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Sample records for canola

  1. PAPERMAKING POTENTIAL OF CANOLA STALKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Enayati

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental study was carried out to explore the properties of canola stalks with regards to pulp and paper production. In this study the morphological properties, chemical composition, and soda pulping properties of canola stalks were investigated. The mean values of length, diameter, and cell wall thickness of canola stalks fibers were measured as 1.17 mm, 23.02 m, and 5.26 m, respectively. The morphological properties analysis indicated that despite the thicker cell wall, the morphological properties of canola stalks fibers were comparable to those of non-woods and hardwoods fibers. The holocelluloses, alpha-cellulose, lignin, and ash contents of canola stalks were determined to be 73.6, 42.0, 17.3, and 8.2 wt%, respectively. The hot water and dilute alkali extractives of canola stalks were determined as 18 and 46.1 wt%. In comparison to most other non-wood papermaking raw materials, soda pulping of canola stalks required higher chemical charge and cooking time. Soda pulping of canola stalks gave a low yield bleachable grade pulp. The strength properties of bleached canola stalks soda pulp appeared to be similar to those of common non-wood papermaking resources. The overall results showed that canola has a promising potential to be used in pulp and paper production.

  2. Storage of canola in hermetic plastic bags

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosik, R. E.; De la Torre, D. A.; Ochandio, D. C.; Cardoso, L. M.; Rodríguez, J.C.; Massigoge, J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the small size of the seed, canola (Brassica napus or Brassica campestris) offers different challenges in the harvest and the subsequent post-harvest operations. Often, in Argentina, farmers do not have enough permanent storage capacity so they overcome this deficit with the use of hermetic plastic bags (silobags). The objectives of this work were: 1) Determine the feasibility of the bagging and extraction processes of canola. 2) Monitoring the condition of canola by periodic measureme...

  3. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants. PMID:25773747

  4. GM technology and the Australian canola

    OpenAIRE

    Taing, William; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use a simulation model to measure the potential market and welfare effects of recently introduced genetically modified (GM) canola in Australia. The short-run results indicate that non-GM canola may emerge as a niche product commanding a premium. In the long run, GM technology appears to enhance aggregate welfare. However, when production cost savings are trivial and consumers become highly concerned about GM food products, aggregate welfare may decline. The policy implicati...

  5. Canola – Where to for WA Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Pluske, Johanna M.; Lindner, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    Canola may be marketed as oilseed, oil or meal. Supply and demand of each of the commodities is influenced by, physical factors associated with land and weather, substitute commodity competition, land-use competition, production indirectly associated with canola such as that within the livestock industry and the effects of technology and more specifically plant breeding. Furthermore, domestic agricultural and international trade policies, standard of living, and political stability of countri...

  6. Structure of the Canola and Biodiesel Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Wilson, William W.; Duchsherer, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The biodiesel industry in the United States has grown significantly in recent years. Production increased from 25 million gallons in 2004 to an estimated 250 million gallons in 2006, and many new plants are being built. Most biodiesel in the United States is produced from soybean oil, but canola offers characteristics which make it a favorable feedstock for biodiesel production. Characteristics of canola oil also make it an increasingly popular choice for human consumption. This study examine...

  7. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  8. Metabolomics differentiation of canola genotypes: toward an understanding of canola allelochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Pratley, James E.; An, Min; Luckett, David J.; Lemerle, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is one crop attribute that could be incorporated in an integrated weed management system as a supplement to synthetic herbicides. However, the underlying principles of crop allelopathy and secondary metabolite production are still poorly understood including in canola. In this study, an allelopathic bioassay and a metabolomic analysis were conducted to compare three non-allelopathic and three allelopathic canola genotypes. Results from the laboratory bioassay showed that there wer...

  9. Antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid in canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenhui; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chung, Hau Yin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-06-20

    Interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants, namely, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), with natural antioxidants is increasing. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 °C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in canola oil. At 60 °C, capsaicinoid was more effective against oxidation of canola oil compared with BHT. At higher temperatures of 90, 120, and 180 °C, capsaicinoid possessed an antioxidant activity similar to or slightly weaker that that of BHT. It was found that capsaicinoid prevented canola oil from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To study the structure-antioxidant relationship, it was found that the trimethylsiloxy (TMS) derivatives of capsaicinoid did not exhibit any antioxidant activity, suggesting the hydroxyl moiety was the functional group responsible for the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid. It was concluded that capsaicinoid had the potential to be further explored as a natural antioxidant in foods, particularly spicy foods. PMID:22642555

  10. TruFlex™ Roundup Ready® Canola MON 88302

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Monsanto Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the sale of food derived from MON 88302 canola (TruFlex™ Roundup Ready® Canola). The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this canola event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits The following provides a summary of the notificati...

  11. Improving the nutritional value of canola seed by gamma irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mervat M. Anwar; Safaa E. Ali; Essam H. Nasr

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aims to evaluate the effects of γ-irradiation on anti-nutritional factors, in-vitro protein digestibility and functional properties of canola meal protein, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of canola seed oil. Irradiation at doses 10, 20, 30 KGy had no effects on the chemical composition of canola seed, while decreased the total glucosinolate content by 15.6, 30.4 and 49.4%; and phytic acid by 29, 55 and 100%, respectively. On contrary, in-vitro protein ...

  12. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Nansen; Calvin Trostle; Sangu Angadi; Patrick Porter; Xavier Martini

    2012-01-01

    Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positivel...

  13. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

  14. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2016-01-01

    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages. PMID:27447675

  15. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positively associated with ranked plant weight, daily minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature were negatively associated with plant weight, and that there may be specific optimal growth conditions regarding cumulative solar radiation and wind speed. The outlined multi-regression approach may be considered appropriate for ecological studies of canola establishment and pest communities elsewhere and therefore enable identification of suitable regions for successful canola production. We also demonstrated that aphids were about 35% more abundant on non-treated seeds than on treated seeds, but the sensitivity to seed treatment was only within four months after plant emergence. On the other hand, seed treatment had negligible effect on presence of thrips.

  16. Detection of Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa Causing Blackleg Disease in Canola from Canadian Canola Seed Lots and Dockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W G Dilantha; Zhang, Xuehua; Amarasinghe, Chami C

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a major threat to canola production in Canada. With the exception of China, L. maculans is present in areas around the world where cruciferous crops are grown. The pathogen can cause trade barriers in international canola seed export due to its potential risk as a seed contaminant. The most recent example is China restricting canola seeds imported from Canada and Australia in 2009. Therefore, it is important to assess the level of Blackleg infection in Canadian canola seed lots and dockage (seeds and admixture). In this study, canola seed lots and dockage samples collected from Western Canada were tested for the presence of the aggressive L. maculans and the less aggressive L. biglobosa. Results showed that both L. maculans and L. biglobosa were present in seed lots and dockage samples, with L. biglobosa being predominant in infected seeds. Admixture separated from dockage had higher levels of L. maculans and L. biglobosa infection than samples from seed lots. Admixture appears to harbour higher levels of L. maculans infection compared to seeds and is more likely to be a major source of inoculum for the spread of the disease than infected seeds. PMID:27135232

  17. Compare the Amount of Canola Losses in Harvest Time with Three Types of Head

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    Seyed Arsalan Mohammadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is an most important non-cereal plants for the production of the oil and has become the main oilseed crops in Iran for recently years. Losses of canola seeds which occur in each level of canola production, especially in harvesting level. The first objective of this research was compare of harvester head in Iran. In Harvesting time canola pods separated from center line and canola seeds fall on the ground. Rapeseed harvest was by three types of head (Ordinary head, Iranian head, Foreign (Austrian head losses of harvest by ordinary head was higher than other 195 to 254 (kg/h. Minimum losses occur in harvesting with Austrian head and losses by Iranian head was between two types of head. The vertical cutter bar have an decrease impact on canola losses this cutter bar has best Performance in Austrian head and reduce losses which occur in part three of head. Losses of canola seeds determine with Hobson trays.

  18. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

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    Akinsete Juliana A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation.

  19. CANOLA CROP TAKES UP SELENIUM PROVIDES BIOFUEL AND FEED SUPPLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the Brassica plant taxi that are candidates for phytoremediation of selenium also produce products that be used for refining into biodiesel, as well as selenium enriched animal feeds. These include canola (Brassica napus) that is planted in the Westside soils of central California (Oxalis si...

  20. COMPETITORS CO-OPERATING: ESTABLISHING A SUPPLY CHAIN TO MANAGE GENETICALLY MODIFIED CANOLA

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Stuart J.; Phillips, Peter W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Identity preserving production and marketing (IPPM) systems are used extensively in the Canadian canola industry to segregate varieties with different traits from the commodity stream. This paper examines one use of identify preserved production and marketing systems for genetically modified (GM) canola. A number of transgenic herbicide tolerant (HT) varieties have been approved for release in Canada since 1995 but delays in approval in other countries led the Canadian canola sector to use IP...

  1. NE- 165 Case Study : CANOLA AS AN EMERGING INDUSTRY: A Processor and Producer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Coaldrake, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.

    1991-01-01

    The canola industry in the United States has been very small with a limited canola oil demand being met through imports. However, an apparent increase in consumer demand for more healthful alternatives to traditional vegetable oils has sparked an interest among domestic processors desiring to be among the first entrants to a U.S. canola oil market. Processor interest has in turn led to some producer experimentation with the crop. This case study documents the early activities of U.S. Canola P...

  2. Improving the nutritional value of canola seed by gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat M. Anwar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to evaluate the effects of γ-irradiation on anti-nutritional factors, in-vitro protein digestibility and functional properties of canola meal protein, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of canola seed oil. Irradiation at doses 10, 20, 30 KGy had no effects on the chemical composition of canola seed, while decreased the total glucosinolate content by 15.6, 30.4 and 49.4%; and phytic acid by 29, 55 and 100%, respectively. On contrary, in-vitro protein digestibility increased to 59.1, 61.4 and 71.8% by the same doses, respectively. Water absorption and fat absorption increased by increasing irradiation doses, whilst decreased foaming capacity. Refractive index was between 1.4636 and 1.4687, acid value between 0.72 and 1.10%, peroxide value between 3.40 and 7.36 meq/kg oil. Iodine number and saponification value were 122 and 175 at dose 30 KGy, respectively. Oxidative stability decreased to 17.8, 16.4 and 14.9 h by doses 10, 20 and 30 KGy, respectively, compared to control (18.9 h. The contents of oleic and linoleinic acid were ranged between 60.44–61.69% and 21.72–22.09% respectively. So, γ-irradiation considered a safe method which reduced the anti-nutritional factors and improve both nutritional value and functional properties of canola seed.

  3. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species. PMID:26879345

  4. Preparation and characterization of biodiesel produced from recycled canola oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Burton, R.; Austic, G. [Piedmont Biofuels Industrial, Pittsboro, NC (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The high cost of virgin vegetable oil means that many biodiesel products are not economically competitive. This paper evaluated the feasibility of using recycle canola oil to produce ASTM standard biodiesel. Experiments were conducted to test a 2-step reaction comprised of an acid-catalyzed esterification followed by an alkali-catalyzed transesterification process. The processes were used to reduce the high level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the recycled canola oil. Tests demonstrated that the produced biodiesel met ASTM standards in relation to kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C; acid number; flash point; water and sediment; cold soak filtration tests; oxidation stability; and free and total glycerin. The glycerol byproducts produced during the process were also characterized. Results of the study indicated that the recycled canola oil can be used as a raw feedstock for biodiesel production. It was concluded that the purification and sale of the glycerol byproduct will increase the overall profitability of the biodiesel production process. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  5. Non-destructive models for leaf area determination in canola

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    Francilene de L. Tartaglia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaf is a very important structure of the plants, since it allows gas exchanges and the transformation of light energy into chemical energy. This study aimed to generate and test mathematical models for leaf area estimation in canola based on leaf dimensions. Two experiments were conducted with canola in 2014, in which leaves were collected in different phenological stages with different sizes and shapes. Subsequently, leaf length, width and area were measured (with automatic meter in 606 leaves, which included 371 ovate and 235 lanceolate leaves. The models were generated using length, width and length versus width as independent variables and leaf area as dependent variable. The models were validated using a group of leaves different from those used to generate the models. A total of 27 models were obtained and those with best statistics and higher simplicity were selected. The polynomial model LA = 0.88735 W2 + 0.93503 W and the power model LA = 1.1282 W1.9396 can be used for both types of leaves and have high accuracy in the estimation of canola leaf area.

  6. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Thiyam, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Canola oil is low in saturated fat, high in monounsaturated fat and has a favourable omega-6:omega-3 ratio . Therefore, Canola oil has a healthier fatty acid profile compared to other plant oils such as soy oil. Therefore, canola oil is also an ingredient in many food products. However, the content of unsaturated lipid makes canola oil susceptible towards lipid oxidation. Many food products are lipid containing emulsions and a lot of efforts have been put into developing methods to protect th...

  7. Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium, and Chloride Nutrition on Cold Tolerance of Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether fertility treatments improve cold hardiness of canola (Brassica napus L.). Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and overwinter survival of field-grown canola were used to evaluate the effect of chloride (Cl), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P)...

  8. Biodiesel from Canola Oil using a 1:1 Molar Mixture of Methanol and Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola oil was transesterified using an equimolar mixture of ethanol and methanol with potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst. Effect of catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1.5% wt/wt), molar ratio of equimolar mixture of ethanol and methanol (EMEM) to canola oil (3:1 to 12:1) and reaction temperature (25 t...

  9. Canola meals from different production plants differ in ruminal protein degradability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation trials have shown that production and N efficiency were improved when dietary soybean meal was replaced with equal crude protein (CP) from canola meal. Three or four canola meal samples were collected from each of 12 Canadian production plants (total = 37), and analyzed for differences in ...

  10. Impact of endogenous canola phenolics on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of phenolics naturally present in canola seeds and meal. Individual phenolics were extracted from ground, defatted canola seeds and meal. Fractionated extracts rich in sinapic acid, sinapine or canolol as well as a non-fractionated ext...

  11. Physical Localization and Genetic Mapping of Fertility Restoration Gene Rfo in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogu cytoplasm for male fertility and its fertility restorer gene Rfo in canola (Brassica napus L.) were originally introgressed from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and have been widely used for canola hybrid production and breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the physical locati...

  12. Identification and analysis of MKK and MPK gene families in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wanwan; Yang, Bo; Yu, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Zili; Li, Cui; Jia, Ming; Sun, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Feifei; Zhang, Hanfeng; Wang, Boya; Deyholos, Michael K.; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) signaling cascades transduce and amplify environmental signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases to activate defense gene expression. Canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus) is a major crop in temperate regions. Identification and characterization of MAPK and MAPK kinases (MAPKK/MKK) of canola will help to elucidate their role in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Results We describe the identification a...

  13. Tolerance of canola to drought and salinity stresses in terms of root water uptake model parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagawa, Aki; Fujimaki, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is cultivated for oil as a biofuel crop. Few quantitative data concerning its tolerance to abiotic stresses has been presented. We evaluated the tolerances of canola to drought and salinity stresses in terms of parameter values in a macroscopic root water uptake model. We conducted an experiment using nine columns with two plants in each: three columns were under drought stresses, another three were under saline stress and others provided potential transpiration. Two s...

  14. Evaluation energy balance of canola production under rain fed farming in north of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Azarpour

    2012-01-01

    Energy in agriculture is important in terms of crop production and agro processing for value adding. Canola is one of important rapeseed that it is tilled in dry farming systems in north of Iran. This method in an agricultural product system is the energy consuming in product operations and energy saving in produced crops. In this article, evaluation of energy indices under rain fed farming canola in north of Iran (Guilan province) was investigated. Data were collected from 72 farms by used a...

  15. Biodiesel From Canola Oil Using a 1:1 Mole Mixture of Methanol and Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola oil was transesterified using a 1:1 mole mixture of methanol and ethanol (M/E) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst. Effect of catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1.5% wt/wt), mole ratio of M/E to canola oil (3:1 to 20:1) and reaction temperature (25 to 75°C) on the percentage yield measured af...

  16. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill;

    compounds. However, the effect of these endogenous antioxidants on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion is yet unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the endogenous phenolics in Canola oil on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion. For this purpose individual phenolics were extracted from...... defatted grinded canola seeds. Fractionated extracts of Sinapic acid, Sinapine and Canolol was used as well as a non fractionated extract. These extracts was added (100 and 350 μM) to 10% o/w emulsion with stripped canola oil in order to evaluate their effect on lipid oxidation in emulsions. For comparison......Canola oil is low in saturated fat, high in monounsaturated fat and has a favourable omega-6:omega-3 ratio . Therefore, Canola oil has a healthier fatty acid profile compared to other plant oils such as soy oil. Therefore, canola oil is also an ingredient in many food products. However, the content...

  17. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions-Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa; Rempel, Curtis B; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2016-01-01

    At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled "Canola/Rapeseed Protein-Future Opportunities and Directions" that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015) addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry. PMID:27135237

  18. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions—Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled “Canola/Rapeseed Protein—Future Opportunities and Directions” that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015 addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry.

  19. Glyphosate-Resistant and Conventional Canola (Brassica napus L.) Responses to Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elza Alves; Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-05-11

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola contains two transgenes that impart resistance to the herbicide glyphosate: (1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and (2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The objectives of this research were to determine the phytotoxicity of AMPA to canola, the relative metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR and conventional non-GR (NGR) canola, and AMPA pool sizes in glyphosate-treated GR canola. AMPA applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) was not phytotoxic to GR or NGR. At this AMPA application rate, NGR canola accumulated a higher concentration of AMPA in its tissues than GR canola. At rates of 1 and 3.33 kg ae ha(-1) of glyphosate, GR canola growth was stimulated. This stimulatory effect is similar to that of much lower doses of glyphosate on NGR canola. Both shikimate and AMPA accumulated in tissues of these glyphosate-treated plants. In a separate experiment in which young GR and NGR canola plants were treated with non-phytotoxic levels of [(14)C]-glyphosate, very little glyphosate was metabolized in NGR plants, whereas most of the glyphosate was metabolized to AMPA in GR plants at 7 days after application. Untreated leaves of GR plants accumulated only metabolites (mostly AMPA) of glyphosate, indicating that GOX activity is very high in the youngest leaves. These data indicate that more glyphosate is transformed to AMPA rapidly in GR canola and that the accumulated AMPA is not toxic to the canola plant. PMID:27092715

  20. Effect of pollinator abundance on self-fertilization and gene flow: application to GM Canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Martin; Hayter, Katrina; Cresswell, James E

    2007-10-01

    Cross-pollination from fields of transgenic crops is of great public concern. Although cross-pollination in commercial canola (Brassica napus) fields has been empirically measured, field trials are expensive and do not identify the causes of cross-pollination. Therefore, theoretical models can be valuable because they can provide estimates of cross-pollination at any given site and time. We present a general analytical model of field-to-field gene flow due to the following competing mechanisms: the wind, bees, and autonomous pollination. We parameterize the model for the particular case of field-to-field cross-pollination of genetically modified (GM) canola via the wind and via bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). We make extensive use of the large data set of bee densities collected during the recent U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations. We predict that canola approaches almost full seed set without pollinators and that autonomous pollination is responsible for > or = 25% of seed set, irrespective of pollinator abundance. We do not predict the relative contribution of bees vs. the wind in landscape-scale gene flow in canola. However, under model assumptions, we predict that the maximum field-to-field gene flow due to bumble bees is 0.04% and 0.13% below the current EU limit for adventitious GM presence for winter- and spring-sown canola, respectively. We predict that gene flow due to bees is approximately 3.1 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, and due to the wind, 1.3 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, for both winter- and spring-sown canola. Bumble bee-mediated gene flow is approximately 2.7 times higher and wind-mediated gene flow approximately 1.7 times lower in spring-sown than in winter-sown canola, regardless of the degree of male-sterility. The model of cross-pollination due to the wind most closely predicted three previously published observations: field-to-field gene flow is low; gene flow increases with

  1. Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  2. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (p<0.05). The oil contents of rapeseeds were found to be high compared with canola seed oils. The main fatty acids in the oils are oleic (56.80-64.92%), linoleic (17.11-20.92%) and palmitic (4.18-5.01%) acids. A few types of tocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (p<0.05). As a result, the present study shows that oil, fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars. PMID:27023318

  3. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  4. Development of new high oil yield canola hybrid Huyou 039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the oil content of rapeseed was an important way to breed new Canola varieties with high seed and high oil yield. Huyou 039 was developed by using high oil content variety (lines) Shan 048 and Huyou 16 as parents, through breeding methods of composite hybridization between varieties and radiation mutagenesis. It was examined and approved by the Shanghai Crops Variety Approval Committee in 2012. The oil yield of this variety reached 1407.63 kg/hm2 in the regional test of Shanghai for two year average. It was increased by 15.86% compared with the control. The oil yield of this variety reached 1198.65 kg/hm2 in the national regional test, which was 3.50% higher than the control. Huyou 039 had the similar resistance to diseases compared with the control, and the oil of this variety have excellent quality, which was suitable to extension and plant in the downstream area of Yangtze River. (authors)

  5. Anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung: optimization of methane production in batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability). The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO/sub 3/ gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size. (author)

  6. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  7. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels

  8. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal) for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP), formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively....

  9. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil Using Amberlyst-26 as a Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    İLGEN, Oğuzhan; AKIN, Ayşe Nilgün; Boz, Nezahat

    2009-01-01

    The transesterification of canola oil to fatty acid methyl esters was studied using Amberlyst-26 as a solid catalyst. The influence of reaction conditions, such as the reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, amount of catalyst, effect of co-solvent, and alcohol and oil types, were determined. When the reaction was carried out at 45 °C with a canola oil to methanol molar ratio of 6:1, a reaction time of 1.5 h, and 3 wt.% of catalyst, oil conversion was about 67%. Methanol was muc...

  10. Selective isolation and characterization of agriculturally beneficial endopytic bacteria from wild hemp using canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endophytic bacteria can provide a useful alternative to synthetic fertilizers to improve plant growth. Wild plants are little investigated as a source of growth promoting endophytic bacteria for commercial application to crops. In present study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) using two different methods to examine their ability to promote canola growth. Besides direct isolation from the roots, endophytic bacteria were also selectively isolated from the rhizosphere of C. sativa using canola. Under gnotobiotic conditions, six bacteria from the selective isolation significantly improved canola root growth, as compared to the two bacteria isolated from direct method. Overall, three isolates performed distinctly well, namely, Pantoea vagans MOSEL-t13, Pseudomonas geniculata MOSEL-tnc1, and Serratia marcescens MOSEL-w2. These bacteria tolerated high salt concentrations and promoted canola growth under salt stress. Further, the isolated bacteria possessed plant growth promoting traits like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Most isolates produced plant cell-wall degrading enzymes, cellulase and pectinase. Some isolates were also effective in hindering the growth of two phytopathogenic fungi in dual culture assay, and displayed chitinase and protease activity. Paenibacillus sp. MOSEL-w13 displayed the greatest antifungal activity among all the isolates. Present findings conclude that wild plants can be a good source for isolating beneficial microbes, and validates the employed selective isolation for improved isolation of plant-beneficial endophytic bacteria. (author)

  11. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  12. Nonrandom Distribution of Cabbage Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Dryland Canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica napus L.), and their gradual spread over a 7-wk period was characterized. The small-plot experiment demonstrated gradient effects from plot centers and a nonrandom vertical distribution, with initial colonization occurring on the abaxial side of lower canopy leaves and, later, highest numbers of cabbage aphids occurring on racemes. We also conducted large-scale distribution analyses of cabbage aphid infestations in two commercial canola fields, using visual inspection and sweep net sampling. We used canola plant phenological and landscape features as explanatory variables of the spatial distribution of cabbage aphid counts. These large-scale experiments showed strong edge effects with negative associations between cabbage aphid counts and distance to crop edges, including tree lines and contour banks. Cabbage aphid distribution was more effectively displayed using logistic regression than ordinary regression, Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs, or both. Based on the study findings, a nonrandom or optimized inspection approach is proposed to focus monitoring efforts on canola plants within 20 m from field edges with particular attention to the abaxial side of lower-canopy leaves. Detection of advanced cabbage aphid infestations should target the racemes within 20 m from field edges. PMID:26313983

  13. 7 CFR 457.161 - Canola and rapeseed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... permitted to obtain samples of the production to determine the moisture content. (2) Canola production will.... (ii) The price of damaged production will not be reduced for: (A) Moisture content; (B) Damage due to... Basic Provisions, land on which seed is initially spread onto the soil surface by any method...

  14. Canola straw as a bio-waste resource for medium density fiberboard (MDF) manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hossein

    2009-10-01

    Canola straw as an agricultural residue has been investigated for MDF production. The variables were steaming time (2, 5 and 8 min), the resin content (9% and 11%), and press time (4 and 6 min). Common physical and mechanical properties of experimental boards including modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond strength (IB) and thickness swelling (TS) were measured. Fiber properties of canola straw including length, diameter and cell wall thickness were determined. The results showed that all the tested mechanical properties improved with the increase of steaming time level. The results were close to the minimum requirements of MDF specified in the ANSI A208.2 standard. Dimensional stability of the MDFs improved as adhesive content increased. The IB values are positively affected by the increase of press time. MDF properties made from canola straw possess acceptable qualities as compared to those made from other non-wood plants. Furthermore, the fiber dimensions of canola straw were also in the range of reported values in hardwoods. PMID:19604682

  15. Comparative growth of Spring-planted canola, brown mustard and camelina

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increased emphasis for diesel substitution, production of brown mustard (Brassica juncea), canola (B. napus) and camelina (Camelina sativa) used as biodiesel may increase in the High Plains. The objective was to elucidate the growth pattern of these crops when spring-planted in western Nebraska...

  16. Identification, expression and interaction analyses of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanfeng; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Zhang, Yupeng; Deng, Min; Niu, Fangfang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Boya; Liang, Wanwan; Deyholos, Michael K.; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops in China and worldwide. The yield and quality of canola is frequently threatened by environmental stresses including drought, cold and high salinity. Calcium is a well-known ubiquitous intracellular secondary messenger in plants. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases found only in plants and some protozoans. CPKs are Ca2+ sensors that have both Ca2+ sensing function and kinase...

  17. Formulasi Krim Dengan Minyak Canola (Brassica napus L.) Sebagai Pelembab Menggunakan Dasar Krim m/a dan a/m

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmah, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    Background:Canola oil(Brasicca napusL.) has a high vitamin E content.VitaminEis an antioxidantthat ishighlyeffectiveandcapable of protecting the skin from damage caused by free radicals. Thiscankeep the skin remains suppleandsmooth, increase humidity andslowthe appearance of wrinkles. Canola oilalsocontainsfatty acidssuch asoleicacid(59.1%); palmitic(3.9%); stearic(1.8%); linoleicacid(22.2%) andalpha-linolenic acid(10%). Purpose:The purposeof thisresearchwastomakepreparationscreamtypeo/w a...

  18. Genome-wide association analyses reveal complex genetic architecture underlying natural variation for flowering time in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, H; Raman, R; Coombes, N; Song, J; Prangnell, R; Bandaranayake, C; Tahira, R; Sundaramoorthi, V; Killian, A; Meng, J; Dennis, E S; Balasubramanian, S

    2016-06-01

    Optimum flowering time is the key to maximize canola production in order to meet global demand of vegetable oil, biodiesel and canola-meal. We reveal extensive variation in flowering time across diverse genotypes of canola under field, glasshouse and controlled environmental conditions. We conduct a genome-wide association study and identify 69 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with flowering time, which are repeatedly detected across experiments. Several associated SNPs occur in clusters across the canola genome; seven of them were detected within 20 Kb regions of a priori candidate genes; FLOWERING LOCUS T, FRUITFUL, FLOWERING LOCUS C, CONSTANS, FRIGIDA, PHYTOCHROME B and an additional five SNPs were localized within 14 Kb of a previously identified quantitative trait loci for flowering time. Expression analyses showed that among FLC paralogs, BnFLC.A2 accounts for ~23% of natural variation in diverse accessions. Genome-wide association analysis for FLC expression levels mapped not only BnFLC.C2 but also other loci that contribute to variation in FLC expression. In addition to revealing the complex genetic architecture of flowering time variation, we demonstrate that the identified SNPs can be modelled to predict flowering time in diverse canola germplasm accurately and hence are suitable for genomic selection of adaptative traits in canola improvement programmes. PMID:26428711

  19. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of canola leaf inoculated with a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaei-Asl, Farzad; Farajzadeh, Davoud; Bandehagh, Ali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-09-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria can improve the tolerance of canola to salt stress. To better understand the effects of plant growth-promoting bacterium on the protein profiles of canola under salt stress condition, proteomics was performed. Salt-sensitive (Sarigol) and -tolerant (Hyola308) canola cultivars were inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens FY32, and the protein profiles of canola leaves were compared using a PEG-fractionation method. Cluster analysis of canola cultivars based on a stress tolerance index of several morphological parameters was used to confirm that Sarigol and Hyola308 were salt-sensitive and -tolerant cultivars, respectively. Using a gel-free proteomic technique, 154 and 94 proteins in Hyola308 and 100 and 144 proteins in Sarigol were uniquely identified in non-inoculated and bacterial-inoculated cultivars, respectively. By PEG fractionation, a total of 132 and 207 proteins were identified in non-inoculated and inoculated Hyola308, respectively. Notably, the abundance of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 was significantly increased in inoculated Hyola308 under severe salt stress and decreased under moderate salt stress. In addition, the enzyme activity of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase was significantly increased non-inoculated Hyola308 and the activity of succinate dehydrogenase was increased in inoculated Hyola308 leaves exposed to salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that the bacterial inoculation of canola increases salt tolerance by inducing an increase in the abundance of proteins related to glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and amino acid metabolism. PMID:27137672

  20. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  1. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased ( P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved ( P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  2. Nonrandom distribution of cabbage aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in dryland canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Severtson, D; Flower, K.; Nansen, C

    2015-01-01

    © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica...

  3. Effects of fatty acids on carbohydrates and lipids of canola seeds during germination

    OpenAIRE

    M.L.L. Ferrarese; C. R. S. Baleroni; O. Ferrarese-Filho

    1998-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8) and oleic acid (C18) on carbohydrates and lipids during canola seed germination. The results showed that oleic acid influence carbohydrate concentration but did not influence lipid concentration. Significant results were found with caprylic acid that affected carbohydrates and lipids in cotyledons after three-day germination.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos dos ácidos cap...

  4. Influence of canola and sunflower diet amendments on cattle feedlot manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Mir, Priya S; Shah, Mohammad A; Travis, Greg R

    2005-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) producers can replace a part of the traditional diet of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain/silage with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds or canola meal (Brassica napus L.)/oil to enhance conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in milk and meat for its positive health benefits. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding sunflower or canola to finishing steers on cattle manure chemical properties and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The control diet contained 84% rolled barley and 15% barley silage, which provided only 2.6% lipid. The other six treatments had 6.6 to 8.6% lipid delivered from sources such as hay, sunflower seed (SS), canola meal/oil, and SS forage pellets. Manure samples (a mixture of cattle urine, feces, and woodchip bedding materials) were collected and analyzed after cattle had been on these diets for 113 d. The dietary source and level of lipid had no effect on organic N and nitrate N content in manure, but significantly affected ammonia N and VFA. Inclusion of SS forage pellets, hay, or canola meal/oil in cattle diets had no significant impact on manure characteristics, but SS significantly reduced the pH and increased propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric content. In addition, N loss after excretion (mainly from urine N) increases with the pH and N levels in both feed and manure. The combination of SS with barley silage resulted in a lower VFA and NH3 content in manure and should be a more attractive option. To better manage N nutrient cycles and reduce NH3 related odor problems, feed and manure pH should be one of the factors to consider when determining feed mix rations. PMID:15998867

  5. Development of emission parameters and net energy ratio for renewable diesel from Canola and Camelina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimated the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and net energy ratio (NER) for producing hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) from canola and camelina in Western Canada. Using 1 MJ of energy in the HDRD produced as the functional unit, a variety of scenarios were evaluated to account for variations in allocation methods, co-products, oilseed yield, N2O emission factor, and land use change (LUC). In producing HDRD, the farming stage and the oil conversion stage (i.e. the HDRD production stage) are the most energy and emission intensive. For canola based HDRD, the GHGs and NERs lie in the ranges of 33–94 gCO2e/MJ and 1.2–2.2 MJ/MJ respectively. For camelina based HDRD, the GHGs and NERs range from 30 – 82 gCO2e/MJ and 1.0–2.3 MJ/MJ respectively. In the base scenario (mass allocation; oilseed meal and propane fuel gas co-products; average yield; 0.76% N2O emission factor; LUC ignored), HDRD from camelina (38 gCO2e/MJ, 2.0 MJ/MJ) is environmentally superior to HDRD from canola (48 gCO2e/MJ, 1.7 MJ/MJ) due to lower agricultural inputs and higher yield for camelina. Considering all of the scenarios examined, HDRD from both crops appears to be more sustainable than fossil diesel. - Highlights: • This study estimates the net energy ratio and greenhouse gas emissions in production and utilization of renewable diesel. • The life cycle approach has been used in this study using canola and camelina as feedtocks. • Several scenarios were developed to study the impacts of variations in unit operations on net energy ratio and emissions. • HDRD from both crops appears to be more sustainable than fossil diesel

  6. The bee community and its relationship to canola productivity in homogenous agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidia Witter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Canola crop productivity is benefited by bee pollination and it has been shown that bee communities can be affected by landscape composition. The aim of this study was to analyse the bee community and its relationship to canola seed production in agricultural areas. The density, abundance and richness of floral visitors of Brassica napus cultivar Hyola 61 in six commercial fields in southern Brazil were studied, and their relationships with seed production and the ratio of semi-natural, forested and agricultural areas surrounding the crops were examined. It was observed that canola fields of southern Brazil are surrounded by a homogeneous landscape dominated by agricultural areas. The survey of bees detected a low abundance and richness of native bees in contrast to the high abundance of Apis mellifera. Except for a negative correlation between the abundance of honey bees and the proportion of forested areas within a 2000 m radius from the field (R = -0.90; P = 0.012, no other correlations were found among bee abundance and richness and landscape composition. Although there was not a relationship between A. mellifera and seed set, there was a positive correlation between insect density and seed weight per plant (R = 0.87; P = 0.024. As honey bees were the most captured insect (79%, much of the pollination in this system was probably achieved by honey bees.

  7. Sensitivity of Canola Seeds Associated Fungi to Gamma Rays During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using the gamma radiation to elongate the storage periods of canola seeds (Brassica naps L.). In this respect, canola seeds were irradiated at doses of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy gamma rays and stored at room temperature for periods 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The isolated fungi from non-irradiated post-harvest canola seeds included different species identified as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. condidus, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus, Fusarium oxysporium, F. moniliforme, Penicillium expansum, P. crysogenum, Alternaria brassicae, A. raphani and Trichoderma spp. It was noticed that the predominant species were A. ochraceus, A. flavus, A. niger and F. oxysporium at percentages 16.18, 14.73, 11.00 and 10.53%, respectively. The effective gamma irradiation on the predominant fungi (the sub-lethal dose) was 3.5 kGy for A. ochraceus and 5.0 kGy for F. oxysporium and F. moniliforme. Increasing the irradiated dose up to 7.5 kGy decreased significantly the growth of most isolated fungi. The data also showed that there was a decrease in the total fungal count in stored seeds under the effect of gamma rays for 12 months storage. Also, mycotoxins at the stored seeds were not detected after 12 months storage

  8. Phytotoxic effects of safflower yellow exposure on seed germination and early seedling growth of canola (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of current investigation was to determine phytotoxic effects of safflower dye (safflower yellow) on seed germination and early seedling growth of canola (Brassica napus L.) cv. Rainbow. Safflower yellow was extracted in autoclaved distilled water and was applied at various concentrations (0.312%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%) to canola seeds in petri dishes under axenic conditions. Phenolics content was detected in dye solutions and was maximum (53 mg gallic acid/g extract) in 5% dye solution. The growth rate of canola was decreased with the increase of safflower dye concentration (p<0.05). Maximum inhibition in the activity of enzyme lipase in germinating seeds, germination (%), root and shoot length, root and shoot weight was exhibited by 5% dye solution. In response to the application of safflower dye, canola seedlings accumulated endogenous phenolics. Relative water content and photosynthetic pigments of seedling were reduced to a maximum level by 5% and 2.5% dye solutions. It was inferred that safflower dye exhibited phytotoxic effects at higher concentration on canola. The findings of the current investigation will help in safe disposal of safflower dye found in industrial effluents. (author)

  9. Lignée de Canola MON88302 TruFlexMC Roundup ReadyMD

    OpenAIRE

    Canada, Publié par la Direction des aliments de Santé

    2014-01-01

    Santé Canada a avisé Monsanto Canada Inc. qu’il ne s’oppose pas à la vente d’aliments dérivés du canola MON88302 (canola TruFlexMC Roundup ReadyMD). Le Ministère a réalisé une évaluation approfondie de cette lignée de canola conformément à ses Lignes directrices sur l’évaluation de l’innocuité des aliments nouveaux. Ces lignes directrices sont fondées sur des principes admis internationalement pour l’établissement de l’innocuité des aliments à caractères nouveaux. L...

  10. Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID:16699105

  11. EFFECT OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakoor. H. I., M. L. Khan, Z. Nasir, N. Mukhtar and M. S. Rehman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola oil and soybean oil on production performance and serum lipid profile in layers. In this study 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 different dietary treatments viz control (A. containing 2.5 % canola oil (B, 5% canola oil (C, 2.5% soybean oil (D and 5% soybean oil (E for a period of 9 weeks. Effects of five treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg quality, weight gain and serum lipid profile, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were monitored. Serum lipid profile was determined 0.31 and 63 days from start of experiment. Significantly (P<0.05 less serum cholesterol was found in treatment C (295.1 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (321 mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL was significantly (P<0.01 , less in treatment C ( 131.7 mg/dl as compared with treatment A. ( 161 mg/dl and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL was significantly (P<0.01 high in treatment C (31.76 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (25.42 mg/dl and triglyceride (TG was found significantly (P<0.01 less in treatment E ( 907.3 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (960 mg/dl. The results suggested that as the percentage of oils increased in the diet, serum lipid profile showed a positive trend.

  12. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradation of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawrang, P. [Agriculture, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: parvinshawrang@yahoo.co.uk; Nikkhah, A.; Zare-Shahneh, A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, A.A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G. [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi-Shahrebabak, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Gamma irradiation of canola meal (at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy) could alter its ruminal protein degradation characteristics by cross-linking of the polypeptide chains. This processing resulted in decrease (linear effect, P<0.001) of ruminal protein degradation and increase (linear effect, P<0.001) of intestinal protein digestibility. The results showed that gamma irradiation at doses higher than 25 kGy can be used as a cross-linking agent to improve protein properties of supplements in ruminant nutrition.

  13. Impact of endogenous canola phenolics on the oxidative stability of oil‐in‐water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Winkler‐Moser, Jill K.;

    2013-01-01

    ‐fractionated extract were used. These extracts (100 and 350 µM) were evaluated as antioxidants in stripped canola oil‐in‐water (o/w) emulsion. For comparison, the antioxidative effect of phenolic standards for sinapic acid and sinapine (as sinapine thiocyanate) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BTH) as a positive control...... were also evaluated. The concentration of lipid hydroperoxides and selected volatiles measured at different time points was used to evaluate the antioxidative effect. Moreover, the properties of extracts and corresponding phenolic standards were evaluated in three different in vitro antioxidant assays...

  14. Value of Insect Pest Management to U.S. and Canadian Corn, Soybean and Canola Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Paul D Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess 1) the value of alternative insect management practices to farmers and 2) how these values relate to nonpecuniary factors such as simplicity, convenience, yield risk, and human and environmental safety. To accomplish these objectives, we conduct¬ed telephone surveys in 2014 of corn and soybean farmers in the U.S. as well as corn, soybean and canola farmers in Canada. Corn farmers were queried about their use in 2013 of Bt corn, insecticide seed t...

  15. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  16. Extrusion enhances metabolizable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.

  17. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Fang Hwang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields.

  18. A simplified FTIR chemometric method for simultaneous determination of four oxidation parameters of frying canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, M Younis; Hassan, S Sara; Sherazi, S T H; Mahesar, S A; Kara, Huseyin; Kandhro, Aftab A; Sirajuddin

    2015-10-01

    Transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method using 100 μm KCl cell was applied for the determination of total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) in canola oil (CLO) during potato chips frying at 180 °C. The calibration models were developed for TPC, CV, CD and CT using partial least square (PLS) chemometric technique. Excellent regression coefficients (R(2)) and root mean square error of prediction values for TPC, CV, CD and CT were found to be 0.999, 0.992, 0.998 and 0.999 and 0.809, 0.690, 1.26 and 0.735, respectively. The developed calibration models were applied on samples of canola oil drawn during potato chips frying process. A linear relationship was obtained between CD and TPC with a good correlation of coefficient (R(2)=0.9816). Results of the study clearly indicated that transmission FTIR-PLS method could be used for quick and precise evaluation of oxidative changes during the frying process without using any organic solvent. PMID:25985130

  19. Effect of Packaging Films on the Quality of Canola Oil under Photooxidation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging films on the quality of canola oil which contains high concentration of fat under photooxidation condition and get the oxidation kinetics based on measuring the oxidation intensities including peroxide value, hexanal, and photosensitizer (chlorophyll. The canola oil was packaged by PET/CPP; KPET/PE was used for experiments. The change of light and oxygen transmission rate (OTR of PET/CPP which was considered as the typical fatty foods packaging film under different light intensities was also tested. The results show that the peroxide value increased rapidly under light conditions and fitted the zero order kinetics; also the oxygen transmission rate had great impact on it; hexanal fitted the zero order kinetic in oil whose package of low OTR generated a lot; however package in high OTR films changed very slowly that might be dependent on the performance of hexanal through plastic films. The degradation of chlorophyll fitted the first order kinetic and decreased quickly under light but was almost independent of OTR of transparent packaging material. Light reduced the oxygen barrier properties of the films, which should be considered as the photooxidation condition (and the photooxidation condition thus should be considered.

  20. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E; Peng, Gary; Ahmed, Hafiz; Zhou, Qixing; Turnbull, George

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%-128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields. PMID:27447676

  1. Desempenho e morfometria da mucosa de duodeno de frangos de corte alimentados com farelo de canola, durante o período inicial Performance and duodenum mucous morphometry of broiler chickens fed canola meal, during the starting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fontana Figueiredo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para verificar o efeito da utilização de níveis crescentes (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% de farelo de canola nas rações de frangos de corte, sobre o desempenho e a morfologia da mucosa, durante o período inicial (1 - 21 dias e os efeitos de sua utilização no período de crescimento. Foram utilizados 1000 pintos machos de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e 50 aves por unidade experimental. No 1º, 21º e 41º dia, as aves e as rações foram pesadas e no 21º dia duas aves de cada unidade experimental foram sacrificadas para a colheita de um segmento do duodeno para avaliação de morfometria intestinal. Os resultados demonstraram que níveis crescentes de farelo de canola induziram à redução linear no ganho de peso, peso médio e consumo de ração e piora na conversão alimentar. Durante o período de crescimento (21 a 41 dias, no qual todas as aves receberam ração semelhante, observou-se decréscimo no peso médio e ganho de peso, com o aumento dos níveis de farelo de canola, enquanto os parâmetros conversão alimentar e consumo de ração foram semelhantes. Os dados referentes a morfometria da mucosa intestinal, submetidos à análise de regressão, demonstraram que houve aumento na profundidade de cripta conforme o aumento nos níveis de farelo de canola. Os resultados permitem afirmar que é possível a inclusão de até 20% de farelo de canola, sem prejuízos no desempenho das aves e no trato digestório.A trial was carried to verify the effect of increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of canola meal in diets of broiler chickens, on performance and mucous morphology, during the starting period (1 - 21 days. 1,000 male chicks one-day-old were used, distributed in a randomized experimental assay, with five treatments, four replicates and 50 birds per experimental unit. At the 1st, 21st and 41st days, the birds

  2. Quantifying seed production by volunteer canola (Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis Quantificar a produção de sementes de canola voluntária (Brassica napus e Sinapis arvensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Soltani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer canola (Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis are well identified weeds of different cropping systems. Quantitative information on regarding seed production by them is limited. Such information is necessary to model dynamics of soil seed banks. The aim of this work was to quantify seed production as a function of the size of those weeds. A wide range of plant size was produced by using a fan seeding system performed at two sowing dates (environments. Plant size varied from 3 to 167 g per plant for canola and from 6 to 104 g per plant for S. arvensis. Seed production ranged from 543 to14,773 seeds per plant for canola, and from 264 to 10,336 seeds per plant for S. arvensis. There was a close relationship between seed production per plant and plant size which was well-described by a power function (y = 130.6x0.94; R² = 0.93 for canola and y = 28x1.27; R² = 0.95 for S. arvensis. There was also strong relationships among the number of pods produced in individual plants and the quantity of seeds produced (g per plant with the size of the plant. The relationships found in this study can be used in dynamic seed bank models of volunteer canola and S. arvensis.Voluntários de canola (Brassica napuse Sinapis arvensis são conhecidas como plantas daninhas na produção agrícola. A informação quantitativa sobre a produção de sementes de ervas daninhas por estas é limitada. A informação é necessária para a dinâmica do modelo de bancos de sementes do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a produção de sementes em função do tamanho destas plantas daninhas. Uma grande variedade de tamanho das plantas foi produzido usando-se um sistema de semeadura em leque, realizado em duas épocas de semeadura (ambientes. O tamanho da planta variou entre 3 e 167 g por planta para a canola e entre 6 e 104 g por planta para S. arvensis. A produção de sementes variou entre 543 e 14.773 sementes por planta de canola e entre 264 e 10.336 de

  3. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  4. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  5. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  6. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  7. Glyphosate resistant and susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to determine 1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and –susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, 2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism ...

  8. Effect of canola oil emulsion injection on processing characteristics and consumer acceptability of three muscles from mature beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Wang, H; Janz, J A M

    2013-02-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the combined effect of blade tenderization and canola oil emulsion injection on processing yield and eating quality-related parameters of selected loin and hip muscles (longissimus lumborum, LL, biceps femoris, BF and semimembranosus, SM) from over thirty month (OTM) cattle. Canola oil emulsion injection significantly reduced shear force, increased sensory scores for juiciness and tenderness, and made connective tissue less perceptible. Targeted levels of omega-3 fatty acids can be achieved by the inclusion of canola oil containing marinades/emulsions at levels sufficient to retain omega-3 fatty acids in cooked product. All consumer acceptability attributes of OTM muscles were improved with the use of canola oil emulsion injection treatments without compromising colour although slightly decreasing oxidative stability of BF muscle. Injection of omega-3 oil emulsions in combination with blade tenderization can be effectively utilized to enrich injected products in essential fatty acids and enhance eating quality of OTM beef. PMID:23089241

  9. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Sekulic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM. The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI seed treatment (NNI ST use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.. Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  10. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  11. Kinetic Modeling of Glycerolysis – Hydrolysis of Canola Oil in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Media Using Equilibrium Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moquin, P.H.L.; Temelli, F.; Sovová, Helena; Saldana, M.D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-424. ISSN 0896-8446. [International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids. Orlando, 01.05.2005-04.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : canola oil * glycrolysis * kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.037, year: 2006

  12. Glyphosate-resistant and conventional canola (Brassica napus L.)responses to glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola expresses two transgenes: 1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshiki...

  13. Genome-wide prediction of agronomic traits in hybrid spring-type canola (Brassica napus) using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Habib Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus L., (AACC, 2n=38) is one of the world’s most important oilseed crops and is used as human food, i.e. cooking oil and as animal feed. In Europe, winter-type canola is also used as a sustainable source of bioenergy. Canola was naturally formed ~7500 years ago from spontaneous inter-specific hybridisations between cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). Recently, the reference genome of the B. napus ‘Darmor-bzh’ cultivar was sequenced and publ...

