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Sample records for canola oil suppressed

  1. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) TAg mice offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA) has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet) or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet). After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1) TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group), offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group) had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity); the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor) and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor) was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter

  2. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1 TAg mice offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardman W Elaine

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female offspring. Methods Female SV 129 mice were divided into two groups and placed on diets containing either 10% w/w corn oil (which is 50% n-6 PUFA, control diet or 10% w/w canola oil (which is 20% n-6 PUFA, 10% n-3 PUFA, test diet. After two weeks on the diets the females were bred with homozygous C3(1 TAg transgenic mice. Mother mice consumed the assigned diet throughout gestation and nursing of the offspring. After weaning, all female offspring were maintained on the control diet. Results Compared to offspring of mothers fed the corn oil diet (CO/CO group, offspring of mothers fed the canola oil diet (CA/CO group had significantly fewer mammary glands with tumors throughout the experiment. At 130 days of age, the CA/CO group had significantly fewer tumors per mouse (multiplicity; the tumor incidence (fraction of mice with any tumor and the total tumor weight (per mouse that developed tumor was less than one half that of the CO/CO group. At 170 days of age, the total tumor weight per mouse was significantly less in the CA/CO group and if a tumor developed the rate of tumor growth rate was half that of CO/CO group. These results indicate that maternal consumption of canola oil was associated with delayed appearance of mammary gland tumors and slowed growth of the tumors that developed. Conclusions Substituting canola oil for corn oil is an easy dietary change for people to make; such a change to the maternal diet may decrease risk for breast cancer in the daughter.

  3. Maternal consumption of canola oil suppressed mammary gland tumorigenesis in C3(1) TAg mice offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Hardman W Elaine; Akinsete Juliana A; Ion Gabriela

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Maternal consumption of a diet high in omega 6 polyunsaturated fats (n-6 PUFA) has been shown to increase risk whereas a diet high in omega 3 polyunsaturated fats (n-3 PUFA) from fish oil has been shown to decrease risk for mammary gland cancer in female offspring of rats. The aim of this study was to determine whether increasing n-3 PUFA and reducing n-6 PUFA by using canola oil instead of corn oil in the maternal diet might reduce the risk for breast cancer in female off...

  4. Antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid in canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Wenhui; Liang, Yintong; Ma, Ka Ying; Chung, Hau Yin; Chen, Zhen-Yu

    2012-06-20

    Interest in replacing synthetic antioxidants, namely, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), with natural antioxidants is increasing. The present study examined the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid from chili pepper in heated canola oil. The oxidation was conducted at 60, 90, 120, and 180 °C by monitoring oxygen consumption and the decrease in linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid in canola oil. At 60 °C, capsaicinoid was more effective against oxidation of canola oil compared with BHT. At higher temperatures of 90, 120, and 180 °C, capsaicinoid possessed an antioxidant activity similar to or slightly weaker that that of BHT. It was found that capsaicinoid prevented canola oil from oxidation in a dose-dependent manner. To study the structure-antioxidant relationship, it was found that the trimethylsiloxy (TMS) derivatives of capsaicinoid did not exhibit any antioxidant activity, suggesting the hydroxyl moiety was the functional group responsible for the antioxidant activity of capsaicinoid. It was concluded that capsaicinoid had the potential to be further explored as a natural antioxidant in foods, particularly spicy foods. PMID:22642555

  5. Preparation and properties evaluation of biolubricants derived from canola oil and canola biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajesh V; Somidi, Asish K R; Dalai, Ajay K

    2015-04-01

    This study demonstrates the evaluation and comparison of the lubricity properties of the biolubricants prepared from the feed stocks such as canola oil and canola biodiesel. Biolubricant from canola biodiesel has a low cloud and pour point properties, better friction and antiwear properties, low phase transition temperature, is less viscous, and has the potential to substitute petroleum-based automotive lubricants. Biolubricant from canola oil has high thermal stability and is more viscous and more effective at higher temperature conditions. This study elucidates that both the biolubricants are attractive, renewable, and ecofriendly substitutes for the petroleum-based lubricants. PMID:25773747

  6. Effects of canola and corn oil mimetic on Jurkat cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinsete Juliana A

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Western diet is high in omega-6 fatty acids and low in omega-3 fatty acids. Canola oil contains a healthier omega 3 to omega 6 ratio than corn oil. Jurkat T leukemia cells were treated with free fatty acids mixtures in ratios mimicking that found in commercially available canola oil (7% α-linolenic, 30% linoleic, 54% oleic or corn oil (59% linoleic, 24% oleic to determine the cell survival or cell death and changes in expression levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors following oil treatment. Methods Fatty acid uptake was assessed by gas chromatography. Cell survival and cell death were evaluated by cell cycle analyses, propidium-iodide staining, trypan blue exclusion and phosphatidylserine externalization. mRNA levels of inflammatory cytokines and receptors were assessed by RT-PCR. Results There was a significant difference in the lipid profiles of the cells after treatment. Differential action of the oils on inflammatory molecules, following treatment at non-cytotoxic levels, indicated that canola oil mimetic was anti-inflammatory whereas corn oil mimetic was pro-inflammatory. Significance These results indicate that use of canola oil in the diet instead of corn oil might be beneficial for diseases promoted by inflammation.

  7. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Thiyam, Usha

    2011-01-01

    Canola oil is low in saturated fat, high in monounsaturated fat and has a favourable omega-6:omega-3 ratio . Therefore, Canola oil has a healthier fatty acid profile compared to other plant oils such as soy oil. Therefore, canola oil is also an ingredient in many food products. However, the content of unsaturated lipid makes canola oil susceptible towards lipid oxidation. Many food products are lipid containing emulsions and a lot of efforts have been put into developing methods to protect th...

  8. Preparation and characterization of biodiesel produced from recycled canola oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, X.; Burton, R.; Austic, G. [Piedmont Biofuels Industrial, Pittsboro, NC (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The high cost of virgin vegetable oil means that many biodiesel products are not economically competitive. This paper evaluated the feasibility of using recycle canola oil to produce ASTM standard biodiesel. Experiments were conducted to test a 2-step reaction comprised of an acid-catalyzed esterification followed by an alkali-catalyzed transesterification process. The processes were used to reduce the high level of free fatty acids (FFA) in the recycled canola oil. Tests demonstrated that the produced biodiesel met ASTM standards in relation to kinematic viscosity at 40 degrees C; acid number; flash point; water and sediment; cold soak filtration tests; oxidation stability; and free and total glycerin. The glycerol byproducts produced during the process were also characterized. Results of the study indicated that the recycled canola oil can be used as a raw feedstock for biodiesel production. It was concluded that the purification and sale of the glycerol byproduct will increase the overall profitability of the biodiesel production process. 15 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Impact of Endogenous Phenolics in Canola Oil on the Oxidative Stability of Oil-in-Water Emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Moser, Jill;

    compounds. However, the effect of these endogenous antioxidants on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion is yet unknown. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the endogenous phenolics in Canola oil on lipid oxidation in o/w emulsion. For this purpose individual phenolics were extracted from...... defatted grinded canola seeds. Fractionated extracts of Sinapic acid, Sinapine and Canolol was used as well as a non fractionated extract. These extracts was added (100 and 350 μM) to 10% o/w emulsion with stripped canola oil in order to evaluate their effect on lipid oxidation in emulsions. For comparison......Canola oil is low in saturated fat, high in monounsaturated fat and has a favourable omega-6:omega-3 ratio . Therefore, Canola oil has a healthier fatty acid profile compared to other plant oils such as soy oil. Therefore, canola oil is also an ingredient in many food products. However, the content...

  10. Biodiesel from Canola Oil using a 1:1 Molar Mixture of Methanol and Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola oil was transesterified using an equimolar mixture of ethanol and methanol with potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst. Effect of catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1.5% wt/wt), molar ratio of equimolar mixture of ethanol and methanol (EMEM) to canola oil (3:1 to 12:1) and reaction temperature (25 t...

  11. Development of new high oil yield canola hybrid Huyou 039

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the oil content of rapeseed was an important way to breed new Canola varieties with high seed and high oil yield. Huyou 039 was developed by using high oil content variety (lines) Shan 048 and Huyou 16 as parents, through breeding methods of composite hybridization between varieties and radiation mutagenesis. It was examined and approved by the Shanghai Crops Variety Approval Committee in 2012. The oil yield of this variety reached 1407.63 kg/hm2 in the regional test of Shanghai for two year average. It was increased by 15.86% compared with the control. The oil yield of this variety reached 1198.65 kg/hm2 in the national regional test, which was 3.50% higher than the control. Huyou 039 had the similar resistance to diseases compared with the control, and the oil of this variety have excellent quality, which was suitable to extension and plant in the downstream area of Yangtze River. (authors)

  12. Biodiesel From Canola Oil Using a 1:1 Mole Mixture of Methanol and Ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canola oil was transesterified using a 1:1 mole mixture of methanol and ethanol (M/E) with potassium hydroxide (KOH) catalyst. Effect of catalyst concentration (0.5 to 1.5% wt/wt), mole ratio of M/E to canola oil (3:1 to 20:1) and reaction temperature (25 to 75°C) on the percentage yield measured af...

  13. Investigation of Biodiesel Production from Canola Oil Using Amberlyst-26 as a Catalyst

    OpenAIRE

    İLGEN, Oğuzhan; AKIN, Ayşe Nilgün; Boz, Nezahat

    2009-01-01

    The transesterification of canola oil to fatty acid methyl esters was studied using Amberlyst-26 as a solid catalyst. The influence of reaction conditions, such as the reaction time, methanol to oil molar ratio, amount of catalyst, effect of co-solvent, and alcohol and oil types, were determined. When the reaction was carried out at 45 °C with a canola oil to methanol molar ratio of 6:1, a reaction time of 1.5 h, and 3 wt.% of catalyst, oil conversion was about 67%. Methanol was muc...

  14. Some rape/canola seed oils: fatty acid composition and tocopherols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaus, Bertrand; Özcan, Mehmet Musa; Al Juhaimi, Fahad

    2016-03-01

    Seed samples of some rape and canola cultivars were analysed for oil content, fatty acid and tocopherol profiles. Gas liquid chromotography and high performance liquid chromotography were used for fatty acid and tocopherol analysis, respectively. The oil contents of rape and canola seeds varied between 30.6% and 48.3% of the dry weight (p<0.05). The oil contents of rapeseeds were found to be high compared with canola seed oils. The main fatty acids in the oils are oleic (56.80-64.92%), linoleic (17.11-20.92%) and palmitic (4.18-5.01%) acids. A few types of tocopherols were found in rape and canola oils in various amounts: α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-tocopherol and α-tocotrienol. The major tocopherol in the seed oils of rape and canola cultivars were α-tocopherol (13.22-40.01%) and γ-tocopherol (33.64-51.53%) accompanied by α-T3 (0.0-1.34%) and δ-tocopherol (0.25-1.86%) (p<0.05). As a result, the present study shows that oil, fatty acid and tocopherol contents differ significantly among the cultivars. PMID:27023318

  15. Exploration of process parameters for continuous hydrolysis of canola oil, camelina oil and algal oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-07-01

    Thermal hydrolysis of triglycerides to form free fatty acid (FFA) is a well-established industry practice. Recently, this process has been employed as a first step in the production of biofuels from lipids. To that end, batch and continuous hydrolysis of various feedstocks has been examined at the laboratory scale. Canola, the primary feedstock in this paper, camelina and algal oils were converted to high quality FFA. For the different reaction temperatures, the continuous hydrolysis system was found to provide better yields than the laboratory batch system. In addition, CFD simulation with ANSYS-CFX was used to model the performance and reactant/product separation in the continuous, counter-flow reactor. The effects of reaction temperature, water-to-oil ratio (ratio of water and oil volumetric inflow rate), and preheating of the reactants were examined experimentally. Optimization of these parameters has resulted in an improved, continuous process with high mass yields (89-93%, for reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1) and energy efficiency (76%, for reactor temperature of 250°C and water-to-oil ratio of 2:1). Based on the product quality and energy efficiency considerations, the reactor temperature of 260°C and water-to-oil ratio of 4:1 have provided the optimal condition for the lab scale continuous hydrolysis reaction. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Influence of Blending Canola, Palm, Soybean, and Sunflower Oil Methyl Esters on Fuel Properties of Bioiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Single, binary, ternary, and quaternary mixtures of canola (low erucic acid rapeseed), palm, soybean, and sunflower (high oleic acid) oil methyl esters (CME, PME, SME, and SFME, respectively) were prepared and important fuel properties measured, such as oil stability index (OSI), cold filter pluggin...

  17. Methane emissions from beef cattle: effects of fumaric acid, essential oil, and canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchemin, K A; McGinn, S M

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to identify feed additives that reduce enteric methane emissions from cattle. We measured methane emissions, total tract digestibility (using chromic oxide), and ruminal fermentation (4 h after feeding) in growing beef cattle fed a diet supplemented with various additives. The experiment was designed as a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square with 21-d periods and was conducted using 16 Angus heifers (initial BW of 260 +/- 32 kg). Treatments were: control (no additive), fumaric acid (175 g/d) with sodium bicarbonate (75 g/d), essential oil and spice extract (1 g/d), or canola oil (4.6% of DMI). The basal diet consisted of 75% whole-crop barley silage, 19% steam-rolled barley, and 6% supplement (DM basis). Four large chambers (2 animals fed the same diet per chamber) were equipped to measure methane emissions for 3 d each period. Adding canola oil to the diet decreased (P = 0.009) total daily methane emissions by 32% and tended (P = 0.09) to decrease methane emissions as a percentage of gross energy intake by 21%. However, much of the reduction in methane emissions was due to decreased (P methane emissions. In contrast, adding fumaric acid to the diet increased total VFA concentration (P = 0.03), increased propionate proportions (P = 0.01), and decreased the acetate:propionate ratio (P = 0.002), but there was no measurable effect on methane emissions. The study demonstrates that canola oil can be used to reduce methane losses from cattle, but animal performance may be compromised due to lower feed intake and decreased fiber digestibility. Essential oils had no effect on methane emissions, whereas fumaric acid caused potentially beneficial changes in ruminal fermentation but no measurable reductions in methane emissions. PMID:16699105

  18. EFFECT OF FEEDING CANOLA AND SOYBEAN OILS ON SERUM LIPID PROFILE IN COMMERCIAL LAYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakoor. H. I., M. L. Khan, Z. Nasir, N. Mukhtar and M. S. Rehman

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of canola oil and soybean oil on production performance and serum lipid profile in layers. In this study 15 experimental units (8 layers per experimental unit were randomly allotted to 5 different dietary treatments viz control (A. containing 2.5 % canola oil (B, 5% canola oil (C, 2.5% soybean oil (D and 5% soybean oil (E for a period of 9 weeks. Effects of five treatments on production parameters including egg production, egg quality, weight gain and serum lipid profile, serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein were monitored. Serum lipid profile was determined 0.31 and 63 days from start of experiment. Significantly (P<0.05 less serum cholesterol was found in treatment C (295.1 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (321 mg/dl. Low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL was significantly (P<0.01 , less in treatment C ( 131.7 mg/dl as compared with treatment A. ( 161 mg/dl and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL was significantly (P<0.01 high in treatment C (31.76 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (25.42 mg/dl and triglyceride (TG was found significantly (P<0.01 less in treatment E ( 907.3 mg/dl as compared with treatment A (960 mg/dl. The results suggested that as the percentage of oils increased in the diet, serum lipid profile showed a positive trend.

  19. Microencapsulation of canola oil by lentil protein isolate-based wall materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C; Varankovich, N; Nickerson, M T

    2016-12-01

    The overall goal was to encapsulate canola oil using a mixture of lentil protein isolate and maltodextrin with/without lecithin and/or sodium alginate by spray drying. Initially, emulsion and microcapsule properties as a function of oil (20%-30%), protein (2%-8%) and maltodextrin concentration (9.5%-18%) were characterized by emulsion stability, droplet size, viscosity, surface oil and entrapment efficiency. Microcapsules with 20% oil, 2% protein and 18% maltodextrin were shown to have the highest entrapment efficiency, and selected for further re-design using different preparation conditions and wall ingredients (lentil protein isolate, maltodextrin, lecithin and/or sodium alginate). The combination of the lentil protein, maltodextrin and sodium alginate represented the best wall material to produce microcapsules with the highest entrapment efficiency (∼88%). The lentil protein-maltodextrin-alginate microcapsules showed better oxidative stability and had a stronger wall structure than the lentil protein-maltodextrin microcapsules. PMID:27374532

  20. Effect of Packaging Films on the Quality of Canola Oil under Photooxidation Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Sun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of packaging films on the quality of canola oil which contains high concentration of fat under photooxidation condition and get the oxidation kinetics based on measuring the oxidation intensities including peroxide value, hexanal, and photosensitizer (chlorophyll. The canola oil was packaged by PET/CPP; KPET/PE was used for experiments. The change of light and oxygen transmission rate (OTR of PET/CPP which was considered as the typical fatty foods packaging film under different light intensities was also tested. The results show that the peroxide value increased rapidly under light conditions and fitted the zero order kinetics; also the oxygen transmission rate had great impact on it; hexanal fitted the zero order kinetic in oil whose package of low OTR generated a lot; however package in high OTR films changed very slowly that might be dependent on the performance of hexanal through plastic films. The degradation of chlorophyll fitted the first order kinetic and decreased quickly under light but was almost independent of OTR of transparent packaging material. Light reduced the oxygen barrier properties of the films, which should be considered as the photooxidation condition (and the photooxidation condition thus should be considered.

  1. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.M. Mobarak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, improvement in engine performance and transmission components, which were impossible to achieve by applying only lubricants design, is now possible through diamond like carbon (DLC coatings. DLC coatings exhibit brilliant tribological properties, such as good wear resistance and low friction. In this regard, tribological performance of a-C: H DLC coating when lubricated with Canola vegetal oil has been investigated by the help of a ball-on-flat geometry. Experimental results demonstrated that the a-C: H DLC coating exhibited better performance with Canola oil in terms of friction and wear as compared to the uncoated materials. Large amount of polar components in the Canola oil significantly improved the tribological properties of the a-C:H coating. Thus, usage of a-C: H DLC coating with Canola oil in the long run may have a positive impact on engine life.

  2. Effect of canola oil emulsion injection on processing characteristics and consumer acceptability of three muscles from mature beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrasik, Z; Wang, H; Janz, J A M

    2013-02-01

    The study was undertaken to investigate the impact of the combined effect of blade tenderization and canola oil emulsion injection on processing yield and eating quality-related parameters of selected loin and hip muscles (longissimus lumborum, LL, biceps femoris, BF and semimembranosus, SM) from over thirty month (OTM) cattle. Canola oil emulsion injection significantly reduced shear force, increased sensory scores for juiciness and tenderness, and made connective tissue less perceptible. Targeted levels of omega-3 fatty acids can be achieved by the inclusion of canola oil containing marinades/emulsions at levels sufficient to retain omega-3 fatty acids in cooked product. All consumer acceptability attributes of OTM muscles were improved with the use of canola oil emulsion injection treatments without compromising colour although slightly decreasing oxidative stability of BF muscle. Injection of omega-3 oil emulsions in combination with blade tenderization can be effectively utilized to enrich injected products in essential fatty acids and enhance eating quality of OTM beef. PMID:23089241

  3. A simplified FTIR chemometric method for simultaneous determination of four oxidation parameters of frying canola oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talpur, M Younis; Hassan, S Sara; Sherazi, S T H; Mahesar, S A; Kara, Huseyin; Kandhro, Aftab A; Sirajuddin

    2015-10-01

    Transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method using 100 μm KCl cell was applied for the determination of total polar compounds (TPC), carbonyl value (CV), conjugated diene (CD) and conjugated triene (CT) in canola oil (CLO) during potato chips frying at 180 °C. The calibration models were developed for TPC, CV, CD and CT using partial least square (PLS) chemometric technique. Excellent regression coefficients (R(2)) and root mean square error of prediction values for TPC, CV, CD and CT were found to be 0.999, 0.992, 0.998 and 0.999 and 0.809, 0.690, 1.26 and 0.735, respectively. The developed calibration models were applied on samples of canola oil drawn during potato chips frying process. A linear relationship was obtained between CD and TPC with a good correlation of coefficient (R(2)=0.9816). Results of the study clearly indicated that transmission FTIR-PLS method could be used for quick and precise evaluation of oxidative changes during the frying process without using any organic solvent. PMID:25985130

  4. LIQUID-LIQUID EQUILIBRIUM FOR TERNARY SYSTEMS CONTAINING ETHYLIC BIODIESEL + ANHYDROUS ETHANOL + REFINED VEGETABLE OIL (SUNFLOWER OIL, CANOLA OIL AND PALM OIL: EXPERIMENTAL DATA AND THERMODYNAMIC MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. P. V. B. Dias

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractPhase equilibria of the reaction components are essential data for the design and process operations of biodiesel production. Despite their importance for the production of ethylic biodiesel, the reaction mixture, reactant (oil and ethanol and the product (fatty acid ethyl esters up to now have received less attention than the corresponding systems formed during the separation and purification phases of biodiesel production using ethanol. In this work, new experimental measurements were performed for the liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE of the system containing vegetable oil (sunflower oil and canola oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined vegetable oil + anhydrous ethanol at 303.15 and at 323.15 K and the system containing refined palm oil + ethylic biodiesel of refined palm oil + ethanol at 318.15 K. The experimental data were successfully correlated by the nonrandom two-liquid (NRTL model; the average deviations between calculated and experimental data were smaller than 1.00%.

  5. Kinetic Modeling of Glycerolysis – Hydrolysis of Canola Oil in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Media Using Equilibrium Data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moquin, P.H.L.; Temelli, F.; Sovová, Helena; Saldana, M.D.A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2006), s. 417-424. ISSN 0896-8446. [International Symposium on Supercritical Fluids. Orlando, 01.05.2005-04.05.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : canola oil * glycrolysis * kinetics Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 2.037, year: 2006

  6. Effects of Replacing Pork Back Fat with Canola and Flaxseed Oils on Physicochemical Properties of Emulsion Sausages from Spent Layer Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Ki Ho; Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; An, Byoung Ki; Lee, Sung Ki

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of canola and flaxseed oils on the physicochemical properties and sensory quality of emulsion-type sausage made from spent layer meat. Three types of sausage were manufactured with different fat sources: 20% pork back fat (CON), 20% canola oil (CA) and 20% flaxseed oil (FL). The pH value of the CA was significantly higher than the others (psausages significantly increased the omega-3 fatty acid content (psausages containing vegetable oil exhibited significantly lower values for saturated fatty acid content and the omega-6 to omega-3 ratios compared to CON (p<0.05). The results show that using canola or flaxseed oils as a pork fat replacer has a high potential to produce healthier products, and notably, the use of canola oil produced characteristics of great emulsion stability and sensory quality. PMID:27004822

  7. Canola engineered with a microalgal polyketide synthase-like system produces oil enriched in docosahexaenoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Terence A; Bevan, Scott A; Gachotte, Daniel J; Larsen, Cory M; Moskal, William A; Merlo, P A Owens; Sidorenko, Lyudmila V; Hampton, Ronnie E; Stoltz, Virginia; Pareddy, Dayakar; Anthony, Geny I; Bhaskar, Pudota B; Marri, Pradeep R; Clark, Lauren M; Chen, Wei; Adu-Peasah, Patrick S; Wensing, Steven T; Zirkle, Ross; Metz, James G

    2016-08-01

    Dietary omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5) are usually derived from marine fish. Although production of both EPA and DHA has been engineered into land plants, including Arabidopsis, Camelina sativa and Brassica juncea, neither has been produced in commercially relevant amounts in a widely grown crop. We report expression of a microalgal polyketide synthase-like PUFA synthase system, comprising three multidomain polypeptides and an accessory enzyme, in canola (Brassica napus) seeds. This transgenic enzyme system is expressed in the cytoplasm, and synthesizes DHA and EPA de novo from malonyl-CoA without substantially altering plastidial fatty acid production. Furthermore, there is no significant impact of DHA and EPA production on seed yield in either the greenhouse or the field. Canola oil processed from field-grown grain contains 3.7% DHA and 0.7% EPA, and can provide more than 600 mg of omega-3 LC-PUFAs in a 14 g serving. PMID:27398790

  8. Lipase immobilization and production of fatty acid methyl esters from canola oil using immobilized lipase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipase enzyme from Aspergillus oryzae (EC 3.1.1.3) was immobilized onto a micro porous polymeric matrix which contains aldehyde functional groups and methyl esters of long chain fatty acids (biodiesel) were synthesized by transesterification of crude canola oil using immobilized lipase. Micro porous polymeric matrix was synthesized from styrene-divinylbenzene (STY-DVB) copolymers by using high internal phase emulsion technique and two different lipases, Lipozyme TL-100L® and Novozym 388®, were used for immobilization by both physical adsorption and covalent attachment. Biodiesel production was carried out with semi-continuous operation. Methanol was added into the reactor by three successive additions of 1:4 M equivalent of methanol to avoid enzyme inhibition. The transesterification reaction conditions were as follows: oil/alcohol molar ratio 1:4; temperature 40 oC and total reaction time 6 h. Lipozyme TL-100L® lipase provided the highest yield of fatty acid methyl esters as 92%. Operational stability was determined with immobilized lipase and it indicated that a small enzyme deactivation occurred after used repeatedly for 10 consecutive batches with each of 24 h. Since the process is yet effective and enzyme does not leak out from the polymer, the method can be proposed for industrial applications. -- Research highlights: → Lipozyme TL-100L and Novozym 388 were immobilized onto micro porous polymeric matrix by both physical adsorption and covalent linking. → Immobilized enzymes were used for synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters by transesterification of canola oil and methanol using semi-continuous operation system. → According to chromatographic analysis, Lipase Lipozyme TL-100L resulted in the highest yield of methyl ester as 92%.

  9. Product sampling during transient continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil and development of a kinetic model

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2013-11-01

    A chemical kinetic model has been developed for the transient stage of the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of triglycerides to free fatty acids and glycerol. Departure functions and group contribution methods were applied to determine the equilibrium constants of the four reversible reactions in the kinetic model. Continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil in subcritical water was conducted experimentally in a lab-scale reactor over a range of temperatures and the concentrations of all neutral components were quantified. Several of the rate constants in the model were obtained by modeling this experimental data, with the remaining determined from calculated equilibrium constants. Some reactions not included in the present, or previous, hydrolysis modeling efforts were identified from glycerolysis kinetic studies and may explain the slight discrepancy between model and experiment. The rate constants determined in this paper indicate that diglycerides in the feedstock accelerate the transition from "emulsive hydrolysis" to "rapid hydrolysis". © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Mathematical modeling of supercritical fluid extraction of oil from canola and sesame seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Honarvar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling of supercritical fluid extraction of oil from canola and sesame seeds with a two-phase model was performed in this work. A model based on differential mass balance was used to correlate the experimental data. Different adsorption isotherm models (Henry, Freundlich and Brunauer, Emmet and Teller (BET were used to describe the equilibrium state. Three model parameters such as effective diffusivity (Deff, mass transfer coefficient (Kf and axial dispersion coefficient (Dax of the bed were used as fitting parameters. The experimental data for yields were obtained at pressures of 10-20 MPa, temperatures of 313-333 K and solvent flow rates of 2-4 g/min. From the results, a nonlinear adsorption isotherm exhibited better agreement with experimental data of yield than a linear model in the range of studied conditions.

  11. Effects of Dietary Cottonseed and/or Canola Oil Inclusion on the Growth Performance, FA Composition and Organ Histology of the Juvenile Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, Mustafa; Eroldoğan, O. Tufan; Engin, Kenan; GÜLÇUBUK, Ahmet; Baltacı, M. Ali

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed at demonstrating the effects of total and 50% dietary fish oil replacement by cotton seed and canola oils and a mixture of these vegetable oils (VOs) on growth, tissue fatty acid composition and histology of digestive organs in the juvenile rainbow trout for 84 days. Five iso-nitrogenous and lipidic diets were formulated to replace dietary fish oil (FO) totally by cotton seed oil (CSO), canola oil (CO) and an equal or 50% FO/ 50% VO mixture. Duplicate groups of 50 fish (~15 g...

  12. Wheat bran extracts: a potent source of natural antioxidants for the stabilization of canola oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Chatha, Shahzad Ali

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the antioxidant activity of different solvent extracts of wheat (var. Inqalab 91 bran was evaluated following different antioxidant assays using canola oil as the oxidation substrate. The bran samples were extracted with 80% and 100% methanol and acetone. A preliminary assessment of the antioxidant activity of the 80 and 100% acetone and methanolic extracts of wheat bran was done by the measurement of % inhibition of peroxidation in a linoleic acid system, total phenolic contents (TPC and bleachability of β-carotene in the linoleic acid system. Additionally, the canola oil samples were stabilized with crude concentrated extracts and subjected to ambient aging (6 months. The extent of oxidative deterioration was followed by the measurement of peroxide-, p-anisidine-, conjugated dienes-, and trienes- values. The results of ambient stored samples revealed a significant improvement in these oxidation parameters. The overall order of antioxidant activity of the extracts as determined by various antioxidant assays was determined to be; 80% methanolic extract > 100% methanolic extract > 80% acetone extracts . 100% acetone extract. The results of the present comprehensive analysis demonstrate that extracts of the wheat bran indigenous to Pakistan are a viable source of natural antioxidants and might be exploited for commercial and neutraceutical applications.

    En el presente trabajo la actividad antioxidante de diferentes extractos obtenidos con disolventes del salvado de trigo (var. Inqalab 91 fue evaluada mediante diferentes ensayos antioxidantes y aceite de canola como substrato de oxidación. Las muestras de salvado fueron extraídas con metanol y acetona al 80% y al 100%. La evaluación preliminar de la actividad antioxidante de los extractos de metanol y de acetona al 80% y 100% fue hecha mediante la medida del % de inhibición de la peroxidación en un sistema con ácido linoleico, el contenido total de fenoles

  13. Economics of small-scale on-farm use of canola and soybean for biodiesel and straight vegetable oil biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the cost competitiveness of vegetable oil-based biofuels (VOBB) has impeded extensive commercialization on a large-scale, the economic viability of small-scale on-farm production of VOBB is unclear. This study assessed the cost competitiveness of small-scale on-farm production of canola- [Brassica napus (L.)] and soybean-based [Glycine max (L.)] biodiesel and straight vegetable oil (SVO) biofuels in the upper Midwest at 2007 price levels. The effects of feedstock type, feedstock valuation (cost of production or market price), biofuel type, and capitalization level on the cost L-1 of biofuel were examined. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, the cost of canola-based biodiesel ranged from 0.94 to 1.13 L-1 and SVO from 0.64 to 0.83 L-1 depending on capitalization level. Comparatively, the cost of soybean-based biodiesel and SVO ranged from 0.40 to 0.60 L-1 and from 0.14 to 0.33 L-1, respectively, depending on capitalization level. Valuing feedstock at the cost of production, soybean biofuels were cost competitive whereas canola biofuels were not. Valuing feedstock at its market price, canola biofuels were more cost competitive than soybean-based biofuels, though neither were cost competitive with petroleum diesel. Feedstock type proved important in terms of the meal co-product credit, which decreased the cost of biodiesel by 1.39 L-1 for soybean and 0.44 L-1 for canola. SVO was less costly to produce than biodiesel due to reduced input costs. At a small scale, capital expenditures have a substantial impact on the cost of biofuel, ranging from 0.03 to 0.25 L-1. (author)

  14. Effect of consuming novel foods consisting high oleic canola oil, barley β-glucan, and DHA on cardiovascular disease risk in humans: the CONFIDENCE (Canola Oil and Fibre with DHA Enhanced) study – protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ramprasath, Vanu R; Thandapilly, Sijo J.; Yang, Shuo; Abraham, Anjalika; Jones, Peter J.H.; Ames, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been identified as a major contributor to the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Current recommendations for dietary management of people with MetS involve quantitative and qualitative modifications of food intake, such as high consumption of vegetables, fruits, and whole grain foods. The results from our previous human trials revealed the potential of the dietary components high-oleic acid canola oil (HOCO)-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and hig...

  15. Impact of endogenous canola phenolics on the oxidative stability of oil-in-water emulsions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidative effect of phenolics naturally present in canola seeds and meal. Individual phenolics were extracted from ground, defatted canola seeds and meal. Fractionated extracts rich in sinapic acid, sinapine or canolol as well as a non-fractionated ext...

  16. Intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of sheep fed diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle de Oliveira Maia

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective in this experiment was to determine the effects of feeding diets with canola, sunflower or castor oils on intake, nutrient apparent digestibility and ruminal constituents of crossbred Dorper × Santa Inês sheep. Four rumen-cannulated animals of 90.2±11.4 kg average body weight were assigned to a 4 × 4 latin square. Animals remained individually in cages for the metabolism assay and were fed diets containing roughage at 500 g/kg and concentrate based on ground corn and soybean meal also at 500 g/kg. No oil was added to the control diet, whereas the others had canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg (DM basis. There was no difference for the intake of DM and nutrients, except for ether extract, which was greater when animals received oil. The digestibility coefficients of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, non-fiber carbohydrates and neutral detergent fiber were not changed; however, the addition of oil increased the ether extract digestibility. The values of total digestible nutrients (TDN, g/kg of DM, digestible energy (DE, Mcal/kg of DM, TDN intake and DE intake also did not change with the addition of lipids. Concerning the ruminal constituents, the addition of vegetable oils reduced the concentrations of acetate, butyrate and total short-chain fatty acids. Adding canola, sunflower or castor oils at 30 g/kg in diets with 500 g roughage/kg and 500 g concentrate/kg does not impair the intake or digestibility of nutrients in sheep, although it reduces the concentration of short-chain fatty acids in the rumen.

  17. Carcass traits, meat yield and fatty acid composition of adipose tissues and Supraspinatus muscle in goats fed blend of canola oil and palm oil

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, K.D.; Ebrahimi, M; Samsudin, A. A.; Sabow, A. B.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary fats can alter the deposition and distribution of body fats in ruminants. The deposition and distribution of body fat play a vital role in the quality of ruminant carcasses and are of great commercial value since they influence the profitability and consumer acceptability of ruminant meat. The current study examined the effects of dietary blend of 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil (BCPO) on carcass characteristics, meat yield and accretion of fatty acid (FA) in subcutaneous...

  18. Effect of microwave heating on the quality characteristics of canola oil in presence of palm olein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abbas Ali

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Microwave heating is one of the most attractive cooking methods for food preparation, com­monly employed in households and especially in restaurants for its high speed and convenience. The chemical constituents of oils that degrade during microwave heating do so at rates that vary with heating temperature and time in a similar manner to other type of processing methods. The rate of quality characteristics of the oil depends on the fatty acid composition and the minor components during heating. Addition of oxidative- stable palm olein (PO to heat sensitive canola oil (CO, may affect the quality characteristics of CO during microwave heating. The aim of this study was to evaluate how heat treatments by microwave oven affect the quality of CO in presence of PO. Material and methods. The blend was prepared in the volume ratio of 40:60 (PO:CO, PC. Microwave heating test was performed for different periods (2, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 min at medium power setting for the samples of CO and PC. The changes in quality characteristics of the samples during heating were determined by analytical and instrumental methods. Results. In this study, refractive index, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX value, specific extinction, viscosity, polymer content, polar compounds and food oil sensor value of the oils all increased, whereas iodine value and C18.2 /C60 ratio decreased as microwave heating progressed. Based on the most oxidative stability criteria, PO addition led to a slower deterioration of CO at heating temperatures. The effect of microwave heating on the fatty acid composition of the samples was not remarkable. PO addi­tion decelerated the formation of primary and secondary oxidation products in CO. However, effect of adding PO to CO on the formation of free fatty acids and polymers during microwave treatment was not significant (P < 0.05. No significant difference in food oil sensor value was detected between CO

  19. A rapid method for the simultaneous quantification of the major tocopherols, carotenoids, free and esterified sterols in canola (Brassica napus) oil using normal phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flakelar, Clare L; Prenzler, Paul D; Luckett, David J; Howitt, Julia A; Doran, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    A normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed to simultaneously quantify several prominent bioactive compounds in canola oil vis. α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, δ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lutein, β-sitosterol, campesterol and brassicasterol. The use of sequential diode array detection (DAD) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) allowed direct injection of oils, diluted in hexane without derivatisation or saponification, greatly reducing sample preparation time, and permitting the quantification of both free sterols and intact sterol esters. Further advantages over existing methods included increased analytical selectivity, and a chromatographic run time substantially less than other reported normal phase methods. The HPLC-DAD-MS/MS method was applied to freshly extracted canola oil samples as well as commercially available canola, palm fruit, sunflower and olive oils. PMID:27507459

  20. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid to produce medium-, long- and medium-chain-type structured lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yingyao; Xia, Luan; Xu, Xuebing; Xie, Liang; Duan, Zhangqun

    2012-01-01

    Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of canola oil with caprylic acid was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) containing medium-chain fatty acid (M) at position sn-1,3 and long-chain fatty acid (L) at the sn-2 position in a solvent-free system. Six commercial lipases from different sources were...... screened for their ability to incorporate caprylic acid into the canola oil. The sn-1,3 regiospecificity toward the glycerol backbone of canola oil of the lipases with relatively higher acidolysis activity was compared by investigating the fatty acid profiles of the products. The results showed that...... when reactions were carried with 10% lipase of the total weight of substrates with a 1:4 mole ratio of oil and caprylic acid. The optimal time course and temperature for synthesis SLs were 15 h and 50–60 °C. Possible triacylglycerol species and physical properties of the SLs product obtained at...

  1. Optimization of the canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions stabilized by food grade mixed surfactants using response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmood, Tahir

    2015-09-15

    The objective of the present study was to prepare canola oil based vitamin E nanoemulsions by using food grade mixed surfactants (Tween:80 and lecithin; 3:1) to replace some concentration of nonionic surfactants (Tween 80) with natural surfactant (soya lecithin) and to optimize their preparation conditions. RBD (Refined, Bleached and Deodorized) canola oil and vitamin E acetate were used in water/vitamin E/oil/surfactant system due to their nutritional benefits and oxidative stability, respectively. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the preparation conditions. The effects of homogenization pressure (75-155MPa), oil concentrations (4-12% w/w), surfactant concentrations (3-11% w/w) and vitamin E acetate contents (0.4-1.2% w/w) on the particle size and emulsion stability were studied. RSM analysis has shown that the experimental data could be fitted well into second-order polynomial model with the coefficient of determinations of 0.9464 and 0.9278 for particle size and emulsion stability, respectively. The optimum values of independent variables were 135MPa homogenization pressure, 6.18% oil contents, 6.39% surfactant concentration and 1% vitamin E acetate concentration. The optimized response values for particle size and emulsion stability were 150.10nm and 0.338, respectively. Whereas, the experimental values for particle size and nanoemulsion stability were 156.13±2.3nm and 0.328±0.015, respectively. PMID:25863602

  2. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional com cinco repetições e oito aves por unidade experimental. Os níveis de óleo de soja e de canola não alteraram o consumo de ração, os pesos dos ovos, de albúmen, de gema e de casca, as porcentagens de albúmen, de gema e de casca e a gravidade específica dos ovos. Houve influência significativa da interação tipo × nível de óleo sobre a produção de ovos e a conversão por massa e por dúzia de ovos. Com o aumento do nível de óleo de soja, os resultados obtidos para estas variáveis melhoraram, entretanto, a conversão por massa de ovo piorou com o aumento dos níveis de óleo de canola. A adição de óleo de soja promoveu desempenho melhor que o obtido com óleo de canola.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of soybean and canola oil added in crescent levels on production performance indexes and internal and external egg quality of brown commercial layers of the strain Bovans Goldline during five periods of 28 days. Two hundred and eighty hens with 18 weeks old were distributed in a completely randomized design, with seven diets in a 2 × 3 + 1 factorial arrangement (oil type and oil level, and an additional control, with 5 replicates of 8 hens per experimental unit. The soybean and canola oil levels did not affect the feed consumption; egg, albumen, yolk and shell weights; albumen, yolk and shell percentages, neither the specific gravity. There was an interaction between type and oils levels on egg production and mass

  3. Production of biodiesel fuel from canola oil with dimethyl carbonate using an active sodium methoxide catalyst prepared by crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Takami; Mak, Goon Lum; Wada, Shohei; Nakazato, Tsutomu; Takanashi, Hirokazu; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2014-07-01

    In this study, a novel method for the production of biodiesel under mild conditions using fine particles of sodium methoxide formed in dimethyl carbonate (DMC) is proposed. Biodiesel is generally produced from vegetable oils by the transesterification of triglycerides with methanol. However, this reaction produces glycerol as a byproduct, and raw materials are not effectively utilized. Transesterification with DMC has recently been studied because glycerol is not formed in the process. Although solid-state sodium methoxide has been reported to be inactive for this reaction, the catalytic activity dramatically increased with the preparation of fine catalyst powders by crystallization. The transesterification of canola oil with DMC was studied using this catalyst for the preparation of biodiesel. A conversion greater than 96% was obtained at 65°C for 2h with a 3:1M ratio of DMC and oil and 2.0 wt% catalyst. PMID:24813567

  4. Production of glycerol-free biofuel from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate using triazabicyclodecene in homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mohammad Rafiqul

    Due to the increasing awareness of the dwindling fossil fuel resources and environmental issues, biofuel became an alternative renewable fuel to meet the steady increase of energy consumption and environmental demands. This work was designed to produce biofuel free from glycerol, soap, catalyst and wastes from canola oil and dimethyl carbonate (DMC) using an organocatalyst, triazabicyclodecene (TBD). To achieve these goals, several interconnected research activities were undertaken. First, a flow sheet was developed for the process and operating criteria were identified by laboratory experimentation verified with Aspen Plus. Mass and energy integration studies were performed to minimize the consumption of materials and energy utilities. Next, kinetics of canola oil transesterification using TBD as homogeneous catalyst in dimethyl carbonate has been investigated and a model was developed. Kinetics data were vital in process assessment and kinetics model was essential in the study of chemical reaction and catalyst development. Finally, a heterogeneous catalyst was developed for use as a biofuel catalyst through the immobilization of TBD into MgAl layered double hydroxides (LDHs) which can combine the advantages of homogeneous catalysis with the best properties of heterogeneous materials.

  5. Field evaluation of neem and canola oil for the selective control of the honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Acari: Varroidae) and Acarapis woodi (Acari: Tarsonemidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melathopoulos, A P; Winston, M L; Whittington, R; Higo, H; Le Doux, M

    2000-06-01

    Neem oil, neem extract (neem-aza), and canola oil were evaluated for the management of the honey bee mite parasites Varroa jacobsoni (Oudemans) and Acarapis woodi (Rennie) in field experiments. Spraying neem oil on bees was more effective at controlling V. jacobsoni than feeding oil in a sucrose-based matrix (patty), feeding neem-aza in syrup, or spraying canola oil. Neem oil sprays also protected susceptible bees from A. woodi infestation. Only neem oil provided V. jacobsoni control comparable to the known varroacide formic acid, but it was not as effective as the synthetic product Apistan (tau-fluvalinate). Neem oil was effective only when sprayed six times at 4-d intervals and not when applied three times at 8-d intervals. Neem oil spray treatments had no effect on adult honey bee populations, but treatments reduced the amount of sealed brood in colonies by 50% and caused queen loss at higher doses. Taken together, the results suggest that neem and canola oil show some promise for managing honey bee parasitic mites, but the negative effects of treatments to colonies and the lower efficacy against V. jacobsoni compared with synthetic acaricides may limit their usefulness to beekeepers. PMID:10902299

  6. Impact of Flax Seed and Canola Oils Mixture Supplementation on The Physiological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most important problems in the human health nutrition field is the use of food flavor. Monosodium glutamate is one of the main flavors used as an ingredient in various food products, however it produces physiological and biochemical changes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the supplementation of flax seed and canola oils mixture against the physiological and biochemical changes induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. In addition to analyses the physical and chemical characteristics of flax seed and canola oil and fatty acids composition by using gas liquid chromatography. The results concerning that unsaturated fatty acids of flax seed oil were oleic (18:1) 22%, linoleic acid (18:2) 30 % and linolenic acid (18:3) 36%. Total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in flaxseed oil was 88% and total saturated fatty acids 12%. The unsaturated fatty acids of canola oil were oleic (18:1) 66%, linoleic acid (18:2) 18% and linolenic acid (18:3) 7%, total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in canola oil was 92% and total saturated fatty acids was 8%. On the other hand, treatment of rats with monosodium glutamate for ten consecutive days led to a decrease in RBCs, Hb, Hct % and increased platelet count with decrease in WBCs and undesirable changes in its differential count. There is also, high significant increase in testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which is accompanied with significant reduction in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and serum testosterone level. These disturbances were associated with significant increase in the liver enzymes ALT,AST and ALP and increase in the level of total biluribin and glucose. Also, significant increase in urea, creatinine and uric acid were recorded. The supplementation with mixture of flax seed and canola oils mixture for one month after the injection of monosodium glutamate caused noticeable amelioration in the damage occurred as a result of this flavor. To

  7. Alimentação do jundiá com dietas contendo óleos de arroz, canola ou soja Feeding of jundiá with diets containing rice, canola or soybean oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Eliseu Losekann

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência de óleos vegetais no desenvolvimento corporal e composição do filé de jundiás. Foram testadas seis dietas (32%PB, sendo avaliados óleos de arroz, canola ou soja com 5 ou 10% de inclusão, durante 90 dias. Os peixes (180, peso inicial=71,0±0,8g foram distribuídos ao acaso em 18 caixas (280L de um sistema de recirculação de água, com temperatura controlada. Para avaliação de desempenho, estimaram-se variáveis como peso, comprimentos totais, padrão, altura caudal, sobrevivência, taxa de crescimento específico, fator de condição, consumo diário, conversão alimentar aparente e rendimento de partes comestíveis. Além disso, foram avaliadas a composição centesimal e taxas de deposição de proteína e gordura nos filés. Não houve diferenças entre os óleos e os níveis sobre o crescimento dos peixes; entretanto, os jundiás alimentados com 10% de óleo depositaram mais gordura no filé. Conclui-se que os óleos de canola, arroz e soja proporcionam bom crescimento e rendimento de partes comestíveis. As dietas contendo óleo de canola, com 5% de inclusão, possibilitam menor deposição de gordura no filé.The influence of vegetable oils in the body development of jundiá (Rhamdia quelen and its relationship with the flesh quality were evaluated in the present study. Six diets (32% of crude protein with rice, canola or soybean oil at 5 or 10% of inclusion were tested, for 90 days. The fishes (180, initial weight=71± 0.8g were randomly distributed in 18 boxes (280L in a water re-use system, with controlled temperature. The following parameters were considered for evaluation of fish performance: weight, total and standard length, survival, specific growth rate, condition factor, daily consumption, food conversion ratio, carcass and fillet yield, proximate composition and protein and fat deposition in the filets. There were no differences for the productive parameters among the

  8. Effect of soybean lecithin on iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of canola oil emulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jeesu; Oh, Boyoung; Choe, Eunok

    2014-11-01

    The effect of soybean lecithin addition on the iron-catalyzed or chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of emulsions consisting of purified canola oil and water (1:1, w/w) was studied based on headspace oxygen consumption using gas chromatography and hydroperoxide production using the ferric thiocyanate method. Addition levels of iron sulfate, chlorophyll, and soybean lecithin were 5, 4, and 350 mg/kg, respectively. Phospholipids (PLs) during oxidation of the emulsions were monitored by high performance liquid chromatography. Addition of soybean lecithin to the emulsions significantly reduced and decelerated iron-catalyzed oil oxidation by lowering headspace oxygen consumption and hydroperoxide production. However, soybean lecithin had no significant antioxidant effect on chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation of the emulsions. PLs in soybean lecithin added to the emulsions were degraded during both oxidation processes, although there was little change in PL composition. Among PLs in soybean lecithin, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylinositol were degraded the fastest in the iron-catalyzed and the chlorophyll-photosensitized oxidation, respectively. The results suggest that addition of soybean lecithin as an emulsifier can also improve the oxidative stability of oil in an emulsion. PMID:25312008

  9. Effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and nigella sativa (kalonji) on serum lipids in albino rats - an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare effects of canola oil supplemented with atherogenic element and Nigella sativa on serum lipids in albino rats. Place and Duration of Study: Study was conducted at Pathology Department of Postgraduate Medical Institute, for 12 weeks. Study Design: Laboratory based randomized controlled trials. Material and Methods: Seventy two albino rats were selected and randomly divided into six groups of twelve animals with equal number of male and female in each. Fourteen days after acclimatization to the environment and basal diet, fasting blood samples (zero week) were collected by heart puncture under ether anesthesia and experimental diets were started which were continued for 12 weeks. All parameters were measured using enzymatic colorimetric methods. Results: Estimations of serum lipids showed increase in total cholesterol (TC) and High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c) levels but fall in LDL-c concentrations in groups fed on canola oil diet. On the other hand, even atherogenic supplemented groups had decrease in cardio-protective HDL-c and raised LDL-c; although statistically non-significant. Thus canola oil diets were not hyperlipidaemic and prevented adiposity. Nigella sativa (NS) diets significantly decreased serum total cholesterol and LDL-c while HDL-c was raised but non-significantly. Thus Nigella sativa prevented deposition of lipids in tissues, thus preventing tendency to obesity and atherogenesis by decreasing LDL-c in serum. Conclusion: Nigella sativa produces antilipidaemic and anti-obesity effects by decreasing low density lipoprotein cholesterol level which is statistically significant in two out of the three groups fed on Ns; it also increased high density cholesterol which was however non-significant in comparison with Canola oil alone. (author)

  10. Plasma fatty acid changes following consumption of dietary oils containing n-3, n-6, and n-9 fatty acids at different proportions: preliminary findings of the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT)

    OpenAIRE

    Senanayake, Vijitha K; Pu, Shuaihua; Jenkins, David A.; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M.; West, Sheila G; Fleming, Jennifer A.; Liu, Xiaoran; McCrea, Cindy E; Jones, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT) was a randomized controlled crossover study designed to evaluate the effects of five diets that provided different oils and/or oil blends on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in individuals with abdominal obesity. The present objective is to report preliminary findings on plasma fatty acid profiles in volunteers with abdominal obesity, following the consumption of diets enriched with n-3, n-6 and n-9 fatty acids. Methods...

  11. Effects of Canola Oil Biodiesel Fuel Blends on Combustion, Performance, and Emissions Reduction in a Common Rail Diesel Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Ki Yoon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the effects of canola oil biodiesel (BD to improve combustion and exhaust emissions in a common rail direct injection (DI diesel engine using BD fuel blended with diesel. Experiments were conducted with BD blend amounts of 10%, 20%, and 30% on a volume basis under various engine speeds. As the BD blend ratio increased, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at the low engine speed of 1500 rpm, while they increased at the middle engine speed of 2500 rpm. The brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC increased at all engine speeds while the carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions were considerably reduced. On the other hand, the nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions only increased slightly. When increasing the BD blend ratio at an engine speed of 2000 rpm with exhaust gas recirculation (EGR rates of 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%, the combustion pressure and IMEP tended to decrease. The CO and PM emissions decreased in proportion to the BD blend ratio. Also, the NOx emissions decreased considerably as the EGR rate increased whereas the BD blend ratio only slightly influenced the NOx emissions.

  12. Polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs production by using canola oil as carbon source from bacteria isolated near paper pulp industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Younas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Samples were taken from paper pulp and mixed organic wastes of an industry for isolation of PHA producing bacterial strains. Quantitative analysis for PHA for bacterial strains was carried out by direct addition of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS method. High PHA production ability was found in six strains belonging to Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus and Escherichia genera. The PHA production optimization of these six stains was done at various (NH42SO4 concentrations (0.2 %, 0.4 %, and 0.6%, pH (5, 6, and 7 and temperatures (4oC, 37oC, 45oC. Strain WC20 belonging to Pseudomonas sp. was found to be a potential PHA producer at 37 oC, at 0.2 % of (NH42SO4, using glucose as carbon source (PHA % ~28.35 and Canola Oil (PHA % ~16.06. PCR amplification of the phaC gene was also performed.

