic, and can be tailored to diagnose or monitor the progression of a number of diseases. Aequorin is a non-toxic photoprotein that can be used as a sensitive marker for bioluminescence in vivo imaging. The sensitivity of aequorin is due to the fact that bioluminescence is a rare phenomenon in nature and, therefore, it does not suffer from autofluorescence, which contributes to background emission. Emission of bioluminescence in the blue-region of the spectrum by aequorin only occurs when calcium, and its luciferin coelenterazine, are bound to the protein and trigger a biochemical reaction that results in light generation. It is this reaction that endows aequorin with unique characteristics, making it ideally suited for a number of applications in bioanalysis and imaging. Herein we report the site-specific incorporation of non-canonical or non-natural amino acids and several coelenterazine analogues, resulting in a catalog of 72 cysteine-free, aequorin variants which expand the potential applications of these photoproteins by providing several red-shifted mutants better suited to use in vivo. In vivo studies in mouse models using the transparent tissue of the eye confirmed the activity of the aequorin variants incorporating L-4-iodophehylalanine and L-4-methoxyphenylalanine after injection into the eye and topical addition of coelenterazine. The signal also remained localized within the eye. This is the first time that aequorin variants incorporating non-canonical amino acids have shown to be active in vivo and useful as reporters in bioluminescence imaging.

  12. Influence and canonical supremacy: an analysis of how George Herbert Mead demoted Charles Horton Cooley in the sociological canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Glenn

    2009-01-01

    This analysis assesses the factors underlying Charles Horton Cooley's place in the sociological canon as they relate to George Herbert Mead's puzzling diatribe-echoed in secondary accounts-against Cooley's social psychology and view of the self published scarcely a year after his death. The illocutionary act of publishing his critique stands as an effort to project the image of Mead's intellectual self and enhance his standing among sociologists within and outside the orbit of the University of Chicago. It expressed Mead's ambivalence toward his precursor Cooley, whose influence he never fully acknowledged. In addition, it typifies the contending fractal distinctions of the scientifically discursive versus literary styles of Mead and Cooley, who both founded the interpretive sociological tradition. The contrasting styles and attitudes toward writing of the two figures are discussed, and their implications for the problems of scale that have stymied the symbolic interactionist tradition are explored. PMID:19360893

  13. Alteration of canonical and non-canonical WNT-signaling by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Timothy N; Dentener, Mieke A; Stassen, Frank R; Rohde, Gernot G; Mossman, Brooke T; Wouters, Emiel F M; Reynaert, Niki L

    2016-06-15

    Growth and development of the mature lung is a complex process orchestrated by a number of intricate developmental signaling pathways. Wingless-type MMTV-integration site (WNT) signaling plays critical roles in controlling branching morphogenesis cell differentiation, and formation of the conducting and respiratory airways. In addition, WNT pathways are often re-activated in mature lungs during repair and regeneration. WNT- signaling has been elucidated as a crucial contributor to the development of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis as well as other hyper-proliferative lung diseases. Silicosis, a detrimental occupational lung disease caused by excessive inhalation of crystalline silica dust, is hallmarked by repeated cycles of damaging inflammation, epithelial hyperplasia, and formation of dense, hyalinized nodules of whorled collagen. However, mechanisms of epithelial cell hyperplasia and matrix deposition are not well understood, as most research efforts have focused on the pronounced inflammatory response. Microarray data from our previous studies has revealed a number of WNT-signaling and WNT-target genes altered by crystalline silica in human lung epithelial cells. In the present study, we utilize pathway analysis to designate connections between genes altered by silica in WNT-signaling networks. Furthermore, we confirm microarray findings by QRT-PCR and demonstrate both activation of canonical (β-catenin) and down-regulation of non-canonical (WNT5A) signaling in immortalized (BEAS-2B) and primary (PBEC) human bronchial epithelial cells. These findings suggest that WNT-signaling and cross-talk with other pathways (e.g. Notch), may contribute to proliferative, fibrogenic and inflammatory responses to silica in lung epithelial cells. PMID:27095093

  14. Creativity and Brain-Functioning in Product Development Engineers: A Canonical Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Frederick; Lagrosen, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    This study used canonical correlation analysis to explore the relation among scores on the Torrance test of figural and verbal creativity and demographic, psychological and physiological measures in Swedish product-development engineers. The first canonical variate included figural and verbal flexibility and originality as dependent measures and…

  15. On the relationship between modifications to the Raychaudhuri equation and the canonical Hamiltonian structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parampreet; Soni, S. K.

    2016-06-01

    The problem of obtaining canonical Hamiltonian structures from the equations of motion, without any knowledge of the action, is studied in the context of the spatially flat Friedmann, ‘Robertson’, and Walker models. Modifications to the Raychaudhuri equation are implemented independently as quadratic and cubic terms of energy density without introducing additional degrees of freedom. Depending on their sign, modifications make gravity repulsive above a curvature scale for matter satisfying strong energy conditions, or more attractive than in the classical theory. The canonical structure of the modified theories is determined by demanding that the total Hamiltonian be a linear combination of gravity and matter Hamiltonians. In the quadratic repulsive case, the modified canonical phase space of gravity is a polymerized phase space with canonical momentum as inverse a trigonometric function of the Hubble rate; the canonical Hamiltonian can be identified with the effective Hamiltonian in loop quantum cosmology. The repulsive cubic modification results in a ‘generalized polymerized’ canonical phase space. Both the repulsive modifications are found to yield singularity avoidance. In contrast, the quadratic and cubic attractive modifications result in a canonical phase space in which canonical momentum is nontrigonometric and singularities persist. Our results hint at connections between the repulsive/attractive nature of modifications to gravity arising from the gravitational sector and polymerized/non polymerized gravitational phase space.

  16. Reversible Digital Filters Total Parametric Sensitivity Optimization using Non-canonical Hypercomplex Number Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kalinovsky, Yakiv O.; Boyarinova, Yuliya E.; Khitsko, Iana V.

    2015-01-01

    Digital filter construction method, which is optimal by parametric sensitivity, based on using of non-canonical hypercomplex number systems is proposed and investigated. It is shown that the use of non-canonical hypercomplex number system with greater number of non-zero structure constants in multiplication table can significantly improve the sensitivity of the digital filter.

  17. Bach, Beethoven, Bourdieu: "Cultural Capital" and the Scholastic Canon in England's A-Level Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    This article applies Bourdieu's notion of "cultural capital" to historical, documentary research which investigates the construction of a scholastic canon within England's A-level music examinations. A digest of the ways in which this canon evolved between 1951 and 1986 is presented in support of the idea that examiners' responses to emerging…

  18. Poincar\\'e gauge theory in 3D: canonical stability of the scalar sector

    OpenAIRE

    Blagojević, M.; Cvetković, B.

    2013-01-01

    We outline the results of the canonical analysis of the three-dimensional Poincar\\'e gauge theory, defined by the general parity-invariant Lagrangian with eight free parameters [11]. In the scalar sector, containing scalar or pseudoscalar (A)dS modes, the stability of the canonical structure under linearization is used to identify dynamically acceptable values of the parameters.

  19. A Canonical Laplacian on the Algebra of Densities on a Projectively Connected Manifold

    OpenAIRE

    George, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    On a manifold with a projective connection we canonically assign a second order differential operator acting on the algebra of all densities to any tensor density $S^{ij}$ of fixed weight $\\lambda$. In particular, this implies that on any projectively connected manifold, a `bracket' (symmetric biderivation) on the algebra of functions extends canonically to the algebra of densities.

  20. Attenuation of the Squared Canonical Correlation Coefficient under Varying Estimates of Score Reliability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Celia M.

    2010-01-01

    Research pertaining to the distortion of the squared canonical correlation coefficient has traditionally been limited to the effects of sampling error and associated correction formulas. The purpose of this study was to compare the degree of attenuation of the squared canonical correlation coefficient under varying conditions of score reliability.…

  1. Sex Difference in Medieval Theology and Canon Law. A Tribute to Joan Cadden 

    OpenAIRE

    Van Der Lugt, Maaike

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role and importance of sex difference in medieval theology and canon law, this article concentrates on two cases: the hermaphrodite's access to the sacraments of baptism, marriage and ordination, and the creation of the first woman. The author shows that, compared to other intellectual frameworks (Roman law, medieval muslim law), medieval theology, but especially canon law was relatively egalitarian.

  2. On the relationship between the modifications to the Raychaudhuri equation and the canonical Hamiltonian structures

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Parampreet

    2015-01-01

    The problem of obtaining canonical Hamiltonian structures from the equations of motion is studied in the context of the spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models. Modifications to Raychaudhuri equation are implemented independently as quadratic and cubic terms of energy density without introducing additional degrees of freedom. Depending on its sign, modifications make gravity repulsive above a curvature scale for matter satisfying strong energy condition, or more attractive than in the classical theory. Canonical structure of the modified theories is determined demanding that the total Hamiltonian be a linear combination of gravity and matter Hamiltonians. Both of the repulsive modifications are found to yield singularity avoidance. In the quadratic repulsive case, the modified canonical phase space of gravity is a polymerized phase space with canonical momentum as inverse trigonometric function of Hubble rate; the canonical Hamiltonian can be identified with the effective Hamiltonian in loop quantum ...

  3. Complete Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations at all orders II: Non-canonical scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Nandi, Debottam

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we present a consistent Hamiltonian analysis of cosmological perturbations for generalized non-canonical scalar fields. In order to do so, we introduce a new phase-space variable that is uniquely defined for different non-canonical scalar fields. We also show that this is the simplest and efficient way of expressing the Hamiltonian. We extend the Hamiltonian approach of [arXiv:1512.02539] to non-canonical scalar field and obtain a new definition of speed of sound in phase-space. In order to invert generalized phase-space Hamilton's equations to Euler-Lagrange equations of motion, we prescribe a general inversion formulae and show that our approach for non-canonical scalar field is consistent. We also obtain the third and fourth order interaction Hamiltonian for generalized non-canonical scalar fields and briefly discuss the extension of our method to generalized Galilean scalar fields.

  4. Canonical basis for type A4 (II) - Polynomial elements in one variable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All the 62 monomial elements in the canonical basis B of the quantized enveloping algebra for type A4 have been determined. According to Lusztig's idea, the elements in the canonical basis B consist of monomials and linear combinations of monomials (for convenience, we call them polynomials). In this note, we compute all the 144 polynomial elements in one variable in the canonical basis B of the quantized enveloping algebra for type A4 based on our joint note. We conjecture that there are other polynomial elements in two or three variables in the canonical basis B, which include independent variables and dependent variables. Moreover, it is conjectured that there are no polynomial elements in the canonical basis B with four or more variables. (author)

  5. Point Canonical Transformation versus Deformed Shape Invariance for Position-Dependent Mass Schrödinger Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Quesne

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available On using the known equivalence between the presence of a position-dependent mass (PDM in the Schrödinger equation and a deformation of the canonical commutation relations, a method based on deformed shape invariance has recently been devised for generating pairs of potential and PDM for which the Schrödinger equation is exactly solvable. This approach has provided the bound-state energy spectrum, as well as the ground-state and the first few excited-state wavefunctions. The general wavefunctions have however remained unknown in explicit form because for their determination one would need the solutions of a rather tricky differential-difference equation. Here we show that solving this equation may be avoided by combining the deformed shape invariance technique with the point canonical transformation method in a novel way. It consists in employing our previous knowledge of the PDM problem energy spectrum to construct a constant-mass Schrödinger equation with similar characteristics and in deducing the PDM wavefunctions from the known constant-mass ones. Finally, the equivalence of the wavefunctions coming from both approaches is checked.