  14. Honey bee contribution to canola pollination in Southern Brazil Abelhas melíferas na polinização de canola no Sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise de Souza Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although canola, (Brassica napus L., is considered a self-pollinating crop, researchers have indicated that crop productivity increases as a result of honey bee Apis mellifera L. pollination. Given this crop's growing importance in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, this work evaluated the increase in pod and seed productivity with respect to interactions with anthophilous insects and manual pollination tests. The visiting frequency of A. mellifera was correlated with the crop's blooming progression, and productivity comparisons were made between plants visited by insects, manually pollinated plants (geitonogamy and xenogamy and plants without pollination induction. Pod set and seed production per plant were determined for each treatment. Among the 8,624 recorded flower-visiting insects, Hymenoptera representatives were the most prevalent (92.3%, among which 99.8% were A. mellifera. The correlation between these bees and blooming progression was positive (r = 0.87; p = 0.002. Pollination induction increased seed productivity from 28.4% (autogamy to 50.4% with insect visitations, as well as to 48.7 (geitonogamy and to 55.1% (xenogamy through manual pollination.A canola (Brassica napus L. é considerada autocompatível, embora pesquisadores indiquem aumento na produtividade da cultura resultante da polinização efetuada por Apis mellifera L.. Considerando-se a crescente importância dessa cultura no Rio Grande do Sul, avaliou-se o incremento da produtividade de síliquas e sementes a partir de interações com insetos antófilos e com testes de polinização manual. A freqüência de visitas de A. mellifera foi relacionada com o desenvolvimento da floração da cultura e a produtividade foi comparada entre plantas visitadas por insetos, polinizadas manualmente (geitonogamia e xenogamia e com ausência de indução de polinização. Em cada tratamento avaliou-se a produtividade de síliquas e de sementes formadas por planta. Dentre os 8.624 insetos

  15. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L-1 of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L-1 and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L-1 depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L-1 and from 0.14 to 0.33 L-1, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L-1 for soybean and 0.44 L-1 for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L-1. (author)

  16. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP, formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively. Feeding was done at the rate of 4% of wet fish body weight daily for five months. The overall average weight gains in T1, T2 and T3 for three fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla were 356.6 ± 15.12, 332.6 ± 14.32 and 362.4 ± 12.12; 320.4 ± 14.03, 305.6 ± 14.03 and 337.1 ± 16.02; and 284.6 ± 13.07, 282.2 ± 15.13 and 305.1 ± 17.43g, respectively. Net fish yields (all the species together were 1529.5 ± 13.93, 1327.0 ± 12.19 and 1122.5 ± 10.28 Kg/ha/year under T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The gross fish production was calculated as 2338.5 ± 12.49, 2137.5 ± 11.65 and 1931.5 ± 13.01 Kg/ha/year in T1, T2 and T3 pond, respectively. In all the treatments, Catla catla showed better growth performance, followed by Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. The treated ponds caused a decrease in fish production when replacement of fish meal was done with canola meal.

  17. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Ho; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; An, Byoung Ki; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON), 20% canola oil (CA) and 20% flaxseed oil (FL). The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (psausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (psausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (p<0.05). The results show that using canola or flaxseed oils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality. PMID:27004822

  18. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a energia digestível e a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O óxido de crômio (0,1% foi utilizado como indicador inerte em dieta semi-purificada, com coleta de fezes pelo sistema Guelph. Os peixes foram alimentados até saciedade aparente. O farelo de canola apresentou valores de energia e nutrientes digestíveis de: 77,84; 71,99; 86,92; 88,19; 67,16 e 29,86% para a matéria seca, energia, proteína, lipídios, cálcio e fósforo, respectivamente, correspondendo a 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69,97; 32,6; 1,2; 0,41 e 0,28%, de energia digestível, matéria seca, proteína e lipídios digestíveis e cálcio e fósforo disponíveis, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciam que a tilápia do Nilo pode utilizar eficientemente o farelo de canola.This study was carried out to determine the digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The chromic oxide (0.1% was used as an inert indicador in the semi-purified diet and faeces were collected by Guelph system. Fish were fed to apparent satiation. The apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal were: 77.84, 71.99, 86.92, 88.19, 67.16, and 29.86% for dry matter, energy, protein, lipids, calcium and phosphorus, respectively, corresponding to 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69.97, 32.6, 1.2, 0.41, and 0.28% of, digestible energy, dry matter, protein and lipids and available calcium and phosphorus, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment evidence that Nile tilapia may be able to utilize canola meal eficiently.

  19. Evaluation of canola seeds of different cultivars with special emphasis on the quantification of erucic acid and glucosinolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of the seeds and seed oils of five locally grown canola cultivars: Zafar-2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar and Con-11. The oil contents from canola seeds ranged from 34.3 to 39.3%. The levels of protein, fiber, ash and moisture were found to be 22.1-41.0, 12.0-14.0, 3.0-3.5 and 4.0-7.5%, respectively. The glucosinolate (GSL contents in the canola seeds examined ranged from 49.7 to 78.1 mmol g-1. The extracted canola seed oils revealed an iodine value of 118.2-124.6 g of I/100g of oil; refractive index (40 °C, 1.460-1.464; density (24 °C, 0.914-0.919 mg m-1; saponification value, 187-195; unsaponifiable matter, 0.51-1.10%; acidity (% as oleic acid, 0.40-1.40, and color (1-in. cell, 1.35-1.73 R + 21.0-38.0 Y. Peroxide value (meq/ kg of oil and specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were determined to be 2.00-7.08, 2.17-3.16 and 0.44-0.91, respectively. The seed oils of the five canola cultivars mainly consisted of oleic (C18:1, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 acids at levels of 49.16-62.14, 14.61, 23.45 and 6.97-9.10%, respectively. The concentrations of palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0, erucic (C22:1 and gadoleic (C20:1 acids ranged from 3.47 to 6.00, 1.51 to 2.10, traces to 13.03 and 1.30 to 10.63%, respectively. A small amount of arachidic acid (20:0 with a contribution below 1% was also detected. The contents of tocopherols (α, γ, and δ in the canola oils accounted for 77.1-270.3, 191-500, 3.5-15.6 mg kg-1, respectively.The presence of rather high levels of erucic acid and GSL in the present analysis of canola emphasized the need to further reduce the contents of these two antinutritional constituents in the investigated cultivars.Este estudio describe de la caracterización de semillas y de sus aceites de cinco cultivos locales de canola: Zafar2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar y Con 11. El contenido de aceite de las semillas de canola varió entre un 34.3 y un 39.3%. Los niveles

  20. Effect of pressing and combination of three storage temperatures and times on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of canola expellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guadagnin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effects of combinations of three temperatures and storage times on chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and oxidative stability of canola expellers obtained from the cold-pressing extraction of oil. Canola seeds were single-crushed at moderate temperatures (60°C during 3 pressing sessions. Nine samples (100±1 g of each session were collected, inserted into sealed bags, stored at three temperatures (12, 24, 36°C over 3 periods of time (10, 20, 30 d. Then, samples (100±1 g of canola seeds collected before each pressing session and canola expellers collected before and after each storage time were analyzed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, peroxide number and Kreis test. Before storage, the fatty acid profile of canola seeds and expellers differed significantly, except for myristic (P=0.18, palmitic (P=0.57, oleic (P=0.07, and α-linolenic acids (P=0.45. Compared to canola seeds, expellers showed greater content of saturated, poly-unsaturated, and n-6 fatty acids (P<0.01, but a lower content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P<0.01. Peroxide values were definitely (P<0.01 greater for expellers and averaged 4.22 and 4.11 mEq/kg fat before and after storage, respectively. The Kreis test was negative for all samples. Under different temperatures and times of storage, canola expellers showed to maintain a good oxidative stability, as highlighted by low peroxide values (<10 mEq/kg fat and negative response for Kreis test. Canola expellers obtained by on-farm cold extraction, despite great oil residual (from 17 to 19% ether extracts on dry matter basis, can be stored at farm without significant chemical and nutritional changes.

  1. Product sampling during transient continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil and development of a kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-11-01

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed for the transient stage of the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Departure functions and group contribution methods were applied to determine the equilibrium constants of the four reversible reactions in the kinetic model. Continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil in subcritical water was conducted experimentally in a lab-scale reactor over a range of temperatures and the concentrations of all neutral components were quantified. Several of the rate constants in the model were obtained by modeling this experimental data, with the remaining determined from calculated equilibrium constants. Some reactions not included in the present, or previous, hydrolysis modeling efforts were identified from glycerolysis kinetic studies and may explain the slight discrepancy between model and experiment. The rate constants determined in this paper indicate that diglycerides in the feedstock accelerate the transition from "emulsive hydrolysis" to "rapid hydrolysis". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Growth, yield and quality response of various canola cultivars under agro-ecological condition of Faisalabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative response of six Canola hybrids/cultivars viz. Hyola-401, Omega-I, Omega-II, Bulbul-98, Rainbow and Cyclone. Crop growth, agronomic and qualitative traits were recorded by standard procedures. The results showed that hybrid Omega-II produced maximum leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and total dry matter accumulation (TDM) and also out yielded than other hybrids/cultivars, i.e. 2439 kg ha/sup -1/. Whereas, it was observed that Hyola-401 gave the highest oil contents (44.51%) and Omega-I produced the highest protein content (25.25%) amongst all the treatments. It is concluded that Omega-II cultivar performed better and attained maximum yield and quality under the agro-ecological conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  3. Mathematical modeling of supercritical fluid extraction of oil from canola and sesame seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Honarvar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of supercritical fluid extraction of oil from canola and sesame seeds with a two-phase model was performed in this work. A model based on differential mass balance was used to correlate the experimental data. Different adsorption isotherm models (Henry, Freundlich and Brunauer, Emmet and Teller (BET were used to describe the equilibrium state. Three model parameters such as effective diffusivity (Deff, mass transfer coefficient (Kf and axial dispersion coefficient (Dax of the bed were used as fitting parameters. The experimental data for yields were obtained at pressures of 10-20 MPa, temperatures of 313-333 K and solvent flow rates of 2-4 g/min. From the results, a nonlinear adsorption isotherm exhibited better agreement with experimental data of yield than a linear model in the range of studied conditions.

  4. Microencapsulation of canola oil by lentil protein isolate-based wall materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C; Varankovich, N; Nickerson, M T

    2016-12-01

    The overall goal was to encapsulate canola oil using a mixture of lentil protein isolate and maltodextrin with/without lecithin and/or sodium alginate by spray drying. Initially, emulsion and microcapsule properties as a function of oil (20%-30%), protein (2%-8%) and maltodextrin concentration (9.5%-18%) were characterized by emulsion stability, droplet size, viscosity, surface oil and entrapment efficiency. Microcapsules with 20% oil, 2% protein and 18% maltodextrin were shown to have the highest entrapment efficiency, and selected for further re-design using different preparation conditions and wall ingredients (lentil protein isolate, maltodextrin, lecithin and/or sodium alginate). The combination of the lentil protein, maltodextrin and sodium alginate represented the best wall material to produce microcapsules with the highest entrapment efficiency (∼88%). The lentil protein-maltodextrin-alginate microcapsules showed better oxidative stability and had a stronger wall structure than the lentil protein-maltodextrin microcapsules. PMID:27374532

  5. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  6. Resistance of canola cultivars affect life table parameters of Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollashahi Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A life table can be used as an important and appropriate tool to evaluate the susceptibility or resistance level of different host plant cultivars to insect pests. In the current study, we determined the suitability or inferiority of five different canola cultivars (Hayula420, Hayula401, Hayula50, Hayula60, RGS to Nysius cymoides, under laboratory conditions. Data were analysed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Nysius cymoides which fed on Hayula420 had the longest nymphal period, while those which fed on Hayula50 had the shortest nymphal period. Developmental times (sum of incubation and nymphal periods was longest for those which fe d on Hayula420 and the shortest for those which fed on Hayula50. The adult pre-oviposition period (APOP, total pre-oviposition period (TPOP, mean fecundity, and adult longevity of adults reared on different canola cultivars showed significant differences. The highest and lowest net reproductive rates (R0 were obtained for those which fed on Hayula420 (11.40 offspring per individual and Hayula401 (5.47 offspring per individual, respectively. The highest value (0.0395 d-1 for the intrinsic rate of increase (r was obtained for those which fed on Hayula 60 cultivar and the lowest value (0.0261 d-1 for those which fed on Hayula401 cultivar. The shortest and longest mean generation times (T were obtained for those which fed on RGS and H401 cultivars, respectively. The lowest and highest values of life expectancy (exj were obtained for those which fed on RGS and Hayula420 cultivars, respectively. The results showed that Hayula401 and RGS were not susceptible cultivars to N. cymoides. These cultivars showed higher resistance to N. cymoides, while Hayula60, Hayula420, and Hayula50 were found to be suitable cultivars but with lower resistance to N. cymoides, respectively.

  7. Ethylene involvement in silique and seed development of canola, Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Linda J; Kurepin, Leonid V; Yeung, Edward C; Shah, Saleh; Emery, R J Neil; Reid, David M; Pharis, Richard P

    2012-09-01

    A wide range of plant hormones, including gibberellins (GAs) and auxins are known to be involved in regulating seed and fruit growth and development. Changes in ethylene biosynthesis are also associated with seed and fruit development, but ethylene's role in these processes is poorly understood, as is its possible interaction with the other plant hormones. A major complication of investigating ethylene-induced regulation of developmental processes is ethylene's biphasic mode of action. To investigate ethylene's actions and interactions we used a 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase transgenic canola line. This line evolves significantly less ethylene from its siliques and seeds, relative to plants from a wild type (WT) background. Plants of the transgenic line also had smaller siliques which were associated with reductions in both seed size and seed number. Application of ethephon, a compound that produces ethylene, to plants of the transgenic line restored the WT phenotype for both siliques and seeds. Application of the same dose of ethephon to WT plants diminished both silique and seed development, showing ethylene's biphasic effect and effectively producing the ACC deaminase transgenic phenotype. There were significant decreases in endogenous concentrations of GA(1) and GA(4) and also of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), between WT seeds and seedless siliques and seeds and siliques from the transgenic line plants. These differences were emphasized during early stages (10-20 days after pollination) of seed and silique development. The above results strongly suggest that ethylene interacts with other endogenous plant hormones in regulating silique and seed development and growth in WT lines of canola. PMID:22809685

  8. Water use of cereal-canola-lucerne rotations in southeastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water balances of several annual crops grown in rotation with lucerne were monitored and compared with that under a native white-cypress forest near Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. Water use by the white cypress forest was slightly greater than that by canola, but much less than by cereals and lucerne during the growing season. The cereal and canola crops have a cyclic water use pattern (high in spring, low in summer/autumn) while that for the white cypress is more uniform through the year. Lucerne behaves more like the cypress forest. It uses water throughout the year, and is a high water use alternative to be grown in rotation with crops. It extracts water below the 'nominal' rooting depth of annual crops that has built up from several years of cropping. This reduces the likelihood of deep drainage in the subsequent winter by creating a buffer for water storage. Simulations using APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) run on historical weather data (1957 to 1997) confirmed the potential of lucerne to keep the soil drier and reduce drainage in a rotation. Soil water storage gradually increased under wheat after the lucerne was removed, and was similar to that under continuous wheat after 2 to 3 years. The refilling of the buffer depends on the timing and amount of rainfall. In general, this means that the wheat phase should probably not exceed 2 to 3 years. Furthermore, the drying under lucerne happens rapidly and often within the first summer/autumn of the lucerne phase, with little difference in water use between lucerne and wheat during winter/spring. These results suggest that practical benefits can be obtained by growing lucerne for as little as 12 months, yet, at other times, it may need to be grown for 2 or even 3 years. (author)

  9. Tamanho de parcela e número de repetições em canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar o tamanho ótimo de parcela e o número de repetições, para avaliar a massa verde de canola (Brassica napus L.. Foram realizados 27 ensaios de uniformidade de 5m×5m (25m2, sendo nove ensaios para cada um dos seguintes híbridos: Hyola 61, Hyola 76 e Hyola 433. Cada ensaio foi dividido em 25 unidades experimentais básicas (UEB de 1m×1m, totalizando 675 UEB. Foi pesada a massa verde das plantas de cada UEB. O tamanho ótimo de parcela (Xo foi determinado por meio do método da curvatura máxima do modelo do coeficiente de variação, e as comparações de médias, entre os híbridos, foram feitas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. O número de repetições, para experimentos nos delineamentos inteiramente casualizados e blocos ao acaso, em cenários formados pelas combinações de i tratamentos (i=3, 4, ..., 50 e d diferenças mínimas entre médias de tratamentos a serem detectadas como significativas a 5% de probabilidade, pelo teste de Tukey, expressas em percentagem da média do experimento (d=10%, 13%, ..., 40%, foi determinado por processo iterativo até a convergência. O tamanho ótimo de parcela para avaliar a massa verde de canola é 6,41m2. Quatro repetições, para avaliar até 50 tratamentos, nos delineamentos inteiramente casualizados e blocos ao acaso, são suficientes para identificar, como significativas a 5% de probabilidade, pelo teste de Tukey, diferenças entre médias de tratamentos de 41,4% da média do experimento.

  10. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae (EC 3.1.1.3) was immobilized onto a micro porous polymeric matrix which contains aldehyde functional groups and methyl esters of long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by transesterification of crude canola oil using immobilized lipase. Micro porous polymeric matrix was synthesized from styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymers by using high internal phase emulsion technique and two different lipases, Lipozyme TL-100L® and Novozym 388®, were used for immobilization by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Biodiesel production was carried out with semi-continuous operation. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:4 M equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The transesterification reaction conditions were as follows: oil/alcohol molar ratio 1:4; temperature 40 oC and total reaction time 6 h. Lipozyme TL-100L® lipase provided the highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters as 92%. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that a small enzyme deactivation occurred after used repeatedly for 10 consecutive batches with each of 24 h. Since the process is yet effective and enzyme does not leak out from the polymer, the method can be proposed for industrial applications. -- Research highlights: → Lipozyme TL-100L and Novozym 388 were immobilized onto micro porous polymeric matrix by both physical adsorption and covalent linking. → Immobilized enzymes were used for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters by transesterification of canola oil and methanol using semi-continuous operation system. → According to chromatographic analysis, Lipase Lipozyme TL-100L resulted in the highest yield of methyl ester as 92%.

  11. Molecular chemistry of plant protein structure at a cellular level by synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy: Comparison of yellow ( Brassica rapa) and Brown ( Brassica napus) canola seed tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to use synchrotron light sourced FTIR microspectroscopy as a novel approach to characterize protein molecular structure of plant tissue: compared yellow and brown Brassica canola seed within cellular dimensions. Differences in the molecular chemistry and the structural-chemical characteristics were identified between two type of plant tissues. The yellow canola seeds contained a relatively lower (P < 0.05) percentage of model-fitted α-helices (33 vs. 37), a higher (P < 0.05) relative percentage of model-fitted β-sheets (27 vs. 21) and a lower (P < 0.05) ratio of α-helices to β-sheets (1.3 vs. 1.9) than the brown seeds. These results may indicate that the protein value of the yellow canola seeds as food or feed was different from that of the brown canola seeds. The cluster analysis and principal component analysis did not show clear differences between the yellow and brown canola seed tissues in terms of protein amide I structures, indicating they are related to each other. Both yellow and brown canola seeds contain the same proteins but in different ratios.

  12. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. - Using transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as phytoremediation methods increased plant tolerance at a metal-contaminated field site under low flood conditions

  13. Perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com grãos de canola em diferentes formas Meat fatty acid profile of lambs fed processed or unprocessed canola seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis fonseca de Macedo

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a alteração do perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo grãos inteiros de canola (CI em duas formas de processamentos (quebrados - CQ ou peletizados - CP. Foram utilizados 28 cordeiros, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado e abatidos com média de peso vivo entre 31 e 33kg, coletando-se amostras entre a 12ª e 13ª costela. Houve diferença significativa para os ácidos graxos C10:0, C14:1ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7e C17:0, cujas médias foram maiores que na dieta controle. Os ácidos graxos C18:0, C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C18:3ω3, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22:0 e C24:0 sofreram alterações com a inclusão de grãos de canola. Também foi observado diferença significativa para os totais de ácidos graxos mono-insaturados, porém, os totais de ácidos graxos polinsaturados e a relação entre ácidos graxos polinsaturados e saturados foram inalterados. Os resultados levam à conclusão de que a inclusão de grãos inteiros de canola nas dietas para cordeiros altera o perfil dos ácidos graxos independentemente da forma de apresentação.The objective of this experiment was to compare carcass fatty acids profile of lambs fed a control diet and diets containing either whole (WC, cracked (CC or pelleted (PC canola seeds. Twenty-eight lambs assigned to a completely randomized design were fed their respective diets for 132 days and slaughtered between 31 and 33kg of body weight. Samples of muscle Longissimus dorsi, Psoas maior and Psoas menor were collected on the left side of the carcass between the 12th and 13th ribs and 11 cm from the carcass midline. Concentrations of C10:0, C14:ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7. C17:0 and, C18:3ω3 were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in the carcass of lambs fed the three canola seed diets than in the carcass of those fed the control diet. Pelleted canola seeds increased the percentages of C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22

  14. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de óleo de soja e de canola não alteraram o consumo de ração, os pesos dos ovos, de albúmen, de gema e de casca, as porcentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca e a gravidade específica dos ovos. Houve influência significativa da interação tipo × nível de óleo sobre a produção de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos. Com o aumento do nível de óleo de soja, os resultados obtidos para estas variáveis melhoraram, entretanto, a conversão por massa de ovo piorou com o aumento dos níveis de óleo de canola. A adição de óleo de soja promoveu desempenho melhor que o obtido com óleo de canola.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soybean and canola oil added in crescent levels on production performance indexes and internal and external egg quality of brown commercial layers of the strain Bovans Goldline during five periods of 28 days. Two hundred and eighty hens with 18 weeks old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with seven diets in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement (oil type and oil level, and an additional control, with 5 replicates of 8 hens per experimental unit. The soybean and canola oil levels did not affect the feed consumption; egg, albumen, yolk and shell weights; albumen, yolk and shell percentages, neither the specific gravity. There was an interaction between type and oils levels on egg production and mass

  15. Effect of consuming novel foods consisting high oleic canola oil, barley β-glucan, and DHA on cardiovascular disease risk in humans: the CONFIDENCE (Canola Oil and Fibre with DHA Enhanced) study – protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Thandapilly, Sijo J.; Yang, Shuo; Abraham, Anjalika; Jones, Peter J.H.; Ames, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been identified as a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current recommendations for dietary management of people with MetS involve quantitative and qualitative modifications of food intake, such as high consumption of vegetables, fruits, and whole grain foods. The results from our previous human trials revealed the potential of the dietary components high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO)-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and hig...

  16. Conseqüências da multicolinearidade sobre a análise de trilha em canola Multicolinearity consequence on path analysis in canola

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    Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise estatística do tipo multivariada vem crescendo consideravelmente, motivando a sua ampla utilização por parte dos pesquisadores criando, assim, grande demanda por conhecimentos específicos tanto a respeito da sua aplicação quanto das suas pressuposições ou limitações. Para que a avaliação do grau de associação entre diferentes caracteres de importância agronômica tenha uma estimativa confiável em termos biológico, é de fundamental importância identificar e quantificar o grau de multicolinearidade entre as variáveis estudadas. Além disso, os tipos de modelos estatísticos e matemáticos utilizados na determinação desta dependência linear entre as variáveis classificatórias ou independentes podem ou não ser adequados a estimativas dos parâmetros biológicos avaliados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma avaliação crítica sobre o grau de multicolinearidade identificado e avaliado sobre a análise de trilha analisada sobre partes de um experimento de canola. Os resultados permitem inferir que a aplicação da análise de trilha sobre o grau de multicolinearidade severa produz resultados sem nenhuma importância biológica para o melhorista de plantas. No entanto, esta limitação pode ser facilmente identificada e corrigida através da análise de trilha com colinearidade empregando uma constante (k na diagonal da matriz X‘X. O modelo de análise com multicolinearidade severa, entretanto, superestimou, valores de coeficientes de correlação simples, comparativamente com a multicolinearidade fraca. Mesmo assim, pode não ser necessariamente mais precisa, principalmente em virtude da avaliação de um número restrito de variáveis incluídas na análise ou de uma sobreposição destas variáveis explicativas.The statistical multivariate analysis has a widespread use by researchers, creating a large demand for specific knowledge regarding its application concerning its assumptions and or

  17. Shoot-Specific Down-Regulation of Protein Farnesyltransferase (α-Subunit) for Yield Protection against Drought in Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Beaith, Michelle; Chalifoux, Maryse; Ying, Jifeng; Uchacz, Tina; Sarvas, Carlene; Griffiths, Rebecca; Kuzma, Monika; Wan, Jiangxin; Huang, Yafan

    2009-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world and its seed yield and quality are significantly affected by drought stress. As an innate and adaptive response to water deficit, land plants avoid potential damage by rapid biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which triggers stomatal closure to reduce transpirational water loss. The ABA-mediated stomatal response is a dosage-dependent process; thus, one genetic engineering approach for achievi...

  18. Impact of irradiated sewage sludge application on sandy soil physical characteristics, canola yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiated sewage sludge application on the physical and hydro physical properties of Inshas sandy soil, water use efficiency and yield of canola plant. The soil parameters that were investigated are: soil moisture retention curves, soil bulk density, total porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Treatments included the application of irradiated sewage sludge (6 kGy)at four rates (i.e.0,20,30 and 40 ton/ha). These rates represent 0,50,75,and 100% of nitrogen requirements for canola plant. A control treatment was included using recommended mineral fertilizer NPK. Mineral nitrogen fertilizer (n)was added to the 50% and 75% treatments as a supplement. Results showed that sewage sludge application resulted in improvement of soil physical, hydro physical characteristics and water use efficiency via increase of canola yield . Results indicated that sewage sludge is a good soil conditioner . The best treatment was 30 t/ha sludge + 131 kg/ha ammonium sulfate, as it recorded the highest economic yield and water use efficiency

  19. Induced Mutations for Development of B. juncea Canola Quality Varieties Suitable for Indian Agro-climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry and presoaked canola quality 'Heera' seeds were treated with 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% EMS with three and six-hour mutagenic treatments. Five mutants with early maturity (93-95 days) as opposed to 140 days of the parent were evaluated in trials. EH-1 was found superior in yield potential; however, the yield was lower than the control. Several selections with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid and canola quality were identified from the cross, mutant EH-1 and NU-6 (mutant derivative). Selection NUDH-YJ-6 with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid, 3.6g test weight and high oil content (46%) was at par in seed yield but 17% higher in oil yield in the multi-location trials of four years during 2003-04 to 2006-07 at 10 locations in zone III and zone IV of India. The advance selection derived from EH1 x NU6 was crossed with large seed mutant PB7. Several '00' selections were developed and studied for their agronomic characters. Two selections along with checks were evaluated for two years during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Both these selections were resistant to white rust disease and gave seed and oil yield comparable to national check Varuna. Another selection NUD-YJ- 5 with canola characters of maturity like Indian mustard varieties with small seed size has been registered with the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (INGR NO-03034), ICAR, New Delhi. (author)

  20. Nutritional value of full-fat green canola seed fed to growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Yánez, J; Young, M G; Lanz, G; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Immature green canola seed (full-fat green canola seed [FFGC]) is rejected by canola crushing plants due to chlorophyll staining of oil destined for human consumption. With >35% oil, FFGC can contribute energy to pig diets. The nutritive value of FFGC for growing-finishing pigs was determined in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (46.5 kg BW) were fed 3 diets as a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) coefficients of AA and calculate DE and NE values for FFGC. A diet including 40% FFGC replaced wheat in a basal diet and a cornstarch-based N-free diet were fed to determine energy and nutrient digestibility by difference and to estimate basal endogenous AA losses to calculate SID of AA. In Exp. 2, 1,100 pigs (32.9 kg BW), housed in 50 pens of 22 barrows or gilts per pen, were fed 5 diets including 0, 5, 10, and 15% constant or declining amounts (15, 10, 5, 0, and 0%, respectively) of FFGC over 5 phases to determine effects of feeding FFGC on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Phase diets were formulated to provide 4.00, 3.60, 3.25, 2.90, and 2.65 g SID Lys/Mcal NE for d 0 to 21, d 22 to 42, d 43 to 62, d 63 to 74, and d 75 to 123 kg market weight. Carcass characteristics were measured using the Destron grading system. On DM basis, FFGC contained 43% ether extract, 25% CP, 22% NDF, 10 μmol/g glucosinolates, 1.35% Lys, 0.5% Met, 0.9% Thr, and 0.27% Trp. In FFGC, SID coefficients of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were 86.9, 87.3, 76.9, and 84.3%, respectively, and calculated DE and NE values were 4.92 and 3.50 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. Overall, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion from 0 to 15% linearly decreased (P Pigs fed decreasing amounts of FFGC by growth phase compared with controls (0% FFGC) had lower (P = 0.011) overall G:F (0.392 vs. 0.372 kg/kg). Increasing dietary FFGC inclusion did not affect carcass backfat thickness and loin depth. The FFGC was a good source of dietary energy and AA. However

  1. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) TAg mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA) has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet) or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet). After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1) TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group), offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group) had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity); the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor) and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor) was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter

  2. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1 TAg mice offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardman W Elaine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Methods Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet. After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1 TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Results Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group, offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity; the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Conclusions Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter.

  3. Application of gamma rays for induction of tolerance mutants to environmental stress conditions in canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to induce useful mutations in canola possess high seed yield and oil content under new reclamation desert land at Ras-Suder-Sina (saline) and Inshas (harsh and poor fertility). Canola seeds of four varieties (Serow 4, Serow 6, Pactol as local cultivars and Evita as exotic variety) were treated with gamma rays at four doses (0, 100, 400 and 600 Gy). Thirty mutant plants for number of pods/plant and changes in morphological criteria were selected at M2 generation. The mutants at M3 generation confirmed that induction of mutant lines possessed higher number of pods and seed yield/plant than the mother varieties. The mutant lines possessed homogeneity at M3 generation were 5, 8,10, 11, 18 and 22 at serow 4, 38 and 45 at serow 6, 63 and 66 at Pactol and mutant lines 74,75, 78,92 at Evita. Highest number of pods/plant (110) was recorded at line 74 derived from Evita variety. The results were appeared the same trend for seed yield/plant with number of pods/plant, the lines which possessed high number of pods/plant were had high seed yield/plant. The results at M4 and M5 generations for 13 homogeneity mutant lines selected from M3 generation contained different response of mutant genotypes for different conditions on the bases of number of pods and seed yield/plant. Promising mutant lines were detected under both conditions possessed significant increases at both M4 and M5 generations. Oil percent as well as acid value at M4 and M5 were recorded the highest mean value was found at Inshas in line 75 and the lowest acid value was noticed at line 5. Finally nine mutant lines possessed promising traits of this study, lines 11, 66 and 87 under both conditions (Suder and Inshas), lines 8, 38 and 63 under Ras-Sudr and lines 74, 75 and 92 under Inshas condition.

  4. Evaluation of biohydrogenation rate of canola vs. soya bean seeds as unsaturated fatty acids sources for ruminants in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Ghoorchi, T; Yamchi, A

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study disappearance of C14 to C18 fatty acids, lag times and biohydrogenation (BH) rates of C18 fatty acids of ground soya bean and canola seeds in situ. Three ruminally fistulated Dallagh sheep were used to determine ruminal BH of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Differences in the disappearance of fatty acids through the bags and lag times were observed between the oilseeds. We saw that the longer the incubation time of the oilseeds in the rumen, the lower the content of C18:2 and C18:3. Significantly higher lag times for both C18:2 and C18:3 were observed in ground canola compared to ground soya bean. BH rates of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids in soya bean were three times higher than those of canola. These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of fat source can affect the BH of UFAs by rumen micro-organisms. So that UFAs of canola had higher ability to escape from ruminal BH. It seems that fatty acid profile of ruminant products is more affected by canola seed compared to soya bean seed. PMID:26094995

  5. Developing selenium-enriched animal feed and biofuel from canola planted for managing Se-laden drainage waters in the westside of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, G S; Da Roche, J; Robinson, J

    2010-03-01

    We studied the reuse of selenium (Se)-laden effluent for producing canola (Brassica napus) and subsequent bioproducts in central California. Canola was irrigated with poor quality waters [electrical conductivity (EC) of approximately 5 dS m(-1) sulfate-salinity, 5 mg B L(-1), and 0.25 mg Se L(-1)]. Typical seed yields were 2.2 metric tons ha(-1). Seeds were processed for their oil, and transesterified to produce ASTM-quality biodiesel (BD) blends. The resulting Se-enriched seed cake meal (containing approximately 2 mg Se kg(-1) DM) was used in a dairy feed trial. Seventy-two Jersey and Holstein cows, 36 respectively, were fed Se-enriched canola meal as 6.2% of their daily feed ration for five weeks. Blood and milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for total Se. This study showed that Se-enriched canola meal did not significantly increase total blood Se content in either cow breed. Milk Se concentrations did, however, significantly increase to safe levels of 59 microg Se L(-1) and 52 microg Se L(-1) in Jersey and Holstein cows, respectively. The production of BD 20 biofuels and Se-enriched feed meal from canola irrigated with poor quality waters may help sustain similar phytomanagement strategies under Se-rich conditions. PMID:20734619

  6. Effect of inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain FY32 on some traits in canola cultivars under salt stress in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are known as an alternative to chemical fertilizers, which are able to reduce the harmful effects of non-biological stresses such as salinity and increase soil fertility and crop production. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain FY32 on a number of morphological characters in canola cultivars under salt stress. Thereby, a split split-plot design with three replications was applied in hydroponic cultivation system. Six bacterial inoculated (Pseudomonas flourescens FY32 and non-inoculated canola cultivars were subjected to sodium chloride salt stress at three levels (0, 150 and 300 mM. Based on the ANOVA results, inoculation effects under different salinity levels on canola cultivars, compared to non-inoculated treatments, were statistically significant on plant fresh weight, dry weight of leaf, stem and total plant, leaf area and root length. Also, three-way interaction effects of salinity, bacteria and cultivar on plant height and root volume were significant (P<0.01. Sodium, potassium and proline concentration in leaves and roots of inoculated plants had significant difference with non-inoculated plants at different levels of salinity. The highest rate of proline and potassium ion was observed in canola cultivars inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens under both salinity levels. It can be concluded that inoculation of canola plants with Pseudomonas flourescense (containing ACC- deaminase gene could improve their growth and development in case of salinity stress.

  7. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  8. Ameliorating influence of sulfur on germination attributes of canola (brassica napus l.) under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the role of sulfur to induce tolerance in Brassica napus L. against chromium stress by estimating the changes in germination parameters. Petriplates were assembled in Randomized Complete Block Design. A total 9 sets of treatments viz., control, chromium treated (40 and 160ppm), sulfur treated (50 and 150ppm) and sulfur (50 and 150ppm) combined with chromium (40 and 160ppm) with three replicates was used. Chromium under both concentrations was responsible for significant decline in germination parameters i.e. germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings. Sulfur application under chromium stress resulted in improvement of germination parameters such as germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings in contrast to chromium treatment. So, it can be concluded that sulfur in appropriate dose can be used to ameliorate the negative effects of chromium by increasing the germination potential of canola. (author)

  9. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Long

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  11. Evaluation of canola irradiated populations after two selection cycles under saline stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the two winter seasons in 2006/07 and 2007/08 to improve the production of canola irradiated populations in M3 and M4 generations via gamma irradiation doses of 100,400 and 600 Gy and two cycles of mass selection based on No. of pods/plant (20% intensity) for each irradiated population of the four cultivars under saline stressed conditions. The obtained results revealed that No. of pods/plant and seed yield /plant were improved in M4 generation at dose 400 Gy. After two mass selection cycles over the four cultivars, the plant height, No. of pods and seed yield/ plant in M4 were improved by about 12.7 % ,50.6% and 75.8% , respectively for the irradiated population of dose 400 Gy. The serow 6 and bactol varieties has more response than the two varieties serow 4 and evita which exhibited genetic variation for the most studied traits. this could be exploited for further selection to gain these traits.

  12. Introduction of some important antagonistic bacteria affecting on damping-off of canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, S

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred ninety five bacterial isolates were collected from canola Root and Rhizosphere in Golestan, Mazandaran, Guilan and Tehran provinces. At first, antagonistic effect of bacterial isolates on Rhizoctonia solani was studied using dual culture test assay. The results showed that 60 isolates had the ability to inhibit the growth of fungi on PDA medium. On the basis of the biochemical, physiological and morphological tests, isolates Pf41, Pf51, Pf411 and Pf412 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, isolate Bu1 as Burkholderia cepacia, the isolates B1, B2, Bs44 and B6 were as Bacillus subtilis and S44, str45 as Streptomyces sp. Results of the studies on biocontrol mechanism showed that Isolates produced antibiotics and volatile metabolites that prevented the mycelial growth of the fungus. Also the isolates produced some of antimicrobial metabolites including hydrogen cyanide, protease and siderophore. Isolates effect inhibition of in vitro growth of the fungus. The effect of isolates on disease reduction in compare with control have significantly differentiated. None of the isolates were able completely to prevent disease occurrence. Isolates applied as soil treatment had a significantly higher disease control as compared to seed treatment. Isolates had considerable effect on reduction disease under the greenhouse conditions. PMID:23878984

  13. Alimentação do jundiá com dietas contendo óleos de arroz, canola ou soja Feeding of jundiá with diets containing rice, canola or soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eliseu Losekann

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de óleos vegetais no desenvolvimento corporal e composição do filé de jundiás. Foram testadas seis dietas (32%PB, sendo avaliados óleos de arroz, canola ou soja com 5 ou 10% de inclusão, durante 90 dias. Os peixes (180, peso inicial=71,0±0,8g foram distribuídos ao acaso em 18 caixas (280L de um sistema de recirculação de água, com temperatura controlada. Para avaliação de desempenho, estimaram-se variáveis como peso, comprimentos totais, padrão, altura caudal, sobrevivência, taxa de crescimento específico, fator de condição, consumo diário, conversão alimentar aparente e rendimento de partes comestíveis. Além disso, foram avaliadas a composição centesimal e taxas de deposição de proteína e gordura nos filés. Não houve diferenças entre os óleos e os níveis sobre o crescimento dos peixes; entretanto, os jundiás alimentados com 10% de óleo depositaram mais gordura no filé. Conclui-se que os óleos de canola, arroz e soja proporcionam bom crescimento e rendimento de partes comestíveis. As dietas contendo óleo de canola, com 5% de inclusão, possibilitam menor deposição de gordura no filé.The influence of vegetable oils in the body development of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and its relationship with the flesh quality were evaluated in the present study. Six diets (32% of crude protein with rice, canola or soybean oil at 5 or 10% of inclusion were tested, for 90 days. The fishes (180, initial weight=71± 0.8g were randomly distributed in 18 boxes (280L in a water re-use system, with controlled temperature. The following parameters were considered for evaluation of fish performance: weight, total and standard length, survival, specific growth rate, condition factor, daily consumption, food conversion ratio, carcass and fillet yield, proximate composition and protein and fat deposition in the filets. There were no differences for the productive parameters among the

  14. Efeito da substituição do farelo de algodão pelo farelo de canola no desempenho de novilhas Nelore confinadas Effect of cottonseed meal replacement by canola meal on performance of feedlot Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da substituição do farelo de algodão pelo farelo de canola sobre ganho em peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e rendimento de carcaça de novilhas Nelore confinadas. Trinta novilhas com, em média, 225 kg PV inicial e 20 meses de idade foram distribuídas ao acaso em dois tratamentos (farelo de algodão - FAG ou farelo de canola - FAC como fontes de proteína com 15 animais por tratamento. O experimento foi realizado em três períodos de 28 dias, mais 14 dias de adaptação. O ganho médio diário no tratamento FAC (1,05 kg foi maior que no tratamento FAG (0,87 kg. Da mesma forma, a conversão alimentar da MS no tratamento FAC (6,72 foi melhor que no tratamento FAG (8,13; todavia, o rendimento de carcaça foi semelhante para ambos os tratamentos (51,6 e 51,7%, para FAC e FAG, respectivamente. O uso de farelo de canola, em comparação ao farelo de algodão, como fonte de proteína alternativa na ração de novilhas Nelore em crescimento e terminação, mostrou-se viável, uma vez que o ganho em peso e a conversão alimentar dos animais foram melhores.The objective of this work was to study the effect of the substitution of cottonseed meal by canola meal on weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain ratio and dressing percentage of the feedlot Nellore heifers. Thirty Nellore heifers averaging initial of 225 kg LW and 20 months of age were randomly allotted to two treatments (cottonseed meal - COM or canola meal - CAM as protein sources with 15 animals for each treatment. The experiment was carried out in three periods of 28 days each, plus 14 days of adaptation. The daily average weight gain in CAM treatment (1.05 kg was higher than in the COM treatment (.87 kg. In the same way, feed:gain ratio of DM in CAM treatment (6.72 was better than COM treatment (8.13. However, the dressing percentage was similar for both treatments (51.6 and 51.7, for CAM and COM, respectively. The use of canola meal

  15. A rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of the major tocopherols, carotenoids, free and esterified sterols in canola (Brassica napus) oil using normal phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakelar, Clare L; Prenzler, Paul D; Luckett, David J; Howitt, Julia A; Doran, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously quantify several prominent bioactive compounds in canola oil vis. α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol. The use of sequential diode array detection (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed direct injection of oils, diluted in hexane without derivatisation or saponification, greatly reducing sample preparation time, and permitting the quantification of both free sterols and intact sterol esters. Further advantages over existing methods included increased analytical selectivity, and a chromatographic run time substantially less than other reported normal phase methods. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was applied to freshly extracted canola oil samples as well as commercially available canola, palm fruit, sunflower and olive oils. PMID:27507459

  16. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid to produce medium-, long- and medium-chain-type structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Xia, Luan; Xu, Xuebing; Xie, Liang; Duan, Zhangqun

    2012-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) containing medium-chain fatty acid (M) at position sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acid (L) at the sn-2 position in a solvent-free system. Six commercial lipases from different sources were...... screened for their ability to incorporate caprylic acid into the canola oil. The sn-1,3 regiospecificity toward the glycerol backbone of canola oil of the lipases with relatively higher acidolysis activity was compared by investigating the fatty acid profiles of the products. The results showed that...... when reactions were carried with 10% lipase of the total weight of substrates with a 1:4 mole ratio of oil and caprylic acid. The optimal time course and temperature for synthesis SLs were 15 h and 50–60 °C. Possible triacylglycerol species and physical properties of the SLs product obtained at...

  17. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Cristóvão Joaquim de Souza; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Raul da Cunha Lima Neto; Janaine Sena da Costa; Walter Esfrain Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional) com cinco repet...

  18. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Dan G.; McConnell, Laura L.; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large‐scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee‐relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed‐treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin‐treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250‐treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water‐extractable (i.e., plant‐bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:311–321. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26467536

  19. Carcass, sensory, and adipose tissue traits of Brangus steers fed casein-formaldehyde-protected starch and/or canola lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C D; Lunt, D K; Miller, R K; Smith, S B

    2003-10-01

    We predicted that providing rumen-protected starch to the small intestine would increase adiposity of intramuscular adipose tissue, and hence marbling scores. Eighteen 15-mo-old Brangus steers were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatment groups: 1) cracked corn (Corn); 2) casein-formaldehyde-protected lipid (Canola Lipid); or 3) casein-formaldehyde-protected starch (Marble Plus). All diets were equally balanced for ME (2.91 Mcal/kg), CP (12.5%), and DM (89%). Ether extract was 3.7, 6.9, and 6.9% for the Corn, Canola Lipid, and Marble Plus diets, respectively, and the Marble Plus also contained 3.7% protected starch. Steers were fed the diets for 126 d before slaughter. Average daily feed intake (as-fed basis), ADG, and feed:gain ratio (P > or = 0.23) did not differ among treatments. Carcasses across treatments did not differ (P = 0.26) in adjusted fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, marbling scores, or USDA quality grade. Percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was higher (P or = 0.33) by diet in i.m. adipose tissue. Fatty acid synthetase activity tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in s.c. adipose tissue of Marble Plus steers, and NADP-malic dehydrogenase activity was higher (P = 0.03) in i.m. adipose tissue of Canola Lipid steers. We conclude that Marble Plus did not improve carcass quality, but also did not reduce beef sensory attributes. Any differences we observed in carcass characteristics, adipose tissue cellularity, or lipogenesis apparently were caused by the protected lipid rather than the protected starch. PMID:14552372

  20. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  1. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G; McConnell, Laura L; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large-scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee-relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed-treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin-treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250-treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water-extractable (i.e., plant-bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. PMID:26467536

  2. A global study of transcriptome dynamics in canola (Brassica napus L.) responsive to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Megha, Swati; Rahman, Muhammad Hafizur; Basu, Urmila; Kav, Nat N V

    2016-09-15

    The necrotrophic phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, causes Sclerotinia stem rot, which is a serious constraint to canola (Brassica napus L.) production worldwide. To understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying host response to Sclerotinia infection, we analyzed the transcript level changes in canola post-infection with S. sclerotiorum in a time course of a compatible interaction using strand specific whole transcriptome sequencing. Following infection, 161 and 52 genes (P≤0.001) were induced while 24 and 23 genes were repressed at 24h post-inoculation (hpi) and 48hpi, respectively. This suggests that, a gradual increase in host cell lyses and increase virulence of the pathogen led to the expression of only a fewer host specific genes at the later stage of infection. We observed rapid induction of key pathogen responsive genes, including glucanases, chitinases, peroxidases and WRKY Transcription factors (TFs) within 24hpi, indicating early detection of the pathogen by the host. Only 16 genes were significantly induced at both the time points suggesting a coordinated suppression of host responses by the pathogen. In addition to genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions, many novel disease responsive genes, including various TF sand those associated with jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling were identified. This suggests that canola adopts multiple strategies in mediating plant responses to the pathogen attack. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) validation of a selected set of genes demonstrated a similar trend as observed by RNA-Seq analysis and highlighted the potential involvement of these genes by the host to defend itself from pathogen attack. Overall, this work presents an in-depth analysis of the interaction between host susceptibility and pathogen virulence in the agriculturally important B. napus-S. sclerotiorum pathosystem. PMID:27265030

  3. Comparative environmental impact assessment of herbicides used on genetically modified and non-genetically modified herbicide-tolerant canola crops using two risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Miller, Rosalind B; Correll, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is the third largest field crop in Australia by area sown. Genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola varieties released or being developed in Australia include Clearfield® (imidazolinone tolerant), TT (triazine tolerant), InVigor® (glufosinate-ammonium tolerant), Roundup Ready® - RR® (glyphosate tolerant) and Hyola® RT® (tolerant to both glyphosate and triazine). We used two risk assessment approaches - the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) - to compare the environmental risks associated with herbicides used in the canola varieties (GM and non-GM) that are currently grown or may be grown in the future. Risk assessments found that from an environmental impact viewpoint a number of herbicides used in the production of TT canola showed high relative risk in terms of mobility and ecotoxicity of herbicides. The EIQ field use rating values for atrazine and simazine in particular were high compared with those for glyphosate and trifluralin. Imazapic and imazapyr, which are only used in Clearfield® canola, had extremely low EIQ field use rating values, likely reflecting the very low application rates used for these chemicals (0.02 to 0.04kg/ha) compared with those used for atrazine and simazine (1.2 to 1.5kg/ha). The PIRI assessment showed that irrespective of the canola variety grown, trifluralin posed a high toxicity risk to fish (Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), algae and Daphnia sp. While the replacement of trifluralin with propyzamide had little effect on the mobility score, it greatly decreased the ecotoxicity score to fish, algae and Daphnia sp. due to the lower LC50 values for propyzamide compared with trifluralin. This study has shown that based on likelihood of off-site transport of herbicides in surface water and potential toxicity to non-target organisms, the GM canola varieties have no advantage over non-herbicide tolerant (non HT) or Clearfield® canola. PMID:27039064

  4. Effects of Dietary Cottonseed and/or Canola Oil Inclusion on the Growth Performance, FA Composition and Organ Histology of the Juvenile Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Eroldoğan, O. Tufan; Engin, Kenan; GÜLÇUBUK, Ahmet; Baltacı, M. Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at demonstrating the effects of total and 50% dietary fish oil replacement by cotton seed and canola oils and a mixture of these vegetable oils (VOs) on growth, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of digestive organs in the juvenile rainbow trout for 84 days. Five iso-nitrogenous and lipidic diets were formulated to replace dietary fish oil (FO) totally by cotton seed oil (CSO), canola oil (CO) and an equal or 50% FO/ 50% VO mixture. Duplicate groups of 50 fish (~15 g...