  13. Physical properties of sequential interpenetrating polymer networks produced from canola oil-based polyurethane and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2008-05-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared using polyurethane (PUR) synthesized from canola oil-based polyol with terminal primary functional groups and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The properties of the material were evaluated by dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), as well as tensile properties measurements. The morphology of the IPNs was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and MDSC. A five-phase morphology, that is, sol phase, PUR-rich phase, PUR-rich interphase, PMMA-rich interphase, and PMMA-rich phase, was observed for all the IPNs by applying a new quantitative method based on the measurement of the differential of reversing heat capacity versus temperature from MDSC, although not confirmed by SEM, most likely due to resolution restrictions. NCO/OH molar ratios (cross-linking density) and compositional variations of PUR/PMMA both affected the thermal properties and phase behaviors of the IPNs. Higher degrees of mixing occurred for the IPN with higher NCO/OH molar ratio (2.0/1.0) at PUR concentration of 25 wt %, whereas for the IPN with lower NCO/OH molar ratio (1.6/1.0), higher degrees of mixing occurred at PUR concentration of 35 wt %. The mechanical properties of the IPNs were superior to those of the constituent polymers due to the finely divided rubber and plastic combination structures in these IPNs. PMID:18410139

  14. Influence of dietary canola oil and palm oil blend and refrigerated storage on fatty acids, myofibrillar proteins, chemical composition, antioxidant profile and quality attributes of semimembranosus muscle in goats

    OpenAIRE

    Adeyemi, Kazeem D.; Sabow, Azad B.; Shittu, Rafiat M.; Karim, Roselina; Awis Q. Sazili

    2015-01-01

    Background Improving the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat is essential due to the generally saturated nature of fatty acids in ruminant meat and the negative effects this can have on human health. Nonetheless, enhancing the unsaturated fatty acid content of ruminant meat can have adverse effects on the shelf life and quality attributes of the meat. This study assessed the effects of dietary 80 % canola oil and 20 % palm oil blend (CPOB) on fatty acid composition, antioxidants, ...

  15. Breeding of Zhongyouza 8, a Canola Variety with Large Seeds and High Oil Yield

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yun-chang; HU Qiong; MEI De-sheng; LI Ying-de; XU Yu-song

    2006-01-01

    High oil yield resulted from a combination of high grain yield and high oil content is a prerequisite for the high efficient oilseed rape production. By using irradiation induced mutation and sexual hybridization combined with paired test cross,the fertility, yield and oil content of the three lines of cytoplasmic male sterility have been improved and a new hybrid variety Zhongyouza 8 with high oil yield was developed. It has been testified that the yield of Zhongyouza 8 was significantly higher than that of the control variety Zhongyou 821 with 9.82 and 10.64% increase in the regional trials of Hubei Province and nationwide, respectively. The oil content and oil yield of Zhongyouza 8 were the highest among all the lines involved in Hubei provincial trials, being 42.77% and 1 051.05 kg ha-1 which was raised by 3% and 161.25 kg ha-1compared to the control Zhongyou 821, respectively. The genetic basis for the strong heterosis, and the factors contributing to the yield and oil content increase of Zhongyouza 8 as well as the strategy for high oil yielding variety improvement through increasing seed size were also discussed in this paper.

  16. Structure of the Canola and Biodiesel Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Mattson, Jeremy W.; Wilson, William W.; Duchsherer, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    The biodiesel industry in the United States has grown significantly in recent years. Production increased from 25 million gallons in 2004 to an estimated 250 million gallons in 2006, and many new plants are being built. Most biodiesel in the United States is produced from soybean oil, but canola offers characteristics which make it a favorable feedstock for biodiesel production. Characteristics of canola oil also make it an increasingly popular choice for human consumption. This study examine...

  17. Interactions between canola meal and flaxseed oil in the diets of White Lohmann hens on fatty acid profile and sensory characteristics of table eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Erin M; Ryland, Donna; Aliani, Michel; House, James D

    2016-08-01

    The current study was designed to assess the fatty acid composition and sensory attributes of eggs procured from hens consuming diets containing canola meal (CM) and/or flax oil (FO). A total of 96 group-caged White Lohmann hens received 1 of 4 isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets for a period of 4 weeks. Diets were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design, containing 24% canola meal, 7.5% flax oil, both, or neither (control). All yolk fatty acids were affected by flax oil inclusion, with the exception of stearic acid (SA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA). Only SA was affected by CM inclusion. Additionally, significant interactions between CM and FO were observed for linoleic acid (LA) and total omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), with DPA approaching significance (P = 0.069). Trained panelists (n = 8) evaluated 7 aroma ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'sweet', 'barny', and 'oceanic') and 6 flavor ('egg', 'creamy', 'buttery', 'salty', 'brothy', and 'oceanic') attributes of cooked egg product. No significant differences (P > 0.05) in aroma attributes were found between eggs from different dietary treatments. However, egg, creamy, buttery, and oceanic flavors were significantly different between the dietary treatments (P acid. This experiment provides evidence that the interaction between CM and FO in the White Lohmann hen diet results in sensory changes of cooked eggs associated in part with changes in yolk fatty acid content. PMID:27252370

  18. PALM AND PARTIALLY HYDROGENATED SOYBEAN OILS ADVERSELY ALTER LIPOPROTEIN PROFILES COMPARED WITH SOYBEAN AND CANOLA OILS IN MODERATELY HYPERLIPIDEMIC SUBJECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Partially-hydrogenated fat has an unfavorable effect on cardiovascular disease risk. Palm oil has reemerged as a potential substitute due to favorable physical characteristics. Objective: To assess the effect of palm oil relative to both partially-hydrogenated fat and oils high in mon...

  19. Effects of Pilot Injection Timing and EGR on Combustion, Performance and Exhaust Emissions in a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueled with a Canola Oil Biodiesel-Diesel Blend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cong Ge

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel as a clean energy source could reduce environmental pollution compared to fossil fuel, so it is becoming increasingly important. In this study, we investigated the effects of different pilot injection timings from before top dead center (BTDC and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR on combustion, engine performance, and exhaust emission characteristics in a common rail diesel engine fueled with canola oil biodiesel-diesel (BD blend. The pilot injection timing and EGR rate were changed at an engine speed of 2000 rpm fueled with BD20 (20 vol % canola oil and 80 vol % diesel fuel blend. As the injection timing advanced, the combustion pressure, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC, and peak combustion pressure (Pmax changed slightly. Carbon monoxide (CO and particulate matter (PM emissions clearly decreased at BTDC 20° compared with BTDC 5°, but nitrogen oxide (NOx emissions increased slightly. With an increasing EGR rate, the combustion pressure and indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP decreased slightly at BTDC 20° compared to other injection timings. However, the Pmax showed a remarkable decrease. The BSFC and PM emissions increased slightly, but the NOx emission decreased considerably.

  20. CFD simulation of transient stage of continuous countercurrent hydrolysis of canola oil

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Weicheng

    2012-08-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling of a continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process was performed using ANSYS-CFX. The liquid properties and flow behavior such as density, specific heats, dynamic viscosity, thermal conductivity, and thermal expansivity as well as water solubility of the hydrolysis components triglyceride, diglyceride, monoglyceride, free fatty acid, and glycerol were calculated. Chemical kinetics for the hydrolysis reactions were simulated in this model by applying Arrhenius parameters. The simulation was based on actual experimental reaction conditions including temperature and water-to-oil ratio. The results not only have good agreement with experimental data but also show instantaneous distributions of concentrations of every component in hydrolysis reaction. This model provided visible insight into the continuous countercurrent hydrolysis process. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Canola – Where to for WA Agriculture?

    OpenAIRE

    Pluske, Johanna M.; Lindner, Robert K.

    2001-01-01

    Canola may be marketed as oilseed, oil or meal. Supply and demand of each of the commodities is influenced by, physical factors associated with land and weather, substitute commodity competition, land-use competition, production indirectly associated with canola such as that within the livestock industry and the effects of technology and more specifically plant breeding. Furthermore, domestic agricultural and international trade policies, standard of living, and political stability of countri...

  2. Efeito da suplementação de linhaça, óleo de canola e vitamina E na dieta sobre as concentrações de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados em ovos de galinha Effect of dietary supplementation of flaxseed, canola oil and vitamin E upon polyunsaturated fatty acids in chicken eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C.G. Pita

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se o efeito de diferentes fontes de ácidos graxos insaturados (óleo de canola e semente de linhaça, acrescidas de diferentes teores de alfa-tocoferol nas dietas de poedeiras, sobre a composição de ácidos graxos da gema do ovo foi estudado. Foram utilizadas 288 galinhas da linhagem Babcock que receberam dietas com 6% de óleo de canola, 20% de semente de linhaça moída ou 3% de óleo de canola e 10% de linhaça moída com teores de 0, 100 e 200UI/kg de alfa-tocoferol. As dietas com 20% de semente de linhaça proporcionaram teores mais elevados de ácidos graxos poliinsaturados no ovo com aumento, em particular, dos teores de ácido alfa-linolênico e EPA (ácido eicosapentaenóico e diminuição de ácido araquidônico na gema. Os teores de vitamina E contidos nas rações experimentais não determinaram alteração significativa na deposição dos diferentes ácidos graxos na gema dos ovos, exceto com relação aos ácidos graxos saturados.The effect of dietary sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids - canola oil and flaxseed - with different vitamin E supplementation on the fatty acid deposition into the eggs of 288 Babcock laying hens was investigated. Birds were fed diets containing 6% of canola oil, 20% of flaxseed or a combination of 3% of canola oil and 10% of flaxseed, enriched with 0, 100 or 200Ul of dl-alpha-tocopheril acetate. The inclusion of flaxseed in the diets increased the yolk polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly alpha-linolenic acid and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid. The concentration of alpha-tocopherol in the diet did not change the egg yolk, fatty acids deposition but changed the saturated fatty acids deposition.

  3. Comparison of the Effects of Edible Oils: Rice Bran, Grape Seed, and Canola on Serum Lipid Profile and Paraoxonase Activity in Hyperlipidemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Ranjbar-Zahedani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dyslipidemia is considered as one of the crucial contributors to cardio- cerebro-vascular diseases. Objectives: The present study aimed to compare the effects of Rice Barn Oil (RBO, Grape Seed Oil (GSO, and Canola Oil (CO on dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in experimentally induced hyperlipidemic rats. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, forty hyperlipidemic male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups to receive RBO, GSO, or CO or Soy Bean Oil (SBO, as controls, for 4 weeks following a 3-week period of Atherogenic Diet (AD intake. Blood samples were collected at the beginning of the study, after inducing dyslipidemia, and at the end of the experimental period. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS statistical software (v. 13.0 and analyzed using paired t-test, paired sample Wilcoxon signed rank test, and Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: AD elevated lipid and/or lipoprotein profile and decreased the paraoxonase activity in the hyperlipidemic rats. The results of paired t-test revealed that RBO led to a significant improvement in serum lipoprotein profile and paraoxonase activity. Besides, a significant difference was found in the GSO group regarding all the measured parameters, except for paraoxonase activity. Moreover, CO diet showed a significant hypolipidemic effect on serum Triglyceride (TG and Total Cholesterol (TC and led to a slight improvement in Low Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (LDL-C and High Density Lipoprotein-Cholesterol (HDL-C. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggested that vegetable oils, including RBO, GSO, and CO, might improve dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in hyperlipidemic rats. Indeed, substituting saturated fatty acids with unsaturated fatty acids in rats’ diet had beneficial effects on serum lipid profile and oxidative stress. Comparison of the 3 edible oils showed that GSO had a more profound effect on decreasing hyperlipidemia.

  4. NE- 165 Case Study : CANOLA AS AN EMERGING INDUSTRY: A Processor and Producer Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Coaldrake, Karen; Sonka, Steven T.

    1991-01-01

    The canola industry in the United States has been very small with a limited canola oil demand being met through imports. However, an apparent increase in consumer demand for more healthful alternatives to traditional vegetable oils has sparked an interest among domestic processors desiring to be among the first entrants to a U.S. canola oil market. Processor interest has in turn led to some producer experimentation with the crop. This case study documents the early activities of U.S. Canola P...

  5. The effect of essential oil formulations for potato sprout suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owolabi, Moses S; Lajide, Labunmi; Oladimeji, Matthew O; Setzer, William N

    2010-04-01

    The concerns over safety and environmental impact of synthetic pesticides such as chlorpropham (CIPC) has stimulated interest in finding environmentally benign, natural sprout suppressants, including essential oils. The effects of Chenopodium ambrosioides and Lippia multiflora essential oils on sprout growth and decay of stored potatoes has been investigated. Formulations of essential oils with alumina, bentonite, or kaolin, both with and without Triton X-100 additive, were tested. These formulations have been compared to the pulverized plant materials themselves as well as wick-volatilized essential oils. The results showed that the tested oils possess compositions that make them suitable for application as sprout suppressants. Additionally, the formulation seems to be able to reduce the volatility of the essential oil and artificially extend dormancy of stored potatoes. PMID:20433090

  6. Compare the Amount of Canola Losses in Harvest Time with Three Types of Head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Arsalan Mohammadian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is an most important non-cereal plants for the production of the oil and has become the main oilseed crops in Iran for recently years. Losses of canola seeds which occur in each level of canola production, especially in harvesting level. The first objective of this research was compare of harvester head in Iran. In Harvesting time canola pods separated from center line and canola seeds fall on the ground. Rapeseed harvest was by three types of head (Ordinary head, Iranian head, Foreign (Austrian head losses of harvest by ordinary head was higher than other 195 to 254 (kg/h. Minimum losses occur in harvesting with Austrian head and losses by Iranian head was between two types of head. The vertical cutter bar have an decrease impact on canola losses this cutter bar has best Performance in Austrian head and reduce losses which occur in part three of head. Losses of canola seeds determine with Hobson trays.

  7. Conversion of Extracted Oil Cake Fibers into Bioethanol Including DDGS, Canola, Sunflower, Seasame, Soy, and Peanut for Integrated Biodiesel Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have come up with a novel integrated approach where biodiesel processing can be potentially done in-house by producing ethanol from edible oilseeds after hexane extraction to remove residual oil. In addition, we have demonstrated how ethanol could be manufactured from widely available oil cakes ...

  8. Dust suppression in swine feed using soybean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankell, K O; Janni, K A; Walker, R D; Wilson, M E; Pettigrew, J E; Jacobson, L D; Wilcke, W F

    1995-04-01

    Dust generation from swine feed (corn-soybean meal diet) treated with soybean oil was investigated using a cement mixer in a plywood box. Airborne total dust concentrations in the box were measured gravimetrically using a vacuum pump and filters while 12-kg feed samples were constantly mixed. The treatment factors were soybean oil concentration (0, 1, and 3%), corn bulk density (normal, 730 kg/m3 and low, 600 kg/m3), time of oil addition (before vs after grinding the corn), and storage time (0, 7, and 14 d). The feed was a mixture of soybean meal, base mix, and adjusted amounts of ground corn and soybean oil. Adding soybean oil after grinding at 1 and 3% levels to feed made with normal-bulk density corn suppressed total dust generation (3.39 and .99 mg/m3, respectively) (P < .001) compared with the no oil treatment (29.1 mg/m3). The 3% soybean oil treatment suppressed dust generation (.99 mg/m3) more than the 1% soybean oil treatment (3.39 mg/m3) (P < .001). Adding soybean oil after grinding the corn suppressed dust generation more than adding the oil to the corn before grinding for every oil level (P < .001). More dust was generated by feed made from low-bulk density corn than by feed made with normal-bulk density corn at every oil level (P < .001). There was no evidence of any storage time or treatment x storage time interactions. PMID:7628976

  9. Desempenho e qualidade dos ovos de poedeiras semipesadas alimentadas com dietas contendo óleos de soja e canola Performance and eggs quality in laying hens fed diets with soybean and canola oils

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Cristóvão Joaquim de Souza; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; Raul da Cunha Lima Neto; Janaine Sena da Costa; Walter Esfrain Pereira

    2008-01-01

    Objetivou-se analisar a influência da adição de níveis crescentes de óleo de soja e canola sobre os índices de desempenho e qualidade interna e externa dos ovos de poedeiras comerciais semipesadas da linhagem Bovans Goldline durante cinco períodos de 28 dias. Foram utilizadas 280 aves com 18 semanas de idade, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com sete tratamentos em um esquema fatorial 2 × 3 + 1 (dois tipos de óleo e três níveis de óleo mais um testemunha adicional) com cinco repet...

  10. Improving the nutritional value of canola seed by gamma irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mervat M. Anwar; Safaa E. Ali; Essam H. Nasr

    2015-01-01

    This investigation aims to evaluate the effects of γ-irradiation on anti-nutritional factors, in-vitro protein digestibility and functional properties of canola meal protein, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of canola seed oil. Irradiation at doses 10, 20, 30 KGy had no effects on the chemical composition of canola seed, while decreased the total glucosinolate content by 15.6, 30.4 and 49.4%; and phytic acid by 29, 55 and 100%, respectively. On contrary, in-vitro protein ...

  11. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Nansen; Calvin Trostle; Sangu Angadi; Patrick Porter; Xavier Martini

    2012-01-01

    Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positivel...

  12. Tribological Performance of Hydrogenated Amorphous Carbon (a-C: H) DLC Coating when Lubricated with Biodegradable Vegetal Canola Oil

    OpenAIRE

    H.M. Mobarak; Chowdhury, M.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing environmental awareness and demands for lowering energy consumptions are strong driving forces behind the development of the vehicles of tomorrow. Without the advances of lubricant chemistry and adequate lubricant formulation, expansion of modern engines would not have been possible. Considering environmental awareness factors as compared to mineral oils, vegetal oil based biolubricants are renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic and have a least amount of greenhouse gases. Furthermore...

  13. Interesterification of engkabang (Shorea macrophylla) fat--canola oil blend with lipase from Candida antarctica to simulate the properties of lard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illiyin, Mohamed Roslan Nur; Marikkar, Jalaldeen Mohamed Nazrim; Loke, Mei Key; Shuhaimi, Musthafa; Mahiran, Basri; Miskandar, Mat Saari

    2014-01-01

    A study was carried out to compare the composition and thermal properties of lard (LD) and engkabang fat (EF) - canola oil (CaO) blend interesterified with Candida antartica lipase (C. antartica). A fat blend EF-4 (40% EF in CaO) was prepared and interesterified using C. antartica lipase at 60°C for different time intervals (6 h, 12 h and 24 h) with 200 rpm agitation. The fat blends before and after interesterification were compared to LD with respect to their slip melting points (SMP), fatty acid and triacyglycerol (TAG) compositions, melting, solidification and polymorphic properties. Result showed that the slip melting point (SMP) of the fat blend interesterified for 6 h was the closest to that of LD. The solid fat content (SFC) values of fat blends interesterified for 12 and 24 h were found to become equal to those of LD within the temperature range of 0 to 20°C. In addition, all three interesterified blends had SFC values similar to those of LD within the temperature range of 30-40°C. According to thermal analysis, the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 24 h appearing at -2.39°C was similar to the low melting thermal transition of LD and the transition of the fat blend interesterified for 12 h appearing at 26.25°C was similar to the high melting thermal transition of LD. However, there is no compatibility between LD and all three interesterified blends with regard to polymorphic behaviour. PMID:24389796

  14. Effects of antioxidant additives on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with canola oil methyl ester–diesel blend

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • BHA, BHT, TBHQ, EHN synthetic antioxidants were employed in the study. • Antioxidant additives are a promising candidate for improving cetane number, oxidation stability and decreasing NOx emissions • Cetane number improving efficiency of the antioxidants was ordered as EHN>BHA>BHT>TBHQ. • Formation of CO emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20. - Abstract: An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the effect of antioxidants on engine performance and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine fueled with B20 (20 vol.% canola oil methyl ester and 80 vol.% diesel fuel blend). The four synthetic antioxidants, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2-ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN), were tested on a Land Rover turbocharged direct injection (TDI) 110 type diesel engine with water cooled, 4-cycl and 4-cylinder. The addition of antioxidants to B20 did not cause any negative effect on basic fuel properties of B20. According to engine performance test results, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) of B20 with antioxidants decreased compared to those of B20 without antioxidants. A 1000 ppm concentration of TBHQ was optimal as BSFC values were considerably reduced (10.19%) in the whole engine speeds when compared to B20. EHN antioxidant with B20 presented the best mean oxides of nitrogen (NOx) with a reduction of 4.63%. However, formation of carbon monoxide (CO) emissions has been increased with addition of each of the antioxidants to B20

  15. PAPERMAKING POTENTIAL OF CANOLA STALKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Akbar Enayati

    2000-02-01

    Full Text Available A fundamental study was carried out to explore the properties of canola stalks with regards to pulp and paper production. In this study the morphological properties, chemical composition, and soda pulping properties of canola stalks were investigated. The mean values of length, diameter, and cell wall thickness of canola stalks fibers were measured as 1.17 mm, 23.02 m, and 5.26 m, respectively. The morphological properties analysis indicated that despite the thicker cell wall, the morphological properties of canola stalks fibers were comparable to those of non-woods and hardwoods fibers. The holocelluloses, alpha-cellulose, lignin, and ash contents of canola stalks were determined to be 73.6, 42.0, 17.3, and 8.2 wt%, respectively. The hot water and dilute alkali extractives of canola stalks were determined as 18 and 46.1 wt%. In comparison to most other non-wood papermaking raw materials, soda pulping of canola stalks required higher chemical charge and cooking time. Soda pulping of canola stalks gave a low yield bleachable grade pulp. The strength properties of bleached canola stalks soda pulp appeared to be similar to those of common non-wood papermaking resources. The overall results showed that canola has a promising potential to be used in pulp and paper production.

  16. Comparison between Canadian Canola Harvest and Export Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthet, Véronique J

    2016-01-01

    Parameters, such as oil, protein, glucosinolates, chlorophyll content and fatty acid composition, were determined using reference methods for both harvest survey samples and Canadian Canola exports. Canola harvest survey and export data were assessed to evaluate if canola harvest survey data can be extrapolated to predict the quality of the Canadian canola exports. There were some differences in some measured parameters between harvest and export data, while other parameters showed little difference. Protein content and fatty acid composition showed very similar data for harvest and export averages. Canadian export data showed lower oil content when compared to the oil content of harvest survey was mainly due to a diluting effect of dockage in the export cargoes which remained constant over the years (1.7% to 1.9%). Chlorophyll was the least predictable parameter; dockage quality as well as commingling of the other grades in Canola No. 1 Canada affected the chlorophyll content of the exports. Free fatty acids (FFA) were also different for the export and harvest survey. FFA levels are affected by storage conditions; they increase during the shipping season and, therefore, are difficult to predict from their harvest survey averages. PMID:27447675

  17. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice

  18. Suppression of Carrageenan- and Collagen II-Induced Inflammation in Mice by Geranium Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naho Maruyama

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available To obtain experimental evidence on the therapeutic efficacy of essential oils in aromatherapy for inflammatory diseases, we examined the effects of geranium oil on carrageenan-induced and collagen II-induced inflammation in mice, to assess acute and chronic anti-inflammatory activities of the oil. Single intraperitoneal injection of 5 μL of geranium oil clearly suppressed the carrageenan-induced footpaw edema and increase in tissue myeloperoxidase activity, and repeated administration of the oil suppressed collagen-induced arthritis. These results revealed that geranium oil suppressed both acute and chronic inflammatory responses in mice.

  19. Abiotic Factors Affecting Canola Establishment and Insect Pest Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Nansen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canola is grown mainly as an oil-seed crop, but recently the interest in canola has increased due to its potential as a biodiesel crop. The main objectives of this paper were to evaluate effects of abiotic factors and seed treatment on canola plant establishment and pest pressure in the Southern High Plains of Texas. Data was collected at two field locations during the first seven months of two field seasons. Based on multi-regression analysis, we demonstrated that precipitation was positively associated with ranked plant weight, daily minimum relative humidity and maximum temperature were negatively associated with plant weight, and that there may be specific optimal growth conditions regarding cumulative solar radiation and wind speed. The outlined multi-regression approach may be considered appropriate for ecological studies of canola establishment and pest communities elsewhere and therefore enable identification of suitable regions for successful canola production. We also demonstrated that aphids were about 35% more abundant on non-treated seeds than on treated seeds, but the sensitivity to seed treatment was only within four months after plant emergence. On the other hand, seed treatment had negligible effect on presence of thrips.

  20. Suppression of neutrophil accumulation in mice by cutaneous application of geranium essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oshima Haruyuki

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies suggested that essential oils suppressed the adherence response of human neutrophils in vitro and that intraperitoneal application of geranium oil suppressed the neutrophil accumulation into peritoneal cavity in vivo. Usually, essential oils are applied through skin in aromatherapy in inflammatory symptoms. The purpose of this study is to assess the effects of cutaneous application of essential oils on the accumulation of neutrophils in inflammatory sites in skin of mice. Methods Inflammation with accumulation of inflammatory cells was induced by injection of curdlan, a (1→3-β-D-glucan in skin or peritoneal cavity of mice. Essential oils were applied cutaneously to the mice immediately and 3 hr after intradermal injection of curdlan. The skin with inflammatory lesion was cut off 6 hr after injection of curdlan, and the homogenates were used for myeloperoxidase (MPO: a marker enzyme of neutrophil granule assay. Results The MPO activity of the skin lesion induced by curdlan was suppressed dose-dependently by cutaneous application of geranium oil. Other oils such as lavender, eucalyptus and tea tree oils also suppressed the activity, but their activities seemed weaker than geranium. Juniper oil didn't suppress the activity Conclusion Cutaneous application of essential oils, especially geranium oil, can suppress the inflammatory symptoms with neutrophil accumulation and edema.

  1. Tolerance of canola to drought and salinity stresses in terms of root water uptake model parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagawa, Aki; Fujimaki, Haruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) is cultivated for oil as a biofuel crop. Few quantitative data concerning its tolerance to abiotic stresses has been presented. We evaluated the tolerances of canola to drought and salinity stresses in terms of parameter values in a macroscopic root water uptake model. We conducted an experiment using nine columns with two plants in each: three columns were under drought stresses, another three were under saline stress and others provided potential transpiration. Two s...

  2. Effect of Replacing Pork Fat with Vegetable Oils on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Pork Sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Jin; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Jae-Joon; Choi, Yang-II

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the quality properties of emulsion-type pork sausages when pork fat is replaced with vegetable oil mixtures during processing. Pork sausages were processed under six treatment conditions: T1 (20% pork fat), T2 (10% pork fat + 2% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 4% canola oil), T3 (4% grape seed oil + 16% canola oil), T4 (4% grape seed oil + 4% olive oil + 12% canola oil), T5 (4% grape seed oil + 8% olive oil + 8% canola oil), and T6 (4% grape seed oil + 12%...

  3. Storage of canola in hermetic plastic bags

    OpenAIRE

    Bartosik, R. E.; De la Torre, D. A.; Ochandio, D. C.; Cardoso, L. M.; Rodríguez, J.C.; Massigoge, J.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the small size of the seed, canola (Brassica napus or Brassica campestris) offers different challenges in the harvest and the subsequent post-harvest operations. Often, in Argentina, farmers do not have enough permanent storage capacity so they overcome this deficit with the use of hermetic plastic bags (silobags). The objectives of this work were: 1) Determine the feasibility of the bagging and extraction processes of canola. 2) Monitoring the condition of canola by periodic measureme...

  4. Improving the nutritional value of canola seed by gamma irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervat M. Anwar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This investigation aims to evaluate the effects of γ-irradiation on anti-nutritional factors, in-vitro protein digestibility and functional properties of canola meal protein, physicochemical properties and fatty acid composition of canola seed oil. Irradiation at doses 10, 20, 30 KGy had no effects on the chemical composition of canola seed, while decreased the total glucosinolate content by 15.6, 30.4 and 49.4%; and phytic acid by 29, 55 and 100%, respectively. On contrary, in-vitro protein digestibility increased to 59.1, 61.4 and 71.8% by the same doses, respectively. Water absorption and fat absorption increased by increasing irradiation doses, whilst decreased foaming capacity. Refractive index was between 1.4636 and 1.4687, acid value between 0.72 and 1.10%, peroxide value between 3.40 and 7.36 meq/kg oil. Iodine number and saponification value were 122 and 175 at dose 30 KGy, respectively. Oxidative stability decreased to 17.8, 16.4 and 14.9 h by doses 10, 20 and 30 KGy, respectively, compared to control (18.9 h. The contents of oleic and linoleinic acid were ranged between 60.44–61.69% and 21.72–22.09% respectively. So, γ-irradiation considered a safe method which reduced the anti-nutritional factors and improve both nutritional value and functional properties of canola seed.

  5. Identification, expression and interaction analyses of calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) genes in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hanfeng; Liu, Wu-Zhen; Zhang, Yupeng; Deng, Min; Niu, Fangfang; Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiaoling; Wang, Boya; Liang, Wanwan; Deyholos, Michael K.; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oil-producing crops in China and worldwide. The yield and quality of canola is frequently threatened by environmental stresses including drought, cold and high salinity. Calcium is a well-known ubiquitous intracellular secondary messenger in plants. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CPKs) are Ser/Thr protein kinases found only in plants and some protozoans. CPKs are Ca2+ sensors that have both Ca2+ sensing function and kinase...

  6. Formulasi Krim Dengan Minyak Canola (Brassica napus L.) Sebagai Pelembab Menggunakan Dasar Krim m/a dan a/m

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmah, Nurul

    2016-01-01

    Background:Canola oil(Brasicca napusL.) has a high vitamin E content.VitaminEis an antioxidantthat ishighlyeffectiveandcapable of protecting the skin from damage caused by free radicals. Thiscankeep the skin remains suppleandsmooth, increase humidity andslowthe appearance of wrinkles. Canola oilalsocontainsfatty acidssuch asoleicacid(59.1%); palmitic(3.9%); stearic(1.8%); linoleicacid(22.2%) andalpha-linolenic acid(10%). Purpose:The purposeof thisresearchwastomakepreparationscreamtypeo/w a...

  7. OIL QUALITY OF CANOLA CULTIVARS IN RESPONSE TO WATER STRESS AND SUPER ABSORBENT POLYMER APPLICATION QUALIDADE DE ÓLEO DE CULTIVARES DE CANOLA EM RESPOSTA AO ESTRESSE HÍDRICO E APLICAÇÃO DE POLÍMERO HIDROABSORVENTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Zahedi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Water stress significantly limits plant growth and crop yield. Hence, the efficient management of soil moisture and the study of metabolic changes which occur in response to drought stress are important for agriculture. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of six oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. genotypes (Rgs003, Sarigol, Option500, Hyola401, Hyola330, and Hyola420, with and without drought stress, and with and without the use of super absorbent polymer, on oil quality and content. A complete randomized blocks design, with a split-plot arrangement, in a 2x2x6 factorial scheme (drought stress x polymer x genotypes, with three replications, was used. The research was carried out in a farm owned by the Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, in Karaj, Iran. Results showed a significant difference for drought stress levels, presence of super absorbent and genotypes on oil content and composition, as well as on glucosinolate content in the oil. Drought stress conditions decreased the oil and linoleic acid contents, but increased the glucosinolate and stearic acid contents. The use of super absorbent polymer increased the linoleic acid content, but decreased other components. It was possible to conclude that, under drought stress conditions, the super absorbent polymer application, for reserving higher amounts of water in itself, increased the soil ability to store water, what increased the plant vegetative period and consequently the oil quality by decreasing saturate fatty acids and increasing unsaturated fatty acids.

    Sustainable management tactics for control of Phyllotreta cruciferae (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Gadi V P; Tangtrakulwanich, Khanobporn; Miller, John H; Ophus, Victoria L; Prewett, Julie

    2014-04-01

    The crucifer flea beetle, Phyllotreta cruciferae (Goeze) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), has recently emerged as a serious pest of canola (Brassica napus L.) in Montana. The adult beetles feed on canola leaves, causing many small holes that stunt growth and reduce yield. In 2013, damage to canola seedlings was high (approximately 80%) in many parts of Montana, evidence that when flea beetles emerge in large numbers, they can quickly destroy a young canola crop. In the current study, the effectiveness of several biopesticides was evaluated and compared with two insecticides (deltamethrin and bifenthrin) commonly used as foliar sprays as well as seed treatment with an imidacloprid insecticide for the control of P. cruciferae under field conditions in 2013. The biopesticides used included an entomopathogenic nematode (Steinernema carpocapsae), two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), neem, and petroleum spray oils. The control agents were delivered in combination or alone in a single or repeated applications at different times. The plant-derived compound neem (azadirachtin), petroleum spray oil, and fatty acids (M-Pede) only showed moderate effect, although they significantly reduced leaf injuries caused by P. cruciferae and resulted in higher canola yield than the untreated control. Combined use of B. bassiana and M. brunneum in two repeated applications and bifenthrin in five applications were most effective in reducing feeding injuries and improving yield levels at both trial locations. This indicates that entomopathogenic fungi are effective against P. cruciferae, and may serve as alternatives to conventional insecticides or seed treatments in managing this pest. PMID:24772547

  8. Molecular and systems approaches towards drought-tolerant canola crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mengmeng; Monroe, J Grey; Suhail, Yasir; Villiers, Florent; Mullen, Jack; Pater, Dianne; Hauser, Felix; Jeon, Byeong Wook; Bader, Joel S; Kwak, June M; Schroeder, Julian I; McKay, John K; Assmann, Sarah M

    2016-06-01

    1169 I. 1170 II. 1170 III. 1172 IV. 1176 V. 1181 VI. 1182 1183 References 1183 SUMMARY: Modern agriculture is facing multiple challenges including the necessity for a substantial increase in production to meet the needs of a burgeoning human population. Water shortage is a deleterious consequence of both population growth and climate change and is one of the most severe factors limiting global crop productivity. Brassica species, particularly canola varieties, are cultivated worldwide for edible oil, animal feed, and biodiesel, and suffer dramatic yield loss upon drought stress. The recent release of the Brassica napus genome supplies essential genetic information to facilitate identification of drought-related genes and provides new information for agricultural improvement in this species. Here we summarize current knowledge regarding drought responses of canola, including physiological and -omics effects of drought. We further discuss knowledge gained through translational biology based on discoveries in the closely related reference species Arabidopsis thaliana and through genetic strategies such as genome-wide association studies and analysis of natural variation. Knowledge of drought tolerance/resistance responses in canola together with research outcomes arising from new technologies and methodologies will inform novel strategies for improvement of drought tolerance and yield in this and other important crop species. PMID:26879345

  9. Butter, margarine, and cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fats have health risks. Some guidelines for healthier cooking: Use olive or canola oil instead of butter ... You should NOT use: Margarine, shortening, and cooking oils that have ... labels). Hydrogenated and partially hydrogenated fats (read ...

  10. GM technology and the Australian canola

    OpenAIRE

    Taing, William; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we use a simulation model to measure the potential market and welfare effects of recently introduced genetically modified (GM) canola in Australia. The short-run results indicate that non-GM canola may emerge as a niche product commanding a premium. In the long run, GM technology appears to enhance aggregate welfare. However, when production cost savings are trivial and consumers become highly concerned about GM food products, aggregate welfare may decline. The policy implicati...

  11. Genome-wide association analyses reveal complex genetic architecture underlying natural variation for flowering time in canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, H; Raman, R; Coombes, N; Song, J; Prangnell, R; Bandaranayake, C; Tahira, R; Sundaramoorthi, V; Killian, A; Meng, J; Dennis, E S; Balasubramanian, S

    2016-06-01

    Optimum flowering time is the key to maximize canola production in order to meet global demand of vegetable oil, biodiesel and canola-meal. We reveal extensive variation in flowering time across diverse genotypes of canola under field, glasshouse and controlled environmental conditions. We conduct a genome-wide association study and identify 69 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers associated with flowering time, which are repeatedly detected across experiments. Several associated SNPs occur in clusters across the canola genome; seven of them were detected within 20 Kb regions of a priori candidate genes; FLOWERING LOCUS T, FRUITFUL, FLOWERING LOCUS C, CONSTANS, FRIGIDA, PHYTOCHROME B and an additional five SNPs were localized within 14 Kb of a previously identified quantitative trait loci for flowering time. Expression analyses showed that among FLC paralogs, BnFLC.A2 accounts for ~23% of natural variation in diverse accessions. Genome-wide association analysis for FLC expression levels mapped not only BnFLC.C2 but also other loci that contribute to variation in FLC expression. In addition to revealing the complex genetic architecture of flowering time variation, we demonstrate that the identified SNPs can be modelled to predict flowering time in diverse canola germplasm accurately and hence are suitable for genomic selection of adaptative traits in canola improvement programmes. PMID:26428711

  12. Genome-wide prediction of agronomic traits in hybrid spring-type canola (Brassica napus) using single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers

    OpenAIRE

    Jan, Habib Ullah

    2016-01-01

    Canola/rapeseed (Brassica napus L., (AACC, 2n=38) is one of the world’s most important oilseed crops and is used as human food, i.e. cooking oil and as animal feed. In Europe, winter-type canola is also used as a sustainable source of bioenergy. Canola was naturally formed ~7500 years ago from spontaneous inter-specific hybridisations between cabbage (Brassica oleracea) and turnip rape (Brassica rapa). Recently, the reference genome of the B. napus ‘Darmor-bzh’ cultivar was sequenced and publ...

  13. Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, activates PPARalpha and gamma and suppresses COX-2 expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Mariko; Nakata, Rieko; Katsukawa, Michiko; Hori, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Saori; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2010-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), the rate-limiting enzyme in prostaglandin biosynthesis, plays a key role in inflammation and circulatory homeostasis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-dependent transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily and are involved in the control of COX-2 expression, and vice versa. Here, we show that COX-2 promoter activity was suppressed by essential oils derived from thyme, clove, rose, eucalyptus, fennel, and bergamot in cell-based transfection assays using bovine arterial endothelial cells. Moreover, from thyme oil, we identified carvacrol as a major component of the suppressor of COX-2 expression and an activator of PPARalpha and gamma. PPARgamma-dependent suppression of COX-2 promoter activity was observed in response to carvacrol treatment. In human macrophage-like U937 cells, carvacrol suppressed lipopolysaccharide-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression, suggesting that carvacrol regulates COX-2 expression through its agonistic effect on PPARgamma. These results may be important in understanding the antiinflammatory and antilifestyle-related disease properties of carvacrol. PMID:19578162

  14. Canola meal on starting pigs feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Maria Peñuela-Sierra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out to determine the nutritional values and evaluate the performance of piglets fed on canola meal. In experiment I, a digestibility assay was conducted using fourteen barrow pigs, with an initial body weight of 20.62±3.30 kg. The evaluated feedstuff was canola meal, with a level of 250 g/kg in the basal diet (corn + soybean meal-based. The experimental unit consisted of one pig, with a total of seven experimental units per diet. The values as (fed basis of digestible (DE and metabolizable (ME energy of canola meal were 2,995 kcal/kg and 2,796 kcal/kg, respectively. In experiment II, ileal digestibility assays were carried out to determine the apparent and true ileal digestibility coefficient and digestible amino acids. Three crossbred pigs were used, with a BW of 38.6±1.98 kg. The treatments consisted of two diets, with a single source of protein (canola meal and one protein-free diet (OFD. The values of digestible amino acids in canola meal were as follows: lysine: 11.8 g/kg; methionine+cystine: 9.1 g/kg; threonine: 7.9 g/kg; tryptophan: 2.4 g/kg; leucine: 15.7 g/kg; and isoleucine: 8.7 g/kg. In experiment III, 60 piglets (BW= 15.08±0.72 kg to 30.26±2.78 kg were allotted in a completely randomized design. The treatments consisted of four diets with increasing levels of canola meal (50, 100, 150 and 200 g/kg, six replicates and experimental unit consisted of two pigs. Additionally, a control diet was formulated containing 0.0 g/kg CM. Regression analysis indicates that there was no effect (P?0.05 of the level of canola meal inclusion on pigs performance. The performance results suggest that it is feasible to use up to 200 g/kg of canola meal in starting pigs diet, without impairing performance and the feeding cost.

  15. Metabolomics differentiation of canola genotypes: toward an understanding of canola allelochemicals

    OpenAIRE

    Asaduzzaman, M.; Pratley, James E.; An, Min; Luckett, David J.; Lemerle, Deirdre

    2015-01-01

    Allelopathy is one crop attribute that could be incorporated in an integrated weed management system as a supplement to synthetic herbicides. However, the underlying principles of crop allelopathy and secondary metabolite production are still poorly understood including in canola. In this study, an allelopathic bioassay and a metabolomic analysis were conducted to compare three non-allelopathic and three allelopathic canola genotypes. Results from the laboratory bioassay showed that there wer...

  16. Effect of pressing and combination of three storage temperatures and times on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of canola expellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Guadagnin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This experiment investigated the effects of combinations of three temperatures and storage times on chemical composition, fatty acid profile, and oxidative stability of canola expellers obtained from the cold-pressing extraction of oil. Canola seeds were single-crushed at moderate temperatures (60°C during 3 pressing sessions. Nine samples (100±1 g of each session were collected, inserted into sealed bags, stored at three temperatures (12, 24, 36°C over 3 periods of time (10, 20, 30 d. Then, samples (100±1 g of canola seeds collected before each pressing session and canola expellers collected before and after each storage time were analyzed for chemical composition, fatty acid profile, peroxide number and Kreis test. Before storage, the fatty acid profile of canola seeds and expellers differed significantly, except for myristic (P=0.18, palmitic (P=0.57, oleic (P=0.07, and α-linolenic acids (P=0.45. Compared to canola seeds, expellers showed greater content of saturated, poly-unsaturated, and n-6 fatty acids (P<0.01, but a lower content of mono-unsaturated fatty acids (P<0.01. Peroxide values were definitely (P<0.01 greater for expellers and averaged 4.22 and 4.11 mEq/kg fat before and after storage, respectively. The Kreis test was negative for all samples. Under different temperatures and times of storage, canola expellers showed to maintain a good oxidative stability, as highlighted by low peroxide values (<10 mEq/kg fat and negative response for Kreis test. Canola expellers obtained by on-farm cold extraction, despite great oil residual (from 17 to 19% ether extracts on dry matter basis, can be stored at farm without significant chemical and nutritional changes.

  17. Influence of canola and sunflower diet amendments on cattle feedlot manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Mir, Priya S; Shah, Mohammad A; Travis, Greg R

    2005-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) producers can replace a part of the traditional diet of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grain/silage with sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) seeds or canola meal (Brassica napus L.)/oil to enhance conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) content in milk and meat for its positive health benefits. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of feeding sunflower or canola to finishing steers on cattle manure chemical properties and volatile fatty acid (VFA) content. The control diet contained 84% rolled barley and 15% barley silage, which provided only 2.6% lipid. The other six treatments had 6.6 to 8.6% lipid delivered from sources such as hay, sunflower seed (SS), canola meal/oil, and SS forage pellets. Manure samples (a mixture of cattle urine, feces, and woodchip bedding materials) were collected and analyzed after cattle had been on these diets for 113 d. The dietary source and level of lipid had no effect on organic N and nitrate N content in manure, but significantly affected ammonia N and VFA. Inclusion of SS forage pellets, hay, or canola meal/oil in cattle diets had no significant impact on manure characteristics, but SS significantly reduced the pH and increased propionic, isobutyric, and isovaleric content. In addition, N loss after excretion (mainly from urine N) increases with the pH and N levels in both feed and manure. The combination of SS with barley silage resulted in a lower VFA and NH3 content in manure and should be a more attractive option. To better manage N nutrient cycles and reduce NH3 related odor problems, feed and manure pH should be one of the factors to consider when determining feed mix rations. PMID:15998867

  18. Seed bank modelling of volunteer oil seed rape: from seeds fate in the soil to seedling emergence Modelagem do banco de sementes de canola: do destino das sementes no solo à emergência das plântulas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Soltani

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to estimate parameters and relationships associated with sub-processes in soil seed banks of oilseed rape in Gorgan, Iran. After one month of burial, seed viability decreased to 39%, with a slope of 2.03% per day, and subsequently decreased with a lower slope of 0.01 until 365 days following burial in the soil. Germinability remained at its highest value in autumn and winter and decreased from spring to the last month of summer. Non-dormant seeds of volunteer oilseed rape did not germinate at temperatures lower than 3.8 ºC and a water potential of -1.4 MPa ºd. The hydrothermal values were 36.2 and 42.9 MPa ºd for sub- and supra-optimal temperatures, respectively. Quantification of seed emergence as influenced by burial depth was performed satisfactorily (R² = 0.98 and RMSE = 5.03. The parameters and relationships estimated here can be used for modelling soil seed bank dynamics or establishing a new model for the environment.Estudos foram realizados para estimar os parâmetros e as relações ligados a subprocessos em bancos de sementes de canola no solo, em Gorgan, Iran. Após um mês de enterrio, a viabilidade das sementes diminuiu para 39%, com inclinação de 2,03% ao dia; posteriormente, diminuiu com menor inclinação: de 0,01 até 365 dias após o enterrio no solo. A germinação manteve-se em seu maior valor no outono e inverno, reduzindo da primavera ao último mês do verão. Sementes de canola não dormentes não germinaram em temperaturas abaixo de 3,8 °C e potencial hídrico abaixo de -1,4 Mpaºd. Os valores hidrotermais foram de 36,2 e 42,9 Mpaºd para temperaturas sub e supraótima, respectivamente. A quantificação da emergência das sementes sob influência da profundidade de enterrio foi delineada de forma satisfatória (R²= 0,98 e RMSE = 5,03. Os parâmetros e as relações estimadas neste estudo podem ser utilizados em modelagens do banco de sementes do solo ou para estabelecer um novo modelo para

  19. TruFlex™ Roundup Ready® Canola MON 88302

    OpenAIRE

    Directorate, Issued by Health Canada's Food

    2014-01-01

    Health Canada has notified Monsanto Canada Inc. that it has no objection to the sale of food derived from MON 88302 canola (TruFlex™ Roundup Ready® Canola). The Department conducted a comprehensive assessment of this canola event according to its Guidelines for the Safety Assessment of Novel Foods. These Guidelines are based upon internationally accepted principles for establishing the safety of foods with novel traits The following provides a summary of the notificati...

  1. Deer Bone Oil Extract Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Responses in RAW264.7 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Yooheon; Hong, Ki-Bae; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of deer bone oil extract (DBOE) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. DBOE was fractionated by liquid-liquid extraction to obtain two fractions: methanol fraction (DBO-M) and hexane fraction (DBO-H). TLC showed that DBO-M had relatively more hydrophilic lipid complexes, including unsaturated fatty acids, than DBOE and DBO-H. The relative compositions of tetradecenoyl carnitine, α-linoleic acid, and palmitoleic acid increased in the DBO-M fraction by 61, 38, and 32%, respectively, compared with DBOE. The concentration of sugar moieties was 3-fold higher in the DBO-M fraction than DBOE and DBO-H. DBO-M significantly decreased LPS-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. This DBO-M-mediated decrease in NO production was due to downregulation of mRNA and protein levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). In addition, mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenase (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-12β, was suppressed by DBO-M. Our data showed that DBO-M, which has relatively higher sugar content than DBOE and DBO-H, could play an important role in suppressing inflammatory responses by controlling pro-inflammatory cytokines and mediators. PMID:27040632

  2. A new noise suppression algorithm for optical fiber temperature surveillance of heavy oil thermal recovery well

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahuai; Han, Jisheng; Pan, Yong; Zhang, Min; Zou, Qilin; Xie, Shangran

    2011-11-01

    Pure silica core optical fiber is commonly used as the sensing fiber in Raman-backscatter distributed temperature sensors (DTS) in heavy oil thermal well. However the sensing signal collected from this type of fiber statistically belongs to nonstationary random process which cannot be effectively de-noised by simply applying conventional methods. To solve this problem, we develop a novel noise suppression algorithm by combining wavelet multi-scale analysis and moving grey model GM(1,1). The algorithm first applies wavelet de-noising in spatial domain of temperature profile to remove the high frequency noise, then uses moving GM(1,1) method to remove both high frequency and low frequency nonstationary noise in time domain. Autoregressive (AR) model and least square regression are used to optimize the forecasting parameters of GM(1,1). Finally the results of both domains are reconstructed to obtain the de-noised profile. Long-term field test was proposed on the Karamay oil field F11051 steam stimulation well, Xinjiang Province, China. Field test result shows that signal to noise ratio (SNR) is improved by 11dB using the algorithm.