  6. Canonization in early twentieth-century Chinese art history’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Hui

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1980s, the discussion of canons has been a dominant theme in the discipline of Western art history. Various concerns have emerged regarding ‘questions of artistic judgment’, ‘the history genesis of masterpieces’, ‘variations in taste’, ‘the social instruments of canonicity’, and ‘how canons disappear’. Western art historians have considered how the canon’s appearance in Western visual art embodies aesthetic, ideological, cultural, social, and symbolic values. In Chinese art history, the idea of a canon including masterpieces, important artists, and forms of art, dates back to the mid ninth century when Zhang Yanyuan wrote his painting history Record of Famous Painters of All the Dynasties. Faced with quite different political, economic, and social conditions amid the instability of the early twentieth century, Chinese scholars attempted to discover new canons for cultural orthodoxy and authority. Modern means for canonization, such as museums and exhibition displays, cultural and academic institutions, and massive art publications with image reproduction in good quality, brought the process up to an unprecedented speed. It is true that most of these means have comparable counterparts in pre-modern times. However, their enormous scope and overwhelming influence are far beyond the reach of their imperial counterparts. Through an inter-textual reading of the publications on Chinese art history in early twentieth-century China, this paper explores the transformation of canons in order to shed light on why and how canonical formation happened during the Republican period of China. Despite the diverse styles and strategies which Chinese writers used in their narratives, Chinese art historical books produced during the Republican period canonized and de-canonized artworks. In this paper, the discussion of these texts, with reference to other art historical works, comprises three parts: 1 canon formation of artistic forms

  7. Canonical autophagy does not contribute to cellular radioresistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: (Pre)clinical studies indicate that autophagy inhibition increases response to anti-cancer therapies. Although promising, due to contradicting reports, it remains unclear if radiation therapy changes autophagy activity and if autophagy inhibition changes the cellular intrinsic radiosensitivity. Discrepancies may result from different assays and models through off-target effects and influencing other signaling routes. In this study, we directly compared the effects of genetic and pharmacological inhibition of autophagy after irradiation in human cancer cell lines. Materials and methods: Changes in autophagy activity after ionizing radiation (IR) were assessed by flux analysis in eight cell lines. Clonogenic survival, DNA damage (COMET-assay) and H2AX phosphorylation were assessed after chloroquine or 3-methyladenine pretreatment and after ATG7 or LC3b knockdown. Results: IR failed to induce autophagy and chloroquine failed to change intrinsic radiosensitivity of cells. Interestingly, 3-methyladenine and ATG7- or LC3b-deficiency sensitized cancer cells to irradiation. Surprisingly, the radiosensitizing effect of 3-methyladenine was also observed in ATG7 and LC3b deficient cells and was associated with attenuated γ-H2AX formation and DNA damage repair. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that the anti-tumor effects of chloroquine are independent of changes in intrinsic radioresistance. Furthermore, ATG7 and LC3b support radioresistance independent of canonical autophagy that involves lysosomal degradation

  8. Supertropical Monoids: Basics, Canonical Factorization, and Lifting Ghosts to Tangibles

    CERN Document Server

    Izhakian, Zur; Rowen, Louis

    2011-01-01

    Supertropical monoids are a structure slightly more general than the supertropical semirings, which have been introduced and used by the first and the third authors for refinements of tropical geometry and matrix theory in [IR1]-[IR3], and then studied by us in a systematic way in [IKR1]-[IKR3] in connection with "supervaluations". In the present paper we establish a category $\\STROP_m$ of supertropical monoids by choosing as morphisms the "transmissions", defined in the same way as done in [IKR1] for supertropical semirings. The previously investigated category $STROP$ of supertropical semirings is a full subcategory of $STROP_m.$ Moreover, there is associated to every supertropical monoid $V$ a supertropical semiring $\\hat V$ in a canonical way. A central problem in [IKR1]-[IKR3] has been to find for a supertropical semiring $U$ the quotient $U/E$ by a "TE-relation", which is a certain kind of equivalence relation on the set $U$ compatible with multiplication (cf. [IK1, Definition 4.5]). It turns out that t...

  9. An optimization approach for fitting canonical tensor decompositions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunlavy, Daniel M. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Acar, Evrim; Kolda, Tamara Gibson

    2009-02-01

    Tensor decompositions are higher-order analogues of matrix decompositions and have proven to be powerful tools for data analysis. In particular, we are interested in the canonical tensor decomposition, otherwise known as the CANDECOMP/PARAFAC decomposition (CPD), which expresses a tensor as the sum of component rank-one tensors and is used in a multitude of applications such as chemometrics, signal processing, neuroscience, and web analysis. The task of computing the CPD, however, can be difficult. The typical approach is based on alternating least squares (ALS) optimization, which can be remarkably fast but is not very accurate. Previously, nonlinear least squares (NLS) methods have also been recommended; existing NLS methods are accurate but slow. In this paper, we propose the use of gradient-based optimization methods. We discuss the mathematical calculation of the derivatives and further show that they can be computed efficiently, at the same cost as one iteration of ALS. Computational experiments demonstrate that the gradient-based optimization methods are much more accurate than ALS and orders of magnitude faster than NLS.

  10. Canonical framework for multi-channel SAR-GMTI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Congfeng; Liao Guisheng

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) systems have become an important tool for fine-resolution mapping and other remote sensing operations.The multi-channel SAR ground moving-target indication (GMTI) must process its data to produce not only the image of surveillance area but also the information of the ground moving-targets.The topic of moving-target detection in clutter has been extensively studied,and there are many methods that are used to detect moving targets,such as displaced phase center antenna (DPCA) method,along-track interfero-metric (ATI) phase,space-time adaptive processing (STAP),or some other metrics.A canonical framework is proposed that encompasses all the multi-channel SAR-GMT methods,namely,DPCA and ATI.The statistical test metric for multi-channel SAR-GMTI is established in a simple form,via the definition of the complex central Wishart distribution,to deduce the statistics of the test metric,and the probability distribution of the test metric for multichannel SAR-GMTI has the complex central Wishart distribution of 1×1 case,namely the x2 distribution.The theory foundation offers the possibility to construct the united multi-channel SAR-GMTI detector,and derives the constant false alarm rate (CFAR) detector tests for separating moving targets from clutter.

  11. Time Reversal and n-qubit Canonical Decompositions

    CERN Document Server

    Bullock, S S; O'Leary, D P; Bullock, Stephen S.; Brennen, Gavin K.; Leary, Dianne P. O'; Bullock, Stephen S.; Brennen, Gavin K.; Leary, Dianne P. O'

    2004-01-01

    For n an even number of qubits and v a unitary evolution, a matrix decomposition v=k1 a k2 of the unitary group is explicitly computable and allows for study of the dynamics of the concurrence entanglement monotone. The side factors k1 and k2 of this Concurrence Canonical Decomposition (CCD) are concurrence symmetries, so the dynamics reduce to consideration of the a factor. In this work, we provide an explicit numerical algorithm computing v=k1 a k2 for n odd. Further, in the odd case we lift the monotone to a two-argument function, allowing for a theory of concurrence dynamics in odd qubits. The generalization may also be studied using the CCD, leading again to maximal concurrence capacity for most unitaries. The key technique is to consider the spin-flip as a time reversal symmetry operator in Wigner's axiomatization; the original CCD derivation may be restated entirely in terms of this time reversal. En route, we observe a Kramers' nondegeneracy: the existence of a nondegenerate eigenstate of any time rev...

  12. Bifurcated canonical profiles for a current channel in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By assuming an anomalous heat conduction of the form 1/T and a power law for the total dissipation, it is possible to show the existence of bifurcated universal profiles for current density and temperature. This is done without a priori imposing an abstract relaxation procedure through a variational approach having less transparent constrains attached to it. The exact solutions are in simple demonstration showing that Kadomtsev's arguments for ruling out the heat conduction dependence on the inverse temperature (κ ∝ T-1), do not hold, although his reasoning for a non-local dependence in the κ still holds. The H and L bifurcated branches also exist for pure ohmic heated tokamaks and they coincide with the canonical profiles for 1/T heat conduction. The branching occurs for q(edge)/q(axis) = 2 in the circular symmetric case with a power law for the total dissipation. The current profiles are labelled universal in the sense of being the same no matter what exponent one has in the power law approximation, and they resemble the observed profiles in most tokamaks. The general consideration in the first part may suggest that the results from the special model are qualitatively correct in a more general physical setting. (orig.)

  13. On the canonical decomposition of generalized modular functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnen, Winfried

    2010-01-01

    The authors have conjectured (\\cite{KoM}) that if a normalized generalized modular function (GMF) $f$, defined on a congruence subgroup $\\Gamma$, has integral Fourier coefficients, then $f$ is classical in the sense that some power $f^m$ is a modular function on $\\Gamma$. A strengthened form of this conjecture was proved (loc cit) in case the divisor of $f$ is \\emph{empty}. In the present paper we study the canonical decomposition of a normalized parabolic GMF $f = f_1f_0$ into a product of normalized parabolic GMFs $f_1, f_0$ such that $f_1$ has \\emph{unitary character} and $f_0$ has \\emph{empty divisor}. We show that the strengthened form of the conjecture holds if the first "few" Fourier coefficients of $f_1$ are algebraic. We deduce proofs of several new cases of the conjecture, in particular if either $f_0=1$ or if the divisor of $f$ is concentrated at the cusps of $\\Gamma$.

  14. Canonical form of Nambu–Poisson bracket: A pedestrian approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Soni; Swami Nandan

    2011-12-01

    In the seventies, Nambu (Phys. Rev. D7, 2405 (1973)) proposed a new approach to classical dynamics based on an -dimensional Nambu–Poisson (NP) manifold replacing the primitive even-dimensional Poisson manifold and on –1 Hamiltonians in place of a single Hamiltonian. This approach has had many promoters including Bayen and Flato (Phys. Rev. D11, 3049 (1975)), Mukunda and Sudarshan (Phys. Rev. D13, 2846 (1976)), and Takhtajan (Comm. Math. Phys. 160, 295 (1994)) among others. While Nambu had originally considered = 3, the illustration of his ideas for = 4 and 6 was given by Chatterjee (Lett. Math. Phys. 36, 117 (1996)) who observed that the classical description of dynamical systems having dynamical symmetries is described elegantly by Nambu’s formalism of mechanics. However, his considerations do not quite yield the beautiful canonical form conjectured by Nambu himself for the -ary NP bracket. By making a judicious choice for the ‘extra constant of motion’ of namely, and , which are the orientation angles in Kepler problem and isotropic harmonic oscillator (HO) respectively, we show that the dynamical systems with dynamical symmetries can be recast in the beautiful form suggested by Nambu. We believe that the techniques used and the theorems suggested by us in this work are of general interest because of their involvement in the transition from Hamiltonian mechanics to Nambu mechanics.

  15. Canon multifunction copier machines – now with onsite support!

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Following a retendering process in 2012, the IT Department is pleased to announce that leased multifunction copier machines are now covered by onsite support, provided by Canon technicians via the CERN Service Desk support system.   You can now contact the Service Desk regarding any problems or requests for toner: Telephone: 77777 Email: Service-Desk@cern.ch Please remember to quote the machine printer name and/or serial number (marked on the side of the machine). The following submission forms are available online: Report a failure with a printer or copier Request for network printer or copier installation or move Request toner/ink for my printer or copier The website below details the range of models available, all of which include print, photocopy and scan-to-mail functions as standard. These multifunction copier machines are leased subject to a monthly charge (minimum of 48 months) plus a “per click” charge to cover consumables (except staples), leaving you noth...

  16. Canonical Force Distributions in Pairwise Interatomic Interactions from the Perspective of the Hellmann-Feynman Theorem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Jay R; Rivera-Rivera, Luis A; Lucchese, Robert R; Bevan, John W

    2016-05-26

    Force-based canonical approaches have recently given a unified but different viewpoint on the nature of bonding in pairwise interatomic interactions. Differing molecular categories (covalent, ionic, van der Waals, hydrogen, and halogen bonding) of representative interatomic interactions with binding energies ranging from 1.01 to 1072.03 kJ/mol have been modeled canonically giving a rigorous semiempirical verification to high accuracy. However, the fundamental physical basis expected to provide the inherent characteristics of these canonical transformations has not yet been elucidated. Subsequently, it was shown through direct numerical differentiation of these potentials that their associated force curves have canonical shapes. However, this approach to analyzing force results in inherent loss of accuracy coming from numerical differentiation of the potentials. We now show that this serious obstruction can be avoided by directly demonstrating the canonical nature of force distributions from the perspective of the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. This requires only differentiation of explicitly known Coulombic potentials, and we discuss how this approach to canonical forces can be used to further explain the nature of chemical bonding in pairwise interatomic interactions. All parameter values used in the canonical transformation are determined through explicit physical based algorithms, and it does not require direct consideration of electron correlation effects. PMID:27143175

  17. Place Of Canon Law Of The Russian Empire In The System Io Humanitarian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author examines place of canon law in the system of humanitarian sciences in the Russian Empire at the end of XVIII - early XX centuries. Author reveals interaction of canon law with philosophy, philology, jurisprudence. In particular, author shows influence of various philosophical schools on the development of the canon law science, value of foreign researches translation for the development of national science of canon law starting from the end of the XVIII century. It is found that all researchers in the field of canon law had special scientific works on philosophy. Interference of cannon law and theological science – dogmatic theology, moral theology, liturgy, church geography, chronology, statistics, history, archeology, pastoral theology is considered. In the article works of leading specialists in the field of canon law the second half of XIX - early XX centuries that were left as a significant legacy after the Archimandrite Gabriel, I.S. Berdnikova, N.A. Zaozerskii, I.M. Skvortsov and others are analyzed. In conclusion author shows complexity and urgency of the problem in the process of church (canon law study at the present stage, when there is some struggle between the secular and religious science.

  18. Canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum complexes in general relativity and some of their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Garecki, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Many years ago we have introduced into general relativity, {\\bf GR}, the canonical superenergy tensors, $S_i^{~k}$, and the canonical angular supermomentum tensors, $S^{ikl}=(-)S^{kil}$, matter and gravitation. We have obtained these tensors by special averaging of the differences of the canonical energy-momentum and canonical angular momentum. The averaging was performed in Riemann normal coordinates, {\\bf RNC(P)}; {\\bf P} is beginning of these coordinates. About four years ago we have observed that these tensors can also be obtained in other, simpler way, by using the canonical superenergy and angular super momentum complexes, $_K S_i^{~k}$, and, $_K S~^{ikl}=(-)_K S^{kil}$, respectively. Such complexes can be introduced into {\\bf GR} in a natural way starting from canonical energy-momentum and angular momentum complexes. In this paper, at first, we define the canonical superenergy and angular supermomentum complexes in {\\bf GR} and then, we apply them to analyze of a closed system, {\\bf CS}, Trautman's rad...

  19. Ground states of integrable quantum liquids

    OpenAIRE

    J.M.P. Carmelo; Peres, N. M. R.

    1994-01-01

    Based on a recently introduced operator algebra for the description of a class of integrable quantum liquids we define the ground states for all canonical ensembles of these systems. We consider the particular case of the Hubbard chain in a magnetic field and chemical potential. The ground states of all canonical ensembles of the model can be generated by acting onto the electron vacuum (densities $n1$), suitable pseudoparticle creation operators. We also evaluate the energy gaps of the non-l...