  5. Impact of municipal waste water of Quetta city on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out in order to investigate the impact of municipal wastewater effluents of Quetta city on the biomass, physiology, and productivity of two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars viz., Oscar and Rainbow. Plants were grown in pots from seed to maturity during 2005-2006 growth season. Different concentrations of effluents (T1: 20% ,T2: 40%, T3: 60% T4: 80; T5: 100%) were supplied to plants as a soil drench compared to control plants (T0) receiving normal tap water. The wastewater effluents were highly alkaline in nature along with very high Electrical Conductivity, Biological Oxygen Demand; Chemical Oxygen Demand; Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Total Suspended Solids and minerals concentrations have found well above threshold limits set for the usage of municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes. Growth performance of both canola cultivars showed statistically significant effects on some physiological attributes. All treated plants showed reductions in growth and yield parameters, but T5 treated plants were most affected compared to control. There were significantly higher reductions in stomatal conductance (49% in Oscar; 53% in Rainbow), transpiration rate (62% Oscar; 67% in Rainbow), and photosynthetic rate (62% in Oscar; 69% in Rainbow) of T5 treatment plants compared with control. Both pigments of chlorophyll (a and b) responded efficiently to the applied stress of wastewater effluents showing reductions in chlorophyll a and b by 68-82% in cv. Oscar and 74-86% in cv. Rainbow. Similarly, fresh and dry biomass also showed reductions in different effluents treated plants (T1 to T5) ranging from 2-78% in both the cultivars of canola. Drastic reductions were recorded in the number of siliqua per plant (70-72%), seeds per plant (84-85%), seed weight per plant (87-90), and in the harvest index (72-74%) in cultivars Oscar and Rainbow, respectively than that of control. The overall result of the municipal wastewater impacts on canola cultivars are

  6. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) TAg mice offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Hardman W Elaine; Akinsete Juliana A; Ion Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA) has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female off...

  7. Induced mutations for development of B. Juncea canola quality varieties suitable for Indian agro-climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Heera', a canola quality B. juncea selection, was developed at Department of Botany, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur, India. by Late Dr. A. S. Khalatkar during 1992-93. The mutation breeding/hybridization programme was initiated during 1994-95 for developing canola quality early maturing varieties with high yield potential. Dry and presoaked Heera seeds were treated with 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% EMS with three hours and six hours mutagenic treatments. Five mutants with early maturity (93-95 days) as against 140 days that of parent were evaluated in trials. EH-1 was found superior in yield potential; however, the yield was lower than the control. NU-6 was selected in the segregating generation of EH1 X Pusa Bold with high erucic acid and medium glucosinolate with medium seed size. In another experiment, the mutagenic treatment of 0.04% sodium azide was given to 12 hour water soaked seeds of advanced selection derived from cross EH1 x Pusa Bold. The large seeded mutant PB-7 with zero erucic acid, medium glucosinolate was identified. Extensive hybridization programme using mutants EH-1 and PB7 and mutant derivative NU-6 was initiated. Several selections with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid and canola quality were identified from the cross EH-1 x NU-6. Selection NUDH-YJ-6 with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid, 3.6g test weight and high oil content (46%) was at par in seed yield but 12% higher in oil yield in the multi-location trials of four years during 2003-04 to 2006-07 at ten locations in zone III and zone IV of India. The advance selection derived from EH1 X NU6 was crossed with PB7. Several '00' selections were developed and studied for their agronomic characters. Two selections along with checks were evaluated for two years during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Both these selections were resistant to white rust disease and given seed and oil yield comparable to national check Varuna. Another selection NUDYJ- 5 with canola characters having maturity like Indian mustard

  8. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  9. Selective Breeding under Saline Stressed Conditions of Canola Mutations Induced by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding program has been initiated for inducing canola mutations tolerance to saline stressed conditions for growing at harsh land in Egypt. Therefore, seed lots of three cultivars and exotic variety (Bactol, Serow 4, Serow 6 and Evita) were subjected to 100,400 and 600 Gy of gamma rays. Mass selection with 20 % intensity for high number of pods per plant has been done in each treatment in M2 generation. However, individually plants with high number of pods / plant were selected from each variety in M3 generation for test under saline stressed conditions at Ras Sudr region in M4 (8600 and 8300 ppm salinity for soil and irrigation, respectively). The obtained results revealed that eight mutated families from 12- test families in M4 generation surpassed their parents in seed yield / plant and related characters ( plant height ,fruiting zone length , No. of branches , No. of pods / plant ). In addition, the mutant F93 characterized by fast growing and non shuttering pods reflecting 50.4% over Evita control in seed yield/ plant. Twelve mutant lines in M5 represented the mutant families were grown in sandy-loam soil at Inshas region. The three mutant lines (L 22, L 38 and L 45) continuously surpassed their parents in seed yield and related characters, but the increases were less than the previous generation. The increase was 22.3 %, 38.7 % and 36.7 % over seed yield of respective parents. Moreover, mutant L66 exhibited an increase in its yield components in M5 at Inshas only, suggesting that gene expression and genomic structure extremely influenced by environmental factors. Genetic stability for the obtained mutations could be done at different environmental conditions in further studies

  10. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the

  11. Effects of Irrigation Deficit and Application of Some Growth Regulators on Defense Mechanisms of Canola

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    Seyed Ahmad KALANTAR AHMADI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A split-plot experiment arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications was carried out in Safiabad Agricultural Research Center of Dezful in order to investigate the effects of foliar applications of ascorbic acid (AsA, salicylic acid (SA and methanol (Me, under deficit irrigation conditions, in canola; there were 3 levels of irrigation as the main factor (irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from the pan as control, cessation of irrigation at the flowering stage and cessation of irrigation at the appearance of siliques and 10 levels of foliar applications as sub-factor (100, 200 and 300 mg.l-1AsA; 100, 200 and 300 µM SA; 10, 20 and 30% (w/v methanol; and foliar application of distilled water as control. Foliar applications were made during both budding and initiation of flowering stages. Results indicated that antioxidant enzymes showed different responses to deficit irrigation and foliar application treatments. Maximum catalase (CAT and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activities were observed under cessation of irrigation at flowering stage and foliar application of 300 µM SA, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX reached its maximum activity under the same irrigation conditions and foliar application of 300 mg.l-1AsA. SA had more influence to increase in CAT and PPO activity under cessation of irrigation at flowering stage. The relative water content (RWC was also decreased due to the drought stress caused by the cessation of irrigation. Foliar application of SA (100 μM and Me (10% w/v had more influence to maintain RWC compared to ascorbic acid under irrigation cessation at flowering stage.

  12. Production of glycerol-free biofuel from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate using triazabicyclodecene in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul

    Due to the increasing awareness of the dwindling fossil fuel resources and environmental issues, biofuel became an alternative renewable fuel to meet the steady increase of energy consumption and environmental demands. This work was designed to produce biofuel free from glycerol, soap, catalyst and wastes from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using an organocatalyst, triazabicyclodecene (TBD). To achieve these goals, several interconnected research activities were undertaken. First, a flow sheet was developed for the process and operating criteria were identified by laboratory experimentation verified with Aspen Plus. Mass and energy integration studies were performed to minimize the consumption of materials and energy utilities. Next, kinetics of canola oil transesterification using TBD as homogeneous catalyst in dimethyl carbonate has been investigated and a model was developed. Kinetics data were vital in process assessment and kinetics model was essential in the study of chemical reaction and catalyst development. Finally, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed for use as a biofuel catalyst through the immobilization of TBD into MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) which can combine the advantages of homogeneous catalysis with the best properties of heterogeneous materials.

  13. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Bao-Luo

    2016-01-01

    Lodging, defined as the permanent displacement of aboveground parts, is a common problem to cause yield loss, deterioration in seed quality and difficult to harvest in canola (Brassica napus L.) crop production. This study aimed to develop a method for assessing crop lodging, to examine how agronomic practices affected the relationships between root lodging and electrical capacitance traits. Canola plants were more susceptible to root lodging than stem lodging. The electrical measurements were more closely related with anchorage strength (Sp) than stem bending strength (Ss). Among the three electrical measurements, the root capacitance (C) displayed the most consistent and significant relationships with Sp in all three field experiments (R(2) = 0.88-0.56; P ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that the risk of lodging can be reduced by using appropriate management practices and variety selection. Enhancing root Sp was advocated as a priority over enhancing stem Ss in cultivar improvement. Electrical measurements, especially of root C, can be considered as a non-invasive technique that could partially replace the intrusive methods used for the in situ assessment of lodging resistance among various agronomic practices or can be applied in breeding programs for selecting genotypes with high yield potentials and strong Sp values. PMID:27552909

  14. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  15. Transformation of Brassica napus canola cultivars with Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase genes and analysis of herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, B L; Labbé, H; Hattori, J; Ouellet, T; Gabard, J; Sunohara, G; Charest, P J; Iyer, V N

    1990-10-01

    A survey of selected crop species and weeds was conducted to evaluate the inhibition of the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and seedling growth in vitro by the sulfonylurea herbicides chlorsulfuron, DPX A7881, DPX L5300, DPX M6316 and the imidazolinone herbicides AC243,997, AC263,499, AC252,214. Particular attention was given to the Brassica species including canola cultivars and cruciferous weeds such as B. kaber (wild mustard) and Thlaspi arvense (stinkweed). Transgenic lines of B. napus cultivars Westar and Profit, which express the Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type AHAS gene or the mutant gene csr1-1 at levels similar to the resident AHAS genes, were generated and compared. The mutant gene was essential for resistance to the sulfonylurea chlorsulfuron but not to DPX A7881, which appeared to be tolerated by certain Brassica species. Cross-resistance to the imidazolinones did not occur. The level of resistance to chlorsulfuron in transgenic canola greatly exceeded the levels that were toxic to the Brassica species or cruciferous weeds. Direct selection of transgenic lines with chlorsulfuron sprayed at field levels under greenhouse conditions was achieved. PMID:24221001

  16. Optimization of the canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions stabilized by food grade mixed surfactants using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Tahir

    2015-09-15

    The objective of the present study was to prepare canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions by using food grade mixed surfactants (Tween:80 and lecithin; 3:1) to replace some concentration of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80) with natural surfactant (soya lecithin) and to optimize their preparation conditions. RBD (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized) canola oil and vitamin E acetate were used in water/vitamin E/oil/surfactant system due to their nutritional benefits and oxidative stability, respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The effects of homogenization pressure (75-155MPa), oil concentrations (4-12% w/w), surfactant concentrations (3-11% w/w) and vitamin E acetate contents (0.4-1.2% w/w) on the particle size and emulsion stability were studied. RSM analysis has shown that the experimental data could be fitted well into second-order polynomial model with the coefficient of determinations of 0.9464 and 0.9278 for particle size and emulsion stability, respectively. The optimum values of independent variables were 135MPa homogenization pressure, 6.18% oil contents, 6.39% surfactant concentration and 1% vitamin E acetate concentration. The optimized response values for particle size and emulsion stability were 150.10nm and 0.338, respectively. Whereas, the experimental values for particle size and nanoemulsion stability were 156.13±2.3nm and 0.328±0.015, respectively. PMID:25863602

  17. Co-transformation of canola by chimeric chitinase and tlp genes towards improving resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Rustam; Zamani, Mohammadreza; Motallebi, Mostafa; Moradyar, Mehdi; Moghadassi Jahromi, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) plants were co-transformed with two pathogenesis-related protein genes expressing a Trichoderma atroviride chitinase with a chitin-binding domain (chimeric chitinase) and a thaumatin-like protein (tlp) from Oryza sativa conferring resistance to phytopatogenic fungi by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The putative transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR. After measuring the specific activity of the chimeric chitinase and glucanase activity for tlp genes, transgenic plants with high specific activity were selected for southern blot analysis to confirm the copy number of the genes. In vitro assays, the antifungal activity of crude extracted protein against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum showed that the inhibition percentage in double transgenic plants was between 55 and 62, whereas the inhibition percentage in single-gene transformants (chimeric chitinase) ranged from 35 to 45 percent. Importantly, in greenhouse conditions, the double transgenic plants showed significant resistance than the single-gene transformant and wild type plants. The results in T2 generation using the intact leaf inoculation method showed that the average lesion diameters were 10, 14.7 and 29 mm for the double transformant, single-gene transformant and non-transgenic plants, respectively. Combined expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp in transgenic plants showed significantly enhanced resistance against S. sclerotiorum than the one that express single-gene transformant plants. These results suggest that the co-expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp can confer enhanced disease resistance in canola plant. PMID:27430511

  18. Improvement of Canola (Brassica napus L.) Inoculated with Rhizobium, Azospirillum and/or Mycorrhizal Fungi Under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio fertilization technology was applied for improving canola plant growth and nutrient acquisition in sandy saline soil ,as a biological mean used to develop plant growth and nutrient uptake under salinity stress. Canola was cultivated in pots packed at rate of 7 kg saline sandy soil pot-1, and inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae, Azospirillum brasilense strain no. 40 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi either solely or in combinations of them. Nitrogen fertilizer was added in form (15NH4)2SO4 with 5%15N atom excess at rate of 0.99 g N pot-1. Maximum dry matter accumulation induced by composite inoculation (Rh + Azo + AM). Na concentrations were frequently affected by Rhizobium and /or mycorrhizae while K was affected by Azospirillum and /or mycorrhizae. Azospirillum enhanced Ca uptake whereas Mg content was responded well to composite inoculants of Rh + Azo + AM. Dual inoculation with Rh + Azo resulted in the highest values of N uptake by plant. Similar effect was noticed with P uptake when dual inoculums of Azo + AM were applied. Data of 15N isotope showed that the highest portion and value of N2-fixed was recorded with composite inoculums followed by dual inoculations. On the other hand, the infection with AM fungi gave the highest proportion of N derived from fertilizer as compared to other inoculants or uninoculated control. In the same trend, the fertilizer use efficiency (FUE%) was enhanced by AM infection. Dual inoculums of Rh + Azo induced highest content of proline in leaves. (Authors)

  19. Identification and characterization of plant-specific NAC gene family in canola (Brassica napus L.) reveal novel members involved in cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boya; Guo, Xiaohua; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jieyu; Niu, Fangfang; Zhang, Hanfeng; Yang, Bo; Liang, Wanwan; Han, Feng; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2015-03-01

    NAC transcription factors are plant-specific and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. However, to date, little is known about the NAC genes in canola (or oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.). In this study, a total of 60 NAC genes were identified from canola through a systematical analysis and mining of expressed sequence tags. Among these, the cDNA sequences of 41 NAC genes were successfully cloned. The translated protein sequences of canola NAC genes with the NAC genes from representative species were phylogenetically clustered into three major groups and multiple subgroups. The transcriptional activities of these BnaNAC proteins were assayed in yeast. In addition, by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we further observed that some of these BnaNACs were regulated by different hormone stimuli or abiotic stresses. Interestingly, we successfully identified two novel BnaNACs, BnaNAC19 and BnaNAC82, which could elicit hypersensitive response-like cell death when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was mediated by accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, our work has laid a solid foundation for further characterization of this important NAC gene family in canola. PMID:25616736

  20. Effect of microwave heating on the quality characteristics of canola oil in presence of palm olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbas Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microwave heating is one of the most attractive cooking methods for food preparation, com­monly employed in households and especially in restaurants for its high speed and convenience. The chemical constituents of oils that degrade during microwave heating do so at rates that vary with heating temperature and time in a similar manner to other type of processing methods. The rate of quality characteristics of the oil depends on the fatty acid composition and the minor components during heating. Addition of oxidative- stable palm olein (PO to heat sensitive canola oil (CO, may affect the quality characteristics of CO during microwave heating. The aim of this study was to evaluate how heat treatments by microwave oven affect the quality of CO in presence of PO. Material and methods. The blend was prepared in the volume ratio of 40:60 (PO:CO, PC. Microwave heating test was performed for different periods (2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 min at medium power setting for the samples of CO and PC. The changes in quality characteristics of the samples during heating were determined by analytical and instrumental methods. Results. In this study, refractive index, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, specific extinction, viscosity, polymer content, polar compounds and food oil sensor value of the oils all increased, whereas iodine value and C18.2 /C60 ratio decreased as microwave heating progressed. Based on the most oxidative stability criteria, PO addition led to a slower deterioration of CO at heating temperatures. The effect of microwave heating on the fatty acid composition of the samples was not remarkable. PO addi­tion decelerated the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products in CO. However, effect of adding PO to CO on the formation of free fatty acids and polymers during microwave treatment was not significant (P < 0.05. No significant difference in food oil sensor value was detected between CO

  1. Wastewater impact on physiology, biomass and yield of canola (brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of domestic/municipal wastewater (mww) of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan was assessed through its effects on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.). The pot experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in net house during winter season 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Treatments included were T0 (tube well/tap water), T/sub 1/ (20% mww), T/sub 2/ (40% mww), T/sub 3/ (80% mww) and T/sub 4/ (100% mww/raw-form municipal wastewater). The quality and chemical composition of wastewater was deviating from international (Anon., 1985) as well as NEQS (2005) standard. Analysis of wastewater showed that biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and total suspended solids (TSS) were above the permissible limit of irrigation. In pods per plant, the reduction was 61.55% by recording 110 pods per plant with T/sub 4/ (100% mww) as compared to control T0 (286.1 pods per plant). Similarly pod length (reduced by 59.72%), seeds per pod (reduced by 42.53%), Seeds per plant (reduced by 82%), seed weight per plant (reduced by 88%), 100-seed weight (reduced by 19.54%) and straw yield (reduced by 54.23%) were significantly reduced by applying 100% wastewater. The most affected yield contributing traits were seeds per plant and seed weight per plant with 82% and 88% reduction, respectively due to T/sub 4/ (100% mww). On average, the decrease was 60% in the first stage and a further decrement of 4.83% was observed when the obtained seeds were re-sown in 2007-08. Results revealed that utilizing municipal wastewater of the area under investigation for irrigation purpose of food and feed crops might not be safe. The major reason seems to be the high salinity and sodium adsorption ratio that restricted crop growth and yield. (author)

  2. Farelo de canola para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem Chitralada - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896 Canola meal for juvenile Nile tilapia, Chitralada strain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Romano Fernandes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de diferentes níveis de farelo de canola em rações, sobre o desempenho e composição de carcaça de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., linhagem Chitralada. Foram utilizadas 15 caixas de polipropileno com capacidade para 310L, com dez peixes por unidade. Os peixes foram alimentados à saciação com cinco rações isoprotéicas (28% e isocalóricas (2900 Kcal ED/Kg, duas vezes ao dia, durante seis meses. O farelo de canola foi utilizado em quatro níveis (TT=0%, T1=8%, T2=16%, T3=24%, e T4=32%/dieta, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p0,1 sobre a composição corporal dos peixes, sendo que os níveis de 16% e 24% de farelo de canola proporcionaram os melhores ganhos de peso. Conclui-se que a utilização do farelo de canola é viável quando incluído em até 24% na ração para a tilápia do Nilo, linhagem Chitralada.This work evaluated the inclusion of several levels of canola meal in ration used in the development and carcass compositions of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., Chitralada strain. Were used 15 polypropylene boxes, with 310 liters (10 fish each. The fish were fed with five isonitrogenous (28% and isocaloric ration (2900 Kcal EM/kg, twice a day for six months. The canola meal was used in four levels (TT = 0%, T1 = 8%, T2 = 16%, T3 = 24% and T4 = 32% / diet, in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and three repetitions each. The data obtained were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA and the averages compared by the Tukey test (p0,1 on fishes body composition, however had best body weight gain with canola meal on levels 16% and 24%. These values seem to show that for the Nile Tilapia, Chilatrada strain, the use of canola meal is viable when included in up

  3. Effects of Water Deficit Stress on Several Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad HOSSEINI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit stress considered as one of the most important limiting factors for oil seed canola (Brassica napus L. growth and productivity in Iran. To evaluate the effects of water deficit stress on some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of canola cultivars, this experiment in a greenhouse trial carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz (Iran. Canola cultivars, including ‘Hyola 308’, ‘Hyola 401’ and ‘RGS 003’ as first factor, and the second one was three levels of water deficit stress, including stress at early stem elongation stage to early flowering (D1, early flowering stage to early emergence of sacs (D2, beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs (D3 and normal irrigation (C, as check. Results showed that the interaction between water deficit stress and cultivars affected biological yield, seed oil yields and harvest index (p≤0.01, dry matter and economic yield (p≤0.05. Water deficit stress reduced grain oil yields. ‘Hyola 308’ under stress at beginning stem elongation stage to early flowering had the lowest oil yields (1.1 g plants-1 and ‘Hyola 401’ under non-stress conditions showed highest oil yields (4.3 g plants-1. The decrease of oil yields at the flowering stage to stem elongation stage was more than the other stages. In addition, water deficit stress reduced harvest index in the three stress levels due to reduced economic yield and reduced biological yield. Stress susceptibility index for ‘Hyola 401’ at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs was 0.914 and the ‘Hyola 308’ showed 1.12 at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs respectively, which it can implies that ‘Hyola 308’ is more sensitive than ‘Hyola 401’ to water deficit stress.

  4. Índice de área foliar em canola cultivada sob variações de espaçamento e de densidade de semeadura Leaf area index of canola under varying row spacing and plant density of sowing

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Chavarria; Gilberto Omar Tomm; Alexandre Muller; Heloisa Ferro Mendonça; Naiana Mello; Maico Serafini Betto

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar através de método não-destrutivo o índice de área foliar do híbrido de canola Hyola 61 em variações de espaçamento e densidade de semeadura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo que nas parcelas foram distribuídos os espaçamentos entre linhas (17, 34, 51 e 68cm) e nas subparcelas as densidades (15, 30, 45 e 60 plantas m-2). Para determinação do comprimento, largura do limbo foliar e da área foliar, ...

  5. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  6. Production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil with dimethyl carbonate using an active sodium methoxide catalyst prepared by crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Takami; Mak, Goon Lum; Wada, Shohei; Nakazato, Tsutomu; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a novel method for the production of biodiesel under mild conditions using fine particles of sodium methoxide formed in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is proposed. Biodiesel is generally produced from vegetable oils by the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. However, this reaction produces glycerol as a byproduct, and raw materials are not effectively utilized. Transesterification with DMC has recently been studied because glycerol is not formed in the process. Although solid-state sodium methoxide has been reported to be inactive for this reaction, the catalytic activity dramatically increased with the preparation of fine catalyst powders by crystallization. The transesterification of canola oil with DMC was studied using this catalyst for the preparation of biodiesel. A conversion greater than 96% was obtained at 65°C for 2h with a 3:1M ratio of DMC and oil and 2.0 wt% catalyst. PMID:24813567

  7. Shoot-Specific Down-Regulation of Protein Farnesyltransferase (α-Subunit) for Yield Protection against Drought in Canola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Michelle Beaith; Maryse Chalifoux; Jifeng Ying; Tina Uchacz; Carlene Sarvas; Rebecca Griffiths; Monika Kuzma; Jiangxin Wan; Yafan Huang

    2009-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world and its seed yield and quality are significantly affected by drought stress. As an innate and adaptive response to water deficit, land plants avoid potential damage by rapid biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which triggers stomatal closure to reduce transpirational water loss. The ABA-mediated stomatal response is a dosage-dependent process; thus, one genetic engineering approach for achieving drought avoidance could be to sensitize the guard cell's responsiveness to this hormone.Recent genetic studies have pinpointed protein farnesyltransferase as a key negative regulator controlling ABA sensitivity in the guard cells. We have previously shown that down-regulation of the gene encoding Arabidopsis β-subunit of farnesyltransferase (ERA1) enhances the plant's sensitivity to ABA and drought tolerance. Although the α-subunit of famesyltransferase (AtFTA) is also implicated in ABA sensing, the effectiveness of using such a gene target for improving drought tolerance in a crop plant has not been validated. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the promoter of Arabidopsis hydroxypyruvate reductase (AtHPR1), which expresses specifically in the shoot and not in non-photosynthetic tissues such as root. The promoter region of AtHPR1 contains the core motif of the well characterized dehydration-responsive cis-acting element and we have confirmed that AtHPR1 expression is inducible by drought stress. Conditional and specific down-regulation of FTA in canola using the AtHPR1 promoter driving an RNAi construct resulted in yield protection against drought stress in the field. Using this molecular strategy, we have made significant progress in engineering drought tolerance in this important crop species.

  8. Flowering Without Vernalization in Winter Canola (Brassica napus: use of Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS to accelerate genetic gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Álvarez-Venegas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciclos de reproducción cortos y la oportunidad de incrementar la ganancia genética, junto con el estudio de las bases moleculares de la vernalización, son áreas esenciales de investigación dentro de la biología de plantas. Varios métodos se han empleado para lograr el silenciamiento génico en plantas, pero ninguno reportado a la fecha para canola (Brassica napus, y en particular para inducir la floración sin vernalización en líneas de invierno a través del uso de secuencias sentido de DNA en vectores diseñados para el silenciamiento génico inducido por virus (VIGS. La presente investigación provee los métodos para transitoriamente regular a la baja, por medio de VIGS, genes de la vernalización en plantas anuales de invierno, específicamente la familia de genes de Flowering Locus C (FLC en canola de invierno (BnFLC1 a BnFLC5. La regulación a la baja de estos genes permite a las plantas anuales de invierno florecer sin vernalización y, consecuentemente, provee los medios para acelerar la ganancia genética. El sistema de silenciamiento propuesto puede ser utilizado para regular a la baja familias de genes, para determinar la función génica, y para inducir la floración sin la vernalización en líneas de invierno tanto del género Brassica como de muchos cultivos importantes de invierno.

  9. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  10. Impact of Flax Seed and Canola Oils Mixture Supplementation on The Physiological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important problems in the human health nutrition field is the use of food flavor. Monosodium glutamate is one of the main flavors used as an ingredient in various food products, however it produces physiological and biochemical changes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the supplementation of flax seed and canola oils mixture against the physiological and biochemical changes induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. In addition to analyses the physical and chemical characteristics of flax seed and canola oil and fatty acids composition by using gas liquid chromatography. The results concerning that unsaturated fatty acids of flax seed oil were oleic (18:1) 22%, linoleic acid (18:2) 30 % and linolenic acid (18:3) 36%. Total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in flaxseed oil was 88% and total saturated fatty acids 12%. The unsaturated fatty acids of canola oil were oleic (18:1) 66%, linoleic acid (18:2) 18% and linolenic acid (18:3) 7%, total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in canola oil was 92% and total saturated fatty acids was 8%. On the other hand, treatment of rats with monosodium glutamate for ten consecutive days led to a decrease in RBCs, Hb, Hct % and increased platelet count with decrease in WBCs and undesirable changes in its differential count. There is also, high significant increase in testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which is accompanied with significant reduction in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and serum testosterone level. These disturbances were associated with significant increase in the liver enzymes ALT,AST and ALP and increase in the level of total biluribin and glucose. Also, significant increase in urea, creatinine and uric acid were recorded. The supplementation with mixture of flax seed and canola oils mixture for one month after the injection of monosodium glutamate caused noticeable amelioration in the damage occurred as a result of this flavor. To

  11. Extração de antinutrientes e aumento da qualidade nutricional dos farelos de girassol, canola e soja para alimentação de peixes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Taffarel Bergamin; Cátia Aline Veiverberg; Leila Picolli da Silva; Alexandra Pretto; Luciana Valentim Siqueira; João Radünz

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se as concentrações de ácido fítico, fenóis totais e taninos totais em farelos de canola, girassol e soja, submetidos a diferentes tratamentos químicos, destinados para alimentação de peixes. Os tratamentos foram: A: água acidificada; EMA: etanol P.A. + metanol P.A. + água, na proporção 45:45:10; ET: etanol P.A. acidificado; ETA: etanol P.A. + água acidificada na proporção 70:30; AE: água acidificada e Etanol P.A. utilizados separadamente. No farelo de canola, os tra...

  12. Carcass traits, meat yield and fatty acid composition of adipose tissues and Supraspinatus muscle in goats fed blend of canola oil and palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, K.D.; Ebrahimi, M; Samsudin, A. A.; Sabow, A. B.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary fats can alter the deposition and distribution of body fats in ruminants. The deposition and distribution of body fat play a vital role in the quality of ruminant carcasses and are of great commercial value since they influence the profitability and consumer acceptability of ruminant meat. The current study examined the effects of dietary blend of 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil (BCPO) on carcass characteristics, meat yield and accretion of fatty acid (FA) in subcutaneous...

  13. Effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum lipids in albino rats - an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)

  14. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana C. Freitas; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum...

  15. Field evaluation of neem and canola oil for the selective control of the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Higo, H; Le Doux, M

    2000-06-01

    Neem oil, neem extract (neem-aza), and canola oil were evaluated for the management of the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie) in field experiments. Spraying neem oil on bees was more effective at controlling V. jacobsoni than feeding oil in a sucrose-based matrix (patty), feeding neem-aza in syrup, or spraying canola oil. Neem oil sprays also protected susceptible bees from A. woodi infestation. Only neem oil provided V. jacobsoni control comparable to the known varroacide formic acid, but it was not as effective as the synthetic product Apistan (tau-fluvalinate). Neem oil was effective only when sprayed six times at 4-d intervals and not when applied three times at 8-d intervals. Neem oil spray treatments had no effect on adult honey bee populations, but treatments reduced the amount of sealed brood in colonies by 50% and caused queen loss at higher doses. Taken together, the results suggest that neem and canola oil show some promise for managing honey bee parasitic mites, but the negative effects of treatments to colonies and the lower efficacy against V. jacobsoni compared with synthetic acaricides may limit their usefulness to beekeepers. PMID:10902299

  16. DIGESTIBILIDAD ILEAL APARENTE DE LA PROTEINA Y AMINOÁCIDOS DE LA TORTA DE CANOLA EN LECHONES RECIÉN DESTETADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Parra S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA de proteína (PC y aminoácidos (AA de torta de canola, en lechones recién destetados. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en “T” en el ileon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los siguientes tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (C elaborada con caseína y almidón de maíz; dietas CTC (caseína-10% de Torta de canola y CTCP (caseína- 10% de torta de canola peletizada. Resultados. Los CDIA de PC y AA de la dieta C fueron superiores (p0.05 a C. No se observó un efecto (p>0.05 del periodo (tiempo posdestete sobre los CDIA de la PC y AA, exceptuando al aminoácido metionina. Los CDIA del nitrógeno (N y AA de TCP fueron mayores (p<0.05 que los de TC. Conclusiones. La TCP puede ser incluida en dietas de lechones en un 10% empleando los coeficientes reportados en este trabajo.

  17. Determination of the water use and water use response of canola to solar radiation and temperature by using heat balance stem flow gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sap flow gauges using a heat balance have been reliable for measuring real-time transpiration in a number of crops. However, information on the accuracy of sap flow gauges in canola is lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted to validate the sap flow system in canola and to observe sap flow response to variations in temperature and solar radiation. There were strong relationships between sap flow measured with sap flow gauges and actual transpiration measured by the gravimetric method over short periods of 1 h (r2 = 0.93 and RMSE = 2.34 g h-1), and over longer periods of 1 d (r2 0.83 and RMSE = 48 g d-1), although sap flow slightly overestimated transpiration. In both cases the slope was not significantly different from 1. Water use in canola, estimated with sap flow gauges or from actual transpiration measurement, was dependent upon temperature (r2 = 0.94 to 0.96). Water use increased until daytime temperatures reached 36oC, after which water use decreased. Sap flow followed solar radiation trends in the field. Heat is lost or dissipated from the gauges convectively as the sap flows through the stem, conductively through the solid stem material, and radially into the surrounding air. As the convective proportion of the heat loss from the gauge increased, the accuracy of the water use estimation using the sap flow gauges increased. For sunny days, convective heat loss through sap flow accounted for a major portion of the total heat input to the gauges, while on cloudy days radial heat loss from the gauges accounted for a, major portion of the heat input. Thus, at low sap flow rates during cloudy days, the possibility of error in the sap flow system was high. Overall, sap flow in canola was strongly related to daily solar radiation (r2 = 0.92). The sensitive response to weather variations and the possibility of improving the accuracy at high flow rates in the field makes the use of sap flow gauges a viable option for measuring real-time transpiration in canola

  18. Efeito da suplementação de linhaça, óleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta sobre as concentrações de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos de galinha Effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, canola oil and vitamin E upon polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.G. Pita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados (óleo de canola e semente de linhaça, acrescidas de diferentes teores de alfa-tocoferol nas dietas de poedeiras, sobre a composição de ácidos graxos da gema do ovo foi estudado. Foram utilizadas 288 galinhas da linhagem Babcock que receberam dietas com 6% de óleo de canola, 20% de semente de linhaça moída ou 3% de óleo de canola e 10% de linhaça moída com teores de 0, 100 e 200UI/kg de alfa-tocoferol. As dietas com 20% de semente de linhaça proporcionaram teores mais elevados de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados no ovo com aumento, em particular, dos teores de ácido alfa-linolênico e EPA (ácido eicosapentaenóico e diminuição de ácido araquidônico na gema. Os teores de vitamina E contidos nas rações experimentais não determinaram alteração significativa na deposição dos diferentes ácidos graxos na gema dos ovos, exceto com relação aos ácidos graxos saturados.The effect of dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids - canola oil and flaxseed - with different vitamin E supplementation on the fatty acid deposition into the eggs of 288 Babcock laying hens was investigated. Birds were fed diets containing 6% of canola oil, 20% of flaxseed or a combination of 3% of canola oil and 10% of flaxseed, enriched with 0, 100 or 200Ul of dl-alpha-tocopheril acetate. The inclusion of flaxseed in the diets increased the yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly alpha-linolenic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in the diet did not change the egg yolk, fatty acids deposition but changed the saturated fatty acids deposition.

  19. Effects of canola proteins and hydrolysates on adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T/2 mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; Aluko, Rotimi E; Strappe, Padraig

    2015-10-15

    This study assessed the ability of canola protein isolate (CPI) and enzymatic hydrolysates (CPHs) to inhibit adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Cell viability was maintained at concentrations of 60 μg/ml of sample. Cells treated with Alcalase hydrolysate demonstrated a higher reduction in anti-adipogenic differentiation through quantitation by oil-red O staining. qPCR analysis showed that CPI and CPH-treated cells significantly inhibited PPARγ expression, a key transcription factor involved in adipocyte differentiation, as evident in an ∼ 60-80% fold reduction of PPARγ mRNA. Immunofluorescence staining for PPARγ protein also showed a reduced expression in some treated cells when compared to differentiated untreated cells. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of CPI, CPHs and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions on pancreatic lipase (PL) activity ranged between 0.75 and 2.5 mg/ml, (p < 0.05) for the hydrolysed and unhydrolysed samples. These findings demonstrate that CPI and CPHs contain bioactive components which can modulate in vitro adipocyte differentiation. PMID:25952862

  20. Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ki Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions.

  1. Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs production by using canola oil as carbon source from bacteria isolated near paper pulp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Younas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples were taken from paper pulp and mixed organic wastes of an industry for isolation of PHA producing bacterial strains. Quantitative analysis for PHA for bacterial strains was carried out by direct addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS method. High PHA production ability was found in six strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia genera. The PHA production optimization of these six stains was done at various (NH42SO4 concentrations (0.2 %, 0.4 %, and 0.6%, pH (5, 6, and 7 and temperatures (4oC, 37oC, 45oC. Strain WC20 belonging to Pseudomonas sp. was found to be a potential PHA producer at 37 oC, at 0.2 % of (NH42SO4, using glucose as carbon source (PHA % ~28.35 and Canola Oil (PHA % ~16.06. PCR amplification of the phaC gene was also performed.

  2. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. PMID:25312008

  3. Physical properties of sequential interpenetrating polymer networks produced from canola oil-based polyurethane and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2008-05-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared using polyurethane (PUR) synthesized from canola oil-based polyol with terminal primary functional groups and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The properties of the material were evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), as well as tensile properties measurements. The morphology of the IPNs was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and MDSC. A five-phase morphology, that is, sol phase, PUR-rich phase, PUR-rich interphase, PMMA-rich interphase, and PMMA-rich phase, was observed for all the IPNs by applying a new quantitative method based on the measurement of the differential of reversing heat capacity versus temperature from MDSC, although not confirmed by SEM, most likely due to resolution restrictions. NCO/OH molar ratios (cross-linking density) and compositional variations of PUR/PMMA both affected the thermal properties and phase behaviors of the IPNs. Higher degrees of mixing occurred for the IPN with higher NCO/OH molar ratio (2.0/1.0) at PUR concentration of 25 wt %, whereas for the IPN with lower NCO/OH molar ratio (1.6/1.0), higher degrees of mixing occurred at PUR concentration of 35 wt %. The mechanical properties of the IPNs were superior to those of the constituent polymers due to the finely divided rubber and plastic combination structures in these IPNs. PMID:18410139

  4. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAPESEED MEAL AND CANOLA MEAL ON BROILER PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. KHAN, A. AZIM AND M. I. ANJUM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 630 mixed sex day-old broiler chickens were reared for 7 weeks to study the production performance by feeding different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM and canola meal (CM in their diets. The chickens were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G having three replicates of 30 birds in each group. Group A was fed control diet (soyabean meal, whereas groups B, D and F were fed diets containing 5, 10 and 15 percent RSM which was replaced with CM on weight basis in the diets fed to groups C, E and G, respectively. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Feed intake during 0-28 days of age was higher (p0.05. The study suggests that RSM up to 5% and CM up to 10% can be incorporated in broiler starter diets and both RSM and CM can be used up to 10% in finisher diets without any adverse effect on production parameters.

  5. Study Effect of NaCl Salinity and Nitrogen Form on Composition of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two N forms ( NH+4 and NO-3 and NaCl on accumulation of some essential mineral nutrients was examined in canola (Brassica napus L. cv. ‘SLM046’. Eight-day- ld plants of were subjected for 21 day to Hoagland’s nutrient solution containing 10 mM NH+4 and NO-3 and salinized with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl. N form and addition of NaCl to the growth had no significant effect on total N. However, root N of NH+4 supplied plants decreased significantly with increase in NaCl concentration, whereas that of NO3- supplied plants remained unaffected. Salinity of the rooting also did not show any significant effect on Na+ concentration of leaves or roots of plants subjected to two different forms of nitrogen. NH+4 treated plants generally had greater concentration of Cl- in leaves and roots and lower K+ content in leaves than NO3- supplied plants. Ca2+ concentration of leaves and roots concentration of leaves decreased in NH+4- supplied plants due to NaCl, but they remained unaffected in NO3- treated plants.

  6. Índice de área foliar em canola cultivada sob variações de espaçamento e de densidade de semeadura Leaf area index of canola under varying row spacing and plant density of sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar através de método não-destrutivo o índice de área foliar do híbrido de canola Hyola 61 em variações de espaçamento e densidade de semeadura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo que nas parcelas foram distribuídos os espaçamentos entre linhas (17, 34, 51 e 68cm e nas subparcelas as densidades (15, 30, 45 e 60 plantas m-2. Para determinação do comprimento, largura do limbo foliar e da área foliar, bem como estabelecimento de uma correlação entre essas variáveis foram coletadas aleatoriamente 250 folhas. Posteriormente, foram selecionadas aleatoriamente quatro plantas por unidade experimental, que tiveram todas as folhas medidas quanto ao comprimento e largura para estimativa da área foliar e do índice de área foliar. O comprimento do limbo foliar é a variável biométrica com maior correlação com a área foliar. Um comportamento linear entre o adensamento de plantas e o índice de área foliar nos espaçamentos de 34, 51 e 68cm no híbrido Hyola 61 foi observado. O índice de área foliar das plantas foi menor no espaçamento de 17cm, com a densidade de 60 plantas m-2. Para a manutenção do índice de área foliar do híbrido Hyola 61, é recomendável usar o espaçamento de 17cm com a densidade 45 plantas m-2.The aim of this work was to estimate leaf area index of the canola cultivar 'Hyola 61' under variations of row spacing and density of sowing by a non-destructive method. The experimental design consisted of a split plot with four blocks with row widths of 17, 34, 51 and 68cm and plant populations of 15, 30, 45 and 60m². Two hundred and fifth leaves were collected at random and mesure width (C, length (L and leaf area (LA and the parameters were correlated. Also the leaves of four plants of each plot, selected at random, were measured L and C and estimated the leaf area index (LAI. Width leaf was the biometric parameter

  7. Farelo de canola na alimentação do piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, na fase inicial Canola bran in piavuçu Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski feeding, during initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rossetto Barriviera Furuya

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo determinar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de canola (FC em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja (FS na alimentação do piavuçú, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski (Characiformes, Anastomidae, na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos (8,51 ± 0,07g, distribuídos em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições, sendo que cada unidade experimental era constituída por cinco peixes. Foram elaboradas quatro rações isocalóricas (3.000kcal ED/kg e isoprotéicas (30% de PB com base em milho, farelo de soja e farinha de peixe, contendo 0%, 19%,12%; 38%,24% e 57,36% de FC. A análise de variância não apresentou efeitos dos níveis de inclusão de FC sobre as variáveis de consumo, sobrevivência, rendimento e composição química da carcaça, gordura visceral e índice hepatossomático. Foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de inclusão sobre a porcentagem de ganho de peso, ocorrendo o ponto máximo no nível de 19,11% de inclusão de FC. Com o aumento nos níveis de FC, foi observado piora linear sobre a conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica. A inclusão de 11,19% de FC resultou em melhor desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.This research aimed to investigate the effects of canola bran (CB inclusion, replacing the soybean bran crude protein in piavuçu diet, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski (Characiformes, Anastomidae, in initial phase. One hundred fingerlings (8.51 ± 0.07g were assigned to a completely randomized block design with five replications, totalizing 25 fishes per treatment. Four isocaloric (3,000kcal ED/kg and isoproteic (30% CP diets were formulated, based on corn, soybean bran and fish flour, containing 0%; 19.12%; 38.24% and 57.36% CB. Variance analysis showed no effect of CB inclusion on feed intake survival, carcass yield and composition, visceral fat and hepato somatic index. Quadratic effect of CM inclusion was

  8. Effect of Zeolite and Foliar Application of Selenium on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Three Canola Cultivar under Conditions of Late Season Drought Stress

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    Hossein ZAHEDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study effect of zeolite soil application and selenium foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of three canola cultivar under conditions of late season drought stress an experiment was conducted in two growing season in 2006 and 2007. Site study was field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block arrangement in factorial split plot with three replications. Irrigation factors were chosen at two levels, included complete irrigation and irrigation holding at stem elongation stage. Zeolite was used at two levels, non application and 10 ton per hectare. Also selenium was sprayed at three concentrations, 0, 15 and 30 gr per liter from sodium selenate. These treatments were randomized in main plots while three canola cultivars (�Zarfam�, �Okapi� and �Sarigol� were randomized in sub plots. The results showed that, main effects of different irrigation levels have significant effect on all traits and drought stress decreased significantly all traits. Foliar application of selenium had significant and additive effect on plant height, number of pods in plant, number of seeds in pod, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield. There was significant difference between zeolite application and non application on all traits except oil percent and harvest index. It was shown that canola cultivars were different in all of studied traits. Comparison of means showed that, four critical traits that is seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield were affected by experimental treatments. Different cultivars have different responses under unlike conditions inside upon traits. Under different treatment conditions especially drought stress, zeolite and selenium application have positive and significant effect on traits related to yield. In finally, zeolite and selenium application in dry lands that are exposure to late season drought

  9. Impact of currently used or potentially useful insecticides for canola agroecosystems on Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Megachile rotundata (Hymentoptera: Megachilidae), and Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Dupree, C D; Conroy, L; Harris, C R

    2009-02-01

    Pest management practices may be contributing to a decline in wild bee populations in or near canola (Brassica napus L.) agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct contact toxicity of five technical grade insecticides--imidacloprid, clothianidin, deltamethrin, spinosad, and novaluron--currently used, or with potential for use in canola integrated pest management on bees that may forage in canola: common eastern bumble bees [Bombus impatiens (Cresson); hereafter bumble bees], alfalfa leafcutting bees [Megachile rotundata (F.)], and Osmia lignaria Cresson. Clothianidin and to a lesser extent imidacloprid were highly toxic to all three species, deltamethrin and spinosad were intermediate in toxicity, and novaluron was nontoxic. Bumble bees were generally more tolerant to the direct contact applications > O. lignaria > leafcutting bees. However, differences in relative toxicities between the three species were not consistent, e.g., whereas clothianidin was only 4.9 and 1.3x more toxic, deltamethrin was 53 and 68x more toxic to leafcutting bees than to bumble bees and O. lignaria, respectively. Laboratory assessment of direct contact toxicity, although useful, is only one measure of potential impact, and mortality under field conditions may differ greatly depending on management practices. Research conducted using only honey bees as the indicator species may not adequately reflect the risk posed by insecticides to wild bees because of their unique biology and differential susceptibility. Research programs focused on determining nontarget impact on pollinators should be expanded to include not only the honey bee but also wild bee species representative of the agricultural system under investigation. PMID:19253634

  10. Effect of UV Radiation and Evaluated CO2 on Morphological Traits, Yield and Yield Components of Canola (Brassica napus L. Grown under Water Deficit Stress

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    Hamid Reza TOHIDI MOGHADAM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we studied the combined effects of UV radiation, CO2 and water stress on the morphological traits, yield and yield components of canola (Brassica napus cv. �Okapi� and �Talaye� under twelve growth conditions: complete irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-A (control, complete irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-B, complete irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-C, limited irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-A, limited irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-B, limited irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-C, complete irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-A, complete irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-B, complete irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-C, limited irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-A, limited irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-B and limited irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-C. The results showed that water stress significantly decreased all of traits except for the oil percentage. Additionally, an elevated level of CO2 significantly increased the final yield, 1000-seed weight, oil yield, plant height, specific leaf area and number of branches per plant, whereas UV radiation decreased all of the traits in this experiment. Elevated CO2 ameliorated the adverse effects of UV radiation in the final yield, seed weight, oil percentage, oil yield, plant height, specific leaf area and number of branches per plant. This study showed that elevated CO2 can partially ameliorate some of the adverse effects of UV radiation in canola plants. Furthermore, in this study, we observed that the increase in the yield was due to the increase in the seed weight and number of branches caused by elevated CO2 in canola plants. In addition, the maximum yield was obtained from the �Talaye� cultivar under conditions of sunlight, full irrigation and elevated CO2.

  11. 'NIFA-mustard canola' - First mutant variety of oilseed mustard (Brassica juncea COSS and CZERN.) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The edible oil production in the country is short of requirements to the tune of 70%. The gap is filled by heavy imports costing the national exchequer over 400 million US$ annually. Increasing domestic production of edible oil is thus of high priority for the Government of Pakistan. Rapeseed and mustard (Brassica juncea), being indigenous oilseed crops and well entrenched in the cropping system of the growers, have the potential to bridge the gap between production and consumption. Mustard is the predominantly grown species of oilseed Brassica in Pakistan as it has superior adaptability to semi-arid conditions and tolerance to drought as well as heat and seed shattering. However, no juncea cultivar of canola quality is available in Pakistan so far. In this backdrop, a comprehensive research program was launched in 1994- 95 at NIFA, with the help of IAEA, through a Technical Cooperation Project to develop improved varieties of mustard. Gamma irradiation and fast neutrons were used to induce genetic variability in traits of economic importance, thus diversifying the genetic base of indigenous/exotic cultivars (cvs.) of Brassica oilseeds. About 15,000 dry seeds of exotic mustard line (DLJ-3) having about 10% moisture were irradiated at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 kGy gamma rays (60Co gamma source) in 1994-95. The treated seeds were planted directly in the field in isolation of M1 generation. Selection for desirable mutants was carried out in M2 and useful mutants, including MM-1266, were selected. The stability of selected traits of MM-1266 was confirmed in M3 and M4 generations. MM-1266 was thoroughly assessed for yield in different replicated trials at NIFA and other stations in Pakistan and the results of MM-1266 in comparison with the control cv. is presented. In the preliminary yield trial in rabi 1997-98d at NIFA, MM-1266 produced the highest yield (1908 kg/ha) and significantly outyielded the parent by 100%. The following year, MM-1266 was tested in advanced yield trials

  12. Effect of Super Absorbent Application on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars under Water Stress Conditions

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    H. R. Tohidi-Moghadam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Drought stress significantly limits Canola (Brassica napus L. growth and crop productivity. Hence, efficient management of soil moisture and study metabolic changes which occur in response to drought is important for agricultural production of this Crop. Approach: For a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improving soil water content management strategies, an experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with factorial spilt arrangement with tree replications. Results: Irrigation strategy and super absorbent application were allotted to main plots. Irrigation strategy had two levels: 80% of evaporation as control (I1, drought stress started from flowering stage (I2 Application of super absorbent had two levels: Non-application of super absorbent as control (S1, application of super absorbent with 7% concentration. Cultivars (Rgs003 (V1, Sarigol (V2, Option500 (V3, Hyola401 (V4, Hyola330 (V5, Hyola420 (V6 were allotted to sub plots. Plants under water deficit stress and application of super absorbent showed a significant increase and decrease, respectively, in SOD, CAT and GPX activities in leaves compared with control plants. In this context, plants with higher levels of antioxidants showed higher resistance to these stress conditions and higher yield and dry matter allocation to grain filling process i.e. harvest index. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our results suggested that drought stress leads to production of oxygen radicals, which results in increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the plant. In conclusion of present study, Application of super absorbent polymer could reserve different amounts of water in itself and so increases the soil ability of water storing and preserving and at last in water deficiency, produce plant water need and approve its growth under postanthesis water deficiency.