  3. Development of emission parameters and net energy ratio for renewable diesel from Canola and Camelina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study estimated the greenhouse gas emissions (GHGs) and net energy ratio (NER) for producing hydrogenation-derived renewable diesel (HDRD) from canola and camelina in Western Canada. Using 1 MJ of energy in the HDRD produced as the functional unit, a variety of scenarios were evaluated to account for variations in allocation methods, co-products, oilseed yield, N2O emission factor, and land use change (LUC). In producing HDRD, the farming stage and the oil conversion stage (i.e. the HDRD production stage) are the most energy and emission intensive. For canola based HDRD, the GHGs and NERs lie in the ranges of 33–94 gCO2e/MJ and 1.2–2.2 MJ/MJ respectively. For camelina based HDRD, the GHGs and NERs range from 30 – 82 gCO2e/MJ and 1.0–2.3 MJ/MJ respectively. In the base scenario (mass allocation; oilseed meal and propane fuel gas co-products; average yield; 0.76% N2O emission factor; LUC ignored), HDRD from camelina (38 gCO2e/MJ, 2.0 MJ/MJ) is environmentally superior to HDRD from canola (48 gCO2e/MJ, 1.7 MJ/MJ) due to lower agricultural inputs and higher yield for camelina. Considering all of the scenarios examined, HDRD from both crops appears to be more sustainable than fossil diesel. - Highlights: • This study estimates the net energy ratio and greenhouse gas emissions in production and utilization of renewable diesel. • The life cycle approach has been used in this study using canola and camelina as feedtocks. • Several scenarios were developed to study the impacts of variations in unit operations on net energy ratio and emissions. • HDRD from both crops appears to be more sustainable than fossil diesel

  4. Ruta montana L. leaf essential oil and extracts: characterization of bioactive compounds and suppression of crown gall disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, Inés; Smaoui, Slim; Hsouna, Anis Ben; Hamdi, Naceur; Triki, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the antimicrobial efficacy of the leaf essential oil and the leaf extracts of R. montana against Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium oxysporum, Verticillium dahliae, Aspergillus oryzae and Fusarium solani. The oil (1.000 µg/disk) and the extracts (1.500 µg/disk) revealed a remarkable antifungal effect against the tested plant pathogenic fungi with a radial growth inhibition percentage of 40.0-80.0 % and 5.0-58.0 %, respectively along with their respective MIC values ranging from 100 to 1100 µg/mL and 250 to 3000 µg/mL. The oil had a strong detrimental effect on spore germination of all the tested plant pathogens along with the concentration as well as time-dependent kinetic inhibition of Fusarium oxysporum. Also, the oil exhibited a potent in vivo antifungal effect against Botrytis cinerea on tomato plants. Experiments carried out in plant revealed that the essential oil was slightly effective in suppression of gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens on bitter almond. The results of this study indicate that the oil and extracts of R. montana leaves could become natural alternatives to synthetic fungicides to control certain important plant microbial diseases. The GC-MS analysis determined that 28 compounds, which represented 89.03 % of total oil, were present in the oil containing mainly 1-butene, methylcyclopropane, 2-butene and caryophyllene oxide. PMID:26417353

  5. Dietary emu oil supplementation suppresses 5-fluorouracil chemotherapy-induced inflammation, osteoclast formation, and bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghu Nadhanan, Rethi; Abimosleh, Suzanne M; Su, Yu-Wen; Scherer, Michaela A; Howarth, Gordon S; Xian, Cory J

    2012-06-01

    Cancer chemotherapy can cause osteopenia or osteoporosis, and yet the underlying mechanisms remain unclear, and currently, no preventative treatments are available. This study investigated damaging effects of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) on histological, cellular, and molecular changes in the tibial metaphysis and potential protective benefits of emu oil (EO), which is known to possess a potent anti-inflammatory property. Female dark agouti rats were gavaged orally with EO or water (1 ml·day(-1)·rat(-1)) for 1 wk before a single ip injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) or saline (Sal) was given. The treatment groups were H(2)O + Sal, H(2)O + 5-FU, EO + 5-FU, and EO + Sal. Oral gavage was given throughout the whole period up to 1 day before euthanasia (days 3, 4, and 5 post-5-FU). Histological analysis showed that H(2)O + 5-FU significantly reduced heights of primary spongiosa on days 3 and 5 and trabecular bone volume of secondary spongiosa on days 3 and 4. It reduced density of osteoblasts slightly and caused an increase in the density of osteoclasts on trabecular bone surface on day 4. EO supplementation prevented reduction of osteoblasts and induction of osteoclasts and bone loss caused by 5-FU. Gene expression studies confirmed an inhibitory effect of EO on osteoclasts since it suppressed 5-FU-induced expression of proinflammatory and osteoclastogenic cytokine TNFα, osteoclast marker receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB, and osteoclast-associated receptor. Therefore, this study demonstrated that EO can counter 5-FU chemotherapy-induced inflammation in bone, preserve osteoblasts, suppress osteoclast formation, and potentially be useful in preventing 5-FU chemotherapy-induced bone loss. PMID:22436700

  6. Suppression of allergic and inflammatory responses by essential oils derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitoshi, Mai; Kuriyama, Isoko; Nakayama, Hiroto; Miyazato, Hironari; Sugimoto, Keiichiro; Kobayashi, Yuko; Jippo, Tomoko; Kuramochi, Kouji; Yoshida, Hiromi; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the biological activity of 20 essential oils (EOs) derived from herbal plants and citrus fruits. The in vitro anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory activities of these oils were investigated, and the EO which was found to have the strongest activity of the 20 EOs examined, was investigated further to identify its components and bioactive compounds. The in vitro anti-allergic activity was determined by measuring the release of β-hexosaminidase from rat basophilic leukemia (RBL-2H3) cells treated with the calcium ionophore, A23187. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by measuring the production of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages treated with lipopolysaccharide. Among the EOs examined, lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] elicited the strongest anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects. A principal component of this EO is citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadien-1-al) (74.5%), a mixture of the stereoisomers, geranial (trans-citral, 40.16%) and neral (cis-citral, 34.24%), as determined by chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. The activities of citral and geranial are similar to those of lemongrass EO. These compounds elicited significant in vivo anti-allergic and anti-inflammatory effects, suppressing an immunoglobulin E (IgE)-induced passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction in mice and a 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-induced inflammatory mouse ear edema, respectively. Our data demonstrate that lemongrass EO and its constituents, citral and geranial, may be a therapeutic candidate for allergic and inflammatory diseases. PMID:24682420

  7. Evaluation of canola seeds of different cultivars with special emphasis on the quantification of erucic acid and glucosinolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar, Farooq

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the characterization of the seeds and seed oils of five locally grown canola cultivars: Zafar-2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar and Con-11. The oil contents from canola seeds ranged from 34.3 to 39.3%. The levels of protein, fiber, ash and moisture were found to be 22.1-41.0, 12.0-14.0, 3.0-3.5 and 4.0-7.5%, respectively. The glucosinolate (GSL contents in the canola seeds examined ranged from 49.7 to 78.1 mmol g-1. The extracted canola seed oils revealed an iodine value of 118.2-124.6 g of I/100g of oil; refractive index (40 °C, 1.460-1.464; density (24 °C, 0.914-0.919 mg m-1; saponification value, 187-195; unsaponifiable matter, 0.51-1.10%; acidity (% as oleic acid, 0.40-1.40, and color (1-in. cell, 1.35-1.73 R + 21.0-38.0 Y. Peroxide value (meq/ kg of oil and specific extinctions at 232 and 270 nm were determined to be 2.00-7.08, 2.17-3.16 and 0.44-0.91, respectively. The seed oils of the five canola cultivars mainly consisted of oleic (C18:1, linoleic (C18:2 and linolenic (C18:3 acids at levels of 49.16-62.14, 14.61, 23.45 and 6.97-9.10%, respectively. The concentrations of palmitic (C16:0, stearic (C18:0, erucic (C22:1 and gadoleic (C20:1 acids ranged from 3.47 to 6.00, 1.51 to 2.10, traces to 13.03 and 1.30 to 10.63%, respectively. A small amount of arachidic acid (20:0 with a contribution below 1% was also detected. The contents of tocopherols (α, γ, and δ in the canola oils accounted for 77.1-270.3, 191-500, 3.5-15.6 mg kg-1, respectively.The presence of rather high levels of erucic acid and GSL in the present analysis of canola emphasized the need to further reduce the contents of these two antinutritional constituents in the investigated cultivars.Este estudio describe de la caracterización de semillas y de sus aceites de cinco cultivos locales de canola: Zafar2002, Bulbul (Frontier, Dunkeld, Oscar y Con 11. El contenido de aceite de las semillas de canola varió entre un 34.3 y un 39.3%. Los niveles

  8. Induced Mutations for Development of B. juncea Canola Quality Varieties Suitable for Indian Agro-climatic Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dry and presoaked canola quality 'Heera' seeds were treated with 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% EMS with three and six-hour mutagenic treatments. Five mutants with early maturity (93-95 days) as opposed to 140 days of the parent were evaluated in trials. EH-1 was found superior in yield potential; however, the yield was lower than the control. Several selections with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid and canola quality were identified from the cross, mutant EH-1 and NU-6 (mutant derivative). Selection NUDH-YJ-6 with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid, 3.6g test weight and high oil content (46%) was at par in seed yield but 17% higher in oil yield in the multi-location trials of four years during 2003-04 to 2006-07 at 10 locations in zone III and zone IV of India. The advance selection derived from EH1 x NU6 was crossed with large seed mutant PB7. Several '00' selections were developed and studied for their agronomic characters. Two selections along with checks were evaluated for two years during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Both these selections were resistant to white rust disease and gave seed and oil yield comparable to national check Varuna. Another selection NUD-YJ- 5 with canola characters of maturity like Indian mustard varieties with small seed size has been registered with the National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources (INGR NO-03034), ICAR, New Delhi. (author)

  9. Developing selenium-enriched animal feed and biofuel from canola planted for managing Se-laden drainage waters in the westside of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, G S; Da Roche, J; Robinson, J

    2010-03-01

    We studied the reuse of selenium (Se)-laden effluent for producing canola (Brassica napus) and subsequent bioproducts in central California. Canola was irrigated with poor quality waters [electrical conductivity (EC) of approximately 5 dS m(-1) sulfate-salinity, 5 mg B L(-1), and 0.25 mg Se L(-1)]. Typical seed yields were 2.2 metric tons ha(-1). Seeds were processed for their oil, and transesterified to produce ASTM-quality biodiesel (BD) blends. The resulting Se-enriched seed cake meal (containing approximately 2 mg Se kg(-1) DM) was used in a dairy feed trial. Seventy-two Jersey and Holstein cows, 36 respectively, were fed Se-enriched canola meal as 6.2% of their daily feed ration for five weeks. Blood and milk samples were collected weekly and analyzed for total Se. This study showed that Se-enriched canola meal did not significantly increase total blood Se content in either cow breed. Milk Se concentrations did, however, significantly increase to safe levels of 59 microg Se L(-1) and 52 microg Se L(-1) in Jersey and Holstein cows, respectively. The production of BD 20 biofuels and Se-enriched feed meal from canola irrigated with poor quality waters may help sustain similar phytomanagement strategies under Se-rich conditions. PMID:20734619

  10. Transesterification of canola, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oil with methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, butanol and tert-butanol to biodiesel: Modelling of chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics and mass transfer based on fatty acid composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Modelling of chemical equilibrium, reaction kinetics and mass transfer for triglyceride transesterification with different alcohols based on fatty acid composition. - Highlights: • Catalysed transesterification to biodiesel with various oils, alcohols and catalysts. • Analysis of components and reactivity based on fatty acid composition of all species. • Simultaneous modelling of mass transfer, reaction kinetics and chemical equilibrium. • Diffusivities, distribution and mass transfer coefficients for individual components. • Correlation of kinetic parameters with molecular structure of reactants and products. - Abstract: Mechanism of alcoholysis (e.g. methanolysis) using different oils, alcohols and homogeneous base catalysts was utilized to devise chemical kinetics and thermodynamics based on fatty acid composition, differentiating among triglycerides, diglycerides, monoglycerides and fatty acid alkyl esters (e.g. fatty acid alkyl esters, FAME) with bonded gadoleic, linoleic, linolenic, oleic, palmitic and stearic acid-originating substituents. Their concentrations were measured using an optimized high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. Hydrodynamics and diffusion limitations in emulsion were considered in overall model by determining diffusivities, distribution coefficients, molar volumes, boiling points and viscosities of individual components. Pre-exponential factors and activation energies were related with structure of reactants, intermediates and products acknowledging number of carbons, double bonds and alkyl branches by linear and mixed response surface methodology. Developed model may be used with batch and continuous flow reactors, e.g. for novel micro-structured or industrial-scale process intensification, different vegetable or non-edible oils (waste cooking Jatropha or microalgae lipids)

  11. Boswellia sacra essential oil induces tumor cell-specific apoptosis and suppresses tumor aggressiveness in cultured human breast cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhail Mahmoud M

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gum resins obtained from trees of the Burseraceae family (Boswellia sp. are important ingredients in incense and perfumes. Extracts prepared from Boswellia sp. gum resins have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-neoplastic effects. Essential oil prepared by distillation of the gum resin traditionally used for aromatic therapy has also been shown to have tumor cell-specific anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activities. The objective of this study was to optimize conditions for preparing Boswellea sacra essential oil with the highest biological activity in inducing tumor cell-specific cytotoxicity and suppressing aggressive tumor phenotypes in human breast cancer cells. Methods Boswellia sacra essential oil was prepared from Omani Hougari grade resins through hydrodistillation at 78 or 100 oC for 12 hours. Chemical compositions were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; and total boswellic acids contents were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Boswellia sacra essential oil-mediated cell viability and death were studied in established human breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF7, MDA-MB-231 and an immortalized normal human breast cell line (MCF10-2A. Apoptosis was assayed by genomic DNA fragmentation. Anti-invasive and anti-multicellular tumor properties were evaluated by cellular network and spheroid formation models, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to study Boswellia sacra essential oil-regulated proteins involved in apoptosis, signaling pathways, and cell cycle regulation. Results More abundant high molecular weight compounds, including boswellic acids, were present in Boswellia sacra essential oil prepared at 100 oC hydrodistillation. All three human breast cancer cell lines were sensitive to essential oil treatment with reduced cell viability and elevated cell death, whereas the immortalized normal human breast cell line was more resistant to essential oil

  12. Canola straw chemimechanical pulping for pulp and paper production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinpour, Reza; Fatehi, Pedram; Latibari, Ahmad Jahan; Ni, Yonghao; Javad Sepiddehdam, S

    2010-06-01

    Non-wood is one of the most important raw materials for pulp and paper production in several countries due to its abundance and cost-effectiveness. However, the pulping and papermaking characteristics of canola straw have rarely been investigated. The objective of this work was to determine the potential application of canola straw in the chemimechanical pulping (CMP) process. At first, the chemical composition and characteristics of canola straw were assessed and compared with those of other non-woods. Then, the CMP pulping of canola straw was conducted using different dosages of sodium sulfite and sodium hydroxide. The results showed that, by applying a mild chemical pretreatment, i.e., 4-12% (wt.) NaOH and 8-12% (wt.) Na(2)SO(3), in the CMP pulping of canola straw, the pulp brightness reached almost 40%ISO, and the strength properties were comparable to those of bagasse CMP and of wheat straw CMP. The impact of post-refining on the properties of canola straw CMP was also discussed in this work. PMID:20144862

  13. Effects of blending composition of tung oil and ultrasonic irradiation intensity on the biodiesel production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The beneficial use of tung oil in pre-blended oil for the production of biodiesel was studied at various blending compositions of tung, canola and palm oils (CBT, CBC and CBP). The effects of CBT, ultrasonic power (PWUS) and sample loading (VL) on the yield (YF) and the properties of acid value, iodine values (IV), kinematic viscosity (KV), density and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) were investigated. The pre-blending of tung oil with palm oil greatly decreases the CFPP of palm oil biodiesel, whereas the presence of canola and palm oils with tung oil reduces the IV and KV of tung oil biodiesel. For PWUS/VL = 0.92–2.08 W/mL, CBT can be as high as 60 wt.% with 30 wt.% CBC and 10 wt.% CBP to produce biodiesel with high YF and satisfactory qualities of the said properties. -- Highlights: ► Yield and properties of tung oil biodiesel are improved as tung oil is pre-blended with canola and palm oils. ► Pre-blending of palm oil with tung and canola oils reduces the CFPP of palm oil biodiesel from 13 to −5 °C. ► A beneficial use of tung oil as high as 60 wt.% blended with canola and palm oils is achievable. ► A sufficient PWUS per sample volume is required to ensure satisfactory properties.

  14. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Skwarek

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature. Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production all oils were characterised by a high quality and fatty acid composition suitable for each type of oil. Among the examined oils, the highest content of saturated fatty acids characterised flax oil, the lowest canola oil. Oils: camelina, poppy and flax compared with canola oil, contained approximately twice the amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The fastest rate of oxidative changes, both in the room temperature conditions and cooling, showed poppy oil. Among the oils stored in room temperature, canola oil was the most oxidatively stable.

  15. Preparation of function-enhanced vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Maeda

    2016-01-01

    undergo formation lipid (alkyl peroxyl radicals which (ROO. in the presence of heme or other metallic compounds (ROOH à ROO. (Figure 1 [5, 11]. This peroxyradical can break DNA/RNA or damage proteins and lead to cell death [4-7, 11]. Time course of carotenoids extraction into the purified canola oil, in which 1 or 5% (dry wt/wt of tomato juice waste-residue yielded a significantly high carotenoid values, and extraction reached a plateau in about two to three weeks (Fig. 2A. The absorption spectrum shows multiple peaks corresponding lycopene (Fig. 2B. (b Anti-POV after heat and light exposure. Upon exposure to oxidation condition, POV was significantly suppressed to 25% after 5 hrs at 150oC and light exposure (above to the 5% (w/w tomato-residue-treated oil, and showed suppression of POV to about 25% (net at 5 hrs (Fig. 3. (c TBARS value after light and heat exposure. Figure 4C, D shows results of function fortified effect in oils treated with tomato- and wine ferment-waste-residues. They also showed significant suppression against the increase of acid value and POV (Figure 4A, B, which is consistent with absorption spectra. These results indicate antioxidant components in dried tomato juice-waste-residues and wine ferment waste-residues were extracted into commercial low functional grade rapeseed oil. The results warrant a simple procedure to convert low quality edible oils to function-enriched high grade oils. The procedure not only prevents oxidation of oils, but also beneficial in providing various functional components such as polyphenolics, flavonoids, carotenoid, or lycopene. This method and products thus obtained will ultimately benefit human health such as prevention of cancer and inflammation [8, 9, 11]. We have previously published that alkyl peroxyradical facilitates promotion step in carcinogenesis, and it was suppressed by various vegetable soup extracts, thus in suppressing promotion step in multistep carcinogenesis [2, 4, 10]. The step may be related to

  16. Detection of Leptosphaeria maculans and Leptosphaeria biglobosa Causing Blackleg Disease in Canola from Canadian Canola Seed Lots and Dockage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, W G Dilantha; Zhang, Xuehua; Amarasinghe, Chami C

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is a major threat to canola production in Canada. With the exception of China, L. maculans is present in areas around the world where cruciferous crops are grown. The pathogen can cause trade barriers in international canola seed export due to its potential risk as a seed contaminant. The most recent example is China restricting canola seeds imported from Canada and Australia in 2009. Therefore, it is important to assess the level of Blackleg infection in Canadian canola seed lots and dockage (seeds and admixture). In this study, canola seed lots and dockage samples collected from Western Canada were tested for the presence of the aggressive L. maculans and the less aggressive L. biglobosa. Results showed that both L. maculans and L. biglobosa were present in seed lots and dockage samples, with L. biglobosa being predominant in infected seeds. Admixture separated from dockage had higher levels of L. maculans and L. biglobosa infection than samples from seed lots. Admixture appears to harbour higher levels of L. maculans infection compared to seeds and is more likely to be a major source of inoculum for the spread of the disease than infected seeds. PMID:27135232

  17. Research on suppression function of compound prescription powder made from rana japonica oil on hydroxy free radical in serum of big mice exposed to X ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The models of Wistar big mice under X ray irradiation were copied and intervened by the compound prescription powder made from rana japonica oil, for the purpose to examines the ability of suppression on the hydroxy free radicals in the serum taken from each group of big mice which was being examined. Results show that the ability of prevention group of suppression hydroxy free radical is obviously higher than blank control group and tailored radiation group (p<0.05). Ability of treatment group suppress hydroxy free radically is obviously higher than tailored radiation group (p<0.05). There is not the remarkable difference between blank control group and tailored radiation group. The above results demonstrates that compound prescription powder mainly made from the rana japonica oil might assist to strengthen the suppression of serum taken from the big mice under X ray irradiation on the hydroxy free radical. (authors)

  18. DHA-Rich Tuna Oil Effectively Suppresses Allergic Symptoms in Mice Allergic to Whey or Peanut

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Elsen, Lieke Wj; Bol-Schoenmakers, Marianne; van Esch, Betty Cam; Hofman, Gerard A; van de Heijning, Bert Jm; Pieters, Raymond H; Smit, Joost J; Garssen, Johan; Willemsen, Linette Em

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation with long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) has been found to reduce the development of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of fish oil diets rich in eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3; EPA) or docosahexaenoic acid

  19. Clove oil and fungus compounds: Can nematode suppression be achieved without phytotoxicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natural products from a plant (Syzygium aromaticum) and a fungus (Aspergillus sp.) were examined for the presence of compounds with potential for application as novel nematicides. The plant-derived material, clove oil, was tested in the greenhouse against the nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cucum...

  20. Canola Cake as a Potential Substrate for Proteolytic Enzymes Production by a Selected Strain of Aspergillus oryzae: Selection of Process Conditions and Product Characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana C. Freitas; Castro, Ruann J. S.; Fontenele, Maria A.; Egito, Antonio S.; Farinas, Cristiane S.; Pinto, Gustavo A. S.

    2013-01-01

    Oil cakes have excellent nutritional value and offer considerable potential for use in biotechnological processes that employ solid-state fermentation (SSF) for the production of high value products. This work evaluates the feasibility of using canola cake as a substrate for protease production by a selected strain of Aspergillus oryzae cultivated under SSF. The influences of the following process parameters were considered: initial substrate moisture content, incubation temperature, inoculum...

  1. A Krill Oil Supplemented Diet Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis in High-Fat Fed Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular me...

  2. CANOLA CROP TAKES UP SELENIUM PROVIDES BIOFUEL AND FEED SUPPLEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many of the Brassica plant taxi that are candidates for phytoremediation of selenium also produce products that be used for refining into biodiesel, as well as selenium enriched animal feeds. These include canola (Brassica napus) that is planted in the Westside soils of central California (Oxalis si...

  3. Growth, yield and quality response of various canola cultivars under agro-ecological condition of Faisalabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiment was conducted to evaluate the quantitative and qualitative response of six Canola hybrids/cultivars viz. Hyola-401, Omega-I, Omega-II, Bulbul-98, Rainbow and Cyclone. Crop growth, agronomic and qualitative traits were recorded by standard procedures. The results showed that hybrid Omega-II produced maximum leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and total dry matter accumulation (TDM) and also out yielded than other hybrids/cultivars, i.e. 2439 kg ha/sup -1/. Whereas, it was observed that Hyola-401 gave the highest oil contents (44.51%) and Omega-I produced the highest protein content (25.25%) amongst all the treatments. It is concluded that Omega-II cultivar performed better and attained maximum yield and quality under the agro-ecological conditions of Faisalabad. (author)

  4. Aesthetically appealing noise suppression solutions for the oil and gas industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawchyn, Scott; Broska, Paul [150, 9th Ave. SW, Calgary (Canada)], email: scott.sawchyn@encana.com, email: paul.broska@encana.com

    2011-07-01

    The paper relates how Encana, a leader in gas production, had to adopt an alternative design for a natural gas compressor package to satisfy not only provincial noise regulations but also landowners, who wanted to preserve the rural look of their area, on the one hand and, on the other, still build a cost-effective and efficient compressor. The location was chosen for its proximity to Encana's existing gas delivery network. The landowners wanted assurances that the new compressor unit would be noise-suppressed, and would not degrade the rural character of the region's visual environment. Encana eventually agreed to these requirements and, after having contacted the stakeholders, came up with an innovative design and construction plan, but at a construction cost estimated to exceed the original by 23.5%. During construction, several initiatives, which have since been well-received in other contexts, improved on this and the final construction cost was only 14.1% higher than typical. The finalized compressor thus met all Encana, provincial and landowner requirements on noise, efficiency and look, and promoted new noise-suppressing, aesthetically appealing building design.

  5. Induced mutations for development of B. Juncea canola quality varieties suitable for Indian agro-climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Heera', a canola quality B. juncea selection, was developed at Department of Botany, RTM Nagpur University, Nagpur, India. by Late Dr. A. S. Khalatkar during 1992-93. The mutation breeding/hybridization programme was initiated during 1994-95 for developing canola quality early maturing varieties with high yield potential. Dry and presoaked Heera seeds were treated with 0.01, 0.02 and 0.03% EMS with three hours and six hours mutagenic treatments. Five mutants with early maturity (93-95 days) as against 140 days that of parent were evaluated in trials. EH-1 was found superior in yield potential; however, the yield was lower than the control. NU-6 was selected in the segregating generation of EH1 X Pusa Bold with high erucic acid and medium glucosinolate with medium seed size. In another experiment, the mutagenic treatment of 0.04% sodium azide was given to 12 hour water soaked seeds of advanced selection derived from cross EH1 x Pusa Bold. The large seeded mutant PB-7 with zero erucic acid, medium glucosinolate was identified. Extensive hybridization programme using mutants EH-1 and PB7 and mutant derivative NU-6 was initiated. Several selections with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid and canola quality were identified from the cross EH-1 x NU-6. Selection NUDH-YJ-6 with low glucosinolate, high erucic acid, 3.6g test weight and high oil content (46%) was at par in seed yield but 12% higher in oil yield in the multi-location trials of four years during 2003-04 to 2006-07 at ten locations in zone III and zone IV of India. The advance selection derived from EH1 X NU6 was crossed with PB7. Several '00' selections were developed and studied for their agronomic characters. Two selections along with checks were evaluated for two years during 2005-06 and 2006-07. Both these selections were resistant to white rust disease and given seed and oil yield comparable to national check Varuna. Another selection NUDYJ- 5 with canola characters having maturity like Indian mustard

  6. Moringa Oleifera Oil: A Possible Source of Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a v...

  7. COMPETITORS CO-OPERATING: ESTABLISHING A SUPPLY CHAIN TO MANAGE GENETICALLY MODIFIED CANOLA

    OpenAIRE

    Smyth, Stuart J.; Phillips, Peter W.B.

    2001-01-01

    Identity preserving production and marketing (IPPM) systems are used extensively in the Canadian canola industry to segregate varieties with different traits from the commodity stream. This paper examines one use of identify preserved production and marketing systems for genetically modified (GM) canola. A number of transgenic herbicide tolerant (HT) varieties have been approved for release in Canada since 1995 but delays in approval in other countries led the Canadian canola sector to use IP...

  8. Effects of Water Deficit Stress on Several Quantitative and Qualitative Characteristics of Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad HOSSEINI

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Water deficit stress considered as one of the most important limiting factors for oil seed canola (Brassica napus L. growth and productivity in Iran. To evaluate the effects of water deficit stress on some qualitative and quantitative characteristics of canola cultivars, this experiment in a greenhouse trial carried out as factorial based on completely randomized design with three replications in Shahid Chamran University of Ahwaz (Iran. Canola cultivars, including ‘Hyola 308’, ‘Hyola 401’ and ‘RGS 003’ as first factor, and the second one was three levels of water deficit stress, including stress at early stem elongation stage to early flowering (D1, early flowering stage to early emergence of sacs (D2, beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs (D3 and normal irrigation (C, as check. Results showed that the interaction between water deficit stress and cultivars affected biological yield, seed oil yields and harvest index (p≤0.01, dry matter and economic yield (p≤0.05. Water deficit stress reduced grain oil yields. ‘Hyola 308’ under stress at beginning stem elongation stage to early flowering had the lowest oil yields (1.1 g plants-1 and ‘Hyola 401’ under non-stress conditions showed highest oil yields (4.3 g plants-1. The decrease of oil yields at the flowering stage to stem elongation stage was more than the other stages. In addition, water deficit stress reduced harvest index in the three stress levels due to reduced economic yield and reduced biological yield. Stress susceptibility index for ‘Hyola 401’ at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs was 0.914 and the ‘Hyola 308’ showed 1.12 at the beginning of stem elongation stage to early emergence of sacs respectively, which it can implies that ‘Hyola 308’ is more sensitive than ‘Hyola 401’ to water deficit stress.

  9. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Conte, Annalea; Burri, Lena; Berge, Kjetil; De Nuccio, Francesco; Giudetti, Anna Maria; Zara, Vincenzo

    2012-01-01

    Krill oil (KO) is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals. PMID:22685607

  10. A krill oil supplemented diet suppresses hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Ferramosca

    Full Text Available Krill oil (KO is a dietary source of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, mainly represented by eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid bound to phospholipids. The supplementation of a high-fat diet with 2.5% KO efficiently prevented triglyceride and cholesterol accumulation in liver of treated rats. This effect was accompanied by a parallel reduction of the plasma levels of triglycerides and glucose and by the prevention of a plasma insulin increase. The investigation of the molecular mechanisms of KO action in high-fat fed animals revealed a strong decrease in the activities of the mitochondrial citrate carrier and of the cytosolic acetyl-CoA carboxylase and fatty acid synthetase, which are both involved in hepatic de novo lipogenesis. In these animals a significant increase in the activity of carnitine palmitoyl-transferase I and in the levels of carnitine was also observed, suggesting a concomitant stimulation of hepatic fatty acid oxidation. The KO supplemented animals also retained an efficient mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, most probably as a consequence of a KO-induced arrest of the uncoupling effects of a high-fat diet. Lastly, the KO supplementation prevented an increase in body weight, as well as oxidative damage of lipids and proteins, which is often found in high-fat fed animals.

  11. Vegetable oil spills : oil properties and behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1997, the United States Environmental Protection Agency conducted a thorough review of the issue regarding vegetable oil spills. Recent attention has refocused on this issue as a result of an incident where 20 tons of canola oil was spilled in the Vancouver Harbour in 2000. In the past, vegetable oils were suggested to be a useful test material because they were thought to be innocuous. It was even suggested they be used to remove petroleum oil residues from beaches. However, recent studies have shown that spills of vegetable oils can have major environmental consequences, equivalent to those of petroleum oil spills. The spills have devastating effects on birds and intertidal organisms. This paper presented a summary of historical vegetable spills from around the world. In this study, specific behaviour tests were examined for several oils including canola, soy bean, olive, castor and corn oils. Evaporation, water-in-oil emulsification and chemical dispersion were measured and were found to be nearly zero, suggesting that vegetable oil spills are not very soluble in water. The aquatic toxicity of vegetable oil is low, but their fate is quite different from petroleum. Vegetable oils do not evaporate to a significant degree, they do not form water-in-oil emulsions, nor do they disperse in water. The physical properties of vegetable oils were also measured, including density and viscosity. This paper presented the aquatic toxicity of several vegetable oils along with other environmental data including the degradation rates noted in the literature. Most environmental damage reported in the literature is by contact with birds feathers resulting in hypothermia and secondly by smothering of intertidal organisms. The effect of vegetable oil on fish has not been well studied, but it is expected that there will be little destructive effect except where smothering can occur. 35 refs., 3 tabs

  12. Impact of applying edible oils to silk channels on ear pests of sweet corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of applying vegetable oils to corn silks on ear-feeding insects in sweet corn production was evaluated in 2006 and 2007. Six vegetable oils used in this experiment were canola, corn, olive, peanut, sesame, and soybean. Water and two commercial insecticidal oils (Neemix' neem oil and Sun...

  13. Non-destructive models for leaf area determination in canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francilene de L. Tartaglia

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The leaf is a very important structure of the plants, since it allows gas exchanges and the transformation of light energy into chemical energy. This study aimed to generate and test mathematical models for leaf area estimation in canola based on leaf dimensions. Two experiments were conducted with canola in 2014, in which leaves were collected in different phenological stages with different sizes and shapes. Subsequently, leaf length, width and area were measured (with automatic meter in 606 leaves, which included 371 ovate and 235 lanceolate leaves. The models were generated using length, width and length versus width as independent variables and leaf area as dependent variable. The models were validated using a group of leaves different from those used to generate the models. A total of 27 models were obtained and those with best statistics and higher simplicity were selected. The polynomial model LA = 0.88735 W2 + 0.93503 W and the power model LA = 1.1282 W1.9396 can be used for both types of leaves and have high accuracy in the estimation of canola leaf area.

  14. A global study of transcriptome dynamics in canola (Brassica napus L.) responsive to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infection using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Raj Kumar; Megha, Swati; Rahman, Muhammad Hafizur; Basu, Urmila; Kav, Nat N V

    2016-09-15

    The necrotrophic phytopathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, causes Sclerotinia stem rot, which is a serious constraint to canola (Brassica napus L.) production worldwide. To understand the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying host response to Sclerotinia infection, we analyzed the transcript level changes in canola post-infection with S. sclerotiorum in a time course of a compatible interaction using strand specific whole transcriptome sequencing. Following infection, 161 and 52 genes (P≤0.001) were induced while 24 and 23 genes were repressed at 24h post-inoculation (hpi) and 48hpi, respectively. This suggests that, a gradual increase in host cell lyses and increase virulence of the pathogen led to the expression of only a fewer host specific genes at the later stage of infection. We observed rapid induction of key pathogen responsive genes, including glucanases, chitinases, peroxidases and WRKY Transcription factors (TFs) within 24hpi, indicating early detection of the pathogen by the host. Only 16 genes were significantly induced at both the time points suggesting a coordinated suppression of host responses by the pathogen. In addition to genes involved in plant-pathogen interactions, many novel disease responsive genes, including various TF sand those associated with jasmonate (JA) and ethylene (ET) signalling were identified. This suggests that canola adopts multiple strategies in mediating plant responses to the pathogen attack. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) validation of a selected set of genes demonstrated a similar trend as observed by RNA-Seq analysis and highlighted the potential involvement of these genes by the host to defend itself from pathogen attack. Overall, this work presents an in-depth analysis of the interaction between host susceptibility and pathogen virulence in the agriculturally important B. napus-S. sclerotiorum pathosystem. PMID:27265030

  15. Additive impacts on particle emissions from heating low emitting cooking oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amouei Torkmahalleh, M.; Zhao, Y.; Hopke, P. K.; Rossner, A.; Ferro, A. R.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of five additives, including table salt, sea salt, black pepper, garlic powder, and turmeric, on the emission of PM2.5 and ultrafine particles (UFP) from heated cooking oil (200 °C) were studied. One hundred milligrams of the additives were added individually to either canola or soybean oil without stirring. Black pepper, table salt, and sea salt reduced the PM2.5 emission of canola oil by 86% (p Turmeric and garlic powder showed no changes in the PM2.5 and total number emissions of canola oil. Table salt and sea salt, decreased the level of PM2.5 emissions from soybean oil by 47% (p Turmeric and garlic powder had no effect on soybean oil with respect to total particle number emissions. Our results indicate that table salt, sea salt, and black pepper can be used to reduce the particle total number and PM2.5 emissions when cooking with oil.

  16. Effect of Phosphorus, Potassium, and Chloride Nutrition on Cold Tolerance of Winter Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A field experiment was conducted to determine whether fertility treatments improve cold hardiness of canola (Brassica napus L.). Measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and overwinter survival of field-grown canola were used to evaluate the effect of chloride (Cl), potassium (K), and phosphorus (P)...

  17. Canola meals from different production plants differ in ruminal protein degradability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lactation trials have shown that production and N efficiency were improved when dietary soybean meal was replaced with equal crude protein (CP) from canola meal. Three or four canola meal samples were collected from each of 12 Canadian production plants (total = 37), and analyzed for differences in ...

  18. Physical Localization and Genetic Mapping of Fertility Restoration Gene Rfo in Canola (Brassica napus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Ogu cytoplasm for male fertility and its fertility restorer gene Rfo in canola (Brassica napus L.) were originally introgressed from radish (Raphanus sativus L.) and have been widely used for canola hybrid production and breeding. The objective of this study was to determine the physical locati...

  19. Identification of Adulteration of Olive Oil with Other Edible Oils by LED-induced Fluorescence and Multivariate Calibration

    OpenAIRE

    Marilena Meira; Cristina M. Quintella; Erika Maria de Oliveira Ribeiro; Mariana A. Santos; Saionara Luna; Alexandre Lopes Del Cid

    2014-01-01

    The most common adulterants found in extra-virgin olive oil are refined olive oil and other vegetable oils, such as sunflower, soybean, corn, and canola. In addition to constituting economic fraud, adulteration can cause serious damage to the health of the consumer. This study focuses on the detection and quantification of the adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil with edible oils, using spectrofluorimetry and chemometrics. The data were analyzed by Principal Components Analysis (PCA) and Pa...

  20. Effect of UV Radiation and Evaluated CO2 on Morphological Traits, Yield and Yield Components of Canola (Brassica napus L. Grown under Water Deficit Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza TOHIDI MOGHADAM

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we studied the combined effects of UV radiation, CO2 and water stress on the morphological traits, yield and yield components of canola (Brassica napus cv. �Okapi� and �Talaye� under twelve growth conditions: complete irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-A (control, complete irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-B, complete irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-C, limited irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-A, limited irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-B, limited irrigation with ambient CO2 with UV-C, complete irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-A, complete irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-B, complete irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-C, limited irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-A, limited irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-B and limited irrigation with elevated CO2 with UV-C. The results showed that water stress significantly decreased all of traits except for the oil percentage. Additionally, an elevated level of CO2 significantly increased the final yield, 1000-seed weight, oil yield, plant height, specific leaf area and number of branches per plant, whereas UV radiation decreased all of the traits in this experiment. Elevated CO2 ameliorated the adverse effects of UV radiation in the final yield, seed weight, oil percentage, oil yield, plant height, specific leaf area and number of branches per plant. This study showed that elevated CO2 can partially ameliorate some of the adverse effects of UV radiation in canola plants. Furthermore, in this study, we observed that the increase in the yield was due to the increase in the seed weight and number of branches caused by elevated CO2 in canola plants. In addition, the maximum yield was obtained from the �Talaye� cultivar under conditions of sunlight, full irrigation and elevated CO2.

  1. Evaluation of Application Methods Efficiency of Zinc and Iron for Canola(Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluation of application method efficiency of zinc and iron microelements in canola, an experiment was conducted in the Agricultural Research Station of Eastern Azerbaijan province in 2008. The experimental design was a RCBD with eight treatments (F1: control, F2: iron, F3: zinc, F4: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility, F5: iron, F6: zinc, F7: iron+ zinc in the form of solution foliar application, and F8: iron + zinc in the form of soil utility and foliar application. Analysis of variance showed that there were significant differences among treatments on given traits, antioxidant enzymes activity, fatty acids percentage, plant height, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio, protein percentage, oil percentage, oil yield, 1000 seed weight, seed yield, nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium percentage of leaves, zinc and iron content of leaves and capitulum diameters. The highest seed yield, oil yield, oil percentage, 1000 seed weight, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and protein percentage were obtained from the soil and foliar application of iron + zinc treatments (F8. Also, the highest amounts of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium concentration in leaves were achieved from control treatment which was an indication of non-efficiency of iron and zinc on the absorption rate of these substances in the leaves. The correlation between effective traits on the seed yield, such as, capitalism diameter, number of seed rows in capitulum, seed weight to capitulum weight ratio and 1000 seed weight were positively significant. In general, foliar and soil application of zinc and iron had the highest efficiency in aspect of seed production. The comparison of the various methods of fertilization showed that foliar application was more effective than soil application. Also, micronutrient foliar application increased concentration of elements, especially zinc and iron. Antioxidant enzymes activity was different in response to treatments also the

  2. Application of gamma rays for induction of tolerance mutants to environmental stress conditions in canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study aimed to induce useful mutations in canola possess high seed yield and oil content under new reclamation desert land at Ras-Suder-Sina (saline) and Inshas (harsh and poor fertility). Canola seeds of four varieties (Serow 4, Serow 6, Pactol as local cultivars and Evita as exotic variety) were treated with gamma rays at four doses (0, 100, 400 and 600 Gy). Thirty mutant plants for number of pods/plant and changes in morphological criteria were selected at M2 generation. The mutants at M3 generation confirmed that induction of mutant lines possessed higher number of pods and seed yield/plant than the mother varieties. The mutant lines possessed homogeneity at M3 generation were 5, 8,10, 11, 18 and 22 at serow 4, 38 and 45 at serow 6, 63 and 66 at Pactol and mutant lines 74,75, 78,92 at Evita. Highest number of pods/plant (110) was recorded at line 74 derived from Evita variety. The results were appeared the same trend for seed yield/plant with number of pods/plant, the lines which possessed high number of pods/plant were had high seed yield/plant. The results at M4 and M5 generations for 13 homogeneity mutant lines selected from M3 generation contained different response of mutant genotypes for different conditions on the bases of number of pods and seed yield/plant. Promising mutant lines were detected under both conditions possessed significant increases at both M4 and M5 generations. Oil percent as well as acid value at M4 and M5 were recorded the highest mean value was found at Inshas in line 75 and the lowest acid value was noticed at line 5. Finally nine mutant lines possessed promising traits of this study, lines 11, 66 and 87 under both conditions (Suder and Inshas), lines 8, 38 and 63 under Ras-Sudr and lines 74, 75 and 92 under Inshas condition.

  3. Cuphea oil as a potential source of biodiesel with improved properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biodiesel is usually produced from common vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), and palm as well as other feedstocks such as animal fats and used cooking oils. To enhance feedstock supply, other vegetable oils such as jatropha are of increasing interest. However, most of these feedsto...

  4. Dried flour-oil composites for lipid delivery in low-fat cake mix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Excess steam jet-cooked wheat flour and canola oil composites containing 30 to 55% oil were drum dried. The composites were used to replace the flour and oil in the low-fat cake mix formulations. The cake batter specific gravity and viscosity were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain...

  5. Effect of Zeolite and Foliar Application of Selenium on Growth, Yield and Yield Component of Three Canola Cultivar under Conditions of Late Season Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein ZAHEDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study effect of zeolite soil application and selenium foliar application on growth, yield and yield components of three canola cultivar under conditions of late season drought stress an experiment was conducted in two growing season in 2006 and 2007. Site study was field of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute, Karaj, Iran. The experimental design was a Randomized Complete Block arrangement in factorial split plot with three replications. Irrigation factors were chosen at two levels, included complete irrigation and irrigation holding at stem elongation stage. Zeolite was used at two levels, non application and 10 ton per hectare. Also selenium was sprayed at three concentrations, 0, 15 and 30 gr per liter from sodium selenate. These treatments were randomized in main plots while three canola cultivars (�Zarfam�, �Okapi� and �Sarigol� were randomized in sub plots. The results showed that, main effects of different irrigation levels have significant effect on all traits and drought stress decreased significantly all traits. Foliar application of selenium had significant and additive effect on plant height, number of pods in plant, number of seeds in pod, seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield. There was significant difference between zeolite application and non application on all traits except oil percent and harvest index. It was shown that canola cultivars were different in all of studied traits. Comparison of means showed that, four critical traits that is seed yield, biological yield, harvest index and oil yield were affected by experimental treatments. Different cultivars have different responses under unlike conditions inside upon traits. Under different treatment conditions especially drought stress, zeolite and selenium application have positive and significant effect on traits related to yield. In finally, zeolite and selenium application in dry lands that are exposure to late season drought

  6. Nutritional value of full-fat green canola seed fed to growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woyengo, T A; Yánez, J; Young, M G; Lanz, G; Beltranena, E; Zijlstra, R T

    2014-08-01

    Immature green canola seed (full-fat green canola seed [FFGC]) is rejected by canola crushing plants due to chlorophyll staining of oil destined for human consumption. With >35% oil, FFGC can contribute energy to pig diets. The nutritive value of FFGC for growing-finishing pigs was determined in 2 studies. In Exp. 1, 6 ileal-cannulated barrows (46.5 kg BW) were fed 3 diets as a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square to determine standardized ileal digestible (SID) coefficients of AA and calculate DE and NE values for FFGC. A diet including 40% FFGC replaced wheat in a basal diet and a cornstarch-based N-free diet were fed to determine energy and nutrient digestibility by difference and to estimate basal endogenous AA losses to calculate SID of AA. In Exp. 2, 1,100 pigs (32.9 kg BW), housed in 50 pens of 22 barrows or gilts per pen, were fed 5 diets including 0, 5, 10, and 15% constant or declining amounts (15, 10, 5, 0, and 0%, respectively) of FFGC over 5 phases to determine effects of feeding FFGC on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Phase diets were formulated to provide 4.00, 3.60, 3.25, 2.90, and 2.65 g SID Lys/Mcal NE for d 0 to 21, d 22 to 42, d 43 to 62, d 63 to 74, and d 75 to 123 kg market weight. Carcass characteristics were measured using the Destron grading system. On DM basis, FFGC contained 43% ether extract, 25% CP, 22% NDF, 10 μmol/g glucosinolates, 1.35% Lys, 0.5% Met, 0.9% Thr, and 0.27% Trp. In FFGC, SID coefficients of Lys, Met, Thr, and Trp were 86.9, 87.3, 76.9, and 84.3%, respectively, and calculated DE and NE values were 4.92 and 3.50 Mcal/kg of DM, respectively. Overall, increasing dietary FFGC inclusion from 0 to 15% linearly decreased (P Pigs fed decreasing amounts of FFGC by growth phase compared with controls (0% FFGC) had lower (P = 0.011) overall G:F (0.392 vs. 0.372 kg/kg). Increasing dietary FFGC inclusion did not affect carcass backfat thickness and loin depth. The FFGC was a good source of dietary energy and AA. However

  7. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    OpenAIRE

    TORRES R.; Salam, M.; Pérez, P.; Goicoechea, E.; Ortiz, J; Romero, N; Urra, C.; Dobarganes, M. C.; Robert, P.; Masson, L

    2002-01-01

    Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S): 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20), and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of ...

  8. Liquid transportation fuels from algal oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Daichuan

    Liquid transportation fuels from renewable sources are becoming more prominent and important in modem society. Processing of hydrocarbon oils from algae has not been studied in detail in the past, so components which have been proposed for incorporation in algal oils via genetic engineering, such as cuparene, farnesene, phytol and squalene, have been subjected to processing via catalytic cracking in a pulse reactor at different temperatures. The cracking results showed that liquid products contained numerous high octane molecules which make it feasible for use in automobiles. Additionally, canola oil, chosen as an algal oil model compound, was studied as a feed for catalytic cracking in a fixed-bed reactor at atmospheric pressure over different types of zeolites. The results showed that MFI catalysts gave the highest yield of gasoline range products and lowest coke formation. Gallium loaded MFI zeolites increased the total aromatics yield for the canola oil cracking relative to the acid form of the zeolite. Finally, algal oils were cracked on several selected zeolites, and the results showed the same trend as canola oil cracking. MFI gave the highest gasoline yield (43.8 wt%) and lowest coke (4.7 wt%). The total aromatics yield from algae oil cracking is improved 7.8 wt% when MFI is loaded with gallium.

  9. Characteristics of Oxidative Storage Stability of Canola Fatty Acid Methyl Ester Stabilised with Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirto Prakoso

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The storage effects on the oxidation characteristics of fatty acid methyl ester of canola oil (CME were investigated in this study. CME stabilised with two antioxidants, i.e. 2,6-di-tert-bytyl-p-cresol (BHT and 6,6-di-tert-butyl-2, 2’-methylendi-p-cresol (BPH, was stored at 20, 40 and 60°C. The oxidation stability data were measured by the Rancimat test method and it was found that both BHT and BPH addition increased the oxidation resistance of the CME. The results showed that when BPH or BHT was added at a concentration of 100 ppm, the oxidation induction period of the neat CME samples increased from 5.53 h to 6.93 h and 6.14 h, respectively. Comparing both antioxidants, BPH proved to be more effective in increasing the oxidation resistance when both antioxidants were added at the same concentration. Furthermore, the oxidation induction time decreased linearly with the storage time. It was shown that the oxidation occurred rapidly in the first 8 weeks of storage. Later, a kinetic study was undertaken and first-order kinetics were applied to explain the oxidation characteristics of the CME added with antioxidants. This kinetic study focused on exploiting the activation energy values obtained from the Arrhenius equations. Also, the oxidation effects on other quality parameters, including acid value, peroxide value, kinematic viscosity, and water content, were examined.

  10. Transcriptome analysis of canola (Brassica napus under salt stress at the germination stage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua Long

    Full Text Available Canola (Brassica napus is one of the most important oil crops in the world. However, its yield has been constrained by salt stress. In this study, transcriptome profiles were explored using Digital Gene Expression (DGE at 0, 3, 12 and 24 hours after H2O (control and NaCl treatments on B. napus roots at the germination stage. Comparisons of gene-expression between the control and the treatment were conducted after tag-mapping to the sequenced Brassica rapa genome. The differentially expressed genes during the time course of salt stress were focused on, and 163 genes were identified to be differentially expressed at all the time points. Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that some of the genes were involved in proline metabolism, inositol metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic processes and oxidation-reduction processes and may play vital roles in the salt-stress response at the germination stage. Thus, this study provides new candidate salt stress responding genes, which may function in novel putative nodes in the molecular pathways of salt stress resistance.

  11. Copaiba Oil Suppresses Inflammatory Cytokines in Splenocytes of C57Bl/6 Mice Induced with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE)

    OpenAIRE

    Débora S. Dias; Lívia B. A. Fontes; Antônio E.M. Crotti; Beatriz J. V. Aarestrup; Aarestrup, Fernando M; Ademar A. da Silva Filho; José O. A. Corrêa

    2014-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a murine autoimmune disease used to study multiple sclerosis. We have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of copaiba oil (100, 50 and 25 µg/mL) on NO, H2O2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 production in cultured cells from EAE-mice. Copaiba oil (100 µg/mL) inhibited H2O2, NO, IFN-γ TNF-α and IL-17 production spontaneously or after ConA and MOG35–55 stimulation. It is suggested that copaiba oil acts on the mechanism of development of EAE by IFN-γ...

  12. Study of initial stage in coal liquefaction. Increase in oil yield with suppression of retrogressive reaction during initial stage; Ekika hanno no shoki katei ni kansuru kenkyu. 1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uesugi, K.; Kanaji, M.; Kaneko, T.; Shimasaki, K. [Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-28

    For the coal liquefaction, improvement of liquefaction conditions and increase of liquefied oil yield are expected by suppressing the recombination through rapid stabilization of pyrolytic radicals which are formed at the initial stage of liquefaction. Two-stage liquefaction combining prethermal treatment and liquefaction was performed under various conditions, to investigate the effects of reaction conditions on the yields and properties of products as well as to increase liquefied oil yield. Consequently, it was found that the catalyst contributes greatly to the hydrogen transfer to coal at the prethermal treatment. High yield of n-hexane soluble fraction with products having low condensation degree could be obtained by combining the prethermal treatment in the presence of hydrogen and catalyst with the concentration of slurry after the treatment. This was considered to be caused by the synergetic effect between the improvement of liquefaction by suppressing polymerization/condensation at the initial stage of reaction through the prethermal treatment and the effective hydrogen transfer accompanied with the improvement of contact efficiency of coal/catalyst by the concentration of slurry at the stage of liquefaction. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  13. Identification and analysis of MKK and MPK gene families in canola (Brassica napus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Wanwan; Yang, Bo; Yu, Bao-Jun; Zhou, Zili; Li, Cui; Jia, Ming; Sun, Yun; Zhang, Yue; Wu, Feifei; Zhang, Hanfeng; Wang, Boya; Deyholos, Michael K.; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Background Eukaryotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK/MPK) signaling cascades transduce and amplify environmental signals via three types of reversibly phosphorylated kinases to activate defense gene expression. Canola (oilseed rape, Brassica napus) is a major crop in temperate regions. Identification and characterization of MAPK and MAPK kinases (MAPKK/MKK) of canola will help to elucidate their role in responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Results We describe the identification a...

  14. Evaluation energy balance of canola production under rain fed farming in north of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Ebrahim Azarpour

    2012-01-01

    Energy in agriculture is important in terms of crop production and agro processing for value adding. Canola is one of important rapeseed that it is tilled in dry farming systems in north of Iran. This method in an agricultural product system is the energy consuming in product operations and energy saving in produced crops. In this article, evaluation of energy indices under rain fed farming canola in north of Iran (Guilan province) was investigated. Data were collected from 72 farms by used a...

  15. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions-Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lisa; Rempel, Curtis B; Wanasundara, Janitha P D

    2016-01-01

    At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled "Canola/Rapeseed Protein-Future Opportunities and Directions" that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015) addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry. PMID:27135237

  16. Canola/Rapeseed Protein: Future Opportunities and Directions—Workshop Proceedings of IRC 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Campbell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available At present, canola meal is primarily streamlined into the animal feed market where it is a competitive animal feed source owing to its high protein value. Beyond animal feed lies a potential game-changer with regards to the value of canola meal, and its opportunity as a high quality food protein source. An economic and sustainable source of protein with high bioavailability and digestibility is essential to human health and well-being. Population pressures, ecological considerations, and production efficiency underscore the importance of highly bioavailable plant proteins, both for the developed and developing world. Despite decades of research, several technologies being developed, and products being brought to large scale production, there are still no commercially available canola protein products. The workshop entitled “Canola/Rapeseed Protein—Future Opportunities and Directions” that was held on 8 July 2015 during the 14th International Rapeseed Congress (IRC 2015 addressed the current situation and issues surrounding canola meal protein from the technological, nutritional, regulatory and genomics/breeding perspective. Discussions with participants and experts in the field helped to identify economic barriers and research gaps that need to be addressed in both the short and long term for the benefit of canola industry.

  17. Quality of cold-pressed organic oils

    OpenAIRE

    Monika Skwarek; Zbigniew Józef Dolatowski

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the quality of the traditional cold-pressed oils made from organic materials in a small farm. Scope of the study included evaluation of canola, flax, camelina and poppy oil immediately after manufacture and during storage under various conditions (light, temperature). Fatty acid composition, oxidability rate, an acid value, peroxide value, anisidine value and colour values in CIE L*a*b* were marked. It has been shown that immediately after the production al...

  18. Copaiba oil suppresses inflammatory cytokines in splenocytes of C57Bl/6 mice induced with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Débora S; Fontes, Lívia B A; Crotti, Antônio E M; Aarestrup, Beatriz J V; Aarestrup, Fernando M; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Corrêa, José O A

    2014-01-01

    Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is a murine autoimmune disease used to study multiple sclerosis. We have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of copaiba oil (100, 50 and 25 µg/mL) on NO, H2O2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 production in cultured cells from EAE-mice. Copaiba oil (100 µg/mL) inhibited H2O2, NO, IFN-γ TNF-α and IL-17 production spontaneously or after ConA and MOG35-55 stimulation. It is suggested that copaiba oil acts on the mechanism of development of EAE by IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α inhibition, modulating the immune response on both Th1 and Th17 cells. PMID:25153880

  19. Copaiba Oil Suppresses Inflammatory Cytokines in Splenocytes of C57Bl/6 Mice Induced with Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis (EAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora S. Dias

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is a murine autoimmune disease used to study multiple sclerosis. We have investigated the immunomodulatory effects of copaiba oil (100, 50 and 25 µg/mL on NO, H2O2, TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-17 production in cultured cells from EAE-mice. Copaiba oil (100 µg/mL inhibited H2O2, NO, IFN-γ TNF-α and IL-17 production spontaneously or after ConA and MOG35–55 stimulation. It is suggested that copaiba oil acts on the mechanism of development of EAE by IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α inhibition, modulating the immune response on both Th1 and Th17 cells.