  20. Quantization of the canonically conjugate pair angle and orbital angular momentum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kastrup, H.A. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2005-10-01

    The question how to quantize a classical system where an angle {phi} is one of the basic canonical variables has been controversial since the early days of quantum mechanics. The problem is that the angle is a multivalued or discontinuous variable on the corresponding phase space. The remedy is to replace {phi} by the smooth periodic functions cos {phi} and sin {phi}. In the case of the canonical pair ({phi}, p{sub {phi}}), p{sub {phi}}: orbital angular momentum (OAM), the phase space S{sub {phi}}, {sub p,{phi}} = {l_brace}{phi} element of R mod 2{pi}, p{sub {phi}} element of R{r_brace} has the global topological structure S{sup 1} x R of a cylinder on which the Poisson brackets of the three functions cos {phi}, sin {phi} and p{sub {phi}} obey the Lie algebra of the Euclidean group E(2) in the plane. This property provides the basis for the quantization of the system in terms of irreducible unitary representations of the group E(2) or of its covering groups. A crucial point is that - due to the fact that the subgroup SO(2) {approx_equal}S{sup 1} is multiply connected - these representations allow for fractional OAM l = h(n+{delta}), n element of Z, {delta} element of. Such {delta}{ne}0 have already been observed in cases like the Aharonov-Bohm and the fractional quantum Hall effects and they correspond to the quasi-momenta of Bloch waves in ideal crystals. The proposal of the present paper is to look for fractional OAM in connection with the quantum optics of Laguerre-Gaussian laser modes in external magnetic fields. The quantum theory of the phase space S{sub {phi}}, p{sub {phi}} in terms of unitary representations of E(2) allows for two types of 'coherent' states the properties of which are discussed in detail: Non-holomorphic minimal uncertainty states and holomorphic ones associated with Bargmann-Segal Hilbert spaces. (orig.)

  1. Canonical pairs, Spatially Confined Motion and the Quantum Time of Arrival Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Galapon, E A

    2000-01-01

    It has always been believed that no self-adjoint and canonical time of arrival operator can be constructed within the confines of standard quantum mechanics. In this Letter we demonstrate the otherwise. We do so by pointing out that there is no a priori reason in demanding that canonical pairs form a system of imprimitivities. We then proceed to show that a class of self-adjoint and canonical time of arrival (TOA) operators can be constructed for a spatially confined free particle. And then discuss the relatiobship between the non-self-adjointess of the TOA operator for the unconfined particle and the self-adjointness of the confined one.

  2. Matrix canonical realizations of the Lie algebra sigma(m, n)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of matrix canonical realization of a Lie algebra is introduced. The generators of the Lie algebra of the pseudoorthogonal group sigma(m,n) are recurrently expressed in terms of matrices with polynomial elements in a certain number of quantum mechanical canonical variables psub(i), qsub(i), and they depend on a certain number of the free real parameters. The realization are, in the welldefind sense, skew-hermitean, and Casimir operators are multiples of the identity element. Part of them are usual canonical realizations

  3. ALBANIAN CUSTOMARY LAW IN RELATION WITH BLOOD FEUD, IMPACT OF CANON AND LAW IN ITS PREVENTION.

    OpenAIRE

    NASER SOPJANI

    2014-01-01

    Albanians still occur assassinations and which in the opinion presented as blood feud murders committed by and on behalf of the canon, as murders committed due to the lack of force of law. Are such these murders, and as is acceptable to the people that they were carried out according to of customary law, canon, it is another thing!The Albanian customary law through the main canons summarized and codified, has clearly defined categories and ways of murder, who can be killed, when they can be k...

  4. Application of the TRAC-PD2 code to the simulation of the CANON experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between the TRAC -PD2 code calculations and results from the CANON experiment is presented. The CANON experiment simulates the loss of coolant accident through the depressurization of a horizontal tube containing water at different temperatures. The experiment consist of the instantaneous rupture at one end of the tubing and the corresponding pressure and void fraction measurements during the transient. The comparison shows that the TRAC-PD2 code predicts satisfactorily the pressure and void fraction evolution in the CANON experiment. (F.C.)

  5. Classification of arbitrary multipartite entangled states under local unitary equivalence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a practical method for finding the canonical forms of arbitrary dimensional multipartite entangled states, either pure or mixed. By extending the technique developed in one of our recent works, the canonical forms for the mixed N-partite entangled states are constructed where they have inherited local unitary symmetries from their corresponding N + 1 pure state counterparts. A systematic scheme to express the local symmetries of the canonical form is also presented, which provides a feasible way of verifying the local unitary equivalence for two multipartite entangled states. (paper)

  6. The radiation equation of state and loop quantum gravity corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Bojowald, Martin; Das, Rupam

    2007-01-01

    The equation of state for radiation is derived in a canonical formulation of the electromagnetic field. This allows one to include correction terms expected from canonical quantum gravity and to infer implications to the universe evolution in radiation dominated epochs. Corrections implied by quantum geometry can be interpreted in physically appealing ways, relating to the conformal invariance of the classical equations.

  7. On the control of a canonical separated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, John C.

    Flow separation is generally an undesirable phenomenon that produces adverse effects to ideal aerodynamic performance. Control of ow separation is a complex problem and thus a popular area of research. A common obstacle is the lack of understanding of the complex fluid mechanics in cases of ow separation, evident by the substantial amount of ow control achieved through trial-and-error methods. The purpose of this work is to better understand the nature of separation for improved active control methods, which includes closed-loop control via reduced order methods. Control of a canonical separation problem, with the key features of separated flow, is achieved at a chord Reynolds number of 105. Separation is created on a at plate model, void of curvature that would otherwise include effects particular to the type of aerodynamic body. The characteristics of the imposed separation are evaluated with the intent of having a nominally two-dimensional separation, with the same essential flow characteristics of a more traditionally stalled airfoil. Results provide a reduced-order estimation technique that is used to identify global, dynamic modes through experimental measurements. Reattachment of the baseline separation is first achieved in open-loop control via ZNMF actuation. Efficient reattachment is reached by targeting the identified characteristic flow frequencies, which is able to reattach the separated flow with less than a quarter of the control effort as a comparison case with high-frequency forcing. The baseline and control results are used to identify a reduced-order model suitable for closed-loop control, with benefits of set-point tracking and full boundary layer attachment with minimum control effort.

  8. The quantum general linear supergroup,canonical bases and Kazhdan-Lusztig polynomials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG HeChun

    2009-01-01

    Canonical bases of the tensor powers of the natural Uq(glm|n)-module V are constructed by adapting the work of Frenkel,Khovanov and Kirrilov to the quantum supergroup setting.This result is generalized in several directions.We first construct the canonical bases of the Z2-graded symmetric algebra of V and tensor powers of this superalgebra;then construct canonical bases for the superalgebra Oq(Mm|n) of a quantum (m,n) x (m,n)-supermatrix;and finally deduce from the latter result the canonical basis of every irreducible tensor module for Uq(glm|n) by applying a quantum analogue of the Borel-Weil construction.

  9. Beyond or Below the Horizon? Sublime and Subliminal Challenges in Stewarding the Literary Canon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børch, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The chapter discusses how certain texts may be excluded from canonical status by forms of resistance traceable to scholars' anxiety. Examples of such exiety are the 'fear of faith' and the 'fear of the literal.'...

  10. Interpreting Canonical Correlation Analysis through Biplots of Structure Correlations and Weights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ter Braak, Cajo J. F.

    1990-01-01

    Canonical weights and structure correlations are used to construct low dimensional views of the relationships between two sets of variables. These views, in the form of biplots, display familiar statistics: correlations between pairs of variables, and regression coefficients. (SLD)

  11. The use and origin of the (Old and New Testament as Christianity’s canon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andries G. van Aarde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explained the valuation of Christian believers with regard to the Christian Bible a ‘Holy Scripture’. In the article the notion ‘Scriptural authority’ was connected with an understanding of both the origin and use of the Christian canon. The article described the origin of the Bible in light of the supposition that the Bible functions as (1 book of theology, as well as (2 book of believers and as (3 book of the church. The article consisted of references to the role of the Old Testament and the New Testament canonical collections and the role of ecclesial synodal decisions. It also obtained a graphical overview of the history and dates of the New Testament writings as a canonical list. The article concluded with a reflection on the relevance for the use and authority of the Bible, seen from the perspective of the use and origin of the Bible as Christianity’s canon.

  12. Canonical correlation analysis of the career attitudes and strategies inventory and the adult career concerns inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlene C Lew

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between the scales of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI and those of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (CASI. The scores of 202 South African adults for the two inventories were subjected to a canonical correlation analysis. Two canonical variates made statistically significant contributions to the explanation of the relationships between the two sets of variables. Inspection of the correlations of the original variables with the first canonical variate suggested that a high level of career concerns in general, as measured by the ACCI, is associated with high levels of career worries, more geographical barriers, a low risk-taking style and a non-dominant interpersonal style, as measured by the CASI. The second canonical variate suggested that concerns with career exploration and advancement of one’s career is associated with low job satisfaction, low family commitment, high work involvement, and a dominant style at work.

  13. A field theory approach to the evolution of canonical helicity and energy

    CERN Document Server

    You, Setthivoine

    2016-01-01

    A redefinition of the Lagrangian of a multi-particle system in fields reformulates the single-particle, kinetic, and fluid equations governing fluid and plasma dynamics as a single set of generalized Maxwell's equations and Ohm's law for canonical force-fields. The Lagrangian includes new terms representing the coupling between the motion of particle distributions, between distributions and electromagnetic fields, with relativistic contributions. The formulation shows that the concepts of self-organization and canonical helicity transport are applicable across single-particle, kinetic, and fluid regimes, at classical and relativistic scales. The theory gives the basis for comparing canonical helicity change to energy change in general systems. For example, in a fixed, isolated system subject to non-conservative forces, a species' canonical helicity changes less than total energy only if gradients in density or distribution function are shallow.

  14. A field theory approach to the evolution of canonical helicity and energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, S.

    2016-07-01

    A redefinition of the Lagrangian of a multi-particle system in fields reformulates the single-particle, kinetic, and fluid equations governing fluid and plasma dynamics as a single set of generalized Maxwell's equations and Ohm's law for canonical force-fields. The Lagrangian includes new terms representing the coupling between the motion of particle distributions, between distributions and electromagnetic fields, with relativistic contributions. The formulation shows that the concepts of self-organization and canonical helicity transport are applicable across single-particle, kinetic, and fluid regimes, at classical and relativistic scales. The theory gives the basis for comparing canonical helicity change to energy change in general systems. For example, in a fixed, isolated system subject to non-conservative forces, a species' canonical helicity changes less than total energy only if gradients in density or distribution function are shallow.

  15. Analysis of multivariate genotype - environment data using Nonlinear Canonical Correlation Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Pinnschmidt, H.O.

    2004-01-01

    Nonlinear Canonical Correlation Analysis (NCCA) is a method well suited for visualising the main features in multivariate data of various scales. NCCA is useful for obtaining an overall orientation of genotype properties and environment characteristics.

  16. Construction of canonical constants of motion for non-local field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper proposes an unambiguous procedure along the lines of Rzewuski's method of derivation of conservation laws for non-local interactions, leading to the simplest constants of motion which are called canonical. (author)

  17. The influence of canon law on ius commune in its formative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmeti Sami

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Medieval period, Roman law and canon law formed ius commune or the common European law. The similarity between Roman and canon law was that they used the same methods and the difference was that they relied on different authoritative texts. In their works canonists and civilists combined the ancient Greek achievements in philosophy with the Roman achievements in the field of law. Canonists were the first who carried out research on the distinctions between various legal sources and systematized them according to a hierarchical order. The Medieval civilists sought solutions in canon law for a large number of problems that Justinian’s Codification did not hinge on or did it only superficially. Solutions offered by canon law were accepted not only in the civil law of Continental Europe, but also in the English law.

  18. Deprivation of ecclesiastical funeral in the Code of Canon Law of 1983

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kryspin Dubiel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the canonical legislation about ecclesiastical burial. It exposes the canonical provisions concerning the fact of a christian death, referring also to the liturgical ones. The thesis was aimed at comparing the rules contained in the two codes of canon law. This document refers particularly to cases in which the church grants or denies the ecclesiastical burial with special reference to 1983 Code of Canon Law. It was taken into account the legislation issued after the code of 1917, which influenced the formation of the current regulation. The issue has not been exhausted; there are some pastoral issues conceding the relatives who must face a situation when the church deprives the funeral to their deceased relative.

  19. Gender and the (Re)Formation of the Canon: Is Politics All?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondrom, Cyrena N.

    1988-01-01

    Argues that literary history and estimations of literary value are inseparable and that their connection has import for debate on the contents of the literary canon. Suggests possible requirements for developing a feminist theory and practice of evaluation. (SR)

  20. Simulation of CANON experience with RELAP4/MOD5 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results obtained by RELAP4/MOD5 computer code for simulating the CANON experience, which studies the depressurization phase of a loss of primary coolant accident in PWR type reactors, are presented. (M.C.K.)

  1. Climate Prediction Center (CPC)Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis 90-Day Seasonal Forecast of Precipitation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Ensemble Canonical Correlation Analysis (ECCA) precipitation forecast is a 90-day (seasonal) outlook of US surface precipitation anomalies. The ECCA uses...