  13. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

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    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  14. The Impact of Region, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Grower Incentives on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canola (Brassica napus) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammac, W. A.; Pan, W.; Koenig, R. T.; McCracken, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated through the second renewable fuel standard (RFS2) that biodiesel meet a minimum threshold requirement (50% reduction) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction compared to fossil diesel. This designation is determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) and carries with it potential for monetary incentives for biodiesel feedstock growers (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) and biodiesel processors (Renewable Identification Numbers). A national LCA was carried out for canola (Brassica napus) biodiesel feedstock by the EPA and it did meet the minimum threshold requirement. However, EPA's national LCA does not provide insight into regional variation in GHG mitigation. The authors propose for full GHG reduction potential of biofuels to be realized, LCA results must have regional specificity and should inform incentives for growers and processors on a regional basis. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) variation in biofuel feedstock production related GHG emissions between three agroecological zones (AEZs) in eastern Washington State (2) the impact of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) on GHG mitigation potential for each AEZ and (3) the impact of incentives on adoption of oilseed production. Results from objective (1) revealed there is wide variability in range for GHG estimates both across and within AEZs based on variation in farming practices and environment. It is expected that results for objective (2) will show further GHG mitigation potential due to minimizing N use and therefore fertilizer transport and soil related GHG emission while potentially increasing biodiesel production per hectare. Regional based incentives may allow more timely achievement of goals for bio-based fuels production. Additionally, incentives may further increase GHG offsetting by promoting nitrogen conserving best management practices implementation. This research highlights the need for regional assessment/incentive based

  15. Effects of Salinity and NO3:NH4 Ratio on Yield and Quality in Canola (Brassica napus L.

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    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salinity and NO3: NH4 ratio (0:100, 75: 25, 50:50, and 25:75 in the nutrient solution on growth, yield quality and N metabolism in hydroponically grow canola (Brassica napus L. was evaluation. Both fresh and dry weights of leaves were significantly lower when a high concentration of either NO3 (100% or NH4 (75% was the sole N source in the nutrient solution. In nonsaline condition, increasing of both NH4 and NO3 ratio in the nutrient solution reduced photosynthetic (pn rate, however in salinity condition the reduction of pn became more pronounced at a higher ratio of NH4 in the nutrient solution. The yield in terms of fresh and dry weight of seed per plant was significantly increased at the 75:25 (NO3: NH4 treatments. Total fat in nonsaline condition was increased with increasing NH4 ratio in the nutrient solution, however in saline condition it was reduced, at high NH4 ratio in the nutrient solution. The increase of tissue N concentration was nearly proportional to the NH4 concentration in the nutrient solution.The activity of nitrate reductase (NR was increased by increasing NH4 form 0 to 50% and then reduced at a higher ratio of NH4 in the solution. Salinity increased NH4 concentration so that the saline condition had nearly twice high NH4 concentration in the leaves. The increase of NH4 concentration induced by salinity could be parially the reduction of NH4 assimilate because of the shortage of carbohydrate.

  16. Regulated expression of a cytokinin biosynthesis gene IPT delays leaf senescence and improves yield under rainfed and irrigated conditions in canola (Brassica napus L..

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    Surya Kant

    Full Text Available Delay of leaf senescence through genetic modification can potentially improve crop yield, through maintenance of photosynthetically active leaves for a longer period. Plant growth hormones such as cytokinin regulate and delay leaf senescence. Here, the structural gene (IPT encoding the cytokinin biosynthetic enzyme isopentenyltransferase was fused to a functionally active fragment of the AtMYB32 promoter and was transformed into canola plants. Expression of the AtMYB32xs::IPT gene cassette delayed the leaf senescence in transgenic plants grown under controlled environment conditions and field experiments conducted for a single season at two geographic locations. The transgenic canola plants retained higher chlorophyll levels for an extended period and produced significantly higher seed yield with similar growth and phenology compared to wild type and null control plants under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The yield increase in transgenic plants was in the range of 16% to 23% and 7% to 16% under rainfed and irrigated conditions, respectively, compared to control plants. Most of the seed quality parameters in transgenic plants were similar, and with elevated oleic acid content in all transgenic lines and higher oil content and lower glucosinolate content in one specific transgenic line as compared to control plants. The results suggest that by delaying leaf senescence using the AtMYB32xs::IPT technology, productivity in crop plants can be improved under water stress and well-watered conditions.

  17. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

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    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  18. Using an Anion Exchange Membrane to Predict Soil Available N and S Supplies and the Impact of N and S Fertilization on Canola and Wheat Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. QIAN; J. J. SCHOENAU

    2007-01-01

    A growth chamber study was conducted to determine the relationships between the supply of soil available nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) and canola (Brassica napus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Biggar') N and S uptake and yield in three Western Canadian soils. The suitability of one-hour burial with an anion exchange membrane (AEM) was assessed for its utility as a quick test of the available N:S balance in the soil. Canola and wheat were grown on a Luvisolic soil low in available S and on Brown and Black Chernozemic soils low in both available N and S, with different rates and combinations of N and S fertilizers applied. AEM burial was used to assess soil available nitrate and sulfate supply rates after fertilization. Dry matter yield and N and S concentrations in plant tissues were determined after 6 weeks of growth.The soil available N:S ratio determined by AEM burial closely reflected the relative supplies of available N and S as revealed in the N:S ratios of plant tissue dry matter. The highest yields were achieved where the available N:S ratio in soil and plant tissue ranged from 5 to 13. Thus, a one-hour burial of an AEM probe in the field may be a useful tool to quickly test if a balanced N and S supply is present in the soil for optimum crop yield.

  19. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in part with changes in yolk fatty acid content. PMID:27252370

  20. Digestibility energy and amino acids of canola meal from two species (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) fed to distal ileum cannulated grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M H A; Buchet, A D G; Beltranena, E; Gerrits, W J J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea canola meal (CM) contains less fiber than conventional, dark-seeded Brassica napus CM but also slightly less Lys. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, 6 distal ileum cannulated pigs (47 kg BW) were fed 6 diets to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, AID and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, and VFA content in digesta and feces. Pigs were fed 6 diets: basal [46% wheat (Triticum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) starch], 4 diets with 46% wheat and either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 25 or 50%, and a N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea CM had higher (P pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM diets. In pigs fed B. juncea CM, the molar ratio in digesta was lower (P pigs fed B. napus CM diets. The CM species did not affect the AID of energy, SID of AA, and feces VFA content. The DE value was higher (P feed formulation. PMID:23365335

  1. Canola meal as a novel substrate for β-glucosidase production by Trichoderma viride: application of the crude extract to biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J M; Lima, V A; Giloni-Lima, P C; Knob, A

    2015-10-01

    β-Glucosidases are important enzymes with significant prospects in the industrial biotechnology, including their use in biomass hydrolysis for bioethanol production. In this study, the use of canola meal as carbon source for β-glucosidase production by a Trichoderma viride strain in submerged fermentation was evaluated by applying central composite design and response surface methodology to optimize the production process. This statistical approach was also used to improve the passion fruit peel hydrolysis by T. viride crude extract. The model developed 3.6-fold increased β-glucosidase activity. The culture conditions that resulted in the highest β-glucosidase levels were a substrate concentration of 2.9 %, pH of medium 4.2 and cultivation time of 206 h. The β-glucosidases produced under optimal conditions showed attractive properties for industrial applications, such as activity at high temperatures and stability at 55 °C and over a wide pH range. In addition, the enzymatic hydrolysis of passion fruit peel by T. viride crude extract was very promising, resulting in glucose yields of 66.4 %. This study, therefore, presents canola meal as an inexpensive and attractive substrate for the production of microbial β-glucosidases. PMID:26093658

  2. Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu

    2012-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p camelina meal. Weight gain (p camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p camelina meal had significantly higher (p camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197

  3. The effect of canola meal tannins on the intestinal absorption capacity of broilers using a D-xylose test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, B; Rogiewicz, A; Slominski, B A

    2015-12-01

    In three D-xylose absorption experiments, the effect of 1% HCl/methanol, 70% methanol or 70% acetone extracts of canola meal (CM) or 70% acetone extract of soybean meal (SBM) containing polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and phytic acid on intestinal absorption capacity of broilers was determined. In Exp. 1, the experimental groups received orally D-xylose solution alone or with methanol/HCl, methanol or acetone extracts of CM. In Exp. 2, the experimental groups received D-xylose alone or with acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exp. 3, the experimental groups received D-xylose plus sucrose solution or D-xylose plus acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exps. 2 and 3, the CM extracts contained 2.7 and 2.6, 2.4 and 2.3, 3.2 and 3.2, and 2.4 and 2.2 times higher polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and condensed tannins than the corresponding SBM extracts respectively. Blood samples were collected in 40-min intervals, and plasma D-xylose was measured. Compared to the Control, plasma D-xylose in Exp. 1 was lower (p < 0.001) by 81, 69 and 73% at 40-min, by 41, 44 and 37% at 80-min and by 22, 31, and 23% at 120-min post-ingestion of the HCl/methanol, methanol and acetone extracts respectively. In both Exps. 2 and 3, plasma D-xylose level was lower (p < 0.001) in groups dosed with CM extract or SBM extract at each time of blood collection, when compared to the respective Control group. However, in Exp. 3, birds dosed with SBM extract had higher plasma D-xylose than CM extract-dosed birds by 28, 8 and 21% at 40, 80 and 120 min respectively (p < 0.01). In conclusion, although CM extract caused a lower absorption of D-xylose, based on 5 to 10% of CM inclusion levels in practical broiler rations, the soluble bioactive components of CM will likely have minor impact on the absorption capacity of the chicken intestine. PMID:25865561

  4. Identification and expression analysis of WRKY transcription factor genes in canola (Brassica napus L. in response to fungal pathogens and hormone treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyholos Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of plant WRKY transcription factor families are widely implicated in defense responses and various other physiological processes. For canola (Brassica napus L., no WRKY genes have been described in detail. Because of the economic importance of this crop, and its evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana, we sought to characterize a subset of canola WRKY genes in the context of pathogen and hormone responses. Results In this study, we identified 46 WRKY genes from canola by mining the expressed sequence tag (EST database and cloned cDNA sequences of 38 BnWRKYs. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the conserved WRKY domain amino acid sequences, which demonstrated that BnWRKYs can be divided into three major groups. We further compared BnWRKYs to the 72 WRKY genes from Arabidopsis and 91 WRKY from rice, and we identified 46 presumptive orthologs of AtWRKY genes. We examined the subcellular localization of four BnWRKY proteins using green fluorescent protein (GFP and we observed the fluorescent green signals in the nucleus only. The responses of 16 selected BnWRKY genes to two fungal pathogens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria brassicae, were analyzed by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR. Transcript abundance of 13 BnWRKY genes changed significantly following pathogen challenge: transcripts of 10 WRKYs increased in abundance, two WRKY transcripts decreased after infection, and one decreased at 12 h post-infection but increased later on (72 h. We also observed that transcript abundance of 13/16 BnWRKY genes was responsive to one or more hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine, BAP and the defense signaling molecules jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and ethylene (ET. We compared these transcript expression patterns to those previously described for presumptive orthologs of these genes in Arabidopsis and rice, and observed both similarities and differences in

  5. Análise dos modos de falha e efeitos na otimização dos fatores de produção no cultivo agrícola: subprocesso colheita da canola Failure mode and effect analysis in the optimization of production factors in the agro cultivation: subprocess harvest of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cantorski da Rosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O setor agrícola passa por um intenso processo de transformações e moder nização, mas ainda apresenta certo atraso em relação aos demais segmentos da economia, sobretudo na utilização de novas tecnologias e técnicas administrativas, que reflete em problemas que devem ser considerados. Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia para priorizar modos de falha e seus efeitos associados, para a determinação de ações preventivas, visando aperfeiçoar processos no cultivo agrícola de canola, usando a técnica FMEA, com foco no subprocesso colheita. O setor agrícola possui algumas características próprias, razão pela qual foram feitas algumas adaptações para análise deste tipo de processo. A aplicação foi ilustrada através de um estudo de caso em uma lavoura de canola na Escola-Fazenda da Sociedade Educacional Três de Maio (SETREM. A determinação de prioridades dos modos de falha foi feita de forma comparativa, pelo NPR (número de prioridade de risco e de um método gráfico.The agricultural sector has been facing an intense process of transformation and modernization. Nevertheless, it can still be considered underdeveloped if compared to other economic segments, regarding the utilization of new technologies and administrative techniques, resulting problems that deserve consideration. This Article presents a methodology to prioritize problems and their related effects to determine preventive measures, aiming at improving processes of canola cultivation, using the FMEA technique focusing on harvest. The agricultural sector has some particular techniques, which is the reason for some adjustments in order to analyze this type of process. The application was illustrated through an experiment in a plantation of canola at the farm-school of sociedade educacional três de maio (SETREM. The determination of priorities of potential problems was done comparatively through RPN (risk priority number and a graphic method.

  6. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  7. Enhancing Effect of Shimizuomyces paradoxus on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Canola, Plant Growth of Cucumber, and Harvest of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Park, Ki-Byung; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2011-03-01

    Shimizuomyces paradoxus showed no inhibitory effect against plant pathogen fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani. The S. paradoxus culture filtrate showed higher seed germination and seedling growth rates in canola than distilled water and potato-dextrose broth. A conidial suspension of 1.0×10(4)/mL resulted in the highest growth stimulating effects on total plant length, and fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots in cucumber, when compared to the highest suspension concentration. Total plant length and shoot weight increased with the foliar spray treatment, and root length and root weight increased by simultaneous treatments of soil drenching and foliar spray in cucumber. Lower concentrations of the S. paradoxus conidial suspension increased the harvest of tomato fruit. PMID:22783066

  8. Effects of supplementation of canola meal-based diets with arginine on performance, plasma nitric oxide, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajali, F; Tahmasebi, M; Hassanpour, H; Akbari, M R; Qujeq, D; Wideman, R F

    2011-10-01

    A total of 300 male broilers (Ross 308) were exposed to cool conditions at high altitudes to study the effects of dietary Arg supplementation on performance and physiological and zootechnical variables. A corn-soybean meal (SBM) and a corn-canola meal (CM) diet were formulated for the starting (1 to 3 wk of age) and growing (3 to 6 wk of age) stages according to NRC recommendations. Two additional diets were prepared by supplementing 0.2 and 0.4% l-Arg to the corn-CM diet. Substitution of CM for SBM caused a significant (P ascites mortality showed a significant (P broiler chickens raised at high altitude caused reduced growth performance and predisposed the birds to pulmonary hypertension and ascites, which were partly restored by Arg supplementation. PMID:21934012

  9. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S. R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely ( Pphytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly ( P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly ( P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly ( P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS.

  10. DIGESTIBILIDAD ILEAL APARENTE DE LA PROTEINA Y AMINOÁCIDOS DE LA TORTA DE CANOLA EN LECHONES RECIÉN DESTETADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Parra S; Gerardo Mariscal L; Tércia Reis de S

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo. Obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA) de proteína (PC) y aminoácidos (AA) de torta de canola, en lechones recién destetados. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en “T” en el ileon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los siguientes tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (C) elaborada con caseína y almidón de maíz; dietas CTC (caseína-10% de Torta de...

  11. Event-specific plasmid standards and real-time PCR methods for transgenic Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and transgenic GT73 canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, Isabel; Windels, Pieter; Vaïtilingom, Marc; Milcamps, Anne; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Van den Eede, Guy; De Loose, Marc

    2005-04-20

    Since the 18th of April 2004, two new regulations, EC/1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed products and EC/1830/2003 on traceability and labeling of GMOs, are in force in the EU. This new, comprehensive regulatory framework emphasizes the need of an adequate tracing system. Unique identifiers, such as the transgene genome junction region or a specific rearrangement within the transgene DNA, should form the basis of such a tracing system. In this study, we describe the development of event-specific tracing systems for transgenic maize lines Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 and for canola event GT73. Molecular characterization of the transgene loci enabled us to clone an event-specific sequence into a plasmid vector, to be used as a marker, and to develop line-specific primers. Primer specificity was tested through qualitative PCRs and dissociation curve analysis in SYBR Green I real-time PCRs. The primers were then combined with event-specific TaqMan probes in quantitative real-time PCRs. Calibration curves were set up both with genomic DNA samples and the newly synthesized plasmid DNA markers. It is shown that cloned plasmid GMO target sequences are perfectly suitable as unique identifiers and quantitative calibrators. Together with an event-specific primer pair and a highly specific TaqMan probe, the plasmid markers form crucial components of a unique and straighforward tracing system for Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and GT73 canola events. PMID:15826057

  12. Influence of dietary canola oil and palm oil blend and refrigerated storage on fatty acids, myofibrillar proteins, chemical composition, antioxidant profile and quality attributes of semimembranosus muscle in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, Kazeem D.; Sabow, Azad B.; Shittu, Rafiat M.; Karim, Roselina; Awis Q. Sazili

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat is essential due to the generally saturated nature of fatty acids in ruminant meat and the negative effects this can have on human health. Nonetheless, enhancing the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat can have adverse effects on the shelf life and quality attributes of the meat. This study assessed the effects of dietary 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil blend (CPOB) on fatty acid composition, antioxidants, ...

  13. Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    OpenAIRE

    Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David A.; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Liu, Xiaoran; McCrea, Cindy E; Jones, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT) was a randomized controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the effects of five diets that provided different oils and/or oil blends on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with abdominal obesity. The present objective is to report preliminary findings on plasma fatty acid profiles in volunteers with abdominal obesity, following the consumption of diets enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acids. Methods...

  14. Caracterización de enzimas hidrolíticas de Aspergillus ficuum producidas en fermentación sólida sobre torta de canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Characterization of Aspergillus ficuum hydrolytic enzymes produced in solid state fermentation of cold-pressed canola cake Resumen: En el presente trabajo, se describe la caracterización respecto al pH y temperatura de extractos semipurificados mediante ultrafiltración escalonada de las enzimas fitasa, celulasa y xilanasa de Aspergillus ficuum cepa DSM 932 producidos en fermentación en estado sólido (en adelante SSF y usando torta de canola como sustrato. La fitasa presentó un pH y una temperatura óptima de 5.0 y 60°C respectivamente, en tanto que la celulasa presentó un pH óptimo de 7.0 con una temperatura óptima de 60°C y el extracto de xilanasa un pH óptimo de 5.4 y una temperatura óptima de 45°C. Palabras clave: caracterización enzimas; fitasa; xilanasa; celulasa. Abstract: This paper, describes the characterization respect to pH and temperature of semi-purified extracts by ultrafiltration step of the enzymes phytase, cellulase and xylanase produced by Aspergillus ficuum DSM 932 strain, in solid state fermentation (SSF using cold-pressed canola cake as substrate. Phytase showed the optimal pH and temperature 6.0 and 60°C, respectively, while cellulase showed a pH optimal of 7.0 with an optimal temperature of 60°C and xylanase extract an optimal pH of 5.4 and an optimal temperature of 45°C /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  15. Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-01

    There is no information on the co-products from carinata bio-fuel and bio-oil processing (carinata meal) in molecular structural profiles mainly related to carbohydrate biopolymers in relation to ruminant nutrition. Molecular analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and chemometrics enable to detect structural features on a molecular basis. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine carbohydrate conformation spectral features in original carinata meal, co-products from bio-fuel/bio-oil processing; and (2) investigate differences in carbohydrate molecular composition and functional group spectral intensities after in situ ruminal fermentation at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h compared to canola meal as a reference. The molecular spectroscopic parameters of carbohydrate profiles detected were structural carbohydrates (STCHO, mainly associated with hemi-cellulosic and cellulosic compounds; region and baseline ca. 1483-1184 cm-1), cellulosic compounds (CELC, region and baseline ca. 1304-1184 cm-1), total carbohydrates (CHO, region and baseline ca. 1193-889 cm-1) as well as the spectral ratios calculated based on respective spectral intensity data. The results showed that the spectral profiles of carinata meal were significantly different from that of canola meal in CHO 2nd peak area (center at ca. 1091 cm-1, region: 1102-1083 cm-1) and functional group peak intensity ratios such as STCHO 1st peak (ca. 1415 cm-1) to 2nd peak (ca. 1374 cm-1) height ratio, CHO 1st peak (ca. 1149 cm-1) to 3rd peak (ca. 1032 cm-1) height ratio, CELC to total CHO area ratio and STCHO to CELC area ratio, indicating that carinata meal may not in full accord with canola meal in carbohydrate utilization and availability in ruminants. Carbohydrate conformation and spectral features were changed by significant interaction of meal type and incubation time and almost all the spectral parameters were significantly decreased (P

  16. Effect of Phytase Superdoses and Citric Acid on Growth Performance, Plasma Phosphorus and Tibia Ash in Broilers Fed Canola Meal-Based Diets Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri HR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.

  17. Estabilidad oxidativa y contenido de tocoferoles en el aceite de canola extraído con CO2 supercrítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grompone, Maria A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the characteristics of canola seed oil extracted using supercritical CO2 under different conditions and its oxidative stability were analyzed and compared with those corresponding to the oil extracted with hexane. The oil with the lower oxidative stability was that extracted at 276 Kg/cm2. All the oils extracted with supercritical CO2 showed a lower oxidative stability than the oil obtained by hexane extraction. Although the hexane extracted oil did not show a significant difference in its tocopherol concentration, its carotenoid concentration was the highest, which could be a reason for the higher oxidative stability of that oil. The oil extraction rate was constant during the whole extraction period, but the rate of tocopherol extraction was higher at the beginning of the process, which suggests a possible co-solvent effect of the oil itself on these compounds.En este trabajo se analizan las características del aceite extraído de semillas de canola usando CO2 supercrítico en diferentes condiciones de operación y su estabilidad oxidativa, comparándolas con las correspondientes a las del aceite extraído con hexano. Entre los aceites extraídos con CO2 supercrítico el que presentó una menor estabilidad oxidativa y un menor contenido de tocoferoles fue el extraído a 276 Kg/cm2. En todos los casos los aceites extraídos por este método resultaron menos estables que el extraído con hexano. Aunque este último no presentó un contenido en tocoferoles sustancialmente diferente al de los primeros, mostró un contenido de carotenoides superior, lo que podría estar explicando su mayor estabilidad oxidativa. Si bien la velocidad de extracción del aceite fue constante durante todo el proceso, los tocoferoles mostraron una mayor velocidad de extracción al inicio que al final del mismo, lo que sugiere un posible efecto co-solvente del propio aceite sobre ellos.

  18. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P pig diets without compromising performance as long as the diets are formulated on an NE and SID of Lys basis. Also, enzyme addition improved the ATTD of CP, DM, and GE in weaned pigs in both BNB and BJY diets. PMID:25057028

  19. Histological analysis of ovaries of female rabbits fed on canola meal gradually substituting soybean meal Análises histológicas do ovário de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa ao farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A histological study of New Zealand White female rabbits’ ovaries was undertaken. Rabbits were fed on canola meal as an increasing substitute (00, 33, 66 and 100% for soybean meal so that the tissue’s general aspects could be verified and the number of ovarian follicles from each experimental group could be obtained. Forty-eight female rabbits were slaughtered at 43, 150 and 225 days of age and their ovaries were fixed in Bouin’s liquid, washed and conserved in 70% ethanol and embedded in paraffin. 5µm-thick histological sections were undertaken and stained by HE and Azan techniques. The ovaries were bound by a predominantly simple cubic epithelium followed by the tunica albuginea. Ovarian follicles were observed in different stages of development in the cortical tissue. Interstitial gland cells, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves were observed in the medullar tissue. Small cysts were also reported. Histological preparations didn’t show any change between groups either in the general morphology of the tissue or in follicle number. This fact suggests that the use of canola as a food of rabbits didn’t interfere in reproduction.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a histologia de ovário de coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca. As coelhas foram alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa (00, 33, 66 e 100% ao farelo de soja. Foram estudados os aspectos histológicos gerais dos ovários, assim como a contagem de folículos. Um grupo de 48 coelhas foi dividido ao acaso e abatido aos 43, 150 e 225 dias de idade, e os ovários foram fixados em Bouin, lavados e conservados em solução de etanol a 70% e embebidos em parafina. Cortes histológicos foram realizados com 5µm de espessura e corados com HE e técnica de Azan. Os ovários apresentavam predominantemente epitélio simples cúbico seguidos de túnica albugínea. Os folículos foram observados em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento no estroma cortical. C

  20. GRÃOS DE LINHAÇA E DE CANOLA SOBRE O DESEMPENHO, DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE E CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE NOVILHAS NELORE TERMINADAS EM CONFINAMENTO WHOLE LINSEED AND CANOLA SEED ON PERFORMANCE APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF NELLORE HEIFERS FINISHED IN FEEDLOT

    OpenAIRE

    Jesuí Virgílio Visentainer; José Luiz Moletta; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Ivanor Nunes do Prado; Fabio Yoshimi Wada; Lucia Maria Zeoula

    2008-01-01

    Avaliaram-se três rações (TES – ração-testemunha; LIN – ração com semente de linhaça integral e CAN – ração com grão integral de canola) sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade aparente, características de carcaça e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDMS), matéria orgânica (CDMO), proteína bruta (CDPB), fibra em detergente neutro (CDFDN), fibra em detergente ácido (CDFDA), energia bruta (CDEB) e extrato etéreo (CDEE) de novilhas Nelore confinadas. O indicador interno ut...

  1. Biocontrol traits and antagonistic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a causal agent of canola stem rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuncheng; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2014-10-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 has shown antagonism of several phytopathogens in vitro, especially Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Both the broth culture and cell suspension of strain NJZJSB3 could completely protect the detached leaves of canola (Brassica napus) from S. sclerotiorum infection. In pot experiments, the application of strain NJZJSB3 cell suspension (10(8) CFU/ml) decreased the disease incidence by 83.3%, a result similar to commercially available fungicide (Dimetachlone). In order to investigate the potential biocontrol mechanisms of strain NJZJSB3, the nonvolatile antifungal compounds it produces were identified as iturin homologs using HPLC-ESI-MS. Antifungal volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detected volatiles toluene, phenol, and benzothiazole showed antifungal effects against S. sclerotiorum in chemical control experiments. Strain NJZJSB3 also produced biofilm, siderophores and cell-wall-degrading enzymes (protease and β-1,3-glucanase). These results suggest that strain NJZJSB3 can be a tremendous potential agent for the biological control of sclerotinia stem rot. PMID:24861342

  2. Quantification, localization, and speciation of selenium in seeds of canola and two mustard species compared to seed-meals produced by hydraulic press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Walse, Spencer S; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Freeman, John L

    2012-07-17

    Brassica plants accumulate selenium (Se) especially in seeds when grown in soils laden with Se. We report a chemical analysis of Se in Brassica seeds (canola, Indian mustard, and white mustard) and in their hydraulically pressed seed meals, which are used as a Se supplement in livestock animal feeds. Complementary techniques were used to measure total Se concentrations, to map the localization of Se, and to quantify different Se forms. Seeds and hydraulically pressed seed meals contained an average of 1.8 and 2.0 μg Se g(-1) DW, respectively. Selenium was primarily located in cotyledons and roots of seed embryos. Microfocused Se K-edge XANES and bulk XANES showed that seeds contained 90% of Se as C-Se-C forms. Hydraulically pressing seeds for oil caused changes in the forms of Se as follows: 40-55% C-Se-C forms, 33-42% selenocystine, 5-12% selenocysteine, and 11-14% trimethylselenonium ion. Aqueous extracts of seed and seed meals were also analyzed by SAX-HPLC/ICPMS and found to contain mainly the C-Se-C form SeMet, but also another C-Se-C form MeSeCys, which is of dietary pharmacological interest for cancer inhibition. In addition, SAX-HPLC/ICPMS also detected selenocystine and selenocysteine, further confirming the results obtained by XANES analyses. PMID:22747111

  3. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  4. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions. PMID:18574623

  5. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R., E-mail: ebrahimiyazd@yahoo.com [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: > Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. > EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. > EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. > Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. > EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  6. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: → Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. → EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. → EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. → Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. → EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  7. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L.), CANOLA (Brassica napus L.) Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez; C. Villanueva-Verduzco; García-Mateos, M.R.; M. T. Colinas-León

    2009-01-01

    Los germinados pueden ser considerados vegetales frescos, producidos a bajo costo en cualquier temporada y pueden contribuir con una dieta rica en nutrimentos. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la germinación en la composición nutricional y contenido total de saponinas en germinados de huauzontle (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L.), canola (Brassica napus L.) y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.). Se realizó un aná...

  8. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  9. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour. PMID:24389796

  10. Effects of antioxidant additives on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with canola oil methyl ester–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EHN synthetic antioxidants were employed in the study. • Antioxidant additives are a promising candidate for improving cetane number, oxidation stability and decreasing NOx emissions • Cetane number improving efficiency of the antioxidants was ordered as EHN>BHA>BHT>TBHQ. • Formation of CO emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. - Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20

  11. Substituição da Proteína do Farelo de Soja pela Proteína do Farelo de Canola em Rações para Alevinos de Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus V. Replacement of Soybean Meal Protein by Canola Meal Protein in "Curimbatá" (Prochilodus lineatus V. Fingerling Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em rações para alevinos de curimbatá, foram utilizados 120 animais com peso médio de 1,88 ± 0,82 g e comprimento total médio de 5,40 ± 0,99 cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições em aquários de vidro (50 L, com cinco alevinos por unidade experimental. As rações foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas (26,00%, isocálcicas (0,90% e isofosfóricas (0,70%, com níveis crescentes de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00; 20,00; 40,00; 60,00; 80,00 e 100,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00; 8,03; 16,10; 24,10; 32,15 e 43,12% de inclusão do FC nas rações e fornecidas por um período de 30 dias. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram medidos a cada sete dias. Observou-se redução linear do ganho de peso e da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear da taxa de conversão alimentar, com aumento da inclusão do FC nas rações. A taxa de sobrevivência e o custo de ração/kg ganho não foram afetados com o uso do FC nas rações. Os valores da temperatura da água, do pH e da condutividade elétrica permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. Concluiu-se que o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da proteína do farelo de canola nas rações para alevinos de curimbatá acarretou redução no desempenho dos mesmos.The influence of the substitution of soybean meal protein (SM by canola meal protein (CM in Prochilodus lineatus fingerling diets was verified. One hundred and twenty specimens, averaging weight 1.88±0.82g and total length 5.40±0.99cm, was assigned to a completely randomized randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates, in a 50 L glass aquarium, with five fingerlings in each experimental unit. Isoprotein (26.00%, isocalcium (0.90% and isophosphorus (0.70% diets were formulated with increasing replacement

  12. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed

    2016-06-15

    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction. PMID:26868572

  13. Determinación de los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente y estandarizada de la proteína y aminoácidos de la torta de canola en lechones recién destetados Estimação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente das proteínas e aminoácidos do torta de canola em leitões recém-desmamados Determination of standardized and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids from canola meal in weaned piglets.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Mariscal; Tércia C Reis; Jaime E Parra

    2008-01-01

    Para obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA) y estandarizada (CDIE) de la proteína y aminoácidos de pasta de canola (PC), se realizó un experimento en el que se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en “T” al final del íleon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (DR) elaborada con caseína como única fuente de proteína y almidón de maíz...

  14. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  15. Determinación de los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente y estandarizada de la proteína y aminoácidos de la torta de canola en lechones recién destetados

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Mariscal; Tércia C Reis; Jaime E Parra

    2008-01-01

    Para obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA) y estandarizada (CDIE) de la proteína y aminoácidos de pasta de canola (PC), se realizó un experimento en el que se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en T al final del íleon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (DR) elaborada con caseína como única fuente de proteína y almidón de maíz, dietas CT...

  16. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P condensed tannins with averages of 0.3 and 3.1 g/kg DM, respectively. When protein was portioned into five subfractions, significant differences were found in PA, PB1 (65 vs 79 g/kg CP), PB2, and PC fractions (10 vs 33 g/kg CP), indicating protein degradation and supply to small intestine differed between two new lines. In terms of protein structure spectral profile, there were no significant differences in functional groups of amides I and II, α helix, and β-sheet structure as well as their ratio between the two new lines, indicating no difference in protein structure makeup and conformation between the two lines. In terms of energy values, there were significant differences in total digestible nutrient

  17. Seed bank modelling of volunteer oil seed rape: from seeds fate in the soil to seedling emergence Modelagem do banco de sementes de canola: do destino das sementes no solo à emergência das plântulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Soltani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to estimate parameters and relationships associated with sub-processes in soil seed banks of oilseed rape in Gorgan, Iran. After one month of burial, seed viability decreased to 39%, with a slope of 2.03% per day, and subsequently decreased with a lower slope of 0.01 until 365 days following burial in the soil. Germinability remained at its highest value in autumn and winter and decreased from spring to the last month of summer. Non-dormant seeds of volunteer oilseed rape did not germinate at temperatures lower than 3.8 ºC and a water potential of -1.4 MPa ºd. The hydrothermal values were 36.2 and 42.9 MPa ºd for sub- and supra-optimal temperatures, respectively. Quantification of seed emergence as influenced by burial depth was performed satisfactorily (R² = 0.98 and RMSE = 5.03. The parameters and relationships estimated here can be used for modelling soil seed bank dynamics or establishing a new model for the environment.Estudos foram realizados para estimar os parâmetros e as relações ligados a subprocessos em bancos de sementes de canola no solo, em Gorgan, Iran. Após um mês de enterrio, a viabilidade das sementes diminuiu para 39%, com inclinação de 2,03% ao dia; posteriormente, diminuiu com menor inclinação: de 0,01 até 365 dias após o enterrio no solo. A germinação manteve-se em seu maior valor no outono e inverno, reduzindo da primavera ao último mês do verão. Sementes de canola não dormentes não germinaram em temperaturas abaixo de 3,8 °C e potencial hídrico abaixo de -1,4 Mpaºd. Os valores hidrotermais foram de 36,2 e 42,9 Mpaºd para temperaturas sub e supraótima, respectivamente. A quantificação da emergência das sementes sob influência da profundidade de enterrio foi delineada de forma satisfatória (R²= 0,98 e RMSE = 5,03. Os parâmetros e as relações estimadas neste estudo podem ser utilizados em modelagens do banco de sementes do solo ou para estabelecer um novo modelo para

  18. OIL QUALITY OF CANOLA CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS AND SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER APPLICATION QUALIDADE DE ÓLEO DE CULTIVARES DE CANOLA EM RESPOSTA AO ESTRESSE HÍDRICO E APLICAÇÃO DE POLÍMERO HIDROABSORVENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zahedi

    2011-10-01

    ; font-style: normal; font-weight: normal; line-height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR">O estresse hídrico limita significativamente o crescimento de plantas e a produtividade da cultura. Por isto, o manejo eficiente da umidade no solo e o estudo de alterações metabólicas que ocorrem em decorrência do estresse hídrico são importantes para a agricultura. O presente estudo objetivou avaliar o efeito de seis genótipos de canola (Rgs003, Sarigol, Option500, Hyola401, Hyola330 e Hyola420, cultivados com e sem estresse hídrico e com e sem a presença de polímero hidroabsorvente, na qualidade e teor do óleo extraído de suas sementes. Utilizou-se delineamento em blocos casualizados, com parcelas subdivididas, em esquema fatorial 2x2x6 (estresse hídrico x polímero x genótipos, com três repetições. A pesquisa foi desenvolvida em área pertencente ao Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, em Karaj, Irã. Observou-se efeito significativo para os níveis de estresse hídrico, presença de polímero e genótipos, no teor e composição do óleo e no teor de glucosinolato. O estresse hídrico reduziu os teores de óleo e ácido linoleico, mas aumentou o teor de glucosinolato e de ácido esteárico. A aplicação do polímero hidroabsorvente aumentou o teor de ácido linoleico, mas diminuiu outros componentes. Foi possível concluir que, sob estresse hídrico, a aplicação de polímero hidroabsorvente, em razão de sua maior retenção de água, aumentou a capacidade de armazenamento desta no solo, o que contribuiu para um aumento no período vegetativo da planta, favorecendo a qualidade do óleo, por diminuir o teor de ácidos graxos saturados e aumentar o de insaturados.

  19. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  20. Effect of different levels of water deficit on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. crop Efeito de diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico na cultura da canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bilibio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different levels of water deficit applied during rapeseed crop development were assessed in a trial with metallic pots in greenhouse at the Department of Agricultural Engineering of Kassel University, Witzenhausen, Germany. A randomized block design was used with one cultivar (Ability Summer Rape and three levels of water deficit (0, 30, and 60% of evapotranspiration in three treatments and 20 replicates. Irrigation management was carried out through daily water balance, where ET = I - D; ET: evapotranspiration; I: irrigation; and D: drainage. The following evaluations were carried out weekly: stem diameter (mm; plant height (cm; number of leaves; number of branches and number of pods. At the end of the experiment, assessed total green matter (g plant-1, total dry matter (g plant-1, grain yield (g plant-1, grain protein content (% and grain oil content (% were also assessed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the effect of the treatments was assessed by regression analysis. Results showed significant differences between the treatments in all analysed variables except for plant height and grain protein content, by test F at 5% probability. Factor of response ky, indicator of crop sensitivity to water deficit, was lower than one for all assessed variables. Grain yield showed the highest sensitivity to water deficit.Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico, aplicados durante o desenvolvimento da canola, foram avaliados por meio de um experimento conduzido em vasos de metal no interior de uma casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola, da Universidade de Kassel, Alemanha. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com a cultivar Ability (Summer Rape, e três níveis de déficit de água, 0%, 30%, 60% da evapotranspiração da cultura, totalizando três tratamentos com 20 repetições. O manejo da irrigação foi realizado por meio do balanço hídrico diário, em que ET = I - D, onde

  1. RESPONSE OF SIX OILSEED RAPE GENOTYPES TO WATER STRESS AND HYDROGEL APPLICATION RESPOSTA DE SEIS GENÓTIPOS DE CANOLA A ESTRESSE HÍDRICO E APLICAÇÃO DE HIDROGEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mashhadi-Akbar-Boojar

    2009-09-01

    physiological characters performance. Field results showed that drought stress and absence of super absorbent lead to a decrease in all agronomic parameters. These results may be due to the reduction of photosynthesis and chlorophyll content. In our study, the super absorbent was able to reduce the destructive effect of water deficiency, by absorbing and preserving water and improving several agronomic characters. Observing the increased yield and its components and decreasing plant water requirement, it seems that this material is technically acceptable.

    KEY-WORDS: Brassica napus; hydrogel; water stress; agronomic character; chlorophyll content.

    Os hidrogéis condicionadores podem melhorar o estabelecimento e crescimento de plântulas, pelo aumento da capacidade de retenção de água dos solos e regulagem do suprimento de água disponível para as plantas, especialmente em ambientes áridos. Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar o papel de polímero superabsorvente, em genótipos de canola (Brassica napus L., sob estresse hídrico, avaliando-se alguns caracteres agronômicos (biomassa total, produção de grãos, componentes da produção e índice de colheita e fisiológicos (conteúdo de clorofila. O experimento foi conduzido na estação experimental do Instituto para Melhoramento de Sementes e Plantas, em 2007-2008, em Karaj, Irã (35°59´N, 50°75’E, 151 m de altitude, em desenho blocos ao acaso e arranjo fatorial de

  2. Simulating the influence of crop spatial patterns on canola yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, H.W.; Nielsen, J.; Olsen, Jannie Maj;

    2011-01-01

    plant uniformity on the yield of oil seed rape. Voronoi polygons (tessellations) which define the area closer to an individual than to any other individual were used as a measure of the area available to each plant, and corrections were included for extreme polygon shape and eccentricity of the plant...... location within the polygon. These adjusted polygon areas were used to investigate the potential influence of two of the most important determinants of crop sowing spatial uniformity: row width and longitudinal spacing accuracy, on yield per unit area, and to ask how changes in seeding technology would...

  3. Using pennycress, camelina, and canola cash crops to provision pollinators

    Science.gov (United States)

    As pollinator decline continues, the need to provide high value forage for insects continues to rise. Finding agricultural crops to diversify the landscape and provide forage is one way to improve pollinator health. Three winter industrial oilseed crops (pennycress, winter camelina, and winter canol...

  4. CFD simulation of transient stage of continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-08-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling of a continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process was performed using ANSYS-CFX. The liquid properties and flow behavior such as density, specific heats, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansivity as well as water solubility of the hydrolysis components triglyceride, diglyceride, monoglyceride, free fatty acid, and glycerol were calculated. Chemical kinetics for the hydrolysis reactions were simulated in this model by applying Arrhenius parameters. The simulation was based on actual experimental reaction conditions including temperature and water-to-oil ratio. The results not only have good agreement with experimental data but also show instantaneous distributions of concentrations of every component in hydrolysis reaction. This model provided visible insight into the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effects of Salinity on Yield and Component Characters in Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cultivars �Okapi�, �SLM046�, �Elite�, �Fornax� and �Licord� Brassica napus were tested for yield and component characters under different levels of salinity. The variations due to salinity levels, cultivars and cultivarxsalinity (interaction were significant for different characters. The variable degrees of increase and decrease of regression coefficient estimate mates (curve estimation showed the performance as influenced by different salinity levels. The performance of Brassica napus variety in plant height and days to first flowering was the best for �SLM046�, �Okapi� �SLM046� and �Okapi� cultivars. �SLM046� showed the best performance in days to maturity, followed by �Licord� and �Elite�. �Okapi� performed better than others regarding the increased number of seeds per plant and seed yield per plant, followed by �Fornax�. Considering all characters, the most tolerance ability was found in �SLM046� and �Okapi�, against different levels of salinity.

  6. Evidence for the establishment and persistence of genetically modified canola populations in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background/Questions/Methods Concerns surrounding the commercial release of genetically modified crops include the risks of escape from cultivation, naturalization, and the transfer of beneficial traits to native and weedy species. Among the crops commonly grown in the U.S., a l...

  7. Canola integration into semi-arid wheat cropping systems of the inland Pacific Northwestern USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inland Pacific Northwestern USA (iPNW) wheat-producing region has a diversity of environments and soils, yet it lacks crop diversity and is one of the few semi-arid wheat-growing regions without significant integration of oilseeds. Four major agroecological zones, primarily characterised by wate...

  8. Breeding of Zhongyouza 8, a Canola Variety with Large Seeds and High Oil Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-chang; HU Qiong; MEI De-sheng; LI Ying-de; XU Yu-song

    2006-01-01

    High oil yield resulted from a combination of high grain yield and high oil content is a prerequisite for the high efficient oilseed rape production. By using irradiation induced mutation and sexual hybridization combined with paired test cross,the fertility, yield and oil content of the three lines of cytoplasmic male sterility have been improved and a new hybrid variety Zhongyouza 8 with high oil yield was developed. It has been testified that the yield of Zhongyouza 8 was significantly higher than that of the control variety Zhongyou 821 with 9.82 and 10.64% increase in the regional trials of Hubei Province and nationwide, respectively. The oil content and oil yield of Zhongyouza 8 were the highest among all the lines involved in Hubei provincial trials, being 42.77% and 1 051.05 kg ha-1 which was raised by 3% and 161.25 kg ha-1compared to the control Zhongyou 821, respectively. The genetic basis for the strong heterosis, and the factors contributing to the yield and oil content increase of Zhongyouza 8 as well as the strategy for high oil yielding variety improvement through increasing seed size were also discussed in this paper.

  9. 77 FR 41357 - Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of Nonregulated Status of Canola...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-13

    ... status. On March 6, 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 13258-13260, Docket No. APHIS-2011... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Monsanto Co.; Availability of Petition for Determination of... Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has received a petition from the Monsanto Company (Monsanto) seeking...

  10. Exploitation of Physical Mapping Technologies for Breeding of Canola Mutants in Oilseed Brassicas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutant population of oilseed rape (Brassica napus) and mustard (Brassica juncea) consisting of 25,748 M2 mutants developed and screened through non-destructive quality analysis using Near Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for modified fatty acid profile. The genetic stability of mutant lines with desirable fatty acid profile ascertained in the M2:4 population. The DNA molecular polymorphism survey was conducted using DNA extracted from stable mutant lines. A total of 80% of the SSR primers screened yielded amplification products in all the selected lines. The polymorphism for the mutated genetic makeup of selected mutant plants of brassica with respective initial parents were studied using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to characterize the distribution of rDNA probes. With modified fatty acid composition 14 brassica mutant lines of the M2:5 generation were tested for yield performance under replicated yield trials for two consecutive years at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA). The yield and quality performance of these 14 mutant lines were also evaluated under diversified agro-climatic conditions across the country. All the brassica mutant lines confirmed the genetic stability in modified fatty acid composition and yield potential. (author)

  11. Early growth and devlopment response to corn to canola competition and shade stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corn-weed competition studies indicate that resource limitation slows normal corn growth and development and often results in lower yields. However there is minimal information on the physiological basis of crop competition, especially at the early growth stages when resources would be expected to b...

  12. COMPARISON OF AN ENGINE OPERATED ON CANOLA BASED BIODIESEL TO AN ENGINE OPERATED ON PETROLEUM DIESEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The educational mission of the university will be met in two ways. First, students who are involved in the project will enhance their learning through their participation in the interdisciplinary solution of a real-world problem. Second, the students will demonstrate the v...

  13. Utilizing Remote Sensing Technology to Determine Nitrogen Nutrition and Yield of Canola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Considerable research has be conducted over the last decade evaluating sensor-based technologies for in-season application of nitrogen (N). The majority of this work has been done on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), with little research on other crops. A field study was establi...

  14. Determining Nitrogen Nutrition and Yield of Canola through Existing Remote Sensing Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over the past few decades there has been considerable research evaluating sensor-based technologies for in-season application of nitrogen (N). The majority of this work has been done on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and corn (Zea mays L.), with little research on other crops. A field study was esta...

  15. Comparison of Physiological Responses to Salinity Stress in Canola (Brassica napus L. Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atlassi Pak

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, is a serious disease of cut rose flowers (Rosa hybrida L. in Iran. In order to elucidate the effects of different potassium and calcium levels in nutrient solution on susceptibility of cut rose flowers to gray mold, this experiment was carried out as factorial design in a randomized complete block with four replications at Safi Abad Agricultural Research center in 2008 for one year. In this experiment, rose plants were grown and subjected to three levels of potassium (1.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mM in combination with two levels of calcium (1.6 and 4.8 mM under hydroponic condition. Rose flowers from two consecutive harvesting periods were sprayed with the conidial suspension (104 spore/ml of B. cinerea isolate. At the end of experiment the disease severity was recorded and analyzed. The results indicated that application of 10.0 mM K in the nutrient solution led to increasing rose disease severity to gray mold (30.4 % day-1 compared to 1.0 mM (24.8 % day-1 and 5.0 mM (26.2 % day-1 of K levels (P< 0.01. The increased susceptibility was associated with a decreased concentration of Ca in the rose petals. Correlation analysis revealed that susceptibility of rose flowers to gray mold significantly increased with K to sum cations ratio in the nutrient solution (r = 0.94*. The increase of Ca supply from 1.6 to 4.8 mM resulted in decline of disease severity from 29.6 to 24.6 % day-1 (P< 0.01. Therefore, balanced application of potassium and calcium (5.0 and 4.8 mM, respectively is recommendable for preventing antagonistic effects between them and reducing of rose gray mold intensity under hydroponic conditions.