  20. Glyphosate-Resistant and Conventional Canola (Brassica napus L.) Responses to Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrêa, Elza Alves; Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-05-11

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola contains two transgenes that impart resistance to the herbicide glyphosate: (1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and (2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The objectives of this research were to determine the phytotoxicity of AMPA to canola, the relative metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR and conventional non-GR (NGR) canola, and AMPA pool sizes in glyphosate-treated GR canola. AMPA applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) was not phytotoxic to GR or NGR. At this AMPA application rate, NGR canola accumulated a higher concentration of AMPA in its tissues than GR canola. At rates of 1 and 3.33 kg ae ha(-1) of glyphosate, GR canola growth was stimulated. This stimulatory effect is similar to that of much lower doses of glyphosate on NGR canola. Both shikimate and AMPA accumulated in tissues of these glyphosate-treated plants. In a separate experiment in which young GR and NGR canola plants were treated with non-phytotoxic levels of [(14)C]-glyphosate, very little glyphosate was metabolized in NGR plants, whereas most of the glyphosate was metabolized to AMPA in GR plants at 7 days after application. Untreated leaves of GR plants accumulated only metabolites (mostly AMPA) of glyphosate, indicating that GOX activity is very high in the youngest leaves. These data indicate that more glyphosate is transformed to AMPA rapidly in GR canola and that the accumulated AMPA is not toxic to the canola plant. PMID:27092715

  1. Effect of pollinator abundance on self-fertilization and gene flow: application to GM Canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Martin; Hayter, Katrina; Cresswell, James E

    2007-10-01

    Cross-pollination from fields of transgenic crops is of great public concern. Although cross-pollination in commercial canola (Brassica napus) fields has been empirically measured, field trials are expensive and do not identify the causes of cross-pollination. Therefore, theoretical models can be valuable because they can provide estimates of cross-pollination at any given site and time. We present a general analytical model of field-to-field gene flow due to the following competing mechanisms: the wind, bees, and autonomous pollination. We parameterize the model for the particular case of field-to-field cross-pollination of genetically modified (GM) canola via the wind and via bumble bees (Bombus spp.) and honey bees (Apis mellifera). We make extensive use of the large data set of bee densities collected during the recent U.K. Farm Scale Evaluations. We predict that canola approaches almost full seed set without pollinators and that autonomous pollination is responsible for > or = 25% of seed set, irrespective of pollinator abundance. We do not predict the relative contribution of bees vs. the wind in landscape-scale gene flow in canola. However, under model assumptions, we predict that the maximum field-to-field gene flow due to bumble bees is 0.04% and 0.13% below the current EU limit for adventitious GM presence for winter- and spring-sown canola, respectively. We predict that gene flow due to bees is approximately 3.1 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, and due to the wind, 1.3 times higher at 20% compared to 100% male-fertility, for both winter- and spring-sown canola. Bumble bee-mediated gene flow is approximately 2.7 times higher and wind-mediated gene flow approximately 1.7 times lower in spring-sown than in winter-sown canola, regardless of the degree of male-sterility. The model of cross-pollination due to the wind most closely predicted three previously published observations: field-to-field gene flow is low; gene flow increases with

  2. A novel detection system for the genetically modified canola (Brassica rapa) line RT73.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Hiroshi; Makiyama, Daiki; Nakamura, Kosuke; Sasaki, Nobuhiro; Minegishi, Yasutaka; Mano, Junichi; Kitta, Kazumi; Ozeki, Yoshihiro; Teshima, Reiko

    2010-12-01

    The herbicide-tolerant genetically modified Roundup Ready canola (Brassica napus) line RT73 has been approved worldwide for use in animal feed and human food. However, RT73 Brassica rapa lines derived from interspecific crosses with RT73 B. napus have not been approved in Japan. Here, we report on a novel system using individual kernel analyses for the qualitative detection of RT73 B. rapa in canola grain samples. We developed a duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method to discriminate B. napus and B. rapa DNA using scatter plots of the end-point analyses; this method was able to discriminate a group comprising B. rapa and Brassica juncea from a group comprising B. napus, Brassica carinata, and Brassica oleracea. We also developed a duplex real-time PCR method for the simultaneous detection of an RT73-specific sequence and an endogenous FatA gene. Additionally, a DNA-extraction method using 96-well silica-membrane plates was developed and optimized for use with individual canola kernels. Our detection system could identify RT73 B. rapa kernels in canola grain samples enabling the accurate and reliable monitoring of RT73 B. rapa contamination in canola, thus playing a role in its governmental regulation in Japan. PMID:21049930

  3. Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks produced from vegetable oil based polyurethane and poly(methyl methacrylate).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiaohua; Narine, Suresh S

    2008-08-01

    Sequential interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) were prepared using polyurethane produced from a canola oil based polyol with primary terminal functional groups and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The properties of the material were studied and compared to the IPNs made from commercial castor oil using dynamic mechanical analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, as well as tensile measurements. The morphology of the IPNs was investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The chemical diversity of the starting materials allowed the evaluation of the effects of dangling chains and graftings on the properties of the IPNs. The polymerization process of canola oil based IPNs was accelerated because of the utilization of polyol with primary functional groups, which efficiently lessened the effect of dangling chains and yielded a higher degree of phase mixing. The mechanical properties of canola oil based IPNs containing more than 75 wt % PMMA were comparable to the corresponding castor oil based IPNs; both were superior to those of the constituent polymers due to the finely divided rubber and plastic combination structures in these IPNs. However, when PMMA content was less than 65 wt %, canola oil based IPNs exhibited a typical mechanical behavior of rigid plastics, whereas castor oil based IPNs showed a typical mechanical behavior of soft rubber. It is proposed that these new IPN materials with high performance prepared from alternative renewable resources can prove to be valuable substitutes for existing materials in various applications. PMID:18624453

  4. Anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and buffalo dung: optimization of methane production in batch experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In several regions of the Pakistan, crop cultivation is leading to the production crop residues and its disposal problems. It has been suggested that the co-digestion of the crop residues with the buffalo dung might be a disposal way for the wasted portion of the crops residue. The objective of present study was to optimize the anaerobic co-digestion of canola straw and the buffalo dung through batch experiments in order to obtain maximum methane production. The optimization was carried out in three stages. In first stage, the best canola straw to buffalo dung ratio was evaluated. In second stage, the best concentration of sodium hydrogen carbonate was assessedas the alkaline pretreatment chemical, whereas in the third stage most suitable particle size of the canola strawwas evaluated. The assessment criteria for the optimization of a co-digestion were cumulative methane production and ABD (Anaerobic Biodegradability). The results yield that anaerobic co-digestibility of the canola straw and the buffalo dung is obviously influenced by all the three factors of optimization. The maximum methane production was obtained as 911 NmL from the canola straw to buffalo dung ratio of 40:60, the alkaline doze of 0.6 gNaHCO/sub 3/ gVS and canola straw particle size of 2mm. However, because of the higher shredding cost to produce 2mm sized canola straw, particle size 4mm could be the best canola straw particle size. (author)

  5. Levels of bioactive lipids in cooking oils: olive oil is the richest source of oleoyl serine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leishman, Emma

    2016-01-01

    Background Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methods Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Results Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Conclusions Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil. PMID:26565552

  6. Estabilidad oxidativa y contenido de tocoferoles en el aceite de canola extraído con CO2 supercrítico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grompone, Maria A.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work the characteristics of canola seed oil extracted using supercritical CO2 under different conditions and its oxidative stability were analyzed and compared with those corresponding to the oil extracted with hexane. The oil with the lower oxidative stability was that extracted at 276 Kg/cm2. All the oils extracted with supercritical CO2 showed a lower oxidative stability than the oil obtained by hexane extraction. Although the hexane extracted oil did not show a significant difference in its tocopherol concentration, its carotenoid concentration was the highest, which could be a reason for the higher oxidative stability of that oil. The oil extraction rate was constant during the whole extraction period, but the rate of tocopherol extraction was higher at the beginning of the process, which suggests a possible co-solvent effect of the oil itself on these compounds.En este trabajo se analizan las características del aceite extraído de semillas de canola usando CO2 supercrítico en diferentes condiciones de operación y su estabilidad oxidativa, comparándolas con las correspondientes a las del aceite extraído con hexano. Entre los aceites extraídos con CO2 supercrítico el que presentó una menor estabilidad oxidativa y un menor contenido de tocoferoles fue el extraído a 276 Kg/cm2. En todos los casos los aceites extraídos por este método resultaron menos estables que el extraído con hexano. Aunque este último no presentó un contenido en tocoferoles sustancialmente diferente al de los primeros, mostró un contenido de carotenoides superior, lo que podría estar explicando su mayor estabilidad oxidativa. Si bien la velocidad de extracción del aceite fue constante durante todo el proceso, los tocoferoles mostraron una mayor velocidad de extracción al inicio que al final del mismo, lo que sugiere un posible efecto co-solvente del propio aceite sobre ellos.

  7. Regulated expression of a cytokinin biosynthesis gene IPT delays leaf senescence and improves yield under rainfed and irrigated conditions in canola (Brassica napus L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surya Kant

    Full Text Available Delay of leaf senescence through genetic modification can potentially improve crop yield, through maintenance of photosynthetically active leaves for a longer period. Plant growth hormones such as cytokinin regulate and delay leaf senescence. Here, the structural gene (IPT encoding the cytokinin biosynthetic enzyme isopentenyltransferase was fused to a functionally active fragment of the AtMYB32 promoter and was transformed into canola plants. Expression of the AtMYB32xs::IPT gene cassette delayed the leaf senescence in transgenic plants grown under controlled environment conditions and field experiments conducted for a single season at two geographic locations. The transgenic canola plants retained higher chlorophyll levels for an extended period and produced significantly higher seed yield with similar growth and phenology compared to wild type and null control plants under rainfed and irrigated treatments. The yield increase in transgenic plants was in the range of 16% to 23% and 7% to 16% under rainfed and irrigated conditions, respectively, compared to control plants. Most of the seed quality parameters in transgenic plants were similar, and with elevated oleic acid content in all transgenic lines and higher oil content and lower glucosinolate content in one specific transgenic line as compared to control plants. The results suggest that by delaying leaf senescence using the AtMYB32xs::IPT technology, productivity in crop plants can be improved under water stress and well-watered conditions.

  8. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiol, L.; Assolari, S.; Sacco, P.; Zerbi, G

    2004-11-01

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels.

  9. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by canola (Brassica napus) and radish (Raphanus sativus) grown on multicontaminated soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phytoextraction can provide an effective in situ technique for removing heavy metals from polluted soils. The experiment reported in this paper was undertaken to study the basic potential of phytoextraction of Brassica napus (canola) and Raphanus sativus (radish) grown on a multi-metal contaminated soil in the framework of a pot-experiment. Chlorophyll contents and gas exchanges were measured during the experiment; the heavy metal phytoextraction efficiency of canola and radish were also determined and the phytoextraction coefficient for each metal calculated. Data indicated that both species are moderately tolerant to heavy metals and that radish is more so than canola. These species showed relatively low phytoremediation potential of multicontaminated soils. They could possibly be used with success in marginally polluted soils where their growth would not be impaired and the extraction of heavy metals could be maintained at satisfying levels

  10. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

    OpenAIRE

    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-01-01

    This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal) for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP), formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively....

  11. Using ATR-FT/IR to detect carbohydrate-related molecular structure features of carinata meal and their in situ residues of ruminal fermentation in comparison with canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Hangshu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2013-10-01

    There is no information on the co-products from carinata bio-fuel and bio-oil processing (carinata meal) in molecular structural profiles mainly related to carbohydrate biopolymers in relation to ruminant nutrition. Molecular analyses with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT/IR) technique with attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and chemometrics enable to detect structural features on a molecular basis. The objectives of this study were to: (1) determine carbohydrate conformation spectral features in original carinata meal, co-products from bio-fuel/bio-oil processing; and (2) investigate differences in carbohydrate molecular composition and functional group spectral intensities after in situ ruminal fermentation at 0, 12, 24 and 48 h compared to canola meal as a reference. The molecular spectroscopic parameters of carbohydrate profiles detected were structural carbohydrates (STCHO, mainly associated with hemi-cellulosic and cellulosic compounds; region and baseline ca. 1483-1184 cm-1), cellulosic compounds (CELC, region and baseline ca. 1304-1184 cm-1), total carbohydrates (CHO, region and baseline ca. 1193-889 cm-1) as well as the spectral ratios calculated based on respective spectral intensity data. The results showed that the spectral profiles of carinata meal were significantly different from that of canola meal in CHO 2nd peak area (center at ca. 1091 cm-1, region: 1102-1083 cm-1) and functional group peak intensity ratios such as STCHO 1st peak (ca. 1415 cm-1) to 2nd peak (ca. 1374 cm-1) height ratio, CHO 1st peak (ca. 1149 cm-1) to 3rd peak (ca. 1032 cm-1) height ratio, CELC to total CHO area ratio and STCHO to CELC area ratio, indicating that carinata meal may not in full accord with canola meal in carbohydrate utilization and availability in ruminants. Carbohydrate conformation and spectral features were changed by significant interaction of meal type and incubation time and almost all the spectral parameters were significantly decreased (P

  12. Synthesis and characterization of vegetable oil derived esters: evaluation for their diesel additive properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmytryshyn, S L; Dalai, A K; Chaudhari, S T; Mishra, H K; Reaney, M J

    2004-03-01

    Trans-esterification of four vegetable oils; canola oil, greenseed canola oil from heat-damaged seeds, processed waste fryer grease and unprocessed waste fryer grease, was carried out using methanol, and KOH as catalyst. The methyl esters of the corresponding oils were separated from the crude glycerol, purified, and characterized by various methods to evaluate their densities, viscosities, iodine values, acid numbers, cloud points, pour points and gross heat of combustion, fatty acid and lipid compositions, lubricity properties, and thermal properties. The fatty acid composition suggests that 80-85% of the ester was from unsaturated acids. Substantial decrease in density and viscosity of the methyl esters compared to their corresponding oils suggested that the oils were in their mono or di glyceride form. The lubricity of the methyl esters, when blended at 1 vol% treat rate with ISOPAR M reference fuel, showed that the canola methyl ester enhanced the fuel's lubricity number. From the analyses performed, it was determined that the ester with the most potential for being an additive or a substitute for diesel fuel is the canola methyl ester, whose physical and chemical characteristics are similar to diesel fuel. PMID:14643986

  13. Soluble inhibitors generated during hydrothermal pretreatment of oil palm mesocarp fiber suppressed the catalytic activity of Acremonium cellulase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Mohd Rafein; Hirata, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Shinji; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-01-01

    Oil palm mesocarp fiber was subjected to hydrothermal pretreatment under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions. The pretreated slurries were separated by filtration, pretreated liquids and solids were characterized. An enzymatic digestibility study was performed for both pretreated slurries and solids to understand the effect of soluble inhibitors generated during the pretreatment process. The highest glucose yield obtained from pretreated slurries was 70.1%, and gradually decreased with higher pretreatment severities. The highest glucose yield obtained in pretreated solids was 100%, after pretreatment at 210°C for 20min. In order to study the inhibitory effects of compounds generated during pretreatment with cellulase, technical grade solutions that mimic the pretreated liquid were prepared and their effect on Acremonium cellulase activity was monitored using Avicel. Xylo-oligomers and tannic acid were identified as powerful inhibitors of Acremonium cellulase, and the lowest hydrolysis rate of Avicel of 0.18g/g-glucose released/L/h was obtained from tannic acid. PMID:26524253

  14. Hypocholesterolemic effect of physically refined rice bran oil: studies of cholesterol metabolism and early atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausman, Lynne M; Rong, Ni; Nicolosi, Robert J

    2005-09-01

    Physically refined rice bran oil containing 2-4% nontriglyceride components as compared to other vegetable oils appears to be associated with lipid lowering and antiinflammatory properties in several rodent, primate and human models. These experiments were designed to investigate possible mechanisms for the hypocholesterolemic effect of the physically refined rice bran oil and to examine its effect on aortic fatty streak formation. In the first experiment, 30 hamsters were fed, for 8 weeks, chow-based diets plus 0.03% added cholesterol and 5% (wt/wt) coconut, canola, or physically refined rice bran oil (COCO, CANOLA or PRBO animal groups, respectively). Both plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were significantly reduced in PRBO but not in CANOLA relative to COCO. PRBO also showed a significant 15-17% reduction in cholesterol absorption and significant 30% increase in neutral sterol (NS) excretion with no effect on bile acid (BA) excretion. Both CANOLA and PRBO showed a significant 300-500% increase in intestinal 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase and significant (>25%) decrease in hepatic HMG-CoA reductase activities with respect to COCO. In a second experiment, 36 hamsters were fed chow-based diets with 0.05% added cholesterol, 10% coconut oil and 4% additional COCO, CANOLA or PRBO. Relative to COCO and CANOLA, plasma TC and LDL-C were significantly reduced in PRBO. Early atherosclerosis (fatty streak formation) was significantly reduced (48%) only in PRBO, relative to the other two. These results suggest that the lipid lowering found in PRBO is associated with decreased cholesterol absorption, but not hepatic cholesterol synthesis, and that the decrease in fatty streak formation with this oil may be associated with its nontriglyceride components not present in the other two diets. PMID:16115540

  15. Removal of Dye from Textile Wastewater Using Plant Oils Under Different pH and Temperature Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Mahmoud; Abdel E. Ghaly; M. S. Brooks

    2007-01-01

    The effectiveness of five plant oils (cottonseed, olive, canola sunflower and used cooking oil) for the removal of dye from textile wastewater was evaluated. The study revealed that the dye removal efficiency increased as the temperature was increased. Under low pH, both the oil and dye split into two components each. Neither one of the oil components joined with either one of the dye components. However, the observed reduction in the absorbance under acidic conditions can be attributed to th...

  16. Selective isolation and characterization of agriculturally beneficial endopytic bacteria from wild hemp using canola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endophytic bacteria can provide a useful alternative to synthetic fertilizers to improve plant growth. Wild plants are little investigated as a source of growth promoting endophytic bacteria for commercial application to crops. In present study, endophytic bacteria were isolated from Cannabis sativa L. (hemp) using two different methods to examine their ability to promote canola growth. Besides direct isolation from the roots, endophytic bacteria were also selectively isolated from the rhizosphere of C. sativa using canola. Under gnotobiotic conditions, six bacteria from the selective isolation significantly improved canola root growth, as compared to the two bacteria isolated from direct method. Overall, three isolates performed distinctly well, namely, Pantoea vagans MOSEL-t13, Pseudomonas geniculata MOSEL-tnc1, and Serratia marcescens MOSEL-w2. These bacteria tolerated high salt concentrations and promoted canola growth under salt stress. Further, the isolated bacteria possessed plant growth promoting traits like IAA production, phosphate solubilization, and siderophore production. Most isolates produced plant cell-wall degrading enzymes, cellulase and pectinase. Some isolates were also effective in hindering the growth of two phytopathogenic fungi in dual culture assay, and displayed chitinase and protease activity. Paenibacillus sp. MOSEL-w13 displayed the greatest antifungal activity among all the isolates. Present findings conclude that wild plants can be a good source for isolating beneficial microbes, and validates the employed selective isolation for improved isolation of plant-beneficial endophytic bacteria. (author)

  17. Nonrandom Distribution of Cabbage Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in Dryland Canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severtson, Dustin; Flower, Ken; Nansen, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica napus L.), and their gradual spread over a 7-wk period was characterized. The small-plot experiment demonstrated gradient effects from plot centers and a nonrandom vertical distribution, with initial colonization occurring on the abaxial side of lower canopy leaves and, later, highest numbers of cabbage aphids occurring on racemes. We also conducted large-scale distribution analyses of cabbage aphid infestations in two commercial canola fields, using visual inspection and sweep net sampling. We used canola plant phenological and landscape features as explanatory variables of the spatial distribution of cabbage aphid counts. These large-scale experiments showed strong edge effects with negative associations between cabbage aphid counts and distance to crop edges, including tree lines and contour banks. Cabbage aphid distribution was more effectively displayed using logistic regression than ordinary regression, Spatial Analysis by Distance IndicEs, or both. Based on the study findings, a nonrandom or optimized inspection approach is proposed to focus monitoring efforts on canola plants within 20 m from field edges with particular attention to the abaxial side of lower-canopy leaves. Detection of advanced cabbage aphid infestations should target the racemes within 20 m from field edges. PMID:26313983

  18. 7 CFR 457.161 - Canola and rapeseed crop insurance provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... permitted to obtain samples of the production to determine the moisture content. (2) Canola production will.... (ii) The price of damaged production will not be reduced for: (A) Moisture content; (B) Damage due to... Basic Provisions, land on which seed is initially spread onto the soil surface by any method...

  19. Canola straw as a bio-waste resource for medium density fiberboard (MDF) manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Hossein

    2009-10-01

    Canola straw as an agricultural residue has been investigated for MDF production. The variables were steaming time (2, 5 and 8 min), the resin content (9% and 11%), and press time (4 and 6 min). Common physical and mechanical properties of experimental boards including modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE), internal bond strength (IB) and thickness swelling (TS) were measured. Fiber properties of canola straw including length, diameter and cell wall thickness were determined. The results showed that all the tested mechanical properties improved with the increase of steaming time level. The results were close to the minimum requirements of MDF specified in the ANSI A208.2 standard. Dimensional stability of the MDFs improved as adhesive content increased. The IB values are positively affected by the increase of press time. MDF properties made from canola straw possess acceptable qualities as compared to those made from other non-wood plants. Furthermore, the fiber dimensions of canola straw were also in the range of reported values in hardwoods. PMID:19604682

  20. Comparative growth of Spring-planted canola, brown mustard and camelina

    Science.gov (United States)

    With increased emphasis for diesel substitution, production of brown mustard (Brassica juncea), canola (B. napus) and camelina (Camelina sativa) used as biodiesel may increase in the High Plains. The objective was to elucidate the growth pattern of these crops when spring-planted in western Nebraska...

  1. Effects of canola proteins and hydrolysates on adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T/2 mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alashi, Adeola M; Blanchard, Christopher L; Mailer, Rodney J; Agboola, Samson O; Mawson, A John; Aluko, Rotimi E; Strappe, Padraig

    2015-10-15

    This study assessed the ability of canola protein isolate (CPI) and enzymatic hydrolysates (CPHs) to inhibit adipogenic differentiation of C3H10T1/2 murine mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Cell viability was maintained at concentrations of 60 μg/ml of sample. Cells treated with Alcalase hydrolysate demonstrated a higher reduction in anti-adipogenic differentiation through quantitation by oil-red O staining. qPCR analysis showed that CPI and CPH-treated cells significantly inhibited PPARγ expression, a key transcription factor involved in adipocyte differentiation, as evident in an ∼ 60-80% fold reduction of PPARγ mRNA. Immunofluorescence staining for PPARγ protein also showed a reduced expression in some treated cells when compared to differentiated untreated cells. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of CPI, CPHs and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions on pancreatic lipase (PL) activity ranged between 0.75 and 2.5 mg/ml, (p < 0.05) for the hydrolysed and unhydrolysed samples. These findings demonstrate that CPI and CPHs contain bioactive components which can modulate in vitro adipocyte differentiation. PMID:25952862

  2. Evaluation of antioxidants stability by thermal analysis and its protective effect in heated edible vegetable oil

    OpenAIRE

    Seme Youssef Reda

    2011-01-01

    In this work, through the use of thermal analysis techniques, the thermal stabilities of some antioxidants were investigated, in order to evaluate their resistance to thermal oxidation in oils, by heating canola vegetable oil, and to suggest that antioxidants would be more appropriate to increase the resistance of vegetable oils in the thermal degradation process in frying. The techniques used were: Thermal Gravimetric (TG) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) analyses, as well as an a...

  3. Rapeseed oil as biodiesel resource and adulteration agent for expensive edible oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULF F.V.

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapeseed (Brassica napus, also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and canola, has bright yellowflowers and is grown for the production of animal feed, vegetable oil for human consumption, and biodiesel.This oil was originally chosen for transesterification experiments because of its low price compared to othersreadily available vegetable oils. Due to the high content of oleic acid and low levels of both saturated andpolyunsaturated acids, the oil is the ideal raw material for combustion, due to its characteristics (oxidativestability and cold temperature behavior. It can be considered the most frequently used adulteration agent for alot of expensive edible oils, like extra virgin olive oil. Brassicasterol is mainly present only in rapeseed oil. It isabsent or present only in trace amounts in other oils.

  4. A comparison of used cooking oils: a very heterogeneous feedstock for biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The increased interest in and use of biodiesel renders the availability of a sufficient supply of feedstock ever more urgent. While commodity vegetable oils such as soybean, rapeseed (canola), palm and sunflower may be seen as "classical" biodiesel feedstocks, additional feedstocks are needed to me...

  5. Comprehensive proteomic analysis of canola leaf inoculated with a plant growth-promoting bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens, under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaei-Asl, Farzad; Farajzadeh, Davoud; Bandehagh, Ali; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-09-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria can improve the tolerance of canola to salt stress. To better understand the effects of plant growth-promoting bacterium on the protein profiles of canola under salt stress condition, proteomics was performed. Salt-sensitive (Sarigol) and -tolerant (Hyola308) canola cultivars were inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens FY32, and the protein profiles of canola leaves were compared using a PEG-fractionation method. Cluster analysis of canola cultivars based on a stress tolerance index of several morphological parameters was used to confirm that Sarigol and Hyola308 were salt-sensitive and -tolerant cultivars, respectively. Using a gel-free proteomic technique, 154 and 94 proteins in Hyola308 and 100 and 144 proteins in Sarigol were uniquely identified in non-inoculated and bacterial-inoculated cultivars, respectively. By PEG fractionation, a total of 132 and 207 proteins were identified in non-inoculated and inoculated Hyola308, respectively. Notably, the abundance of copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 was significantly increased in inoculated Hyola308 under severe salt stress and decreased under moderate salt stress. In addition, the enzyme activity of delta-1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase was significantly increased non-inoculated Hyola308 and the activity of succinate dehydrogenase was increased in inoculated Hyola308 leaves exposed to salt stress. Taken together, these results suggest that the bacterial inoculation of canola increases salt tolerance by inducing an increase in the abundance of proteins related to glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and amino acid metabolism. PMID:27137672

  6. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M., E-mail: mtaghinejad@iaut.ac.i [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, S.R. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizi, S. [Department of Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Urmia University, P.O. Box 57155-1177, Urmia (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shawrang, P. [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Agricultural, Medical and Industrial Research School, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased (P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased (P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved (P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  7. Effects of electron beam irradiation on chemical composition, antinutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro protein digestibility of canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.; Ebrahimi, S. R.; Azizi, S.; Shawrang, P.

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the impact of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on the nutritional value of canola meal. The phytic acid and total glucosinolate content of EB-irradiated canola meal decreased as irradiation doses increased ( P<0.01). From in situ results, irradiation of canola meal at doses of 45 kGy decreased ( P<0.05) the effective degradibility of crude protein (CP) by 14%, compared with an untreated sample. In vitro CP digestibility of EB-irradiated canola meal at doses of 15 and 30 kGy was improved ( P<0.05). Electrophoresis results showed that napin and cruciferin sub-units of 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated canola meal were more resistant to degradation, compared with an untreated sample. Electron beam irradiation was effective in protecting CP from ruminal degradation and reducing antinutritional factors of irradiated canola meal.

  8. Nonrandom distribution of cabbage aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in dryland canola (Brassicales: Brassicaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Severtson, D; Flower, K.; Nansen, C

    2015-01-01

    © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. Characterization of spatial distribution patterns of pests in large-scale agricultural fields is important because these patterns affect the sampling effort needed to accurately detect and estimate their population density. In this study, we conducted experimental releases of alate cabbage aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae L.) into centers of small plots of canola (Brassica...

  9. Effects of fatty acids on carbohydrates and lipids of canola seeds during germination

    OpenAIRE

    M.L.L. Ferrarese; C. R. S. Baleroni; O. Ferrarese-Filho

    1998-01-01

    The present work was carried out to investigate the effects of caprylic acid (C8) and oleic acid (C18) on carbohydrates and lipids during canola seed germination. The results showed that oleic acid influence carbohydrate concentration but did not influence lipid concentration. Significant results were found with caprylic acid that affected carbohydrates and lipids in cotyledons after three-day germination.O presente trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar os efeitos dos ácidos cap...

  10. The bee community and its relationship to canola productivity in homogenous agricultural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidia Witter

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Canola crop productivity is benefited by bee pollination and it has been shown that bee communities can be affected by landscape composition. The aim of this study was to analyse the bee community and its relationship to canola seed production in agricultural areas. The density, abundance and richness of floral visitors of Brassica napus cultivar Hyola 61 in six commercial fields in southern Brazil were studied, and their relationships with seed production and the ratio of semi-natural, forested and agricultural areas surrounding the crops were examined. It was observed that canola fields of southern Brazil are surrounded by a homogeneous landscape dominated by agricultural areas. The survey of bees detected a low abundance and richness of native bees in contrast to the high abundance of Apis mellifera. Except for a negative correlation between the abundance of honey bees and the proportion of forested areas within a 2000 m radius from the field (R = -0.90; P = 0.012, no other correlations were found among bee abundance and richness and landscape composition. Although there was not a relationship between A. mellifera and seed set, there was a positive correlation between insect density and seed weight per plant (R = 0.87; P = 0.024. As honey bees were the most captured insect (79%, much of the pollination in this system was probably achieved by honey bees.

  11. Sensitivity of Canola Seeds Associated Fungi to Gamma Rays During Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to investigate the possibility of using the gamma radiation to elongate the storage periods of canola seeds (Brassica naps L.). In this respect, canola seeds were irradiated at doses of 0.5, 1.5, 2.5, 3.5, 5.0 and 7.5 kGy gamma rays and stored at room temperature for periods 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The isolated fungi from non-irradiated post-harvest canola seeds included different species identified as Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, A. condidus, A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus, A. parasiticus, Fusarium oxysporium, F. moniliforme, Penicillium expansum, P. crysogenum, Alternaria brassicae, A. raphani and Trichoderma spp. It was noticed that the predominant species were A. ochraceus, A. flavus, A. niger and F. oxysporium at percentages 16.18, 14.73, 11.00 and 10.53%, respectively. The effective gamma irradiation on the predominant fungi (the sub-lethal dose) was 3.5 kGy for A. ochraceus and 5.0 kGy for F. oxysporium and F. moniliforme. Increasing the irradiated dose up to 7.5 kGy decreased significantly the growth of most isolated fungi. The data also showed that there was a decrease in the total fungal count in stored seeds under the effect of gamma rays for 12 months storage. Also, mycotoxins at the stored seeds were not detected after 12 months storage

  12. Research on Chemical Compatibility of Explosion Suppression Polyurethane Foam with Diesel Oil in Fuel Tank%油箱油罐用聚氨酯阻隔抑爆材料与柴油相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩喆; 鲁长波; 熊春华; 安高军; 谢立峰

    2014-01-01

    采用-35号军用柴油和聚氨酯阻隔抑爆材料在不同试验条件下模拟存储试验及模拟行车试验,考察试验前后油品与材料相关性能的变化情况。结果表明,经过模拟存储及行车试验后,柴油的实际胶质均明显上升,分别达到了平行储存油样的6�4倍与2�3倍,而固体颗粒污染物则出现了下降,分别为平行储存油样的58�8%和65%;与柴油共存后,聚氨酯阻隔抑爆材料的压缩永久形变量、25%形变下压缩强度、拉伸强度以及极限伸长率出现不同程度的下降。%The properties changes of diesel oil and polyurethane explosion suppression material in test were in-vestigated, using -35 military diesel and polyurethane explosion suppression material in different test conditions with simulation storage test and driving test. The results showed that, the actual diesel colloid content both significantly increased, which were 6�4 times and 2�3 times more than general storage oil respectively, after simulation storage test and driving test. The solid particulate pollutants level reduced with 58�8% and 65% more than general storage oil. The compression permanent deformation, compression strength under 25% deformation, tensile strength and ultimate elongation of the polyurethane explosion suppression material were reduced with diesel storage.

  13. Fermented fish oil suppresses T helper 1/2 cell response in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis via generation of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Sang-Chul

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allergic skin inflammation such as atopic dermatitis (AD, which is characterized by pruritus and inflammation, is regulated partly through the activity of regulatory T cells (Tregs. Tregs play key roles in the immune response by preventing or suppressing the differentiation, proliferation and function of various immune cells, including CD4+ T cells. Recent studies report that fermentation has a tremendous capacity to transform chemical structures or create new substances, and the omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs in fish oil can reduce inflammation in allergic patients. The beneficial effects of natural fish oil (NFO have been described in many diseases, but the mechanism by which fermented fish oil (FFO modulates the immune system and the allergic response is poorly understood. In this study, we produced FFO and tested its ability to suppress the allergic inflammatory response and to activate CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs. Results The ability of FFO and NFO to modulate the immune system was investigated using a mouse model of AD. Administration of FFO or NFO in the drinking water alleviated the allergic inflammation in the skin, and FFO was more effective than NFO. FFO treatment did increase the expression of the immune-suppressive cytokines TGF-β and IL-10. In addition, ingestion of FFO increased Foxp3 expression and the number of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ Tregs compared with NFO. Conclusions These results suggest that the anti-allergic effect of FFO is associated with enrichment of CD4+CD25+ Foxp3+ T cells at the inflamed sites and that FFO may be effective in treating the allergic symptoms of AD.

  14. Research on Chemical Compatibility of Explosion Suppression Polyurethane Foam with Diesel Oil in Fuel Tank%油箱油罐用聚氨酯阻隔抑爆材料与柴油相容性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩喆; 鲁长波; 熊春华; 安高军; 谢立峰

    2014-01-01

    The properties changes of diesel oil and polyurethane explosion suppression material in test were in-vestigated, using -35 military diesel and polyurethane explosion suppression material in different test conditions with simulation storage test and driving test. The results showed that, the actual diesel colloid content both significantly increased, which were 6�4 times and 2�3 times more than general storage oil respectively, after simulation storage test and driving test. The solid particulate pollutants level reduced with 58�8% and 65% more than general storage oil. The compression permanent deformation, compression strength under 25% deformation, tensile strength and ultimate elongation of the polyurethane explosion suppression material were reduced with diesel storage.%采用-35号军用柴油和聚氨酯阻隔抑爆材料在不同试验条件下模拟存储试验及模拟行车试验,考察试验前后油品与材料相关性能的变化情况。结果表明,经过模拟存储及行车试验后,柴油的实际胶质均明显上升,分别达到了平行储存油样的6�4倍与2�3倍,而固体颗粒污染物则出现了下降,分别为平行储存油样的58�8%和65%;与柴油共存后,聚氨酯阻隔抑爆材料的压缩永久形变量、25%形变下压缩强度、拉伸强度以及极限伸长率出现不同程度的下降。

  15. 'NIFA-mustard canola' - First mutant variety of oilseed mustard (Brassica juncea COSS and CZERN.) in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The edible oil production in the country is short of requirements to the tune of 70%. The gap is filled by heavy imports costing the national exchequer over 400 million US$ annually. Increasing domestic production of edible oil is thus of high priority for the Government of Pakistan. Rapeseed and mustard (Brassica juncea), being indigenous oilseed crops and well entrenched in the cropping system of the growers, have the potential to bridge the gap between production and consumption. Mustard is the predominantly grown species of oilseed Brassica in Pakistan as it has superior adaptability to semi-arid conditions and tolerance to drought as well as heat and seed shattering. However, no juncea cultivar of canola quality is available in Pakistan so far. In this backdrop, a comprehensive research program was launched in 1994- 95 at NIFA, with the help of IAEA, through a Technical Cooperation Project to develop improved varieties of mustard. Gamma irradiation and fast neutrons were used to induce genetic variability in traits of economic importance, thus diversifying the genetic base of indigenous/exotic cultivars (cvs.) of Brassica oilseeds. About 15,000 dry seeds of exotic mustard line (DLJ-3) having about 10% moisture were irradiated at 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4 kGy gamma rays (60Co gamma source) in 1994-95. The treated seeds were planted directly in the field in isolation of M1 generation. Selection for desirable mutants was carried out in M2 and useful mutants, including MM-1266, were selected. The stability of selected traits of MM-1266 was confirmed in M3 and M4 generations. MM-1266 was thoroughly assessed for yield in different replicated trials at NIFA and other stations in Pakistan and the results of MM-1266 in comparison with the control cv. is presented. In the preliminary yield trial in rabi 1997-98d at NIFA, MM-1266 produced the highest yield (1908 kg/ha) and significantly outyielded the parent by 100%. The following year, MM-1266 was tested in advanced yield trials

  16. Simulating the influence of crop spatial patterns on canola yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Griepentrog, H.W.; Nielsen, J.; Olsen, Jannie Maj;

    2011-01-01

    plant uniformity on the yield of oil seed rape. Voronoi polygons (tessellations) which define the area closer to an individual than to any other individual were used as a measure of the area available to each plant, and corrections were included for extreme polygon shape and eccentricity of the plant...... location within the polygon. These adjusted polygon areas were used to investigate the potential influence of two of the most important determinants of crop sowing spatial uniformity: row width and longitudinal spacing accuracy, on yield per unit area, and to ask how changes in seeding technology would...

  17. Phytotoxic effects of safflower yellow exposure on seed germination and early seedling growth of canola (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of current investigation was to determine phytotoxic effects of safflower dye (safflower yellow) on seed germination and early seedling growth of canola (Brassica napus L.) cv. Rainbow. Safflower yellow was extracted in autoclaved distilled water and was applied at various concentrations (0.312%, 0.625%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5%) to canola seeds in petri dishes under axenic conditions. Phenolics content was detected in dye solutions and was maximum (53 mg gallic acid/g extract) in 5% dye solution. The growth rate of canola was decreased with the increase of safflower dye concentration (p<0.05). Maximum inhibition in the activity of enzyme lipase in germinating seeds, germination (%), root and shoot length, root and shoot weight was exhibited by 5% dye solution. In response to the application of safflower dye, canola seedlings accumulated endogenous phenolics. Relative water content and photosynthetic pigments of seedling were reduced to a maximum level by 5% and 2.5% dye solutions. It was inferred that safflower dye exhibited phytotoxic effects at higher concentration on canola. The findings of the current investigation will help in safe disposal of safflower dye found in industrial effluents. (author)

  18. Effects of genotype and dietary oil supplementation on performance, carcass traits, pork quality and fatty acid composition of backfat and intramuscular fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertol, T M; de Campos, R M L; Ludke, J V; Terra, N N; de Figueiredo, E A P; Coldebella, A; dos Santos Filho, J I; Kawski, V L; Lehr, N M

    2013-03-01

    A 42-day study was conducted to evaluate the effect of genotype: terminal sire line Duroc×F1 (DC×F1); terminal sire line Embrapa MS-115×F1 (MS-115×F1); and MS-115×Moura (MS-115×MO) and three dietary oil sources: soybean; canola; and canola+flax, on performance, carcass traits, pork quality, and fatty acid composition. Genotype affected the technological quality of pork and fatty acid profile. MS-115-sired pigs had better meat color and Duroc-sired pigs had higher intramuscular fat content, more saturated fat and better omega-6/omega-3 ratio. Moura breed influenced positively meat tenderness and intramuscular fat. Diet did not affect the technological quality of the meat. Canola or canola+flax oil diet supplementations increased monounsaturated and C18:3 and decreased C18:2 fatty acids, reducing the omega-6/omega-3 ratio. The best omega-6/omega-3 ratio was obtained through supplementation with canola+flax. PMID:23273458

  19. Lignée de Canola MON88302 TruFlexMC Roundup ReadyMD

    OpenAIRE

    Canada, Publié par la Direction des aliments de Santé

    2014-01-01

    Santé Canada a avisé Monsanto Canada Inc. qu’il ne s’oppose pas à la vente d’aliments dérivés du canola MON88302 (canola TruFlexMC Roundup ReadyMD). Le Ministère a réalisé une évaluation approfondie de cette lignée de canola conformément à ses Lignes directrices sur l’évaluation de l’innocuité des aliments nouveaux. Ces lignes directrices sont fondées sur des principes admis internationalement pour l’établissement de l’innocuité des aliments à caractères nouveaux. L...

  20. Fish oil supplementation suppresses resistance exercise and feeding‐induced increases in anabolic signaling without affecting myofibrillar protein synthesis in young men

    OpenAIRE

    McGlory, Chris; Sophie L. Wardle; Lindsay S. Macnaughton; Oliver C. Witard; Scott, Fraser; Dick, James; Bell, J. Gordon; Phillips, Stuart M.; Stuart D. R. Galloway; Hamilton, D. Lee; Tipton, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Fish oil (FO) supplementation potentiates muscle protein synthesis (MPS) in response to a hyperaminoacidemic–hyperinsulinemic infusion. Whether FO supplementation potentiates MPS in response to protein ingestion or when protein ingestion is combined with resistance exercise (RE) remains unknown. In a randomized, parallel group design, 20 healthy males were randomized to receive 5 g/day of either FO or coconut oil control (CO) for 8 weeks. After supplementation, participants performed...

  1. Effects of gamma irradiation on chemical composition and ruminal protein degradation of canola meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shawrang, P. [Agriculture, Medical and Industrial Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 31485-498, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: parvinshawrang@yahoo.co.uk; Nikkhah, A.; Zare-Shahneh, A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadeghi, A.A. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-4933, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Raisali, G. [Radiation Applications Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, P.O. Box 11365-3486, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moradi-Shahrebabak, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tehran University P.O. Box 4111, Karaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    Gamma irradiation of canola meal (at doses of 25, 50 and 75 kGy) could alter its ruminal protein degradation characteristics by cross-linking of the polypeptide chains. This processing resulted in decrease (linear effect, P<0.001) of ruminal protein degradation and increase (linear effect, P<0.001) of intestinal protein digestibility. The results showed that gamma irradiation at doses higher than 25 kGy can be used as a cross-linking agent to improve protein properties of supplements in ruminant nutrition.

  2. Impact of endogenous canola phenolics on the oxidative stability of oil‐in‐water emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Friel, James; Winkler‐Moser, Jill K.;

    2013-01-01

    ‐fractionated extract were used. These extracts (100 and 350 µM) were evaluated as antioxidants in stripped canola oil‐in‐water (o/w) emulsion. For comparison, the antioxidative effect of phenolic standards for sinapic acid and sinapine (as sinapine thiocyanate) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BTH) as a positive control...... were also evaluated. The concentration of lipid hydroperoxides and selected volatiles measured at different time points was used to evaluate the antioxidative effect. Moreover, the properties of extracts and corresponding phenolic standards were evaluated in three different in vitro antioxidant assays...

  3. Value of Insect Pest Management to U.S. and Canadian Corn, Soybean and Canola Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Terrance M.; Paul D Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to assess 1) the value of alternative insect management practices to farmers and 2) how these values relate to nonpecuniary factors such as simplicity, convenience, yield risk, and human and environmental safety. To accomplish these objectives, we conduct¬ed telephone surveys in 2014 of corn and soybean farmers in the U.S. as well as corn, soybean and canola farmers in Canada. Corn farmers were queried about their use in 2013 of Bt corn, insecticide seed t...

  4. Alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol concentration in vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evellyn Câmara Grilo

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable oils are the richest dietary sources of vitamin E. Vitamin E determination levels in foods are of great importance to adjust the ingestion of nutrients by the population. The purpose of this paper is to determine the concentration of alpha-tocopherol and gamma-tocopherol in vegetable oils and compare the alpha-tocopherol value to the nutritional requirement of vitamin E. The analysis was performed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography. The values expressed as mg/kg for alpha and gamma-tocopherol were, respectively, 120.3±4.2 and 122.0±7.9 in canola oil; 432.3±86.6 and 92.3±9.5 in sunflower oil; 173.0±82.3 and 259.7±43.8 in corn oil; 71.3±6.4 and 273.3±11.1 in soybean oil. A significant difference was encountered between the alpha-tocopherol concentrations in vegetable oils. Similar results were found for gamma-tocopherol, except for corn and soybean oils. It was concluded that the soybean oil was not considered a source of vitamin E. The canola and corn oils were considered sources, and the sunflower oil was considered an excellent source.

  5. Extrusion enhances metabolizable energy and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal for broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of extrusion process on apparent metabolizable energy (AME, crude protein (CP and amino acid (AA digestibility of canola meal (CM in broiler chickens. A total of 36, 42-day-old broilers were randomly assigned into adaptation diets (no CM or 30% CM with six replicates. After 4 days of adaptation period, on day 47, birds were allowed to consume the assay diets that contain CM or extruded canola meal (ECM as the sole source of energy and protein. Following 4 h after feeding, the birds were killed and ileal contents were collected. The results showed that ECM had greater (P<0.001 AME (10.87 vs 9.39 MJ/kg compared to CM. The extrusion also significantly enhanced apparent ileal digestibility of CP and some of AA such as Asp, Glu, Ser, Thr and Trp. In conclusion, the extrusion treatment appeared to be a practical and effective approach in enhancing the digestibility of AME, CP and some AA of CM in broiler chickens.

  6. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheau-Fang Hwang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%–128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields.

  7. Blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) Severity and Yield Loss in Canola in Alberta, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sheau-Fang; Strelkov, Stephen E; Peng, Gary; Ahmed, Hafiz; Zhou, Qixing; Turnbull, George

    2016-01-01

    Blackleg, caused by Leptosphaeria maculans, is an important disease of oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) in Canada and throughout the world. Severe epidemics of blackleg can result in significant yield losses. Understanding disease-yield relationships is a prerequisite for measuring the agronomic efficacy and economic benefits of control methods. Field experiments were conducted in 2013, 2014, and 2015 to determine the relationship between blackleg disease severity and yield in a susceptible cultivar and in moderately resistant to resistant canola hybrids. Disease severity was lower, and seed yield was 120%-128% greater, in the moderately resistant to resistant hybrids compared with the susceptible cultivar. Regression analysis showed that pod number and seed yield declined linearly as blackleg severity increased. Seed yield per plant decreased by 1.8 g for each unit increase in disease severity, corresponding to a decline in yield of 17.2% for each unit increase in disease severity. Pyraclostrobin fungicide reduced disease severity in all site-years and increased yield. These results show that the reduction of blackleg in canola crops substantially improves yields. PMID:27447676

  8. Desempenho e morfometria da mucosa de duodeno de frangos de corte alimentados com farelo de canola, durante o período inicial Performance and duodenum mucous morphometry of broiler chickens fed canola meal, during the starting period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Fontana Figueiredo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento foi conduzido para verificar o efeito da utilização de níveis crescentes (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% de farelo de canola nas rações de frangos de corte, sobre o desempenho e a morfologia da mucosa, durante o período inicial (1 - 21 dias e os efeitos de sua utilização no período de crescimento. Foram utilizados 1000 pintos machos de um dia de idade, distribuídos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com cinco tratamentos, quatro repetições e 50 aves por unidade experimental. No 1º, 21º e 41º dia, as aves e as rações foram pesadas e no 21º dia duas aves de cada unidade experimental foram sacrificadas para a colheita de um segmento do duodeno para avaliação de morfometria intestinal. Os resultados demonstraram que níveis crescentes de farelo de canola induziram à redução linear no ganho de peso, peso médio e consumo de ração e piora na conversão alimentar. Durante o período de crescimento (21 a 41 dias, no qual todas as aves receberam ração semelhante, observou-se decréscimo no peso médio e ganho de peso, com o aumento dos níveis de farelo de canola, enquanto os parâmetros conversão alimentar e consumo de ração foram semelhantes. Os dados referentes a morfometria da mucosa intestinal, submetidos à análise de regressão, demonstraram que houve aumento na profundidade de cripta conforme o aumento nos níveis de farelo de canola. Os resultados permitem afirmar que é possível a inclusão de até 20% de farelo de canola, sem prejuízos no desempenho das aves e no trato digestório.A trial was carried to verify the effect of increasing levels (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of canola meal in diets of broiler chickens, on performance and mucous morphology, during the starting period (1 - 21 days. 1,000 male chicks one-day-old were used, distributed in a randomized experimental assay, with five treatments, four replicates and 50 birds per experimental unit. At the 1st, 21st and 41st days, the birds

  9. Quantifying seed production by volunteer canola (Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis Quantificar a produção de sementes de canola voluntária (Brassica napus e Sinapis arvensis

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    E Soltani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer canola (Brassica napus and Sinapis arvensis are well identified weeds of different cropping systems. Quantitative information on regarding seed production by them is limited. Such information is necessary to model dynamics of soil seed banks. The aim of this work was to quantify seed production as a function of the size of those weeds. A wide range of plant size was produced by using a fan seeding system performed at two sowing dates (environments. Plant size varied from 3 to 167 g per plant for canola and from 6 to 104 g per plant for S. arvensis. Seed production ranged from 543 to14,773 seeds per plant for canola, and from 264 to 10,336 seeds per plant for S. arvensis. There was a close relationship between seed production per plant and plant size which was well-described by a power function (y = 130.6x0.94; R² = 0.93 for canola and y = 28x1.27; R² = 0.95 for S. arvensis. There was also strong relationships among the number of pods produced in individual plants and the quantity of seeds produced (g per plant with the size of the plant. The relationships found in this study can be used in dynamic seed bank models of volunteer canola and S. arvensis.Voluntários de canola (Brassica napuse Sinapis arvensis são conhecidas como plantas daninhas na produção agrícola. A informação quantitativa sobre a produção de sementes de ervas daninhas por estas é limitada. A informação é necessária para a dinâmica do modelo de bancos de sementes do solo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a produção de sementes em função do tamanho destas plantas daninhas. Uma grande variedade de tamanho das plantas foi produzido usando-se um sistema de semeadura em leque, realizado em duas épocas de semeadura (ambientes. O tamanho da planta variou entre 3 e 167 g por planta para a canola e entre 6 e 104 g por planta para S. arvensis. A produção de sementes variou entre 543 e 14.773 sementes por planta de canola e entre 264 e 10.336 de

  10. Conjugated linoleic acid content in milk of Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions and supplemented with canola seed (Brassica napus concentrate

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    J. P. Avilez Ruiz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is limited and contradictory information about the effects of the use of canola (Brassica napus seed as supplement on the contents of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA in milk of grazing cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dietary supplement with canola seed on the production and composition of milk, and CLA concentration in Chilean Black Friesian cows under pasture conditions. Three experiments were done. Experiment 1: control group was fed 5 kg d-1 of commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC1 and treatment group that was fed 3.75 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.16 kg of whole canola seed (1.16-TC1. Experiment 2: Control group was fed 8 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC2 and treatment group that was fed 6.2 kg of commercial concentrate plus 1.2 kg of ground canola seed (1.2-TC2. Experiment 3: control group was fed 6 kg d-1 commercial concentrate without canola (0-TC3 and treatment group was fed 6 kg of commercial concentrate with 20% of whole canola seed (1.2 kg d-1, 1.2-TC3. The duration of each experiment was 60 days. No differences in milk production and quality were observed among the experimental groups in every assay. The CLA isomers trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 were higher than those normally found in the scientific literature. There was no effect of the inclusion of canola seed on total CLA content or the content of cis-9, trans-11, trans-10, cis-12 and cis-10, cis-12 isomers.

  11. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  12. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekulic, Gregory; Rempel, Curtis B

    2016-01-01

    The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST) is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM). The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI) seed treatment (NNI ST) use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.). Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species. PMID:27527233

  13. Glyphosate resistant and susceptible soybean (Glycine max) and canola (Brassica napus) dose response and metabolism relationships with glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were conducted to determine 1) dose response of glyphosate-resistant (GR) and –susceptible (non-GR) soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and canola (Brassica napus L.) to glyphosate, 2) if differential metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) is the underlying mechanism ...

  14. Evaluating the Role of Seed Treatments in Canola/Oilseed Rape Production: Integrated Pest Management, Pollinator Health, and Biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory Sekulic

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use patterns and role of insecticide seed treatments, with focus on neonicotinoid insecticides, were examined for canola/oilseed rape production in Canada and the EU. Since nearly all planted canola acres in Western Canada and, historically, a majority of planted oilseed acres in the EU, use seed treatments, it is worth examining whether broad use of insecticidal seed treatments (IST is compatible with principles of integrated pest management (IPM. The neonicotinoid insecticide (NNI seed treatment (NNI ST use pattern has risen due to effective control of several early season insect pests, the most destructive being flea beetles (Phyllotreta sp.. Negative environmental impact and poor efficacy of foliar applied insecticides on flea beetles led growers to look for better alternatives. Due to their biology, predictive models have been difficult to develop for flea beetles, and, therefore, targeted application of seed treatments, as part of an IPM program, has contributed to grower profitability and overall pollinator success for canola production in Western Canada. Early evidence suggests that the recent restriction on NNI may negatively impact grower profitability and does not appear to be having positive impact on pollinator health. Further investigation on impact of NNI on individual bee vs. hive health need to be conducted. Predictive models for flea beetle emergence/feeding activity in canola/oilseed rape need to be developed, as broad acre deployment of NNI seed treatments may not be sustainable due to concerns about resistance/tolerance in flea beetles and other pest species.

  15. Use of Se-enriched mustard and canola seed meals as potential bioherbicides and green fertilizers in strawberry production

    Science.gov (United States)

    New plant-based products can be produced from seed harvested from Brassica species used for phytomanaging selenium (Se) in the westside of central California. We tested Se-enriched seed meals produced from canola (Brassica napus) and mustard (Sinapis alba) plants as potential bio-herbicides and as g...