  2. An Alternative Canonical Approach to the Ghost Problem in a Complexified Extension of the Pais-Uhlenbeck Oscillator

    CERN Document Server

    Déctor, A; Urrutia, L F; Vergara, J D; 10.3842/SIGMA.2009.053

    2009-01-01

    Our purpose in this paper is to analyze the Pais-Uhlenbeck (PU) oscillator using complex canonical transformations. We show that starting from a Lagrangian approach we obtain a transformation that makes the extended PU oscillator, with unequal frequencies, to be equivalent to two standard second order oscillators which have the original number of degrees of freedom. Such extension is provided by adding a total time derivative to the PU Lagrangian together with a complexification of the original variables further subjected to reality conditions in order to maintain the required number of degrees of freedom. The analysis is accomplished at both the classical and quantum levels. Remarkably, at the quantum level the negative norm states are eliminated, as well as the problems of unbounded below energy and non-unitary time evolution. We illustrate the idea of our approach by eliminating the negative norm states in a complex oscillator. Next, we extend the procedure to the Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillator. The correspondi...

  3. Gauge degrees of freedom, external charges, and quark confinement criterion in the A0 = 0 canonical formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The A0 = 0 canonical formalism is shown to be completely consistent even though Gauss's law is not verified as a field equation. This is so because the Hilbert space of states must also involve states coupled with external static charge distributions. Indeed these cannot be handled by adding the standard A/sub μ/j/sup ext//sub μ/ term because it vanishes identically in the A0 = 0 gauge for static charges. The corresponding charge densities are instead the eigenvalues of the operator of infinitesimal time-independent gauge transformations which commute with the Hamiltonian. The implications of this viewpoint are discussed in connection with Gribov's phenomenon, the theta vacuum, perturbation theory, and quark confinement. The constant of motion due to gauge invariance in gauge theories plays the same role as the constant of motion due to translational invariance in soliton quantization

  4. Methods of weyl representation of the phase space and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author finds the structure of the kernel of a canonical transformation and a differential equation for the symbol of the intertwining operator. The symbol of a general linear canonical transformation is constructed in terms of a Cayley transformation of the symplectic transformation of the phase space. Its singularities and applications to group theory are studied. The Green's functions and spectral projectors of arbitrary quadratic systems are constructed using the classification methods of classical mechanics

  5. From Classical to Quantum: New Canonical Tools for the Dynamics of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Höhn, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In a gravitational context, canonical methods offer an intuitive picture of the dynamics and simplify an identification of the degrees of freedom. Nevertheless, extracting dynamical information from background independent approaches to quantum gravity is a highly non-trivial challenge. In this thesis, the conundrum of (quantum) gravitational dynamics is approached from two different directions by means of new canonical tools. This thesis is accordingly divided into two parts: In the first par...

  6. On a Canonical Formulation of String Theory in Massive Background Fields

    OpenAIRE

    I.L. Buchbinder; Pershin, V. D.; Toder, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    We propose a method of constructing a gauge invariant canonical formulation for non-gauge classical theory which depends on a set of parameters. Requirement of closure for algebra of operators generating quantum gauge transformations leads to restrictions on parameters of the theory. This approach is then applied to bosonic string theory coupled to massive background fields. It is shown that within the proposed canonical formulation the correct linear equations of motion for background fields...

  7. Marketingová strategie firmy Canon na českém trhu

    OpenAIRE

    Vargová, Viktoria

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this final thesis, which is broken down into 3 chapters, is the analysis of marketing strategy for the company Canon in the Czech market. Furthermore, suggested potential improvement from observed data. In the first chapter, we familiarise ourselves with the organisation of Canon and provide basic information on its history, philosophy of the company and its Corporate Social Responsibility. The theoretical section explains important terms used at work such as marketing concept, ma...

  8. A note on T-duality, open strings in B-field background and canonical transformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we study T-duality for open strings ending on branes with non-zero B-field on them from the point of view of canonical transformations. For the particular case of type II strings on the two torus we show that the Sl(2, Z)N transformations can be understood as a sub-class of canonical transformations on the open strings in the B-field background. (author)

  9. The Canon is el Boom, et. al., or the Hispanic Difference

    OpenAIRE

    Bell-Villada, Gene H.

    2002-01-01

    In his article, Gene H. Bell-Villada's "The Canon is el Boom, et. al., or the Hispanic Difference," argues that the rich, globally acclaimed, foundational yet contestatory prose literature produced in Latin America allows teachers and scholars of Spanish to teach what is essentially the "canon" via work that is still fresh, yet historically provocative. Bell-Villada argues that in a time of reconsidering the importance of literature in literature programs, programs of Spanish language and cul...

  10. Inhibition of phosphodiesterase 5 reduces bone mass by suppression of canonical Wnt signaling

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, Y.; C. Y. Xu; Wang, J. R.; Hu, X. H.; Hong, D; X. Ji; Shi, W; Chen, H. X.; Wang, H. B.; X. M. Wu

    2014-01-01

    Inhibitors of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) are widely used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension in clinics. PDE5, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), and protein kinase G (PKG) are important components of the non-canonical Wnt signaling. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PDE5 inhibition on canonical Wnt signaling and osteoblastogenesis, using both in vitro cell culture and in vivo animal models. In the in vitro experiments, PDE5 inhibition resulted in activati...

  11. An Abelian Model of Gravity and Canonical Quantization by Means of Path Integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Paul

    An Abelian model of gravity is introduced and its constraint structure is obtained. The main task is to show that the model with constraints can be canonically quantized by means of the canonical path integral formalism using the Faddeev-Popov approach. It is shown how the path integral can be simplified by carrying out the integrals over those variables for which the integrals can be computed.

  12. The canonical effect in statistical models for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Keranen, A.; Becattini, F.

    2001-01-01

    Enforcing exact conservation laws instead of average ones in statistical thermal models for relativistic heavy ion reactions gives raise to so called canonical effect, which can be used to explain some enhancement effects when going from elementary (e.g. pp) or small (pA) systems towards large AA systems. We review the recently developed method for computation of canonical statistical thermodynamics, and give an insight when this is needed in analysis of experimental data.

  13. The canonical effect in statistical models for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Keränen, A

    2002-01-01

    Enforcing exact conservation laws instead of average ones in statistical thermal models for relativistic heavy ion reactions gives raise to so called canonical effect, which can be used to explain some enhancement effects when going from elementary (e.g. pp) or small (pA) systems towards large AA systems. We review the recently developed method for computation of canonical statistical thermodynamics, and give an insight when this is needed in analysis of experimental data.

  14. N = 2 Supersymmetric Harmonic Oscillator: Basic Brackets Without Canonical Conjugate Momenta

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivas, N.; Shukla, A.; Malik, R. P.

    2014-01-01

    We exploit the ideas of spin-statistics theorem, normal-ordering and the key concepts behind the symmetry principles to derive the canonical (anti)commutators for the case of a one (0 + 1)-dimensional (1D) N = 2 supersymmetric (SUSY) harmonic oscillator (HO) without taking the help of the mathematical definition of canonical conjugate momenta with respect to the bosonic and fermionic variables of this toy model for the Hodge theory (where the continuous and discrete symmetries of the theory p...

  15. On the canonical forms of the multi-dimensional averaged brackets

    OpenAIRE

    Maltsev, A. Ya.

    2015-01-01

    We consider here special Poisson brackets given by the "averaging" of local multi-dimensional Poisson brackets in the Whitham method. For the brackets of this kind it is natural to ask about their canonical forms, which can be obtained after transformations preserving the "physical meaning" of the field variables. We show here that the averaged bracket can always be written in the canonical form after a transformation of "Hydrodynamic Type" in the case of absence of annihilators of initial br...

  16. Canonical correlation analysis of the career attitudes and strategies inventory and the adult career concerns inventory

    OpenAIRE

    Charlene C. Lew; De Bruin, Gideon P.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between the scales of the Adult Career Concerns Inventory (ACCI) and those of the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (CASI). The scores of 202 South African adults for the two inventories were subjected to a canonical correlation analysis. Two canonical variates made statistically significant contributions to the explanation of the relationships between the two sets of variables. Inspection of the correlations of the original variables with the...

  17. The canonical effect in statistical models for relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enforcing exact conservation laws instead of average laws in statistical thermal models for relativistic heavy ion reactions gives rise to the so-called canonical effect, which can be used to explain some enhancement effects when going from elementary (e.g. pp) or small (pA) systems towards large AA systems. We review the recently developed method for the computation of canonical statistical thermodynamics, and give an insight into when this is needed in the analysis of experimental data. (author)

  18. Non-canonical two-field inflation to order $\\xi^2$

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Yun-Chao

    2016-01-01

    In non-canonical two-field inflation models, deviations from the canonical model can be captured by a parameter $\\xi$. We show this parameter is usually one half of the slow-roll order and analytically calculate the primordial power spectra to the precision of order $\\xi^2$. The super-horizon perturbations are studied with an improved method, which gives a correction of order $\\xi$. Three typical examples demonstrate that our analytical formulae of power spectra fit well with numerical simulation.

  19. Canonical Cortical Circuit Model Explains Rivalry, Intermittent Rivalry, and Rivalry Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Shashaank Vattikuti; Phyllis Thangaraj; Hua W Xie; Gotts, Stephen J.; Alex Martin; Chow, Carson C.

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that the same canonical cortical circuit model with mutual inhibition and a fatigue process can explain perceptual rivalry and other neurophysiological responses to a range of static stimuli. However, it has been proposed that this model cannot explain responses to dynamic inputs such as found in intermittent rivalry and rivalry memory, where maintenance of a percept when the stimulus is absent is required. This challenges the universality of the basic canonical cortical cir...

  20. Canonical and alternate functions of the microRNA biogenesis machinery

    OpenAIRE

    Chong, Mark M.W.; Zhang, Guoan; Cheloufi, Sihem; Neubert, Thomas A.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Littman, Dan R.

    2010-01-01

    The canonical microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis pathway requires two RNaseIII enzymes: Drosha and Dicer. To understand their functions in mammals in vivo, we engineered mice with germline or tissue-specific inactivation of the genes encoding these two proteins. Changes in proteomic and transcriptional profiles that were shared in Dicer- and Drosha-deficient mice confirmed the requirement for both enzymes in canonical miRNA biogenesis. However, deficiency in Drosha or Dicer did not always result in ...

  1. Evaluation of seedling characteristics of wheat (triticum aestivum L.) through canonical correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Erayman, Mustafa; Abeyo, Bekele Geleta; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Budak, Hikmet; Eskridge, Kent M

    2006-01-01

    To examine the seedling characteristics of nine different bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties, several variables regarding seedling size and germination characteristics were analyzed using canonical correlation analysis. Significantly correlated first canonical variate pairs indicated that the variables within each set such as coleoptile length, shoot length and fresh weight within size set, and emergence rate index and germination percentage can be regarded as main factors for vigor...

  2. Canonical failure modes of real-time control systems: insights from cognitive theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Rodrick

    2016-04-01

    Newly developed necessary conditions statistical models from cognitive theory are applied to generalisation of the data-rate theorem for real-time control systems. Rather than graceful degradation under stress, automatons and man/machine cockpits appear prone to characteristic sudden failure under demanding fog-of-war conditions. Critical dysfunctions span a spectrum of phase transition analogues, ranging from a ground state of 'all targets are enemies' to more standard data-rate instabilities. Insidious pathologies also appear possible, akin to inattentional blindness consequent on overfocus on an expected pattern. Via no-free-lunch constraints, different equivalence classes of systems, having structure and function determined by 'market pressures', in a large sense, will be inherently unreliable under different but characteristic canonical stress landscapes, suggesting that deliberate induction of failure may often be relatively straightforward. Focusing on two recent military case histories, these results provide a caveat emptor against blind faith in the current path-dependent evolutionary trajectory of automation for critical real-time processes.