  16. Glyphosate drift promotes changes in fitness and transgene flow in canola (Brassica napus) and hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. With the advent of transgenic crops, genetically modified, herbicide resistant B. napus has become a model system for examining the risks of escape of transgenes from cultivation and for evaluating potential ecological consequences of novel genes in wild species. 2. We exam...

  17. Determination of Essential Fatty Acid Composition among Mutant Lines of Canola (Brassica napus), through High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Raza; Aquil Siddique; Imtiaz Ahmad Khan; Muhammed Yasin Ashraf; Abdullah Khatri

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the methyl esters of lenoleic acid (LA), γ-lenolenic acid (LNA) and oleic acid (OL) in the oil of Brassica napus mutants. Five stable mutants (ROO-75/1, ROO-100/6, ROO-125/12, ROO-125/14, and ROO-125/17)of B. napus cv. 'Rainbow' (P) and three mutants (W97-95116, W97-0.75/11 and W97-.075/13) of B. napus cv. 'Westar' (P) at M6 stage, exhibiting better yield and yield components, were analyzed for essential fatty acids. The highest seed yield was observed in the mutant (ROO-100/6) followed by ROO-125/14 of Rainbow, that is, 34% and 32% higher than their parent plants, respectively. Westar mutant W97-75/11 also showed 30% higher seed yield than its parent plant. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the composition of fatty acids indicated that OL was the most dominant fatty acid, ranging from 39.1 to 66.3%; LA was second (15.3-41.6%) and LNA was third (18.1-28.9%). Mutant ROO-125/14 showed higher OL contents than parent (Rainbow). These results are expected to support the approval of ROO-125/14 in the National Uniform Varietal Yield Trials (NUVYT) as a new variety based on high oil quality.

  18. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H) DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Mobarak; Chowdhury, M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore...

  19. BORON DEFICIENCY ALTERS PLATELET AGGREGATION DIFFERENTLY THAN REPLACING PALM OIL WITH CANOLA OIL IN THE DIET OF RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support for the hypothesis that both boron (B) and long-chain n-3 fatty acids have membrane functions that affect each other would be finding that changes in B and n-3 fatty acid intakes affect a membrane-involved process such as platelet aggregation. Thus, female and male adult rats were fed diets...

  20. PALM AND PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN OILS ADVERSELY ALTER LIPOPROTEIN PROFILES COMPARED WITH SOYBEAN AND CANOLA OILS IN MODERATELY HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Partially-hydrogenated fat has an unfavorable effect on cardiovascular disease risk. Palm oil has reemerged as a potential substitute due to favorable physical characteristics. Objective: To assess the effect of palm oil relative to both partially-hydrogenated fat and oils high in mon...

  1. Increased Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and rooting efficiencies in canola (Brassica napus L.) from hypocotyl segment explants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoza, V.; Stewart, C. N.

    2003-01-01

    An efficient protocol for the production of transgenic Brassica napus cv. Westar plants was developed by optimizing two important parameters: preconditioning time and co-cultivation time. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation was performed using hypocotyls as explant tissue. Two variants of a green fluorescent protein (GFP)-encoding gene--mGFP5-ER and eGFP--both under the constitutive expression of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, were used for the experiments. Optimizing the preconditioning time to 72 h and co-cultivation time with Agrobacterium to 48 h provided the increase in the transformation efficiency from a baseline of 4% to 25%. With mGFP5-ER, the transformation rate was 17% and with eGFP it was 25%. Transgenic shoots were selected on 200 mg/l kanamycin. Rooting efficiency was 100% on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium with 10 g/l sucrose and 0.5 mg/l indole butyric acid in the presence of kanamycin.

  2. Relative effectiveness of organic and inorganic nutrient sources in improving yield, seed quality and nutrient uptake of canola

    OpenAIRE

    Malhi, S. S.; C. L. Vera; Brandt, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    The proper use of organic and inorganic nutrient sources is important to sustain high levels of crop production, while maintaining or enhancing soil and environmental quality. A 4-year (2009 to 2012) field experiment was established in spring 2009 on a Gray Luvisol (Typic Haplocryalf) loam soil at Star City, Saskatchewan, Canada, to determine the effectiveness of organic/biological (compost, wood ash [fine and granular], alfalfa pellets, distiller grain, thin stillage, glycerol, fish foo...

  3. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  4. Design and Application of a Novel Dehumidifying System for a Fluidized Bed Dryer for the Drying of Canola Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjes Malekjani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel fluidized bed dryer equipped with a dehumidifying system was designed and constructed. The dehumidifying system was based on refrigeration cycle and composed of an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser an expansion valve and a damper. The drying experiments were carried out in three temperature (35, 45 and 55°C and three relative humidity (30, 50 and 70% levels. The results showed that the relative humidity of drying air has a significant effect on drying rate. The drying rates decreased as relative humidity increased at a constant temperature, and increased as temperature increased at a constant relative humidity so dehumidifying can accelerate drying and decrease drying times.

  5. 75 FR 59622 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... and changes in livestock production with associated impacts on feed crops and other crop production... effects of climate change could decrease agricultural yields'' and ``further research is needed to... uncertain nature of scientific advancement and possible future effects related to climate change,...

  6. Quantification, localization and identification of selenium in seeds of canola and two mustard species compared to seed meals produced by hydraulic press

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica plants accumulate selenium (Se), especially in seeds, when grown in soils laden with Se in the westside of the San Joaquin Valley. In this study, we attempt to accurately determine the forms of Se present in the Se-enriched products produced from plants grown for the phytomanagement of Se. ...

  7. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fat Include: Canola Oil Sardines Corn Oil Sesame Seeds Cottonseed Oil Soybeans Flaxseeds Soybean Oil Herring Sunflower Oil Mackerel ... facts label) Palm or Palm Kernal Oil Canola oil Poultry Skin Poultry without the skin Red Meat White meat ...

  8. Evaluation of Yield Component Traits of Honeybee-Pollinated (Apis mellifera L.Rapeseed Canola (Brassica napus L. Evaluación de Parámetros de Rendimiento del Raps (Brassica napus L. Polinizado por Abejas (Apis mellifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Araneda Durán

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent introduction of hybrid varieties raises the question if bees (Apis mellifera L. contribute as pollinator agents in developing the full yield potential of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.. In order to evaluate the yield achieved by B. napus cv. Artus pollinated by A. mellifera testing was carried out in the district of Freire, La Araucanía Region, Chile. This consisted in isolating or excluding rapeseed plants from pollinators with exclusion cages. Treatments applied were total exclusion (T1, partial exclusion (T2 and free pollination (T0 with a density of 6.5 hives ha-1, in order to determine the following yield components traits: grains per silique, siliques per plant, 1000 grain weight and yield. The experimental design used was randomized complete blocks with three treatments and three replicates. Results obtained show that the parameter least affected by bee intervention was the grains per silique variable. In contrast, siliques per plant and 1000 grain weight parameters presented significant differences, contributing to a yield greater than 5 t ha-1; which represented a figure 50.34% higher than in the treatment without bees. It may be concluded that the inclusion of bees in crops is fully justified as a production tool.La reciente introducción de variedades híbridas plantea la interrogante de la contribución que pueda tener la presencia de abejas (Apis mellifera L. como agentes polinizadores para desarrollar en pleno el potencial productivo del raps (Brassica napus L.. Con el objetivo de evaluar el rendimiento alcanzado por B. napus cv. Artus polinizado por A. mellifera, se realizó un ensayo en la localidad de Freire, Región de La Araucanía, Chile. Éste consistió en aislar o excluir las plantas de raps de los polinizadores mediante el uso de jaulas excluidoras. Los tratamientos consistieron en la exclusión total (T1, exclusión parcial (T2 y libre polinización (T0 con una densidad de 6,5 colmenas ha-1, con el fin de determinar los siguientes componentes del rendimiento: granos por silicua, silicuas por planta, peso de los 1000 granos y rendimiento. El diseño experimental utilizado fue de bloques completos al azar con tres tratamientos y tres repeticiones. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que el parámetro menos afectado por la intervención de la abeja fue la variable granos por silicua. En contraste, los parámetros silicuas por planta y peso de los 1000 granos experimentaron diferencias significativas contribuyendo a una producción que superó 5 t ha-1, lo que significa un aumento de un 50,34% comparado con el tratamiento sin presencia de abejas. Estos resultados permiten concluir que la inclusión de las abejas en los cultivos está plenamente justificada como una herramienta de producción.

  9. Transesterification of canola, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oil with methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol and tert-butanol to biodiesel: Modelling of chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics and mass transfer based on fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Modelling of chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics and mass transfer for triglyceride transesterification with different alcohols based on fatty acid composition. - Highlights: • Catalysed transesterification to biodiesel with various oils, alcohols and catalysts. • Analysis of components and reactivity based on fatty acid composition of all species. • Simultaneous modelling of mass transfer, reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium. • Diffusivities, distribution and mass transfer coefficients for individual components. • Correlation of kinetic parameters with molecular structure of reactants and products. - Abstract: Mechanism of alcoholysis (e.g. methanolysis) using different oils, alcohols and homogeneous base catalysts was utilized to devise chemical kinetics and thermodynamics based on fatty acid composition, differentiating among triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and fatty acid alkyl esters (e.g. fatty acid alkyl esters, FAME) with bonded gadoleic, linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acid-originating substituents. Their concentrations were measured using an optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hydrodynamics and diffusion limitations in emulsion were considered in overall model by determining diffusivities, distribution coefficients, molar volumes, boiling points and viscosities of individual components. Pre-exponential factors and activation energies were related with structure of reactants, intermediates and products acknowledging number of carbons, double bonds and alkyl branches by linear and mixed response surface methodology. Developed model may be used with batch and continuous flow reactors, e.g. for novel micro-structured or industrial-scale process intensification, different vegetable or non-edible oils (waste cooking Jatropha or microalgae lipids)

  10. Welfare Effects of Identity Preservation and Labelling of Genetically Modified Food

    OpenAIRE

    Lindner, Robert K.; Burton, Michael P.; James, Sallie; Pluske, Johanna M.

    2001-01-01

    Using a simple model of the world canola market, this paper explores the consequences of the introduction of GM canola on prices, production and consumer welfare. In particular, the model contains heterogeneous consumers who differentiate between GM and non-GM canola, but who can be captured by the GM market if the price discount for GM is sufficiently large. This leads to market segmentation, with the size of price differentials determined by identity preservation costs. A particular feature...

  11. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  12. EFFECT OF FISH-MEAL REPLACEMENT WITH POULTRY BY-PRODUCT MEAL ON THE GROWTH, TISSUE COMPOSITION AND HEMATOLOGICAL PARAMETERS OF LARGEMOUTH BASS (MICROPTERUS SALMOIDES) FED DIETS CONTAINING DIFFERENT LIPIDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    We previously showed that growth of largemouth bass (LMB) fed a diet containing different lipid (canola, chicken, or fish oil) or combination of lipids (canola + chicken oil (1:1) or menhaden fish oil + chicken oil (1:1)) was comparable to growth of LMB fed a commercial trout diet when protein in th...

  13. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of cumulative irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Petersen, Thomas Kongsted;

    2006-01-01

    either 10% isopropyl palmitate (IPP cream), 10% glycerol (glycerol cream), 19.5% canola oil (canola oil cream) or 0.5% (-)-alpha-bisabolol (bisabolol cream). METHODS: In HLGP, irritant dermatitis was induced with 30 min daily exposure for 4 days to 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate aq. (SLS). In HVs, irritant...

  14. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased...

  15. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fiber. These include oats, bran, split peas and lentils, beans (such as kidney, black, and navy beans), ... or canola oil. Choose whole grains over white flour or pasta products. Choose fresh fruits and vegetables ...

  16. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fats have health risks. Some guidelines for healthier cooking: Use olive or canola oil instead of butter ... You should NOT use: Margarine, shortening, and cooking oils that have ... labels). Hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated fats (read ...

  17. Eating Well with Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2 percent milk, one to two tablespoons of peanut butter, one to three tea- spoons of canola oil, ... nuts, especially almonds, walnuts, flaxseeds, pine nuts, natural peanut butter Avoid trans fats from hydroge- nated and partially ...

  18. Contrastive response of Brassica napus L. to exogenous salicylic acid, selenium and silicon supplementation under water stress

    OpenAIRE

    Habibi Ghader

    2015-01-01

    The present research was designed to determine the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA), selenium (Se) and silicon (Si) on the resistance of canola (Brassica napus L. cv Okapi) seedlings to salt stress. Foliar application of SA (0.1 mM) in canola plants under drought stress for 25 days exhibited a significantly positive effect on shoot dry mass and raised the levels of total chlorophyll as well as boosting the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and ...

  19. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Sheep, fat 0.40 Sheep, meat 0.15 Sheep, meat byproducts 6.0 Soybean 2.0 Soybean, hulls 5.0 (b) Section... subgroup 13B 0.15 Canola, meal 1.1 Canola, seed 0.40 Cattle, fat 0.40 Cattle, meat 0.15 Cattle, meat... 15 Cotton, undelinted seed 4.0 Egg 0.15 Goat, fat 0.40 Goat, meat 0.15 Goat, meat byproducts...

  20. Benefits of Transgenic Insect Resistance in Brassica Hybrids under Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia L. Sagers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Field trials of transgenic crops may result in unintentional transgene flow to compatible crop, native, and weedy species. Hybridization outside crop fields may create novel forms with potential negative outcomes for wild and weedy plant populations. We report here the outcome of large outdoor mesocosm studies with canola (Brassica napus, transgenic canola, a sexually compatible weed B. rapa, and their hybrids. Brassica rapa was hybridized with canola and canola carrying a transgene for herbivore resistance (Bt Cry1Ac and grown in outdoor mesocosms under varying conditions of competition and insect herbivory. Treatment effects differed significantly among genotypes. Hybrids were larger than all other genotypes, and produced more seeds than the B. rapa parent. Under conditions of heavy herbivory, plants carrying the transgenic resistance were larger and produced more seeds than non-transgenic plants. Pollen derived gene flow from transgenic canola to B. rapa varied between years (5%–22% and was not significantly impacted by herbivory. These results confirm that canola-weed hybrids benefit from transgenic resistance and are aggressive competitors with congeneric crops and ruderals. Because some crop and crop-weed hybrids may be competitively superior, escapees may alter the composition and ecological functions of plant communities near transgenic crop fields.

  1. Bee assemblage in habitats associated with Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Halinski

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTAssessments in agricultural crops indicate that alterations in the landscape adjacent to the crops can result in reduced productivity due to loss or low abundance of pollinating agents. In the canola crop, production is partially dependent on insect pollination. Therefore, knowledge of the faunal diversity within and near crop fields is key for the management of these insects and consequently for the increase in productivity. This study aimed to determine and compare the diversity of bees in habitats associated with canola fields in southern Brazil. Bees were captured in four agricultural areas using pan traps in three habitat classes: (1 flowering canola crop, (2 forest remnant, and (3 grassland vegetation. The highest abundance of bees was observed in the grassland vegetation (50% and in the flowering canola field (47%. Eight species common to the three habitat classes were recorded, four of which are represented by native social bees. In addition, a single or a few individuals represented species that were exclusive to a specific habitat class; eight species were collected exclusively in the interior of the canola field, 51 in the grassland vegetation, and six in the forest remnant. The majority of the rare species recorded exhibits subsocial or solitary behaviour and inhabit open places. The composition of bee groups differed between the habitats showing the importance of maintaining habitat mosaics with friendly areas for pollinators, which promote the pollination service for canola flowers.

  2. The economic impact of Canadian biodiesel production on Canadian grains, oilseeds and livestock producers : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to provide the Canadian Canola Growers Association with an understanding of the economic effects of a mandated use of biodiesel blends produced in Canada, focusing on canola and canola oil. A literature review was performed to determine what has been found elsewhere in terms of biodiesel. An overview of the feedstock markets was also conducted along with an empirical analysis to determine likely feedstock purchasing behaviour under biodiesel blend requirements. The analysis also considered the rendered animal fats industry. The objectives were to identify the economic impacts of biodiesel development; determine the nature of markets for candidate feedstocks that could be used in manufacturing biodiesel; estimate the economic effects of a 2 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; estimate the economic effects of a 5 per cent biodiesel blend requirement in petroleum diesel; and, determine the ultimate impact on the Canadian canola industry of the mandated biodiesel blend. It was shown that biodiesel can be made from a range of feedstocks and that the 2 key factors influencing the success of biodiesel manufacturing facilities were feedstock prices and feedstock availability. The key competitors facing canola oil in the biodiesel market are rendered oils, rendered animal fats, palm oil, and soybean oil. Canola and soybean oil are likely to be relatively high cost feedstocks for biodiesel production, while yellow grease, tallow, and palm oil would be better priced as feed for industrial uses. Two conceptions of market dynamic were considered. In the first, the feedstock prices remained constant, while in the other the feedstock prices fluctuated with volume consumed. It was concluded that if total fat and oil supplies are fixed at historic levels, biodiesel blend requirements of just over 2 per cent are feasible. It was concluded that a cluster of widely available, low-priced feedstocks for biodiesel production exists. These

  3. Fat and carbohydrates in the diet: Its metabolic contribution to obesity in Chilean women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of changes in dietary fatty acid composition on macronutrient oxidation were studied on controls and 6 obese women, 30-45 years old. Anthropometry, body composition, physical activity, continuous indirect calorimetry (200 min), plasma fatty acids, serum insulin and glucose were measured. The study was performed using a crossover design: baseline and three-period 2wk each: canola oil supplementation, washout and sunflower oil supplementation. Subjects were provided with commercially available oil (1 L/wk) either canola or sunflower during the corresponding period. Oil treatment produced significant modifications of plasma fatty acid profile, according to the type of oil consumed. In both groups, most of the fat provided was oxidised (ratio oxidised/intake: 79-102%) in the two dietary regimes, no differences were found between groups. Controls however, had a higher fat oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) with sunflower compared to canola treatment. Changes in plasma polyunsaturated/saturated ratio (P/S) from canola to sunflower treatment were not associated to fat oxidation. Changes in plasma n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment showed a positive association with fat oxidation in controls (r=0. 72) and a negative association in obese (r=-0.79). Carbohydrate oxidation was on average 20-29% of CHO intake. Glucose oxidation was not associated to n6/n3 ratio from canola to sunflower treatment, but it was inversely correlated to PIS ratio changes in both groups. With sunflower treatment obese showed a higher CHO oxidation (mg/kg fat-free mass) associated to a greater insulin response compared to controls. This study showed that the type of oil can induce differences in substrate oxidation. Canola oil intake could be stimulated based on its smaller insulin response in subjects predisposed to hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance. (author)

  4. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

  5. Crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter in the presence of sorbitan esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Podchong, Pawitchaya; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter crystallization in the presence of sorbitan mono- and triesters or canola oil was investigated. Solid-state surfactant esters accelerated early-stage cocoa butter solidification while suppressing later growth. Sorbitan tristearate showed the strongest effect, followed by sorbitan monostearate and sorbitan monopalmitate. Liquid-state surfactants suppressed cocoa butter crystallization at all time points, with sorbitan trioleate showing a stronger effect than sorbitan monooleate, which behaved in a similar fashion to canola oil. Via DSC, the palmitic and stearic-based surfactants only associated with cocoa butter's high-melting fraction, with the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola oil showing little influence. All sorbitan esters had little effect on polymorphism, whereas canola oil accelerated the form II-to-III-to-IV transition. The palmitic and stearic-based surfactants greatly reduced cocoa butter crystal size whereas the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola showed no notable effect. Overall, sorbitan esters impacted cocoa butter crystallization kinetics, though this depended on surfactant structure and concentration. PMID:27507503

  6. Effects of blending composition of tung oil and ultrasonic irradiation intensity on the biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beneficial use of tung oil in pre-blended oil for the production of biodiesel was studied at various blending compositions of tung, canola and palm oils (CBT, CBC and CBP). The effects of CBT, ultrasonic power (PWUS) and sample loading (VL) on the yield (YF) and the properties of acid value, iodine values (IV), kinematic viscosity (KV), density and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) were investigated. The pre-blending of tung oil with palm oil greatly decreases the CFPP of palm oil biodiesel, whereas the presence of canola and palm oils with tung oil reduces the IV and KV of tung oil biodiesel. For PWUS/VL = 0.92–2.08 W/mL, CBT can be as high as 60 wt.% with 30 wt.% CBC and 10 wt.% CBP to produce biodiesel with high YF and satisfactory qualities of the said properties. -- Highlights: ► Yield and properties of tung oil biodiesel are improved as tung oil is pre-blended with canola and palm oils. ► Pre-blending of palm oil with tung and canola oils reduces the CFPP of palm oil biodiesel from 13 to −5 °C. ► A beneficial use of tung oil as high as 60 wt.% blended with canola and palm oils is achievable. ► A sufficient PWUS per sample volume is required to ensure satisfactory properties.

  7. Additive impacts on particle emissions from heating low emitting cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, M.; Zhao, Y.; Hopke, P. K.; Rossner, A.; Ferro, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of five additives, including table salt, sea salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and turmeric, on the emission of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFP) from heated cooking oil (200 °C) were studied. One hundred milligrams of the additives were added individually to either canola or soybean oil without stirring. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt reduced the PM2.5 emission of canola oil by 86% (p Turmeric and garlic powder showed no changes in the PM2.5 and total number emissions of canola oil. Table salt and sea salt, decreased the level of PM2.5 emissions from soybean oil by 47% (p Turmeric and garlic powder had no effect on soybean oil with respect to total particle number emissions. Our results indicate that table salt, sea salt, and black pepper can be used to reduce the particle total number and PM2.5 emissions when cooking with oil.

  8. Response of oilseed Brassica cultivars to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hucl, P.; Beversdorf, W.D

    1993-10-01

    Research was conducted to determine the sensitivity of four Brassica oilseed crops to ozone under controlled environmental conditions. Cultivars of four Brassica oilseed species were exposed to acute levels of ozone (0.31 or 0.47 [mu]l/l) at the seedling stage. Brassica hirta BHL-926 was the most sensitive to ozone, followed by B. juncea (Newton) and B. rapa (Torch). Injury symptoms ranged from a slight stippling in insensitive species to large bifacial necrotic patches in the most sensitive species. Brassica napus (canola) seedlings exhibited very little foliar injury (0-4% after 24 h exposure to 0.31 [mu]l/l ozone). In Ontario, where a vast majority of canola acreage is seeded to B. napus cultivars, it is unlikely that canola yields are being affected by exposure to ozone. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  9. [Nutrient release characteristics and use efficiency of slow- and controlled release fertilizers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Lu-Lu; Zhang, Min; Liu, Gang; Shang, Zhao-Cong; Yang, Yi

    2009-05-01

    Water extraction method and soil incubation method were used to study the nutrient release characteristics of four slow- and controlled release fertilizers (CRF1, CRF2, SCU, and IBDU), and pot experiment was conducted to assess the effects of the release characteristics on the nutrient requirements of canola (Brassica napus L.). The nutrient release curves of test fertilizers in water were S pattern for CRF1 and CRF2, burst pattern for SCU, and reverse L pattern for IBDU. The nutrient release characteristics of the four fertilizers in water and in soil all fitted binomial equations, suggesting that there existed some similarities in the nutrient release in the two media. The nutrient uptake and biomass of canola plants treated with CRF1 and CRF2 were significantly higher than those treated with SCU and IBDU, and CRF2 had the greatest effect. The nutrient release curves of CRF1 and CRF2 accorded more closely with the nutrient requirements of canola. PMID:19803169

  10. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets. PMID:16115540

  11. Composição química e perfil de ácidos graxos em escargot (Helix aspersa maxima alimentados com dietas contendo diferentes fontes protéicas - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1722 Chemical composition and fatty acid profile of snail (Helix aspersa maxima muscle fed with different protein source in diets - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i4.1722

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilson Evelázio de Souza

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foram analisadas composição centesimal e perfil de ácidos graxos no músculo de escargot (Helix aspersa maxima submetidos à dieta contendo diferentes fontes protéicas (farelo de soja; farelo de soja + farelo de canola; farelo de canola; farelo de soja + farelo de girassol; e farelo de girassol. Os ácidos graxos foram identificados em cromatógrafo gasoso equipado com detector de ionização de chama e coluna capilar de sílica fundida. Foram predominantes nas dietas os ácidos graxos: 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 n-9, 18:2 n-6 e 18:3 n-3. Em todos os tratamentos foi observado bom índice para total de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados na porção comestível (músculo do escargot, destacando-se o tratamento contendo farelo de canola, que proporcionou maior nível protéico e melhor razão n-6/n-3.Proximate composition and fatty acid profile of snail (Helix aspersa maxima muscle submitted the diets containing differents protein source (soybean meal; soybean meal + canola meal; canola meal; soybean meal + sunflower meal; and sunflower meal were analyzed. Fatty acid were analyzed using a gas chromatograph fitted with flame ionization detector and fused silica capillary column. The fatty acids predominant in diets were: 16:0, 18:0, 18:1 n-9, 18:2 n-6 and 18:3 n-3. All the treatments presented high fatty acids polyunsaturated in the escargot comestible part (muscle. The treatment using canola meal presented high protein level and the better ratio n-6/n-3.

  12. Effect of phytase supplementation to diets for weanling pigs on the utilization of phosphorus and calcium

    OpenAIRE

    Sheng Fa Liao; Willem C. Sauer; Arie Kies; Miguel Cervantes; John K. Htoo; Jim Ming He

    2006-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted with weanling pigs to determine the effect of phytase supplementation to four diet types on the apparent total tract digestibility and retention of P and Ca. Phytase was supplemented at rates of 0, 500, and 1000FTU/kg to the four diets. A 20% crude protein (CP) corn-soybean meal diet was used in Exp. 1; a 20% CP wheat-soybean meal diet in Exp. 2; a 20% CP wheat-soybean meal-canola meal diet in Exp. 3; and a 19% CP barley-peas-canola meal diet in Exp. 4. Six bar...

  13. Producción y purificación parcial de enzimas hidrolíticas de Aspergillus ficuum en fermentación sólida sobre residuos agroindustriales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Costa

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Título en inglés: Production and partial purification of Aspergillus ficuum hydrolytic enzymes in solid state fermentation of agroindustrial residues Resumen En el presente trabajo se describe la producción de las enzimas fitasa, celulasa, xilanasa y proteasa con Aspergillus ficuum cepa DSM 932 mediante fermentación en estado sólido (SSF usando torta de canola y pomaza de cranberry como sustratos. Como medida indirecta de la producción de las enzimas se usó en cada caso la actividad enzimática. la torta de canola resultó ser un mejor sustrato para fitasa, celulasa y xilanasa, en tanto que la pomaza de cranberry resultó ser un sustrato potencial para proteasa. Mediante ultrafiltración escalonada fue posible purificar parcialmente los extractos enzimáticos de fitasa, celulasas y xilanasas, obtenidos a partir de torta de canola. La fitasa resultó tener un tamaño >100 kDa, en tanto que las celulasas y xilanasas presentan actividad en los retenidos de 10, 30 y 50 kDa, lo que indicaría que las isoenzimas de ambos complejos tienen pesos moleculares que oscilan entre 10 y 100 kDa. Palabras clave: fermentación sólida; torta de canola; Aspergillus ficuum; fitasa; xilanasa. Abstract In this paper, describes the production of the enzymes phytase, cellulase, xylanase and protease by Aspergillus ficuum DSM 932 strain, in solid state fermentation (SSF using canola cake and cranberry pomace as substrates. The enzyme activity was used in each case as an indirect measure of the enzymes production. Canola meal turned out to be a better substrate for phytase, cellulase and xylanase, while cranberry pomace was found to be a potential substrate for protease. Various ultrafiltration operations were carried out, decreasing the cut off membranes out in order to purify partially extracts of enzymes phytase, cellulase and xylanase, obtained from canola meal. Phytase was found to have a size >100 kDa, whereas cellulase and xylanase activity present in the

  14. KANOLA YAĞI METİL ESTERİ VE KARIŞIMLARININ MOTOR PERFORMANS VE EGZOZ EMİSYONLARINA OLAN ETKİLERİ

    OpenAIRE

    Sarıdemir, Suat; Albayrak, Serdar

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative fuel for diesel engine that can be produced by chemically reacting a vegetable oils, waste cooking oils, and animal fats with an alcohol to form alkyl esters. It is an oxygenated, sulfur-free, non-toxic, biodegradable, and renewable fuel with a higher cetan number and lubricity. In this study, the production of biodiesel from canola oil is carried out by using of methyl esterification method. Standard diesel fuel mixed with the produced canola oil methyl ester(COME...

  15. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES R.; Salam, M.; Pérez, P.; Goicoechea, E.; Ortiz, J; Romero, N; Urra, C.; Dobarganes, M. C.; Robert, P.; Masson, L

    2002-01-01

    Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S): 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20), and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of ...

  16. Screening different Brassica spp. germplasm for resistance to Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poor stands of canola seedlings in Pacific Northwest (PNW) have been associated with Rhizoctonia solani AG-2-1 and AG-8. A total of eighty five genotypes of Brassica napus, B. rapa, B. carinata, B. juncea and Sinapsis alba were evaluated in the growth chamber for their resistance to both R. solani A...

  17. Classification of temperature response in germination of Brassicas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since soil temperature affects germination and emergence of canola (Brassica napus L.), mustard [B. juncea (L.) Czerniak. and Sinapsis alba L.], and camelina [Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz.], planting dates have to be adjusted to prevent crop failures. These crops can be used as biofuel feedstocks, a...

  18. A normalized difference yellowness index for modeling yield of Brassica oilseeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conspicuous yellow flowers that are present in a Brassica oilseed crop such as canola require careful consideration when selecting a spectral index for yield estimation. This study evaluated spectral indices for multispectral sensors that correlate with the seed yield of Brassica oilseed crops. A ...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1263 - Tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... with one application to wheat and barley prior to the pre-boot stage, and two applications to canola... requirement of a tolerance in or on all raw agricultural commodities when used in accordance with good agricultural practices as an inert ingredient applied only: (a) For use as a seed treatment. (b)...

  20. Impact of applying edible oils to silk channels on ear pests of sweet corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of applying vegetable oils to corn silks on ear-feeding insects in sweet corn production was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six vegetable oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean. Water and two commercial insecticidal oils (Neemix' neem oil and Sun...

  1. The effect of oxygenates structure on their deoxygenation over USY zeolite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Černý, R.; Kubů, Martin; Kubička, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 204, APR 2013 (2013), s. 46-53. ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP106/12/G015 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : canola oil * palm oil * oleic acid Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.309, year: 2013

  2. Modeling of mass transfer of Phospholipids in separation process with supercritical CO2 fluid by RBF artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An artificial Radial Basis Function (RBF) neural network model was developed for the prediction of mass transfer of the phospholipids from canola meal in supercritical CO2 fluid. The RBF kind of artificial neural networks (ANN) with orthogonal least squares (OLS) learning algorithm were used for mod...

  3. Mammary cell turnover and expression of lipogenic genes in response to silage induced CLA and diet energy density in lactating cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, J V; Baumgard, L H; Nielsen, T Skau;

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate possible effects of silage induced differences in milk conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and diet energy density on cell turnover and production capacity in the mammary gland. Cows were given high levels of canola fat and fed either grass or maize...

  4. 77 FR 50661 - Notice of Filing of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ..., subgroup 13-07G at 3.0 ppm. A practical analytical method, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with... analytical method for detecting residues of imazapyr in canola and sunflower raw agricultural commodities (RACs) and processed commodity samples is an liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS/ MS)...

  5. 77 FR 28270 - Fluxapyroxad; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-14

    ... method uses reversed-phase High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with gradient elution, and includes... In the Federal Register of June 23, 2010 (75 FR 35803) (FRL-8831- 3), EPA issued a notice pursuant to... Grains, Legume Vegetables (Succulent and Dry), Oil Seed Crops (Canola and Sunflower), Peanuts, Pome...

  6. Glyphosate-Resistant Palmer Amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri) Spreads in the Southern United States (U.S.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate (N-phosphonomethyl glycine) is an exceptionally broad-spectrum herbicide that was first registered for use in 1974. Glyphosate is used mainly in conjunction with transgenic, glyphosate-resistant soybean, canola (Brassica napus), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and corn (Zea mays) cultivars, ...

  7. Creation of glyphosate-resistant Brassica napus L. plants expressing DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium Synechococcus vulcanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenkova-Pavlova I. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Creation of glyphosate-resistant canola plants expressing bifunctional hybrid desC::licBM3 gene. In the hybrid gene the sequence of DesC desaturase of cyanobacterium S. vulcanus without plastid targeting was fused with the sequence of thermostable lichenase reporter LicBM3 gene. Methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, PCR, quantitative and qualitative determination of lichenase activity, genetic analysis. Results. Transgenic canola plants, carring the enolpyruvat shikimat phosphate syntase gene (epsps, conferring on plants resistance to phosphonomethyl glycine herbicides (Roundup, as well as the desC::licBM3 gene, were selected. The presence of transgenes was confimed by multiplex PCR. The epsps gene expression in canola was shown at the transcription level, during in vitro growth and after greenhouse herbicide treatment. Activity of the licBM3 gene product as a part of hybrid protein allowed quantitative and qualitative estimation of the desaturase gene expression. Inheritance of heterologous genes and their expression in the first generation were investigated. Conclusions. Transgenic canola plants were obtained, the presence of trangenes in plant genome was proved and expression of the target genes was detected.

  8. Assessing the risk of Glyphosate to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species of North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted to determine the ecological risk to native plants and weedy Brassicaceae species which may be growing in areas affected by off target movement of glyphosate applied to glyphosate-resistant canola (Brassica napus). Ten native grass and forb species were ...

  9. 75 FR 862 - Bacillus subtilis; Registration Review Proposed Decision; Notice of Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ..., cucurbits, fruiting vegetables, herbs, leafy crops, legumes, ornamental plants and cuttings, peanuts, root... grasses, wheat, barley, corn, and canola. It is also used in greenhouses to treat peat moss and soil..., strawberry, tuber/root and corm vegetables, turf, sod, lawns, trees, and shrubs; Bacillus subtilis strain...

  10. Nutrition After Fifty: Tips and Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eggs 4 egg whites ½-1 Tbsp. canola oil 2-3 cloves garlic (or to taste), minced 3 cups finely ... 2 Tbsp. flour ⅛ tsp. nutmeg Pinch of cloves Vanilla nonfat frozen yogurt ... running blender, drizzle oil and blend 30 seconds. Transfer to bowl and ...

  11. 77 FR 462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program from Canola Oil'' (FR Vol. 75, No. 187, pg 59622-59634... Executive Order 13175 (65 FR 67249, November 9, 2000). It applies to gasoline, diesel, and renewable fuel... distribution section or the RFS2 rulemaking (75 FR 14793-14795). Based on these results, today's proposed...

  12. European Union's Moratorium Impact on Food Biotechnology: A Discussion-Based Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Lori Unruh; Gallo, Maria; Fulford, Stephen G.; Irani, Tracy; Rudd, Rick; DiFino, Sharon M.; Durham, Timothy C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops such as maize (Zea mays L.), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), soybean [Glycine max (L.) Moench], and canola (Brassica rapa L.) have been widely adopted by American farmers. In spite of their use in the United States, the European Union (EU) imposed a 6-year de facto moratorium (1998-2004) on the cultivation/import of…

  13. Whole grain Gluten-free vegetable spicy snacks (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four kinds of spicy snacks (gluten-free, whole grains with fresh vegetables, low in fat and salt) were evaluated. Composition of the base mix was brown rice flour 45%, sorghum flour 20%, tapioca flour 17%, mashed potato 8%, canola oil 6%, guar gum 2%, baking powder 1.5%, salt 0.5% and cayenne peppe...

  14. Effects of Different Protein Supplements on Omasal Nutrient Flow and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eight ruminally cannulated Holstein cows that were part of a larger lactation trial were used in 2 replicated 4 x 4 Latin squares to quantify effects of supplementing protein as urea, solvent soybean meal (SSBM), cottonseed meal (CSM), or canola meal (CM) on omasal nutrient flows and microbial prote...

  15. Prospects for Genetic Engineering in Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetically modified plants now constitute a significant portion of the worlds agricultural output. Genetically modified corn, soybean, canola, rice, and cotton are being adopted by growers in both industrialized and developing nations at an increasing rate. The most popular products have been eng...

  16. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue-Siang Teh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v. Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05 concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  17. The Potato Systems Planner: Cropping System Impacts on Soilborne Diseases and Soil Microorganisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different 2-yr and 3-yr crop rotations, consisting of barley/clover, canola, green bean, millet, soybean, and sweet corn in various combinations followed by potato, were evaluated for their effects on the development of soilborne potato diseases and soil microbial communities over several cropping s...

  18. Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (pcontrol) and those processing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24920208

  19. Cuphea oil as a potential source of biodiesel with improved properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from common vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), and palm as well as other feedstocks such as animal fats and used cooking oils. To enhance feedstock supply, other vegetable oils such as jatropha are of increasing interest. However, most of these feedsto...

  20. Possible causes of dry pea synergy to corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry pea improves corn yield and tolerance to weed interference compared with soybean, spring wheat, or canola as preceding crops. To understand this synergy between dry pea and corn, we examined growth and nutrient concentration of corn following dry pea or soybean in sequence. Each corn plot was ...

  1. Branched-chain fatty acid methyl esters as cold flow improvers for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative diesel fuel derived mainly from the transesterification of plant oils with methanol or ethanol. This fuel is generally made from commodity oils such as canola, palm, or soybean and has a number of properties that make it compatible in compression-ignition engines. Despite...

  2. The effect of biodiesel policies on world biodiesel and oilseed prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drabik, D.; Gorter, de H.; Timilsina, G.R.

    2014-01-01

    A theoretical and empirical model is developed to analyze the effect of a biodiesel mandate, a tax exemption (tax credit) and an exogenous diesel price shock on world soybean and canola markets. The jointness in crushing oil and meal from the oilseed reduces the size of the link between biodiesel an

  3. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  4. European Perspectives on the Adoption of Non-Chemical Weed Management in Reduced Tillage Systems for Arable Crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melander, B.; Munier-Jolan, N.; Schwarz, J.;

    2012-01-01

    Non-inversion tillage with tine or disc based cultivations prior to crop establishment is the most common way of reducing tillage for arable cropping systems with small grain cereals, oilseed rape (canola) and maize (corn) in Europe. However, new regulations on pesticide use may hinder further...

  5. Taurine supplemented plant protein based diets with alternative lipid sources for juvenile sea bream, sparus aurata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two lipid sources were evaluated as fish oil replacements in fishmeal free, plant protein based diets for juvenile gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata. A twelve week feeding study was undertaken to examine the performance of fish fed the diets with different sources of essential fatty acids (canola o...

  6. Evaluating morpho-physiological and quality traits to compliment seed yield under changing climatic conditions in Brassicas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pushp; Sardana, Virender

    2016-07-01

    A study was conducted under irrigated conditions to test the performance of improved cultivars of Indian mustard (B. juncea), Gobhi sarson (B. napus) and African sarson (B. carinata) under changing climatic conditions. The effect of cultivar, environment and their interactions were significant in mustard and canola gobhi sarson. Environment had significant impact on all the studied traits except for leaf area index (LAI). Cultivar x Year (G x Y) interaction was significant for flowering behavior, days to maturity, SPAD, photosynthetic active radiations (PAR), growth parameters, yield components and yield except photosynthesis photochemical efficiency, relative water content (RWC) and LAI. Cultivar RLC1 surpassed other B. juncea cultivars for yield and had low erucic acid ('0') while GSL1 (non canola), Hyola PAC401 (hybrid canola) and GSC6 (canola) of B. napus were superior in performance for seed yield and possessed low erucic and glucosinolate content ('00'). Higher seed yield was associated with more number of total siliquae/plant, seed weight, biomass, seeds/siliqua, SPAD and RWC. Correlation coefficient revealed high positive association for seed yield with days to maturity (0.639**), plant height (0.982**), secondary branches (0.826**), total siliquae/plant (0.913**), seed weight (0.761**) andbiomass (0.891**). PMID:27498492

  7. Cold flow properties of fatty acid methyl esters: Additives versus diluents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is typically composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) converted from agricultural lipids. Common feedstocks include soybean oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil. Recent debate on the conversion of edible oils into non-food products has created opportunities to deve...

  8. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  9. 40 CFR 180.509 - Mefenpyr-diethyl; tolerance for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Canola, seed 0.02 Cattle, meat byproducts 0.1 Goat, meat byproducts 0.1 Hog, meat byproducts 0.1 Horse, meat byproducts 0.1 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.1 Wheat, forage 0.2 Wheat, grain 0.05 Wheat, hay 0.2...

  10. Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks produced from vegetable oil based polyurethane and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2008-08-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared using polyurethane produced from a canola oil based polyol with primary terminal functional groups and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The properties of the material were studied and compared to the IPNs made from commercial castor oil using dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, as well as tensile measurements. The morphology of the IPNs was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical diversity of the starting materials allowed the evaluation of the effects of dangling chains and graftings on the properties of the IPNs. The polymerization process of canola oil based IPNs was accelerated because of the utilization of polyol with primary functional groups, which efficiently lessened the effect of dangling chains and yielded a higher degree of phase mixing. The mechanical properties of canola oil based IPNs containing more than 75 wt % PMMA were comparable to the corresponding castor oil based IPNs; both were superior to those of the constituent polymers due to the finely divided rubber and plastic combination structures in these IPNs. However, when PMMA content was less than 65 wt %, canola oil based IPNs exhibited a typical mechanical behavior of rigid plastics, whereas castor oil based IPNs showed a typical mechanical behavior of soft rubber. It is proposed that these new IPN materials with high performance prepared from alternative renewable resources can prove to be valuable substitutes for existing materials in various applications. PMID:18624453

  11. A comparison of used cooking oils: a very heterogeneous feedstock for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased interest in and use of biodiesel renders the availability of a sufficient supply of feedstock ever more urgent. While commodity vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), palm and sunflower may be seen as "classical" biodiesel feedstocks, additional feedstocks are needed to me...

  12. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytryshyn, S L; Dalai, A K; Chaudhari, S T; Mishra, H K; Reaney, M J

    2004-03-01

    Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud points, pour points and gross heat of combustion, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties, and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85% of the ester was from unsaturated acids. Substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared to their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in their mono or di glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended at 1 vol% treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola methyl ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the analyses performed, it was determined that the ester with the most potential for being an additive or a substitute for diesel fuel is the canola methyl ester, whose physical and chemical characteristics are similar to diesel fuel. PMID:14643986

  13. Population genomic analysis reveals differential evolutionary histories and patterns of diversity across subgenomes and subpopulations of Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brassica napus (L.) is a crop of major economic importance that produces canola oil (seed), vegetables, fodder and animal meal. Characterizing the genetic diversity present in the extant germplasm pool of B. napus is fundamental to better conserve, manage and utilize the genetic resources of this s...

  14. MATERNAL EFFECTS IN ADVANCED HYBRIDS OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED AND NON-GENETICALLY MODIFIED BRASSICA SPECIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Identification of fitness traits potentially impacted by gene flow from genetically modified (GM) crops to compatible relatives is of interest in risk assessments for GM crops. Reciprocal crosses were made between GM canola, Brassica napus cv. RaideRR that expresses CP4 EPSPS fo...

  15. Characteristics of heavy metal transfer and their influencing factors in different soil-crop systems of the industrialization region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hongyan; Yuan, Xuyin; Li, Tianyuan; Hu, Sun; Ji, Junfeng; Wang, Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Soil heavy metals and their bioaccumulation in agricultural products have attracted widespread concerns, yet the transfer and accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in different soil-crop systems was rarely investigated. Soil and crop samples were collected from the typical agricultural areas in the Yangtze River Delta region, China. The concentrations of Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd and Hg in the soils, roots and grains of rice (Oryza Sativa L.), wheat (Triticum L.) and canola (Brassica napus L.) were determined in this study. Transfer ability of heavy metals in soil-rice system was stronger than those in soil-wheat and soil-canola systems. The wheat showed a strong capacity to transfer Zn, Cu and Cd from root to the grain while canola presented a restricting effect to the intake of Cu and Cd. Soil pH and total organic matter were major factors influencing metal transfer from soil to rice, whereas soil Al2O3 contents presented a negative effect on heavy metal mobility in wheat and canola cultivation systems. The concentration of Zn and Cd in crop grains could well predicted according to the stepwise multiple linear regression models, which could help to quantitatively evaluate the ecologic risk of heavy metal accumulation in crops in the study area. PMID:26771531

  16. DETECTION OF ANTIBIOTIC-RELATED GENES FROM BACTERIAL BIOCONTROL AGENTS WITH POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas chlororaphis PA23, Pseudomonas spp. strain DF41, and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BS6 consistently inhibit infection of canola petals by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in both greenhouse and field experiments. Bacillus thuringiensis BS8, Bacillus cereus L, and Bacillus mycoides S have shown sign...

  17. Oilseed Productivity Under Varying Water Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseeds for biofuel production may serve as one of the alternative energy strategies that the United States will employ in the future. Biodiesel can be produced from oil extracted from canola, mustard, camelina, sunflower, safflower, and soybean. This paper compares soil water extraction and water ...

  18. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skwarek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature. Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production all oils were characterised by a high quality and fatty acid composition suitable for each type of oil. Among the examined oils, the highest content of saturated fatty acids characterised flax oil, the lowest canola oil. Oils: camelina, poppy and flax compared with canola oil, contained approximately twice the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fastest rate of oxidative changes, both in the room temperature conditions and cooling, showed poppy oil. Among the oils stored in room temperature, canola oil was the most oxidatively stable.