  16. Glyphosate-resistant and conventional canola (Brassica napus L.)responses to glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola expresses two transgenes: 1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshiki...

  17. BORON DEFICIENCY ALTERS PLATELET AGGREGATION DIFFERENTLY THAN REPLACING PALM OIL WITH CANOLA OIL IN THE DIET OF RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Support for the hypothesis that both boron (B) and long-chain n-3 fatty acids have membrane functions that affect each other would be finding that changes in B and n-3 fatty acid intakes affect a membrane-involved process such as platelet aggregation. Thus, female and male adult rats were fed diets...

  18. [FREQUENTLY USED VEGETABLE OILS IN SOUTH AMERICA: FEATURES AND PROPERTIES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán Agüero, Samuel; Torres García, Jairo; Sanhueza Catalán, Julio

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, the consumption of vegetable oils has increased in our society, being an important part of the diet worldwide. South America is a major producer of an important variety of vegetable oils. The composition of vegetable oils is not standard as it varies greatly in the amount of saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and particularly in the amounts of omega-6 and omega-3, which are associated with the source either plant species, seed, plant or fruit, providing different nutritional benefits. The purpose of this article is to review and update the data and evidence about the consumption of oils produced and commercialized in South America, such as soybean oil, corn, palm, sunflower, canola and olive oils, and also to determine health effects from studies related with the topic. PMID:26262691

  19. Honey bee contribution to canola pollination in Southern Brazil Abelhas melíferas na polinização de canola no Sul do Brasil

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    Annelise de Souza Rosa

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Although canola, (Brassica napus L., is considered a self-pollinating crop, researchers have indicated that crop productivity increases as a result of honey bee Apis mellifera L. pollination. Given this crop's growing importance in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, this work evaluated the increase in pod and seed productivity with respect to interactions with anthophilous insects and manual pollination tests. The visiting frequency of A. mellifera was correlated with the crop's blooming progression, and productivity comparisons were made between plants visited by insects, manually pollinated plants (geitonogamy and xenogamy and plants without pollination induction. Pod set and seed production per plant were determined for each treatment. Among the 8,624 recorded flower-visiting insects, Hymenoptera representatives were the most prevalent (92.3%, among which 99.8% were A. mellifera. The correlation between these bees and blooming progression was positive (r = 0.87; p = 0.002. Pollination induction increased seed productivity from 28.4% (autogamy to 50.4% with insect visitations, as well as to 48.7 (geitonogamy and to 55.1% (xenogamy through manual pollination.A canola (Brassica napus L. é considerada autocompatível, embora pesquisadores indiquem aumento na produtividade da cultura resultante da polinização efetuada por Apis mellifera L.. Considerando-se a crescente importância dessa cultura no Rio Grande do Sul, avaliou-se o incremento da produtividade de síliquas e sementes a partir de interações com insetos antófilos e com testes de polinização manual. A freqüência de visitas de A. mellifera foi relacionada com o desenvolvimento da floração da cultura e a produtividade foi comparada entre plantas visitadas por insetos, polinizadas manualmente (geitonogamia e xenogamia e com ausência de indução de polinização. Em cada tratamento avaliou-se a produtividade de síliquas e de sementes formadas por planta. Dentre os 8.624 insetos

  20. Quantification, localization, and speciation of selenium in seeds of canola and two mustard species compared to seed-meals produced by hydraulic press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuelos, Gary S; Walse, Spencer S; Yang, Soo In; Pickering, Ingrid J; Fakra, Sirine C; Marcus, Matthew A; Freeman, John L

    2012-07-17

    Brassica plants accumulate selenium (Se) especially in seeds when grown in soils laden with Se. We report a chemical analysis of Se in Brassica seeds (canola, Indian mustard, and white mustard) and in their hydraulically pressed seed meals, which are used as a Se supplement in livestock animal feeds. Complementary techniques were used to measure total Se concentrations, to map the localization of Se, and to quantify different Se forms. Seeds and hydraulically pressed seed meals contained an average of 1.8 and 2.0 μg Se g(-1) DW, respectively. Selenium was primarily located in cotyledons and roots of seed embryos. Microfocused Se K-edge XANES and bulk XANES showed that seeds contained 90% of Se as C-Se-C forms. Hydraulically pressing seeds for oil caused changes in the forms of Se as follows: 40-55% C-Se-C forms, 33-42% selenocystine, 5-12% selenocysteine, and 11-14% trimethylselenonium ion. Aqueous extracts of seed and seed meals were also analyzed by SAX-HPLC/ICPMS and found to contain mainly the C-Se-C form SeMet, but also another C-Se-C form MeSeCys, which is of dietary pharmacological interest for cancer inhibition. In addition, SAX-HPLC/ICPMS also detected selenocystine and selenocysteine, further confirming the results obtained by XANES analyses. PMID:22747111

  1. Modification of egg yolk fatty acids profile by using different oil sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidi, Mohsen; Rahimi, Shaban; Karimi Torshizi, Mohammad Ali

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different dietary oil sources supplementation on laying hens' performance and fatty acids profile of egg yolks. Seventy-two 23-week-old laying hens (Tetra-SL) divided into six experimental diets (four replicates and three birds per replication) in a completely randomized design for nine weeks. Experimental diets were included: 1) control (no oil), 2) 3.00% fish oil, 3) 3.00% olive oil, 4) 3.00% grape seed oil, 5) 3.00% canola oil, and 6) 3.00% soybean oil. The diets were similar in terms of energy and protein. Egg production, egg mass, egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and fatty acid composition of egg yolk were determined at the end of the trial. The results indicated that the performance parameters were not significantly different between treatments in the entire period (p > 0.05). However, fatty acids profiles of yolk were affected by experimental diets (p < 0.05). Fish oil significantly reduced omega-6 fatty acids and increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in egg yolk. Also canola oil increased linolenic acid content in the egg yolk. In conclusion, fish oil increased omega-3 long-chain fatty acids and decreased omega-6 to omega-3 ratio in eggs which may have beneficial effects on human health. PMID:26261709

  2. Extra virgin olive oil polyphenolic extracts downregulate inflammatory responses in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages suppressing NFκB and MAPK signalling pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Cárdeno Galván, Ana; Sánchez Hidalgo, Marina; Aparicio Soto, Marina; Sánchez Fidalgo, Susana; Alarcón de la Lastra Romero, Catalina

    2014-01-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is obtained from the fruit of the olive tree Olea europaea L. Phenolic compounds present in EVOO have recognized anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the activity of the total phenolic fraction extracted from EVOO and the action mechanisms involved are not well defined. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the polyphenolic extract (PE) from EVOO on LPS-stimulated peritoneal murine macrophages....

  3. REPLACEMENT OF FISH MEAL BY CANOLA MEAL IN DIETS FOR MAJOR CARPS IN FERTILIZED PONDS

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    S. ABBAS, I. AHMED, M. HAFEEZ-UR-REHMAN AND A. MATEEN

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in three earthen ponds to evaluate the replacement of fish meal by low cost plant protein (canola meal for major carps in semi-intensive culture system. Each pond was fertilized with cattle manure at the rate of 0.16g N/100g wet fish body weight daily. A control diet (30% CP, formulated by using fish meal, cotton seed meal, maize gluten and rice polish, was designated as T1, while in T2 and T3, the fish meal was replaced with canola meal by 20 and 40%, respectively. Feeding was done at the rate of 4% of wet fish body weight daily for five months. The overall average weight gains in T1, T2 and T3 for three fish species i.e. Labeo rohita, Cirrhinus mrigala and Catla catla were 356.6 ± 15.12, 332.6 ± 14.32 and 362.4 ± 12.12; 320.4 ± 14.03, 305.6 ± 14.03 and 337.1 ± 16.02; and 284.6 ± 13.07, 282.2 ± 15.13 and 305.1 ± 17.43g, respectively. Net fish yields (all the species together were 1529.5 ± 13.93, 1327.0 ± 12.19 and 1122.5 ± 10.28 Kg/ha/year under T1, T2 and T3, respectively. The gross fish production was calculated as 2338.5 ± 12.49, 2137.5 ± 11.65 and 1931.5 ± 13.01 Kg/ha/year in T1, T2 and T3 pond, respectively. In all the treatments, Catla catla showed better growth performance, followed by Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala. The treated ponds caused a decrease in fish production when replacement of fish meal was done with canola meal.

  4. Digestibilidade aparente da energia e nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus Apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Massamitu Furuya

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi realizado para determinar a energia digestível e a digestibilidade aparente de nutrientes do farelo de canola pela tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus. O óxido de crômio (0,1% foi utilizado como indicador inerte em dieta semi-purificada, com coleta de fezes pelo sistema Guelph. Os peixes foram alimentados até saciedade aparente. O farelo de canola apresentou valores de energia e nutrientes digestíveis de: 77,84; 71,99; 86,92; 88,19; 67,16 e 29,86% para a matéria seca, energia, proteína, lipídios, cálcio e fósforo, respectivamente, correspondendo a 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69,97; 32,6; 1,2; 0,41 e 0,28%, de energia digestível, matéria seca, proteína e lipídios digestíveis e cálcio e fósforo disponíveis, respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho evidenciam que a tilápia do Nilo pode utilizar eficientemente o farelo de canola.This study was carried out to determine the digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility of canola meal for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus. The chromic oxide (0.1% was used as an inert indicador in the semi-purified diet and faeces were collected by Guelph system. Fish were fed to apparent satiation. The apparent nutrient and energy digestibility of canola meal were: 77.84, 71.99, 86.92, 88.19, 67.16, and 29.86% for dry matter, energy, protein, lipids, calcium and phosphorus, respectively, corresponding to 2969,98 (kcal/kg; 69.97, 32.6, 1.2, 0.41, and 0.28% of, digestible energy, dry matter, protein and lipids and available calcium and phosphorus, respectively. The results obtained in this experiment evidence that Nile tilapia may be able to utilize canola meal eficiently.

  5. Measured reflectance suppressed by thin-film interference of crude oil smeared on glass - as on vitrinite in coal or petroliferous rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Neely

    2011-01-01

    The tool of measuring "vitrinite reflectance" under a microscope has great value in petroleum exploration and coal utilization, and the reflectance is a simple number, such as 1.4% Ro, with some slight variations depending on technique. Sample collection, preparation and measurement are simple and many sedimentary rocks yield vitrinite. However, the reported number can lead one astray if its origin and quality are not fully understood. I analyze here just one factor, "smear" of crude oil on the polished surface (from the sample), which may reduce reflectance because of thin-film interference. Some other causes of error are listed in an addendum to this note.

  6. Leaking tankers: how much oil was spilled?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model to estimate leak rates from tankers has been developed for use in emergency situations when more direct oil-loss estimation methods are not available. The model includes algorithms for gravity outflow and air and water ingestion. Three laboratory tests were conducted using fresh water and canola oil to evaluate the model output. Comparison with results from the laboratory experiments indicate good correlation of model results with measured data. However, it is not yet possible in the case of very large crude carriers to answer the question 'how much oil was spilled?' Sensitivity analysis and further laboratory testing were suggested to determine the effect of factors such as: pressure vacuum relief valves that prevent cavitation in the event of tank puncture; changing outside water levels due to wave and tidal action; tank and hole dimensions; and the amount and density of the product.10 refs., 4 figs

  7. Resistance of canola cultivars affect life table parameters of Nysius cymoides (Spinola (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollashahi Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A life table can be used as an important and appropriate tool to evaluate the susceptibility or resistance level of different host plant cultivars to insect pests. In the current study, we determined the suitability or inferiority of five different canola cultivars (Hayula420, Hayula401, Hayula50, Hayula60, RGS to Nysius cymoides, under laboratory conditions. Data were analysed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory. Nysius cymoides which fed on Hayula420 had the longest nymphal period, while those which fed on Hayula50 had the shortest nymphal period. Developmental times (sum of incubation and nymphal periods was longest for those which fe d on Hayula420 and the shortest for those which fed on Hayula50. The adult pre-oviposition period (APOP, total pre-oviposition period (TPOP, mean fecundity, and adult longevity of adults reared on different canola cultivars showed significant differences. The highest and lowest net reproductive rates (R0 were obtained for those which fed on Hayula420 (11.40 offspring per individual and Hayula401 (5.47 offspring per individual, respectively. The highest value (0.0395 d-1 for the intrinsic rate of increase (r was obtained for those which fed on Hayula 60 cultivar and the lowest value (0.0261 d-1 for those which fed on Hayula401 cultivar. The shortest and longest mean generation times (T were obtained for those which fed on RGS and H401 cultivars, respectively. The lowest and highest values of life expectancy (exj were obtained for those which fed on RGS and Hayula420 cultivars, respectively. The results showed that Hayula401 and RGS were not susceptible cultivars to N. cymoides. These cultivars showed higher resistance to N. cymoides, while Hayula60, Hayula420, and Hayula50 were found to be suitable cultivars but with lower resistance to N. cymoides, respectively.

  8. Ethylene involvement in silique and seed development of canola, Brassica napus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Linda J; Kurepin, Leonid V; Yeung, Edward C; Shah, Saleh; Emery, R J Neil; Reid, David M; Pharis, Richard P

    2012-09-01

    A wide range of plant hormones, including gibberellins (GAs) and auxins are known to be involved in regulating seed and fruit growth and development. Changes in ethylene biosynthesis are also associated with seed and fruit development, but ethylene's role in these processes is poorly understood, as is its possible interaction with the other plant hormones. A major complication of investigating ethylene-induced regulation of developmental processes is ethylene's biphasic mode of action. To investigate ethylene's actions and interactions we used a 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase transgenic canola line. This line evolves significantly less ethylene from its siliques and seeds, relative to plants from a wild type (WT) background. Plants of the transgenic line also had smaller siliques which were associated with reductions in both seed size and seed number. Application of ethephon, a compound that produces ethylene, to plants of the transgenic line restored the WT phenotype for both siliques and seeds. Application of the same dose of ethephon to WT plants diminished both silique and seed development, showing ethylene's biphasic effect and effectively producing the ACC deaminase transgenic phenotype. There were significant decreases in endogenous concentrations of GA(1) and GA(4) and also of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), between WT seeds and seedless siliques and seeds and siliques from the transgenic line plants. These differences were emphasized during early stages (10-20 days after pollination) of seed and silique development. The above results strongly suggest that ethylene interacts with other endogenous plant hormones in regulating silique and seed development and growth in WT lines of canola. PMID:22809685

  9. Water use of cereal-canola-lucerne rotations in southeastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water balances of several annual crops grown in rotation with lucerne were monitored and compared with that under a native white-cypress forest near Wagga Wagga, New South Wales. Water use by the white cypress forest was slightly greater than that by canola, but much less than by cereals and lucerne during the growing season. The cereal and canola crops have a cyclic water use pattern (high in spring, low in summer/autumn) while that for the white cypress is more uniform through the year. Lucerne behaves more like the cypress forest. It uses water throughout the year, and is a high water use alternative to be grown in rotation with crops. It extracts water below the 'nominal' rooting depth of annual crops that has built up from several years of cropping. This reduces the likelihood of deep drainage in the subsequent winter by creating a buffer for water storage. Simulations using APSIM (Agricultural Production Systems Simulator) run on historical weather data (1957 to 1997) confirmed the potential of lucerne to keep the soil drier and reduce drainage in a rotation. Soil water storage gradually increased under wheat after the lucerne was removed, and was similar to that under continuous wheat after 2 to 3 years. The refilling of the buffer depends on the timing and amount of rainfall. In general, this means that the wheat phase should probably not exceed 2 to 3 years. Furthermore, the drying under lucerne happens rapidly and often within the first summer/autumn of the lucerne phase, with little difference in water use between lucerne and wheat during winter/spring. These results suggest that practical benefits can be obtained by growing lucerne for as little as 12 months, yet, at other times, it may need to be grown for 2 or even 3 years. (author)

  10. Tamanho de parcela e número de repetições em canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cargnelutti Filho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar o tamanho ótimo de parcela e o número de repetições, para avaliar a massa verde de canola (Brassica napus L.. Foram realizados 27 ensaios de uniformidade de 5m×5m (25m2, sendo nove ensaios para cada um dos seguintes híbridos: Hyola 61, Hyola 76 e Hyola 433. Cada ensaio foi dividido em 25 unidades experimentais básicas (UEB de 1m×1m, totalizando 675 UEB. Foi pesada a massa verde das plantas de cada UEB. O tamanho ótimo de parcela (Xo foi determinado por meio do método da curvatura máxima do modelo do coeficiente de variação, e as comparações de médias, entre os híbridos, foram feitas pelo teste de Scott-Knott. O número de repetições, para experimentos nos delineamentos inteiramente casualizados e blocos ao acaso, em cenários formados pelas combinações de i tratamentos (i=3, 4, ..., 50 e d diferenças mínimas entre médias de tratamentos a serem detectadas como significativas a 5% de probabilidade, pelo teste de Tukey, expressas em percentagem da média do experimento (d=10%, 13%, ..., 40%, foi determinado por processo iterativo até a convergência. O tamanho ótimo de parcela para avaliar a massa verde de canola é 6,41m2. Quatro repetições, para avaliar até 50 tratamentos, nos delineamentos inteiramente casualizados e blocos ao acaso, são suficientes para identificar, como significativas a 5% de probabilidade, pelo teste de Tukey, diferenças entre médias de tratamentos de 41,4% da média do experimento.

  11. Molecular chemistry of plant protein structure at a cellular level by synchrotron-based FTIR spectroscopy: Comparison of yellow ( Brassica rapa) and Brown ( Brassica napus) canola seed tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2008-05-01

    The objective of this study was to use synchrotron light sourced FTIR microspectroscopy as a novel approach to characterize protein molecular structure of plant tissue: compared yellow and brown Brassica canola seed within cellular dimensions. Differences in the molecular chemistry and the structural-chemical characteristics were identified between two type of plant tissues. The yellow canola seeds contained a relatively lower (P < 0.05) percentage of model-fitted α-helices (33 vs. 37), a higher (P < 0.05) relative percentage of model-fitted β-sheets (27 vs. 21) and a lower (P < 0.05) ratio of α-helices to β-sheets (1.3 vs. 1.9) than the brown seeds. These results may indicate that the protein value of the yellow canola seeds as food or feed was different from that of the brown canola seeds. The cluster analysis and principal component analysis did not show clear differences between the yellow and brown canola seed tissues in terms of protein amide I structures, indicating they are related to each other. Both yellow and brown canola seeds contain the same proteins but in different ratios.

  12. Tolerance of transgenic canola plants (Brassica napus) amended with plant growth-promoting bacteria to flooding stress at a metal-contaminated field site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of transgenic canola (Brassica napus) expressing a gene for the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase was compared to non-transformed canola exposed to flooding and elevated soil Ni concentration, in situ. In addition, the ability of the plant growth-promoting bacterium Pseudomonas putida UW4, which also expresses ACC deaminase, to facilitate the growth of non-transformed and transgenic canola under the above mentioned conditions was examined. Transgenic canola and/or canola treated with P. putida UW4 had greater shoot biomass compared to non-transformed canola under low flood-stress conditions. Under high flood-stress conditions, shoot biomass was reduced and Ni accumulation was increased in all instances relative to low flood-stress conditions. This is the first field study to document the increase in plant tolerance utilizing transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria exposed to multiple stressors. - Using transgenic plants and plant growth-promoting bacteria as phytoremediation methods increased plant tolerance at a metal-contaminated field site under low flood conditions

  13. Quarkonium suppression

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P Petreczky

    2003-04-01

    I discuss quarkonium suppression in equilibrated strongly interacting matter. After a brief review of basic features of quarkonium production I discuss the application of recent lattice data on the heavy quark potential to the problem of quarkonium dissociation as well as the problem of direct lattice determination of quarkonium properties in finite temperature lattice QCD.

  14. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

    OpenAIRE

    Flávio Neves Celestino; Dirceu Pratissoli; Lorena Contarini Machado; Hugo José Gonçalves dos Santos Junior; Vagner Tebaldi de Queiroz; Leonardo Mardgan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA) for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®), and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1). The median lethal concentration (L...

  15. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae): growth and thermal tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    A.K. Ikeda; Zuanon, J.A.S.; A.L. Salaro; M.B.D. Freitas; M.D. Pontes; Souza, L S; M.V. Santos

    2011-01-01

    The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare), in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juveni...

  16. Perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de cordeiros alimentados com grãos de canola em diferentes formas Meat fatty acid profile of lambs fed processed or unprocessed canola seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis fonseca de Macedo

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a alteração do perfil dos ácidos graxos da carcaça de ovinos alimentados com dietas contendo grãos inteiros de canola (CI em duas formas de processamentos (quebrados - CQ ou peletizados - CP. Foram utilizados 28 cordeiros, distribuídos num delineamento inteiramente casualizado e abatidos com média de peso vivo entre 31 e 33kg, coletando-se amostras entre a 12ª e 13ª costela. Houve diferença significativa para os ácidos graxos C10:0, C14:1ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7e C17:0, cujas médias foram maiores que na dieta controle. Os ácidos graxos C18:0, C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C18:3ω3, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22:0 e C24:0 sofreram alterações com a inclusão de grãos de canola. Também foi observado diferença significativa para os totais de ácidos graxos mono-insaturados, porém, os totais de ácidos graxos polinsaturados e a relação entre ácidos graxos polinsaturados e saturados foram inalterados. Os resultados levam à conclusão de que a inclusão de grãos inteiros de canola nas dietas para cordeiros altera o perfil dos ácidos graxos independentemente da forma de apresentação.The objective of this experiment was to compare carcass fatty acids profile of lambs fed a control diet and diets containing either whole (WC, cracked (CC or pelleted (PC canola seeds. Twenty-eight lambs assigned to a completely randomized design were fed their respective diets for 132 days and slaughtered between 31 and 33kg of body weight. Samples of muscle Longissimus dorsi, Psoas maior and Psoas menor were collected on the left side of the carcass between the 12th and 13th ribs and 11 cm from the carcass midline. Concentrations of C10:0, C14:ω5, C15:0, C16:0, C16:1ω7. C17:0 and, C18:3ω3 were significantly higher (P < 0.05 in the carcass of lambs fed the three canola seed diets than in the carcass of those fed the control diet. Pelleted canola seeds increased the percentages of C18:1ω9, C18:3ω6, C20:0, C20:1ω9, C22

  17. Conseqüências da multicolinearidade sobre a análise de trilha em canola Multicolinearity consequence on path analysis in canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Luís Meirelles Coimbra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A análise estatística do tipo multivariada vem crescendo consideravelmente, motivando a sua ampla utilização por parte dos pesquisadores criando, assim, grande demanda por conhecimentos específicos tanto a respeito da sua aplicação quanto das suas pressuposições ou limitações. Para que a avaliação do grau de associação entre diferentes caracteres de importância agronômica tenha uma estimativa confiável em termos biológico, é de fundamental importância identificar e quantificar o grau de multicolinearidade entre as variáveis estudadas. Além disso, os tipos de modelos estatísticos e matemáticos utilizados na determinação desta dependência linear entre as variáveis classificatórias ou independentes podem ou não ser adequados a estimativas dos parâmetros biológicos avaliados. O presente trabalho tem como objetivo apresentar uma avaliação crítica sobre o grau de multicolinearidade identificado e avaliado sobre a análise de trilha analisada sobre partes de um experimento de canola. Os resultados permitem inferir que a aplicação da análise de trilha sobre o grau de multicolinearidade severa produz resultados sem nenhuma importância biológica para o melhorista de plantas. No entanto, esta limitação pode ser facilmente identificada e corrigida através da análise de trilha com colinearidade empregando uma constante (k na diagonal da matriz X‘X. O modelo de análise com multicolinearidade severa, entretanto, superestimou, valores de coeficientes de correlação simples, comparativamente com a multicolinearidade fraca. Mesmo assim, pode não ser necessariamente mais precisa, principalmente em virtude da avaliação de um número restrito de variáveis incluídas na análise ou de uma sobreposição destas variáveis explicativas.The statistical multivariate analysis has a widespread use by researchers, creating a large demand for specific knowledge regarding its application concerning its assumptions and or

  18. Shoot-Specific Down-Regulation of Protein Farnesyltransferase (α-Subunit) for Yield Protection against Drought in Canola

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yang; Beaith, Michelle; Chalifoux, Maryse; Ying, Jifeng; Uchacz, Tina; Sarvas, Carlene; Griffiths, Rebecca; Kuzma, Monika; Wan, Jiangxin; Huang, Yafan

    2009-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world and its seed yield and quality are significantly affected by drought stress. As an innate and adaptive response to water deficit, land plants avoid potential damage by rapid biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which triggers stomatal closure to reduce transpirational water loss. The ABA-mediated stomatal response is a dosage-dependent process; thus, one genetic engineering approach for achievi...

  19. Impact of irradiated sewage sludge application on sandy soil physical characteristics, canola yield and water use efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field experiment was carried out to study the effect of irradiated sewage sludge application on the physical and hydro physical properties of Inshas sandy soil, water use efficiency and yield of canola plant. The soil parameters that were investigated are: soil moisture retention curves, soil bulk density, total porosity and hydraulic conductivity. Treatments included the application of irradiated sewage sludge (6 kGy)at four rates (i.e.0,20,30 and 40 ton/ha). These rates represent 0,50,75,and 100% of nitrogen requirements for canola plant. A control treatment was included using recommended mineral fertilizer NPK. Mineral nitrogen fertilizer (n)was added to the 50% and 75% treatments as a supplement. Results showed that sewage sludge application resulted in improvement of soil physical, hydro physical characteristics and water use efficiency via increase of canola yield . Results indicated that sewage sludge is a good soil conditioner . The best treatment was 30 t/ha sludge + 131 kg/ha ammonium sulfate, as it recorded the highest economic yield and water use efficiency

  20. Efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil in suppression of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in chickpea with particular emphasis to mode of antifungal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedia, Akash; Dwivedy, Abhishek Kumar; Jha, Dhruva Kumar; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2016-05-01

    The present study reports in vivo antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic efficacy of Mentha spicata essential oil (EO) against toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain LHP(C)-D6 in chickpea food system up to 12 months of storage. In addition, the mode of antifungal action of EO was also determined to understand the mechanism of fungal growth inhibition. The in vivo study with different concentrations of M. spicata EO showed dose-dependent decrease in fungal colony count as well as aflatoxin B1 concentration. The EO caused >50% protection in inoculated sets and >70% protection in uninoculated sets of chickpea food system against A. flavus at 1.0 μL mL(-1) air concentration. However, at the same concentration, EO caused 100% inhibition to aflatoxin B1 production in both sets when analyzed through high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The antifungal target of EO in fumigated cells of A. flavus was found to be the plasma membrane when analyzed through electron microscopic observations and ions leakage test. The EO fumigated chickpea seeds showed 100% seed germination and seedling growth after 12 months of storage. Based on these observations, M. spicata EO can be recommended as plant-based preservative for safe protection of food commodities during storage conditions against fungal and most importantly mycotoxin contaminations. PMID:26338202

  1. Extra virgin olive oil polyphenolic extracts downregulate inflammatory responses in LPS-activated murine peritoneal macrophages suppressing NFκB and MAPK signalling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdeno, A; Sánchez-Hidalgo, M; Aparicio-Soto, M; Sánchez-Fidalgo, S; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, C

    2014-06-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is obtained from the fruit of the olive tree Olea europaea L. Phenolic compounds present in EVOO have recognized anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the activity of the total phenolic fraction extracted from EVOO and the action mechanisms involved are not well defined. The present study was designed to evaluate the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of the polyphenolic extract (PE) from EVOO on LPS-stimulated peritoneal murine macrophages. Nitric oxide (NO) production was analyzed by the Griess method and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) by fluorescence analysis. Moreover, changes in the protein expression of the pro-inflammatory enzymes, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1 (mPGES-1), as well as the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NFκB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathways, were analyzed by Western blot. PE from EVOO reduced LPS-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses through decreasing NO and ROS generation. In addition, PE induced a significant down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2 and mPGES-1 protein expressions, reduced MAPK phosphorylation and prevented the nuclear NFκB translocation. This study establishes that PE from EVOO possesses anti-inflammatory activities on LPS-stimulated murine macrophages. PMID:24740524

  2. Biodegradation of natural oils in seawater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Darbi, M.M.; Saeed, N.O.; Islam, M.R. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS (Canada). Faculty of Engineering; Lee, K. [Bedford Institute of Oceanography, Dartmouth, NS (Canada)

    2005-01-15

    Spills of non-petroleum hydrocarbons including oils and fish oils are of environmental concern because of their potential to cause serious effects on marine life and coastal environments. Biodegradation by indigenous microorganisms is an important and potentially ubiquitous process affecting both the chemical composition and physical properties of contaminant oils. Data on the environmental persistence of non-petroleum oils is now required for risk assessments and decision making by spill responders. This article investigates the biodegradability of various vegetable and fish oils under the influence of natural bacteria in seawater. The influence of nutrients and microbial environment on changes in bacterial numbers and the extent and rate of degradation for various test oils (olive, mustard, canola and cod liver oils) were studied over time. Time-series visual and microscopic observations were made to characterize physical changes in the residual oils, formation of floating and precipitate particles, oil droplets and dispersion. The biodegradation process was significantly influenced by environmental conditions, with a higher rate and extent of biodegradation observed in seawater amended with nutrients and wastewater that contained elevated numbers of bacteria and nutrients. It was observed that different oils respond in different rates and extents to biodegradation depending on their stability, viscosity and compositions. All results clearly revealed a significant response of the oil-contaminated samples to both the seawater and wastewater environments. Observations on changes in the physical properties of the residual oil may be important in the context of oil spill response strategies. For example, simple physical recovery methods may be used to recover polymeric lumps at the sea surface. (author)

  3. COMPARISON OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTIVITIES OF DIFFERENT VEGETABLE OILS BY ACIDIC CATALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYTEN SAGIROGLU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has become a subject which increasingly attracts worldwide attention because of its environmental benefits, biodegradability and renewability. Biodiesel production typically involves the transesterification of a triglyceride feedstock with methanol or other short-chain alcohols. This paper presents a study of transesterification of various vegetable oils, sunflower, safflower, canola, soybean, olive, corn, hazelnut and waste sunflower oils, with the acidic catalyst. Under laboratory conditions, fatty acid methyl esters (FAME were prepared by using methanol in the presence of 1.85% hydrochloric acid at 100 °C for 1 h and 25 °C for 3 h. The analyses of biodiesel were carried out by gas chroma¬tography and thin layer chromatography. Also, biodiesel productivities (% were determined on basis of the ratio of ester to oil content (w/w. The biodiesel productivities for all oils were found to be about 80% and about 90% at 25 and 100 °C, respectively. Also, the results showed that the yield of biodiesel depended on temperature for some oils, including canola, sunflower, safflower oils, but it was not found significant differences among all of the oil types on biodiesel productivities.

  4. Determination of the physical characteristics of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Danielle Oliveira de; Andrade, Ednilton Tavares de; Pereira, Roberto Guimaraes [Universidade Federal Fluminense (TER/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola e do Meio Ambiente; Tulcan, Oscar Edwin Piamba [Universidade Nacional da Colombia (UNAL), Bogota (Colombia). Fac de Ingenieria

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work was the characterization of vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn and soybean through corrosion, kinematic viscosity, density, cloud point and flow point tests. Vegetable oils are used as raw material for preparation of biofuels or as fuel diesel additive or substitute. The vegetable oils tested showed a low level of corrosion, kinematic viscosities are measured in the range of 31 to 36 mm{sup 2}.s{sup -1}, density was tested at 15 and 20 deg C and showed results varying in the third decimal order. For the oils tested, the cloud point is around 0 deg C and the flow point around -17 deg C. (author)

  5. Comparison of chemical characteristics of high oleic acid fraction of moringa oleifera oil with some vegetable oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical characteristics of High oleic acid fraction (HOF) of Moringa oleifera oil (MOO) was compared with sunflower, soybean and canola oils. HOF of MOO was obtained by dry fractionation at 0 degree C. Iodine value and C18:1 in HOF increased from 61.55 to 82.47 points and 70.29% to 81.15%, respectively. Cloud point of HOF was 1.1 degree C as compared to 10.2 degree C in MOO. The induction period of HOF was greater than all the vegetable oils tested in this investigation. HOF can be used as a source of edible oil with better health attributes and superior storage stability. (author)

  6. Evaluation of biohydrogenation rate of canola vs. soya bean seeds as unsaturated fatty acids sources for ruminants in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, S; Ghoorchi, T; Yamchi, A

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study disappearance of C14 to C18 fatty acids, lag times and biohydrogenation (BH) rates of C18 fatty acids of ground soya bean and canola seeds in situ. Three ruminally fistulated Dallagh sheep were used to determine ruminal BH of unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs). Differences in the disappearance of fatty acids through the bags and lag times were observed between the oilseeds. We saw that the longer the incubation time of the oilseeds in the rumen, the lower the content of C18:2 and C18:3. Significantly higher lag times for both C18:2 and C18:3 were observed in ground canola compared to ground soya bean. BH rates of C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids in soya bean were three times higher than those of canola. These results suggest that the fatty acid profile of fat source can affect the BH of UFAs by rumen micro-organisms. So that UFAs of canola had higher ability to escape from ruminal BH. It seems that fatty acid profile of ruminant products is more affected by canola seed compared to soya bean seed. PMID:26094995

  7. Effect of inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain FY32 on some traits in canola cultivars under salt stress in hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria are known as an alternative to chemical fertilizers, which are able to reduce the harmful effects of non-biological stresses such as salinity and increase soil fertility and crop production. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inoculation of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain FY32 on a number of morphological characters in canola cultivars under salt stress. Thereby, a split split-plot design with three replications was applied in hydroponic cultivation system. Six bacterial inoculated (Pseudomonas flourescens FY32 and non-inoculated canola cultivars were subjected to sodium chloride salt stress at three levels (0, 150 and 300 mM. Based on the ANOVA results, inoculation effects under different salinity levels on canola cultivars, compared to non-inoculated treatments, were statistically significant on plant fresh weight, dry weight of leaf, stem and total plant, leaf area and root length. Also, three-way interaction effects of salinity, bacteria and cultivar on plant height and root volume were significant (P<0.01. Sodium, potassium and proline concentration in leaves and roots of inoculated plants had significant difference with non-inoculated plants at different levels of salinity. The highest rate of proline and potassium ion was observed in canola cultivars inoculated with Pseudomonas fluorescens under both salinity levels. It can be concluded that inoculation of canola plants with Pseudomonas flourescense (containing ACC- deaminase gene could improve their growth and development in case of salinity stress.

  8. Ameliorating influence of sulfur on germination attributes of canola (brassica napus l.) under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was performed to evaluate the role of sulfur to induce tolerance in Brassica napus L. against chromium stress by estimating the changes in germination parameters. Petriplates were assembled in Randomized Complete Block Design. A total 9 sets of treatments viz., control, chromium treated (40 and 160ppm), sulfur treated (50 and 150ppm) and sulfur (50 and 150ppm) combined with chromium (40 and 160ppm) with three replicates was used. Chromium under both concentrations was responsible for significant decline in germination parameters i.e. germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings. Sulfur application under chromium stress resulted in improvement of germination parameters such as germination percentage, germination rate, seedling vigor index, shoot and root length, fresh weight and dry weight of seedlings in contrast to chromium treatment. So, it can be concluded that sulfur in appropriate dose can be used to ameliorate the negative effects of chromium by increasing the germination potential of canola. (author)

  9. Evaluation of canola irradiated populations after two selection cycles under saline stressed conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the two winter seasons in 2006/07 and 2007/08 to improve the production of canola irradiated populations in M3 and M4 generations via gamma irradiation doses of 100,400 and 600 Gy and two cycles of mass selection based on No. of pods/plant (20% intensity) for each irradiated population of the four cultivars under saline stressed conditions. The obtained results revealed that No. of pods/plant and seed yield /plant were improved in M4 generation at dose 400 Gy. After two mass selection cycles over the four cultivars, the plant height, No. of pods and seed yield/ plant in M4 were improved by about 12.7 % ,50.6% and 75.8% , respectively for the irradiated population of dose 400 Gy. The serow 6 and bactol varieties has more response than the two varieties serow 4 and evita which exhibited genetic variation for the most studied traits. this could be exploited for further selection to gain these traits.

  10. Introduction of some important antagonistic bacteria affecting on damping-off of canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarani, S

    2012-01-01

    Three hundred ninety five bacterial isolates were collected from canola Root and Rhizosphere in Golestan, Mazandaran, Guilan and Tehran provinces. At first, antagonistic effect of bacterial isolates on Rhizoctonia solani was studied using dual culture test assay. The results showed that 60 isolates had the ability to inhibit the growth of fungi on PDA medium. On the basis of the biochemical, physiological and morphological tests, isolates Pf41, Pf51, Pf411 and Pf412 were identified as Pseudomonas fluorescens, isolate Bu1 as Burkholderia cepacia, the isolates B1, B2, Bs44 and B6 were as Bacillus subtilis and S44, str45 as Streptomyces sp. Results of the studies on biocontrol mechanism showed that Isolates produced antibiotics and volatile metabolites that prevented the mycelial growth of the fungus. Also the isolates produced some of antimicrobial metabolites including hydrogen cyanide, protease and siderophore. Isolates effect inhibition of in vitro growth of the fungus. The effect of isolates on disease reduction in compare with control have significantly differentiated. None of the isolates were able completely to prevent disease occurrence. Isolates applied as soil treatment had a significantly higher disease control as compared to seed treatment. Isolates had considerable effect on reduction disease under the greenhouse conditions. PMID:23878984

  11. Efeito da substituição do farelo de algodão pelo farelo de canola no desempenho de novilhas Nelore confinadas Effect of cottonseed meal replacement by canola meal on performance of feedlot Nellore heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanor Nunes do Prado

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da substituição do farelo de algodão pelo farelo de canola sobre ganho em peso, consumo de ração, conversão alimentar e rendimento de carcaça de novilhas Nelore confinadas. Trinta novilhas com, em média, 225 kg PV inicial e 20 meses de idade foram distribuídas ao acaso em dois tratamentos (farelo de algodão - FAG ou farelo de canola - FAC como fontes de proteína com 15 animais por tratamento. O experimento foi realizado em três períodos de 28 dias, mais 14 dias de adaptação. O ganho médio diário no tratamento FAC (1,05 kg foi maior que no tratamento FAG (0,87 kg. Da mesma forma, a conversão alimentar da MS no tratamento FAC (6,72 foi melhor que no tratamento FAG (8,13; todavia, o rendimento de carcaça foi semelhante para ambos os tratamentos (51,6 e 51,7%, para FAC e FAG, respectivamente. O uso de farelo de canola, em comparação ao farelo de algodão, como fonte de proteína alternativa na ração de novilhas Nelore em crescimento e terminação, mostrou-se viável, uma vez que o ganho em peso e a conversão alimentar dos animais foram melhores.The objective of this work was to study the effect of the substitution of cottonseed meal by canola meal on weight gain, feed intake, feed:gain ratio and dressing percentage of the feedlot Nellore heifers. Thirty Nellore heifers averaging initial of 225 kg LW and 20 months of age were randomly allotted to two treatments (cottonseed meal - COM or canola meal - CAM as protein sources with 15 animals for each treatment. The experiment was carried out in three periods of 28 days each, plus 14 days of adaptation. The daily average weight gain in CAM treatment (1.05 kg was higher than in the COM treatment (.87 kg. In the same way, feed:gain ratio of DM in CAM treatment (6.72 was better than COM treatment (8.13. However, the dressing percentage was similar for both treatments (51.6 and 51.7, for CAM and COM, respectively. The use of canola meal

  12. Using a non-invasive technique in nutrition: synchrotron radiation infrared microspectroscopy spectroscopic characterization of oil seeds treated with different processing conditions on molecular spectral factors influencing nutrient delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuewei; Yu, Peiqiang

    2014-07-01

    Non-invasive techniques are a key to study nutrition and structure interaction. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy coupled with a synchrotron radiation source (SR-IMS) is a rapid, non-invasive, and non-destructive bioanalytical technique. To understand internal structure changes in relation to nutrient availability in oil seed processing is vital to find optimal processing conditions. The objective of this study was to use a synchrotron-based bioanalytical technique SR-IMS as a non-invasive and non-destructive tool to study the effects of heat-processing methods and oil seed canola type on modeled protein structure based on spectral data within intact tissue that were randomly selected and quantify the relationship between the modeled protein structure and protein nutrient supply to ruminants. The results showed that the moisture heat-related processing significantly changed (pcontrol) and those processing by dry heating. The moisture heating increased (p0.05) in the protein spectral profile between the raw and dry-heated canola tissue and between yellow- and brown-type canola tissue. The results indicated that different heat processing methods have different impacts on the protein inherent structure. The protein intrinsic structure in canola seed tissue was more sensitive and more response to the moisture heating in comparison to the dry heating. These changes are expected to be related to the nutritive value. However, the current study is based on limited samples, and more large-scale studies are needed to confirm our findings. PMID:24920208

  13. Nuclear suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article draws attention to a number of cases where it seems that scientists and technologists have been penalized in various ways for having views opposed to those of the nuclear industry. Attempts to encourage the general public to understand nuclear issues have also been discouraged, nuclear knowledge being kept as the preserve of the experts and policy makers, especially in the military applications of nuclear power. It may be that publications are suppressed or careers are destroyed. One example highlighted in the article is of Dhirendra Shama, a critic of India's nuclear policy, who was suddenly transferred from the Centre of Studies in Science Policy at his University to the School of Languages. Other examples are given from other countries - Australia, Britain, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, India, Japan, New Zealand, Soviet Union, Sweden and the United States of America. The main 'crime' of those victimised is not in having critical views, but in alerting the general public to those critical view and ideas. (UK)

  14. Moringa oleifera oil: a possible source of biodiesel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Umer; Anwar, Farooq; Moser, Bryan R; Knothe, Gerhard

    2008-11-01

    Biodiesel is an alternative to petroleum-based conventional diesel fuel and is defined as the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils and animal fats. Biodiesel has been prepared from numerous vegetable oils, such as canola (rapeseed), cottonseed, palm, peanut, soybean and sunflower oils as well as a variety of less common oils. In this work, Moringa oleifera oil is evaluated for the first time as potential feedstock for biodiesel. After acid pre-treatment to reduce the acid value of the M. oleifera oil, biodiesel was obtained by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and an alkali catalyst at 60 degrees C and alcohol/oil ratio of 6:1. M. oleifera oil has a high content of oleic acid (>70%) with saturated fatty acids comprising most of the remaining fatty acid profile. As a result, the methyl esters (biodiesel) obtained from this oil exhibit a high cetane number of approximately 67, one of the highest found for a biodiesel fuel. Other fuel properties of biodiesel derived from M. oleifera such as cloud point, kinematic viscosity and oxidative stability were also determined and are discussed in light of biodiesel standards such as ASTM D6751 and EN 14214. The 1H NMR spectrum of M. oleifera methyl esters is reported. Overall, M. oleifera oil appears to be an acceptable feedstock for biodiesel. PMID:18474424

  15. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Dan G.; McConnell, Laura L.; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large‐scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee‐relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed‐treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin‐treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250‐treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water‐extractable (i.e., plant‐bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:311–321. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of SETAC. PMID:26467536

  16. Carcass, sensory, and adipose tissue traits of Brangus steers fed casein-formaldehyde-protected starch and/or canola lipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, C D; Lunt, D K; Miller, R K; Smith, S B

    2003-10-01

    We predicted that providing rumen-protected starch to the small intestine would increase adiposity of intramuscular adipose tissue, and hence marbling scores. Eighteen 15-mo-old Brangus steers were assigned randomly to one of three dietary treatment groups: 1) cracked corn (Corn); 2) casein-formaldehyde-protected lipid (Canola Lipid); or 3) casein-formaldehyde-protected starch (Marble Plus). All diets were equally balanced for ME (2.91 Mcal/kg), CP (12.5%), and DM (89%). Ether extract was 3.7, 6.9, and 6.9% for the Corn, Canola Lipid, and Marble Plus diets, respectively, and the Marble Plus also contained 3.7% protected starch. Steers were fed the diets for 126 d before slaughter. Average daily feed intake (as-fed basis), ADG, and feed:gain ratio (P > or = 0.23) did not differ among treatments. Carcasses across treatments did not differ (P = 0.26) in adjusted fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, hot carcass weight, dressing percentage, marbling scores, or USDA quality grade. Percentage of kidney, pelvic, and heart fat was higher (P or = 0.33) by diet in i.m. adipose tissue. Fatty acid synthetase activity tended (P = 0.08) to be higher in s.c. adipose tissue of Marble Plus steers, and NADP-malic dehydrogenase activity was higher (P = 0.03) in i.m. adipose tissue of Canola Lipid steers. We conclude that Marble Plus did not improve carcass quality, but also did not reduce beef sensory attributes. Any differences we observed in carcass characteristics, adipose tissue cellularity, or lipogenesis apparently were caused by the protected lipid rather than the protected starch. PMID:14552372

  17. Clothianidin in agricultural soils and uptake into corn pollen and canola nectar after multiyear seed treatment applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tianbo; Dyer, Dan G; McConnell, Laura L; Bondarenko, Svetlana; Allen, Richard; Heinemann, Oliver

    2016-02-01

    Limited data are available on the fate of clothianidin under realistic agricultural production conditions. The present study is the first large-scale assessment of clothianidin residues in soil and bee-relevant matrices from corn and canola fields after multiple years of seed-treatment use. The average soil concentration from 50 Midwest US corn fields with 2 yr to 11 yr of planting clothianidin-treated seeds was 7.0 ng/g, similar to predicted concentrations from a single planting of Poncho 250-treated corn seeds (6.3 ng/g). The water-extractable (i.e., plant-bioavailable) clothianidin residues in soil were only 10% of total residues. Clothianidin concentrations in soil reached a plateau concentration (amount applied equals amount dissipated) in fields with 4 or more application years. Concentrations in corn pollen from these fields were low (mean: 1.8 ng/g) with no correlation to total years of use or soil concentrations. For canola, soil concentrations from 27 Canadian fields with 2 yr to 4 yr of seed treatment use (mean = 5.7 ng/g) were not correlated with use history, and plant bioavailability was 6% of clothianidin soil residues. Average canola nectar concentrations were 0.6 ng/g and not correlated to use history or soil concentrations. Under typical cropping practices, therefore, clothianidin residues are not accumulating significantly in soil, plant bioavailability of residues in soil is limited, and exposure to pollinators will not increase over time in fields receiving multiple applications of clothianidin. PMID:26467536

  18. Comparative environmental impact assessment of herbicides used on genetically modified and non-genetically modified herbicide-tolerant canola crops using two risk indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Danielle P; Kookana, Rai S; Miller, Rosalind B; Correll, Raymond L

    2016-07-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is the third largest field crop in Australia by area sown. Genetically modified (GM) and non-GM canola varieties released or being developed in Australia include Clearfield® (imidazolinone tolerant), TT (triazine tolerant), InVigor® (glufosinate-ammonium tolerant), Roundup Ready® - RR® (glyphosate tolerant) and Hyola® RT® (tolerant to both glyphosate and triazine). We used two risk assessment approaches - the Environmental Impact Quotient (EIQ) and the Pesticide Impact Rating Index (PIRI) - to compare the environmental risks associated with herbicides used in the canola varieties (GM and non-GM) that are currently grown or may be grown in the future. Risk assessments found that from an environmental impact viewpoint a number of herbicides used in the production of TT canola showed high relative risk in terms of mobility and ecotoxicity of herbicides. The EIQ field use rating values for atrazine and simazine in particular were high compared with those for glyphosate and trifluralin. Imazapic and imazapyr, which are only used in Clearfield® canola, had extremely low EIQ field use rating values, likely reflecting the very low application rates used for these chemicals (0.02 to 0.04kg/ha) compared with those used for atrazine and simazine (1.2 to 1.5kg/ha). The PIRI assessment showed that irrespective of the canola variety grown, trifluralin posed a high toxicity risk to fish (Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss), algae and Daphnia sp. While the replacement of trifluralin with propyzamide had little effect on the mobility score, it greatly decreased the ecotoxicity score to fish, algae and Daphnia sp. due to the lower LC50 values for propyzamide compared with trifluralin. This study has shown that based on likelihood of off-site transport of herbicides in surface water and potential toxicity to non-target organisms, the GM canola varieties have no advantage over non-herbicide tolerant (non HT) or Clearfield® canola. PMID:27039064

  19. Impact of municipal waste water of Quetta city on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (brassica napus l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out in order to investigate the impact of municipal wastewater effluents of Quetta city on the biomass, physiology, and productivity of two canola (Brassica napus L.) cultivars viz., Oscar and Rainbow. Plants were grown in pots from seed to maturity during 2005-2006 growth season. Different concentrations of effluents (T1: 20% ,T2: 40%, T3: 60% T4: 80; T5: 100%) were supplied to plants as a soil drench compared to control plants (T0) receiving normal tap water. The wastewater effluents were highly alkaline in nature along with very high Electrical Conductivity, Biological Oxygen Demand; Chemical Oxygen Demand; Sodium Adsorption Ratio, Total Suspended Solids and minerals concentrations have found well above threshold limits set for the usage of municipal wastewater for irrigation purposes. Growth performance of both canola cultivars showed statistically significant effects on some physiological attributes. All treated plants showed reductions in growth and yield parameters, but T5 treated plants were most affected compared to control. There were significantly higher reductions in stomatal conductance (49% in Oscar; 53% in Rainbow), transpiration rate (62% Oscar; 67% in Rainbow), and photosynthetic rate (62% in Oscar; 69% in Rainbow) of T5 treatment plants compared with control. Both pigments of chlorophyll (a and b) responded efficiently to the applied stress of wastewater effluents showing reductions in chlorophyll a and b by 68-82% in cv. Oscar and 74-86% in cv. Rainbow. Similarly, fresh and dry biomass also showed reductions in different effluents treated plants (T1 to T5) ranging from 2-78% in both the cultivars of canola. Drastic reductions were recorded in the number of siliqua per plant (70-72%), seeds per plant (84-85%), seed weight per plant (87-90), and in the harvest index (72-74%) in cultivars Oscar and Rainbow, respectively than that of control. The overall result of the municipal wastewater impacts on canola cultivars are

  20. Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru

    2011-08-01

    Effect of process variables on the quality attributes of briquettes from wheat, oat, canola and barley straw Jaya Shankar Tumuluru*, L. G. Tabil, Y. Song, K. L. Iroba and V. Meda Biomass is a renewable energy source and environmentally friendly substitute for fossil fuels such as coal and petroleum products. Major limitation of biomass for successful energy application is its low bulk density, which makes it very difficult and costly to transport and handle. To overcome this limitation, biomass has to be densified. The commonly used technologies for densification of biomass are pelletization and briquetting. Briquetting offers many advantages at it can densify larger particles sizes of biomass at higher moisture contents. Briquetting is influenced by a number of feedstock and process variables such as moisture content, particle size distribution, and some operating variables such as temperature and densification pressure. In the present study, experiments were designed and conducted based on Box-Behnken design to produce briquettes using barley, wheat, canola and barley straws. A laboratory scale hydraulic briquette press was used for the present study. The experimental process variables and their levels used in the present study were pressure levels (7.5, 10, 12.5 MPa), three levels of temperature (90, 110, 130 C), at three moisture content levels (9, 12, 15% w.b.), and three levels of particle size (19.1, 25.04, 31.75 mm). The quality variables studied includes moisture content, initial density and final briquette density after two weeks of storage, size distribution index and durability. The raw biomass was initially chopped and size reduced using a hammer mill. The ground biomass was conditioned at different moisture contents and was further densified using laboratory hydraulic press. For each treatment combination, ten briquettes were manufactured at a residence time of about 30 s after compression pressure setpoint was achieved. After compression, the initial

  1. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin ... de Palme Rouge, Huile de Palmiste, Main Ja, Oil Palm Tree, Palm, Palm Fruit Oil, Palm Kernel Oil, ...