  3. Discriminative Learning for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis via Canonical Correlation Analysis and Multimodal Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Baiying; Chen, Siping; Ni, Dong; Wang, Tianfu

    2016-01-01

    To address the challenging task of diagnosing neurodegenerative brain disease, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), we propose a novel method using discriminative feature learning and canonical correlation analysis (CCA) in this paper. Specifically, multimodal features and their CCA projections are concatenated together to represent each subject, and hence both individual and shared information of AD disease are captured. A discriminative learning with multilayer feature hierarchy is designed to further improve performance. Also, hybrid representation is proposed to maximally explore data from multiple modalities. A novel normalization method is devised to tackle the intra- and inter-subject variations from the multimodal data. Based on our extensive experiments, our method achieves an accuracy of 96.93% [AD vs. normal control (NC)], 86.57 % (MCI vs. NC), and 82.75% [MCI converter (MCI-C) vs. MCI non-converter (MCI-NC)], respectively, which outperforms the state-of-the-art methods in the literature. PMID:27242506

  4. Tensor representation techniques for full configuration interaction: A Fock space approach using the canonical product format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Karl-Heinz; Auer, Alexander A; Espig, Mike

    2016-06-28

    In this proof-of-principle study, we apply tensor decomposition techniques to the Full Configuration Interaction (FCI) wavefunction in order to approximate the wavefunction parameters efficiently and to reduce the overall computational effort. For this purpose, the wavefunction ansatz is formulated in an occupation number vector representation that ensures antisymmetry. If the canonical product format tensor decomposition is then applied, the Hamiltonian and the wavefunction can be cast into a multilinear product form. As a consequence, the number of wavefunction parameters does not scale to the power of the number of particles (or orbitals) but depends on the rank of the approximation and linearly on the number of particles. The degree of approximation can be controlled by a single threshold for the rank reduction procedure required in the algorithm. We demonstrate that using this approximation, the FCI Hamiltonian matrix can be stored with N(5) scaling. The error of the approximation that is introduced is below Millihartree for a threshold of ϵ = 10(-4) and no convergence problems are observed solving the FCI equations iteratively in the new format. While promising conceptually, all effort of the algorithm is shifted to the required rank reduction procedure after the contraction of the Hamiltonian with the coefficient tensor. At the current state, this crucial step is the bottleneck of our approach and even for an optimistic estimate, the algorithm scales beyond N(10) and future work has to be directed towards reduction-free algorithms. PMID:27369492

  5. Tensor representation techniques for full configuration interaction: A Fock space approach using the canonical product format

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böhm, Karl-Heinz; Auer, Alexander A.; Espig, Mike

    2016-06-01

    In this proof-of-principle study, we apply tensor decomposition techniques to the Full Configuration Interaction (FCI) wavefunction in order to approximate the wavefunction parameters efficiently and to reduce the overall computational effort. For this purpose, the wavefunction ansatz is formulated in an occupation number vector representation that ensures antisymmetry. If the canonical product format tensor decomposition is then applied, the Hamiltonian and the wavefunction can be cast into a multilinear product form. As a consequence, the number of wavefunction parameters does not scale to the power of the number of particles (or orbitals) but depends on the rank of the approximation and linearly on the number of particles. The degree of approximation can be controlled by a single threshold for the rank reduction procedure required in the algorithm. We demonstrate that using this approximation, the FCI Hamiltonian matrix can be stored with N5 scaling. The error of the approximation that is introduced is below Millihartree for a threshold of ɛ = 10-4 and no convergence problems are observed solving the FCI equations iteratively in the new format. While promising conceptually, all effort of the algorithm is shifted to the required rank reduction procedure after the contraction of the Hamiltonian with the coefficient tensor. At the current state, this crucial step is the bottleneck of our approach and even for an optimistic estimate, the algorithm scales beyond N10 and future work has to be directed towards reduction-free algorithms.

  6. Extended canonical Monte Carlo methods: Improving accuracy of microcanonical calculations using a reweighting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez, L.; Castro-Palacio, J. C.

    2015-03-01

    Velazquez and Curilef [J. Stat. Mech. (2010) P02002, 10.1088/1742-5468/2010/02/P02002; J. Stat. Mech. (2010) P04026, 10.1088/1742-5468/2010/04/P04026] have proposed a methodology to extend Monte Carlo algorithms that are based on canonical ensemble. According to our previous study, their proposal allows us to overcome slow sampling problems in systems that undergo any type of temperature-driven phase transition. After a comprehensive review about ideas and connections of this framework, we discuss the application of a reweighting technique to improve the accuracy of microcanonical calculations, specifically, the well-known multihistograms method of Ferrenberg and Swendsen [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 1195 (1989), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.1195]. As an example of application, we reconsider the study of the four-state Potts model on the square lattice L ×L with periodic boundary conditions. This analysis allows us to detect the existence of a very small latent heat per site qL during the occurrence of temperature-driven phase transition of this model, whose size dependence seems to follow a power law qL(L ) ∝(1/L ) z with exponent z ≃0 .26 ±0 .02. Discussed is the compatibility of these results with the continuous character of temperature-driven phase transition when L →+∞ .

  7. FAM46 proteins are novel eukaryotic non-canonical poly(A) polymerases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, Krzysztof; Muszewska, Anna; Knizewski, Lukasz; Steczkiewicz, Kamil; Wyrwicz, Lucjan S; Pawlowski, Krzysztof; Rychlewski, Leszek; Ginalski, Krzysztof

    2016-05-01

    FAM46 proteins, encoded in all known animal genomes, belong to the nucleotidyltransferase (NTase) fold superfamily. All four human FAM46 paralogs (FAM46A, FAM46B, FAM46C, FAM46D) are thought to be involved in several diseases, with FAM46C reported as a causal driver of multiple myeloma; however, their exact functions remain unknown. By using a combination of various bioinformatics analyses (e.g. domain architecture, cellular localization) and exhaustive literature and database searches (e.g. expression profiles, protein interactors), we classified FAM46 proteins as active non-canonical poly(A) polymerases, which modify cytosolic and/or nuclear RNA 3' ends. These proteins may thus regulate gene expression and probably play a critical role during cell differentiation. A detailed analysis of sequence and structure diversity of known NTases possessing PAP/OAS1 SBD domain, combined with state-of-the-art comparative modelling, allowed us to identify potential active site residues responsible for catalysis and substrate binding. We also explored the role of single point mutations found in human cancers and propose that FAM46 genes may be involved in the development of other major malignancies including lung, colorectal, hepatocellular, head and neck, urothelial, endometrial and renal papillary carcinomas and melanoma. Identification of these novel enzymes taking part in RNA metabolism in eukaryotes may guide their further functional studies. PMID:27060136

  8. Cyclophilin A stabilizes the HIV-1 capsid through a novel non-canonical binding site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Perilla, Juan R.; Ning, Jiying; Lu, Manman; Hou, Guangjin; Ramalho, Ruben; Himes, Benjamin A.; Zhao, Gongpu; Bedwell, Gregory J.; Byeon, In-Ja; Ahn, Jinwoo; Gronenborn, Angela M.; Prevelige, Peter E.; Rousso, Itay; Aiken, Christopher; Polenova, Tatyana; Schulten, Klaus; Zhang, Peijun

    2016-03-01

    The host cell factor cyclophilin A (CypA) interacts directly with the HIV-1 capsid and regulates viral infectivity. Although the crystal structure of CypA in complex with the N-terminal domain of the HIV-1 capsid protein (CA) has been known for nearly two decades, how CypA interacts with the viral capsid and modulates HIV-1 infectivity remains unclear. We determined the cryoEM structure of CypA in complex with the assembled HIV-1 capsid at 8-Å resolution. The structure exhibits a distinct CypA-binding pattern in which CypA selectively bridges the two CA hexamers along the direction of highest curvature. EM-guided all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and solid-state NMR further reveal that the CypA-binding pattern is achieved by single-CypA molecules simultaneously interacting with two CA subunits, in different hexamers, through a previously uncharacterized non-canonical interface. These results provide new insights into how CypA stabilizes the HIV-1 capsid and is recruited to facilitate HIV-1 infection.

  9. A Grand Canonical Monte Carlo Molecular Study of a Weak Polyampholyte

    KAUST Repository

    Jimenez, Arturo Martinez

    2016-05-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been an increasing interest in the study of charged polymers for applications such as desalination of water, flocculation, sewage treatment, and enhanced oil recovery. Polyelectrolyte chains containing both positively and negatively charged units (polyampholytes) have been recently studied as viscosity-control agents in enhanced oil recovery, and as entrapping macromolecules for protection and delayed release of enzymes in hydraulic fracturing. In this study we performed Monte Carlo molecular simulations in a grand canonical ensemble to study the behavior of a weak polyampholyte in a dilute regime. Weak polyampholytes have the ability to dissociate in a limited pH, which makes them interesting for applications that require a pH-triggerable response. The titration behaviors of diblock and random polyampholytes are simulated as a function of solvent quality, electrostatic strength, and salt concentration. For diblock polyampholyte chains in hydrophobic solvents, transition between tadpole-like and globule conformation occurs with variations in the solution pH. Random polyampholytes present extended, globule, and pearl-necklace conformations at different solvent conditions and pH values. At high ionic strength, electrostatic interactions in the polyampholytes become screened and the chains are mostly in globule state.

  10. Canonical Naimark extension for generalized measurements involving sets of Pauli quantum observables chosen at random

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparaciari, Carlo; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2013-01-01

    We address measurement schemes where certain observables Xk are chosen at random within a set of nondegenerate isospectral observables and then measured on repeated preparations of a physical system. Each observable has a probability zk to be measured, with ∑kzk=1, and the statistics of this generalized measurement is described by a positive operator-valued measure. This kind of scheme is referred to as quantum roulettes, since each observable Xk is chosen at random, e.g., according to the fluctuating value of an external parameter. Here we focus on quantum roulettes for qubits involving the measurements of Pauli matrices, and we explicitly evaluate their canonical Naimark extensions, i.e., their implementation as indirect measurements involving an interaction scheme with a probe system. We thus provide a concrete model to realize the roulette without destroying the signal state, which can be measured again after the measurement or can be transmitted. Finally, we apply our results to the description of Stern-Gerlach-like experiments on a two-level system.

  11. The lowest canonical denominator: electronic literary texts, and the role of the information professional

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Warwick

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the English literary canon has reasserted itself in electronic form. It traces the history of print canons and contends that analogous forces are shaping an electronic canon. This issue should concern not only literary critics, but also information professionals. Humanities scholars need diverse resources, rare texts and multiple editions of works. Yet canons threaten diversity of resources, and it is difficult for works to re-establish their place once excluded. If Collection managers aim to provide a wide range of high quality resources for future users then an electronic canon is undesirable. If we are to avoid such problems then questions of electronic collections policy must be addressed. For example, do funding councils bear a responsibility to ensure that less canonical texts are available? Who makes the decisions about what is important, and on what basis? How should electronic collections policies be formulated? Should the choice of editions which are digitised matter, is a bad edition better than nothing at all? Should collections policy for electronic resources be organised on a national level, or left to individual institutions? These are areas in which in information professional can and should be able to make an important contribution.

  12. Deoxycholic acid mediates non-canonical EGFR-MAPK activation through the induction of calcium signaling in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centuori, Sara M; Gomes, Cecil J; Trujillo, Jesse; Borg, Jamie; Brownlee, Joshua; Putnam, Charles W; Martinez, Jesse D

    2016-07-01

    Obesity and a western diet have been linked to high levels of bile acids and the development of colon cancer. Specifically, increased levels of the bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA), an established tumor promoter, has been shown to correlate with increased development of colorectal adenomas and progression to carcinoma. Herein we investigate the mechanism by which DCA leads to EGFR-MAPK activation, a candidate mechanism by which DCA may promote colorectal tumorigenesis. DCA treated colon cancer cells exhibited strong and prolonged activation of ERK1/2 when compared to EGF treatment alone. We also showed that DCA treatment prevents EGFR degradation as opposed to the canonical EGFR recycling observed with EGF treatment. Moreover, the combination of DCA and EGF treatment displayed synergistic activity, suggesting DCA activates MAPK signaling in a non-canonical manner. Further evaluation showed that DCA treatment increased intracellular calcium levels and CAMKII phosphorylation, and that blocking calcium with BAPTA-AM abrogated MAPK activation induced by DCA, but not by EGF. Finally we showed that DCA-induced CAMKII leads to MAPK activation through the recruitment of c-Src. Taken together, we demonstrated that DCA regulates MAPK activation through calcium signaling, an alternative mechanism not previously recognized in human colon cancer cells. Importantly, this mechanism allows for EGFR to escape degradation and thus achieve a constitutively active state, which may explain its tumor promoting effects. PMID:27086143

  13. Classification of two-qubit states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caban, Paweł; Rembieliński, Jakub; Smoliński, Kordian A.; Walczak, Zbigniew

    2015-12-01

    Verstraete, Dehaene and DeMoor showed that each of the two-qubit states can be generated from one of two canonical families of two-qubit states by means of transformations preserving the tensor structure of the state space. Precisely, each of such states can be generated from a three-parameter family of Bell-diagonal states or from three-parameter rank-deficient states. In this paper, we show that this classification of two-qubit states can be refined. In particular, we show that the latter canonical family of states can be reduced to three fixed states and a two-parameter family of two-qubit states. For this family of states, we provide a simple parametrization that guarantees positive semidefiniteness of the states and enables easier calculation of the Wootters concurrence and quantum discord. Moreover, we present a new general parametrization of all two-qubit states generated from the canonical families of states using sets of (pseudo)orthogonal four-vectors (frames). An advantage of the presented approach lies in the fact that the standard conditions for positive semidefiniteness of states are equivalent to (pseudo)orthogonality conditions for four-vectors serving as parameters (and appropriate conditions for parameters of the corresponding canonical family of states).

  14. Canonical-basis expressed time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory and linear response calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to study the dynamics of a wide mass range of nuclides in addition to their ground state, the authors developed the canonical-basis expressed time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory (Cb-TDHFB) that can incorporate the pairing correlation with self-consistency. This paper directly derived Cb-TDHFB equation from the TDHFB equation of density matrix display, and introduced, as its application case, the linear response calculation and its systematic result, and the collision reaction calculation. In the example of linear response, it confirmed that the linear response due to real-time method and the random phase approximation that was calculated with self-consistency agreed to a large extent, by referring to the electric dipole excitation (E1) transition intensity distribution function of 24Mg. In addition, regarding the isoscalar quadrupole vibration mode of 34Mg with neutron-rich nuclei, the authors compared the result of quasi-particle random phase approximation as the small amplitude approximation of TDHFB and the result of the linear response of Cb-TDHFB, and obtained a very good match. As the example that Cb-TDHFB can be applied to heavily deformed nuclei, the authors examined the E1 excitation state of 172Yb. As the example of the study on systematic linear response, the authors also examined the low energy E1 excitation called pygmy resonance. As the example of application to non-linear phenomena, the authors also examined the results of the nuclear fusion reaction calculation of 52Ca + 22O due to TDHFB and Cb-TDHFB. (A.O.)