  19. Biodiesel exhaust-induced cytotoxicity and proinflammatory mediator production in human airway epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Benjamin J; Kicic, Anthony; Ling, Kak-Ming; Mead-Hunter, Ryan; Larcombe, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Increasing use of biodiesel has prompted research into the potential health effects of biodiesel exhaust exposure. Few studies directly compare the health consequences of mineral diesel, biodiesel, or blend exhaust exposures. Here, we exposed human epithelial cell cultures to diluted exhaust generated by the combustion of Australian ultralow-sulfur-diesel (ULSD), unprocessed canola oil, 100% canola biodiesel (B100), and a blend of 20% canola biodiesel mixed with 80% ULSD. The physicochemical characteristics of the exhaust were assessed and we compared cellular viability, apoptosis, and levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES) in exposed cultured cells. Different fuel types produced significantly different amounts of exhaust gases and different particle characteristics. All exposures resulted in significant apoptosis and loss of viability when compared with control, with an increasing proportion of biodiesel being correlated with a decrease in viability. In most cases, exposure to exhaust resulted in an increase in mediator production, with the greatest increases most often in response to B100. Exposure to pure canola oil (PCO) exhaust did not increase mediator production, but resulted in a significant decrease in IL-8 and RANTES in some cases. Our results show that canola biodiesel exhaust exposure elicits inflammation and reduces viability of human epithelial cell cultures in vitro when compared with ULSD exhaust exposure. This may be related to an increase in particle surface area and number in B100 exhaust when compared with ULSD exhaust. Exposure to PCO exhaust elicited the greatest loss of cellular viability, but virtually no inflammatory response, likely due to an overall increase in average particle size. PMID:25045158

  20. Investigation of the effects of renewable diesel fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions

    KAUST Repository

    Ogunkoya, Dolanimi

    2015-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate renewable fuels in a compression-ignition internal combustion engine. The focus of this study was the effect of newly developed renewable fuels on engine performance, combustion, and emissions. Eight fuels were investigated, and they include diesel, jet fuel, a traditional biodiesel (fatty acid methyl ester: FAME), and five next generation biofuels. These five fuels were derived using a two-step process: hydrolysis of the oil into fatty acids (if necessary) and then a thermo-catalytic process to remove the oxygen via a decarboxylation reaction. The fuels included a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (DCFA), a fed batch deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids with varying amounts of H2 used during the deoxygenation process (DCFAH), a continuous deoxygenation of canola derived fatty acids (CDCFA), fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid (DLA), and a third reaction to isomerize the products of the deoxygenated canola derived fatty acid alkanes (IPCF). Diesel, jet fuel, and biodiesel (FAME) have been used as benchmarks for comparing with the newer renewable fuels. The results of the experiments show slightly lower mechanical efficiency but better brake specific fuel consumption for the new renewable fuels. Results from combustion show shorter ignition delays for most of the renewable (deoxygenated) fuels with the exception of fed batch deoxygenation of lauric acid. Combustion results also show lower peak in-cylinder pressures, reduced rate of increase in cylinder pressure, and lower heat release rates for the renewable fuels. Emission results show an increase in hydrocarbon emissions for renewable deoxygenated fuels, but a general decrease in all other emissions including NOx, greenhouse gases, and soot. Results also demonstrate that isomers of the alkanes resulting from the deoxygenation of the canola derived fatty acids could be a potential replacement to conventional fossil diesel and biodiesel based on the

  1. Heteroconium chaetospira induces resistance to clubroot via upregulation of host genes involved in jasmonic acid, ethylene, and auxin biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachid Lahlali

    Full Text Available An endophytic fungus, Heteroconium chaetospira isolate BC2HB1 (Hc, suppressed clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae -Pb on canola in growth-cabinet trials. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that Hc penetrated canola roots and colonized cortical tissues. Based on qPCR analysis, the amount of Hc DNA found in canola roots at 14 days after treatment was negatively correlated (r = 0.92, P<0.001 with the severity of clubroot at 5 weeks after treatment at a low (2×10(5 spores pot(-1 but not high (2×10(5 spores pot(-1 dose of pathogen inoculum. Transcript levels of nine B. napus (Bn genes in roots treated with Hc plus Pb, Pb alone and a nontreated control were analyzed using qPCR supplemented with biochemical analysis for the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyases (PAL. These genes encode enzymes involved in several biosynthetic pathways related potentially to plant defence. Hc plus Pb increased the activity of PAL but not that of the other two genes (BnCCR and BnOPCL involved also in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, relative to Pb inoculation alone. In contrast, expression of several genes involved in the jasmonic acid (BnOPR2, ethylene (BnACO, auxin (BnAAO1, and PR-2 protein (BnPR-2 biosynthesis were upregulated by 63, 48, 3, and 3 fold, respectively, by Hc plus Pb over Pb alone. This indicates that these genes may be involved in inducing resistance in canola by Hc against clubroot. The upregulation of BnAAO1 appears to be related to both pathogenesis of clubroot and induced defence mechanisms in canola roots. This is the first report on regulation of specific host genes involved in induced plant resistance by a non-mycorrhizal endophyte.

  2. DIFERENTES FONTES DE LIPÍDIOS TESTADAS NA CRIAÇÃO DE LARVAS DE JUNDIÁ (Rhamdia quelen, PISCES, PIMELODIDAE DIFFERENT SOURCES OF FAT TESTED ON LARVAE CULTURE OF JUNDIA (Rhamdia quelen, PISCES, PIMELODIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oclecio Uliana

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido para avaliar a influência de diferentes fontes de lipídios sobre o desempenho de larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen. Foi realizado no Setor de Piscicultura do Departamento de Zootecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, utilizando-se um sistema de criação de larvas com recirculação d'água, termorregulada. O experimento teve duração de 21 dias, testando-se 7 tratamentos com três repetições. Testaram-se diferentes fontes de lipídios: óleo de canola, óleo de soja, óleo de fígado de bacalhau, óleo de girassol e óleo de milho, incorporados na proporção de 5% de uma dieta base (fígado e levedura. O tratamento com óleo de canola resultou em 94% de sobrevivência e larvas com 19,97mm de comprimento total e 54,3mg de peso médio. De acordo com os resultados obtidos no experimento, conclui-se que os óleos de canola e fígado de bacalhau são mais eficientes como suplemento lipídico na nutrição de larvas de jundiá (Rhamdia quelen.The present study was developed in order to evaluate the influence of different sources of fat on the Rhamdia quelen larvae performance. It was carried out at the Animal Husbandry Department - Fish culture Section of the Federal University of Santa Maria, using a system of larvae culture with thermoregulation and recirculation of water. There were seven (7 treatments, with three replicates each one and the different sources of fat tested during 21 days were: canola oil, soybean oil, cod liver oil, sunflower oil or corn oil incorporated in the rate of 5% of a basal diet (liver and yeast. The treatment with canola oil resulted in a 94% survival rate, and larvae with 19.97mm of total length and 54,3mg of individual body weight. According to the results obtained in the experiment, it was concluded that canola and cod liver oil are more efficient as fat supplement in Rhamdia quelen larvae nutrition.

  3. Effects of different 3-year cropping systems on soil microbial communities and rhizoctonia diseases of potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Robert P; Honeycutt, C Wayne

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eight different 3-year cropping systems, consisting of soybean-canola, soybean-barley, sweet corn-canola, sweet corn-soybean, green bean-sweet corn, canola-sweet corn, barley-clover, and continuous potato (non-rotation control) followed by potato as the third crop in all systems, were established in replicated field plots with two rotation entry points in Presque Isle, ME, in 1998. Cropping system effects on soil microbial community characteristics based on culturable soil microbial populations, single carbon source substrate utilization (SU) profiles, and whole-soil fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles were evaluated in association with the development of soilborne diseases of potato in the 2000 and 2001 field seasons. Soil populations of culturable bacteria and overall microbial activity were highest following barley, canola, and sweet corn crops, and lowest following continuous potato. The SU profiles derived from BIOLOG ECO plates indicated higher substrate richness and diversity and greater utilization of certain carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids associated with barley, canola, and some sweet corn rotations, indicating distinct differences in functional attributes of microbial communities among cropping systems. Soil FAME profiles also demonstrated distinct differences among cropping systems in their relative composition of fatty acid types and classes, representing structural attributes of microbial communities. Fatty acids most responsible for differentiation among cropping systems included 12:0, 16:1 omega5c, 16:1 omega7c, 18:1 omega9c, and 18:2omega6c. Based on FAME biomarkers, barley rotations resulted in higher fungi-to-bacteria ratios, sweet corn resulted in greater mycorrhizae populations, and continuous potato produced the lowest amounts of these and other biomarker traits. Incidence and severity of stem and stolon canker and black scurf of potato, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, were reduced for most rotations relative to the

  4. Evaluation of Selenium Content of Plant Samples Collected from Indigenous Sources for Se-supplementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium contents were evaluated in different plant species such as Canola (Brassica napus), Sunflower (Helianthus annus), Turmeric (Curcuma longa), Soyabean Seeds (Glycine max) and Akk (Calotropis procera) in order to access their possibility for Se-supplementation. The dry ash of bulb of Turmeric and seeds of Canola, Sunflower, and Soyabean were digested in concentrated HNO/sub 3/, HClO/sub 4/ and HCl to obtain selenium (IV). After adding different reagents, stable blue colored complex was formed. From this colored complex, selenium (IV) was determined by UV/visible spectrophotometer. This work was carried out in an attempt to obtain information concerning the amount of selenium present in different plants. It was observed that Akk is a good accumulator of selenium as it contains almost 30 mu g selenium per gram and can be used for different medicinal applications. (author)

  5. Dietary Effect of Iranian Native Turkey Breast Meat Saturated Fatty Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Salamatdoustnobar

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary Canola oil (unsaturated oil of on breast meat Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA percentage. Ninety male Iranian native turkey were randomly distributed into three experimental treatments to determine of the amount canola oil fatty acids deposited in raw chicken tissues. These diets were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic were given to broiler chickens throughout a 20 wk growth period. Meat fatty acids profiles with Gas Chromatography (GC technique were measured. Data was analyzed with one way ANOVA and means compared with Duncan test. According to results Saturated fatty acids for breast meat significantly (p<0.05 from 40.7854% reached to 32.977 and 32.642% for experimental treatment and this status increased unsaturated fatty acid content.

  6. Removal of Cu(II) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xuejiao; Xu, Renkou

    2013-04-01

    The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(II)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola, rice, soybean and peanut straws was investigated. The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(II) from the effluent, mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation, and neutralized its acidity. The removal efficiency of Cu(II) by the biochars followed the order: peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char > a commercial activated carbonaceous material, which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars. The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(II) by biochars. Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(II) from it. The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400 degrees C for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment, and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr. PMID:23923773

  7. The hairless guinea-pig as a model for treatment of acute irritation in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, F; Hedegaard, K; Fullerton, A;

    2006-01-01

    colorimetry. RESULTS: The glycerol cream was the only product showing effects potentially better than no treatment in HV. CONCLUSION: The HLGP was too sensitive an animal model as a predictor for effect in humans. There was no difference in efficacy of the formulations against the two different irritants in......BACKGROUND: The effect of six skin care formulations on experimentally induced acute irritation was studied in hairless guinea-pigs (HLGP) and in human volunteers (HV). The formulations were a basic cream, a carbomer cream and four modifications of the carbomer cream, containing either 10......% isopropyl palmitate (IPP cream), 10% glycerol (glycerol cream), 19.5% canola oil (canola oil cream) or 0.5% (-)-alpha-bisabolol (bisabolol cream). METHODS: Acute irritation was induced by occlusive tests with 1% sodium lauryl sulfate aq. in both HLGP and HV, and in HV also by using nonanoic acid in n...

  8. Improvement of brassica oilseeds through modern biotechnological approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan is chronically deficient in the production of edible oils. So much so that 3/4 (three fourth) of the country's requirements are met through imports, costing huge amounts in foreign exchange. The total edible-oil requirements of Pakistan for 1999-2000 stands at 2 million tons. The rest was imported on heavy foreign exchange cost of US dollars 800 million/year (Anonymous, 2000). One disturbing aspect of this critical issue is an annual increase in the gap between consumption and domestic production of edible oils. The different uses of rapeseed have given rise to specialized cultivars, and it is important to differentiate between the three principal types viz. seed quality, high erucic acid (HEAR), and canola. The term Canola refers to seed or seed-products with less than 2% erucic acid in the oil and less than 30 macro mol/g meal of aliphatic glucosinolates. (author)

  9. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca e proteína bruta, e tempo de colonização microbiana de oleaginosas, utilizadas na alimentação de ovinos - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11388 Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein, and microbial colonization time of oil grains in sheep feeding - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v33i4.11388

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a degradabilidade in situ, dos grãos de linhaça, canola, colza e milho, caroço de algodão, e dos concentrados casca e farelo de soja, em ovinos. Foram utilizados três animais da raça Santa Inês, fistulados e providos de cânulas ruminais, mantidos em baias individuais, recebendo diariamente capim picado e ração concentrada. Os alimentos foram incubados em ordem decrescente de 72, 48, 24, 18, 6, 3 e 0h. O teor de proteína dos alimentos avaliados foram 34,77; 30,07; 23,70; 10,64; 26,12; 14,65 e 56,90% para canola, colza, linhaça, milho, caroço de algodão, casca de soja e farelo de soja, respectivamente. A canola e a colza apresentaram baixa degradabilidade efetiva para a MS, com valor médio de 33,68%. O grão de linhaça apresentou degradabilidade efetiva para a MS de 64,24%, com fração potencialmente degradável de 87,89%. O milho apresentou fração solúvel de 12,33% e uma degradação de 39,67% para a MS. O farelo de soja apresentou-se dentro dos parâmetros normais de degradação com 52,61% para a MS e 52,83% para PB. Para a linhaça, canola e colza a degradabilidade da proteína apresentou valor médio de 18,34%. Os grãos de avaliados apresentaram baixa degradabilidade efetiva para a matéria seca e proteína bruta.This study evaluated in situ ruminal degradability of grains of linseed, canola, rapeseed and corn, whole cottonseed, as well as soybean hulls and soybean meal, in sheep. Three Santa Inês sheep were fistulated and fitted with rumen cannulas. The animals were housed in individual stalls, receiving chopped grass and concentrated feed daily. Feeds were incubated in descending order of 72, 48, 24, 18, 6, 3 and 0h. Protein content was 34.77% for canola, 30.07% for rapeseed, 23.70% for linseed, 10.64% for corn, 26.12% for cottonseed, 14.65% for soybean hulls, and 56.90% for soybean meal. Canola and rapeseed showed low effective degradability of DM, with mean value of 33.68%. Linseed grain had DM

  10. Changes in mycorrhiza development in maize induced by crop management practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    with maize (Zea mays L.) or with the original plant species in the field site, bromegrass (Bromus inermis Leys.) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.). The delay in mycorrhiza development after cropping with canola was also observed in samples taken from the field and in a bioassay, both conducted at the...... mays L.) or a non-host (canola, Brassica napus L.) crop, and all of them with maize for the second year. Tillage and P fertilization treatments were applied to the plots in the second year. Mycorrhiza development in maize was measured in pot culture bioassays conducted before planting and after harvest......We selected three crop production practices; crop rotation, tillage and phosphorus fertilization, all known to affect arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) development, to study early AM intraradical colonization in maize. Half of the plots were planted during the first year with either a host (maize, Zea...

  11. application of nuclear techniques to study the bioavailability of essential nutrients under adverse soil conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the present study aims to investigate the effect of microbial inocula (Rhozobium, Azospirillum and AM) on growth, uptake of some nutrients (N,P,K,Na, Ca and Mg) of barley and canola plants in saline soil. Also, nitrogenase and dehydrogenase activities of barley root rhizosphere are measured and N15 isotop dilution (ID) technique had been used with canola. of the techniques available to quantify plant-associated N2 fixation in the field the N15 isotope dilution (ID) technique has come to be regarded as the most reliable, because if carefully utilized, it is capable of estimating the proportion of crop N derived from BNF. to trace the effect of microbial activity in improving the salt-tolerance of the plants used, set of experiments were conducted even in green house

  12. Short communication: Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on Brix values and fatty acid profile of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Oba, M

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of oilseeds supplemented in prepartum diets on colostrum quality. Thirty-nine dry pregnant Holstein cows (14 primiparous and 25 multiparous cows) were blocked by body condition score and parity and assigned to 1 of 3 experimental diets containing rolled oilseeds at 8% of dietary dry matter (canola seed or sunflower seed) or no oilseed (control) at 35 d before the expected calving date. Canola seed is high in oleic acid and sunflower seed is high in linoleic acid content. Colostrum samples were collected at the first milking after calving, and concentrations of nutrient composition, fatty acid profile, and Brix value (an indicator IgG concentration) were determined. Cows fed sunflower seeds before calving produced colostrum with greater crude protein content (15.0 vs. 12.9%), colostral Brix values (24.3 vs. 20.3%), and conjugated linoleic acid concentration (18:2 cis-9,trans-11; 0.64 vs. 0.48%) compared with those fed canola seed. Positive effects of feeding sunflower seed might be mediated by ruminal metabolism of linoleic acid and subsequent enhanced production of conjugated linoleic acid. Oilseed supplementation in prepartum diets of dairy cows also altered fatty acid profile of colostrum in a way to reflect fatty acid profile of the supplemented oilseeds except for oleic acid. In conclusion, prepartum feeding of sunflower seed increased colostral Brix value, an indicator of colostral IgG concentration, compared with that of canola seed, but its mode of action and effects on health and productivity of calves need to be investigated. PMID:26971161

  13. Cover Image Identification of Plant Species for Crop Pollinator Habitat Enhancement in the Northern Prairies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Bizecki Robson

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Wild pollinators have a positive impact on the productivity of insect-pollinated crops. Consequently, landowners are being encouraged to maintain and grow wildflower patches to provide habitat for important pollinators. Research on plant-pollinator interaction matrices indicates that a small number of “core” plants provide a disproportionately high amount of pollen and nectar to insects. This matrix data can be used to help design wildflower plantings that provide optimal resources for desirable pollinators. Existing interaction matrices from three tall grass prairie preserves in the northern prairies were used to identify core plant species that are visited by wild pollinators of a common insect-pollinated crop, namely canola (Brassica napus L.. The wildflower preferences of each insect taxon were determined using quantitative insect visitation and floral abundance data. Phenology data were used to calculate the degree of floral synchrony between the wildflowers and canola. Using this information I ranked the 41 wildflowers that share insect visitors with canola according to how useful they are for providing pollinators with forage before and after canola flowers. The top five species were smooth blue aster (Symphyotrichum laeve (L. A. & D. Löve, stiff goldenrod (Solidago rigida L., wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa L., purple prairie-clover (Dalea purpurea Vent. and Lindley’s aster (Symphyotrichum ciliolatum (Lindl. A. & D. Löve. By identifying the most important wild insects for crop pollination, and determining when there will be “pollen and nectar gaps”, appropriate plant species can be selected for companion plantings to increase pollinator populations and crop production.

  14. Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

    OpenAIRE

    King Graham J; Zhang Shunchang; Fu Jie, .; Yang Yuan; Cheng Xiaomao; Li Ruiyuan; Wang Xiaofeng; Qian Xiaoju; Xu Jinsong; Wu Jiangsheng; Liu Kede

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola). Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence...

  15. Construction of an integrated genetic linkage map for the A genome of Brassica napus using SSR markers derived from sequenced BACs in B. rapa

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Jinsong; Qian, Xiaoju; Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Ruiyuan; Cheng, Xiaomao; Yang, Yuan; Fu, Jie; Zhang, Shunchang; King, Graham J; Wu, Jiangsheng; Liu, Kede

    2010-01-01

    Background The Multinational Brassica rapa Genome Sequencing Project (BrGSP) has developed valuable genomic resources, including BAC libraries, BAC-end sequences, genetic and physical maps, and seed BAC sequences for Brassica rapa. An integrated linkage map between the amphidiploid B. napus and diploid B. rapa will facilitate the rapid transfer of these valuable resources from B. rapa to B. napus (Oilseed rape, Canola). Results In this study, we identified over 23,000 simple sequence repeats ...

  16. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Grabau, Zane J.; Chen, Senyu

    2014-01-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller’s solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in f...

  17. GM organisms threaten organic systems: towards sustainability, coexistence and organic seed

    OpenAIRE

    Boelt, B.; Deleuran, L.C.; Phelps, B.

    2005-01-01

    Until now commercial genetically modified (GM) crops – soy, corn, canola and cotton - and their products have not been successfully segregated from organic or conventional non-GM production systems. Where GM crops are grown, GM contamination may be inevitable. However, physical and legal control measures imposed before the introduction of GM crops may help protect organic standards, supply chain integrity, certification and client confidence, but this is not yet fully tested. IFOAM’s approach...

  18. An evidence-based review on the likely economic and environmental impact of genetically modified cereals and oilseeds for UK agriculture

    OpenAIRE

    Areal, Francisco; Dunwell, Jim; Jones, Philip; Park, Julian; McFarlane, Ian; Srinivasan, Chittur; Tranter, Richard

    2015-01-01

    An evidence-based review of the potential impact that the introduction of genetically-modified (GM) cereal and oilseed crops could have for the UK was carried out. The inter-disciplinary research project addressed the key research questions using scenarios for the uptake, or not, of GM technologies. This was followed by an extensive literature review, stakeholder consultation and financial modelling. The world area of canola, oilseed rape (OSR) low in both erucic acid in the oil and glucosino...

  19. 77 FR 67712 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ....0 Canola Oil ICE Canada......... 8 p.m.-2:15 p.m.... RS 20 CAD/Tonne 2.0 Palm Oil Bursa Malaysia/CME... 44.7 2 Palm Oil 0 40.1 2 Rubber 14.6 47.3 2 Total 100 A list of the current Benchmark Futures... base production consumption weight (percent) (percent) (percent) Crude Oil 5.9 19.0 22 Gasoil 5.9...

  20. 40 CFR 180.451 - Tribenuron methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commodities: Commodity Parts per million Barley, grain 0.05 Barley, hay 0.4 Barley, straw 0.10 Canola, seed 0.02 Corn, field, forage 0.15 Corn, field, grain 0.01 Corn, field, stover 1.1 Cotton, gin byproducts 0..., grain 0.05 Oat, hay 0.05 Oat, straw 0.10 Rice, grain 0.05 Rice, straw 0.05 Sorghum, grain, forage...

  1. 40 CFR 180.439 - Thifensulfuron methyl; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-thiophenecarboxylate). Commodity Parts per million Barley, grain 0.05 Barley, hay 0.8 Barley, straw 0.10 Canola, seed 0.02 Corn, field, forage 0.10 Corn, field, grain 0.05 Corn, field, stover 0.10 Cotton, gin byproducts 0..., straw 0.10 Rice, grain 0.05 Rice, straw 0.05 Sorghum, grain, forage. 0.05 Sorghum, grain, grain...

  2. Porovnání výkonosti hybridních a liniových odrůd řepky ozimé (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Šroubek, David

    2012-01-01

    Summary Oil plants represent for agriculturists economically profitable and rotation of crops improving foods. 70 % of the area, which is covered by oil plants, is occupied by winter oil rapeseed in Czech Republic. Use of the total agricultural area is accounted 12 % for rape. In 2011 it was grown on 345 thousand hectares in Czech Republic. Since 1993 has been grown only canola with low erucic acid and glucosinolates in whole territory of Czech Republic. In 1990 were put in besides ...

  3. Agronomic performance of five rapeseed varieties grown for biodiesel in the northeast of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, M.A.; Arrobas, Margarida; Almeida, Arlindo

    2014-01-01

    Rapeseed is an important crop for several European countries and for many others such as Canada and China. Rapeseed oil may have several industrial uses (Sonntag, 1995) and shows excellent properties for the manufacture of biodiesel (Körbitz, 1995). Rapeseed oil may also present high food quality, namely CANOLA (Canadian Oilseed Low-Acid) and European “double-zero” varieties (erucic acid in the oil and glucosinolates in rapeseed cake). World production of rapeseed has quadrupled in the past t...

  4. Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns—a review

    OpenAIRE

    Bawa, A. S.; Anilakumar, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. Combining genes from different organisms is known as recombinant DNA technology and the resulting organism is said to be ‘Genetically modified (GM)’, ‘Genetically engineered’ or ‘Transgenic’. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola. Other crops grown...

  5. Second International Lygus Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Goodell, P. B.; Ellsworth, Peter C.; Margaret Allen, L.; Thompson, Rikki; Garcia, Maria; Welch, Jason; Bancroft, Jay; Goodell, Peter; Barbour, James; Belles, David; Savinelli, Catherine; Black, Bruce; Argentine, Joe; Chaguturu, Rathnam; Dargar, Ratna

    2008-01-01

    The Second International Lygus Symposium brought together 52 entomologists from six nations and 11 states representing universities, public agencies, and private entities to discuss the latest research on Lygus species and their relatives. Symposium topics included Lygus biology, behavior and ecology, IPM, insecticides and resistance, and biological control. Papers and posters dealt with Lygus as a pest of several crops, including cotton, strawberries, seed alfalfa, canola, dry beans, cucumbe...

  6. Enrichissement de l'alimentation des animaux avec les acides gras omega-3 : impact sur la valeur nutritionnelle de leurs produits pour l'homme

    OpenAIRE

    Bourre, Jean-Marie

    2005-01-01

    As shown by huge amount of assays in human as well as in animal models, w-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids play important role in the development and maintenance of different organs, primarily the brain, and could be useful in the prevention of different pathologies, mainly the cardiovascular diseases, and, as proposed recently, some psychiatric, dermatological or rheumatological disorders. For ALA, the major and cheapest source for human is rapeseed oil (canola oil), and walnut "noix de Grenobl...

  7. Identification of Adulteration of Olive Oil with Other Edible Oils by LED-induced Fluorescence and Multivariate Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Marilena Meira; Cristina M. Quintella; Erika Maria de Oliveira Ribeiro; Mariana A. Santos; Saionara Luna; Alexandre Lopes Del Cid

    2014-01-01

    The most common adulterants found in extra-virgin olive oil are refined olive oil and other vegetable oils, such as sunflower, soybean, corn, and canola. In addition to constituting economic fraud, adulteration can cause serious damage to the health of the consumer. This study focuses on the detection and quantification of the adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil with edible oils, using spectrofluorimetry and chemometrics. The data were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Pa...

  8. Vegetable, livestock and agroindustrial products and byproducts: An alternative tilapia feeding

    OpenAIRE

    González Salas, R.; Romero Cruz, O.; Valdivié Navarro, M.; J. T. Ponce-Palafox

    2014-01-01

    In the culture of tilapia limited supply and high cost of fish meal have forced nutritionists to consider alternative sources of protein. Due to the importance of the products and by-products in fish feed, this paper aims to show the alternatives that have been used to partially or totally replace fish meal and soybean meal in tilapia growing. This paper showsthe maximum or optimal use of vegetable by-products for tilapia as cottonseed meal, sunflower, canola, soybean ...

  9. Evaluation of antioxidants stability by thermal analysis and its protective effect in heated edible vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Seme Youssef Reda

    2011-01-01

    In this work, through the use of thermal analysis techniques, the thermal stabilities of some antioxidants were investigated, in order to evaluate their resistance to thermal oxidation in oils, by heating canola vegetable oil, and to suggest that antioxidants would be more appropriate to increase the resistance of vegetable oils in the thermal degradation process in frying. The techniques used were: Thermal Gravimetric (TG) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analyses, as well as an a...

  10. Modification génétique des oléagineux pour de nouvelles matières grasses et perspectives nutritionnelles

    OpenAIRE

    Pascal Gérard

    2005-01-01

    The difference between the potential applications of genetically modified plants (GMP) and the reality of agriculture is very big; it is enough to compare the laboratory applications published in scientific reviews or the patents, with what is effectively cultivated today. The real applications concern almost exclusively four botanical species, soya, corn, cotton and canola and two types of modifications, herbicide tolerance and insects resistance. An attempt of prospective is presente...

  11. An integrative study of Necremnus Thomson (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) associated with invasive pests in Europe and North America: taxonomic and ecological implications

    OpenAIRE

    Gebiola, Marco; Bernardo,Umberto; Ribes, Antoni; Gibson, Gary A.P.

    2015-01-01

    The species of Necremnus attacking two invasive pests of tomato and canola in Europe and North America, respectively, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae) and Ceutorhynchus obstrictus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), have been revised using an integrative taxonomy approach. Molecular data from the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit I and the nuclear D2 expansion region of the 28S ribosomal subunit and internal transcribed spacer 2, the discovery of new morphologica...

  12. Huiles et cires comme agents de démoulage dans l’industrie agro-alimentaire

    OpenAIRE

    Royer Annie; Prilleux Bernard

    2012-01-01

    To prevent adhesion in the mould, release agents are commonly used in food industry, such as bakery, pastry, meat processing industry, confectionery, or cheese industry. Over the past two decades, petroleum based products such as petroleum jelly and paraffin have been replaced by mixture of vegetable oils (soy, canola, etc.), plant waxes (candelilla wax, carnauba wax), emulsifiers (soy or rape seed lecithin, mono- or diglycerides) and sometimes antioxidants. Here is a short overview of their ...

  13. Book review: Seeds, science, and struggle: the global politics of transgenic crops

    OpenAIRE

    Krupa, Joel

    2013-01-01

    In this study of social protest against genetically engineered food, Abby Kinchy takes a close look at the scientization of public debate about the “contamination” of crops resulting from pollen drift and seed mixing. Kinchy focuses on social conflicts over canola in Canada and maize in Mexico, drawing out their linkages to the global food system and international environmental governance. Kinchy’s book is a valuable contribution, and should be required reading for those intere...

  14. High Resolution Imaging of in situ Root Hair Development to Assess Oilseed Species Responses to Water Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Hammac, Warren Ashley; Pan, William; Bolton, Ronald; Koenig, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Understanding crop root morphology will enable better understanding of nutrient uptake efficiency and ultimately improve crop management. The ability to observe the rhizosphere with high resolution scanners will allow characterization of root-soil interactions in real-time. High resolution (4800 dpi) desktop scanners were buried in containers filled with soil to characterize root hair development under two water availability levels (-63 and -188 kPa) for canola (Brassica napus), camelina (C...

  15. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamondia, J A

    1999-12-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut. PMID:19270931

  16. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae

    OpenAIRE

    LaMondia, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for st...

  17. A Novel Approach for Microencapsulation of Nanoemulsions to Overcome the Oxidation of Bioactives in Aqueous Phase

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Jamshaid Qazi; Hamid Majeed; Waseem Safdar; John Antoniou; Zhong Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microencapsulation is a promising technique to retain the physical attributes of nanoemulsions and to overcome the oxidation of bioactives that become more available to aqueous phase during emulsification. Purity Gum Ultra (PGU) and Hi-CAP 100 (HiCap) emulsified nanoemulsions of Clove Oil (CO) co-encapsulated with Canola oil (CA) and Medium Chain Triglyceride (MCT) (5:5% v/v CO:CA and CO:MCT) were prepared through high pressure homogenization. Microencapsulation of nanoemulsions was performed...

  18. 40 CFR 180.475 - Difenoconazole; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., subgroup 5A 1.9 Brassica, leafy green, subgroup 5B 35 Canola, seed 0.01 Citrus, dried pulp 2.0 Citrus, oil 25 Corn, sweet, forage 0.01 Corn, sweet, kernel plus cob with husks removed 0.01 Corn, sweet, stover 0.01 Cotton, gin byproducts 0.05 Cotton, undelinted seed 0.05 Fruit, citrus, group 10 0.60...

  19. A Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterium That Decreases Nickel Toxicity in Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Burd, Genrich I.; Dixon, D. George; Glick, Bernard R.

    1998-01-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni2+, Pb2+, Zn2+, and CrO4−, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride w...

  20. Despite benefits, commercialization of transgenic horticultural crops lags

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, David; Klee, Harry; Dandekar, Abhaya

    2004-01-01

    The acreage of agronomic crops (soybean, cotton, corn and canola) developed using recombinant DNA technology has expanded dramatically since their introduction in 1996, while the commercialization of biotech horticultural crops (vegetables, fruits, nuts and ornamentals) has languished. This is not due to a lack of both current and potential traits that could be utilized in horticultural crops, as ongoing research is identifying a diverse array of applications. However, commercialization is st...

  1. Soil microbial response to controlled-release urea under zero tillage and conventional tillage in western Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Lupwayi, Newton; Soon, Yoong; Clayton, George; Bittman, Shabtai; Malhi, Sukhdev; Grant, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    Soil microorganisms mediate many important biological processes for sustainable agriculture. The effect of controlled-release urea (CRU), applied at recommended rates, on soil microbial communities was studied at six sites across western Canada from 2004 to 2006. Fertilizer treatments were CRU, regular urea and an unfertilized control. Wheat, canola and barley were grown in rotation at five sites, and silage corn was grown in all three years at one site, under conventional tillage (CT) or ...

  2. Controlled Release Urea as a Nitrogen Source for Spring Wheat in Western Canada: Yield, Grain N Content, and N Use Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Lenz Haderlein; Jensen, T.L.; R.E. Dowbenko; A.D. Blaylock

    2001-01-01

    Controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers have been commonly used in horticultural applications such as turf grasses and container-grown woody perennials. Agrium, a major N manufacturer in North and South America, is developing a low-cost controlled release urea (CRU) product for use in field crops such as grain corn, canola, wheat, and other small grain cereals. From 1998 to 2000, 11 field trials were conducted across western Canada to determine if seed-placed CRU could maintain crop yield...

  3. Colombian experience in applying rules concerning agricultural biosecurity

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Silva C.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic engineering has made possible the creation of Genetic Modified Organisms (GMOs), or transgenic crops. The growth around the world of transgenic crops areas for commercial purposes, such as soybean, maize, canola and cotton is being amazing: from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 52.6 million in 2001. Historically, not many technologies have reached, in such a short period of time, such a higher adoption. The use of these technologies, nevertheless their well-known benefits, has brought ...

  4. Effect of pork backfat replacement for vegetal oils in the quality characteristics, oxidative stability and microstructure of mortadella
    Efeito da substituição da gordura suína por óleos vegetais nas características de qualidade, estabilidade oxidativa e microestrutura de mortadela

    OpenAIRE

    João Felipe Ferraz Yunes; Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro; Liana Inês Guidolin Milani; Marina Bergoli Scheeren; Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez; Cristiano Augusto Ballus; Leadir Lucy Martins Fries; Nelcindo Nascimento Terra

    2013-01-01

    This study was developed with the aim to evaluate the use of different vegetable oils as a replacer for pork backfat. For this, there were used canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils at two levels of replacement (50 and 100%). There were evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics (proximate composition, pH and water activity), instrumental color, microbiological characteristics, lipid oxidation (TBARS) and microstructure during storage at room temperature for 60 days. The products had th...

  5. The Effects of Premium Payment in Turkey Agricultural Supports System

    OpenAIRE

    Erdal, Gülistan; ERDAL, Hilmi

    2008-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of premium payment on cotton, sun flower, soybean, canola, aspire and maize productions in Turkey. This research was carried between 1980-2006 periods. Granger causality test was used to determine the relationship among production area, product prices and premium payment given in different years for these agricultural products. According to Granger causality test results, there was no relationship between production areas and premium payment...

  6. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae): growth and thermal tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Ikeda; Zuanon, J.A.S.; A.L. Salaro; M.B.D. Freitas; M.D. Pontes; Souza, L S; M.V. Santos

    2011-01-01

    The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juveni...

  7. Complete Genome Sequence of the Plant Growth-Promoting Endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans Strain PsJN▿

    OpenAIRE

    Weilharter, Alexandra; Mitter, Birgit; Shin, Maria V.; Patrick S G Chain; Nowak, Jerzy; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJNT is able to efficiently colonize the rhizosphere, root, and above-ground plant tissues of a wide variety of genetically unrelated plants, such as potatoes, canola, maize, and grapevines. Strain PsJN shows strong plant growth-promoting effects and was reported to enhance plant vigor and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we report the genome sequence of this strain, which indicates the presence of multiple traits relevant for endophytic colonization...

  8. Modulation of plasma N-acylethanolamine levels and physiological parameters by dietary fatty acid composition in humans

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Peter J.H.; Lin, Lin; Gillingham, Leah G.; Yang, Haifeng; Omar, Jaclyn M.

    2014-01-01

    N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) are endogenous lipid-signaling molecules involved in satiety and energetics; however, how diet impacts circulating NAE concentrations and their downstream metabolic actions in humans remains unknown. Objectives were to examine effects of diets enriched with high-oleic canola oil (HOCO) or HOCO blended with flaxseed oil (FXCO), compared with a Western diet (WD), on plasma NAE levels and the association with energy expenditure and substrate oxidation. Using a randomiz...

  9. A photorespiratory bypass increases plant growth and seed yield in biofuel crop Camelina sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Dalal, Jyoti; Lopez, Harry; Vasani, Naresh B.; Hu, Zhaohui; Swift, Jennifer E.; Yalamanchili, Roopa; Dvora, Mia; Lin, Xiuli; Xie, Deyu; Qu, Rongda; Sederoff, Heike W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Camelina sativa is an oilseed crop with great potential for biofuel production on marginal land. The seed oil from camelina has been converted to jet fuel and improved fuel efficiency in commercial and military test flights. Hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel from camelina is environmentally superior to that from canola due to lower agricultural inputs, and the seed meal is FDA approved for animal consumption. However, relatively low yield makes its farming less profitable. Our...

  10. Use of MUF Resin for Improving the Wheat Protein Binder in Particle Boards Made from Agricultural Residues

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This work was focused on the production and characterization of lightweight and water resistance particle boards with various lignocellulosic materials of the annual plants hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), canola (Brassica napus L.) and bagasse (Saccharum officinarum L.) in admixtures with industrial wood. Some chemical properties of these annual plants were investigated to find out their chemical characteristics in wood composites production. In all board variants 100% of the middle la...

  11. Palatability of concentrates fed to sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Mereu, Alessandro

    2009-01-01

    Palatability of concentrates is important to avoid feed refusal and production losses in ruminants. Thus, the palatability of 14 feeds (soybean meal 44 and 49; soybean hulls; corn grains; canola meal; wheat grains; beet pulps; dehydrated alfalfa; sunflower meal; oat grains; pea grains; wheat brans; corn middlings; corn gluten meal) was measured in 6 min daily tests on 14 female lambs and 14 dry multiparous ewes. The palatability of the feeds fed to the lambs varied from high to...

  12. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Skwarek; Zbigniew Józef Dolatowski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature). Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production al...

  13. Removal of Dye from Textile Wastewater Using Plant Oils Under Different pH and Temperature Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Mahmoud; Abdel E. Ghaly; M. S. Brooks

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of five plant oils (cottonseed, olive, canola sunflower and used cooking oil) for the removal of dye from textile wastewater was evaluated. The study revealed that the dye removal efficiency increased as the temperature was increased. Under low pH, both the oil and dye split into two components each. Neither one of the oil components joined with either one of the dye components. However, the observed reduction in the absorbance under acidic conditions can be attributed to th...

  14. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT MOLECULAR METHODS IN SCREENING GENETICALLY MODIFIED LENTIL

    OpenAIRE

    Çelikkol Akçay, Ufuk; Kalemtaş, Gülsüm; Yücel, Meral; Öktem, Hüseyin Avni

    2010-01-01

    Currently transgenic plants are grown in more than 20 countries with maize, soybean, canola and cotton being the most predominant crops. Inexperience in the outcomes of the technology and growing public concern necessitates proper detection and regulation of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) from farmland to market. Due to their high specifity and sensitivity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based systems are currently the method of choice in detection of genetic modifications. This study...

  15. Assessment of Ex-Vitro Anaerobic Digestion Kinetics of Crop Residues Through First Order Exponential Models: Effect of LAG Phase Period and Curve Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Razaque Sahito; Rasool Bux Mahar; Khan Muhammad Brohi

    2013-01-01

    Kinetic studies of AD (Anaerobic Digestion) process are useful to predict the performance of digesters and design appropriate digesters and also helpful in understanding inhibitory mechanisms of biodegradation. The aim of this study was to assess the anaerobic kinetics of crop residues digestion with buffalo dung. Seven crop residues namely, bagasse, banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw were selected from the field and were analyzed on M...

  16. Anaerobic biodegradability and methane potential of crop residue co-digested with buffalo dung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability) and BMP (Biochemical Methane Potential) of banana plant waste, canola straw, cotton stalks, rice straw, sugarcane trash and wheat straw co-digested with buffalo dung was evaluated through AMPTS (Automatic Methane Potential Test System). The substrates were analyzed for moisture, TS (Total Solids) and VS (Volatile Solids), ultimate analysis (CHONS), pH and TA (Total Alkalinity). The BMP/sub observed/ during incubation of 30 days at the temperature of 37+-0.2+-degree C was 322 Nml CH4/g VSadd for wheat straw followed by 260, 170, 149, 142 and 138 Nml CH4/gVS/sub add/ for canola straw, rice straw, cotton stalks, banana plant waste and sugarcane trash respectively, whereas the maximum theoretical BMP was 481 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for cotton stalks, followed by 473, 473, 446, 432 and 385 Nml CH/sub 4//gVS/sub add/ for wheat straw, banana plant waste, canola straw, rice straw and sugarcane trash respectively. The percentage ABD values were in the range of 68-30%. In addition to this, the effect of lignin content in the crop residue was evaluated on the ABD. The results of this study indicate that, the co-digestion of the crop residues with buffalo dung is feasible for production of renewable methane. (author)

  17. Edges in agricultural landscapes: species interactions and movement of natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Muller, Warren

    2013-01-01

    Agricultural landscapes can be characterized as a mosaic of habitat patches interspersed with hostile matrix, or as a gradient of patches ranging from suitable to unsuitable for different species. Arthropods moving through these landscapes encounter a range of edges, with different permeability. Patches of native vegetation in these landscapes may support natural enemies of crop pests by providing alternate hosts for parasitic wasps and/or acting as a source for predatory insects. We test this by quantifying species interactions and measuring movement across different edge-types. A high diversity of parasitoid species used hosts in the native vegetation patches, however we recorded few instances of the same parasitoid species using hosts in both the native vegetation and the crop (canola). However, we did find overall greater densities of parasitoids moving from native vegetation into the crop. Of the parasitoid groups examined, parasitoids of aphids (Braconidae: Aphidiinae) frequently moved from native vegetation into canola. In contrast, parasitoids of caterpillars (Braconidae: Microgastrinae) moved commonly from cereal fields into canola. Late season samples showed both aphids and parasitoids moving frequently out of native vegetation, in contrast predators moved less commonly from native vegetation (across the whole season). The season-long net advantage or disadvantage of native vegetation for pest control services is therefore difficult to evaluate. It appears that the different edge-types alter movement patterns of natural enemies more so than herbivorous pest species, and this may impact pest control services. PMID:23555737

  18. Investigation the Substitution Capability of Oilseeds in Cropping Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud D. Kakhki

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Farm activity is a risky activity special in less developed countries, so all decisions and activities are affected by this phenomenon. Consideration of risk either helps to elimination of deviations in result of model or preparing tools for evolution of some policies that the aim of them is reducing the risk for farmers. Oil seed are the second resource of food store in the world. Also, Iran is depending on oil import and going out of much exchange to provide oil and scum of that annually. Because of this matter, agriculture sector need plants that are adjust to climate of Iran and have a lot of oil, that canola is the best one. Approach: In this study, capability of substitution oilseeds in cropping pattern was considered; optimum cultivated pattern of important crops that have most cultivated area of canola in Khorasan Province is considered. Linear programming and risk-programming models such as MOTAD and quadratic programming were compared. Results: Models suggest increasing the cultivated area of oilseeds crop. Conclusion: Increasing the cultivated area of canola cause to the pattern cultivating of farmers improve and inputs will used in better way, too. Increasing the cultivated area, it is a movement toward self sufficient in oil seed production that will accompany with noticeable thrift in foreign exchange.

  19. Liquid transportation fuels from algal oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daichuan

    Liquid transportation fuels from renewable sources are becoming more prominent and important in modem society. Processing of hydrocarbon oils from algae has not been studied in detail in the past, so components which have been proposed for incorporation in algal oils via genetic engineering, such as cuparene, farnesene, phytol and squalene, have been subjected to processing via catalytic cracking in a pulse reactor at different temperatures. The cracking results showed that liquid products contained numerous high octane molecules which make it feasible for use in automobiles. Additionally, canola oil, chosen as an algal oil model compound, was studied as a feed for catalytic cracking in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over different types of zeolites. The results showed that MFI catalysts gave the highest yield of gasoline range products and lowest coke formation. Gallium loaded MFI zeolites increased the total aromatics yield for the canola oil cracking relative to the acid form of the zeolite. Finally, algal oils were cracked on several selected zeolites, and the results showed the same trend as canola oil cracking. MFI gave the highest gasoline yield (43.8 wt%) and lowest coke (4.7 wt%). The total aromatics yield from algae oil cracking is improved 7.8 wt% when MFI is loaded with gallium.

  20. Tracking Crop Leaf Area Index and Chlorophyll Content Using RapidEye Data in Northern Ontario, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, J.; Liu, J.; Ma, B.; Zhao, T.; Kovacs, J. M.; Jiao, X.; Dong, T.; Huffman, T.; Geng, X.; Walters, D.

    2014-12-01

    Information on crop phenological state such as flowering, maturing, drying, senescence, and harvesting is essential for crop production surveillance and yield prediction. Earth Observation data provide an important information source for monitoring crop development at various temporal and spatial scales. In particular, the availability of many high-spatial-resolution space sensors offers a powerful tool for precision farming. This study reports the results of a two-year (2012, 2013) study over spring wheat and canola fields using six different vegetation indices derived from the high-resolution (6.5m) RapidEye optical satellite data in northern Ontario, Canada. The study revealed that for both wheat and canola, significant relationships were observed between the ground-derived leaf area index (LAI) and all 6 vegetation indices tested. For spring wheat, the strongest relationship was found between LAI and the Modified Triangular Vegetation Index 2 (MTVI2), with a coefficient of determination (R2) of 0.95. For canola, a R2 of 0.92 was achieved. Strong relationships were also found between all six vegetation indices and the chlorophyll concentration index (CCI) measured in the fields using a CCM-200 device. The strongest correlation exists between CCI and the ratio of Modified the Chlorophyll Absorption Reflected Index (MCARI) and the Optimized Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (OSAVI), with an R2 of 0.86. It suggests that RapidEye data can be used to track field-scale crop LAI and monitor crop chlorophyll content.

  1. A plant growth-promoting bacterium that decreases nickel toxicity in seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burd, G.I.; Dixon, D.G.; Glick, B.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    1998-10-01

    A plant growth-promoting bacterium, Kluyvera ascorbata SUD165, that contained high levels of heavy metals was isolated from soil collected near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. The bacterium was resistant to the toxic effects of Ni{sup 2+}, Pb{sup 2+}, Zn{sup 2+}, and CrO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, produced a siderophore(s), and displayed 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity. Canola seeds inoculated with this bacterium and then grown under gnotobiotic conditions in the presence of high concentrations of nickel chloride were partially protected against nickel toxicity. In addition, protection by the bacterium against nickel toxicity was evident in pot experiments with canola and tomato seeds. The presence of K. ascorbata SUD165 had no measurable influence on the amount of nickel accumulated per milligram (dry weight) of either roots or shoots of canola plants. Therefore, the bacterial plant growth-promoting effect in the presence of nickel was probably not attributable to the reduction of nickel uptake by seedlings. Rather, it may reflect the ability of the bacterium to lower the level of stress ethylene induced by the nickel.

  2. Metal uptake and partitioning in biofuel crops grown on amended mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadowski, T. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring; Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Spiers, G.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring; Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Beckett, P.J. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2010-07-01

    A major concern for growing biofuel crops on mine tailings waste is the potential uptake of metals into the crop and the subsequent release of metals during fuel consumption. This paper discussed a study in which corn and canola were grown on nickel/copper tailings amended with organic residual material from the pulp and paper industry for analysis to determine the metal uptake. The crop metal and nutrient content was compared to that of crops grown in an agricultural field. The crops were monitored and sampled throughout the growing season. Both above- and below-ground plant components were collected and sorted into roots, shoots, cobs, and pods. The corn cobs were further subdivided into fruit, husk, and bract, whereas the canola pods were subdivided into bract and seed. For inseparable immature cobs, the husk and fruit will be analyzed together, as with the canola pods. The total nutrient and metal content will be determined by acid digestion following separation. The partitioning of the metals within the crops will be determined by plasma spectroscopy.

  3. The development of biofuel crops on mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posadowski, T. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring; Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Spiers, G.A. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Centre for Environmental Monitoring; Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Chemistry; Beckett, P.J. [Laurentian Univ., Sudbury, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology

    2010-07-01

    An experiment was conducted in which barren mine tailings waste amended with organic residual material from the pulp and paper industry was used to grow biofuel crops. Corn and canola were grown on 2 sites, one with amended mine tailings and the other an agricultural field. Each site was divided into 4 plots (2 for corn and 2 for canola) and managed using traditional agricultural practices. The crops were monitored and sampled throughout the growing season. Biomass yields and plant heights were measured. The corn and canola grown on the tailings site had significantly higher biomass yields and were also taller than those grown on the agricultural site. Within sites, the tailings site had significant differences in plant heights while the agricultural site did not, but with respect to biomass the tailings site had no significant differences. It was concluded that the data from the tailings site were much more variable than the data from the agricultural site even though the amended tailings site produced higher biomass results. The project was conceived to explore alternatives to the use of agricultural land for the production of biofuels, about which ethical concerns have been raised.