  2. Selective Breeding under Saline Stressed Conditions of Canola Mutations Induced by Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutation breeding program has been initiated for inducing canola mutations tolerance to saline stressed conditions for growing at harsh land in Egypt. Therefore, seed lots of three cultivars and exotic variety (Bactol, Serow 4, Serow 6 and Evita) were subjected to 100,400 and 600 Gy of gamma rays. Mass selection with 20 % intensity for high number of pods per plant has been done in each treatment in M2 generation. However, individually plants with high number of pods / plant were selected from each variety in M3 generation for test under saline stressed conditions at Ras Sudr region in M4 (8600 and 8300 ppm salinity for soil and irrigation, respectively). The obtained results revealed that eight mutated families from 12- test families in M4 generation surpassed their parents in seed yield / plant and related characters ( plant height ,fruiting zone length , No. of branches , No. of pods / plant ). In addition, the mutant F93 characterized by fast growing and non shuttering pods reflecting 50.4% over Evita control in seed yield/ plant. Twelve mutant lines in M5 represented the mutant families were grown in sandy-loam soil at Inshas region. The three mutant lines (L 22, L 38 and L 45) continuously surpassed their parents in seed yield and related characters, but the increases were less than the previous generation. The increase was 22.3 %, 38.7 % and 36.7 % over seed yield of respective parents. Moreover, mutant L66 exhibited an increase in its yield components in M5 at Inshas only, suggesting that gene expression and genomic structure extremely influenced by environmental factors. Genetic stability for the obtained mutations could be done at different environmental conditions in further studies

  3. Effects of Irrigation Deficit and Application of Some Growth Regulators on Defense Mechanisms of Canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad KALANTAR AHMADI

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A split-plot experiment arranged in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications was carried out in Safiabad Agricultural Research Center of Dezful in order to investigate the effects of foliar applications of ascorbic acid (AsA, salicylic acid (SA and methanol (Me, under deficit irrigation conditions, in canola; there were 3 levels of irrigation as the main factor (irrigation after 70 mm evaporation from the pan as control, cessation of irrigation at the flowering stage and cessation of irrigation at the appearance of siliques and 10 levels of foliar applications as sub-factor (100, 200 and 300 mg.l-1AsA; 100, 200 and 300 µM SA; 10, 20 and 30% (w/v methanol; and foliar application of distilled water as control. Foliar applications were made during both budding and initiation of flowering stages. Results indicated that antioxidant enzymes showed different responses to deficit irrigation and foliar application treatments. Maximum catalase (CAT and polyphenol oxidase (PPO activities were observed under cessation of irrigation at flowering stage and foliar application of 300 µM SA, while ascorbate peroxidase (APX reached its maximum activity under the same irrigation conditions and foliar application of 300 mg.l-1AsA. SA had more influence to increase in CAT and PPO activity under cessation of irrigation at flowering stage. The relative water content (RWC was also decreased due to the drought stress caused by the cessation of irrigation. Foliar application of SA (100 μM and Me (10% w/v had more influence to maintain RWC compared to ascorbic acid under irrigation cessation at flowering stage.

  4. Interactions between dietary oil treatments and genetic variants modulate fatty acid ethanolamides in plasma and body weight composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Shuaihua; Eck, Peter; Jenkins, David J A; Connelly, Philip W; Lamarche, Benoît; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; West, Sheila G; Liu, Xiaoran; Jones, Peter J H

    2016-03-01

    Fatty acid ethanolamides (FAE), a group of lipid mediators derived from long-chain fatty acids (FA), mediate biological activities including activation of cannabinoid receptors, stimulation of fat oxidation and regulation of satiety. However, how circulating FAE levels are influenced by FA intake in humans remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of six major circulating FAE to various dietary oil treatments in a five-period, cross-over, randomised, double-blind, clinical study in volunteers with abdominal obesity. The treatment oils (60 g/12 552 kJ per d (60 g/3000 kcal per d)) provided for 30 d were as follows: conventional canola oil, high oleic canola oil, high oleic canola oil enriched with DHA, flax/safflower oil blend and corn/safflower oil blend. Two SNP associated with FAE degradation and synthesis were studied. Post-treatment results showed overall that plasma FAE levels were modulated by dietary FA and were positively correlated with corresponding plasma FA levels; minor allele (A) carriers of SNP rs324420 in gene fatty acid amide hydrolase produced higher circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) (P=0·0209) and docosahexaenoylethanolamide (DHEA) levels (P=0·0002). In addition, elevated plasma DHEA levels in response to DHA intake tended to be associated with lower plasma OEA levels and an increased gynoid fat mass. In summary, data suggest that the metabolic and physiological responses to dietary FA may be influenced via circulating FAE. Genetic analysis of rs324420 might help identify a sub-population that appears to benefit from increased consumption of DHA and oleic acid. PMID:26806592

  5. Effect of pork backfat replacement for vegetal oils in the quality characteristics, oxidative stability and microstructure of mortadella
    Efeito da substituição da gordura suína por óleos vegetais nas características de qualidade, estabilidade oxidativa e microestrutura de mortadela

    OpenAIRE

    João Felipe Ferraz Yunes; Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro; Liana Inês Guidolin Milani; Marina Bergoli Scheeren; Francisco Javier Hernandez Blazquez; Cristiano Augusto Ballus; Leadir Lucy Martins Fries; Nelcindo Nascimento Terra

    2013-01-01

    This study was developed with the aim to evaluate the use of different vegetable oils as a replacer for pork backfat. For this, there were used canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils at two levels of replacement (50 and 100%). There were evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics (proximate composition, pH and water activity), instrumental color, microbiological characteristics, lipid oxidation (TBARS) and microstructure during storage at room temperature for 60 days. The products had th...

  6. A new method for assessing plant lodging and the impact of management options on lodging in canola crop production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Ma, Bao-Luo

    2016-01-01

    Lodging, defined as the permanent displacement of aboveground parts, is a common problem to cause yield loss, deterioration in seed quality and difficult to harvest in canola (Brassica napus L.) crop production. This study aimed to develop a method for assessing crop lodging, to examine how agronomic practices affected the relationships between root lodging and electrical capacitance traits. Canola plants were more susceptible to root lodging than stem lodging. The electrical measurements were more closely related with anchorage strength (Sp) than stem bending strength (Ss). Among the three electrical measurements, the root capacitance (C) displayed the most consistent and significant relationships with Sp in all three field experiments (R(2) = 0.88-0.56; P ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that the risk of lodging can be reduced by using appropriate management practices and variety selection. Enhancing root Sp was advocated as a priority over enhancing stem Ss in cultivar improvement. Electrical measurements, especially of root C, can be considered as a non-invasive technique that could partially replace the intrusive methods used for the in situ assessment of lodging resistance among various agronomic practices or can be applied in breeding programs for selecting genotypes with high yield potentials and strong Sp values. PMID:27552909

  7. Effect of solid state fermentation on nutrient content and ileal amino acids digestibility of canola meal in broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aljuobori Ahmed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the potential of Lactobacillus salivarius solid state fermentation for reduction of glucosinolate content in canola meal (CM as well as the improvement of its nutrient digestibility for broiler chickens. Canola meal was treated with the L. salivarius in solid state fermentation for 30 days. Nutrients ileal digestibility was tested using 42-day-old broilers fed by either CM or fermented CM (FCM as the sole source of energy and protein. The results showed that fermentation of CM using L. salivarius reduced glucosinolate content of CM by 38%. The digestibility coefficient was improved significantly for crude protein, Met, Cys, Arg, Asp, Glu, and Ser in FCM compared to CM. However, apparent metabolisable energy of CM was not affected by fermentation. It appears that fermentation treatment of CM using L. salivarius may improve the overall nutritive value of CM for broiler chickens, reducing its total glucosinolate and crude fibre content by 38 and 16%, respectively.

  8. Transformation of Brassica napus canola cultivars with Arabidopsis thaliana acetohydroxyacid synthase genes and analysis of herbicide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, B L; Labbé, H; Hattori, J; Ouellet, T; Gabard, J; Sunohara, G; Charest, P J; Iyer, V N

    1990-10-01

    A survey of selected crop species and weeds was conducted to evaluate the inhibition of the enzyme acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) and seedling growth in vitro by the sulfonylurea herbicides chlorsulfuron, DPX A7881, DPX L5300, DPX M6316 and the imidazolinone herbicides AC243,997, AC263,499, AC252,214. Particular attention was given to the Brassica species including canola cultivars and cruciferous weeds such as B. kaber (wild mustard) and Thlaspi arvense (stinkweed). Transgenic lines of B. napus cultivars Westar and Profit, which express the Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type AHAS gene or the mutant gene csr1-1 at levels similar to the resident AHAS genes, were generated and compared. The mutant gene was essential for resistance to the sulfonylurea chlorsulfuron but not to DPX A7881, which appeared to be tolerated by certain Brassica species. Cross-resistance to the imidazolinones did not occur. The level of resistance to chlorsulfuron in transgenic canola greatly exceeded the levels that were toxic to the Brassica species or cruciferous weeds. Direct selection of transgenic lines with chlorsulfuron sprayed at field levels under greenhouse conditions was achieved. PMID:24221001

  9. Co-transformation of canola by chimeric chitinase and tlp genes towards improving resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh, Rustam; Zamani, Mohammadreza; Motallebi, Mostafa; Moradyar, Mehdi; Moghadassi Jahromi, Zahra

    2016-09-01

    Canola (Brassica napus) plants were co-transformed with two pathogenesis-related protein genes expressing a Trichoderma atroviride chitinase with a chitin-binding domain (chimeric chitinase) and a thaumatin-like protein (tlp) from Oryza sativa conferring resistance to phytopatogenic fungi by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The putative transgenic plants were confirmed by PCR. After measuring the specific activity of the chimeric chitinase and glucanase activity for tlp genes, transgenic plants with high specific activity were selected for southern blot analysis to confirm the copy number of the genes. In vitro assays, the antifungal activity of crude extracted protein against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum showed that the inhibition percentage in double transgenic plants was between 55 and 62, whereas the inhibition percentage in single-gene transformants (chimeric chitinase) ranged from 35 to 45 percent. Importantly, in greenhouse conditions, the double transgenic plants showed significant resistance than the single-gene transformant and wild type plants. The results in T2 generation using the intact leaf inoculation method showed that the average lesion diameters were 10, 14.7 and 29 mm for the double transformant, single-gene transformant and non-transgenic plants, respectively. Combined expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp in transgenic plants showed significantly enhanced resistance against S. sclerotiorum than the one that express single-gene transformant plants. These results suggest that the co-expression of chimeric chitinase and tlp can confer enhanced disease resistance in canola plant. PMID:27430511

  10. Improvement of Canola (Brassica napus L.) Inoculated with Rhizobium, Azospirillum and/or Mycorrhizal Fungi Under Salinity Stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bio fertilization technology was applied for improving canola plant growth and nutrient acquisition in sandy saline soil ,as a biological mean used to develop plant growth and nutrient uptake under salinity stress. Canola was cultivated in pots packed at rate of 7 kg saline sandy soil pot-1, and inoculated with Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar viceae, Azospirillum brasilense strain no. 40 and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi either solely or in combinations of them. Nitrogen fertilizer was added in form (15NH4)2SO4 with 5%15N atom excess at rate of 0.99 g N pot-1. Maximum dry matter accumulation induced by composite inoculation (Rh + Azo + AM). Na concentrations were frequently affected by Rhizobium and /or mycorrhizae while K was affected by Azospirillum and /or mycorrhizae. Azospirillum enhanced Ca uptake whereas Mg content was responded well to composite inoculants of Rh + Azo + AM. Dual inoculation with Rh + Azo resulted in the highest values of N uptake by plant. Similar effect was noticed with P uptake when dual inoculums of Azo + AM were applied. Data of 15N isotope showed that the highest portion and value of N2-fixed was recorded with composite inoculums followed by dual inoculations. On the other hand, the infection with AM fungi gave the highest proportion of N derived from fertilizer as compared to other inoculants or uninoculated control. In the same trend, the fertilizer use efficiency (FUE%) was enhanced by AM infection. Dual inoculums of Rh + Azo induced highest content of proline in leaves. (Authors)

  11. 75 FR 59622 - Supplemental Determination for Renewable Fuels Produced Under the Final RFS2 Program From Canola Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-28

    ... and changes in livestock production with associated impacts on feed crops and other crop production... effects of climate change could decrease agricultural yields'' and ``further research is needed to... uncertain nature of scientific advancement and possible future effects related to climate change,...

  12. Identification and characterization of plant-specific NAC gene family in canola (Brassica napus L.) reveal novel members involved in cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Boya; Guo, Xiaohua; Wang, Chen; Ma, Jieyu; Niu, Fangfang; Zhang, Hanfeng; Yang, Bo; Liang, Wanwan; Han, Feng; Jiang, Yuan-Qing

    2015-03-01

    NAC transcription factors are plant-specific and play important roles in plant development processes, response to biotic and abiotic cues and hormone signaling. However, to date, little is known about the NAC genes in canola (or oilseed rape, Brassica napus L.). In this study, a total of 60 NAC genes were identified from canola through a systematical analysis and mining of expressed sequence tags. Among these, the cDNA sequences of 41 NAC genes were successfully cloned. The translated protein sequences of canola NAC genes with the NAC genes from representative species were phylogenetically clustered into three major groups and multiple subgroups. The transcriptional activities of these BnaNAC proteins were assayed in yeast. In addition, by quantitative real-time RT-PCR, we further observed that some of these BnaNACs were regulated by different hormone stimuli or abiotic stresses. Interestingly, we successfully identified two novel BnaNACs, BnaNAC19 and BnaNAC82, which could elicit hypersensitive response-like cell death when expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves, which was mediated by accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Overall, our work has laid a solid foundation for further characterization of this important NAC gene family in canola. PMID:25616736

  13. Wastewater impact on physiology, biomass and yield of canola (brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of domestic/municipal wastewater (mww) of Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan was assessed through its effects on biomass, physiology and yield of canola (Brassica napus L.). The pot experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design with three replications in net house during winter season 2006-07 and 2007-08 at Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan. Treatments included were T0 (tube well/tap water), T/sub 1/ (20% mww), T/sub 2/ (40% mww), T/sub 3/ (80% mww) and T/sub 4/ (100% mww/raw-form municipal wastewater). The quality and chemical composition of wastewater was deviating from international (Anon., 1985) as well as NEQS (2005) standard. Analysis of wastewater showed that biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and total suspended solids (TSS) were above the permissible limit of irrigation. In pods per plant, the reduction was 61.55% by recording 110 pods per plant with T/sub 4/ (100% mww) as compared to control T0 (286.1 pods per plant). Similarly pod length (reduced by 59.72%), seeds per pod (reduced by 42.53%), Seeds per plant (reduced by 82%), seed weight per plant (reduced by 88%), 100-seed weight (reduced by 19.54%) and straw yield (reduced by 54.23%) were significantly reduced by applying 100% wastewater. The most affected yield contributing traits were seeds per plant and seed weight per plant with 82% and 88% reduction, respectively due to T/sub 4/ (100% mww). On average, the decrease was 60% in the first stage and a further decrement of 4.83% was observed when the obtained seeds were re-sown in 2007-08. Results revealed that utilizing municipal wastewater of the area under investigation for irrigation purpose of food and feed crops might not be safe. The major reason seems to be the high salinity and sodium adsorption ratio that restricted crop growth and yield. (author)

  14. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Diogo Mueller de; Ongaratto, Diego Paulo; Fontoura, Luiz Antonio Mazzini; Naciuk, Fabricio Fredo; Santos, Vinicius Oliveira Batista dos; Kunz, Jessica Danieli; Marques, Marcelo Volpatto, E-mail: lmazzini@uol.com.br [Departamento de Engenharia de Processos, Fundacao de Ciencia e Tecnologia, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Curso de Quimica, Universidade Luterana do Brasil, Canoas RS (Brazil); Souza, Alexander Ossanes de; Pereira, Claudio Martin Pereira de [Centro de Ciencias Quimicas, Farmaceuticas e de Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil); Samios, Dimitrios [Departamento de Fisico-Quimica, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2013-09-01

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 - triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 - nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 - thin layer chromatography, 4 - as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  15. Transesterification double step process for biodiesel preparation and its chromatographic characterization: oils and fats in practical organic chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methanolic transesterification of oils and fats was carried out in a two steps procedure, under basic and acidic catalysis. Palm, soybean, canola, corn, rice, grape seed, sunflower, peanut, pequi and olive oils, besides tallow and lard were used as feedstock. Specific gravity, relative viscosity, thin layer chromatography and gas chromatography were used to characterize the biodiesel. Biodiesel was obtained in high yield and purity. Results were used to discuss the following key-concepts: 1 – triglycerides, composition and properties; 2 – nucleophilic acyl substitution under basic and acid conditions, 3 – thin layer chromatography, 4 – as chromatography and its quantitative methods. (author)

  16. Farelo de canola para juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus, linhagem Chitralada - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896 Canola meal for juvenile Nile tilapia, Chitralada strain - DOI: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v26i1.1896

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Romano Fernandes

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar os efeitos da inclusão de diferentes níveis de farelo de canola em rações, sobre o desempenho e composição de carcaça de juvenis de tilápia do Nilo (Oreochromis niloticus L., linhagem Chitralada. Foram utilizadas 15 caixas de polipropileno com capacidade para 310L, com dez peixes por unidade. Os peixes foram alimentados à saciação com cinco rações isoprotéicas (28% e isocalóricas (2900 Kcal ED/Kg, duas vezes ao dia, durante seis meses. O farelo de canola foi utilizado em quatro níveis (TT=0%, T1=8%, T2=16%, T3=24%, e T4=32%/dieta, em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os valores obtidos foram submetidos à análise de variância (ANOVA e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p0,1 sobre a composição corporal dos peixes, sendo que os níveis de 16% e 24% de farelo de canola proporcionaram os melhores ganhos de peso. Conclui-se que a utilização do farelo de canola é viável quando incluído em até 24% na ração para a tilápia do Nilo, linhagem Chitralada.This work evaluated the inclusion of several levels of canola meal in ration used in the development and carcass compositions of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L., Chitralada strain. Were used 15 polypropylene boxes, with 310 liters (10 fish each. The fish were fed with five isonitrogenous (28% and isocaloric ration (2900 Kcal EM/kg, twice a day for six months. The canola meal was used in four levels (TT = 0%, T1 = 8%, T2 = 16%, T3 = 24% and T4 = 32% / diet, in a completely randomized design, with 5 treatments and three repetitions each. The data obtained were submitted to variance analysis (ANOVA and the averages compared by the Tukey test (p0,1 on fishes body composition, however had best body weight gain with canola meal on levels 16% and 24%. These values seem to show that for the Nile Tilapia, Chilatrada strain, the use of canola meal is viable when included in up

  17. Índice de área foliar em canola cultivada sob variações de espaçamento e de densidade de semeadura Leaf area index of canola under varying row spacing and plant density of sowing

    OpenAIRE

    Geraldo Chavarria; Gilberto Omar Tomm; Alexandre Muller; Heloisa Ferro Mendonça; Naiana Mello; Maico Serafini Betto

    2011-01-01

    O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar através de método não-destrutivo o índice de área foliar do híbrido de canola Hyola 61 em variações de espaçamento e densidade de semeadura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo que nas parcelas foram distribuídos os espaçamentos entre linhas (17, 34, 51 e 68cm) e nas subparcelas as densidades (15, 30, 45 e 60 plantas m-2). Para determinação do comprimento, largura do limbo foliar e da área foliar, ...

  18. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  19. Effect of vegetable oil oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalantari, Faranak

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogenation has been carried out in a batch reactor with three different oxidized bleached oils in order to discover the effect of oxidation on the hydrogenation reaction process. Specifications of hydrogenated oils such as melting point, Iodine value, solid fat content and fatty acid composition of the oxidized oils were compared with their un-oxidized reference oils. Oxidized bleached sunflower oil was hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C at higher iodine values vs. its reference oil with the same reaction time. Oxidized bleached soybean and canola oils were hydrogenated to target melting points (34, 39 and 42°C at higher iodine values as well, but reaction times were longer than their reference oils. The resulting solid fat content and total trans fatty acids of all hydrogenated oils were less than their references. A peroxide value above 0.5meq O2/kg for non auto-oxidized oils and above 5meq O2/kg for auto-oxidized oils will significantly change the hydrogenation process.

    La hidrogenación fue llevada cabo en un reactor discontinuo con tres aceites decoloradas y oxidadas con objeto de estudiar el efecto de la oxidación en el proceso de hidrogenación. Las especificaciones de los aceites hidrogenados tales como el punto de fusión, índice de yodo, contenido de grasa sólida y composición de ácidos grasos de los aceites oxidados fueron comparados con sus correspondientes aceites de referencia sin oxidar. El aceite de girasol decolorado y oxidado fue hidrogenado hasta alcanzar un punto de fusión (34, 39 and 42°C con altos índices de yodo versus su aceite de referencia con el mismo tiempo de reacción. Aceites decolorado y oxidado de soja y de canola fueron hidrogenados hasta alcanzar puntos de fusión (34,39 y 42°C con altos valores de yodo, pero los tiempo de reacción fueron más largos que en sus aceites de referencia. Los resultados del contenido de grasa sólida y ácidos grasos

  20. Shoot-Specific Down-Regulation of Protein Farnesyltransferase (α-Subunit) for Yield Protection against Drought in Canola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wang; Michelle Beaith; Maryse Chalifoux; Jifeng Ying; Tina Uchacz; Carlene Sarvas; Rebecca Griffiths; Monika Kuzma; Jiangxin Wan; Yafan Huang

    2009-01-01

    Canola (Brassica napus L.) is one of the most important oilseed crops in the world and its seed yield and quality are significantly affected by drought stress. As an innate and adaptive response to water deficit, land plants avoid potential damage by rapid biosynthesis of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), which triggers stomatal closure to reduce transpirational water loss. The ABA-mediated stomatal response is a dosage-dependent process; thus, one genetic engineering approach for achieving drought avoidance could be to sensitize the guard cell's responsiveness to this hormone.Recent genetic studies have pinpointed protein farnesyltransferase as a key negative regulator controlling ABA sensitivity in the guard cells. We have previously shown that down-regulation of the gene encoding Arabidopsis β-subunit of farnesyltransferase (ERA1) enhances the plant's sensitivity to ABA and drought tolerance. Although the α-subunit of famesyltransferase (AtFTA) is also implicated in ABA sensing, the effectiveness of using such a gene target for improving drought tolerance in a crop plant has not been validated. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the promoter of Arabidopsis hydroxypyruvate reductase (AtHPR1), which expresses specifically in the shoot and not in non-photosynthetic tissues such as root. The promoter region of AtHPR1 contains the core motif of the well characterized dehydration-responsive cis-acting element and we have confirmed that AtHPR1 expression is inducible by drought stress. Conditional and specific down-regulation of FTA in canola using the AtHPR1 promoter driving an RNAi construct resulted in yield protection against drought stress in the field. Using this molecular strategy, we have made significant progress in engineering drought tolerance in this important crop species.

  1. Flowering Without Vernalization in Winter Canola (Brassica napus: use of Virus-Induced Gene Silencing (VIGS to accelerate genetic gain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Álvarez-Venegas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ciclos de reproducción cortos y la oportunidad de incrementar la ganancia genética, junto con el estudio de las bases moleculares de la vernalización, son áreas esenciales de investigación dentro de la biología de plantas. Varios métodos se han empleado para lograr el silenciamiento génico en plantas, pero ninguno reportado a la fecha para canola (Brassica napus, y en particular para inducir la floración sin vernalización en líneas de invierno a través del uso de secuencias sentido de DNA en vectores diseñados para el silenciamiento génico inducido por virus (VIGS. La presente investigación provee los métodos para transitoriamente regular a la baja, por medio de VIGS, genes de la vernalización en plantas anuales de invierno, específicamente la familia de genes de Flowering Locus C (FLC en canola de invierno (BnFLC1 a BnFLC5. La regulación a la baja de estos genes permite a las plantas anuales de invierno florecer sin vernalización y, consecuentemente, provee los medios para acelerar la ganancia genética. El sistema de silenciamiento propuesto puede ser utilizado para regular a la baja familias de genes, para determinar la función génica, y para inducir la floración sin la vernalización en líneas de invierno tanto del género Brassica como de muchos cultivos importantes de invierno.

  2. Replacing dietary soybean meal with canola meal improves production and efficiency of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, Glen A; Faciola, Antonio P; Armentano, Louis E

    2015-08-01

    Previous research suggested that crude protein (CP) from canola meal (CM) was used more efficiently than CP from solvent soybean meal (SBM) by lactating dairy cows. We tested whether dietary CP content influenced relative effectiveness of equal supplemental CP from either CM or SBM. Fifty lactating Holstein cows were blocked by parity and days in milk into 10 squares (2 squares with ruminal cannulas) in a replicated 5×5 Latin square trial. Five squares were fed: (1) low (14.5-14.8%) CP with SBM, (2) low CP with CM, (3) low CP with SBM plus CM, (4) high (16.4-16.7%) CP with SBM, and (5) high CP with CM; the other 5 squares were fed the same diets except with rumen-protected Met plus Lys (RPML) added as Mepron (Degussa Corp., Kennesaw, GA) and AminoShure-L (Balchem Corp., New Hampton, NY), which were assumed to provide 8g/d of absorbed dl-Met and 12g/d of absorbed l-Lys. Diets contained [dry matter (DM) basis] 40% corn silage, 26% alfalfa silage, 14 to 23% corn grain, 2.4% mineral-vitamin premixes, and 29 to 33% neutral detergent fiber. Periods were 3wk (total 15wk), and data from the last week of each period were analyzed using the Mixed procedures of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC). The only effects of RPML were increased DM intake and milk urea N (MUN) and urinary N excretion and trends for decreased milk lactose and solids-not-fat concentrations and milk-N:N intake; no significant RPML × protein source interactions were detected. Higher dietary CP increased milk fat yield and tended to increase milk yield but also elevated MUN, urine volume, urinary N excretion, ruminal concentrations of ammonia and branched-chain volatile fatty acids (VFA), lowered milk lactose concentration and milk-N:N intake, and had no effect on milk true protein yield. Feeding CM instead of SBM increased feed intake, yields of milk, energy-corrected milk, and true protein, and milk-N:N intake, tended to increase fat and lactose yields, and reduced MUN, urine volume, and urinary N

  3. Study of the formation of carbonyl compounds in edible oils and fats by 1H-NMR and FTIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya Moreno, M. C. M.; Mendoza Olivares, D.; Amézquita López, F. J.; Peris Martínez, V.; Bosch Reig, F.

    1999-05-01

    Oils and fats start decomposing from the moment they are isolated from their natural environment. Heating accelerates oxidative rancidity and frying at high temperatures produces thermal degradation with the formation of decomposition products, such as aldehydes, ketones, free acids and hydroxilic compounds that in high levels can be harmful to human health. The decomposition products formed up to 300°C were determined by means of 1H-NMR spectroscopy and an FTIR spectroscopic method was developed for the quantification of carbonyl compounds generated during heating. The results show that there is a formation of carbonyl compounds starting at 150°C and when the sample was heated at 300°C for 40 min, the following contents (expressed as butyraldehyde mass fraction) were found: olive oil 10.5%, sunflower oil 11.3%, corn oil 3.0%, seeds oil (sunflower, safflower and canola seed) 6.6% and lard 3.5%.

  4. First Brazilian patent for dielectric vegetable oil for transformers; Primeira patente brasileira de oleo dieletrico vegetal para transformadores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carioca, Jose O.B.; Carvalho, Paulo C.M.; Correa, Raimundo G.C.; Bernardo, Francisco A.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Coelho Junior, Luiz G. [2 Companhia Energetica do Ceara (COELCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Abreu, Rosa F.A. [Universidade Estadual do Ceara (UECE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper discuss the development of different insulating oils for electric power transformers during the last hundred years and analyze comparatively the potential for the use of vegetable oils as a source for green dielectric oils, due to its high level of biodegradability, nontoxic, material compatibility, good electric strength and insulation properties, long-term oxidative and thermal stability, relatively low pour point and reasonable cost. Based on these premises, the authors developed a new type of insulating fluid based on Brazilian vegetable oils never used before for this purpose. This product is competitive with similar and patented products developed from canola and soya vegetable oils. Recently a new patent related with the process for the production of this fluid was submitted to the World Industrial Property Organization - WIPO. (author)

  5. Evaluation of antioxidants stability by thermal analysis and its protective effect in heated edible vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seme Youssef Reda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, through the use of thermal analysis techniques, the thermal stabilities of some antioxidants were investigated, in order to evaluate their resistance to thermal oxidation in oils, by heating canola vegetable oil, and to suggest that antioxidants would be more appropriate to increase the resistance of vegetable oils in the thermal degradation process in frying. The techniques used were: Thermal Gravimetric (TG and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC analyses, as well as an allusion to a possible protective action of the vegetable oils, based on the thermal oxidation of canola vegetable oil in the laboratory under constant heating at 180 ºC/8 hours for 10 days. The studied antioxidants were: ascorbic acid, sorbic acid, citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHT (3,5-di-tert-butyl-4-hydroxytoluene, BHA (2, 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol, TBHQ (tertiary butyl hydroquinone, PG (propyl gallate - described as antioxidants by ANVISA and the FDA; and also the phytic acid antioxidant and the SAIB (sucrose acetate isobutyrate additive, which is used in the food industry, in order to test its behavior as an antioxidant in vegetable oil. The following antioxidants: citric acid, sodium erythorbate, BHA, BHT, TBHQ and sorbic acid decompose at temperatures below 180 ºC, and therefore, have little protective action in vegetable oils undergoing frying processes. The antioxidants below: phytic acid, ascorbic acid and PG, are the most resistant and begin their decomposition processes at temperatures between 180 and 200 ºC. The thermal analytical techniques have also shown that the SAIB antioxidant is the most resistant to oxidative action, and it can be a useful choice in the thermal decomposition prevention of edible oils, improving stability regarding oxidative processes.

  6. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medication. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  7. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  8. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  9. Extração de antinutrientes e aumento da qualidade nutricional dos farelos de girassol, canola e soja para alimentação de peixes

    OpenAIRE

    Giovani Taffarel Bergamin; Cátia Aline Veiverberg; Leila Picolli da Silva; Alexandra Pretto; Luciana Valentim Siqueira; João Radünz

    2013-01-01

    Neste trabalho, avaliaram-se as concentrações de ácido fítico, fenóis totais e taninos totais em farelos de canola, girassol e soja, submetidos a diferentes tratamentos químicos, destinados para alimentação de peixes. Os tratamentos foram: A: água acidificada; EMA: etanol P.A. + metanol P.A. + água, na proporção 45:45:10; ET: etanol P.A. acidificado; ETA: etanol P.A. + água acidificada na proporção 70:30; AE: água acidificada e Etanol P.A. utilizados separadamente. No farelo de canola, os tra...

  10. Biodegradation and toxicity of vegetable oils in contaminated aquatic environments: Effect of antioxidants and oil composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salam, Darine A; Suidan, Makram T; Venosa, Albert D

    2016-03-15

    Antioxidants may affect the oxidative rate of vegetable oils determining their fate and impact in contaminated aquatic media. In previous studies, we demonstrated the effectiveness of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), one of the most used antioxidants in edible oils, in enhancing the biodegradation of glyceryl trilinoleate, a pure triacylglycerol of cis,cis-9,12-octadecadienoic acid (C18:2 delta), through retarding its oxidative polymerization relatively to the oil with no added antioxidant. In this study, the effect of BHT on the biodegradation and toxicity of purified canola oil, a mixed-acid triacylglycerol with high C18:1 content, was investigated in respirometric microcosms and by use of the Microtox® assay. Investigations were carried out in the absence and presence (200 mg kg(-1)) of the antioxidant, and at an oil loading of 0.31 L m(-2) (333 gal acre(-1)). Substantial oil mineralization was achieved after 16 weeks of incubation (>77%) and was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the two BHT treatments, demonstrating an important role of the oil fatty acid composition in determining the potency of antioxidants and, consequently, the fate of spilled vegetable oils. Furthermore, for both treatments, toxicity was measured at early stages of the experiments and disappeared at a later stage of incubation. The observed transient toxicity was associated with the combined effect of toxic biodegradation intermediates and autoxidation products. These results were supported by the gradual disappearance of BHT in the microcosms initially supplemented with the antioxidant, reaching negligible amounts after only 2 weeks of incubation. PMID:26780134

  11. Dietary Fat and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fat Include: Canola Oil Sardines Corn Oil Sesame Seeds Cottonseed Oil Soybeans Flaxseeds Soybean Oil Herring Sunflower Oil Mackerel ... facts label) Palm or Palm Kernal Oil Canola oil Poultry Skin Poultry without the skin Red Meat White meat ...

  12. DIGESTIBILIDAD ILEAL APARENTE DE LA PROTEINA Y AMINOÁCIDOS DE LA TORTA DE CANOLA EN LECHONES RECIÉN DESTETADOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Parra S

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA de proteína (PC y aminoácidos (AA de torta de canola, en lechones recién destetados. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en “T” en el ileon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los siguientes tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (C elaborada con caseína y almidón de maíz; dietas CTC (caseína-10% de Torta de canola y CTCP (caseína- 10% de torta de canola peletizada. Resultados. Los CDIA de PC y AA de la dieta C fueron superiores (p0.05 a C. No se observó un efecto (p>0.05 del periodo (tiempo posdestete sobre los CDIA de la PC y AA, exceptuando al aminoácido metionina. Los CDIA del nitrógeno (N y AA de TCP fueron mayores (p<0.05 que los de TC. Conclusiones. La TCP puede ser incluida en dietas de lechones en un 10% empleando los coeficientes reportados en este trabajo.

  13. The digestibility and accumulation of dietary phytosterols in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) smolt fed diets with replacement plant oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2008-06-01

    Phytosterols occur in high concentration in canola (Brassica napus L.) and other vegetable oils such as from the borage plant Echium (Echium plantagineum L.). We investigated if Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) digest and accumulate dietary phytosterols in significant amounts in muscle and liver. Phytosterols are lipid soluble, lower cholesterol and reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in humans. We aimed to determine if fatty fish, such as salmon, can be used as a delivery source of this functional food component. Three diets containing canola oil (CO), Echium oil (EO) and fish oil (FO) were fed to Atlantic salmon smolt over 9 weeks. The digestibility of natural abundances of phytosterols by Atlantic salmon was poor compared to cholesterol. However, phytosterols accumulated in liver and muscle of fish. Significantly increased concentrations of 24-methylenecholesterol, campesterol, beta-sitosterol and total phytosterol occurred in livers of EO fed fish compared to FO fed fish. Campesterol concentrations increased in CO fed fish compared to the FO fed fish. We demonstrated that natural abundances of dietary phytosterols are digested by and accumulated in liver and white muscle of Atlantic salmon smolt. However, phytosterol levels in salmon muscle will not be a major source of phytosterols in human diets and would not be expected to significantly effect human cardiovascular health. PMID:18408959

  14. Determination of the water use and water use response of canola to solar radiation and temperature by using heat balance stem flow gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sap flow gauges using a heat balance have been reliable for measuring real-time transpiration in a number of crops. However, information on the accuracy of sap flow gauges in canola is lacking. Therefore, a study was conducted to validate the sap flow system in canola and to observe sap flow response to variations in temperature and solar radiation. There were strong relationships between sap flow measured with sap flow gauges and actual transpiration measured by the gravimetric method over short periods of 1 h (r2 = 0.93 and RMSE = 2.34 g h-1), and over longer periods of 1 d (r2 0.83 and RMSE = 48 g d-1), although sap flow slightly overestimated transpiration. In both cases the slope was not significantly different from 1. Water use in canola, estimated with sap flow gauges or from actual transpiration measurement, was dependent upon temperature (r2 = 0.94 to 0.96). Water use increased until daytime temperatures reached 36oC, after which water use decreased. Sap flow followed solar radiation trends in the field. Heat is lost or dissipated from the gauges convectively as the sap flows through the stem, conductively through the solid stem material, and radially into the surrounding air. As the convective proportion of the heat loss from the gauge increased, the accuracy of the water use estimation using the sap flow gauges increased. For sunny days, convective heat loss through sap flow accounted for a major portion of the total heat input to the gauges, while on cloudy days radial heat loss from the gauges accounted for a, major portion of the heat input. Thus, at low sap flow rates during cloudy days, the possibility of error in the sap flow system was high. Overall, sap flow in canola was strongly related to daily solar radiation (r2 = 0.92). The sensitive response to weather variations and the possibility of improving the accuracy at high flow rates in the field makes the use of sap flow gauges a viable option for measuring real-time transpiration in canola

  15. Evaluation of protein structural changes and water mobility in chicken liver paste batters prepared with plant oil substituting pork back-fat combined with pre-emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Guoyuan; Han, Minyi; Kang, Zhuangli; Zhao, Yingying; Xu, Xinglian; Zhu, Yingying

    2016-04-01

    Protein structural changes and water mobility properties in chicken liver paste batters prepared with plant oil (sunflower and canola oil combinations) substituting 0-40% pork back-fat combined with pre-emulsification were studied by Raman spectroscopy and low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Results showed that pre-emulsifying back-fat and plant oil, including substituting higher than 20% back-fat with plant oil increased the water- and fat-binding (pfluid losses in chicken liver paste batters. Raman spectroscopy revealed that compared with a control, there was a decrease (poil combined with pre-emulsification. Pre-emulsification and plant oil substitution changed tryptophan and tyrosine doublet hydrophobic residues in chicken liver paste batters. PMID:26593506

  16. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF RAPESEED MEAL AND CANOLA MEAL ON BROILER PRODUCTION PERFORMANCE AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. G. KHAN, A. AZIM AND M. I. ANJUM

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 630 mixed sex day-old broiler chickens were reared for 7 weeks to study the production performance by feeding different levels of rapeseed meal (RSM and canola meal (CM in their diets. The chickens were randomly allocated to seven dietary treatment groups (A, B, C, D, E, F and G having three replicates of 30 birds in each group. Group A was fed control diet (soyabean meal, whereas groups B, D and F were fed diets containing 5, 10 and 15 percent RSM which was replaced with CM on weight basis in the diets fed to groups C, E and G, respectively. Experimental diets and fresh water were offered ad libitum. Feed intake during 0-28 days of age was higher (p0.05. The study suggests that RSM up to 5% and CM up to 10% can be incorporated in broiler starter diets and both RSM and CM can be used up to 10% in finisher diets without any adverse effect on production parameters.

  17. Study Effect of NaCl Salinity and Nitrogen Form on Composition of Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of two N forms ( NH+4 and NO-3 and NaCl on accumulation of some essential mineral nutrients was examined in canola (Brassica napus L. cv. ‘SLM046’. Eight-day- ld plants of were subjected for 21 day to Hoagland’s nutrient solution containing 10 mM NH+4 and NO-3 and salinized with 0, 50, 100 and 150 mm NaCl. N form and addition of NaCl to the growth had no significant effect on total N. However, root N of NH+4 supplied plants decreased significantly with increase in NaCl concentration, whereas that of NO3- supplied plants remained unaffected. Salinity of the rooting also did not show any significant effect on Na+ concentration of leaves or roots of plants subjected to two different forms of nitrogen. NH+4 treated plants generally had greater concentration of Cl- in leaves and roots and lower K+ content in leaves than NO3- supplied plants. Ca2+ concentration of leaves and roots concentration of leaves decreased in NH+4- supplied plants due to NaCl, but they remained unaffected in NO3- treated plants.

  18. Efecto del consumo de nueces, semillas y aceites sobre marcadores bioquímicos y el peso corporal: revisión sistemática Efectiveness of long-term consumption of nuts, seeds and seeds' oil on glucose and lipid levels: systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    C. de Lira-García; M. Bacardí-Gascón; A. Jiménez-Cruz

    2012-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar la efectividad del consumo a largo plazo de nueces, semillas y aceites (NSA) sobre el peso corporal, glucosa y nivel de lípidos en población adulta. Métodos: Se buscaron los artículos en inglés publicados en Pubmed y Ebsco hasta mayo del 2011. Se incluyeron los ensayos clínicos aleatorios de 24 semanas o más de intervención. Los términos de búsqueda fueron "diabetes mellitus", "Nuts", "Mediterranean Diet", "Seeds", "Oils", "Canola oil", "Olive oil", "Walnut", "Almond", "P...

  19. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  20. Coconut Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nucifera, Cocotier, Cold Pressed Coconut Oil, Fermented Coconut Oil, Huile de Coco, Huile de Noix de Coco, Huile de Noix ... Vierge de Noix de Coco, Narikela, Noix de Coco, Palmier, Virgin Coconut Oil.

  1. Vegetable oil sources in diets for freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, Cichlidae: growth and thermal tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Ikeda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of fatty acid composition of the diets on the productive performance and on cold and heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish (Pterophyllum scalare, in three different phases, was studied. Phase I studied the productive performance of freshwater angelfish in a completely randomized experimental design with four treatments, canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils and four replicates during 50 days using 192 fish in 16 aquaria. Phase II studied the cold tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish using 72 juvenile freshwater angelfish, coming from phase I and maintained in 12 aquaria climatized chamber. The temperature was reduced 1ºC per day, until the observation of 100% fish mortality. Phase III, it was studied the heat tolerance of juvenile freshwater angelfish employing an identical procedure to phase II, but with a daily increase of 1ºC. Significant differences (P>0.05 were not observed for any parameters evaluated. Thus, it was concluded that the type of vegetable oil (canola, linseed, olive and soybean used as a diet supplement did not affect the productive performance, nor the tolerance to cold and heat, of juvenile freshwater angelfish.

  2. Índice de área foliar em canola cultivada sob variações de espaçamento e de densidade de semeadura Leaf area index of canola under varying row spacing and plant density of sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Chavarria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estimar através de método não-destrutivo o índice de área foliar do híbrido de canola Hyola 61 em variações de espaçamento e densidade de semeadura. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, sendo que nas parcelas foram distribuídos os espaçamentos entre linhas (17, 34, 51 e 68cm e nas subparcelas as densidades (15, 30, 45 e 60 plantas m-2. Para determinação do comprimento, largura do limbo foliar e da área foliar, bem como estabelecimento de uma correlação entre essas variáveis foram coletadas aleatoriamente 250 folhas. Posteriormente, foram selecionadas aleatoriamente quatro plantas por unidade experimental, que tiveram todas as folhas medidas quanto ao comprimento e largura para estimativa da área foliar e do índice de área foliar. O comprimento do limbo foliar é a variável biométrica com maior correlação com a área foliar. Um comportamento linear entre o adensamento de plantas e o índice de área foliar nos espaçamentos de 34, 51 e 68cm no híbrido Hyola 61 foi observado. O índice de área foliar das plantas foi menor no espaçamento de 17cm, com a densidade de 60 plantas m-2. Para a manutenção do índice de área foliar do híbrido Hyola 61, é recomendável usar o espaçamento de 17cm com a densidade 45 plantas m-2.The aim of this work was to estimate leaf area index of the canola cultivar 'Hyola 61' under variations of row spacing and density of sowing by a non-destructive method. The experimental design consisted of a split plot with four blocks with row widths of 17, 34, 51 and 68cm and plant populations of 15, 30, 45 and 60m². Two hundred and fifth leaves were collected at random and mesure width (C, length (L and leaf area (LA and the parameters were correlated. Also the leaves of four plants of each plot, selected at random, were measured L and C and estimated the leaf area index (LAI. Width leaf was the biometric parameter

  3. Farelo de canola na alimentação do piavuçu, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski, na fase inicial Canola bran in piavuçu Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski feeding, during initial phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Rossetto Barriviera Furuya

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo determinar os efeitos da inclusão de farelo de canola (FC em substituição à proteína do farelo de soja (FS na alimentação do piavuçú, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski (Characiformes, Anastomidae, na fase inicial. Foram utilizados 100 alevinos (8,51 ± 0,07g, distribuídos em blocos casualizados com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições, sendo que cada unidade experimental era constituída por cinco peixes. Foram elaboradas quatro rações isocalóricas (3.000kcal ED/kg e isoprotéicas (30% de PB com base em milho, farelo de soja e farinha de peixe, contendo 0%, 19%,12%; 38%,24% e 57,36% de FC. A análise de variância não apresentou efeitos dos níveis de inclusão de FC sobre as variáveis de consumo, sobrevivência, rendimento e composição química da carcaça, gordura visceral e índice hepatossomático. Foi observado efeito quadrático dos níveis de inclusão sobre a porcentagem de ganho de peso, ocorrendo o ponto máximo no nível de 19,11% de inclusão de FC. Com o aumento nos níveis de FC, foi observado piora linear sobre a conversão alimentar e taxa de eficiência protéica. A inclusão de 11,19% de FC resultou em melhor desempenho e rendimento de carcaça.This research aimed to investigate the effects of canola bran (CB inclusion, replacing the soybean bran crude protein in piavuçu diet, Leporinus macrocephalus (Garavello & Britski (Characiformes, Anastomidae, in initial phase. One hundred fingerlings (8.51 ± 0.07g were assigned to a completely randomized block design with five replications, totalizing 25 fishes per treatment. Four isocaloric (3,000kcal ED/kg and isoproteic (30% CP diets were formulated, based on corn, soybean bran and fish flour, containing 0%; 19.12%; 38.24% and 57.36% CB. Variance analysis showed no effect of CB inclusion on feed intake survival, carcass yield and composition, visceral fat and hepato somatic index. Quadratic effect of CM inclusion was

  4. Impact of currently used or potentially useful insecticides for canola agroecosystems on Bombus impatiens (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Megachile rotundata (Hymentoptera: Megachilidae), and Osmia lignaria (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Dupree, C D; Conroy, L; Harris, C R

    2009-02-01

    Pest management practices may be contributing to a decline in wild bee populations in or near canola (Brassica napus L.) agroecosystems. The objective of this study was to investigate the direct contact toxicity of five technical grade insecticides--imidacloprid, clothianidin, deltamethrin, spinosad, and novaluron--currently used, or with potential for use in canola integrated pest management on bees that may forage in canola: common eastern bumble bees [Bombus impatiens (Cresson); hereafter bumble bees], alfalfa leafcutting bees [Megachile rotundata (F.)], and Osmia lignaria Cresson. Clothianidin and to a lesser extent imidacloprid were highly toxic to all three species, deltamethrin and spinosad were intermediate in toxicity, and novaluron was nontoxic. Bumble bees were generally more tolerant to the direct contact applications > O. lignaria > leafcutting bees. However, differences in relative toxicities between the three species were not consistent, e.g., whereas clothianidin was only 4.9 and 1.3x more toxic, deltamethrin was 53 and 68x more toxic to leafcutting bees than to bumble bees and O. lignaria, respectively. Laboratory assessment of direct contact toxicity, although useful, is only one measure of potential impact, and mortality under field conditions may differ greatly depending on management practices. Research conducted using only honey bees as the indicator species may not adequately reflect the risk posed by insecticides to wild bees because of their unique biology and differential susceptibility. Research programs focused on determining nontarget impact on pollinators should be expanded to include not only the honey bee but also wild bee species representative of the agricultural system under investigation. PMID:19253634

  5. Manipulation of the fatty acids composition of poultry meat and giblets by dietary inclusion of two oil sources and conjugated linoleic acid Mudança na composição de ácidos graxos das vísceras e da carne de aves tratadas com uma dieta contendo ácido linoléico conjugado e duas fontes de óleo

    OpenAIRE

    Zanini, S.F.; Vicente, E.; G.L. Colnago; B.M.S. Pessotti; Silva, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in association with two vegetable oil sources on the fatty acids of meat and giblets of broiler chickens was evaluated. Two hundred 21-day-old broiler chickens were distributed in a completely randomized factorial design 2 x 5 (two oil sources, soybean or canola oil; and five levels of CLA, 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0g/kg). The addition of CLA to the diet resulted in an increase (P

  6. Oil Spill!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansberry, Karen Rohrich; Morgan, Emily

    2005-01-01

    An oil spill occurs somewhere in the world almost every day of the year, and the consequences can be devastating. In this month's column, students explore the effects of oil spills on plants, animals, and the environment and investigate oil spill clean-up methods through a simulated oil spill. The activities described in this article give students…

  7. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  8. Effect of Super Absorbent Application on Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Canola (Brassica napus L. Cultivars under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. R. Tohidi-Moghadam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Drought stress significantly limits Canola (Brassica napus L. growth and crop productivity. Hence, efficient management of soil moisture and study metabolic changes which occur in response to drought is important for agricultural production of this Crop. Approach: For a better understanding of drought tolerance mechanisms and improving soil water content management strategies, an experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with factorial spilt arrangement with tree replications. Results: Irrigation strategy and super absorbent application were allotted to main plots. Irrigation strategy had two levels: 80% of evaporation as control (I1, drought stress started from flowering stage (I2 Application of super absorbent had two levels: Non-application of super absorbent as control (S1, application of super absorbent with 7% concentration. Cultivars (Rgs003 (V1, Sarigol (V2, Option500 (V3, Hyola401 (V4, Hyola330 (V5, Hyola420 (V6 were allotted to sub plots. Plants under water deficit stress and application of super absorbent showed a significant increase and decrease, respectively, in SOD, CAT and GPX activities in leaves compared with control plants. In this context, plants with higher levels of antioxidants showed higher resistance to these stress conditions and higher yield and dry matter allocation to grain filling process i.e. harvest index. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our results suggested that drought stress leads to production of oxygen radicals, which results in increased lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress in the plant. In conclusion of present study, Application of super absorbent polymer could reserve different amounts of water in itself and so increases the soil ability of water storing and preserving and at last in water deficiency, produce plant water need and approve its growth under postanthesis water deficiency.

  9. Genomes and transcriptomes of partners in plant-fungal-interactions between canola (Brassica napus and two Leptosphaeria species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohan G T Lowe

    Full Text Available Leptosphaeria maculans 'brassicae' is a damaging fungal pathogen of canola (Brassica napus, causing lesions on cotyledons and leaves, and cankers on the lower stem. A related species, L. biglobosa 'canadensis', colonises cotyledons but causes few stem cankers. We describe the complement of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZys and peptidases of these fungi, as well as of four related plant pathogens. We also report dual-organism RNA-seq transcriptomes of these two Leptosphaeria species and B. napus during disease. During the first seven days of infection L. biglobosa 'canadensis', a necrotroph, expressed more cell wall degrading genes than L. maculans 'brassicae', a hemi-biotroph. L. maculans 'brassicae' expressed many genes in the Carbohydrate Binding Module class of CAZy, particularly CBM50 genes, with potential roles in the evasion of basal innate immunity in the host plant. At this time, three avirulence genes were amongst the top 20 most highly upregulated L. maculans 'brassicae' genes in planta. The two fungi had a similar number of peptidase genes, and trypsin was transcribed at high levels by both fungi early in infection. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection activated the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid defence pathways in B. napus, consistent with defence against necrotrophs. L. maculans 'brassicae' triggered a high level of expression of isochorismate synthase 1, a reporter for salicylic acid signalling. L. biglobosa 'canadensis' infection triggered coordinated shutdown of photosynthesis genes, and a concomitant increase in transcription of cell wall remodelling genes of the host plant. Expression of particular classes of CAZy genes and the triggering of host defence and particular metabolic pathways are consistent with the necrotrophic lifestyle of L. biglobosa 'canadensis', and the hemibiotrophic life style of L. maculans 'brassicae'.

  10. The Impact of Region, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Grower Incentives on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canola (Brassica napus) Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammac, W. A.; Pan, W.; Koenig, R. T.; McCracken, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated through the second renewable fuel standard (RFS2) that biodiesel meet a minimum threshold requirement (50% reduction) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction compared to fossil diesel. This designation is determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) and carries with it potential for monetary incentives for biodiesel feedstock growers (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) and biodiesel processors (Renewable Identification Numbers). A national LCA was carried out for canola (Brassica napus) biodiesel feedstock by the EPA and it did meet the minimum threshold requirement. However, EPA's national LCA does not provide insight into regional variation in GHG mitigation. The authors propose for full GHG reduction potential of biofuels to be realized, LCA results must have regional specificity and should inform incentives for growers and processors on a regional basis. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) variation in biofuel feedstock production related GHG emissions between three agroecological zones (AEZs) in eastern Washington State (2) the impact of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) on GHG mitigation potential for each AEZ and (3) the impact of incentives on adoption of oilseed production. Results from objective (1) revealed there is wide variability in range for GHG estimates both across and within AEZs based on variation in farming practices and environment. It is expected that results for objective (2) will show further GHG mitigation potential due to minimizing N use and therefore fertilizer transport and soil related GHG emission while potentially increasing biodiesel production per hectare. Regional based incentives may allow more timely achievement of goals for bio-based fuels production. Additionally, incentives may further increase GHG offsetting by promoting nitrogen conserving best management practices implementation. This research highlights the need for regional assessment/incentive based

  11. Effects of Salinity and NO3:NH4 Ratio on Yield and Quality in Canola (Brassica napus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad BYBORDI

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of salinity and NO3: NH4 ratio (0:100, 75: 25, 50:50, and 25:75 in the nutrient solution on growth, yield quality and N metabolism in hydroponically grow canola (Brassica napus L. was evaluation. Both fresh and dry weights of leaves were significantly lower when a high concentration of either NO3 (100% or NH4 (75% was the sole N source in the nutrient solution. In nonsaline condition, increasing of both NH4 and NO3 ratio in the nutrient solution reduced photosynthetic (pn rate, however in salinity condition the reduction of pn became more pronounced at a higher ratio of NH4 in the nutrient solution. The yield in terms of fresh and dry weight of seed per plant was significantly increased at the 75:25 (NO3: NH4 treatments. Total fat in nonsaline condition was increased with increasing NH4 ratio in the nutrient solution, however in saline condition it was reduced, at high NH4 ratio in the nutrient solution. The increase of tissue N concentration was nearly proportional to the NH4 concentration in the nutrient solution.The activity of nitrate reductase (NR was increased by increasing NH4 form 0 to 50% and then reduced at a higher ratio of NH4 in the solution. Salinity increased NH4 concentration so that the saline condition had nearly twice high NH4 concentration in the leaves. The increase of NH4 concentration induced by salinity could be parially the reduction of NH4 assimilate because of the shortage of carbohydrate.