  15. [Effects of Hydraulic Retention Time and Dissolved Oxygen on a CANON Reactor with Haydite as Carrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui-fang; Fu, Kun-ming; Zuo, Zao-rong; Qiu, Fu-guo

    2015-11-01

    One Completely Autotrophic Nitrogen Removal Over Nitrite ( CANON) reactor with haydite as carrier was investigated to study the effects of different hydraulic retention time ( HRT) and dissolved oxygen (DO) on CANON reactors by seeding sludge from another mature CANON reactor and using synthetic inorganic ammonia-rich waste water as influent. During the experiment, the concentration of influent ammonia nitrogen was basically unchanged, the HRT of the reactor were 9, 7, 5 h in turn and the range of DO was 1.16-3.20 mg x L(-1). The results showed that: (1) When DO was 1.20-1.75 mg x L(-1), despite the increase of DO can improve AOB's activity and matrix mass transfer in the system, NH4(+) -N and TN removal efficiency were still fell with the shortening of HRT for the CANON reactor, especially when DO was higher than 2.50 mg x L(-1), TN removal efficiency dropped sharply; (2) Under the condition that DO was 1.20-1.75 mg x L(-1), with the shortening of HRT, partial nitritation tended to be stable in the CANON process, and when DO was higher than 1.75 mg x L(-1), even if HRT was shorter, partial nitritation was still severely damaged; (3) Under the condition that DO was 1.20-1.75 mg x L(-1) and HRT was 7 h, for the CANON reactor, partial nitritation and total nitrogen removal efficiency kept well. Hydraulic retention time and dissolved oxygen both are important operational parameters for biological wastewater treatment process, which could directly affect the effect of biological treatment and effluent quality, so to choose appropriate hydraulic retention time and dissolved oxygen coordinately is very important to improve the effect of treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater by CANON process. PMID:26911004

  16. Non-canonical NFκB activation promotes chemokine expression in podocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiño-Rivas, Lara; Gonzalez-Lafuente, Laura; Sanz, Ana B.; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Ortiz, Alberto; Sanchez-Niño, Maria D.

    2016-01-01

    TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) receptor Fn14 is expressed by podocytes and Fn14 deficiency protects from experimental proteinuric kidney disease. However, the downstream effectors of TWEAK/Fn14 in podocytes are poorly characterized. We have explored TWEAK activation of non-canonical NFκB signaling in cultured podocytes. In cultured podocytes, TWEAK increased the expression of the chemokines CCL21, CCL19 and RANTES in a time-dependent manner. The inhibitor of canonical NFκB activation parthenolide inhibited the CCL19 and the early RANTES responses, but not the CCL21 or late RANTES responses. In this regard, TWEAK induced non-canonical NFκB activation in podocytes, characterized by NFκB2/p100 processing to NFκB2/p52 and nuclear migration of RelB/p52. Silencing by a specific siRNA of NIK, the upstream kinase of the non-canonical NFκB pathway, prevented CCL21 upregulation but did not modulate CCL19 or RANTES expression in response to TWEAK, thus establishing CCL21 as a non-canonical NFκB target in podocytes. Increased kidney Fn14 and CCL21 expression was also observed in rat proteinuric kidney disease induced by puromycin, and was localized to podocytes. In conclusion, TWEAK activates the non-canonical NFκB pathway in podocytes, leading to upregulation of CCL21 expression. The non-canonical NFκB pathway should be explored as a potential therapeutic target in proteinuric kidney disease. PMID:27353019

  17. Contraction of high eccentricity satellite orbits using uniformly regular KS canonical elements with oblate diurnally varying atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Xavier James

    2016-07-01

    orbits with oblate diurnally varying atmosphere in terms of the uniformly regular KS canonical elements. The analytical solutions are generated up to fourth-order terms using a new independent variable and c (a small parameter dependent on the flattening of the atmosphere). Due to symmetry, only two of the nine equations need to be solved analytically to compute the state vector and change in energy at the end of each revolution. The theory is developed on the assumption that density is constant on the surfaces of spheroids of fixed ellipticity ɛ (equal to the Earth's ellipticity, 0.00335) whose axes coincide with the Earth's axis. Numerical experimentation with the analytical solution for a wide range of perigee height, eccentricity, and orbital inclination has been carried out up to 100 revolutions. Comparisons are made with numerically integrated values and found that they match quite well. Effectiveness of the present analytical solutions will be demonstrated by comparing the results with other analytical solutions in the literature.

  18. Non-canonical distribution and non-equilibrium transport beyond weak system-bath coupling regime: A polaron transformation approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dazhi; Cao, Jianshu

    2016-08-01

    The concept of polaron, emerged from condense matter physics, describes the dynamical interaction of moving particle with its surrounding bosonic modes. This concept has been developed into a useful method to treat open quantum systems with a complete range of system-bath coupling strength. Especially, the polaron transformation approach shows its validity in the intermediate coupling regime, in which the Redfield equation or Fermi's golden rule will fail. In the polaron frame, the equilibrium distribution carried out by perturbative expansion presents a deviation from the canonical distribution, which is beyond the usual weak coupling assumption in thermodynamics. A polaron transformed Redfield equation (PTRE) not only reproduces the dissipative quantum dynamics but also provides an accurate and efficient way to calculate the non-equilibrium steady states. Applications of the PTRE approach to problems such as exciton diffusion, heat transport and light-harvesting energy transfer are presented.

  19. Using Canonical Correlation Analysis to Identify Environmental Attitude Groups: Considerations for National Forest Planning in the Southwestern U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prera, Alejandro J.; Grimsrud, Kristine M.; Thacher, Jennifer A.; McCollum, Dan W.; Berrens, Robert P.

    2014-10-01

    As public land management agencies pursue region-specific resource management plans, with meaningful consideration of public attitudes and values, there is a need to characterize the complex mix of environmental attitudes in a diverse population. The contribution of this investigation is to make use of a unique household, mail/internet survey data set collected in 2007 in the Southwestern United States (Region 3 of the U.S. Forest Service). With over 5,800 survey responses to a set of 25 Public Land Value statements, canonical correlation analysis is able to identify 7 statistically distinct environmental attitudinal groups. We also examine the effect of expected changes in regional demographics on overall environmental attitudes, which may help guide in the development of socially acceptable long-term forest management policies. Results show significant support for conservationist management policies and passive environmental values, as well as a greater role for stakeholder groups in generating consensus for current and future forest management policies.

  20. A review of the evidence for the canonical Wnt pathway in autism spectrum disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalkman Hans

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Microdeletion and microduplication copy number variations are found in patients with autism spectrum disorder and in a number of cases they include genes that are involved in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway (for example, FZD9, BCL9 or CDH8. Association studies investigating WNT2, DISC1, MET, DOCK4 or AHI1 also provide evidence that the canonical Wnt pathway might be affected in autism. Prenatal medication with sodium-valproate or antidepressant drugs increases autism risk. In animal studies, it has been found that these medications promote Wnt signaling, including among others an increase in Wnt2 gene expression. Notably, the available genetic information indicates that not only canonical Wnt pathway activation, but also inhibition seems to increase autism risk. The canonical Wnt pathway plays a role in dendrite growth and suboptimal activity negatively affects the dendritic arbor. In principle, this provides a logical explanation as to why both hypo- and hyperactivity may generate a similar set of behavioral and cognitive symptoms. However, without a validated biomarker to stratify for deviant canonical Wnt pathway activity, it is probably too dangerous to treat patients with compounds that modify pathway activity.

  1. Repeatability Using Automatic Tracing with Canon OCT- HS100 and Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT 5000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brautaset, Rune; Birkeldh, Ulrika; Frehr Alstig, Petra; Wikén, Petra; Nilsson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Optical coherence tomography (OCT), can be used in clinical practice to provide high resolution cross-sectional images of the retina, optic disc and macula structure. These measurements can be useful for early detection, diagnosis, monitoring and treatment guidance for retinal diseases. Therefore, repeatability of measurements in OCT is of great importance. Methods Macula and optic disc parameters from the right eye of 30 healthy subjects were obtained twice with the Canon OCT-HS100 and Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT 5000. Repeatability was evaluated by use of the coefficient of repeatability (CR) and the coefficient of repeatability as a percentage of the mean (CR%), and the obtained measurements were compared between the instruments. Results CR% of optic disc parameters ranged between 0.90 and 22.22% and 0.00 and 16.00% with the Canon and Zeiss OCT respectively. For macular parameters CR% ranged between 0.62 and 2.81% and 0.99 and 1.81% with the Canon and Zeiss OCT respectively. No statistical difference could be found when comparing the CR of all macular and disc measurements between the instruments. Compared to our previously published data repeatability has significantly improved with the inclusion of automatic tracking systems with both the Canon and Zeiss OCT. Conclusion Automatic tracking function improves repeatability in both Canon OCT-HS100 and Zeiss Cirrus HD-OCT 5000. However, measurements generated by the two instruments are still not interchangeable. PMID:26867021

  2. Alienation and administration. System restructuring often entails four types of canonical acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrisey, F G

    1998-01-01

    When applying canon law to healthcare transactions, difficulties often arise in determining whether the transaction or restructuring in question constitutes a canonical act of alienation or an act of administration. Changes in system governance may leave local property titles untouched, suggesting that no alienation has taken place, but loss of Catholic identity or a reduced ability to carry out the Church's mission may indeed constitute alienation. Often in restructurings, four types of canonical acts are involved: alienation of property (alienation in the strict sense), acts that can jeopardize the stable patrimony (sometimes called alienation in the broad sense), acts of ordinary administration, and acts of extraordinary administration. While alienation concerns the divestiture of ownership, the general purpose of administration is to preserve goods. Acts of extraordinary administration require certain formalities of consent before they can be carried out. However, the intervention of the Holy See is not required, as it is for acts of alienation. The permission may be granted in principle, before a formal offer is received; after an offer is received; or, in some cases, by a "blanket" indult. A restructuring can amount to an alienation unless care is taken to verify to maintain certain reserved powers, thus ensuring that the work is still under the direction or canonical control of the sponsoring religious institute or diocese. Joint ventures, however, seldom involve insoluble canonical problems. Each situation must be evaluated individually and care taken to ensure that the requirements of both eccleslastical and secular law are met. PMID:10187515

  3. Non-local plasma response within the canonical profiles transport model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments on some tokamaks are simulated, where a fast response near the plasma centre was observed after cooling (by impurity ablation) or heating (by current rampup) at the edge. The canonical profiles transport model (CPTM) is modified for the simulations. The existing equations describing a slow relaxation of the real profile to the canonical profile are complemented by equations describing a fast evolution of the canonical profile. The problem of the canonical profile determination is linked to the transport set through the boundary conditions. Ohm's law and one of the Maxwell equations at the edge are used as boundary conditions for the canonical profile of μc (μ=1/q, q is the safety factor). Therefore, a change of Te(r) profile near the edge leads to a redistribution of the μc(r) profile and to a jump in the electron and ion heat diffusivities over the whole plasma cross-section. The sign of the response (heating or cooling) is very sensitive to details of Te(r) and the evolution of its gradient at the edge. The model reasonably describes both the core heating in TFTR and TEXT, and the core cooling in JET. (author)

  4. Changes in Canon Cosmetic Standards after Rhinoplasty and Its Association with Patients Satisfaction Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad Motamed-al-Shariati

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rhinoplasty is one of the most common plastic surgeries. Although patient satisfaction is still the main prerequisite for success, but this method of determining the outcome of surgery is qualitative. A quantitative method is required to compare the results of rhinoplasty surgery results.Materials and Methods: In this pilot study, Canon cosmetics standards were measured in 15 patients undergoing rhinoplasty before and after the surgery. The changes in these standards were presented quantitatively. In addition, the patients’ satisfaction from the surgery was examined through questionnaires. Data were analyzed using statistical SPSS-11 software, dependent t-test and Pearson correlation coefficient.Results: 15 patients were examined in a 6-month period; all patients were female and their average age was 23. The results showed that rhinoplasty makes changes in 5 out of 9 standards of Canon. The lowest patient satisfaction score was 17 and the highest was 24. The average satisfaction score was 22/3, score reduction was shown after rhinoplasty in all Canon standards except for standard 7 and 8 (p <0/05. There was no statistically significant relationship between changes in Canon standards before and after rhinoplasty surgery and patient satisfaction.Conclusion: The results showed that even if Canon standards change after the surgery, patients’ satisfaction depends on other factors rather than the mathematical calculation of changes in face component. In other words, although symmetry is desirable, it is not equivalent to beauty.

  5. Rapid ecotoxicological assessment of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Su-hua; ZHOU Qi-xing; SUN Tie-heng; LI Pei-jun

    2003-01-01

    Quick, simple to perform, and cheap biomarkers were combined in a rapid assessment approach to measure the effects of metal pollutants, Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn in meadow burozem on wheat. Analysis of orthogonal design showed that the significant zinc factor indicated both the inhibition rate of shoot mass and that of root elongation were affected by zinc( P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively). The first toxicity canonical variable (TOXI), formed from the toxicity data set, explained 49% of the total variance in the toxicity data set; the first biological canonical variable(BIOL) explained 42% of the total variation in the biological data set. The correlation between the first canonical variables TOXI and BIOL (canonical correlation) was 0.94 ( P < 0.0001). Therefore, it is reliable and feasible to use the achievement to assess toxicity of heavy metal combined polluted soil using canonical analysis. Toxicity of soil combined polluted by heavy metals to plant community was estimated by comparing the IC50 values describing the concentration needed to cause 50% decrease with grow rate compared to no metal addition. Environmental quality standard for soils prescribe that all these tested concentration of heavy metals in soil should not cause hazard and pollution ultimately, whereas it indicated that the soils in second grade cause more or less than 50% inhibition rates of wheat growth. So environmental quality standard for soils can be modified to include other features.