  4. Susceptibility of brassicaceous plants to feeding by flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soroka, Juliana; Grenkow, Larry

    2013-12-01

    Crucifer-feeding flea beetles, Phyllotreta spp., are chronic insect pests in Canadian prairie canola production. Multiple laboratory and field feeding bioassays were conducted to determine the susceptibility of a wide range of crucifer species, cultivars, and accessions to feeding by flea beetles with the goal of discovering sources of resistant germplasm. In 62 bioassays of 218 entries, no consistent decreased feeding by flea beetles was seen on any entries of Brassica carinata A. Braun, Brassica juncea (L.) Czern., Brassica napus L., or Brassica rapa L. There was reduced feeding on condiment mustard Sinapis alba L. lines but not on canola-quality lines with reduced amounts of glucosinolates, which were fed on at levels equal to B. napus. Analyses of glucosinolate content found decreased quantities of hydroxybenzyl and butyl glucosinolates in preferred canola-quality S. alba lines and increased levels of hydroxybutenyl glucosinolates compared with levels in condiment S. alba lines. Eruca sativa Mill. was an excellent flea beetle host; Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz lines experienced little feeding. Lines of Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries and Crambe hispanica L. had reduced feeding levels compared with Brassica entries, but Crambe glabrata DC did not. The results indicate possible sources of resistance to Phyllotreta flea beetles, while highlighting the complicated roles that glucosinolates may play in Phyllotreta host preference. PMID:24498758

  5. Producción de enzima fitasa de Aspergillus ficuum con residuos agroindustriales en fermentación sumergida y sobre sustrato sólido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Costa

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se describe la producción de fitasa mediante cultivos del tipo sumergido (SmF y sobre sustrato sólido (SSF con Aspergillus ficuum DSM 932 en medios de cultivos basados en residuos de la agroindustria. La actividad enzimática fitásica se usó como medida indirecta de la producción de la enzima. En SmF, pH 5,3 y 25 ºC, se trabajó en fermentadores de diferentes volúmenes y con el mayor se operó con diferentes niveles de aireación y agitación. En SSF a 25 ºC se usaron placas de Petri. En SmF con un medio basado en cereales se presentó la mejor actividad neta (0,25 FTU/mL al sexto día para 300 rpm y 0,5 vvm. En SSF, la torta de canola resultó ser el mejor sustrato con una actividad fitásica neta máxima al tercer día de 6,79 FTU/mL de extracto, equivalente a 33,96 FTU/g de sustrato sólido o 56,43 FTU/g de sustrato seco. Aplicando tecnologías de membrana se concentró un extracto de fitasa a partir de una SmF en medio basado en cereales y también fue posible purificar 6,33 veces un extracto de fitasa producido en SSF con torta de canola, diafiltrando tres veces consecutivas el retenido de 100 kDa. La enzima fitasa de la cepa A. ficuum DSM 932 mostró tener un tamaño ≥ 100 kDa.Palabras clave: fitasa; enzimas en piensos; Aspergillus ficuum; torta de canola; fermentación en sustrato sólido. Abstract: Phytase production by submerged fermentation (SmF and solid state fermentation (SSF using Aspergillus ficuum DSM 932 in agro-waste-based culture media is described here. Phytase enzyme activity was used for the indirect measurement of enzyme production. Fermentation was carried out in SmF, pH 5.3 at 25 ºC with two fermenters having different volumes; the largest one had different levels of aeration and agitation. Petri dishes were used for SSF at 25 °C. A cereal-based medium obtained the best net activity (0.25 FTU mL-1 for SmF on the sixth day at 300 rpm at 0.5 vvm. Canola cake was the best substrate for SSF, having

  6. Alimentação de juvenis de carpa capim com dietas à base de farelos vegetais e forragem = Feeding grass carp juveniles with plant-protein diets and forage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia Aline Veiverberg

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial dos ingredientes de origem vegetal como substitutos da farinha de carne suína em dietas para Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, (1844 (carpa capim, 180 juvenis (15 por tanque foram criados durante 60 dias em sistema de recirculação de água. Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de carne suína (FCS por farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG e a mistura dos farelos de canola e girassol (FCG. As dietas também continham farelo de soja como fonte proteica. O consumo diário de forragem (1,24 a 2,11% do peso vivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar aparente não diferiram estatisticamente entre as dietas. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos FC e FCG, enquanto o índice digestivossomático foi maior nos tratamentos FG e FCG. Maior teor degordura e menores teores de proteína no peixe inteiro e de cinzas no filé foram obtidos no tratamento FCG. Os filés dos tratamentos FCS e FCG apresentaram maior valor de luminosidade. Os peixes da dieta FCS apresentaram maiores valores de proteínas, triglicerídeos e colesterol total no soro. Conclui-se que os farelos de canola e girassol podem ser utilizados em dietas para recria da carpa capim.To evaluate the potential of plant-protein sources to replace porcine meat meal in diets for grass carp juveniles, 180 fish (15 per tank were reared for 60 days in a re-use water system. We evaluated the replacement of porcine meat meal (FCS for canola meal (FC, sunflowermeal (FG or a mixture of canola and sunflower meal (FCG. The diets were also composed of soybean meal as a protein source. Daily forage intake ranged from 1.24 to 2.11% body weight and did not differ among treatments. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate did not differ statistically among diets. The fillet yield was higher in FC and FCG diets, while the digestive-somatic index was higher

  7. Alimentação de juvenis de carpa capim com dietas à base de farelos vegetais e forragem - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.9052 Feeding grass carp juveniles with plant-protein diets and forage - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v32i3.9052

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Strohschein Maschke

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o potencial dos ingredientes de origem vegetal como substitutos da farinha de carne suína em dietas para Ctenopharyngodon idella Valenciennes, (1844 (carpa capim, 180 juvenis (15 por tanque foram criados durante 60 dias em sistema de recirculação de água. Foi avaliada a substituição da farinha de carne suína (FCS por farelo de canola (FC, farelo de girassol (FG e a mistura dos farelos de canola e girassol (FCG. As dietas também continham farelo de soja como fonte proteica. O consumo diário de forragem (1,24 a 2,11% do peso vivo não diferiu entre os tratamentos. Peso final, ganho em peso, taxa de crescimento específico e conversão alimentar aparente não diferiram estatisticamente entre as dietas. O rendimento de filé foi maior nos tratamentos FC e FCG, enquanto o índice digestivossomático foi maior nos tratamentos FG e FCG. Maior teor de gordura e menores teores de proteína no peixe inteiro e de cinzas no filé foram obtidos no tratamento FCG. Os filés dos tratamentos FCS e FCG apresentaram maior valor de luminosidade. Os peixes da dieta FCS apresentaram maiores valores de proteínas, triglicerídeos e colesterol total no soro. Conclui-se que os farelos de canola e girassol podem ser utilizados em dietas para recria da carpa capim.To evaluate the potential of plant-protein sources to replace porcine meat meal in diets for grass carp juveniles, 180 fish (15 per tank were reared for 60 days in a re-use water system. We evaluated the replacement of porcine meat meal (FCS for canola meal (FC, sunflower meal (FG or a mixture of canola and sunflower meal (FCG. The diets were also composed of soybean meal as a protein source. Daily forage intake ranged from 1.24 to 2.11% body weight and did not differ among treatments. Final weight, weight gain, specific growth rate and feed conversion rate did not differ statistically among diets. The fillet yield was higher in FC and FCG diets, while the digestive-somatic index was

  8. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important element for crop productivity and is widely applied in fertilizers. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 μM P) and sufficient P (50 μM P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato—three important food crops with divergent root traits, using a hydroponic plant growth system. We hypothesized that the dicots canola and tuber-producing potato and the monocot barley would respond differently under various P availabilities. WinRHIZO and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results suggested that under low P availability, canola developed longer roots and exhibited the fastest root exudation rate for citric acid. Barley showed a reduction in root length and root surface area and an increase in root-exuded malic acid under low-P conditions. Potato exuded relatively small amounts of OAs under low P, while there was a marked increase in root tips. Based on the results, we conclude that different crops show divergent morphological and physiological responses to low P availability, having evolved specific traits of root morphology and root exudation that enhance their P-uptake capacity under low-P conditions. These results could underpin future efforts to improve P uptake of the three crops that are of importance for future sustainable crop production. PMID:26286222

  9. Subsurface Drainage to Enable the Cultivation of Winter Crops in Consolidated Paddy Fields in Northern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Jafari-Talukolaee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Subsurface drainage is a prerequisite to grow winter crops in the consolidated paddy fields in Northern Iran. A four-year study (2011–2015 was conducted to quantify the effects of subsurface drainage on the saturated hydraulic conductivity, water table, drain discharge and winter crop yields. Subsurface drainage systems with two drain depths of 0.65 and 0.90 m and two drain spacings of 15 and 30 m were installed at the consolidated paddy fields of Sari Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University, Iran. During four successive winter seasons, the water table depth and drain discharge were measured daily. Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity was measured twice; before drainage system installation and four years following the installation. Canola grain yields were determined at harvest of each cultivation season. During the study period, the soil saturated hydraulic conductivity increased with the highest increase in the top 0–30 cm. The deeper drains were more effective in controlling the water table compared to the shallow, and the daily drain discharge of the deeper drains in the fourth year were higher than those of shallow drains. The canola grain yield of all drainage systems increased significantly by the seasons, and the largest difference in canola grain yield between first and fourth seasons was 2191 kg·ha−1 (318% increase in the fields with 0.90 m drain depth and 30 m drain spacing. Totally, it became clear that installation of subsurface drainage systems with 0.90 m depth and 30 m spacing in the paddy fields of Northern Iran can be recommended to achieve high yield of winter crop, soil condition improvement, and multi-purpose land use.

  10. Elicitation of expert judgments of uncertainty in the risk assessment of herbicide-tolerant oilseed crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krayer von Krauss, Martin P; Casman, Elizabeth A; Small, Mitchell J

    2004-12-01

    One of the lay public's concerns about genetically modified (GM) organisms (GMO) and related emerging technologies is that not all the important risks are evaluated or even identified yet--and that ignorance of the unanticipated risks could lead to severe environmental or public health consequences. To some degree, even the scientists who participated in the analysis of the risks from GMOs (arguably the people most qualified to critique these analyses) share some of this concern. To formally explore the uncertainty in the risk assessment of a GM crop, we conducted detailed interviews of seven leading experts on GM oilseed crops to obtain qualitative and quantitative information on their understanding of the uncertainties associated with the risks to agriculture from GM oilseed crops (canola or rapeseed). The results of these elicitations revealed three issues of potential concern that are currently left outside the scope of risk assessments. These are (1) the potential loss of the agronomic and environmental benefits of glyphosate (a herbicide widely used in no-till agriculture) due to the combined problems of glyphosate-tolerant canola and wheat volunteer plants, (2) the growing problem of seed lot contamination, and (3) the potential market impacts. The elicitations also identified two areas where knowledge is insufficient. These are: the occurrence of hybridization between canola and wild relatives and the ability of the hybrids to perpetuate themselves in nature, and the fate of the herbicide-tolerance genes in soil and their interaction with soil microfauna and -flora. The methodological contribution of this work is a formal approach to analyzing the uncertainty surrounding complex problems. PMID:15660608

  11. Outcrossing potential between 11 important genetically modified crops and the Chilean vascular flora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Miguel A; Cid, Pablo; Navarrete, Humberto; Aguirre, Carlos; Chacón, Gustavo; Salazar, Erika; Prieto, Humberto

    2016-02-01

    The potential impact of genetically modified (GM) crops on biodiversity is one of the main concerns in an environmental risk assessment (ERA). The likelihood of outcrossing and pollen-mediated gene flow from GM crops and non-GM crops are explained by the same principles and depend primarily on the biology of the species. We conducted a national-scale study of the likelihood of outcrossing between 11 GM crops and vascular plants in Chile by use of a systematized database that included cultivated, introduced and native plant species in Chile. The database included geographical distributions and key biological and agronomical characteristics for 3505 introduced, 4993 native and 257 cultivated (of which 11 were native and 246 were introduced) plant species. Out of the considered GM crops (cotton, soya bean, maize, grape, wheat, rice, sugar beet, alfalfa, canola, tomato and potato), only potato and tomato presented native relatives (66 species total). Introduced relative species showed that three GM groups were formed having: a) up to one introduced relative (cotton and soya bean), b) up to two (rice, grape, maize and wheat) and c) from two to seven (sugar beet, alfalfa, canola, tomato and potato). In particular, GM crops presenting introduced noncultivated relative species were canola (1 relative species), alfalfa (up to 4), rice (1), tomato (up to 2) and potato (up to 2). The outcrossing potential between species [OP; scaled from 'very low' (1) to 'very high' (5)] was developed, showing medium OPs (3) for GM-native relative interactions when they occurred, low (2) for GMs and introduced noncultivated and high (4) for the grape-Vitis vinifera GM-introduced cultivated interaction. This analytical tool might be useful for future ERA for unconfined GM crop release in Chile. PMID:26052925

  12. Converting solid wastes into liquid fuel using a novel methanolysis process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ye; He, Peng; Cheng, Wei; Liu, Jacqueline; Shan, Wenpo; Song, Hua

    2016-03-01

    Biomass fast pyrolysis followed by hydrodeoxygenation upgrading is the most popular way to produce upgraded bio-oil from biomass. This process requires large quantities of expensive hydrogen and operates under high pressure condition (70-140 atm). Therefore, a novel methanolysis (i.e., biomass pyrolysis under methane environment) process is developed in this study, which is effective in upgraded bio-oil formation at atmospheric pressure and at about 400-600°C. Instead of using pure methane, simulated biogas (60% CH4+40% CO2) was used to test the feasibility of this novel methanolysis process for the conversion of different solid wastes. The bio-oil obtained from canola straw is slightly less than that from sawdust in term of quantity, but the oil quality from canola straw is better in terms of lower acidity, lower Bromine Number, higher H/C atomic ratio and lower O/C atomic ratio. The municipal solid waste and newspaper can also obtain relatively high oil yields, but the oil qualities of them are both lower than those from sawdust and canola straw. Compared with catalysts of 5%Zn/ZSM-5 and 1%Ag/ZSM-5, the 5%Zn-1%Ag/ZSM-5 catalyst performed much better in terms of upgraded bio-oil yield as well as oil quality. During the methanolysis process, the metal silver may be used to reduce the total acid number of the oil while the metal zinc might act to decrease the bromine number of the oil. The highly dispersed Zn and Ag species on/in the catalyst benefit the achievement of better upgrading performance and make it be a very promising catalyst for bio-oil upgrading by biogas. PMID:26739453

  13. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important element for crop productivity and is widely applied in fertilizers. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 μM P) and sufficient P (50 μM P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato-three important food crops with divergent root traits, using a hydroponic plant growth system. We hypothesized that the dicots canola and tuber-producing potato and the monocot barley would respond differently under various P availabilities. WinRHIZO and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results suggested that under low P availability, canola developed longer roots and exhibited the fastest root exudation rate for citric acid. Barley showed a reduction in root length and root surface area and an increase in root-exuded malic acid under low-P conditions. Potato exuded relatively small amounts of OAs under low P, while there was a marked increase in root tips. Based on the results, we conclude that different crops show divergent morphological and physiological responses to low P availability, having evolved specific traits of root morphology and root exudation that enhance their P-uptake capacity under low-P conditions. These results could underpin future efforts to improve P uptake of the three crops that are of importance for future sustainable crop production. PMID:26286222

  14. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR detection of roundup ready event GT73 based on the 3'-integration junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rong; Xu, Wentao; Luo, Yunbo; Guo, Feng; Lu, Yun; Huang, Kunlun

    2007-10-01

    With the development of genetically modified organisms, labeling regulations have been introduced, which require appropriate detection methods. Event-specific qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection methods have become the internationally agreed state-of-art. This paper describes an event-specific PCR method for qualitative and quantitative of Roundup Ready canola event GT73. The 3'-integration junction was characterized by two methods: inverse-PCR and thermal asymmetric interlaced-PCR. In the conventional qualitative PCR assay, the event-specific primers designed were confirmed to be specific and the limit of detection (LOD) was 0.05% (approximates to ten haploid genome copies). In the quantitative TaqMan real-time PCR assay, the LOD and the limit of quantification were five and ten haploid genome copies, respectively. In addition, for further quantitative detection, a reference molecule which contained the canola endogenous gene and event-specific sequence was constructed and standard curves were set up. The goodness of the linearity and high efficiency of the PCR reaction indicated the usability of the plasmid and the established PCR system. Moreover, mixed samples with different GT73 content (6, 3, 1 and 0.5%) were quantified using the established real-time PCR system to evaluate the trueness and precision of the system. The trueness expressed as bias varied from 2.00 to 18.00%. The precision expressed as variation coefficient were different from 6.40 to 32.95%. From above results, we believed that the established event-specific qualitative and quantitative PCR systems for GT73 in this study were acceptable and suitable for genetic modified canola detection. PMID:17554542

  15. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methods Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Results Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Conclusions Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil. PMID:26565552

  16. Detection of Genetically Modified Crops by Combination of Multiplex PCR and Low-density DNA Microarray1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PING-PING ZHOU; JIAN-ZHONG ZHANG; YUAN-HAI YOU; YONG-NING WU

    2008-01-01

    Objective To develop a technique for simultaneous detection of various target genes in Roundup Ready soybean by combining multiplex PCR and low-density DNA microarray.Methods Two sets of the multiplex PCR system were used to amplify the target genes in genetically modified(GM)soybean.Seventeen capture probes(PCR products)and 17 pairs of corresponding primers were designed according to the genetic characteristies of Rroundup Ready soybean(GTS40-3-2),maize (Mort810,Nk603,GA21),canola(T45,MS1/RF1),and rice(SCK)in many identified GM crops.All of the probes were categorized and identified as species-specific probes.One negative probe and one positive control probe were uscd to assess the efficiency of all reactions,and therefore eliminate any false positive and negative results.After multiplex PCR reaction,amplicons were adulterated with Cy5-dUTP and hvbridized with DNA microarray.The array was then scanned to display the specific hybridization signals of target genes.The assay was applied to the analysis of sample of ccrtified transgenic soybean (Roundup Ready GTS40-3-2)and canola(MS1/RF1). Results A combination technique of multiplex PCR and DNA microarray was successfully developed to identify multi-target genes in Roundup Ready soybean and MS1/RF1 canola with a great specificity and reliability.Reliable identification of genetic characteristics of Roundup Ready of GM soybean from genetically modified crops was achieved at 0.5% transgenic events,indicating a high sensitivity. Conclusion A combination technique of multiplex PCR and low-density DNA microarray can reliably detect and identify the genetically modified crops.

  17. Dynamic Metabolic Profiles and Tissue-Specific Source Effects on the Metabolome of Developing Seeds of Brassica napus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helin Tan

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of several important oil-producing crops, and the physiological processes, enzymes, and genes involved in oil synthesis in canola seeds have been well characterized. However, relatively little is known about the dynamic metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation in seeds, as well as the mechanistic origins of metabolic changes. To explore the metabolic changes that occur during oil accumulation, we isolated metabolites from both seed and silique wall and identified and characterized them by using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The results showed that a total of 443 metabolites were identified from four developmental stages. Dozens of these metabolites were differentially expressed during seed ripening, including 20 known to be involved in seed development. To investigate the contribution of tissue-specific carbon sources to the biosynthesis of these metabolites, we examined the metabolic changes of silique walls and seeds under three treatments: leaf-detachment (Ld, phloem-peeling (Pe, and selective silique darkening (Sd. Our study demonstrated that the oil content was independent of leaf photosynthesis and phloem transport during oil accumulation, but required the metabolic influx from the silique wall. Notably, Sd treatment resulted in seed senescence, which eventually led to a severe reduction of the oil content. Sd treatment also caused a significant accumulation of fatty acids (FA, organic acids and amino acids. Furthermore, an unexpected accumulation of sugar derivatives and organic acid was observed in the Pe- and Sd-treated seeds. Consistent with this, the expression of a subset of genes involved in FA metabolism, sugar and oil storage was significantly altered in Pe and Sd treated seeds. Taken together, our studies suggest the metabolite profiles of canola seeds dynamically varied during the course of oil accumulation, which may provide a new insight into the mechanisms

  18. Vitamin C and resveratrol supplementation to rat dams treated with di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate: impact on reproductive and oxidative stress end points in male offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho, Giuliana G K; Bufalo, Aedra C; Boareto, Ana Claudia; Muller, Juliane C; Morais, Rosana N; Martino-Andrade, Anderson J; Lemos, Karen R; Dalsenter, Paulo R

    2009-11-01

    This study was carried out to assess the influence of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) alone or associated with antioxidants on the male reproductive system in newborn rats, emphasizing the implications of oxidative stress and hormonal balance during prenatal and early postnatal periods. Wistar females were exposed by oral route to DEHP alone or associated with antioxidants from gestational day 7 to lactational day 2 according to the following treatment regimens: (C) vehicle control (canola oil + 1% Tween-80); (V) vitamin C (200 mg/kg) + canola oil; (R) resveratrol (10 mg/kg) + canola oil; (D) DEHP (500 mg/kg) + 1% Tween-80; (DV) DEHP (500 mg/kg) + vitamin C (200 mg/kg); and (DR) DEHP (500 mg/kg) + resveratrol (10 mg/kg). Two male pups per litter were randomly selected and necropsied on postnatal day 2. The brain and liver were removed and weighed and anogenital distance (AGD) was measured. Additionally, the testes were removed for assessment of intratesticular testosterone levels and histopathology; the liver was used to measure biomarkers of oxidative stress. Vitamin C and resveratrol alone did not affect the reproductive end points and did not induce oxidative stress. Exposure of dams to DEHP alone and associated with antioxidants resulted in hepatomegaly in offspring and significantly increased the incidence of multinucleated gonocytes in seminiferous cords. Testosterone and AGD presented a trend to decrease in DEHP-exposed groups. Catalase activity increased only in groups exposed to DEHP associated with antioxidants, although GST (gluthatione-S-transferase) activity decreased in all DEHP-exposed groups. The levels of hydroperoxides increased only in group exposed to DEHP associated with vitamin C. These results indicate that the association of DEHP with antioxidants was unable to ameliorate DEHP-induced reproductive changes, and the coadministration of DEHP and these antioxidants might even contribute to an overall increase in oxidative stress. PMID:19756843

  19. Effects of prepartum fat supplementation on plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, adropin, insulin, and leptin in periparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Rizaldy C; Salehi, Reza; Ambrose, Divakar J; Chelikani, Prasanth K

    2015-10-01

    Dietary fat supplementation during the periparturient period is one strategy to increase energy intake and attenuate the degree of negative energy balance during early lactation; however, little is known of the underlying hormonal and metabolic adaptations. We evaluated the effects of prepartum fat supplementation on energy-balance parameters and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide tyrosine-tyrosine (PYY), adropin, insulin, leptin, glucose, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid in dairy cows. Twenty-four pregnant dairy cows were randomized to diets containing either rolled canola or sunflower seed at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed supplementation, during the last 5 wk of gestation and then assigned to a common lactation diet postpartum. Blood samples were collected at -2, +2, and +14 h relative to feeding, at 2 wk after the initiation of the diets, and at 2 wk postpartum. Dietary canola and sunflower supplementation alone did not affect energy balance, body weight, and plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, insulin, leptin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid; however, canola decreased and sunflower tended to decrease dry matter intake. We also observed that the physiological stage had a significant, but divergent, effect on circulating hormones and metabolite concentrations. Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1, PYY, adropin, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations were greater postpartum than prepartum, whereas glucose, insulin, leptin, body weight, and energy balance were greater prepartum than postpartum. Furthermore, the interaction of treatment and stage was significant for leptin and adropin, and tended toward significance for PYY and insulin; only insulin exhibited an apparent postprandial increase. Postpartum PYY concentrations exhibited a strong negative correlation with body weight, suggesting that PYY may be associated with body weight regulation during

  20. Occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium species under wheat crop in zero tillage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvestro, L. B.; Stenglein, S. A.; Forjan, H.; Dinolfo, M. I.; Aramburri, A. M.; Manso, L.; Moreno, M. V.

    2013-05-01

    The presence of Fusarium species in cultivated soils is commonly associated with plant debris and plant roots. Fusarium species are also soil saprophytes. The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence and distribution of soil Fusarium spp. at different soil depths in a zero tillage system after the wheat was harvested. Soil samples were obtained at three depths (0-5 cm, 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm) from five crop rotations: I, conservationist agriculture (wheat-sorghum-soybean); II, mixed agriculture/livestock with pastures, without using winter or summer forages (wheat-sorghum-soybean-canola-pastures); III, winter agriculture in depth limited soils (wheat-canola-barley-late soybean); IV, mixed with annual forage (wheat-oat/Vicia-sunflower); V, intensive agriculture (wheat-barley-canola, with alternation of soybean or late soybean). One hundred twenty two isolates of Fusarium were obtained and identified as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. oxysporum, F. scirpi and F. solani. The most prevalent species was F. oxysporum, which was observed in all sequences and depths. The Tukey's test showed that the relative frequency of F. oxysporum under intensive agricultural management was higher than in mixed traditional ones. The first 5 cm of soil showed statistically significant differences (p=0.05) with respect to 5-10 cm and 10-20 cm depths. The ANOVA test for the relative frequency of the other species as F. equiseti, F. merismoides, F. scirpi and F. solani, did not show statistically significant differences (p<0.05). We did not find significant differences (p<0.05) in the effect of crop rotations and depth on Shannon, Simpson indexes and species richness. Therefore we conclude that the different sequences and the sampling depth did not affect the alpha diversity of Fusarium community in this system. (Author) 51 refs.

  1. Emulsion Mapping in Pork Meat Emulsion Systems with Various Lipid Types and Brown Rice Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Park, Jinhee; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate emulsion mapping between emulsion stability and cooking yields, apparent viscosity, and hardness of reduced-fat pork emulsion systems. The reduced-fat emulsion systems were supplemented with different lipid types and brown rice bran fiber (BRF) concentrations. Compared to the control with 30% back fat, lower emulsion stability and higher cooking yield of meat emulsion systems were observed in T1 (30% back fat+1% BRF), T2 (30% back fat+2% BRF), T3 (30% back fat+3% BRF), T4 (30% back fat+6% BRF), and T15 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF). Lower emulsion stability and higher apparent viscosity were observed in T1, T2, T3, T4, and T8 (20% back fat+3% BRF) compared to the control. Lower emulsion stability and higher hardness was detected in all treatments compared with the control, except T5 (20% back fat), T10 (10% back fat+10% canola oil+2% BRF), T11 (10% back fat+10% olive oil+2% BRF), T12 (10% back fat+10% grape seed oil+2% BRF), and T13 (10% back fat+10% soybean oil+2% BRF). This approach has been found particularly useful for highlighting differences among the emulsified properties in emulsion meat products. Thus, the results obtained with emulsion mapping are useful in making emulsified meat products of desired quality characteristics, partially replacing pork back fat with a mix of 10% back fat, 10% canola oil and 2% BRF was most similar to the control with 30% pork back fat. PMID:26761836

  2. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid. PMID:26806592

  3. Efficacy of Organic Soil Amendments for Management of Heterodera glycines in Greenhouse Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabau, Zane J; Chen, Senyu

    2014-09-01

    In a repeated greenhouse experiment, organic soil amendments were screened for effects on population density of soybean cyst nematode (SCN), Heterodera glycines, and soybean growth. Ten amendments at various rates were tested: fresh plant material of field pennycress, marigold, spring camelina, and Cuphea; condensed distiller's solubles (CDS), ash of combusted CDS, ash of combusted turkey manure (TMA), marigold powder, canola meal, and pennycress seed powder. Soybeans were grown for 70 d in field soil with amendments and SCN eggs incorporated at planting. At 40 d after planting (DAP), many amendments reduced SCN egg population density, but some also reduced plant height. Cuphea plant at application rate of 2.9% (amendment:soil, w:w, same below), marigold plant at 2.9%, pennycress seed powder at 0.5%, canola meal at 1%, and CDS at 4.3% were effective against SCN with population reductions of 35.2%, 46.6%, 46.7%, 73.2%, and 73.3% compared with control, respectively. For Experiment 1 at 70 DAP, canola meal at 1% and pennycress seed powder at 0.5% reduced SCN population density 70% and 54%, respectively. CDS at 4.3%, ash of CDS at 0.2%, and TMA at 1% increased dry plant mass whereas CDS at 4.3% and pennycress seed powder at 0.1% reduced plant height. For Experiment 2 at 70 DAP, amendments did not affect SCN population nor plant growth. In summary, some amendments were effective for SCN management, but phytoxicity was a concern. PMID:25276000

  4. La selección natural y los cultivos transgenicos: ¿un hiato darwinista?.

    OpenAIRE

    Chaparro Giraldo Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    En diciembre del 2008, se reportaron 125 millones de hectáreas de variedades transgénicas de soya, maíz, algodón y canola, sembradas en 23 países de los cinco continentes.  Estas variedades fueron transformadas con genes d...

  5. Manipulation of the fatty acids composition of poultry meat and giblets by dietary inclusion of two oil sources and conjugated linoleic acid Mudança na composição de ácidos graxos das vísceras e da carne de aves tratadas com uma dieta contendo ácido linoléico conjugado e duas fontes de óleo

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, S.F.; Vicente, E.; G.L. Colnago; B.M.S. Pessotti; Silva, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with two vegetable oil sources on the fatty acids of meat and giblets of broiler chickens was evaluated. Two hundred 21-day-old broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized factorial design 2 x 5 (two oil sources, soybean or canola oil; and five levels of CLA, 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0g/kg). The addition of CLA to the diet resulted in an increase (P

  6. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Diogo Mueller de; Ongaratto, Diego Paulo; Fontoura, Luiz Antonio Mazzini; Naciuk, Fabricio Fredo; Santos, Vinicius Oliveira Batista dos; Kunz, Jessica Danieli; Marques, Marcelo Volpatto, E-mail: lmazzini@uol.com.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Processos, Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Curso de Quimica, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas RS (Brazil); Souza, Alexander Ossanes de; Pereira, Claudio Martin Pereira de [Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 - triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 - nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 - thin layer chromatography, 4 - as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  7. GMOs: The Economics of Consumer Food Safety Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbs, Jill E.; Plunkett, Marni D.

    2000-01-01

    The controversy over genetically modified (GM) foods has swept across Europe and is beginning to make inroads into the North American consumer market. It is set to become a thorny trade issue between the European Union (EU) and the United States. The issue is important, not least because of the potential scale of the problem. There has been a rapid adoption of GM crops by U.S. corn and soybean and Canadian canola producers. Approximately 57 percent of the U.S. soybean harvested acreage in 199...

  8. The Role of Transgenic Crops in the Future of Global Food and Feed

    OpenAIRE

    O. Škubna; H. Řezbová

    2012-01-01

    The paper is aimed on the problematic of biotech crops planting (GM, transgenic crops). The main aim of this paper is to analyze the trends in the main biotech crops planting groups in the sense of their use for food and feed in the future. The selected groups of biotech crops analyzed in this article are soybeans, maize (corn), cotton and rapeseed (canola). The used methods are chain and basic indexes and regression analysis of times series/ trend data - for predicting on next four years (20...

  9. Multifunctional Zn(II) Complexes: Photophysical Properties and Catalytic Transesterification toward Biodiesel Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Abhishek Kumar; Dhir, Abhimanew; Pradeep, Chullikkattil P

    2016-08-01

    Using 4-substituted derivatives of phenol-based compartmental Schiff-base hydroxyl-rich ligand, four multifunctional binuclear Zn(II) complexes have been synthesized and characterized. The photophysical properties of these complexes were explored in the solid state, in solutions, and in poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) matrix, which revealed their good potential as tunable solid state emitters. Some of these complexes acted as efficient catalysts for the transesterification of esters and canola oil showing their potential in biodiesel generation. Mechanistic investigations using ESI-MS revealed that the transesterification catalyzed by these complexes proceeds through two types of acyl intermediates. PMID:27439021

  10. Alimento para fins especiais: ingredientes, elaboração e aglomeração Food for special needs: ingredients, development and agglomeration

    OpenAIRE

    Luciana Azevedo; Christiane Mileib; Fernanda Zaratini Vissotto; Luciano Bruno de Carvalho-Silva

    2011-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Desenvolver uma dieta enteral nutricionalmente completa, com condições ajustadas de aglomeração, visando contemplar as características físicas e químicas desejadas para esse alimento especial. MÉTODOS: Como ingredientes foram utilizados maltodextrina, óleo de canola, triglicerídios de cadeia média, goma acácia, inulina e frutooligossacarídeos, proteínas do soro de leite, isolado proteico de soja, vitaminas e minerais. Após os ajustes das quantidades e proporções dos ingredientes, a ...

  11. Design of a Small Scale Pilot Biodiesel Production Plant and Determination of the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Produced With This Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanzer Eryılmaz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A small scale pilot biodiesel production plant that has a volume of 65 liters/day has been designed, constructed and tested. The plant was performed using oil mixture (50% wild mustard seed oil + 50% refined canola oil and methanol with sodium hydroxide (NaOH catalyst. The fuel properties of biodiesel indicated as density at 15oC (889.64 kg/m3, kinematic viscosity at 40oC (6.975 mm2/s, flash point (170oC, copper strip corrosion (1a, water content (499.87 mg/kg, and calorific value (39.555 MJ/kg, respectively.

  12. Efecto del consumo de nueces, semillas y aceites sobre marcadores bioquímicos y el peso corporal: revisión sistemática Efectiveness of long-term consumption of nuts, seeds and seeds' oil on glucose and lipid levels: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    C. de Lira-García; M. Bacardí-Gascón; A. Jiménez-Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad del consumo a largo plazo de nueces, semillas y aceites (NSA) sobre el peso corporal, glucosa y nivel de lípidos en población adulta. Métodos: Se buscaron los artículos en inglés publicados en Pubmed y Ebsco hasta mayo del 2011. Se incluyeron los ensayos clínicos aleatorios de 24 semanas o más de intervención. Los términos de búsqueda fueron "diabetes mellitus", "Nuts", "Mediterranean Diet", "Seeds", "Oils", "Canola oil", "Olive oil", "Walnut", "Almond", "P...

  13. Efecto del consumo de nueces, semillas y aceites sobre marcadores bioquímicos y el peso corporal; revisión sistemática

    OpenAIRE

    C. de Lira-García; M. Bacardí-Gascón; A. Jiménez-Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad del consumo a largo plazo de nueces, semillas y aceites (NSA) sobre el peso corporal, glucosa y nivel de lípidos en población adulta. Métodos: Se buscaron los artículos en inglés publicados en Pubmed y Ebsco hasta mayo del 2011. Se incluyeron los ensayos clínicos aleatorios de 24 semanas o más de intervención. Los términos de búsqueda fueron diabetes mellitus , Nuts , Mediterranean Diet , Seeds , Oils , Canola oil , Olive oil , Walnut , Almond , P...

  14. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important element for crop productivity and is widely applied in fertilizers. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 μM P) and sufficient P (50 μM P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato—three important food crops with ...

  15. Fat deterioration in deep fat frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masson, L.

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to know the deterioration of fats employed in deep frying of «french fries» potatoes at restaurant and food shop sector in Santiago (Chile, before the recent Chilean legislation became official. 96 % of the samples corresponded to polyunsaturated vegetable oils, 76 % had more than 2 % linolenic acid and 23 % of total samples contained more than 25 % of polar compounds. To predict the percentage of polar compounds, equations were developed: for soybean oil and mix soybean oil-canola the equation included viscosity or conjugated dienoic acids, while for sunflower oil viscosity and free fatty acids were considered. Sunflower oil, presented a different pattern of the altered groups that comprise the fraction of polar compounds, as compared with soybean and mix soybean-canola oils, these latter two showing significantly higher thermoxidative degradation. Among the diagnostic tests assayed, Oxifrit is recommended as a quick test for practical deterioration control.

    El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer el deterioro de la materia grasa empleada en el proceso de fritura de patatas tipo «french fries» en el sector de restaurantes y pequeños establecimientos en Santiago (Chile antes de que la reciente legislación chilena fuera oficial. El 96 % de las muestras correspondió a aceites vegetales poliinsaturados, el 76 % contenían más de un 2 % de ácido linolénico y el 23 % del total de las muestras presentó más del 25 % de compuestos polares. Para predecir el porcentaje de compuestos polares, se desarrollaron ecuaciones que para el aceite de soja y mezcla soja-canola, incluyeron la viscosidad o los dienos conjugados, mientras que para el aceite de girasol se consideró la viscosidad y los ácidos grasos libres. El aceite de girasol mostró una distribución diferente de las especies alteradas que conforman la fracción de compuestos polares, en comparación al aceite de soja y mezcla soja-canola

  16. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TB...

  17. DETECCIÓN DE GRASA EXTRAÑA EN GRASA LÁCTEA POR CROMATOGRAFÍA DE GASES Y ESTADÍSTICA MULTIVARIABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Rey Gutiérrez-Tolentino; Salvador Vega y León; Gilberto Díaz-González; Héctor J. Delgadillo-Gutiérrez; Georgina Urbán-Carrillo; Acacia Ramírez-Ayala; Clementina González-Cabrera; Ignacio Méndez-Ramírez

    2007-01-01

    La adición de grasa no láctea (GNL) a la leche y sus derivados se considera una adulteración del producto. El objetivo del presente estudio fue desarrollar una metodología estadística que permita detectar GNL en mezclas de GNL con grasa láctea (GL). Se realizó un muestreo de leche cruda del Altiplano Mexicano cada 15 d durante un año (total, 216 muestras). Las muestras de GNL fueron dos para cada aceite: pescado, girasol y canola, así como dos de manteca y sebo. Los porcentajes (% p/p) de con...

  18. Organic food for sustainable and healthy diets - lessons from the nordic diet?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bugel, Susanne; Damsgaard, C. T.; Larsen, T. M.;

    2015-01-01

    foods from the wild countryside and 3) more foods from sea and lakes. In many ways, the New NND is very similar to a Mediterranean diet but relies on rapeseed (canola) oil instead of olive oil and ramson instead of garlic. The diets differ in their types of produce due to regional differences in climate......, soil and water.Results: The health effects and sustainability of the NND has been tested in a number of scientific studies, including the OPUS project (Optimal Well-Being, Development and Health for Danish Children through a Healthy New Nordic Diet) supported by the Nordea foundation (http...

  19. Inadequate physician knowledge of the effects of diet on blood lipids and lipoproteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sciamanna Christopher

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To assess the nutrition knowledge of physicians on the basic effects of diet on blood lipids and lipoproteins. Methods Anonymous mailed dietary knowledge surveys to 6000 randomly selected physicians in the United States licensed in either Internal Medicine or Cardiology. Results Response rate: 16% (n = 639. Half of the physicians did not know that canola oil and 26% did not know olive oil were good sources of monounsaturated fat. Ninety-three percent (84% of cardiologists vs. 96% of internists; p Conclusions If physicians are to implement dietary and cholesterol management guidelines, they will likely need to become more knowledgeable about nutrition.

  20. A dietary biomarker approach captures compliance and cardiometabolic effects of a healthy nordic diet in individuals with metabolic syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marklund, Matti; Magnusdottir, Ola K; Rosqvist, Fredrik;

    2014-01-01

    compared with the whole study population. From a recently conducted isocaloric randomized trial, SYSDIET (Systems Biology in Controlled Dietary Interventions and Cohort Studies), in 166 individuals with metabolic syndrome, several DBs were assessed to reflect different key components of the ND: canola oil...... DHA were >25% higher in the ND individuals than in the controls (P < 0.05), whereas median concentrations of pentadecanoic acid were 14% higher in controls (P < 0.05). Median DB score was 57% higher in the ND than in controls (P < 0.001) during the intervention, and participants were ranked similarly...

  1. Alimentação de fêmeas de jundiá com fontes lipídicas e sua relação com o desenvolvimento embrionário e larval Use of lipid sources on feeding jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and its relation with embryo and larval development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Erick Garcia Parra

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficiência da alimentação de fêmeas de jundiá com diferentes fontes lipídicas no desenvolvimento embrionário e larval. Foram utilizadas 12 fêmeas de jundiá (peso inicial de 500g, distribuídas ao acaso em três tanques-rede (1m³, alimentadas durante 10 semanas. Foram utilizados três dietas contendo como fontes lipídicas: banha suína (BS, óleo de girassol (OG, óleo de canola (OC. No momento da eclosão, foram coletadas nas incubadoras amostras de dez (10 larvas. Uma amostra de pós-larvas foi coletada às 12, 24, 36 e 48 horas pós-eclosão para medição. Mais três amostras de pós-larvas de cada incubadora foram capturadas e criadas durante 14 dias (30 larvas L-1. O desempenho das fêmeas e o desenvolvimento larval não foram afetados pelas fontes lipídicas testadas. Conclui-se que a banha suína é tão eficiente quanto óleo de girassol e canola como fontes lipídicas para fêmeas reprodutoras de jundiá e proporcionam bom desenvolvimento embrionário e larval.The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of feeding female South America catfish Rhamdia quelen with different lipids sources and their influence in embryo and larval stage. Twelve (12 female catfishes initial weight of 500g, distributed randomly among three (3 net-tanks and fed for ten (10 weeks were used. The female fishes were fed with three (3 different types of experimental diet containing lipid sources: Swine fat (BS, sunflower oil (OG canola oil (OC. At hatch time, 10 larvae were collected from each net tank. One post larvae sample was collected at 12, 24, 36, 48 hours after hatch to verify measurement. Three samples were captured and raised in reuse water system during fourteen days (30 larvae L-1. The female reproductive performance and the larval development were not affected by the lipid sources tested. The data revealed that swine fat is as good as sunflower and canola oil as lipid sources for reproductive

  2. Design of a Small Scale Pilot Biodiesel Production Plant and Determination of the Fuel Properties of Biodiesel Produced With This Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Tanzer Eryılmaz; Muttalip Erkan

    2014-01-01

    A small scale pilot biodiesel production plant that has a volume of 65 liters/day has been designed, constructed and tested. The plant was performed using oil mixture (50% wild mustard seed oil + 50% refined canola oil) and methanol with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) catalyst. The fuel properties of biodiesel indicated as density at 15oC (889.64 kg/m3), kinematic viscosity at 40oC (6.975 mm2/s), flash point (170oC), copper strip corrosion (1a), water content (499.87 mg/kg), and calorific value (39....

  3. A Directional Antenna in a Matching Liquid for Microwave Radar Imaging

    OpenAIRE

    Latif, Saeed I.; Daniel Flores Tapia; Diego Rodriguez Herrera; Mario Solis Nepote; Stephen Pistorius; Lotfollah Shafai

    2015-01-01

    The detailed design equations and antenna parameters for a directional antenna for breast imaging are presented in this paper. The antenna was designed so that it could be immersed in canola oil to achieve efficient coupling of the electromagnetic energy to the breast tissue. Ridges were used in the horn antenna to increase the operating bandwidth. The antenna has an exponentially tapered section for impedance matching. The double-ridged horn antenna has a wideband performance from 1.5 GHz to...

  4. Use of pilot plant scale continuous fryer to simulate industrial production of potato chips: thermal properties of palm olein blends under continuous frying conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam Ahmad; Ismail, Razali

    2013-01-01

    Binary blends of palm olein (PO) with sunflower oil (SFO), canola oil (CNO), and cottonseed oil (CSO) were formulated to assess their stability under continuous frying conditions. The results were then compared with those obtained in PO. The oil blends studied were: (1) 60:40 for PO + SFO; (2) 70:30 for PO + CNO; and (3) 50:50 for PO + CSO. The PO and its blends were used to fry potato chips at 180°C for a total of 56 h of operation. The evolution of analytical parameters such as tocols, indu...

  5. Improvement of rapeseed and mustard by induced mutations and in vitro techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on the improvement of rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) and mustard (Brassica juncea Czern and Coss.) was initiated during 1995-96 with the objective to develop genotypes with high yield potential, high oil content, canola quality and improved polyenoic fatty acid composition or high erucic acid for industrial applications, and tolerance to different stresses. The results of the M1 and M2 generations have been reported in the second RCM at Giessen, Germany. Stable mutants (M5) of a photo period sensitivity exotic juncea genotype (DLJ-3) were assessed in preliminary yield trials (PYT) in the field for yield and other agronomic characteristics in comparison with the parent (P) variety. The mutants performing better in PYTs were further assessed in advanced yield trials (AYT) in comparison with P and a local commercial cultivar (LC). Fatty acid composition of promising mutants and interspecific hybrid lines was analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and total seed glucosinolates by spectrophotometry. The quality analyses showed that 50 mutants had low erucic acid contents and 10 of them showed 0%. Two mutants were isolated for high oleic acid (∼50%), 16 mutant plants had more than 35% linoleic acid and one mutant had the desirable low linolenic acid content, 3%. No mutant with more than 60% erucic acid for industrial uses was found. The yield tests indicated that significant variability existed among the mutant lines with regards to different traits. 58 mutants flowered significantly earlier, reducing their growing period by 17 to 55% as compared to P (control), 43 were significantly shorter than P (7-30% reduction in height), and 32 mutants out yielded the parent line significantly by a margin of 26-71% during two years of field testing. Some of the mutants exhibited better performance than P and LC under local short photo period environment, indicating adaptability and great potential to replace the indigenous non-canola genotypes. Induced mutations appear to

  6. Producción y purificación parcial de enzimas hidrolíticas de aspergillus ficuum en fermentación sólida sobre residuos agroindustriales

    OpenAIRE

    Marcia Costa; Marcelo Torres; Haroldo Magariños; Alejandro Reyes

    2010-01-01

    Título en inglés: Production and partial purification of Aspergillus ficuum hydrolytic enzymes in solid state fermentation of agroindustrial residues Resumen En el presente trabajo se describe la producción de las enzimas fitasa, celulasa, xilanasa y proteasa con Aspergillus ficuum cepa DSM 932 mediante fermentación en estado sólido (SSF) usando torta de canola y pomaza de cranberry como sustratos. Como medida indirecta de la producción de las enzimas se usó en cada caso la actividad ...

  7. Effect of pork backfat replacement for vegetal oils in the quality characteristics, oxidative stability and microstructure of mortadellaEfeito da substituição da gordura suína por óleos vegetais nas características de qualidade, estabilidade oxidativa e microestrutura de mortadela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe Ferraz Yunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed with the aim to evaluate the use of different vegetable oils as a replacer for pork backfat. For this, there were used canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils at two levels of replacement (50 and 100%. There were evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics (proximate composition, pH and water activity, instrumental color, microbiological characteristics, lipid oxidation (TBARS and microstructure during storage at room temperature for 60 days. The products had the quality parameters required by the Brazilian legislation. There was a pH decrease during storage due to the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Products containing vegetable oils showed higher levels of lightness (L* and yellowness (b* and lower levels of redness (a*. TBARS values remained under the perceptible threshold by the consumers and microstructure characteristics were similar to those observed in other kinds of cooked meat sausages. Thus, the use of canola, linseed, olive or soybean oils is a viable alternative as a substitute for pork backfat in elaboration of mortadella.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de diferentes óleos vegetais como substituto da gordura animal em mortadela. Para isso, foram utilizados os óleos de canola, linhaça, oliva e soja em dois níveis de substituição (50 e 100%. Foram avaliadas as características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, pH e Atividade de água, cor instrumental, características microbiológicas, oxidação lipídica (TBARS e microestrutura durante armazenamento em temperatura ambiente por 60 dias. Os produtos apresentaram os parâmetros de qualidade exigidos pela legislação brasileira. Houve uma queda nos valores de pH durante o armazenamento devido ao crescimento de bactérias láticas. Os produtos contendo óleos vegetais apresentaram teores de luminosidade (L* e amarelo (b* superiores e teor de vermelho (a* inferior ao controle. Os valores de TBARS mantiveram

  8. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Neves Celestino; Dirceu Pratissoli; Lorena Contarini Machado; Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Junior; Vagner Tebaldi de Queiroz; Leonardo Mardgan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA) for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®), and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1). The median lethal concentration (L...

  9. Complete genome sequence of the plant growth-promoting endophyte Burkholderia phytofirmans strain PsJN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilharter, Alexandra; Mitter, Birgit; Shin, Maria V; Chain, Patrick S G; Nowak, Jerzy; Sessitsch, Angela

    2011-07-01

    Burkholderia phytofirmans PsJN(T) is able to efficiently colonize the rhizosphere, root, and above-ground plant tissues of a wide variety of genetically unrelated plants, such as potatoes, canola, maize, and grapevines. Strain PsJN shows strong plant growth-promoting effects and was reported to enhance plant vigor and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Here, we report the genome sequence of this strain, which indicates the presence of multiple traits relevant for endophytic colonization and plant growth promotion. PMID:21551308

  10. Marketing Assistance Loans, Loan Deficiency Payments and Marketing Loan Gains for Minor Oilseed and Pulse Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, James B.

    2003-01-01

    Marketing assistance loans are available to Montana producers of minor oilseed and pulse crops. The USDA differentiates county-level loan rates from national rates for minor oilseeds and dry peas . County-level lentil and small chickpea loan rates for all pertinent counties throughout the United States are differentiated at the multi-state, regional level from the national loan rates. Montana county-level rates for the 2003 crop year are shown in Appendix A: Figures 1 through 7 for canola, cr...