  12. Olive oil

    OpenAIRE

    Azadmard-Damirchi, Sodeif

    2007-01-01

    Analyses of phytosterol classes of olive and hazelnut oils collected from different countries by TLC, GC and GC-MS revealed considerable quantitative differences. The composition of 4-desmethyl- and 4-monomethylsterols was similar in both oils, but 4,4'-dimethylsterols composition differed. Lupeol and an unknown (lupane skeleton) compound were exclusively present in hazelnut oil 4,4´-dimethylsterols and could be used as markers to detect virgin olive oil adulteration with hazelnut oil at leve...

  13. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  14. Dietary extra virgin olive oil attenuates kidney injury in pristane-induced SLE model via activation of HO-1/Nrf-2 antioxidant pathway and suppression of JAK/STAT, NF-κB and MAPK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio-Soto, Marina; Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Cárdeno, Ana; Rosillo, María Ángeles; Sánchez-Fidalgo, Susana; Utrilla, Jose; Martín-Lacave, Inés; Alarcón-de-la-Lastra, Catalina

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by a widespread organ involvement. Recent studies have suggested that extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) might possess preventive effects on this immunoinflammation-related disease. However, its role in SLE remained unknown. In this work, we evaluated the effects of EVOO diet in a pristane-induced SLE model in mice. Three-month-old mice received an injection of pristane or saline solution and were fed with different experimental diets: sunflower oil diet or EVOO diet. After 24weeks, mice were sacrificed, spleens were collected and kidneys were removed for immunoinflammatory detections. The kidney expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT) and nuclear transcription factor-kappa B (NF-κB) pathways were studied by western blotting. In addition to macroscopic and histological analyses, serum matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) levels and proinflammatory cytokines production in splenocytes were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunoassay. We have demonstrated that EVOO diet significantly reduced renal damage and decreased MMP-3 serum and PGE2 kidney levels as well as the proinflammatory cytokines production in splenocytes. Our data indicate that Nrf-2 and HO-1 protein expressions were up-regulated in those mice fed with EVOO and the activation of JAK/STAT, MAPK and NF-κB pathways were drastically ameliorated. These results support the interest of EVOO as a beneficial functional food exerting a preventive/palliative role in the management of SLE. PMID:26525667

  15. Control of coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae with botanical insecticides and mineral oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Neves Celestino

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate botanical oils, mineral oils and an insecticide that contained azadirachtin (ICA for the control of Hypothenemus hampei, in addition to the effects of residual castor oil. We evaluated the effectiveness of the vegetable oils of canola, sunflower, corn, soybean and castor, two mineral oils (assist® and naturol®, and the ICA for the control of H. hampei. The compounds were tested at a concentration of 3.0% (v v-1. The median lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated with Probit analysis. The oil of castor bean and extract of castor bean cake were also evaluated at concentrations of 3.0% (v v-1 and 3.0% (m v-1, respectively. The mortality rates for H. hampei caused by the ICA and the castor oil were 40.8 and 53.7%, with LC50 values of 6.71 and 3.49% (v v-1, respectively. In the castor oil, the methyl esters of the fatty acids were palmitic (1.10%, linoleic (4.50%, oleic (4.02%, stearic (0.50% and ricinoleic acids (88.04%. The extract of the castor bean cake was not toxic to H. hampei. The persistence of the castor oil in the environment was low, and the cause of mortality for H. hampei was most likely the blockage of the spiracles, which prevented the insects from breathing.

  16. Using an Anion Exchange Membrane to Predict Soil Available N and S Supplies and the Impact of N and S Fertilization on Canola and Wheat Growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. QIAN; J. J. SCHOENAU

    2007-01-01

    A growth chamber study was conducted to determine the relationships between the supply of soil available nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) and canola (Brassica napus) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Biggar') N and S uptake and yield in three Western Canadian soils. The suitability of one-hour burial with an anion exchange membrane (AEM) was assessed for its utility as a quick test of the available N:S balance in the soil. Canola and wheat were grown on a Luvisolic soil low in available S and on Brown and Black Chernozemic soils low in both available N and S, with different rates and combinations of N and S fertilizers applied. AEM burial was used to assess soil available nitrate and sulfate supply rates after fertilization. Dry matter yield and N and S concentrations in plant tissues were determined after 6 weeks of growth.The soil available N:S ratio determined by AEM burial closely reflected the relative supplies of available N and S as revealed in the N:S ratios of plant tissue dry matter. The highest yields were achieved where the available N:S ratio in soil and plant tissue ranged from 5 to 13. Thus, a one-hour burial of an AEM probe in the field may be a useful tool to quickly test if a balanced N and S supply is present in the soil for optimum crop yield.

  17. Digestibility energy and amino acids of canola meal from two species (Brassica juncea and Brassica napus) fed to distal ileum cannulated grower pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M H A; Buchet, A D G; Beltranena, E; Gerrits, W J J; Zijlstra, R T

    2012-12-01

    Yellow-seeded Brassica juncea is a novel canola species targeted to grow in the southern Canadian prairies where thermotolerance, disease resistance, and adaptation to dry agronomic conditions are required. The support of its cultivation needs nutritional evaluation of its coproduct. The B. juncea canola meal (CM) contains less fiber than conventional, dark-seeded Brassica napus CM but also slightly less Lys. In a 6 × 6 Latin square, 6 distal ileum cannulated pigs (47 kg BW) were fed 6 diets to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, AID and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of energy, and VFA content in digesta and feces. Pigs were fed 6 diets: basal [46% wheat (Triticum aestivum) and corn (Zea mays) starch], 4 diets with 46% wheat and either B. juncea or B. napus CM at 25 or 50%, and a N-free diet based on corn starch. The B. juncea CM had higher (P pigs fed B. juncea than B. napus CM diets. In pigs fed B. juncea CM, the molar ratio in digesta was lower (P pigs fed B. napus CM diets. The CM species did not affect the AID of energy, SID of AA, and feces VFA content. The DE value was higher (P feed formulation. PMID:23365335

  18. Canola meal as a novel substrate for β-glucosidase production by Trichoderma viride: application of the crude extract to biomass saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, J M; Lima, V A; Giloni-Lima, P C; Knob, A

    2015-10-01

    β-Glucosidases are important enzymes with significant prospects in the industrial biotechnology, including their use in biomass hydrolysis for bioethanol production. In this study, the use of canola meal as carbon source for β-glucosidase production by a Trichoderma viride strain in submerged fermentation was evaluated by applying central composite design and response surface methodology to optimize the production process. This statistical approach was also used to improve the passion fruit peel hydrolysis by T. viride crude extract. The model developed 3.6-fold increased β-glucosidase activity. The culture conditions that resulted in the highest β-glucosidase levels were a substrate concentration of 2.9 %, pH of medium 4.2 and cultivation time of 206 h. The β-glucosidases produced under optimal conditions showed attractive properties for industrial applications, such as activity at high temperatures and stability at 55 °C and over a wide pH range. In addition, the enzymatic hydrolysis of passion fruit peel by T. viride crude extract was very promising, resulting in glucose yields of 66.4 %. This study, therefore, presents canola meal as an inexpensive and attractive substrate for the production of microbial β-glucosidases. PMID:26093658

  19. Effects of expeller pressed camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens fed wheat-soybean meal-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Philip; Widyaratne, Gemunu

    2012-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of graded levels of camelina meal and/or canola meal on digestibility, performance and fatty acid composition of broiler chickens. A total of 180-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to one of the six treatments. The control diet was based on wheat and soybean meal and contained 15% canola meal. The experimental diets contained 3%, 6%, 9%, 12% or 15% camelina meal added at the expense of canola meal. Chromic oxide (0.35%) was added to all diets as a digestibility marker. On the morning of day 22, birds were killed by cervical dislocation and their abdominal fat pad was obtained. The apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter and energy as well as nitrogen retention all declined linearly (p camelina meal. Weight gain (p camelina meal in the diet increased. Feed conversion ratio was also negatively affected by camelina meal (p camelina meal had significantly higher (p camelina meal in their diet significantly reduced the growth and feed conversion ratio of broilers compared with canola meal. However, the potential to incorporate n-3 fatty acids into carcass tissues may provide some justification for including camelina meal in poultry rations. PMID:22881197

  20. Hidden Complications of Thought Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Najmi, Sadia; Wegner, Daniel M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the suppression of thoughts may seem to be an effective solution, this strategy can lead to an exacerbation of the very thought that one is attempting to suppress. This ironic effect is the most obvious unwanted outcome of suppression and has now been investigated empirically for more than two decades. However, the fact that suppression is an effortful process implies that, even when suppression does not lead to an ironic rebound of the unwanted thought, it puts an insidious cognitiv...

  1. Peppermint Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Steven Foster Common Name: peppermint oil Latin Name: Mentha x piperita Introduction This fact sheet provides basic ... naturaldatabase.com on July 22, 2009. Peppermint oil ( Mentha x piperita L.). Natural Standard Database Web site. ...

  2. The effect of canola meal tannins on the intestinal absorption capacity of broilers using a D-xylose test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoori, B; Rogiewicz, A; Slominski, B A

    2015-12-01

    In three D-xylose absorption experiments, the effect of 1% HCl/methanol, 70% methanol or 70% acetone extracts of canola meal (CM) or 70% acetone extract of soybean meal (SBM) containing polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and phytic acid on intestinal absorption capacity of broilers was determined. In Exp. 1, the experimental groups received orally D-xylose solution alone or with methanol/HCl, methanol or acetone extracts of CM. In Exp. 2, the experimental groups received D-xylose alone or with acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exp. 3, the experimental groups received D-xylose plus sucrose solution or D-xylose plus acetone extracts of CM or SBM. In Exps. 2 and 3, the CM extracts contained 2.7 and 2.6, 2.4 and 2.3, 3.2 and 3.2, and 2.4 and 2.2 times higher polyphenols, phenolic acids, tannins and condensed tannins than the corresponding SBM extracts respectively. Blood samples were collected in 40-min intervals, and plasma D-xylose was measured. Compared to the Control, plasma D-xylose in Exp. 1 was lower (p < 0.001) by 81, 69 and 73% at 40-min, by 41, 44 and 37% at 80-min and by 22, 31, and 23% at 120-min post-ingestion of the HCl/methanol, methanol and acetone extracts respectively. In both Exps. 2 and 3, plasma D-xylose level was lower (p < 0.001) in groups dosed with CM extract or SBM extract at each time of blood collection, when compared to the respective Control group. However, in Exp. 3, birds dosed with SBM extract had higher plasma D-xylose than CM extract-dosed birds by 28, 8 and 21% at 40, 80 and 120 min respectively (p < 0.01). In conclusion, although CM extract caused a lower absorption of D-xylose, based on 5 to 10% of CM inclusion levels in practical broiler rations, the soluble bioactive components of CM will likely have minor impact on the absorption capacity of the chicken intestine. PMID:25865561

  3. Industrial production of crisps and prefried french fries using sunflower oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébédio, J. L.

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available Crisps and prefried french fries were prepared during industrial operations in order to study the possibility of using sunflower oils («normal» and high oleic instead of palm olein and mixtures of partially hydrogenated vegetable oils and palm oil in industrial frying. The quality of the food items was evaluated by determining the total amount of polar components, the amount of the different components in the polar fraction (dimers, oxidized triglycerides, diglycerides, the quantity of cyclic fatty acid monomers (CFAM, as well as the 18:2 geometrical fatty acid isomers. For both the production of crisps and french fries, very small increase in the polar components was observed. Frying of crisps did not result in any changes in the fatty acid composition and in the amount of 18:2 geometrical isomers. However the amount of CFAM increased in samples fried in SO. An increase of CFAM was observed also for french fries independently of the nature of the frying medium. No modifications of the cis and trans isomer distributions were observed for the french fries prepared in the mixture of palm oil and partially hydrogenated canola. These results show that sunflower oils could be used for the industrial production of french fries and crisps. However, storage studies are being carried out in order to determine if both types of sunflower oils give products which are as stable as those prepared in a solid frying medium.

  4. Identification and expression analysis of WRKY transcription factor genes in canola (Brassica napus L. in response to fungal pathogens and hormone treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyholos Michael K

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of plant WRKY transcription factor families are widely implicated in defense responses and various other physiological processes. For canola (Brassica napus L., no WRKY genes have been described in detail. Because of the economic importance of this crop, and its evolutionary relationship to Arabidopsis thaliana, we sought to characterize a subset of canola WRKY genes in the context of pathogen and hormone responses. Results In this study, we identified 46 WRKY genes from canola by mining the expressed sequence tag (EST database and cloned cDNA sequences of 38 BnWRKYs. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the conserved WRKY domain amino acid sequences, which demonstrated that BnWRKYs can be divided into three major groups. We further compared BnWRKYs to the 72 WRKY genes from Arabidopsis and 91 WRKY from rice, and we identified 46 presumptive orthologs of AtWRKY genes. We examined the subcellular localization of four BnWRKY proteins using green fluorescent protein (GFP and we observed the fluorescent green signals in the nucleus only. The responses of 16 selected BnWRKY genes to two fungal pathogens, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Alternaria brassicae, were analyzed by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR. Transcript abundance of 13 BnWRKY genes changed significantly following pathogen challenge: transcripts of 10 WRKYs increased in abundance, two WRKY transcripts decreased after infection, and one decreased at 12 h post-infection but increased later on (72 h. We also observed that transcript abundance of 13/16 BnWRKY genes was responsive to one or more hormones, including abscisic acid (ABA, and cytokinin (6-benzylaminopurine, BAP and the defense signaling molecules jasmonic acid (JA, salicylic acid (SA, and ethylene (ET. We compared these transcript expression patterns to those previously described for presumptive orthologs of these genes in Arabidopsis and rice, and observed both similarities and differences in

  5. Análise dos modos de falha e efeitos na otimização dos fatores de produção no cultivo agrícola: subprocesso colheita da canola Failure mode and effect analysis in the optimization of production factors in the agro cultivation: subprocess harvest of canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Cantorski da Rosa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O setor agrícola passa por um intenso processo de transformações e moder nização, mas ainda apresenta certo atraso em relação aos demais segmentos da economia, sobretudo na utilização de novas tecnologias e técnicas administrativas, que reflete em problemas que devem ser considerados. Este artigo apresenta uma metodologia para priorizar modos de falha e seus efeitos associados, para a determinação de ações preventivas, visando aperfeiçoar processos no cultivo agrícola de canola, usando a técnica FMEA, com foco no subprocesso colheita. O setor agrícola possui algumas características próprias, razão pela qual foram feitas algumas adaptações para análise deste tipo de processo. A aplicação foi ilustrada através de um estudo de caso em uma lavoura de canola na Escola-Fazenda da Sociedade Educacional Três de Maio (SETREM. A determinação de prioridades dos modos de falha foi feita de forma comparativa, pelo NPR (número de prioridade de risco e de um método gráfico.The agricultural sector has been facing an intense process of transformation and modernization. Nevertheless, it can still be considered underdeveloped if compared to other economic segments, regarding the utilization of new technologies and administrative techniques, resulting problems that deserve consideration. This Article presents a methodology to prioritize problems and their related effects to determine preventive measures, aiming at improving processes of canola cultivation, using the FMEA technique focusing on harvest. The agricultural sector has some particular techniques, which is the reason for some adjustments in order to analyze this type of process. The application was illustrated through an experiment in a plantation of canola at the farm-school of sociedade educacional três de maio (SETREM. The determination of priorities of potential problems was done comparatively through RPN (risk priority number and a graphic method.

  6. Interactions between surround suppression and interocular suppression in human vision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chun Cai

    Full Text Available Several types of suppression phenomena have been observed in the visual system. For example, the ability to detect a target stimulus is often impaired when the target is embedded in a high-contrast surround. This contextual modulation, known as surround suppression, was formerly thought to occur only in the periphery. Another type of suppression phenomena is interocular suppression, in which the sensitivity to a monocular target is reduced by a superimposed mask in the opposite eye. Here, we explored how the two types of suppression operating across different spatial regions interact with one another when they simultaneously exert suppressive influences on a common target presented at the fovea. In our experiments, a circular target grating presented to the fovea of one eye was suppressed interocularly by a noise pattern of the same size in the other eye. The foveal stimuli were either shown alone or surrounded by a monocular annular grating. The orientation and eye-of-origin of the surround grating were varied. We found that the detection of the foveal target subjected to interocular suppression was severely impaired by the addition of the surround grating, indicating strong surround suppression in the fovea. In contrast, when the interocular suppression was released by superimposing a binocular fusion ring onto both the target and the dichoptic mask, the surround suppression effect was found to be dramatically decreased. In addition, the surround suppression was found to depend on the contrast of the dichoptic noise with the greatest surround suppression effect being obtained only when the noise contrast was at an intermediate level. These findings indicate that surround suppression and interocular suppression are not independent of each other, but there are strong interactions between them. Moreover, our results suggest that strong surround suppression may also occur at the fovea and not just the periphery.

  7. Genetic modification of oil crops for optimisation of oil quality regarding industrial uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil crops - like linseed, sunflower and oilseed rape - are important sources of energy, both for human consumption and for feeding livestock. They are also sources of many non-edible uses, providing raw materials for a wide range of industrial products. Oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) is one of the leading crops, which benefit from the application of genetic engineering through recombinant DNA technology. Due to substantial progress in breeding and cultivation practices rapeseed has become the world's third most important source of vegetable oil. Modification of the fatty acid composition to make rapeseed oil more competitive in various segments of the food and industrial oil markets has been an important objective of plant breeding and molecular genetics in recent years. While the primary demand by the food and animal feed industry is met by 'double-low' quality rapeseed ('canola'), interest has grown in 'Biodiesel' feedstocks or specialty materials being directed to several industrial niche markets, because of their higher value than commodity oils. Rapeseed oil is unique in having a large spectrum of usability and good properties for non-food applications, such as relatively homogeneous composition, high degree of refinement, freedom from contaminants and biodegradability, giving it advantages over petrochemicals. Consequently, one of the most important objectives of rapeseed breeding is the genetic modification of the seed oil by maximizing the proportion of specific fatty acids, like laurate, erucate or functionalized acids, in order to obtain tailor-made raw materials suited for industrial purposes. Present rapeseed oil (canola) is characterized by a high content of unsaturated C18 fatty acids. In order to improve its industrial usefulness a current project aims at the genetic modification of saturated fatty acids content and the development of transgenic B. napus accumulating medium-chain triacylglycerols in its seed oil. For this purpose relevant genes

  8. Suppression or expression

    OpenAIRE

    Patricia Lewis

    2005-01-01

    Based on an interview study of neonatal nurses, this article sets out to explore the management of emotions within a work context where their suppression is a professional requirement. Drawing on Bolton’s (2000a, 2000b) identification of different types of organizational emotionality, in particular prescriptive and philanthropic emotion management, the article seeks to demonstrate the complexities involved in the performance of emotional labour. It does this by first exploring the times whe...

  9. Tremor suppression in ECG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihov Georgy S

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocardiogram recordings are very often contaminated by high-frequency noise usually power-line interference and EMG disturbances (tremor. Specific method for interference cancellation without affecting the proper ECG components, called subtraction procedure, was developed some two decades ago. Filtering out the tremor remains a priori partially successful since it has a relatively wide spectrum, which overlaps the useful ECG frequency band. Method The proposed method for tremor suppression implements the following three procedures. Contaminated ECG signals are subjected to moving averaging (comb filter with linear phase characteristic with first zero set at 50 Hz to suppress tremor and PL interference simultaneously. The reduced peaks of QRS complexes and other relatively high and steep ECG waves are then restored by an introduced by us procedure called linearly-angular, so that the useful high frequency components are preserved in the range specified by the embedded in the ECG instrument filter, usually up to 125 Hz. Finally, a Savitzky-Golay smoothing filter is applied for supplementary tremor suppression outside the QRS complexes. Results The results obtained show a low level of the residual EMG disturbances together with negligible distortion of the wave shapes regardless of rhythm and morphology changes.

  10. Menstrual suppression: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillard PA

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Paula Adams Hillard Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA Abstract: Menstrual suppression to provide relief of menstrual-related symptoms or to manage medical conditions associated with menstrual morbidity or menstrual exacerbation has been used clinically since the development of steroid hormonal therapies. Options range from the extended or continuous use of combined hormonal oral contraceptives, to the use of combined hormonal patches and rings, progestins given in a variety of formulations from intramuscular injection to oral therapies to intrauterine devices, and other agents such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH antagonists. The agents used for menstrual suppression have variable rates of success in inducing amenorrhea, but typically have increasing rates of amenorrhea over time. Therapy may be limited by side effects, most commonly irregular, unscheduled bleeding. These therapies can benefit women's quality of life, and by stabilizing the hormonal milieu, potentially improve the course of underlying medical conditions such as diabetes or a seizure disorder. This review addresses situations in which menstrual suppression may be of benefit, and lists options which have been successful in inducing medical amenorrhea. Keywords: menstrual molimena, amenorrhea, inducing amenorrhea, quality of life

  11. Vibrotactile suppression of tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenhardt, Martin L.

    2002-05-01

    At the Society's 142nd meeting, the efficacy of high frequency bone conducted stimulation in suppressing tinnitus was presented. The hypothesized mechanism was the reprogramming of frequency tuning of auditory neurons in the central nervous system, secondarily to peripheral hearing loss. This mechanism is unlikely in cases of tinnitus in the presence of normal audiometric sensitivity. There is the possibility that hearing loss above 10 kHz can play a role in tinnitus, an association not thoroughly explored. Somatomotor stimulation influencing the quality of tinnitus has been reported, as have interconnections of the auditory and somatosensory systems. There would appear to be an evolutionary advantage of linking the sensorimotor organization of the external ear and the auditory function of the brainstem in sound localization. Thus, stimulation of the pinna and post auricular area may be a means of suppressing tinnitus. To that end a thin aluminum ceramic bimorph was constructed to fit on the inner surface of the pinna. When driven by low (10 kHz) frequencies multiplied by MHz carriers, demodulation in the skin resulted in vibrotactile stimulation. Tactile stimulation was an adjunct to the high frequencies resulting in a multimodal suppressive effect in a small pilot study.

  12. Enhancing Effect of Shimizuomyces paradoxus on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Canola, Plant Growth of Cucumber, and Harvest of Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Gi-Ho; Shrestha, Bhushan; Park, Ki-Byung; Han, Sang-Kuk; Sung, Jae-Mo

    2011-03-01

    Shimizuomyces paradoxus showed no inhibitory effect against plant pathogen fungi, such as Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici and Alternaria solani. The S. paradoxus culture filtrate showed higher seed germination and seedling growth rates in canola than distilled water and potato-dextrose broth. A conidial suspension of 1.0×10(4)/mL resulted in the highest growth stimulating effects on total plant length, and fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots in cucumber, when compared to the highest suspension concentration. Total plant length and shoot weight increased with the foliar spray treatment, and root length and root weight increased by simultaneous treatments of soil drenching and foliar spray in cucumber. Lower concentrations of the S. paradoxus conidial suspension increased the harvest of tomato fruit. PMID:22783066

  13. Effects of supplementation of canola meal-based diets with arginine on performance, plasma nitric oxide, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens grown at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khajali, F; Tahmasebi, M; Hassanpour, H; Akbari, M R; Qujeq, D; Wideman, R F

    2011-10-01

    A total of 300 male broilers (Ross 308) were exposed to cool conditions at high altitudes to study the effects of dietary Arg supplementation on performance and physiological and zootechnical variables. A corn-soybean meal (SBM) and a corn-canola meal (CM) diet were formulated for the starting (1 to 3 wk of age) and growing (3 to 6 wk of age) stages according to NRC recommendations. Two additional diets were prepared by supplementing 0.2 and 0.4% l-Arg to the corn-CM diet. Substitution of CM for SBM caused a significant (P ascites mortality showed a significant (P broiler chickens raised at high altitude caused reduced growth performance and predisposed the birds to pulmonary hypertension and ascites, which were partly restored by Arg supplementation. PMID:21934012

  14. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S. R.; Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M.

    2011-12-01

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely ( Pphytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly ( P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly ( P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly ( P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS.

  15. DIGESTIBILIDAD ILEAL APARENTE DE LA PROTEINA Y AMINOÁCIDOS DE LA TORTA DE CANOLA EN LECHONES RECIÉN DESTETADOS

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime Parra S; Gerardo Mariscal L; Tércia Reis de S

    2009-01-01

    Objetivo. Obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA) de proteína (PC) y aminoácidos (AA) de torta de canola, en lechones recién destetados. Materiales y métodos. Se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en “T” en el ileon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los siguientes tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (C) elaborada con caseína y almidón de maíz; dietas CTC (caseína-10% de Torta de...

  16. Stability of potato chip fried in vegetable oils with different degree of unsaturation. Effect of ascorbyl palmitate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres, R.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Four vegetable oils with different polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio (P/S: 5.2 for sunflower oil, 3.,4 for canola rapeseed oil, 0.4 for a blend of palm oleic and canola rapeseed oil (80:20, and 0.3 for palm olein were assayed for stability of crisps fried in these oils during storage at 60º C. The action of ascorbyl palmitate with special attention to its synergistic effect on the natural antioxidants was also tested. by addition to the fried potatoes. The evolution of the oxidative stability was measured through peroxide value, quantitation of tocopherols and tocotrienols, and induction time (IT by means of Rancimat. Oil degradation during frying was very low as both polar compound percentages and natural antioxidant had similar levels to those present in refined oils. Evolution of analytical parameters during storage results indicated that oil unsaturation degree or P/S had a much more importance on stability of the product than had the content and type of natural antioxidants and the addition of AP. Nevertheless, addition of AP to the fried potatoes had a significant effect resulting in higher retention of natural antioxidants, higher IT and lower PV at any storage timeSe estudia la evolución de la oxidación a 60º C en patatas fritas con cuatro aceites vegetales de distinta relación ácidos grasos poliinsaturados/saturados (P/S: 5,4 para el aceite de girasol, 3,4 para el aceite de canola, 0,4 para una mezcla de oleína de palma (80 % y aceite de canola (20 % y 0,3 para la oleína de palma. Se estudia igualmente la influencia de la adición de palmitato de ascorbilo (AP durante la conservación del producto frito con especial atención a su efecto sinergista sobre los antioxidantes naturales. La evolución de la oxidación en lotes de patatas, con y sin adición de AP, se determinó mediante las siguientes determinaciones analíticas: índice de peróxidos (PV, cuantificación de tocoferoles y tocotrienoles, y periodos de

  17. Used oil as a fuel oil alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaosmanoglu, F.; Beker, U.G. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Chemical Engineering Dept.

    1996-09-01

    In this study, the possibility of using used frying oil as a fuel oil alternative has been investigated. The fuel oil analysis tests applied to the reference fuel oil, used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil, were done according to standard test methods. The experimental results indicated that used frying oil and its blends with fuel oil can be proposed as a possible substitute for fuel oil.

  18. Event-specific plasmid standards and real-time PCR methods for transgenic Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and transgenic GT73 canola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverniers, Isabel; Windels, Pieter; Vaïtilingom, Marc; Milcamps, Anne; Van Bockstaele, Erik; Van den Eede, Guy; De Loose, Marc

    2005-04-20

    Since the 18th of April 2004, two new regulations, EC/1829/2003 on genetically modified food and feed products and EC/1830/2003 on traceability and labeling of GMOs, are in force in the EU. This new, comprehensive regulatory framework emphasizes the need of an adequate tracing system. Unique identifiers, such as the transgene genome junction region or a specific rearrangement within the transgene DNA, should form the basis of such a tracing system. In this study, we describe the development of event-specific tracing systems for transgenic maize lines Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 and for canola event GT73. Molecular characterization of the transgene loci enabled us to clone an event-specific sequence into a plasmid vector, to be used as a marker, and to develop line-specific primers. Primer specificity was tested through qualitative PCRs and dissociation curve analysis in SYBR Green I real-time PCRs. The primers were then combined with event-specific TaqMan probes in quantitative real-time PCRs. Calibration curves were set up both with genomic DNA samples and the newly synthesized plasmid DNA markers. It is shown that cloned plasmid GMO target sequences are perfectly suitable as unique identifiers and quantitative calibrators. Together with an event-specific primer pair and a highly specific TaqMan probe, the plasmid markers form crucial components of a unique and straighforward tracing system for Bt11, Bt176, and GA21 maize and GT73 canola events. PMID:15826057

  19. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  20. Next generation fire suppressants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jerry A.

    1995-01-01

    Spectrex, Inc., located in Cedar Grove, NJ is a manufacturer of fire detection and suppression equipment. Spectrex is one of the original pioneers in high speed fire detection and suppression systems for combat vehicles. Spectrex has installed fire suppressions systems in thousands of combat vehicles and ships throughout the world. Additionally, they manufacture flame explosion detectors, ship damage control systems, and optical gas and vapor detectors. The culmination of several years of research and development has recently produced an innovative electro-optical continuous monitoring systems called SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) and SAFEYE that provide fast and reliable gas, vapor, aerosol, flame, and explosion detection. SharpEye 20/20I IR(sup 3) is a self-contained triple spectrum flame detector which scans for oscillating IR radiation (1 to 10 Hz) in the spectral bands ranging from 4.0 to 5.0 microns and uses programmed algorithms to check the ratio and correlation of data received by the three sensors to make the system highly immune to false alarms. It is extremely sensitive as it can detect a 1 x 1 square foot gasoline pan fire at 200 feet in less than 3 seconds. The sensitivity is user programmable, offering 4 ranges of detection. SAFEYE is comprised of a selected number of multispectral ban microprocessors controlled detectors which are in communication with one or more radiation sources that is projected along a 600 feet optical path. The signals from the selected narrow bands are processed and analyzed by highly sophisticated algorithms. It is ideal for high risk, remote, large areas such as petroleum and chemical manufacturing sites, waste dumps, aircraft cargo bays, and ship compartments. The SAFEYE will perform direct readings of the presence or rate of rise of concentrations of gases, vapors, or aerosols at the range of parts per million and provide alarms at various set points at different levels of concentrations.

  1. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.)

  2. Crystallization kinetics of cocoa butter in the presence of sorbitan esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonwai, Sopark; Podchong, Pawitchaya; Rousseau, Dérick

    2017-01-01

    Cocoa butter crystallization in the presence of sorbitan mono- and triesters or canola oil was investigated. Solid-state surfactant esters accelerated early-stage cocoa butter solidification while suppressing later growth. Sorbitan tristearate showed the strongest effect, followed by sorbitan monostearate and sorbitan monopalmitate. Liquid-state surfactants suppressed cocoa butter crystallization at all time points, with sorbitan trioleate showing a stronger effect than sorbitan monooleate, which behaved in a similar fashion to canola oil. Via DSC, the palmitic and stearic-based surfactants only associated with cocoa butter's high-melting fraction, with the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola oil showing little influence. All sorbitan esters had little effect on polymorphism, whereas canola oil accelerated the form II-to-III-to-IV transition. The palmitic and stearic-based surfactants greatly reduced cocoa butter crystal size whereas the oleic acid-based surfactants and canola showed no notable effect. Overall, sorbitan esters impacted cocoa butter crystallization kinetics, though this depended on surfactant structure and concentration. PMID:27507503

  3. Antidiabetic oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berraaouan, Ali; Abid, Sanae; Bnouham, Mohamed

    2013-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated evidence of the health benefits of natural products. Plant extracts have been tested on a variety of physiological disorders, including diabetes mellitus. Studies have tested aqueous extracts, plant fractions extracts, families of active of compounds, and specific active compounds. In this review, we describe the antidiabetic effects of vegetable oils. Information was collected from ScienceDirect and PubMed databases using the following key words: Diabetes mellitus, Oils, Vegetable oils, Type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, antidiabetic effect, antihyperglycemic, antidiabetic oil. We have compiled approximately ten vegetable oils with including experimental studies that have demonstrated benefits on diabetes mellitus. There are soybean, argan, olive, palm, walnut, black cumin, safflower, Colocynth, Black seed, Rice bran, Cinnamom, and Rocket oils. For each vegetable oil, we investigated on the plant's traditional uses, their pharmacological activities and their antidiabetic effects. It seems that many vegetable oils are really interesting and can be used in the improvement of human health, particularly, to prevent or to treat diabetes mellitus complications. PMID:24111621

  4. Planck-suppressed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 105H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 102H

  5. The role of genomics and biotechnology in achieving global food security for high-oleic vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Richard F

    2012-01-01

    Health related concerns for dietary 'trans-fat' in the U.S. have mediated a significant decline in the use of hydrogenated vegetable oils in edible applications. Oils having a natural abundance of oleic acid provide many functional properties that are derived from partial hydrogenation of polyunsaturated oils. However, the long term agronomic production capacity of existing high-oleic oil crops to replace hydrogenated oil ingredients is not sustainable. Although improvements are expected in processing technology, genetic modification of seed composition offers the most promising tactic to increase the overall supply of high-oleic commodity oils. Genetic enhancement of oleic acid concentration has been demonstrated experimentally in nearly every oilseed. Private companies have launched production of genetically enhanced oleic acid cultivars such as: Nexera™ Omega-9 canola and Omega-9 sunflower oils. The E. I. du Pont de Nemours and Company plans commercial production of Plenish™ high-oleic soybeans in 2012. The Monsanto Co. plans commercial production of Vistive-Gold™ low-saturated high-oleic soybeans possibly as early as 2013. These 'new' high-oleic oilseeds must not only exhibit superior oil quality but also sequentially improved yield potential. Genetic maps that help breeders identify, locate and track useful genes will facilitate accomplishment of that goal. However, a reference sequence map in soybean is the only available chromosome scale assembly of an oilseed genome. Knowledge of genome structure enables technological advances that help increase soybean yielding ability, improve crop protection against biotic stresses, and reveal alleles for genes that mediate expression of quality traits. Led by soybean, genetically enhanced high-oleic vegetable oils that now are becoming commercially available may capture greater than 40% of the domestic consumption of vegetable oil in the U.S. by 2020. This innovation in oilseed technology is a positive step toward

  6. Kinetics of Forming Aldehydes in Frying Oils and Their Distribution in French Fries Revealed by LC-MS-Based Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Csallany, A Saari; Kerr, Brian J; Shurson, Gerald C; Chen, Chi

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the kinetics of aldehyde formation in heated frying oils was characterized by 2-hydrazinoquinoline derivatization, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, principal component analysis (PCA), and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). The aldehydes contributing to time-dependent separation of heated soybean oil (HSO) in a PCA model were grouped by the HCA into three clusters (A1, A2, and B) on the basis of their kinetics and fatty acid precursors. The increases of 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) and the A2-to-B ratio in HSO were well-correlated with the duration of thermal stress. Chemometric and quantitative analysis of three frying oils (soybean, corn, and canola oils) and French fry extracts further supported the associations between aldehyde profiles and fatty acid precursors and also revealed that the concentrations of pentanal, hexanal, acrolein, and the A2-to-B ratio in French fry extracts were more comparable to their values in the frying oils than other unsaturated aldehydes. All of these results suggest the roles of specific aldehydes or aldehyde clusters as novel markers of the lipid oxidation status for frying oils or fried foods. PMID:27128101

  7. The influence of deep frying using various vegetable oils on acrylamide formation in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, P K; Jinap, S; Sanny, M; Tan, C P; Khatib, A

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the precursors of acrylamide formation in sweet potato (SP) (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam) chips and to determine the effect of different types of vegetable oils (VOs), that is, palm olein, coconut oil, canola oil, and soya bean oil, on acrylamide formation. The reducing sugars and amino acids in the SP slices were analyzed, and the acrylamide concentrations of SP chips were measured. SP chips that were fried in a lower degree of unsaturation oils contained a lower acrylamide concentration (1443 μg/kg), whereas those fried with higher degree of unsaturated oils contained a higher acrylamide concentration (2019 μg/kg). SP roots were found to contain acrylamide precursors, that is, 4.17 mg/g glucose and 5.05 mg/g fructose, and 1.63 mg/g free asparagine. The type of VO and condition used for frying, significantly influenced acrylamide formation. This study clearly indicates that the contribution of lipids in the formation of acrylamide should not be neglected. PMID:24344977

  8. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF LEONOTIS NEPETAEFOLIA

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal, R. Hamsaveni; Vasanth, Saradha; Vasudevan, S.V.

    1994-01-01

    The essential oil of Leonotis nepetaefolia (Family – Labiatae) was tested for its antibacterial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria and found to be moderately active excepting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The essential oil also was found to be inhibitory to dermatophytic fungi and suppressive to other aerial fungi. Hence the oil may be quite useful in skin infection due to dermatophytes even with secondary bacterial infections.

  9. Wet scrubbing of biomass producer gas tars using vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhoi, Prakashbhai Ramabhai

    The overall aims of this research study were to generate novel design data and to develop an equilibrium stage-based thermodynamic model of a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system for the removal of model tar compounds (benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene) found in biomass producer gas. The specific objectives were to design, fabricate and evaluate a vegetable oil based wet scrubbing system and to optimize the design and operating variables; i.e., packed bed height, vegetable oil type, solvent temperature, and solvent flow rate. The experimental wet packed bed scrubbing system includes a liquid distributor specifically designed to distribute a high viscous vegetable oil uniformly and a mixing section, which was designed to generate a desired concentration of tar compounds in a simulated air stream. A method and calibration protocol of gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy was developed to quantify tar compounds. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using analysis of variance (ANOVA) procedure. Statistical analysis showed that both soybean and canola oils are potential solvents, providing comparable removal efficiency of tar compounds. The experimental height equivalent to a theoretical plate (HETP) was determined as 0.11 m for vegetable oil based scrubbing system. Packed bed height and solvent temperature had highly significant effect (p0.05) effect on the removal of model tar compounds. The packing specific constants, Ch and CP,0, for the Billet and Schultes pressure drop correlation were determined as 2.52 and 2.93, respectively. The equilibrium stage based thermodynamic model predicted the removal efficiency of model tar compounds in the range of 1-6%, 1-4% and 1-2% of experimental data for benzene, toluene and ethylbenzene, respectively, for the solvent temperature of 30° C. The NRTL-PR property model and UNIFAC for estimating binary interaction parameters are recommended for modeling absorption of tar compounds in vegetable oils. Bench scale

  10. Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Ie, Amanda Yen Lin

    2014-01-01

    The present research assessed whether levels of depression, anxiety and worry, obsessive-compulsive distress, and psychopathy were differentially related to distinct thought suppression profiles. As a means to achieving this goal, the Profiles of Everyday Thought Suppression (PETS) scale was constructed to measure the frequencies with which various target thoughts are suppressed. The PETS scale demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability, and scores were positively co...

  11. Physico-chemical properties of blends of palm olein with other vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Siddique, Bazlul

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Palm oil (olein was blended with other edible oils for the enhancement of its market acceptability in terms of melting point depression and shelf life. The physico-chemical properties like viscosity, density, melting behavior, peroxide value (PV, saponification value (SV and iodine value (IV of four different binary blends with four vegetable oils were evaluated. Palm olein was found to be more stable against rancidity than the other oils. For the stability against oxidation and melting point depression the palm olein-canola (PO/CO blend was found to be better than the others. The Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC thermogram of the melting behavior of the blends traces some new polymorphs of the triglyceride. This study will help the oil producing industry to find out the most economically viable oil blends for cooking purposes, with maximum nutrition as well as desirable physico-chemical properties.

    Aceite de palma (oleína fue mezclada con otros aceites comestibles para aumentar su aceptabilidad en el mercado en términos de descenso del punto de fusión y mejora de su almacenamiento. Las propiedades físico-químicas tales como viscosidad, densidad, comportamiento en la fusión, valor de peróxidos (PV, valor de saponificación (SV e índice de yodo (IV de cuatro diferentes mezclas binarias con cuatro aceites vegetales fueron evaluadas. La oleína de palma fue más estable frente a la rancidez que otros aceites. En la estabilidad frente la oxidación y el descenso del punto de fusión, la mezcla de oleína de palma/canola (PO/CO fue mejor que las otras. Los termogramas del calorímetro diferencial de barrido (DSC referidos al comportamiento de fusión de las mezclas indican algunos nuevos polimorfismos de los triglicéridos. Este estudio podría ayudar a las empresas que elaboran aceites a encontrar los aceites económicamente más viables para cocinar, con buenas propiedades nutricionales, así como con unas propiedades f

  12. Caracterización de enzimas hidrolíticas de Aspergillus ficuum producidas en fermentación sólida sobre torta de canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Costa

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES-CO X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Título en ingles: Characterization of Aspergillus ficuum hydrolytic enzymes produced in solid state fermentation of cold-pressed canola cake Resumen: En el presente trabajo, se describe la caracterización respecto al pH y temperatura de extractos semipurificados mediante ultrafiltración escalonada de las enzimas fitasa, celulasa y xilanasa de Aspergillus ficuum cepa DSM 932 producidos en fermentación en estado sólido (en adelante SSF y usando torta de canola como sustrato. La fitasa presentó un pH y una temperatura óptima de 5.0 y 60°C respectivamente, en tanto que la celulasa presentó un pH óptimo de 7.0 con una temperatura óptima de 60°C y el extracto de xilanasa un pH óptimo de 5.4 y una temperatura óptima de 45°C. Palabras clave: caracterización enzimas; fitasa; xilanasa; celulasa. Abstract: This paper, describes the characterization respect to pH and temperature of semi-purified extracts by ultrafiltration step of the enzymes phytase, cellulase and xylanase produced by Aspergillus ficuum DSM 932 strain, in solid state fermentation (SSF using cold-pressed canola cake as substrate. Phytase showed the optimal pH and temperature 6.0 and 60°C, respectively, while cellulase showed a pH optimal of 7.0 with an optimal temperature of 60°C and xylanase extract an optimal pH of 5.4 and an optimal temperature of 45°C /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso

  13. Sedimentation and deformation of an aqueous sodium hydroxide drop in vegetable oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrew; Hyacinthe, Hyaquino; Ward, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    The addition of water droplets in fuels is known to provide benefits such as decreased Nitrous Oxide NOx emissions. Unfortunately the shelf life of a water-fuel emulsion is limited by the sedimentation rate of the water droplets. It is well known that adding surfactants can significantly slow the sedimentation rate due to the introduction of Marangoni stresses. In the case of a vegetable oil fuel, adding sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to the water droplets will produce surfactants through saponification in the form of sodium-carboxylate salts. Pendant drops of aqueous NaOH solutions with pH between 11 and 13 will be suspended in several oils such as corn, olive, canola and soybean oil in order to measure the interfacial tension. The change in interfacial tension with time will be used to estimate the surfactant concentration and the saponification rate. Then individual drops will be placed in the oils to observe the settling velocity and drop deformation. NSF CBET.

  14. Mineral oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dominant theme in the world energy market was the fall in oil prices in 2014. From 115 US-$/bbl in June it dropped to below 50 US-$/bbl in January 2015. Thereby the shale oil revolution has had the strong impact on the global energy situation, to this point has been predicted for three years. Although no one could predict the exact height of the fall in oil prices, but with oil as a reserve currency for all other fuels, it has not only had an impact on the gas and coal prices, but other commodities, such as copper, have also yielded. About cause and effect, there is a lot of speculation - not all of which are supported by wisdom.

  15. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mapping tools , OR&R provides standard techniques and publishes guidelines for observing oil, assessing shoreline impact, and ... consolidates key response data. Resources OR&R also publishes many of its guidelines for emergency responders and ...

  16. Obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes in developing countries: role of dietary fats and oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anoop; Singhal, Neha; Khurana, Lokesh

    2010-06-01

    Developing countries are undergoing rapid nutrition transition concurrent with increases in obesity, the metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). From a healthy traditional high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, a shift is occurring toward increasing consumption of calorie-dense foods containing refined carbohydrates, fats, red meats, and low fiber. Data show an increase in the supply of animal fats and increased intake of saturated fatty acid (SFAs) (obtained from coconut oil, palm oil, and ghee [clarified butter]) in many developing countries, particularly in South Asia and South-East Asia. In some South Asian populations, particularly among vegetarians, intake of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) (obtained from flaxseed, mustard, and canola oils) and long-chain (LC) n-3 PUFAs (obtained from fish and fish oils) is low. Further, the effect of supplementation of n-3 PUFAs on metabolic risk factors and insulin resistance, except for demonstrated benefit in terms of decreased triglycerides, needs further investigation among South Asians. Data also show that intake of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) ranged from 4.7% to 16.4%en in developing countries, and supplementing it from olive, canola, mustard, groundnut, and rice bran oils may reduce metabolic risk. In addition, in some developing countries, intake of n-6 PUFAs (obtained from sunflower, safflower, corn, soybean, and sesame oils) and trans-fatty acids (TFAs) is increasing. These data show imbalanced consumption of fats and oils in developing countries, which may have potentially deleterious metabolic and glycemic consequences, although more research is needed. In view of the rapid rise of T2DM in developing countries, more aggressive public health awareness programs coupled with governmental action and clear country-specific guidelines are required, so as to promote widespread use of healthy oils, thus curbing intake of SFAs and TFAs, and increasing intake of n-3 PUFAs and MUFAs. Such

  17. NUTRACEUTICAL ANALYSIS OF AMARANTH OIL, AVOCADO OIL, CUMIN OIL, LINSEED OIL AND NEEM OIL

    OpenAIRE

    Ripal Khamar* and YT Jasrai

    2014-01-01

    Amaranth oil, Avocado oil, Cumin oil, Linseed oil and Neem oil are medicinal herbal oil which is natural source of fatty acids, nutraceuticals and mainly Tocopherol – Vitamin ‘E’. They play important role with various medicinal properties like Anti-oxidant, Cholesterol reducing agent etc. Results suggested that Amaranth oil is reddish brown coloured and have 0.5-2 Acid value, 100-115 Iodine value and 182-190 saponification value as Biochemical parameters; 20-27 % Saturated Fatty acid, 18-25 %...

  18. Effect of Phytase Superdoses and Citric Acid on Growth Performance, Plasma Phosphorus and Tibia Ash in Broilers Fed Canola Meal-Based Diets Severely Limited in Available Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taheri HR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of phytase superdoses alone or in combination with citric acid (CA in canola meal-based diets severely limited in available phosphorus (Pa on growth performance, plasma phosphorus (P, and tibia ash (TA in broilers from 22 to 42 d of age. Two hundreds and eighty 21-d-old male broilers were used in 28 pens of 10 birds per each. The experimental diets consisted of a positive control (PC diet and six negative control (NC diets which consisted of two levels of CA (0 and 20 g/Kg and three levels of phytase (0, 1000 and 4000 U/Kg in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement. The PC diet contained 4.3 g/Kg Pa, but all NC diets contained 1.5 g/Kg Pa. Results indicated that the birds fed the PC diet had a significantly higher average daily gain (ADG, plasma P and TA, but a lower feed conversion ratio (FCR than those fed the NC diet. The ADG, FCR and plasma P values in birds fed NC diets supplemented with 4000 U/Kg phytase enzyme (with or without CA significantly reached those of birds fed the PC diet. But, addition of phytase enzyme at 1000 U/Kg only plus CA to the NC diet could significantly improve FCR and plasma P. A significant interaction was observed between phytase and CA for FCR and plasma P. Although TA values in NC + 1000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA were similar to the PC treatment, TA values of NC + 4000 U/Kg phytase treatments (with or without CA was greater than that of the PC treatment. Results of this study showed that, in severely limited Pa corn-canola meal-based diets, supplementing 4000 U/Kg phytase or also 1000 U/Kg phytase plus CA will be sufficient to obtain the comparable feed efficiency in broilers to those fed the adequate Pa diet.

  19. Nutrient digestibility and growth performance of pigs fed diets with different levels of canola meal from Brassica napus black and Brassica juncea yellow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanjayan, N; Heo, J M; Nyachoti, C M

    2014-09-01

    Nutrient digestibility and the effect of high dietary inclusion of canola meals from Brassica napus black (BNB) and Brassica juncea yellow (BJY) on growing and weaned pigs performance were determined. In Exp.1, 6 ileal cannulated barrows (initial BW = 20.7 ± 1.5 kg) were used to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in BNB and BJY. Pigs were allotted to diets containing either BNB or BJY as the sole source of protein in a crossover design to give 6 replicates per diet. The SID of all AA in BNB and BJY were similar. In Exp. 2, 168 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.61 ± 0.76 kg) were assigned in a randomized complete block design to 7 diets (n = 24) consisting of a wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 6 diets containing 5, 10 or 15% of canola meal derived from either BNB or BJY to determine the effect of different dietary inclusion on growth performance over a 28-d period postweaning. Diets were formulated to contain similar NE and SID of Lys. There were no differences in growth performance among treatments. In Exp. 3, 162 weaned pigs (initial BW = 7.26 ± 0.70 kg) were used to determine the effect of high BNB and BJY inclusion level without or with multicarbohydrase supplementation on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of CP, DM, and GE. A wheat-soybean meal-based control diet and 8 diets containing 20 and 25% of either BNB or BJY without or with added multi-carbohydrase were formulated (n = 18) to contain comparable NE and similar SID of Lys contents. Feeding the diets containing 25% of BNB or BJY supported similar growth performance as those containing 20%. The multi-carbohydrase had no effect on growth performance but improved (P pig diets without compromising performance as long as the diets are formulated on an NE and SID of Lys basis. Also, enzyme addition improved the ATTD of CP, DM, and GE in weaned pigs in both BNB and BJY diets. PMID:25057028

  20. An Alternative to Thought Suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boice, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article, "Setting free the bears: Escape from thought suppression," by D. M. Wegner (see record 2011-25622-008). While Wegner supposed that we might have to learn to live with bad thoughts, the present author discusses the use of imagination and guided imagery as an alternative to forced thought suppression.

  1. Histological analysis of ovaries of female rabbits fed on canola meal gradually substituting soybean meal Análises histológicas do ovário de coelhas alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa ao farelo de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Vieira Lage

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available A histological study of New Zealand White female rabbits’ ovaries was undertaken. Rabbits were fed on canola meal as an increasing substitute (00, 33, 66 and 100% for soybean meal so that the tissue’s general aspects could be verified and the number of ovarian follicles from each experimental group could be obtained. Forty-eight female rabbits were slaughtered at 43, 150 and 225 days of age and their ovaries were fixed in Bouin’s liquid, washed and conserved in 70% ethanol and embedded in paraffin. 5µm-thick histological sections were undertaken and stained by HE and Azan techniques. The ovaries were bound by a predominantly simple cubic epithelium followed by the tunica albuginea. Ovarian follicles were observed in different stages of development in the cortical tissue. Interstitial gland cells, blood and lymphatic vessels and nerves were observed in the medullar tissue. Small cysts were also reported. Histological preparations didn’t show any change between groups either in the general morphology of the tissue or in follicle number. This fact suggests that the use of canola as a food of rabbits didn’t interfere in reproduction.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a histologia de ovário de coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia Branca. As coelhas foram alimentadas com farelo de canola em substituição gradativa (00, 33, 66 e 100% ao farelo de soja. Foram estudados os aspectos histológicos gerais dos ovários, assim como a contagem de folículos. Um grupo de 48 coelhas foi dividido ao acaso e abatido aos 43, 150 e 225 dias de idade, e os ovários foram fixados em Bouin, lavados e conservados em solução de etanol a 70% e embebidos em parafina. Cortes histológicos foram realizados com 5µm de espessura e corados com HE e técnica de Azan. Os ovários apresentavam predominantemente epitélio simples cúbico seguidos de túnica albugínea. Os folículos foram observados em diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento no estroma cortical. C

  2. GRÃOS DE LINHAÇA E DE CANOLA SOBRE O DESEMPENHO, DIGESTIBILIDADE APARENTE E CARACTERÍSTICAS DE CARCAÇA DE NOVILHAS NELORE TERMINADAS EM CONFINAMENTO WHOLE LINSEED AND CANOLA SEED ON PERFORMANCE APPARENT DIGESTIBILITY AND CARCASS CHARACTERISTICS OF NELLORE HEIFERS FINISHED IN FEEDLOT

    OpenAIRE

    Jesuí Virgílio Visentainer; José Luiz Moletta; Robério Rodrigues Silva; Ivanor Nunes do Prado; Fabio Yoshimi Wada; Lucia Maria Zeoula

    2008-01-01

    Avaliaram-se três rações (TES – ração-testemunha; LIN – ração com semente de linhaça integral e CAN – ração com grão integral de canola) sobre o desempenho, digestibilidade aparente, características de carcaça e os coeficientes de digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (CDMS), matéria orgânica (CDMO), proteína bruta (CDPB), fibra em detergente neutro (CDFDN), fibra em detergente ácido (CDFDA), energia bruta (CDEB) e extrato etéreo (CDEE) de novilhas Nelore confinadas. O indicador interno ut...