  6. Master Canonical Action and BRST Charge of the M Theory Bosonic Five Brane

    CERN Document Server

    De Castro, A

    2001-01-01

    A complete analysis of the canonical structure for a gauge fixed PST bosonic five brane action is performed. This canonical formulation is quadratic in the dependence on the antisymmetric field and it has second class constraints. We remove the second class constraints and a master canonical action with first class constraints only is proposed. The nilpotent BRST charge and its BRST invariant effective theory is constructed. The construction does not assume the existence of the inverse of the induced metric. Singular configurations are then physical ones. We obtain the physical Hamiltonian of the theory and its stability properties are analyzed. Finally, by studying the algebra of diffeomorphisms we find under mild assumptions, the general structure for the Hamiltonian constraint for theories invariant under 6 dimensional diffeomorphisms and we give an algebraic characterization of the constraint associated with the bosonic five brane action. We also identify the constraints for the bosonic five brane action ...

  7. Stabilizing Canonical-Ensemble Calculations in the Auxiliary-Field Monte Carlo Method

    CERN Document Server

    Gilbreth, C N

    2014-01-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo methods are powerful techniques for studying strongly interacting Fermi systems. However, implementing these methods on computers with finite-precision arithmetic requires careful attention to numerical stability. In the auxiliary-field Monte Carlo (AFMC) method, low-temperature or large-model-space calculations require numerically stabilized matrix multiplication. When adapting methods used in the grand-canonical ensemble to the canonical ensemble of fixed particle number, the numerical stabilization increases the number of required floating-point operations for computing observables by a factor of the size of the single-particle model space, and thus can greatly limit the systems that can be studied. We describe an improved method for stabilizing canonical-ensemble calculations in AFMC that exhibits better scaling, and present numerical tests that demonstrate the accuracy and improved performance of the method.

  8. Classifications and canonical forms of tensor product expressions in the presence of permutation symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zhendong; Liu, Wenjian

    2016-01-01

    Complicated mathematical equations involving tensors with permutation symmetries are frequently encountered in fields such as quantum chemistry, e.g., those in coupled cluster theories and derivatives of wavefunction parameters. In automatic derivations of these equations, a key step is the collection of product terms that can be found identical by using permutation symmetries or relabelling dummy indices. In the present work, we define a canonical form for a general tensor product in the presence of permutation symmetries as a result of the classification of all tensor products from a group theoretical point of view. To make such definition of practical use, we provide an efficient algorithm to compute the canonical form by combining the classical backtrack search for permutation groups and the idea of partitions used in graph isomorphism algorithms. The resulted algorithm can compute canonical forms and generators of the automorphism groups of tensor expressions. Moreover, for tensor products with external ...

  9. Quantization of the canonical tensor model and an exact wave function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tensor models in various forms are being studied as models of quantum gravity. Among them the canonical tensor model has a canonical pair of rank-three tensors as dynamical variables, and is a pure constraint system with first-class constraints. The Poisson algebra of the first-class constraints provides an algebraically consistent way of discretizing the Dirac algebra for general relativity. This paper successfully formulates the Wheeler-DeWitt quantization of the canonical tensor model. Formally one can obtain wave functions of the ''universe'' by solving the partial differential equations representing the constraints. For the simplest non-trivial case, the unique wave function is exactly and globally obtained. Although this case is far from being realistic, the wave function is physically interesting; locality is favored, and there exists a locus of configurations with features of the beginning of the universe

  10. Hamiltonian Dynamics of Bounded Spacetime and Black Hole Entropy Canonical Method

    CERN Document Server

    Park, M

    2002-01-01

    Recently, Carlip proposed a formulation which computes the Bekenstein-Hawking (BH) entropy for the black hole in any dimension. But it has been known that his theory has some technical inconsistencies although his idea has received wide attentions. This paper address a resolution of the problem. By considering a correct gravity action whose variational principle is well defined at the horizon, one can $derive$ the correct Virasoro generator for the surface deformation at the horizon through the canonical method. The grand canonical ensemble, where the horizon and its angular velocity and temperature are fixed, is appropriate for my purpose. From the canonical quantization of the Virasoro algebra, it is found that the existence of the $classical$ Virasoro algebra is crucial to obtain the operator Virasoro algebra which produces the right conformal weights $\\sim A/\\hbar G$ for the semiclassical black hole entropy from the universal Cardy's entropy formula. The correct numerical factor 1/4 is obtained by choosin...

  11. Black-hole horizons in modified spacetime structures arising from canonical quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several properties of canonical quantum gravity modify spacetime structures, sometimes to the degree that no effective line elements exist to describe the geometry. An analysis of solutions, for instance in the context of black holes, then requires new insights. In this paper, standard definitions of horizons in spherical symmetry are first reformulated canonically, and then evaluated for solutions of equations and constraints modified by inverse-triad corrections of loop quantum gravity. When possible, a spacetime analysis is performed which reveals a mass threshold for black holes and small changes to Hawking radiation. For more general conclusions, canonical perturbation theory is developed to second order to include back-reaction from matter. The results shed light on the questions of whether renormalization of Newton's constant or other modifications of horizon conditions should be taken into account in computations of black-hole entropy in loop quantum gravity.

  12. An Interacting Gauge Field Theoretic Model for Hodge Theory: Basic Canonical Brackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    R., Kumar; Gupta, S.; R. P., Malik

    2014-06-01

    We derive the basic canonical brackets amongst the creation and annihilation operators for a two (1 + 1)-dimensional (2D) gauge held theoretic model of an interacting Hodge theory where a U(1) gauge field (Aμ) is coupled with the fermionic Dirac fields (ψ and bar psi). In this derivation, we exploit the spin-statistics theorem, normal ordering and the strength of the underlying six infinitesimal continuous symmetries (and the concept of their generators) that are present in the theory. We do not use the definition of the canonical conjugate momenta (corresponding to the basic fields of the theory) anywhere in our whole discussion. Thus, we conjecture that our present approach provides an alternative to the canonical method of quantization for a class of gauge field theories that are physical examples of Hodge theory where the continuous symmetries (and corresponding generators) provide the physical realizations of the de Rham cohomological operators of differential geometry at the algebraic level.

  13. Brane structure and metastable graviton in five-dimensional model with (non)canonical scalar field

    CERN Document Server

    Zhong, Yuan; Zhao, Zhen-Hua

    2014-01-01

    The appearance of inner brane structure is an interesting issue in domain wall {brane model}. Because such structure usually leads to quasilocalized modes of various kinds of bulk fields. In this paper, we construct a domain wall brane model by using a scalar field $\\phi$, which couples to its kinetic term. The inner brane structure emerges as the scalar-kinetic coupling increases. With such brane structure, we show that it is possible to obtain gravity resonant modes in both tensor and scalar sectors. The number of the resonant modes depends on the vacuum expectation value of $\\phi$ and the form of scalar-kinetic coupling. The correspondence between our model and the canonical one is also discussed. The noncanonical and canonical background scalar fields are connected by an integral equation, while the warp factor remains the same. Via this correspondence, the canonical and noncanonical models share the same linear perturbation spectrum. So the gravity resonances {obtained} in the noncanonical frame can also...

  14. The application of gauge invariance and canonical quantization to the internal structure of gauge field systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Fan; Lu, X F; Sun, W M; Goldman, T

    2009-01-01

    It is unavoidable to deal with the quark and gluon momentum and angular momentum contributions to the nucleon momentum and spin in the study of nucleon internal structure. However, we never have the quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and gluon spin operators which satisfy both the gauge invariance and the canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation. The conflicts between the gauge invariance and canonical quantization requirement of these operators are discussed. A new set of quark and gluon momentum, orbital angular momentum and spin operators, which satisfy both the gauge invariance and canonical momentum and angular momentum commutation relation, are proposed. The key point to achieve such a proper decomposition is to separate the gauge field into the pure gauge and the gauge covariant parts. The same conflicts also exist in QED and quantum mechanics and have been solved in the same manner. The impacts of this new decomposition to the nucleon internal structure are discusse...

  15. Canonical-basis time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov theory and linear-response calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Ebata, Shuichiro; Inakura, Tsunenori; Yoshida, Kenichi; Hashimoto, Yukio; Yabana, Kazuhiro

    2010-01-01

    We present simple equations for a canonical-basis formulation of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov (TDHFB) theory. The equations are obtained from the TDHFB theory with an approximation that the pair potential is assumed to be diagonal in the canonical basis. The canonical-basis formulation significantly reduces the computational cost. We apply the method to linear-response calculations for even-even light nuclei and demonstrate its capability and accuracy by comparing our results with recent calculations of the quasi-particle random-phase approximation with Skyrme functionals. We show systematic studies of E1 strength distributions for Ne and Mg isotopes. The evolution of the low-lying pygmy strength seems to be determined by the interplay of several factors, including the neutron excess, separation energy, neutron shell effects, deformation, and pairing.

  16. Generalized second law of thermodynamics for non-canonical scalar field model with corrected-entropy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, we have considered a non-canonical scalar field dark energy model in the framework of flat FRW background. It has also been assumed that the dark matter sector interacts with the non-canonical dark energy sector through some interaction term. Using the solutions for this interacting non-canonical scalar field dark energy model, we have investigated the validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in various scenarios using first law and area law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, we have assumed two types of horizons viz apparent horizon and event horizon for the universe and using first law of thermodynamics, we have examined the validity of GSL on both apparent and event horizons. Next, we have considered two types of entropy-corrections on apparent and event horizons. Using the modified area law, we have examined the validity of GSL of thermodynamics on apparent and event horizons under some restrictions of model parameters. (orig.)

  17. On the completeness of the canonical reductions from Kac-Moody to W-algebras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the question as to whether the canonical reductions of Kac-Moody (KM) algebras to W-algebras are exhaustive. We first review and consolidate previous results. In particular we show that, apart from the two lowest grades, the canonical reductions are the only ones that respect the physically reasonable requirement that the W-algebra have no negative conformal weights. We then break new ground by formulating a condition that the W-algebra be differential polynomial. We apply the condition that the W-algebra be polynomial (in a particular gauge) and primary to the groups SL(N,R) with integral SL(2,R) embeddings. We find that, subject to some reasonable technical assumptions, the canonical reductions are exhaustive (except possibly at grade one). The derivation suggests that similar results hold for the other classes of simple groups. (orig.)

  18. Generalized second law of thermodynamics for non-canonical scalar field model with corrected-entropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Sudipta; Debnath, Ujjal; Mamon, Abdulla Al

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we have considered a non-canonical scalar field dark energy model in the framework of flat FRW background. It has also been assumed that the dark matter sector interacts with the non-canonical dark energy sector through some interaction term. Using the solutions for this interacting non-canonical scalar field dark energy model, we have investigated the validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in various scenarios using first law and area law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, we have assumed two types of horizons viz apparent horizon and event horizon for the universe and using first law of thermodynamics, we have examined the validity of GSL on both apparent and event horizons. Next, we have considered two types of entropy-corrections on apparent and event horizons. Using the modified area law, we have examined the validity of GSL of thermodynamics on apparent and event horizons under some restrictions of model parameters.

  19. Generalized Second Law of Thermodynamics for Non-canonical Scalar Field Model with Corrected-Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Sudipta; Mamon, Abdulla Al

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have considered a non-canonical scalar field dark energy model in the framework of flat FRW background. It has also been assumed that the dark matter sector interacts with the non-canonical dark energy sector through some interaction term. Using the solutions for this interacting non-canonical scalar field dark energy model, we have investigated the validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in various scenarios using first law and area law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, we have assumed two types of horizons viz apparent horizon and event horizon for the universe and using first law of thermodynamics, we have examined the validity of GSL on both apparent and event horizons. Next, we have considered two types of entropy-corrections on apparent and event horizons. Using the modified area law, we have examined the validity of GSL of thermodynamics on apparent and event horizons under some restrictions of model parameters.

  20. Generalized second law of thermodynamics for non-canonical scalar field model with corrected-entropy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sudipta; Mamon, Abdulla Al [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan (India); Debnath, Ujjal [Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Shibpur, Howrah (India)

    2015-10-15

    In this work, we have considered a non-canonical scalar field dark energy model in the framework of flat FRW background. It has also been assumed that the dark matter sector interacts with the non-canonical dark energy sector through some interaction term. Using the solutions for this interacting non-canonical scalar field dark energy model, we have investigated the validity of generalized second law (GSL) of thermodynamics in various scenarios using first law and area law of thermodynamics. For this purpose, we have assumed two types of horizons viz apparent horizon and event horizon for the universe and using first law of thermodynamics, we have examined the validity of GSL on both apparent and event horizons. Next, we have considered two types of entropy-corrections on apparent and event horizons. Using the modified area law, we have examined the validity of GSL of thermodynamics on apparent and event horizons under some restrictions of model parameters. (orig.)

  1. Reorienting the English Classroom: Asian American Writers in the Canon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Simon S.