  11. Beamed Energy Propulsion by Means of Target Ablation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes hundreds of pendulum tests examining the beamed energy conversion efficiency of different metal targets coated with multiple liquid enhancers. Preliminary testing used a local laser with photographic paper targets, with no liquid, water, canola oil, or methanol additives. Laboratory experimentation was completed at Wright-Patterson AFB using a high-powered laser, and ballistic pendulums of aluminum, titanium, or copper. Dry targets, and those coated with water, methanol and oil were repeatedly tested in laboratory conditions. Results were recorded on several high-speed digital video cameras, and the conversion efficiency was calculated. Paper airplanes successfully launched using BEP were likewise recorded

  12. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 – triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 – nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 – thin layer chromatography, 4 – as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  13. Avaliação da qualidade protéica de dois formulados em pó, à base de soja enriquecidos com zinco, selênio e magnésio para utilização em nutrição enteral Evaluation of protein quality from two powder formulas, soybean based, enriched with zinc, selenium and magnesium to be used in enteral nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Josefina Bressan Resende Monteiro; Neuza Maria Brunoro Costa; Elizabete Adriana Esteves; Kélia Henriques Milagres

    2004-01-01

    A partir de extrato solúvel de soja e extrato solúvel de soja desengordurado, foram desenvolvidos dois formulados em pó, os quais foram denominados: FPSA-formulado com extrato solúvel de soja (PSA) e FPS60-formulado com extrato solúvel de soja desengordurado (PS60). Além do PSA e PS60, outros produtos foram utilizados na elaboração dos formulados: clara de ovo desidratada, maltodextrina, óleo de soja, óleo de canola, gordura-de-coco, "mix" de vitaminas e minerais e estabilizante. Zinco, selên...

  14. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jugulam

    Full Text Available Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18 and B. napus (2n = 38 were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH. This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds.

  15. Transfer of Dicamba Tolerance from Sinapis arvensis to Brassica napus via Embryo Rescue and Recurrent Backcross Breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugulam, M; Ziauddin, Asma; So, Kenny K Y; Chen, Shu; Hall, J Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Auxinic herbicides (e.g. dicamba) are extensively used in agriculture to selectively control broadleaf weeds. Although cultivated species of Brassicaceae (e.g. Canola) are susceptible to auxinic herbicides, some biotypes of Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard) were found dicamba resistant in Canada. In this research, dicamba tolerance from wild mustard was introgressed into canola through embryo rescue followed by conventional breeding. Intergeneric hybrids between S. arvensis (2n = 18) and B. napus (2n = 38) were produced through embryo rescue. Embryo formation and hybrid plant regeneration was achieved. Transfer of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into the hybrid plants was determined by molecular analysis and at the whole plant level. Dicamba tolerance was introgressed into B. napus by backcrossing for seven generations. Homozygous dicamba-tolerant B. napus lines were identified. The ploidy of the hybrid progeny was assessed by flow cytometry. Finally, introgression of the piece of DNA possibly containing the dicamba tolerance gene into B. napus was confirmed using florescence in situ hybridization (FISH). This research demonstrates for the first time stable introgression of dicamba tolerance from S. arvensis into B. napus via in vitro embryo rescue followed by repeated backcross breeding. Creation of dicamba-tolerant B. napus varieties by this approach may have potential to provide options to growers to choose a desirable herbicide-tolerant technology. Furthermore, adoption of such technology facilitates effective weed control, less tillage, and possibly minimize evolution of herbicide resistant weeds. PMID:26536372

  16. Tissue-specific laser microdissection of the Brassica napus funiculus improves gene discovery and spatial identification of biological processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ainsley C.; Khan, Deirdre; Girard, Ian J.; Becker, Michael G.; Millar, Jenna L.; Sytnik, David; Belmonte, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    The three primary tissue systems of the funiculus each undergo unique developmental programs to support the growth and development of the filial seed. To understand the underlying transcriptional mechanisms that orchestrate development of the funiculus at the globular embryonic stage of seed development, we used laser microdissection coupled with RNA-sequencing to produce a high-resolution dataset of the mRNAs present in the epidermis, cortex, and vasculature of the Brassica napus (canola) funiculus. We identified 7761 additional genes in these tissues compared with the whole funiculus organ alone using this technology. Differential expression and enrichment analyses were used to identify several biological processes associated with each tissue system. Our data show that cell wall modification and lipid metabolism are prominent in the epidermis, cell growth and modification occur in the cortex, and vascular tissue proliferation and differentiation occur in the central vascular strand. We provide further evidence that each of the three tissue systems of the globular stage funiculus are involved in specific biological processes that all co-ordinate to support seed development. The identification of genes and gene regulators responsible for tissue-specific developmental processes of the canola funiculus now serves as a valuable resource for seed improvement research. PMID:27194740

  17. Swede midge (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), ten years of invasion of crucifer crops in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao; Shelton, Anthony M; Hallett, Rebecca H; Hoepting, Christine A; Kikkert, Julie R; Wang, Ping

    2011-06-01

    The Swede midge, Contarinia nasturtii Kieffer (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), a common insect pest in Europe, is a newly invasive pest in North America that constitutes a major threat to cruciferous vegetable and field crops. Since its first identification in Ontario, Canada, in 2000, it has rapidly spread to 65 counties in the provinces of Ontario and Quebec and has recently been found in canola (one of two cultivars of rapeseed, Brassica napus L. and Brassica campestris L.) in the central Prairie region where the majority of Canada's 6.5 million ha (16 million acres) of canola is grown. The first detection of Swede midge in the United States was in 2004 in New York cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.), but it has now been found in four additional states. Here, we review the biology of Swede midge, its host plant range, distribution, economic impact, pest status, and management strategies. We provide insight into this insect's future potential to become an endemic pest of brassica crops in North America. We also proposed research needed to develop tactics for handling this invasive pest in brassica crops. PMID:21735885

  18. Enhanced stabilization of cloudy emulsions with gum Arabic and whey protein isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Aserin, Abraham; Svitov, Inna; Garti, Nissim

    2010-05-01

    Cloudy emulsions are oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions normally prepared as concentrates, further diluted, per request, into the final beverage. The cloudy emulsion provides flavor, color, and cloud (turbidity) to the soft drink. These systems are stabilized by emulsifiers and/or amphiphilic polysaccharides. Cloudy emulsions based on naturally occurring food grade emulsifiers were studied in the present work. Two charged natural biopolymers, whey protein isolate (WPI) and gum Arabic (GA), are interacted in aqueous solution to form charge-charge interactions improving the emulsion stability. The emulsions were high sheared (Microfluidizer) and characterized by particle size distribution analysis (DLS), optical centrifugation (LUMiFuge), optical microscopy observations, and turbidity measurements. Emulsions obtained from 10wt% of 3:1wt. ratio WPI:GA, at pH 7 (10wt% canola oil) show better stability than emulsions stabilized by GA or WPI alone. The droplet sizes were smaller than 1microm and did not grow significantly during 1 month of incubation at 25 degrees C. The D-limonene-based emulsion droplets were larger (> 2microm) than those made with vegetable oils immediately after preparation and underwent significant droplet size increase (coalescence) within 1 month (>8 microm). The emulsion with turbidity suitable as a cloudy emulsion was composed of 3wt% WPI:GA (3:1) and 20wt% canola oil. PMID:20149604

  19. Fast biodiesel production from beef tallow with radio frequency heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Shaoyang; Wang, Yifen [Biosystems Engineering Department, Auburn University, 200 Tom E. Corley Building, Auburn, AL 36849-5417 (United States); Oh, Jun-Hyun [Department of Plant Science and Technology, Sangmyung University (Korea, Republic of); Herring, Josh L. [Department of Food and Animal Sciences, Alabama A and M University, Normal, AL 35762 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Efficient biodiesel production from beef tallow was achieved with radio frequency (RF) heating. A conversion rate of 96.3 {+-} 0.5% was obtained with a NaOH concentration of 0.6% (based on tallow), an RF heating for 5 min, and a methanol/tallow molar ratio of 9:1. Response surface methodology was employed to evaluate the influence of NaOH dose, RF heating time, and methanol/tallow ratio. The alkaline concentration showed the largest positive impact on the conversion rate. Similar fast conversion from canola oil to biodiesel was achieved in our previous work, indicating that RF heating, as an accelerating technique for biodiesel production, had a large applying area. Viscosities of biodiesel products from beef tallow and canola oil were measured as 5.23 {+-} 0.01 and 4.86 {+-} 0.01 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}, respectively, both meeting the specification in ASTM D6751 (1.9-6.0 mm{sup 2} s{sup -1}). (author)

  20. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  1. Lipase Production in Tray-Bioreactor via Solid State Fermentation under Desired Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Vaseghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipase was produced under desired growth conditions in a novel tray bioreactor using the fungus strain of Rhizopus oryzae. Several agricultural residues/products including sugarcane bagasse, wheat bran, corn meal, barely bran and equal mixtures of sugarcane bagasse with agricultural residues were applied as solid substrate. Lipase produced from the pure sugarcane bagasse showed higher activities than other substrates; which resulted enzyme activities of 155.76 and 138.37 U/gds for the top and middle trays respectively. Furthermore, the influence of carbon and nitrogen supplements was investigated. Addition of carbon sources as substrate was found to be ineffective, while lipase activity remarkably increased by supplementation of bagasse with adequate amount of nitrogen source. Among the nitrogen supplements, urea as a suitable nitrogen source was considered; as a result the average lipolytic activity of 229.355 U/gds was achieved. In addition, various concentrations of vegetable oils including canola oil, soybean oil, olive oil and castor oil were applied. The inducing effect of vegetable oil on lipase activity was investigated. Among them, olive oil and canola oil increased lipolytic activity of lipase with an average value of 192.26 and 183.57 U/gds, respectively.

  2. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens' performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p < 0.05). Fish oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26261709

  3. Removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from crop straws

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuejiao Tong; Renkou Xu

    2013-01-01

    The removal efficiency of copper (Cu(Ⅱ)) from an actual acidic electroplating effluent by biochars generated from canola,rice,soybean and peanut straws was investigated.The biochars simultaneously removed Cu(Ⅱ) from the effluent,mainly through the mechanisms of adsorption and precipitation,and neutralized its acidity.The removal efficiency of Cu(Ⅱ) by the biochars followed the order:peanut straw char > soybean straw char > canola straw char > rice straw char >> a commercial activated carbonaceous material,which is consistent with the alkalinity of the biochars.The pH of the effluent was a key factor determining the removal efficiency of Cu(Ⅱ)by biochars.Raising the initial pH of the effluent enhanced the removal of Cu(Ⅱ) from it.The optimum pyrolysis temperature was 400℃ for producing biochar from crop straws for acidic wastewater treatment,and the optimum reaction time was 8 hr.

  4. Influence of Diet and Postmortem Ageing on Oxidative Stability of Lipids, Myoglobin and Myofibrillar Proteins and Quality Attributes of Gluteus Medius Muscle in Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeyemi, Kazeem Dauda; Shittu, Rafiat Morolayo; Sabow, Azad Behnan; Ebrahimi, Mahdi; Sazili, Awis Qurni

    2016-01-01

    This study appraised the effects of dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil and postmortem ageing on oxidative stability, fatty acids and quality attributes of gluteus medius (GM) muscle in goats. Twenty-four Boer bucks were randomly allotted to diet supplemented with 0, 4 and 8% oil blend, fed for 100 days and slaughtered, and the GM muscle was subjected to a 7 d chill storage (4±1°C). Diet had no effect (P> 0.05) on the colour, drip loss, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) value, free thiol, carbonyl, myoglobin and metmyoglobin contents, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), antioxidant enzyme activities and abundance of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and actin in the GM muscle in goats. The meat from goats fed 4 and 8% oil blend had higher (Pdiet did not affect (Pdiet, the free thiol and myoglobin contents, concentration of tocopherol and total carotenoids, MHC and MRA in the GM muscle decreased (P< 0.05) while carbonyl content, TBARS, drip loss and metmyoglobin content increased over storage. Dietary blend of 80% canola oil and 20% palm oil beneficially altered tissue lipids without hampering the oxidative stability of chevon. PMID:27138001

  5. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  6. Possibilities of direct introgression from Brassica napus to B. juncea and indirect introgression from B. napus to related Brassicaceae through B. juncea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Mai; Ohsawa, Ryo; Tabei, Yutaka

    2014-05-01

    The impact of genetically modified canola (Brassica napus) on biodiversity has been examined since its initial stage of commercialization. Various research groups have extensively investigated crossability and introgression among species of Brassicaceae. B. rapa and B. juncea are ranked first and second as the recipients of cross-pollination and introgression from B. napus, respectively. Crossability between B. napus and B. rapa has been examined, specifically in terms of introgression from B. napus to B. rapa, which is mainly considered a weed in America and European countries. On the other hand, knowledge on introgression from B. napus to B. juncea is insufficient, although B. juncea is recognized as the main Brassicaceae weed species in Asia. It is therefore essential to gather information regarding the direct introgression of B. napus into B. juncea and indirect introgression of B. napus into other species of Brassicaceae through B. juncea to evaluate the influence of genetically modified canola on biodiversity. We review information on crossability and introgression between B. juncea and other related Brassicaseae in this report. PMID:24987292

  7. Multicriteria analysis of agricultural raw materials: A case study of BSBIOS and PETROBRAS BIOFUELS in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy crises reverberate within societies and encourage worldwide change in this industry. In this context, Brazil has been consolidating the National Program for the Production and Use of Biodiesel (Programa Nacional de Produção e Uso do Biodiesel—PNPB). This article analyzes BSBIOS and PETROBRAS BIOFUELS, which is a company that is incorporated under the PNPB. After providing an overview, the manuscript focuses on the criteria used for the selection of the agricultural raw materials used in the biodiesel industry. A reference model that considered the economic, technological, and social dimensions was developed; these dimensions were analyzed in relation to the production matrices of the soybean, canola, sunflower, and castor plants. The company strategically opted to establish programs for promoting the production of only soybean and canola. In the short term, the company has accepted the evidence that the main source of raw materials is soybean production. This decision was made considering the multicriteria analysis that was developed, which involved a number of economic, technological, and social aspects. Consequently, this analysis used in the decision-making process exhibits both a macro (the national and international environment) and a micro perspective (the companies’ reality). - Highlights: • The economic viability of biodiesel production in Brazil hinges on crop production. • Biodiesel production in Brazil requires developing an efficient production chain. • Oleaginous crops will be diversified by creating a network of suppliers. • Raw material production is diversifying based on an analysis of relevant factors

  8. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae: growth and thermal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Ikeda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish using 72 juvenile freshwater angelfish, coming from phase I and maintained in 12 aquaria climatized chamber. The temperature was reduced 1ºC per day, until the observation of 100% fish mortality. Phase III, it was studied the heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish employing an identical procedure to phase II, but with a daily increase of 1ºC. Significant differences (P>0.05 were not observed for any parameters evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that the type of vegetable oil (canola, linseed, olive and soybean used as a diet supplement did not affect the productive performance, nor the tolerance to cold and heat, of juvenile freshwater angelfish.

  9. Assessing the sustainability of Brazilian oleaginous crops - possible raw material to produce biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to make an emergy assessment of oleaginous crops cultivated in Brazil, available to produce biodiesel, in order to determine which crop is the most sustainable. This study evaluates conventional agro-chemical farms that produce rapeseed (canola), oil palm, soybean, sunflower and cotton. Rapeseed (canola) crop uses 40.41% of renewable energy and it is the most sustainable conventional oil crop; on the other hand, it is not widely produced in Brazil, probably due to climate restrictions or low market demand. The oil palm emergy indicators are contradictory: its emergy exchange ratio (EER) value is the lower, showing the possibility of fair exchange, and the low transformity value indicates high efficiency; however, it also has low renewability (28.31%), indicating a high dependency on agro-chemicals (basically fertilizers). Oil palm is a potential energy source due to its high agricultural productivity, but appropriate management is necessary to increase its sustainability and reduce the use of non-renewable resources.

  10. Alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration in vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn Câmara Grilo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are the richest dietary sources of vitamin E. Vitamin E determination levels in foods are of great importance to adjust the ingestion of nutrients by the population. The purpose of this paper is to determine the concentration of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in vegetable oils and compare the alpha-tocopherol value to the nutritional requirement of vitamin E. The analysis was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The values expressed as mg/kg for alpha and gamma-tocopherol were, respectively, 120.3±4.2 and 122.0±7.9 in canola oil; 432.3±86.6 and 92.3±9.5 in sunflower oil; 173.0±82.3 and 259.7±43.8 in corn oil; 71.3±6.4 and 273.3±11.1 in soybean oil. A significant difference was encountered between the alpha-tocopherol concentrations in vegetable oils. Similar results were found for gamma-tocopherol, except for corn and soybean oils. It was concluded that the soybean oil was not considered a source of vitamin E. The canola and corn oils were considered sources, and the sunflower oil was considered an excellent source.

  11. Amino acid digestibility of plant protein feed ingredients for growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotten, B; Ragland, D; Thomson, J E; Adeola, O

    2016-03-01

    Two experiments were designed to determine the N and AA digestibility of various protein sources (potato protein concentrate, soy protein concentrate, soy protein isolate, linseed meal, sunflower meal, cottonseed meal, canola meal, and camelina meal) fed to growing pigs. In each experiment, barrows were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the distal ileum and fed 4 experimental diets and a N-free diet (NFD) on the basis of a replicated 5 × 2 crossover arrangement with 5 diets and 2 periods. For Exp. 1, 20 cannulated 25-kg barrows received potato concentrate, soy concentrate, soy isolate, and linseed meal. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of N for potato concentrate, soy concentrate, and soy isolate were similar and greater than that for linseed meal ( camelina meal were fed to 42-kg barrows to determine their AID and SID of AA. The AID and SID of N and all AA were greatest for sunflower meal ( < 0.05), and canola meal had similar AID and SID of N, Met, Thr, Leu, and Val. The AID and SID of all essential AA, except for Met and Trp, were lowest for sunflower meal ( < 0.05). Cottonseed meal had lower AID and SID for Lys, Ile, Leu, Met, Thr, and Val compared with the other protein sources ( < 0.05). In conclusion, the digestibility of N and AA varies greatly among oilseed meals. PMID:27065269

  12. Snohomish County Biodiesel Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrill Chang; Deanna Carveth

    2010-02-01

    Snohomish County in western Washington State began converting its vehicle fleet to use a blend of biodiesel and petroleum diesel in 2005. As prices for biodiesel rose due to increased demand for this cleaner-burning fuel, Snohomish County looked to its farmers to “grow” this fuel locally. Suitable seed crops that can be crushed to extract oil for use as biodiesel feedstock include canola, mustard, and camelina. The residue, or mash, has high value as an animal feed. County farmers began with 52 acres of canola and mustard crops in 2006, increasing to 250 acres and 356 tons in 2008. In 2009, this number decreased to about 150 acres and 300 tons due to increased price for mustard seed.

  13. Using Plants for the Bioremediation (Phyto-remediation) of Chromium-Contaminated Soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A trial was made to study the use of hyper accumulator plant species to extract Cr out of contaminated soils. Three soils (A,B, and C) were selected in this experiment, Soil A: Polluted soil from El-Gabal El-Asfer farm. (subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 75 years). Soil B: Polluted soil from Bahtem area (subjected to sewage effluent irrigation for more than 30 years). Soil C: Polluted soil from Mostorud area (irrigated with contaminated water for more than 30 years due to direct discharge of industrial wastewater to irrigation water canals). Four Kg of each air-dried surface soil sample (0-20 cm) were packed in plastic containers in three replicates. Four plant species tested in this study namely, Sorghum (Sorghum Vulgar L.), Clover (Trifolium Pretense L.), Panikum (Panicum antidotal) and Canola (Brassica Napous.); were grown on each tested soil in a complete randomized block experimental design. Plant shoots were harvested every 60 days (three cuts) for sorghum, clover and panikum. In case of canola plants, the shoots were harvested after 60 days (vegetative stage) and 85 days(fruiting stage). The roots of all species were collected after the final cut. Initial and final soil samples were taken for Cr analyses using neutron activation analyses technique (NAA)

  14. Ácidos graxos trans em óleos vegetais refinados poli-insaturados comercializados no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Trans fatty acids in refined polyunsaturated vegetable oils commercialized in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados da composição de ácidos graxos, principalmente trans, de óleos vegetais poli-insaturados refinados, coletados no comércio do estado de São Paulo entre os anos de 2005 e 2007. Foram analisadas 34 amostras de óleo de soja, 7 de girassol, 2 de canola e 6 de milho. Os ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos foram preparados por transesterificação alcalina a frio e analisados por cromatografia gasosa em coluna capilar de 100 m (SP 2560, após a otimização das condições analíticas. Dezesseis amostras de óleo de soja, duas de canola e quatro de girassol apresentaram níveis de ácidos graxos trans acima de 2,0% (p/p de ésteres metílicos. De acordo com a Resolução RDC 360/2003 da ANVISA/MS, é obrigatória a declaração dos níveis de ácidos graxos trans na rotulagem dos alimentos embalados quando os teores forem superiores a 0,2 g na porção do alimento. No caso de óleos vegetais, a porção é de 13 mL (uma colher de sopa e, portanto, na rotulagem nutricional de várias amostras deverá constar valor superior a zero. A melhoria no processo de refino dos óleos vegetais insaturados como soja, canola e girassol, pelo controle das temperaturas de desodorização, poderá contribuir para atender às recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde, no sentido de minimizar os níveis de ácidos graxos trans dos alimentos preservando a saúde da população.This paper describes the results of fatty acids composition, mainly trans, in refined polyunsaturated vegetable oils, commercialized in the city of São Paulo, Brazil during the years 2005 and 2007. The following samples were analyzed: 34 of soybean oil, 7 of sunflower oil, 2 of canola, and 6 of corn oil. The fatty acids were transesterified in a cold process and analyzed with optimized conditions by gas chromatography in a 100 m capillary column (SP 2560. Sixteen samples of soybean, two of canola, and four of sunflower oil showed

  15. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model estimates biofuel feedstock crop production across diverse agro-ecological zones within the state, under different future climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaffka, S.; Jenner, M.; Bucaram, S.; George, N.

    2012-12-01

    Both regulators and businesses need realistic estimates for the potential production of biomass feedstocks for biofuels and bioproducts. This includes the need to understand how climate change will affect mid-tem and longer-term crop performance and relative advantage. The California Biomass Crop Adoption Model is a partial mathematical programming optimization model that estimates the profit level needed for new crop adoption, and the crop(s) displaced when a biomass feedstock crop is added to the state's diverse set of cropping systems, in diverse regions of the state. Both yield and crop price, as elements of profit, can be varied. Crop adoption is tested against current farmer preferences derived from analysis of 10 years crop production data for all crops produced in California, collected by the California Department of Pesticide Regulation. Analysis of this extensive data set resulted in 45 distinctive, representative farming systems distributed across the state's diverse agro-ecological regions. Estimated yields and water use are derived from field trials combined with crop simulation, reported elsewhere. Crop simulation is carried out under different weather and climate assumptions. Besides crop adoption and displacement, crop resource use is also accounted, derived from partial budgets used for each crop's cost of production. Systematically increasing biofuel crop price identified areas of the state where different types of crops were most likely to be adopted. Oilseed crops like canola that can be used for biodiesel production had the greatest potential to be grown in the Sacramento Valley and other northern regions, while sugar beets (for ethanol) had the greatest potential in the northern San Joaquin Valley region, and sweet sorghum in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Up to approximately 10% of existing annual cropland in California was available for new crop adoption. New crops are adopted if the entire cropping system becomes more profitable. In

  16. Allelopathy of winter cover straws on the initial maize growthAlelopatia de palhadas de coberturas de inverno sobre o crescimento inicial de milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Senen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural crops is common planting the main crop on the remains of straw harvesting the crop earlier due to no-tillage system. The straw remaining in the soil can exert positive or negative influence on the main crop through the release of organic compounds that carry allelopathy on plants of the subsequent growing. This experiment consisted of mixing and blending of different types of turnip (Brassica rapa L., oats (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. Ex RE Fries, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L. and rapeseed (Brassica napus L . var in soil and placed in plastic trays where they planted the seeds of maize. The experimental design was completely randomized design with six treatments and three repetições. As ratings were: emergence, rate of emergence, shoot length, root length, root dry weight, dry weight of shoots. The cover crops canola and safflower showed a positive effect, as crambe, turnips and oats had a negative effect on initial growth of maize seedlings, are not suitable for cover crop to maize sowing.Nas lavouras agrícolas é comum o cultivo da cultura principal sobre os restos de palha da colheita do cultivo anterior em decorrência do sistema de plantio direto. A palhada remanescente no solo pode exercer influência positiva ou negativa sobre a cultura principal pela liberação de compostos orgânicos que exercem alelopatia sobre as plantas da cultura subsequente. Este experimento constou da mistura e homogeneização das palhas de nabo (Brassica rapa L., aveia (Avena sativa L., crambe (Crambe abyssinica Hochst. ex R. E. Fries, cartamo (Carthamus tinctorius L. e canola (Brassica napus L.var no solo, que foi colocado em bandejas plásticas onde semeou-se o milho. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados com seis tratamentos e três repetições. As características analizadas foram: emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento de parte aérea, comprimento de raiz, massa

  17. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. PMID:25865422

  18. Sunflower seed: a potential source of food and feed products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical composition of seven varieties of sunflower seeds and seed fractions i.e., kernels, hulls and meals was determined. Sunflower meals (SFM) contained 44.00 to 49.52% crude protein, 1.25 to 1.50% fat, 3.43 to 6.75% crude fibre, 7.50 to 8.51% ash, 27.30 to 36.09% nitrogen free extract, 3.12 to 3.51% phytic acid and 2.45 to 3.01% chlorogenic acid. Fatty acid profile of sunflower oil with respect to other vegetable oils (i.e., soybean, mustard, canola, cotton, corn oils) and protein solubility profile of sunflower meal as compared to soybean and mustard meals, indicate that its oil and meal have a great nutritional potential. (author)

  19. Study of the formation of carbonyl compounds in edible oils and fats by 1H-NMR and FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya Moreno, M. C. M.; Mendoza Olivares, D.; Amézquita López, F. J.; Peris Martínez, V.; Bosch Reig, F.

    1999-05-01

    Oils and fats start decomposing from the moment they are isolated from their natural environment. Heating accelerates oxidative rancidity and frying at high temperatures produces thermal degradation with the formation of decomposition products, such as aldehydes, ketones, free acids and hydroxilic compounds that in high levels can be harmful to human health. The decomposition products formed up to 300°C were determined by means of 1H-NMR spectroscopy and an FTIR spectroscopic method was developed for the quantification of carbonyl compounds generated during heating. The results show that there is a formation of carbonyl compounds starting at 150°C and when the sample was heated at 300°C for 40 min, the following contents (expressed as butyraldehyde mass fraction) were found: olive oil 10.5%, sunflower oil 11.3%, corn oil 3.0%, seeds oil (sunflower, safflower and canola seed) 6.6% and lard 3.5%.

  20. MOLECULAR CLONING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NOVEL THERMOSTABLE LIPASE FROM SHEWANELLA PUTREFACIENS AND USING ENZYMATIC BIODIESEL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahri Akbas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel thermostable lipase from Shewanella putrefaciens was identified, expressed in Escherichia coli, characterized and used in biodiesel production. Enzyme characterization was carried out by enzyme assay, SDS-PAGE and other biochemical reactions. The recombinant lipase was found to have a molecular mass of 29 kDa and exhibited lipase activity when Tween 80 was used as the substrate. The purified enzyme showed maximum activity at pH 5.0 and at 80°C. The recombinant lipase was used for the transesterification of canola oil and waste oil. The enzyme retains 50% of its activity at 90°C for 30 minutes. It is also able to retain 20% of its activity even at 100 °C for 20 minutes. These properties of the obtained new recombinant thermostable lipase make it promising as a biocatalyst for industrial processes.

  1. Rapeseed oil as biodiesel resource and adulteration agent for expensive edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULF F.V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus, also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and canola, has bright yellowflowers and is grown for the production of animal feed, vegetable oil for human consumption, and biodiesel.This oil was originally chosen for transesterification experiments because of its low price compared to othersreadily available vegetable oils. Due to the high content of oleic acid and low levels of both saturated andpolyunsaturated acids, the oil is the ideal raw material for combustion, due to its characteristics (oxidativestability and cold temperature behavior. It can be considered the most frequently used adulteration agent for alot of expensive edible oils, like extra virgin olive oil. Brassicasterol is mainly present only in rapeseed oil. It isabsent or present only in trace amounts in other oils.

  2. Inclusão de fontes de óleo na dieta de cabras em lactação: produção, composição e perfil dos ácidos graxos do leite Feeding vegetable oil to lactating goats: milk production and composition and milk fatty acids profile

    OpenAIRE

    Fábio José Maia; Antonio Ferriani Branco; Gisele Fernanda Mouro; Sabrina Marcantonio Coneglian; Geraldo Tadeu dos Santos; Tathiane Fernanda Minella; Kátia Cylene Guimarães

    2006-01-01

    O objetivo neste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da inclusão de fontes de óleo na dieta de cabras em lactação sobre a produção, a composição e o perfil dos ácidos graxos da gordura do leite. Foram utilizadas quatro cabras da raça Saanen (54±1,02 kg PV) aos 80 dias em lactação, canuladas no rúmen. Os tratamentos consistiram de dietas suplementadas com diferentes fontes de óleo (canola, arroz e soja) e de uma dieta controle. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o quadrado latino 4 x 4...

  3. Determination of the physical characteristics of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Danielle Oliveira de; Andrade, Ednilton Tavares de; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e do Meio Ambiente; Tulcan, Oscar Edwin Piamba [Universidade Nacional da Colombia (UNAL), Bogota (Colombia). Fac de Ingenieria

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work was the characterization of vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn and soybean through corrosion, kinematic viscosity, density, cloud point and flow point tests. Vegetable oils are used as raw material for preparation of biofuels or as fuel diesel additive or substitute. The vegetable oils tested showed a low level of corrosion, kinematic viscosities are measured in the range of 31 to 36 mm{sup 2}.s{sup -1}, density was tested at 15 and 20 deg C and showed results varying in the third decimal order. For the oils tested, the cloud point is around 0 deg C and the flow point around -17 deg C. (author)

  4. Strategies for the Engineered Phytoremediation of Mercury and Arsenic Pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhankher, Om Parkash; Meagher, Richard B.

    2003-03-26

    Phytoremediation is the use of plants to extract, transport, detoxify and/or sequester pollutants of the land, water or air. Mercury and arsenic are among the worst environmental pollutants, adversely affecting the health of hundreds of millions of people worldwide. We have demonstrated that plants can be engineered to take up and tolerate several times the levels of mercury and arsenic that would kill most plant species. Starting with methylmercury and/or ionic mercury contamination, mercury is detoxified, stored below or above ground, and even volatilized as part of the transpiration process and keeping it out of the food chain. Initial efforts with arsenate demonstrate that it can be taken up, transported aboveground, electrochemically reduced to arsenite in leaves and sequestered in thiol-rich peptide complexes. The transgenic mercury remediation strategies also worked in cultivated and wild plant species like canola, rice and cottonwood.

  5. Biodiesel – a Real Solution for Reducing Air Pollution ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ODAGIU Antonia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traffic emissions made up of high levels of nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and particulate matter determineserious pollution in urban high agglomerations. One solution in reducing atmospheric pollution is represented byfinding not pollutant alternatives to classic fuel used for urban vehicles and one valuable solution is the replacement ofpollutant fossil fuels with biodiesel/biofuel. The reaction between glycerides and methanol, in presence of a catalystrepresents the basis of biodiesel fuel production. The main plants used for biofuel production are: soybeans, rapeseed(canola, sunflower seed, palm fruit or kernels, coconut and physic nut, etc. The legal approach of biodiesel use includesa series of national and international agreements adopted with the aim of reducing air pollution produced by the use oftraditional fuel in urban traffic, and biodiesel use remains a valuable option, in spite of high production costs.

  6. The state of genetically modified crop regulation in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Stuart J

    2014-07-01

    Genetically modified (GM) crops were first commercialized in Canada in 1995 and the 2014 crop represents the 20th year of successful production. Prior to the first commercialization of GM crops, Canada reviewed its existing science-based regulatory framework and adapted the existing framework to allow for risk assessments on the new technology to be undertaken in a timely and efficient manner. The result has been the rapid and widespread adoption of GM varieties of canola, corn and soybeans. The first decade of GM crop production precipitated 2 landmark legal cases relating to patent infringement and economic liability, while the second decade witnessed increased political efforts to have GM crops labeled in Canada as well as significant challenges from the low level comingling of GM crops with non-GM commodities. This article reviews the 20 y of GM crop production in Canada from a social science perspective that includes intellectual property, consumer acceptance and low level presence. PMID:25437238

  7. Determinação dos valores energéticos de alguns óleos e gorduras para pintos de corte machos e fêmeas aos 21 dias de idade Determination of energy values of some oils and fats for broilers chickens males and females in the 21 day old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Cardoso Nascif

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um ensaio biológico com pintos de corte no período de 21 a 32 dias de idade, com o objetivo de determinar os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pela retenção de nitrogênio (EMAn do óleo de soja degomado, óleo de milho, óleo de canola, gordura de aves, gordura de coco, gordura suína, sebo bovino e de duas misturas, sendo a primeira composta de óleo de soja degomado + gordura de coco e a segunda de óleo de soja degomado + sebo bovino, ambas na proporção de 1:1. Foi realizado o método de coleta total de excretas no experimento. O período de duração do experimento foi de dez dias, sendo os cinco primeiros de adaptação e os cinco restantes de coleta de excretas. Foi observada diferença entre os tratamentos e entre os sexos, sendo os valores de EMAn obtidos para fêmeas, em média, 98% dos valores de EMAn obtido para machos. Porém, não foi observada diferença entre a interação alimento x sexo. Os valores médios de EMAn encontrados para pintos de corte foram, respectivamente, para óleo de soja degomado, óleo de milho, óleo de canola, gordura de aves, gordura de coco, gordura suína, sebo bovino, para a mistura de óleo de soja degomado + gordura de coco e para a mistura de óleo de soja degomado + sebo bovino: 8.273, 8.582, 8.681, 8.511, 7.487, 7.536, 7.227, 8.029 e 8.171 kcal/kg matéria naturalOne bioassay was carried out using 21-to32-day old broilers chicks to determine the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of crude soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, avian fat, coconut fat, swine lard, beef tallow, crude soybean oil + coconut fat and crude soybean oil + beef tallow, both latter in 1:1 proportion. The method of total excreta collection was used for the trials, which lasted 10 days each: the first five days for adaptation and the five remaining days for excreta collection. In the

  8. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S: 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20, and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of the oxidative stability was measured through peroxide value, quantitation of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and induction time (IT by means of Rancimat. Oil degradation during frying was very low as both polar compound percentages and natural antioxidant had similar levels to those present in refined oils. Evolution of analytical parameters during storage results indicated that oil unsaturation degree or P/S had a much more importance on stability of the product than had the content and type of natural antioxidants and the addition of AP. Nevertheless, addition of AP to the fried potatoes had a significant effect resulting in higher retention of natural antioxidants, higher IT and lower PV at any storage timeSe estudia la evolución de la oxidación a 60º C en patatas fritas con cuatro aceites vegetales de distinta relación ácidos grasos poliinsaturados/saturados (P/S: 5,4 para el aceite de girasol, 3,4 para el aceite de canola, 0,4 para una mezcla de oleína de palma (80 % y aceite de canola (20 % y 0,3 para la oleína de palma. Se estudia igualmente la influencia de la adición de palmitato de ascorbilo (AP durante la conservación del producto frito con especial atención a su efecto sinergista sobre los antioxidantes naturales. La evolución de la oxidación en lotes de patatas, con y sin adición de AP, se determinó mediante las siguientes determinaciones analíticas: índice de peróxidos (PV, cuantificación de tocoferoles y tocotrienoles, y periodos de

  9. Resposta à aplicação e recuperação de enxofre em cultivos de casa de vegetação em solos com diferentes teores de argila e matéria orgânica Responses to sulfur application and recuperation in greenhouse crops in soils with different clay and organic matter content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo dos Santos Rheinheimer

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A dinâmica e a disponibilidade do enxofre têm sido pouco estudadas em relação a outros nutrientes, apesar da sua importância como nutriente à planta. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a resposta de algumas culturas à aplicação de sulfato (S-SO4-2 em solos com diferentes teores de argila e matéria orgânica, bem como avaliar a recuperação de enxofre, através de um balanço deste elemento no solo e na planta. O experimento consistiu de seis cultivos sucessivos (canola, soja, feijoeiro, gergelim, trevo vesiculoso e trigo, em vasos em casa de vegetação, utilizando-se quatro tipos de solos e quatro doses de S-SO4-2, com quatro repetições distribuídas ao acaso. Avaliou-se a produção de matéria seca, o teor e o acúmulo de enxofre absorvido pelas culturas. Amostras de solo foram coletadas na camada de 0-10cm após cada cultivo, para determinação do teor de S-SO4-2 disponível. Dentre as culturas estudadas, somente a canola respondeu à aplicação de S-SO4-2. Para as demais culturas, não houve relação entre os teores de S-SO4-2 da camada de 0-10cm e a produção de matéria seca. Solos com diferentes teores de argila e matéria orgânica tiveram comportamento similar em relação à resposta das culturas à fertilização com enxofre; entretanto, a disponibilidade deste nutriente foi maior nos solos mais argilosos.The sulfur (S dynamic and availability is less studied than others nutrients, even though S is an essential nutrient for crops production. This study was carried out to evaluate the crop responses to S-SO4-2 application in different soils and to study S recuperation by balancing it in soil and plants. The study was composed by a greenhouse experiment with six successive crops (canola, soybean, black bean, sesame, clover and wheat using four soils and four S-SO4-2 levels (0, 5, 10 and 20mg kg-1 to evaluate immediate and residual effect of S-SO4-2 application. Soil samples were taken from 0-10 cm layer before and

  10. The transfer of 'Polima' cytoplasmic male sterility from oilseed rape (Brassica napus) to broccoli (B. oleracea) by protoplast fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarrow, S A; Burnett, L A; Wildeman, R P; Kemble, R J

    1990-08-01

    Protoplast fusion was utilised to transfer Polima type cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) from Brassica napus, canola cv. Polima Karat (Pol-Karat) to B. oleracea, broccoli, var. "Green Comet". Southern and RFLP analysis confirmed that four cybrids possessed nuclear genomes of broccoli with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts. A fifth cybrid was a nuclear hybrid between broccoli and Pol-Karat, with Polima mitochondria and chloroplasts of broccoli. The broccoli type cybrids were morphologically similar to "Green Comet", while the hybrid type was an intermediate of the two fusion parents. Flowers on the cybrids were distinctive in that although they possessed a morphology typical of Polima, they had very reduced petals. The broccoli type cybrids exhibited some female fertility, albeit low, establishing potential for F1 hybrid production. PMID:24226699

  11. Effects of prepartum diets supplemented with rolled oilseeds on calf birth weight, postpartum health, feed intake, milk yield, and reproductive performance of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, R; Colazo, M G; Oba, M; Ambrose, D J

    2016-05-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of supplemental fat (no oilseed vs. oilseed) during late gestation and the source of fat (canola vs. sunflower seed), on dry matter intake (DMI), plasma metabolite concentrations, milk production and composition, calf birth weight, postpartum health disorders, ovarian function and reproductive performance in dairy cows. Pregnant Holstein cows, blocked by body condition and parity, were assigned to 1 of 3 diets containing rolled canola seed (high in oleic acid; n=43) or sunflower (high in linoleic acid; n=45) at 8% of dry matter, or no oilseed (control; n=43), for the last 35±2 d of pregnancy. After calving, all cows received a common lactation diet. Blood samples were collected at wk -3 (i.e., 2 wk after initiation of prepartum diets) and at wk +1, +2, +3, +4 and +5 postpartum to determine the concentration of fatty acids (mEq/dL), β-hydroxybutyrate (mg/dL), and glucose (mg/dL). Ovarian ultrasonography was performed twice weekly to determine the first appearance of dominant (10mm) and preovulatory-size (≥16mm) follicles, and ovulation. Uterine inflammatory status based on the proportion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN; subclinical endometritis: >8% PMN) was assessed at d 25±1 postpartum. Significant parity by treatment interactions were observed for DMI and milk yield. Prepartum oilseed supplementation, more specifically sunflower seed supplementation, increased postpartum DMI in primiparous cows without affecting prepartum DMI or milk yield. Contrarily, in multiparous cows, prepartum oilseed supplementation decreased both prepartum and postpartum DMI and milk yield during the first 2 wk. Regardless of parity, prepartum feeding of canola reduced postpartum DMI compared with those fed sunflower. Mean fatty acids concentrations at wk -3 were greater in cows given supplemental oilseed than those fed no oilseeds. Gestation length and calf birth weight were increased in cows given supplemental oilseed prepartum

  12. Valores de composição química e energética de alguns alimentos para aves Values of chemical and energy composition of some feedstuffs for broiler chicks

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila D'Agostini; Paulo Cezar Gomes; Luiz Fernando Teixeira Albino; Horacio Santiago Rostagno; Luciano Moraes Sá

    2004-01-01

    O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a composição química e os valores energéticos de oito alimentos (milho grão, milho pré-cozido I e II, farelo de canola, plasma sangüíneo, farinha de vísceras, glicose e amido de milho) para aves. Para determinação dos valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA) e aparente corrigida (EMAn), foi utilizado o método tradicional de coleta total de excretas, com 400 pintos de corte, machos e fêmeas, de 21 dias de idade. O delineamento exp...

  13. Linking Drought Information to Crop Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madadgar, S.; Farahmand, A.; Li, L.; Aghakouchak, A.

    2015-12-01

    Droughts have detrimental impacts on agricultural yields all over the world every year. This study analyzes the relationship between three drought indicators including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI); Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI), Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) and the yields of five largest rain-fed crops in Australia (wheat, broad beans, canola, lupins and barley). Variation of the five chosen crop yields is overall in agreement with the three drought indicators SPI, SSI, and MSDI during the analysis period of 1980-2012. This study develops a bivariate copula model to investigate the statistical dependence of drought and crop yield. Copula functions are used to establish the existing connections between climate variables and crop yields during the Millennium drought in Australia. The proposed model estimates the likelihood of crop yields given the observed or predicted drought indicators SPI, SSI or MSDI. The results are also useful to estimate crop yields associated with different thresholds of precipitation or soil moisture.

  14. Comparison of chemical characteristics of high oleic acid fraction of moringa oleifera oil with some vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical characteristics of High oleic acid fraction (HOF) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) was compared with sunflower, soybean and canola oils. HOF of MOO was obtained by dry fractionation at 0 degree C. Iodine value and C18:1 in HOF increased from 61.55 to 82.47 points and 70.29% to 81.15%, respectively. Cloud point of HOF was 1.1 degree C as compared to 10.2 degree C in MOO. The induction period of HOF was greater than all the vegetable oils tested in this investigation. HOF can be used as a source of edible oil with better health attributes and superior storage stability. (author)

  15. Determinação dos valores energéticos de alguns óleos e gorduras para pintos de corte machos e fêmeas aos 21 dias de idade Determination of energy values of some oils and fats for broilers chickens males and females in the 21 day old

    OpenAIRE

    Carla Cristina Cardoso Nascif; Paulo Cezar Gomes; Luiz Fernando Teixeira Albino; Horacio Santiago Rostagno

    2004-01-01

    Foi realizado um ensaio biológico com pintos de corte no período de 21 a 32 dias de idade, com o objetivo de determinar os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA) e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pela retenção de nitrogênio (EMAn) do óleo de soja degomado, óleo de milho, óleo de canola, gordura de aves, gordura de coco, gordura suína, sebo bovino e de duas misturas, sendo a primeira composta de óleo de soja degomado + gordura de coco e a segunda de óleo de soja degomado + se...

  16. Leaking tankers: how much oil was spilled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model to estimate leak rates from tankers has been developed for use in emergency situations when more direct oil-loss estimation methods are not available. The model includes algorithms for gravity outflow and air and water ingestion. Three laboratory tests were conducted using fresh water and canola oil to evaluate the model output. Comparison with results from the laboratory experiments indicate good correlation of model results with measured data. However, it is not yet possible in the case of very large crude carriers to answer the question 'how much oil was spilled?' Sensitivity analysis and further laboratory testing were suggested to determine the effect of factors such as: pressure vacuum relief valves that prevent cavitation in the event of tank puncture; changing outside water levels due to wave and tidal action; tank and hole dimensions; and the amount and density of the product.10 refs., 4 figs

  17. Investigations of in vitro bioaccessibility from interesterified stearic and oleic acid-rich blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thilakarathna, S H; Rogers, M; Lan, Y; Huynh, S; Marangoni, A G; Robinson, L E; Wright, A J

    2016-04-20

    Interesterification was previously found to impact stearic acid absorption in a randomized cross-over study, when human volunteers consumed a 70 : 30 wt% high-oleic sunflower and canola stearin blend (NIE) compared to the same blend which had undergone either chemical (CIE) or enzymatic (EIE) interesterification. In this research, in vitro lipid digestion, bioaccessibility, and changes in undigested lipid composition and melting behavior of these same test fats were investigated using the dynamic, multi-compartmental TIM-1 digestion model and compared with the previous human study. Overall, TIM-1 bioaccessibility was higher with interesterification (p digestion. TIM-1 bioaccessibility was linearly correlated (R(2) = 0.8640) with postprandial serum TAG concentration in the human study. Therefore, the in vitro digestion model offered predictive insights related to the impacts of lipid interesterificaton on absorption. PMID:26961726

  18. Evaluation of protein structural changes and water mobility in chicken liver paste batters prepared with plant oil substituting pork back-fat combined with pre-emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoyuan; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuangli; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Xinglian; Zhu, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    Protein structural changes and water mobility properties in chicken liver paste batters prepared with plant oil (sunflower and canola oil combinations) substituting 0-40% pork back-fat combined with pre-emulsification were studied by Raman spectroscopy and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results showed that pre-emulsifying back-fat and plant oil, including substituting higher than 20% back-fat with plant oil increased the water- and fat-binding (pfluid losses in chicken liver paste batters. Raman spectroscopy revealed that compared with a control, there was a decrease (poil combined with pre-emulsification. Pre-emulsification and plant oil substitution changed tryptophan and tyrosine doublet hydrophobic residues in chicken liver paste batters. PMID:26593506

  19. Effects of vegetable-based cutting fluids on the wear in drilling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Babur Ozcelik; Emel Kuram; Erhan Demirbas; Emrah Şik

    2013-08-01

    This study focuses on both formulation of vegetable-based cutting fluids (VBCFs) and machining with these cutting fluids. For this purpose, characterizations of chemical and physical analyses of these formulated cutting fluids are carried out. In this study, performances of three VBCFs developed from crude sunflower oil, refined sunflower oil, refined canola oil and commercial semi-synthetic cutting fluid are compared in terms of tool wear, thrust force and surface roughness during drilling of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel with HSSE tool. Experimental results show that canolabased cutting fluid gives the best performance due to its higher lubricant properties with respect to other cutting fluids at the constant cutting conditions (spindle speed of 750 rpm and feed rate of 0.1 mm/rev).

  20. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca e proteína bruta, e tempo de colonização microbiana de oleaginosas, utilizadas na alimentação de ovinos=Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein, and microbial colonization time of oil grains in sheep feeding.

    OpenAIRE

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira; Danielly de Faria Pereira; Katherini Aline Guimarães Nogueira; Kennyson Alves de Souza; Rafael Henrique de Tonissi e Buschinelli de Goes; Kelly Cristina da Silva Brabes

    2011-01-01

    Avaliou-se a degradabilidade in situ, dos grãos de linhaça, canola, colza e milho, caroço de algodão, e dos concentrados casca e farelo de soja, em ovinos. Foram utilizados três animais da raça Santa Inês, fistulados e providos de cânulas ruminais, mantidos em baias individuais, recebendo diariamente capim picado e ração concentrada. Os alimentos foram incubados em ordem decrescente de 72, 48, 24, 18, 6, 3 e 0h. O teor de proteína dos alimentos avaliados foram 34,77; 30,07; 23,70; 10,64; 26,1...