    1997-01-01

    Argues that numerous works written by Asian-American authors merit consideration on reading lists. Discusses several of these books, noting how they can be used in class in units on Identity, History, and Stereotypes. Argues that English classrooms have ignored the existence and the contributions of Asian-Americans to the United States for far too…

  2. Impacts of non-canonical El Niño patterns on Atlantic hurricane activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, S.; Lee, S.; Wang, C.; Chung, E.; Enfield, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    The impact of non-canonical El Niño patterns, typically characterized by warmer than normal sea surface tempera- tures (SSTs) in the central tropical Pacific, on Atlantic tropical cyclone (TC) is explored by using composites of key Atlantic TC indices and tropospheric vertical wind shear over the Atlantic main development region (MDR). The highlight of our major findings is that, while the canonical El Niño pattern has a strong suppressing influence on Atlantic TC activity, non-canonical El Niño patterns con- sidered in this study, namely central Pacific warming, El Niño Modoki, positive phase Trans-Niño, and positive phase Pacific meridional mode, all have insubstantial impact on Atlantic TC activity. This result becomes more conclu- sive when the impact of MDR SST is removed from the Atlantic TC indices and MDR wind shear by using the method of linear regression. Further analysis suggests that the tropical Pacific SST anomalies associated with the non- canonical El Niño patterns are not strong enough to cause a substantial warming of the tropical troposphere in the Atlantic region, which is the key factor that increases the wind shear and atmospheric static stability over the MDR. During the recent decades, the non-canonical El Niños have been more frequent while the canonical El Niño has been less frequent. If such a trend continues in the future, it is expected that the suppressing effect of El Niño on Atlantic TC activity will diminish and thus the MDR SST will play a more important role in controlling Atlantic TC activity in the coming decades.

  3. Grand-canonical and canonical solution of self-avoiding walks with up to three monomers per site on the Bethe lattice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Tiago J; Stilck, Jürgen F; Serra, Pablo

    2009-10-01

    We solve a model of polymers represented by self-avoiding walks on a lattice, which may visit the same site up to three times in the grand-canonical formalism on the Bethe lattice. This may be a model for the collapse transition of polymers where only interactions between monomers at the same site are considered. The phase diagram of the model is very rich, displaying coexistence and critical surfaces, critical, critical end point, and tricritical lines, as well as a multicritical point. From the grand-canonical results, we present an argument to obtain the properties of the model in the canonical ensemble, and compare our results with simulations in the literature. We do actually find extended and collapsed phases, but the transition between them, composed by a line of critical end points and a line of tricritical points, separated by the multicritical point, is always continuous. This result is at variance with the simulations for the model, which suggest that part of the line should be a discontinuous transition. Finally, we discuss the connection of the present model with the standard model for the collapse of polymers (self-avoiding, self-attracting walks), where the transition between the extended and collapsed phases is a tricritical point. PMID:19905330

  4. Endomorphisms of On which preserve the canonical UHF-subalgebra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Roberto; Rørdam, Mikael; Szymanski, Wojciech

    2009-01-01

    Unital endomorphisms of the Cuntz algebra On which preserve the canonical UHF-subalgebra Fn are investigated. We give examples of such endomorphisms λ=λu for which the associated unitary element u in On (which satisfies λ(Sj)=uSj for all j) does not belong to Fn. One such example, in the case when...... n=2, arises from a construction of a unital endomorphism of O2 which preserves the canonical UHF-subalgebra and where the relative commutant of its image in O2 contains a copy of O2. Udgivelsesdato: 1 August...

  5. Liouville’s theorem and the canonical measure for nonconservative systems from contact geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Standard statistical mechanics of conservative systems relies on the symplectic geometry of the phase space. This is exploited to derive Hamilton’s equations, Liouville’s theorem and to find the canonical invariant measure. In this work we analyze the statistical mechanics of a class of nonconservative systems stemming from contact geometry. In particular, we find out the generalized Hamilton’s equations, Liouville’s theorem and the microcanonical and canonical measures invariant under the contact flow. Remarkably, the latter measure has a power law density distribution with respect to the standard contact volume form. Finally, we argue on the several possible applications of our results. (paper)

  6. On the use and computation of the Jordan canonical form in system theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, B.; Jordan, D.

    1974-01-01

    This paper investigates various aspects of the application of the Jordan canonical form of a matrix in system theory and develops a computational approach to determining the Jordan form for a given matrix. Applications include pole placement, controllability and observability studies, serving as an intermediate step in yielding other canonical forms, and theorem proving. The computational method developed in this paper is both simple and efficient. The method is based on the definition of a generalized eigenvector and a natural extension of Gauss elimination techniques. Examples are included for demonstration purposes.

  7. WDR26 is a new partner of Axin1 in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Toshiyasu; Matsuzawa, Junhei; Iemura, Shun-Ichiro; Natsume, Tohru; Shibuya, Hiroshi

    2016-05-01

    The stability of β-catenin is very important for canonical Wnt signaling. A protein complex including Axin/APC/GSK3β phosphorylates β-catenin to be degraded by ubiquitination with β-TrCP. In the recent study, we isolated WDR26, a protein that binds to Axin. Here, we found that WDR26 is a negative regulator of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, and that WDR26 affected β-catenin levels. In addition, WDR26/Axin binding is involved in the ubiquitination of β-catenin. These results suggest that WDR26 plays a negative role in β-catenin degradation in the Wnt signaling pathway. PMID:27098453

  8. The relevance of the non-canonical PTS1 of peroxisomal catalase

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Chris; Aksam, Eda Bener; Gunkel, Katja; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2012-01-01

    Catalase is sorted to peroxisomes via a C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal 1 (PTS1), which binds to the receptor protein Pex5. Analysis of the C-terminal sequences of peroxisomal catalases from various species indicated that catalase never contains the typical C-terminal PTS1 tripeptide-SKL, but invariably is sorted to peroxisomes via a non-canonical sorting sequence. We analyzed the relevance of the non-canonical PTS1 of catalase of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha (-SKI). Using isotherma...

  9. ‘Dancing through the Minefield’: Canon Reinstatement Strategies for Women Authors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dascăl Reghina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the limiting and detrimental effects of biographical criticism and exceptionalism in the efforts of reinstating women authors into the Renaissance canon, by looking into the literary merits of Elizabeth Cary’s The Tragedy of Mariam, The Fair Queen of Jewry and The History of The Life, Reign and Death of Edward II. Whereas the conflation of biography and fiction is a successful recipe for canonization and for the production of feminist icons, it renders the text impotent because of its resulting inability to compete with or to be seen in correlation and interplay with other contemporary texts.

  10. Liouville’s theorem and the canonical measure for nonconservative systems from contact geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravetti, A.; Tapias, D.

    2015-06-01

    Standard statistical mechanics of conservative systems relies on the symplectic geometry of the phase space. This is exploited to derive Hamilton’s equations, Liouville’s theorem and to find the canonical invariant measure. In this work we analyze the statistical mechanics of a class of nonconservative systems stemming from contact geometry. In particular, we find out the generalized Hamilton’s equations, Liouville’s theorem and the microcanonical and canonical measures invariant under the contact flow. Remarkably, the latter measure has a power law density distribution with respect to the standard contact volume form. Finally, we argue on the several possible applications of our results.

  11. The Role of Canon Law in the Ecumenical Venture: a Roman Catholic Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Leahy, Brendan

    2011-01-01

    One of the main goals of the Second Vatican Council (the 50th anniversary of whose opening will be celebrated in 2012) was the unity of all Christians. Not least among its achievements was the fact that it launched the Catholic Church into the Ecumenical Movement and also paved the way for a global revision of the Church’s Code of Canon Law. This article reflects from a Roman Catholic perspective on aspects to do with canon law and ecumenism. It does so in the light of the Coun...

  12. Discrete canonical analysis of three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berra-Montiel, J.; E. Rosales-Quintero, J.

    2015-05-01

    We discuss the interplay between standard canonical analysis and canonical discretization in three-dimensional gravity with cosmological constant. By using the Hamiltonian analysis, we find that the continuum local symmetries of the theory are given by the on-shell space-time diffeomorphisms, which at the action level, correspond to the Kalb-Ramond transformations. At the time of discretization, although this symmetry is explicitly broken, we prove that the theory still preserves certain gauge freedom generated by a constant curvature relation in terms of holonomies and the Gauss's law in the lattice approach.

  13. Renormalization procedure for random tensor networks and the canonical tensor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss a renormalization procedure for random tensor networks, and show that the corresponding renormalization-group flow is given by the Hamiltonian vector flow of the canonical tensor model, which is a discretized model of quantum gravity. The result is a generalization of the previous one concerning the relation between the Ising model on random networks and the canonical tensor model with N=2. We also prove a general theorem that relates discontinuity of the renormalization-group flow and the phase transitions of random tensor networks

  14. General Relativity in the radial gauge I. Reduced phase space and canonical structure

    CERN Document Server

    Bodendorfer, Norbert; Świeżewski, Jedrzej

    2015-01-01

    Firstly, we present a reformulation of the standard canonical approach to spherically symmetric systems in which the radial gauge is imposed. This is done via the gauge unfixing techniques, which serves as their exposition in the context of the radial gauge. Secondly, we apply the same techniques to the full theory, without assuming spherical symmetry, resulting in a reduced phase space description of General Relativity. The canonical structure of the theory is analysed. In a companion paper a quantization of the reduced phase space is presented. The construction is well suited for the treatment of spherically symmetric situations and allows for a quantum definition thereof.

  15. Canonical realization of the Lie algebras gl(n,R) and sl(n,R)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The generators of the Lie algebra of the general linear group gl(n,R) and of the special linear group sl(n,R) are, recurrently, expressed through polynomials in the quantum canonical variables psub(i) and qsub(i). These realizations are skew-hermitean, the Casimir operators are realized by constant multiples of identity element and, in dependence upon the number of the canonical pairs used, they depend onk(k-1 for sl(n,R)), k=2,...,n free real parameters

  16. Jean-Baptiste Say and the Classical Canon in Economics: Land-Based Growth Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Samuel Hollander

    2005-01-01

    This paper demonstrates Say’s adoption of a land-scarcity based growth model of the canonical variety, though neither consistently nor in its entirety. It also emerges that Say was at one with Ricardo on the ‘primacy’ of supply conditions in value determination. The evidence is drawn mainly from the Traité d’économie politique and the Cours complet raising the question why the canonical properties contained in readily available sources seem to have been generally overlooked.

  17. Canonical transformation for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael' s College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States); Duthoit, François-Xavier [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); SNU Division of Graduate Education for Sustainabilization of Foundation Energy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The generating function for the canonical transformation from the parallel canonical coordinates (s,p{sub ||}) to the action-angle coordinates (ζ, J) for trapped/passing guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry is presented. Drawing on the analogy between the phase-space portraits of the librating/rotating pendulum and the trapped/passing guiding-center orbits, the generating function is expressed in terms of the Jacobi zeta function, which can then readily be used to obtain an explicit expression for the bounce-center transformation for trapped/passing-particle guiding-center orbits in axisymmetric tokamak geometry.

  18. Catholics and abortion: notes on canon law. No. 1

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    Catholics for a Free Choice shapes and advances sexual and reproductive ethics that are based on justice, reflect a commitment to women’s well being, and respect and affirm the moral capacity of women and men to make sound decisions about their lives. Through discourse, education, and advocacy, CFFC works in the United States and internationally to infuse these values into public policy, community life, feminist analysis, and Catholic social thinking and teaching.

  19. Filter bank canonical correlation analysis for implementing a high-speed SSVEP-based brain-computer interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaogang; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Shangkai; Jung, Tzyy-Ping; Gao, Xiaorong

    2015-08-01

    Objective. Recently, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) has been widely used in steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) due to its high efficiency, robustness, and simple implementation. However, a method with which to make use of harmonic SSVEP components to enhance the CCA-based frequency detection has not been well established. Approach. This study proposed a filter bank canonical correlation analysis (FBCCA) method to incorporate fundamental and harmonic frequency components to improve the detection of SSVEPs. A 40-target BCI speller based on frequency coding (frequency range: 8-15.8 Hz, frequency interval: 0.2 Hz) was used for performance evaluation. To optimize the filter bank design, three methods (M1: sub-bands with equally spaced bandwidths; M2: sub-bands corresponding to individual harmonic frequency bands; M3: sub-bands covering multiple harmonic frequency bands) were proposed for comparison. Classification accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR) of the three FBCCA methods and the standard CCA method were estimated using an offline dataset from 12 subjects. Furthermore, an online BCI speller adopting the optimal FBCCA method was tested with a group of 10 subjects. Main results. The FBCCA methods significantly outperformed the standard CCA method. The method M3 achieved the highest classification performance. At a spelling rate of ˜33.3 characters/min, the online BCI speller obtained an average ITR of 151.18 ± 20.34 bits min-1. Significance. By incorporating the fundamental and harmonic SSVEP components in target identification, the proposed FBCCA method significantly improves the performance of the SSVEP-based BCI, and thereby facilitates its practical applications such as high-speed spelling.

  20. Relativistic Iron Emission Lines and Multi-Wavelength Variability in a Low L_X State of the Black Hole GX 339-4: A Prominent Role for Jets?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M. Miller; J. Homan; D. Steeghs; M. Rupen; R.A.D. Wijnands; P. Charles

    2004-01-01

    We observed the Galactic black hole GX 339-4 in its ``low/hard" state continuously for nearly 4 days in X-rays, radio, and optical/IR bands using XMM-Newton (and, RXTE), the Australia Telescope, and the South African Astronomical Observatory. Strong, regular, and remarkably similar variability is se