  3. Inducing amnesia through systemic suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulbert, Justin C; Henson, Richard N; Anderson, Michael C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal damage profoundly disrupts the ability to store new memories of life events. Amnesic windows might also occur in healthy people due to disturbed hippocampal function arising during mental processes that systemically reduce hippocampal activity. Intentionally suppressing memory retrieval (retrieval stopping) reduces hippocampal activity via control mechanisms mediated by the lateral prefrontal cortex. Here we show that when people suppress retrieval given a reminder of an unwanted memory, they are considerably more likely to forget unrelated experiences from periods surrounding suppression. This amnesic shadow follows a dose-response function, becomes more pronounced after practice suppressing retrieval, exhibits characteristics indicating disturbed hippocampal function, and is predicted by reduced hippocampal activity. These findings indicate that stopping retrieval engages a suppression mechanism that broadly compromises hippocampal processes and that hippocampal stabilization processes can be interrupted strategically. Cognitively triggered amnesia constitutes an unrecognized forgetting process that may account for otherwise unexplained memory lapses following trauma. PMID:26977589

  4. A Review of Laboratory-Scale Research on Upgrading Heavy Oil in Supercritical Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available With the growing demand for energy and the depletion of conventional crude oil, heavy oil in huge reserve has attracted extensive attention. However, heavy oil cannot be directly refined by existing processes unless they are upgraded due to its complex composition and high concentration of heteroatoms (N, S, Ni, V, etc.. Of the variety of techniques for heavy oil upgrading, supercritical water (SCW is gaining popularity because of its excellent ability to convert heavy oil into valued, clean light oil by the suppression of coke formation and the removal of heteroatoms. Based on the current status of this research around the world, heavy oil upgrading in SCW is summarized from three aspects: Transformation of hydrocarbons, suppression of coke, and removal of heteroatoms. In this work, the challenge and future development of the orientation of upgrading heavy oil in SCW are pointed out.

  5. Determination of Essential Fatty Acid Composition among Mutant Lines of Canola (Brassica napus), through High Pressure Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghulam Raza; Aquil Siddique; Imtiaz Ahmad Khan; Muhammed Yasin Ashraf; Abdullah Khatri

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to quantify the methyl esters of lenoleic acid (LA), γ-lenolenic acid (LNA) and oleic acid (OL) in the oil of Brassica napus mutants. Five stable mutants (ROO-75/1, ROO-100/6, ROO-125/12, ROO-125/14, and ROO-125/17)of B. napus cv. 'Rainbow' (P) and three mutants (W97-95116, W97-0.75/11 and W97-.075/13) of B. napus cv. 'Westar' (P) at M6 stage, exhibiting better yield and yield components, were analyzed for essential fatty acids. The highest seed yield was observed in the mutant (ROO-100/6) followed by ROO-125/14 of Rainbow, that is, 34% and 32% higher than their parent plants, respectively. Westar mutant W97-75/11 also showed 30% higher seed yield than its parent plant. High performance liquid chromatography analysis of the composition of fatty acids indicated that OL was the most dominant fatty acid, ranging from 39.1 to 66.3%; LA was second (15.3-41.6%) and LNA was third (18.1-28.9%). Mutant ROO-125/14 showed higher OL contents than parent (Rainbow). These results are expected to support the approval of ROO-125/14 in the National Uniform Varietal Yield Trials (NUVYT) as a new variety based on high oil quality.

  6. Basic study of T1-weighted images with fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic resonance methods for scanning using Gd-DTPA have been improved. Enhanced MR angiography and dynamic MRI, which enable detection of movement in the body shortly after rapid intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA, are often performed using fat-suppression methods. In this study, the spoiled gradient echo sequence, which is mainly used in these examinations, was analyzed, and the significant differences in signal intensity and fat-suppression effects on a hand-made phantom using Gd-DTPA solutions and olive oil were evaluated. The optimal flip angle in each pulse sequence under basic scanning conditions was first determined. As a result, there was correlation between the concentration and signal intensity of Gd-DTPA, and the angle of the stronger fat-suppression effect was found. Also, the relationship between repetition time (TR) and echo time (TE) was almost understood. The fat-suppression effects differed depending on pulse sequence, and were greatest one in T1 fast field echo (FFE)-ProSet1331 and T1 fast field echo planar imaging (FFEEPI)-ProSet1331. However, attention must be paid to the use of ProSet due to the extension of TE. It was concluded that we determined the optimal sequence for MR angiography and dynamic MRI in the 1.0T MRI equipment, In MR angiography, T1 turbo field echo-spectral presaturation inversion recovery (TFE-SPIR) should be selected because of the largest fat-suppression effects in some scanning regions. (author)

  7. Biocontrol traits and antagonistic potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, a causal agent of canola stem rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yuncheng; Yuan, Jun; Raza, Waseem; Shen, Qirong; Huang, Qiwei

    2014-10-01

    Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain NJZJSB3 has shown antagonism of several phytopathogens in vitro, especially Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Both the broth culture and cell suspension of strain NJZJSB3 could completely protect the detached leaves of canola (Brassica napus) from S. sclerotiorum infection. In pot experiments, the application of strain NJZJSB3 cell suspension (10(8) CFU/ml) decreased the disease incidence by 83.3%, a result similar to commercially available fungicide (Dimetachlone). In order to investigate the potential biocontrol mechanisms of strain NJZJSB3, the nonvolatile antifungal compounds it produces were identified as iturin homologs using HPLC-ESI-MS. Antifungal volatile organic compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The detected volatiles toluene, phenol, and benzothiazole showed antifungal effects against S. sclerotiorum in chemical control experiments. Strain NJZJSB3 also produced biofilm, siderophores and cell-wall-degrading enzymes (protease and β-1,3-glucanase). These results suggest that strain NJZJSB3 can be a tremendous potential agent for the biological control of sclerotinia stem rot. PMID:24861342

  8. Scenario Modeling Potential Eco-Efficiency Gains from a Transition to Organic Agriculture: Life Cycle Perspectives on Canadian Canola, Corn, Soy, and Wheat Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N.; Arsenault, N.; Tyedmers, P.

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola ( Brassica rapa), corn ( Zea mays), soy ( Glycine max), and wheat ( Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions.

  9. Scenario modeling potential eco-efficiency gains from a transition to organic agriculture: life cycle perspectives on Canadian canola, corn, soy, and wheat production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, N; Arsenault, N; Tyedmers, P

    2008-12-01

    We used Life Cycle Assessment to scenario model the potential reductions in cumulative energy demand (both fossil and renewable) and global warming, acidifying, and ozone-depleting emissions associated with a hypothetical national transition from conventional to organic production of four major field crops [canola (Brassica rapa), corn (Zea mays), soy (Glycine max), and wheat (Triticum aestivum)] in Canada. Models of these systems were constructed using a combination of census data, published values, and the requirements for organic production described in the Canadian National Organic Standards in order to be broadly representative of the similarities and differences that characterize these disparate production technologies. Our results indicate that organic crop production would consume, on average, 39% as much energy and generate 77% of the global warming emissions, 17% of the ozone-depleting emissions, and 96% of the acidifying emissions associated with current national production of these crops. These differences were almost exclusively due to the differences in fertilizers used in conventional and organic farming and were most strongly influenced by the higher cumulative energy demand and emissions associated with producing conventional nitrogen fertilizers compared to the green manure production used for biological nitrogen fixation in organic agriculture. Overall, we estimate that a total transition to organic production of these crops in Canada would reduce national energy consumption by 0.8%, global warming emissions by 0.6%, and acidifying emissions by 1.0% but have a negligible influence on reducing ozone-depleting emissions. PMID:18574623

  10. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimi-Mahmoudabad, S.R., E-mail: ebrahimiyazd@yahoo.com [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 37515-374, Shahr-e-Qods (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Taghinejad-Roudbaneh, M. [Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Tabriz Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 51589, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: > Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. > EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. > EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. > Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. > EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  11. Investigation of electron beam irradiation effects on anti-nutritional factors, chemical composition and digestion kinetics of whole cottonseed, soybean and canola seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was completed to determine effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation at doses of 15, 30 and 45 kGy on anti-nutritional factors, ruminal degradation and in vitro crude protein (CP) digestibility of whole cottonseed (WCS), soybean (SB) and canola seeds (CS). EB-irradiation eliminated completely (P<0.001) phytic acid of WCS, SB and CS at a dose of 30 kGy. EB-irradiation decreased linearly (P<0.001) the total glucosinolate content of CS. Trypsin inhibitor activity of 15, 30 and 45 kGy EB-irradiated SB was decreased by 19, 73 and 88%, respectively. Free gossypol content of WCS was reduced linearly (P<0.001) by irradiation. EB-irradiation increased linearly (P<0.001) CP digestibility of feeds. In conclusion, EB-irradiation was an effective processing method for improving the nutritive value of WCS, SB and CS. - Highlights: → Effects of electron beam (EB) irradiation on nutritive value of some oilseeds were evaluated. → EB-irradiation eliminated completely phytic acid of seeds at a dose of 30 kGy. → EB-irradiation decreased trypsin inhibitor activity of soybean. → Free gossypol content of whole cottonseed was reduced linearly by EB-irradiation. → EB-irradiation increased escape protein and crude protein digestibility of seeds.

  12. Effect of different levels of water deficit on rapeseed (Brassica napus L. crop Efeito de diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico na cultura da canola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bilibio

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different levels of water deficit applied during rapeseed crop development were assessed in a trial with metallic pots in greenhouse at the Department of Agricultural Engineering of Kassel University, Witzenhausen, Germany. A randomized block design was used with one cultivar (Ability Summer Rape and three levels of water deficit (0, 30, and 60% of evapotranspiration in three treatments and 20 replicates. Irrigation management was carried out through daily water balance, where ET = I - D; ET: evapotranspiration; I: irrigation; and D: drainage. The following evaluations were carried out weekly: stem diameter (mm; plant height (cm; number of leaves; number of branches and number of pods. At the end of the experiment, assessed total green matter (g plant-1, total dry matter (g plant-1, grain yield (g plant-1, grain protein content (% and grain oil content (% were also assessed. Data were submitted to variance analysis and the effect of the treatments was assessed by regression analysis. Results showed significant differences between the treatments in all analysed variables except for plant height and grain protein content, by test F at 5% probability. Factor of response ky, indicator of crop sensitivity to water deficit, was lower than one for all assessed variables. Grain yield showed the highest sensitivity to water deficit.Os efeitos de diferentes níveis de déficit hídrico, aplicados durante o desenvolvimento da canola, foram avaliados por meio de um experimento conduzido em vasos de metal no interior de uma casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Engenharia Agrícola, da Universidade de Kassel, Alemanha. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com a cultivar Ability (Summer Rape, e três níveis de déficit de água, 0%, 30%, 60% da evapotranspiração da cultura, totalizando três tratamentos com 20 repetições. O manejo da irrigação foi realizado por meio do balanço hídrico diário, em que ET = I - D, onde

  13. Effect of pork backfat replacement for vegetal oils in the quality characteristics, oxidative stability and microstructure of mortadellaEfeito da substituição da gordura suína por óleos vegetais nas características de qualidade, estabilidade oxidativa e microestrutura de mortadela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Felipe Ferraz Yunes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed with the aim to evaluate the use of different vegetable oils as a replacer for pork backfat. For this, there were used canola, linseed, olive and soybean oils at two levels of replacement (50 and 100%. There were evaluated the physico-chemical characteristics (proximate composition, pH and water activity, instrumental color, microbiological characteristics, lipid oxidation (TBARS and microstructure during storage at room temperature for 60 days. The products had the quality parameters required by the Brazilian legislation. There was a pH decrease during storage due to the growth of lactic acid bacteria. Products containing vegetable oils showed higher levels of lightness (L* and yellowness (b* and lower levels of redness (a*. TBARS values remained under the perceptible threshold by the consumers and microstructure characteristics were similar to those observed in other kinds of cooked meat sausages. Thus, the use of canola, linseed, olive or soybean oils is a viable alternative as a substitute for pork backfat in elaboration of mortadella.Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de diferentes óleos vegetais como substituto da gordura animal em mortadela. Para isso, foram utilizados os óleos de canola, linhaça, oliva e soja em dois níveis de substituição (50 e 100%. Foram avaliadas as características físico-químicas (composição centesimal, pH e Atividade de água, cor instrumental, características microbiológicas, oxidação lipídica (TBARS e microestrutura durante armazenamento em temperatura ambiente por 60 dias. Os produtos apresentaram os parâmetros de qualidade exigidos pela legislação brasileira. Houve uma queda nos valores de pH durante o armazenamento devido ao crescimento de bactérias láticas. Os produtos contendo óleos vegetais apresentaram teores de luminosidade (L* e amarelo (b* superiores e teor de vermelho (a* inferior ao controle. Os valores de TBARS mantiveram

  14. Effect of commercially available plant-derived essential oil products on arthropod pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cloyd, Raymond A; Galle, Cindy L; Keith, Stephen R; Kalscheur, Nanette A; Kemp, Kenneth E

    2009-08-01

    Plant-derived essential oil products, in general, are considered minimum-risk pesticides and are exempt from Environmental Protection Agency registration under section 25(b) of the Federal Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act. However, many of the plant-derived essential products available to consumers (homeowners) have not been judiciously evaluated for both efficacy and plant safety. In fact, numerous plant-derived essential oil products labeled for control of arthropod pests have not been subject to rigorous evaluation, and there is minimal scientific information or supporting data associated with efficacy against arthropod pests. We conducted a series of greenhouse experiments to determine the efficacy and phytotoxicity of an array of plant-derived essential oil products available to consumers on arthropod pests including the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso); western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande); twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; sweetpotato whitefly B-biotype, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius); and green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer). Although the products Flower Pharm (cottonseed, cinnamon, and rosemary oil) and Indoor Pharm (soybean, rosemary, and lavender oil) provided > 90% mortality of citrus mealybug, they were also the most phytotoxic to the coleus, Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd, plants. Both GC-Mite (cottonseed, clove, and garlic oil) and Bugzyme (citric acid) were most effective against the twospotted spider mite (> or = 90% mortality). However, SMC (canola, coriander oil, and triethanolamine), neem (clarified hydrophobic extract of neem oil), and Bug Assassin (eugenol, sodium lauryl sulfate, peppermint, and citronella oil) provided > 80% mortality. Monterey Garden Insect Spray, which contained 0.5% spinosad, was most effective against western flower thrips with 100% mortality. All the other products evaluated failed to provide sufficient control of western flower thrips with or = 4.5 of

  15. Myristica oil poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutmeg oil; Myristicin ... Myristica oil ( Myristica fragrans ) can be harmful. It comes from the seed of a nutmeg. ... Myristica oil is found in: Aromatherapy products Mace Nutmeg Other products may also contain myristica oil.

  16. Method to extract oil from oil shale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil is extracted from grinded hot oil shale by the treatment with an organic liquid, e.g. gas oil, at 350 to 4100C and elevated pressure in the presence of hydrogen. The admixed organic liquid is separated from the oil contained in the oil shake in an extraction vessel with benzine as the extracting agent. The mixture from the extracted components of the oil-shake and the extracting agent is dried in a drying vessel with low pressure steam. (HGOE)

  17. Oil integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela agree in to have a bigger exchange of information, technology and experiences in areas of mutual interest that allow in the future, combined developments of the hydrocarbons industry. In such a sense, ECOPETROL narrowed its relationships with the two powerful Latin American oil enterprises, when suiting in Bogota agreements of mutual collaboration with representatives of the respective state companies. To begin, the company signed a cooperation agreement with Petroleos de Venezuela S.A (PDVSA), with the purpose of to narrow the relationships between the two companies and to undertake combined actions in those matters of the oil and petrochemical industry of mutual interest

  18. Frankincense oil derived from Boswellia carteri induces tumor cell specific cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Richard A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Originating from Africa, India, and the Middle East, frankincense oil has been important both socially and economically as an ingredient in incense and perfumes for thousands of years. Frankincense oil is prepared from aromatic hardened gum resins obtained by tapping Boswellia trees. One of the main components of frankincense oil is boswellic acid, a component known to have anti-neoplastic properties. The goal of this study was to evaluate frankincense oil for its anti-tumor activity and signaling pathways in bladder cancer cells. Methods Frankincense oil-induced cell viability was investigated in human bladder cancer J82 cells and immortalized normal bladder urothelial UROtsa cells. Temporal regulation of frankincense oil-activated gene expression in bladder cancer cells was identified by microarray and bioinformatics analysis. Results Within a range of concentration, frankincense oil suppressed cell viability in bladder transitional carcinoma J82 cells but not in UROtsa cells. Comprehensive gene expression analysis confirmed that frankincense oil activates genes that are responsible for cell cycle arrest, cell growth suppression, and apoptosis in J82 cells. However, frankincense oil-induced cell death in J82 cells did not result in DNA fragmentation, a hallmark of apoptosis. Conclusion Frankincense oil appears to distinguish cancerous from normal bladder cells and suppress cancer cell viability. Microarray and bioinformatics analysis proposed multiple pathways that can be activated by frankincense oil to induce bladder cancer cell death. Frankincense oil might represent an alternative intravesical agent for bladder cancer treatment.

  19. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  20. Cryogenic Acoustic Suppression Testing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed project will explore and test the feasibility and effectiveness of using a cryogenic fluid (liquid nitrogen) to facilitate acoustic suppression in a...

  1. The oil industry in 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2007: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  2. The oil industry in 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The various contributions present and comment many data about the evolutions of different parts of the oil industry until 2006: world oil and gas markets, worldwide oil exploration and production, oil exploration and production in France, oil and oil-related industry in France, hydrocarbon supplies, oil refining in France, fuel quality, substitution fuels, inner transportation of oil products, storage of oil products, consumption of oil products, taxing of oils products, price of oil products, distribution of oil products

  3. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T3) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T4) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T4 and l-T3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T3 and d-T4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T3 or d-T4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100%

  4. Ácidos graxos trans em óleos vegetais refinados poli-insaturados comercializados no estado de São Paulo, Brasil Trans fatty acids in refined polyunsaturated vegetable oils commercialized in the city of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabria Aued-Pimentel

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho são apresentados os resultados da composição de ácidos graxos, principalmente trans, de óleos vegetais poli-insaturados refinados, coletados no comércio do estado de São Paulo entre os anos de 2005 e 2007. Foram analisadas 34 amostras de óleo de soja, 7 de girassol, 2 de canola e 6 de milho. Os ésteres metílicos de ácidos graxos foram preparados por transesterificação alcalina a frio e analisados por cromatografia gasosa em coluna capilar de 100 m (SP 2560, após a otimização das condições analíticas. Dezesseis amostras de óleo de soja, duas de canola e quatro de girassol apresentaram níveis de ácidos graxos trans acima de 2,0% (p/p de ésteres metílicos. De acordo com a Resolução RDC 360/2003 da ANVISA/MS, é obrigatória a declaração dos níveis de ácidos graxos trans na rotulagem dos alimentos embalados quando os teores forem superiores a 0,2 g na porção do alimento. No caso de óleos vegetais, a porção é de 13 mL (uma colher de sopa e, portanto, na rotulagem nutricional de várias amostras deverá constar valor superior a zero. A melhoria no processo de refino dos óleos vegetais insaturados como soja, canola e girassol, pelo controle das temperaturas de desodorização, poderá contribuir para atender às recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde, no sentido de minimizar os níveis de ácidos graxos trans dos alimentos preservando a saúde da população.This paper describes the results of fatty acids composition, mainly trans, in refined polyunsaturated vegetable oils, commercialized in the city of São Paulo, Brazil during the years 2005 and 2007. The following samples were analyzed: 34 of soybean oil, 7 of sunflower oil, 2 of canola, and 6 of corn oil. The fatty acids were transesterified in a cold process and analyzed with optimized conditions by gas chromatography in a 100 m capillary column (SP 2560. Sixteen samples of soybean, two of canola, and four of sunflower oil showed

  5. First oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June 1992, the first production from the Nova Scotia offshore flowed from the Cohasset project. In the project's projected six-year life, LASMO Nova Scotia intends to bring ashore 49 million bbl, and revenues will exceed $1 billion if the oil price averages US$20/bbl. The project's beginnings date from 1967, when drilling began in the Sable Island area. The first significant gas discovery came in 1969 and the Venture gas field was discovered on the Scotian Shelf in 1979. A provincial corporation, Nova Scotia Resources, supported exploration of the Cohasset area starting in 1982. Discovery wells drilled in the late 1980s showed successful oil production was possible and facilities were designed for a combined project to develop the Cohasset, Panuke, and Balmoral fields 41 km southeast of Sable Island. The fields are in relatively shallow water, making it possible to use a converted jack-up rig for the production facility. Oil is sent through a subsea pipeline to a loading buoy and a 930,000 bbl floating storage tanker. Challenges faced by the project operator LASMO include storms, strong winds, fogs, and operating a platform 180 km from the mainland. Concerns about the effects of operations on the fishing industry are addressed through a liaison committee and a compensation plan for damages. LASMO and Nova Scotia Resources expect Cohasset to be profitable. The oil from the field is light and sulfur-free and the first shipments have averaged C$26-27/bbl. 4 figs

  6. Markets for Canadian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation presented charts and graphs on the market for Canadian oil. Graphs included crude oil and natural gas prices and heavy oil discount differential. Graphs depicting heavy oil economics such as bitumen blending with condensate were also included along with global crude oil reserves by country. Information on oil sands projects in the Athabasca, Peace River, and Cold Lake deposits was presented along with graphs on oil sands supply costs by recovery type; Canadian production for conventional, oil sands and offshore oil; new emerging oil sands crude types; and 2003 market demand by crude type in the United States and Canada. Maps included Canada and United States crude oil pipelines; western Canadian crude oil markets; long term oil pipeline expansion projects; Canadian and United States crude oil pipeline alternatives; and potential tanker markets for Canadian oil sands production. Lastly, the presentation provided graphs on 2003 refinery crude demand and California market demand. tabs., figs

  7. GlidArc-assisted production of synthesis gas from rapeseed oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a small and very simple reformer that converts widely available vegetable, animal, or even waste oils into the Synthesis Gas (and then to Hydrogen extracted from it, if necessary) for Fuel Cells or other applications. This plasma-assisted reformer does not require any cleaning or drying of bio-carbonaceous feedstock; all mineral and other impurities are accepted. The reforming is driven by high-voltage discharges (called GlidArc) that catalytically assist the exothermic partial oxidation process. Such electric assistance requires less than 2% of the Lower Heating Value (LHV) power of produced syngas. Recycling such a small portion of power is therefore an acceptable compromise. The unique oxidant source is air. As an example we present the feasibility tests with commercial rapeseed oil ('canola') in a 1-L reformer working at atmospheric pressure. Nitrogen-diluted SynGas containing up to 40% of H2 + CO at total feedstock conversion is produced in absence of the soot or coke. The flow of produced syngas corresponds to 11 kW of electric power of an ideal Fuel Cell. These positive results open a way to other renewable feedstock reforming into the SynGas such as peanut, palm, soybean, sunflower, and other oils as well as molasses and other secondary or waste products of a food processing. (author)

  8. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie; /Vrije U., Amsterdam

    2011-11-28

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decays and the non-resonant B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} {eta}{pi}{sup +} decays in approximately 230 million {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B} events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10{sup -6}. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle {gamma}, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle {gamma} can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B{sup 0} {yields} D{sup (*)-} a{sub 0}{sup +} decay is sensitive to the angle {gamma} and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly enhance the

  9. VALOR NUTRICIO Y CONTENIDO DE SAPONINAS EN GERMINADOS DE HUAUZONTLE (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), CALABACITA (Cucurbita pepo L.), CANOLA (Brassica napus L.) Y AMARANTO (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.)

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Barrón-Yánez; C. Villanueva-Verduzco; García-Mateos, M.R.; M. T. Colinas-León

    2009-01-01

    Los germinados pueden ser considerados vegetales frescos, producidos a bajo costo en cualquier temporada y pueden contribuir con una dieta rica en nutrimentos. El propósito de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la germinación en la composición nutricional y contenido total de saponinas en germinados de huauzontle (Chenopodium nuttalliae Saff.), calabacita (Cucurbita pepo L.), canola (Brassica napus L.) y amaranto (Amaranthus leucocarpus S. Watson syn. hypochondriacus L.). Se realizó un aná...

  10. Evaluation of the use of esterified fatty acid oils enriched in medium-chain fatty acids in weight loss diets for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragua, V; Barroeta, A C; Manzanilla, E G; Codony, R; Villaverde, C

    2015-04-01

    Esterified fatty acid oils (EAOs) are obtained from esterification of vegetable acid oils with glycerol. These fat sources have the same fatty acid (FA) composition as their respective native oils but new chemical properties. Several studies have confirmed the potential of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFA) to reduce fat mass (FM) in humans and rodents. This study investigates the use of EAOs with different MCFA proportions on food preferences, digestibility and weight loss management in dogs. A basal diet was supplemented with 8% of three different fat sources: C0: soya bean-canola EAO, C20: soya bean-canola (80%) coconut (20%) EAO and C40: soya bean-canola (60%) coconut (40%) EAO. Food preference of these EAOs was tested using a two-pan preference test. Dogs presented a higher daily food intake of C20 and C40 compared to C0 (C20: 155 ± 18.6 g vs. C0: 17 ± 7.0 g, p < 0.001; C40: 117 ± 13.9 g vs. C0: 28 ± 10.5 g, p < 0.05 respectively). Also, the digestibility of the three experimental diets was tested. C20 and C40 showed higher ether extract, total FA and saturated FA digestibilities (p < 0.05) than C0 diet. Lastly, the three diets were investigated in a 14-week weight loss study, following 16 weeks of ad libitum feeding to induce overweight condition. Body weight (BW) reduction was lower (C0: 20.1 ± 2.32%, C20: 14.6 ± 1.43% and C40: 15.7 ± 1.23%, p < 0.05) and FM was higher (FM, 18.7 ± 3.42%, 27.9 ± 3.90% and 28.2 ± 2.88% for C0, C20 and C40, respectively, p < 0.05) for diets C20 and C40 than for C0. Feeding diets with MCFA at these inclusion levels to experimentally overweight dogs during 14 weeks do not result in faster weight loss compared to unsaturated long-chain FA. PMID:25865422

  11. Substituição da Proteína do Farelo de Soja pela Proteína do Farelo de Canola em Rações para Alevinos de Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus V. Replacement of Soybean Meal Protein by Canola Meal Protein in "Curimbatá" (Prochilodus lineatus V. Fingerling Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em rações para alevinos de curimbatá, foram utilizados 120 animais com peso médio de 1,88 ± 0,82 g e comprimento total médio de 5,40 ± 0,99 cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições em aquários de vidro (50 L, com cinco alevinos por unidade experimental. As rações foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas (26,00%, isocálcicas (0,90% e isofosfóricas (0,70%, com níveis crescentes de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00; 20,00; 40,00; 60,00; 80,00 e 100,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00; 8,03; 16,10; 24,10; 32,15 e 43,12% de inclusão do FC nas rações e fornecidas por um período de 30 dias. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram medidos a cada sete dias. Observou-se redução linear do ganho de peso e da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear da taxa de conversão alimentar, com aumento da inclusão do FC nas rações. A taxa de sobrevivência e o custo de ração/kg ganho não foram afetados com o uso do FC nas rações. Os valores da temperatura da água, do pH e da condutividade elétrica permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. Concluiu-se que o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da proteína do farelo de canola nas rações para alevinos de curimbatá acarretou redução no desempenho dos mesmos.The influence of the substitution of soybean meal protein (SM by canola meal protein (CM in Prochilodus lineatus fingerling diets was verified. One hundred and twenty specimens, averaging weight 1.88±0.82g and total length 5.40±0.99cm, was assigned to a completely randomized randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates, in a 50 L glass aquarium, with five fingerlings in each experimental unit. Isoprotein (26.00%, isocalcium (0.90% and isophosphorus (0.70% diets were formulated with increasing replacement

  12. Soft substrates suppress droplet splashing

    CERN Document Server

    Howland, Christopher J; Style, Robert W; Castrejón-Pita, A A

    2015-01-01

    Droplets splash when they impact dry, flat substrates above a critical velocity that depends on parameters such as droplet size, viscosity and air pressure. We show that substrate stiffness also impacts the splashing threshold by imaging ethanol drops impacting silicone gels of different stiffnesses. Splashing is significantly suppressed: droplets on the softest substrates need over 70% more kinetic energy to splash than they do on rigid substrates. We show that splash suppression is likely to be due to energy losses caused by deformations of soft substrates during the first few microseconds of impact. We find that solids with Youngs modulus $\\lesssim O(10^5)$Pa suppress splashing, in agreement with simple scaling arguments. Thus materials like soft gels and elastomers can be used as simple coatings for effective splash prevention.

  13. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  14. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Ann E; Smyth, Frederick L; Beadel, Jessica R; Teachman, Bethany A

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility. PMID:23776442

  15. Teaching to suppress Polglish processes

    OpenAIRE

    Dziubalska-Kołaczyk, Katarzyna; Balas, Anna; Schwartz, Geoffrey; Rojczyk, Arkadiusz; Wrembel, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Advanced second language (henceforth L2) learners in a formal setting can suppress many first language (henceforth L1) processes in L2 pronunciation when provided with sufficient exposure to L2 and meta competence (see Sect. 4 for a definition of this term). This paper shows how imitation in L2 teaching can be enhanced on the basis of current phonetic research and how complex allophonic processes such as nasal vocalization and glottal stop insertion can be suppressed using “repair”—a method o...

  16. Aging and Repeated Thought Suppression Success

    OpenAIRE

    Ann E Lambert; Smyth, Frederick L.; Jessica R Beadel; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2013-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differe...

  17. Replacement of dietary fish oil for Atlantic salmon parr (Salmo salar L.) with a stearidonic acid containing oil has no effect on omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Matthew R; Nichols, Peter D; Carter, Chris G

    2007-02-01

    The worldwide increase in aquaculture production and the concurrent decrease of wild fish stocks has made the replacement of fish oil in aquafeeds an industry priority. Oil from a plant source Echium plantagineum L., Boraginaceae, has high levels of stearidonic acid (SDA, 18:4omega3, 14%) a biosynthetic precursor of omega-3 long-chain (> or =C(20)) polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega3 LC-PUFA). Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr were fed a control fish oil diet (FO) or one of 3 experimental diets with 100% canola oil (CO) 100% SDA oil (SO), and a 1:1 mix of CO and SDA oil (MX) for 42 days. There were no differences in the growth or feed efficiency between the four diets. However, there were significant differences in the fatty acid (FA) profiles of the red and white muscle tissues. Significantly higher amounts of SDA, eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5omega3, EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (22:6omega3, DHA) and total omega3 FA occurred in both red and white muscle tissues of fish fed SO and FO compared with those fed CO. Feeding SO diet resulted in omega3 LC-PUFA amounts in the white and red muscle being comparable to the FO diet. This study shows that absolute concentration (mug/g) of EPA, DHA and total omega3 have been maintained over 6 weeks for Atlantic salmon fed 14% SDA oil. The balance between increased biosynthesis and retention of omega3 LC-PUFA to maintain the concentrations observed in the SO fed fish remains to be conclusively determined, and further studies are needed to ascertain this. PMID:17134928

  18. Emulsion of systems containing egg yolk, polysaccharides and vegetable oil Emulsão de sistemas contendo gema de ovo, polissacarídeos e óleo vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clitor Junior Fernandes de Souza

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This work characterizes the emulsifying properties of systems containing egg yolk (0.1; 1.0 and 2.5 % w/v and polysaccharides (xanthan gum, carrageen, pectin and carboxymethylcellulose and three different vegetable oils (sunflower, canola, and palm oils. Emulsifying activity and emulsion stability were measured of each combination and it was found the effect of the oil on emulsion stability correlated to the amount of monounsaturated fatty acid. Additionally, increased egg yolk concentration increased emulsifying activity by reducing coalescence of oil droplets. Lastly, 2.5% egg yolk and 0.2% polysaccharide generated emulsions with high emulsifying activity, excellent stability, and droplet size of 4.32 µm.Neste trabalho, caracterizam-se as propriedades emulsificantes de sistemas contendo gema de ovo (0,1; 1,0 e 2,5% m/v, polissacarídeos (goma xantana, carragena, pectina e carboximetilcelulose e três diferentes óleos vegetais (óleos de palma, canola e girassol. Atividade emulsificante e estabilidade da emulsão foram medidas para cada combinação e verificou-se o efeito do óleo sobre a estabilidade da emulsão correlacionada com a quantidade de ácido graxo monoinsaturado. Além disso, a concentração de gema de ovo aumentou a atividade emulsificante, reduzindo a coalescência das gotículas de óleo. Por último, 2,5 % de gema de ovo e 0,2% de polissacarídeo formaram emulsões com alta atividade emulsificante, excelente estabilidade e tamanho de gota de 4,32 µm.

  19. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed

    2016-06-15

    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction. PMID:26868572

  20. Layered double hydroxide catalyst for the conversion of crude vegetable oils to a sustainable biofuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollaeian, Keyvan

    Over the last two decades, the U.S. has developed the production of biodiesel, a mixture of fatty acid methyl esters, using chiefly vegetable oils as feedstocks. However, there is much concern about the availability of high-quality vegetable oils for longterm biodiesel production. Problems have also risen due to the production of glycerol, an unwanted byproduct, as well as the need for process wash water. Therefore, this study was initiated to produce not only fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) but also fatty acid glycerol carbonates (FAGCs) by replacing methanol with dimethyl carbonate (DMC). The process would have no unnecessary byproducts and would be a simplified process compared to traditional biodiesel. In addition, this altering of the methylating agent could convert triglycerides, free fatty acids, and phospholipids to a sustainable biofuel. In this project, Mg-Al Layered Double Hydroxide (LDH) was optimized by calcination in different temperature varied from 250°C to 450°C. The gallery between layers was increased by intercalating sodium dodecylsulfate (SDS). During catalyst preparation, the pH was controlled ~10. In our experiment, triazabicyclodecene (TBD) was attached with trimethoxysilane (3GPS) as a coupling agent, and N-cetyl-N,N,N-trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) was added to remove SDS from the catalyst. The catalyst was characterized by XRD, FTIR, and Raman spectroscopy. The effect of the heterogeneous catalyst on the conversion of canola oil, corn oil, and free fatty acids was investigated. To analyze the conversion of lipid oils to biofuel an in situ Raman spectroscopic method was developed. Catalyst synthesis methods and a proposed mechanism for converting triglycerides and free fatty acids to biofuel will be presented.

  1. Greening oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shell is playing its part both individually and as part of the World Business Council for Sustainable Development, which I have had the privilege of chairing over the past two years. This is part of a clear commitment to contribute to sustainable development, which is at the heart of the way we operate. That means we take account of environmental and social considerations as well as economic ones in making our business decisions. We know that oil and gas exploration and production can have an impact on the environment and are determined to minimize it and ensure the long-term legacy of these operations is a good one. Protecting the world's biodiversity is a particularly important aspect of our work, and we are working in partnership with a number of conservation organizations. These include a project with the Smithsonian Institution in Gabon that is researching and cataloguing the immensely rich natural environment around the oilfields in the Gamba complex. It is extremely encouraging that the research so far has suggested that, despite almost 40 years of oil operations, the environment in the area is as rich as ever. We have been working with other companies and conservation organizations in the Energy Biodiversity Initiative in recognition of the particular responsibilities of energy companies in this area. As part of this, the Shell Group has developed tools and guidelines on best practice in integrating biodiversity into oil and gas development. We hope these will form the basis for a common approach by the industry. This builds on the approach we have taken to integrate biodiversity into our project planning and operations. The environmental impact of any project is assessed right from the start and safeguards are put in place to mitigate any negative effects. There is an early dialogue with stakeholders to ensure that their concerns are addressed. Biodiversity is important wherever we work and we try to ensure that all our operations take place in a

  2. Eating Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Woodward, Mr Lawrence; Jones, Andy

    2002-01-01

    The food system is now even more based on cheap crude oil. Every time we eat, we are all essentially ‘eating oil’. Virtually all of the processes in the modern food system are now dependent upon this finite resource which is nearing its depletion phase. Moreover, at a time when we should be making massive cuts in the emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere in order to reduce the threat posed by climate change, the food system is lengthening its supply chains and increasing emissi...

  3. Exploring Oil Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses damages of oil tanker spillage to the marine organisms and scientists' research in oil pollution removal techniques. Included is a list of learning activities concerning the causes and effects of oil pollution and methods of solving the problem. (CC)

  4. High temperature suppression of dioxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhan, Ming-Xiu; Chen, Tong; Fu, Jian-Ying; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Buekens, Alfons

    2016-03-01

    Combined Sulphur-Nitrogen inhibitors, such as sewage sludge decomposition gases (SDG), thiourea and amidosulphonic acid have been observed to suppress the de novo synthesis of dioxins effectively. In this study, the inhibition of PCDD/Fs formation from model fly ash was investigated at unusually high temperatures (650 °C and 850 °C), well above the usual range of de novo tests (250-400 °C). At 650 °C it was found that SDG evolving from dried sewage sludge could suppress the formation of 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs with high efficiency (90%), both in weight units and in I-TEQ units. Additionally, at 850 °C, three kinds of sulphur-amine or sulphur-ammonium compounds were tested to inhibit dioxins formation during laboratory-scale tests, simulating municipal solid waste incineration. The suppression efficiencies of PCDD/Fs formed through homogeneous gas phase reactions were all above 85% when 3 wt. % of thiourea (98.7%), aminosulphonic acid (96.0%) or ammonium thiosulphate (87.3%) was added. Differences in the ratio of PCDFs/PCDDs, in weight average chlorination level and in the congener distribution of the 17 toxic PCDD/Fs indicated that the three inhibitors tested followed distinct suppression pathways, possibly in relation to their different functional groups of nitrogen. Furthermore, thiourea reduced the (weight) average chlorinated level. In addition, the thermal decomposition of TUA was studied by means of thermogravimetry-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-FTIR) and the presence of SO2, SO3, NH3 and nitriles (N≡C bonds) was shown in the decomposition gases; these gaseous inhibitors might be the primary dioxins suppressants. PMID:26716881

  5. Question of using microbiocenoses for increasing the oil production of a stratum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gareyshina, A.Z.; Bikmukhametova, A.V.; Kozyuro, V.I.; Kuznetsova, T.A.; Yayus, L.I.

    1979-01-01

    Laboratory tests showed that artificial biocenosis from accumulating cultures of hydrogen, propanooxylating and gas forming bacteria do not stimulate intensive gas formation in oils of the paraffin-naphthene type and suppress the natural microflora which is present in natural oil.

  6. Determinación de los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente y estandarizada de la proteína y aminoácidos de la torta de canola en lechones recién destetados Estimação dos coeficientes de digestibilidade ileal aparente das proteínas e aminoácidos do torta de canola em leitões recém-desmamados Determination of standardized and apparent ileal digestibility coefficients of protein and amino acids from canola meal in weaned piglets.

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Mariscal; Tércia C Reis; Jaime E Parra

    2008-01-01

    Para obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA) y estandarizada (CDIE) de la proteína y aminoácidos de pasta de canola (PC), se realizó un experimento en el que se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en “T” al final del íleon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (DR) elaborada con caseína como única fuente de proteína y almidón de maíz...

  7. Determinação dos valores energéticos de alguns óleos e gorduras para pintos de corte machos e fêmeas aos 21 dias de idade Determination of energy values of some oils and fats for broilers chickens males and females in the 21 day old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Cristina Cardoso Nascif

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Foi realizado um ensaio biológico com pintos de corte no período de 21 a 32 dias de idade, com o objetivo de determinar os valores de energia metabolizável aparente (EMA e energia metabolizável aparente corrigida pela retenção de nitrogênio (EMAn do óleo de soja degomado, óleo de milho, óleo de canola, gordura de aves, gordura de coco, gordura suína, sebo bovino e de duas misturas, sendo a primeira composta de óleo de soja degomado + gordura de coco e a segunda de óleo de soja degomado + sebo bovino, ambas na proporção de 1:1. Foi realizado o método de coleta total de excretas no experimento. O período de duração do experimento foi de dez dias, sendo os cinco primeiros de adaptação e os cinco restantes de coleta de excretas. Foi observada diferença entre os tratamentos e entre os sexos, sendo os valores de EMAn obtidos para fêmeas, em média, 98% dos valores de EMAn obtido para machos. Porém, não foi observada diferença entre a interação alimento x sexo. Os valores médios de EMAn encontrados para pintos de corte foram, respectivamente, para óleo de soja degomado, óleo de milho, óleo de canola, gordura de aves, gordura de coco, gordura suína, sebo bovino, para a mistura de óleo de soja degomado + gordura de coco e para a mistura de óleo de soja degomado + sebo bovino: 8.273, 8.582, 8.681, 8.511, 7.487, 7.536, 7.227, 8.029 e 8.171 kcal/kg matéria naturalOne bioassay was carried out using 21-to32-day old broilers chicks to determine the values of apparent metabolizable energy (AME and nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn of crude soybean oil, corn oil, canola oil, avian fat, coconut fat, swine lard, beef tallow, crude soybean oil + coconut fat and crude soybean oil + beef tallow, both latter in 1:1 proportion. The method of total excreta collection was used for the trials, which lasted 10 days each: the first five days for adaptation and the five remaining days for excreta collection. In the

  8. The inhibitory effect of essential oils on herpes simplex virus type-1 replication in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Masato; Kita, Masakazu; Nakaya, Takaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiro; Kuriyama, Hiroko; Imanishi, Jiro

    2003-01-01

    The antiviral effect of 12 essential oils on herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) replication was examined in vitro. The replication ability of HSV-1 was suppressed by incubation of HSV-1 with 1% essential oils at 4 C for 24 hr. Especially, lemongrass completely inhibited the viral replication even at a concentration of 0.1%, and its antiviral activity was dependent on the concentrations of the essential oil. When Vero cells were treated with the essential oil before or after viral adsorption, no antiviral activity was found, which suggests that the antiviral activity of essential oils including lemongrass may be due to the direct interaction with virions. PMID:14584615

  9. Effects of soybean meal or canola meal on milk production and methane emissions in lactating dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gidlund, H; Hetta, M; Krizsan, S J; Lemosquet, S; Huhtanen, P

    2015-11-01

    This study evaluated the effects of soybean meal (SBM) and heat-moisture-treated canola meal (TCM) on milk production and methane emissions in dairy cows fed grass silage-based diets. Twenty-eight Swedish Red cows were used in a cyclic change-over experiment with 4 periods of 21 d and with treatments in 2 × 4 factorial arrangement (however, the control diet without supplementary protein was not fed in replicate). The diets were fed ad libitum as a total mixed ration containing 600 g/kg of grass silage and 400 g/kg of concentrates on a dry matter (DM) basis. The concentrate without supplementary protein consisted of crimped barley and premix (312 and 88 g/kg of DM), providing 130 g of dietary crude protein (CP)/kg of DM. The other 6 concentrates were formulated to provide 170, 210, or 250 g of CP/kg of DM by replacing crimped barley with incremental amounts of SBM (50, 100, or 150 g/kg of diet DM) or TCM (70, 140, or 210 g/kg of diet DM). Feed intake was not influenced by dietary CP concentration, but tended to be greater in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Milk and milk protein yield increased linearly with dietary CP concentration, with greater responses in cows fed TCM diets compared with SBM diets. Apparent N efficiency (milk N/N intake) decreased linearly with increasing dietary CP concentration and was lower for cows fed SBM diets than cows fed TCM diets. Milk urea concentration increased linearly with increased dietary CP concentration, with greater effects in cows fed SBM diets than in cows fed TCM diets. Plasma concentrations of total AA and essential AA increased with increasing dietary CP concentration, but no differences were observed between the 2 protein sources. Plasma concentrations of Lys, Met, and His were similar for both dietary protein sources. Total methane emissions were not influenced by diet, but emissions per kilogram of DM intake decreased quadratically, with the lowest value observed in cows fed intermediate levels of protein

  10. Bactericidal action mechanism of negatively charged food grade clove oil nanoemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, Hamid; Liu, Fei; Hategekimana, Joseph; Sharif, Hafiz Rizwan; Qi, Jing; Ali, Barkat; Bian, Yuan-Yuan; Ma, Jianguo; Yokoyama, Wallace; Zhong, Fang

    2016-04-15

    Clove oil (CO) anionic nanoemulsions were prepared with varying ratios of CO to canola oil (CA), emulsified and stabilized with purity gum ultra (PGU), a newly developed succinylated waxy maize starch. Interfacial tension measurements showed that CO acted as a co-surfactant and there was a gradual decrease in interfacial tension which favored the formation of small droplet sizes on homogenization until a critical limit (5:5% v/v CO:CA) was reached. Antimicrobial activity of the negatively charged CO nanoemulsion was determined against Gram positive GPB (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram negative GNB (Escherichia coli) bacterial strains using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and a time kill dynamic method. Negatively charged PGU emulsified CO nanoemulsion showed prolonged antibacterial activities against Gram positive bacterial strains. We concluded that negatively charged CO nanoemulsion droplets self-assemble with GPB cell membrane, and facilitated interaction with cellular components of bacteria. Moreover, no electrostatic interaction existed between negatively charged droplets and the GPB membrane. PMID:26616926

  11. Economic analysis and performance of a low power diesel engine using soybean oil refined; Analise economica e de desempenho de um motor diesel de baixa potencia utilizando oleo de soja refinado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Guilherme Ladeira dos; Fernandes, Haroldo Carlos; Alvarenga, Cleyton Batista de; Leite, Daniel Mariano; Siqueira, Wagner da Cunha [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mails: glsantos@yahoo.com.br, haroldo@ufv.br, cleyton.alvarenga@ufv.br, daniel.mariano@ufv.br, wagner.siqueira@ufv.br

    2011-07-01

    Oil is the main source of energy available to power internal combustion engines, enabling its transformation into mechanical energy. To meet the production of vegetable oils, many cultures can be used, according to regional conditions, especially those that are already commercially exploited, such as peanuts, Soybeans, Corn, Palm oil, Sunflower and Canola, and other public regional and castor oil, Andiroba, Pequi, Buriti, Inaja, Carnauba, Jatropha, among others. The objective of this work make an economic analysis of replacing diesel fuel by mixing and compare performance on the engine and using B{sub 2} biodiesel fuel mixture of diesel with 2 % Refined Soybean Oil (SAB). The loads applied by the dynamometer in the engine were 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19 and 21.5 lbs. The engine was coupled to the dynamometer with the aid of pulleys and belts of the type V with gear ratio of 1:1,9. Apparently, the best vegetable oil mixture was 30 %, both in terms of specific consumption and cost from R$ kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. Providing the same cost of pure diesel. (author)

  12. Oat Hulls and Sea Buckthorn Pomace – a Potential Source of Antioxidants for Hempseed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Zēberga, S; Strēle, M; Vojevodova, A; Mieriņa, I; Jure, M

    2014-01-01

    Hempseed oil, as well as other oils containing polyunsaturated fatty acids, is subjected to oxidation processes caused by air, heat or light. Usually these processes are suppressed by addition of various synthetic phenol type antioxidants. The aim of current research was to increase oxidative stability of vegetable oils with natural antioxidants. Herein, we demonstrate that the oxidative stability can be increased with natural antioxidants present in oat hulls and sea buckthorn pomace – by-pr...

  13. Classification of edible oils and modeling of their physico-chemical properties by chemometric methods using mid-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    This research work describes two studies for the classification and characterization of edible oils and its quality parameters through Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy (FT-mid-IR) together with chemometric methods. The discrimination of canola, sunflower, corn and soybean oils was investigated using SVM-DA, SIMCA and PLS-DA. Using FT-mid-IR, DPLS was able to classify 100% of the samples from the validation set, but SIMCA and SVM-DA were not. The quality parameters: refraction index and relative density of edible oils were obtained from reference methods. Prediction models for FT-mid-IR spectra were calculated for these quality parameters using partial least squares (PLS) and support vector machines (SVM). Several preprocessing alternatives (first derivative, multiplicative scatter correction, mean centering, and standard normal variate) were investigated. The best result for the refraction index was achieved with SVM as well as for the relative density except when the preprocessing combination of mean centering and first derivative was used. For both of quality parameters, the best results obtained for the figures of merit expressed by the root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) and prediction (RMSEP) were equal to 0.0001.

  14. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  15. Reassessing the Oil Security Premium

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen P. A. Brown; Huntington, Hillard G.

    2010-01-01

    World oil supply disruptions lead to U.S. economic losses. Because oil is fungible in an integrated world oil market, increased oil consumption, whether from domestic or imported sources, increases the economic losses associated with oil supply disruptions. Nevertheless, increased U.S. oil production expands stable supplies and dampens oil price shocks, whereas increased U.S. oil imports boosts the share of world oil supply that comes from unstable producers and exacerbates oil price shocks. ...

  16. Chk1 suppressed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuth Mark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Chk1 in the cellular response to DNA replication stress is well established. However recent work indicates a novel role for Chk1 in the suppression of apoptosis following the disruption of DNA replication or DNA damage. This review will consider these findings in the context of known pathways of Chk1 signalling and potential applications of therapies that target Chk1.

  17. Visual Surround Suppression in Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Tibber, Marc S.; Elaine J Anderson; Bobin, Tracy; Antonova, Elena; Seabright, Alice; Wright, Bernice; Carlin, Patricia; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia (SZ) show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgments of contrast – a manifestation of weaker surround suppression (SS). To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with SZ to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation, and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the targ...

  18. Visual surround suppression in schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Marc Samuel Tibber; Elaine J Anderson; Tracy eBobin; Elena eAntonova; Alice eSeabright; Bernice eWright; Patricia eCarlin; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; Dakin, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    Compared to unaffected observers patients with schizophrenia show characteristic differences in visual perception, including a reduced susceptibility to the influence of context on judgements of contrast - a manifestation of weaker surround suppression. To examine the generality of this phenomenon we measured the ability of 24 individuals with schizophrenia to judge the luminance, contrast, orientation and size of targets embedded in contextual surrounds that would typically influence the tar...

  19. Jet Suppression Measured in ATLAS

    CERN Document Server

    Citron, Zvi Hirsh; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In relativistic heavy ion collisions, a hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced, and jets propagating through this medium are known to suffer energy loss. This results in a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects, and thus modifications of the jet yield are directly sensitive to the energy loss mechanism. Furthermore, jets with different flavor content are expected to be affected by the medium in different ways. Parton showers initiated by quarks tend to have fewer fragments carrying a larger fraction of the total jet energy than those resulting from gluons. In this talk, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression will be presented. Measurements of the nuclear modification factor, RAA, for fully reconstructed jets are shown. The rapidity dependence of jet suppression is discussed, which is sensitive to the relative energy loss between quark and gluon jets. New measurements of single hadron suppression out to pT~150 GeV ...

  20. FLUTTER SUPPRESSION USING DISTRIBUTEDPIEZOELECTRIC ACTUATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A piezoelectric actuator has the benefits of flexibility of its position, without time lag and wide bandpass characteristics. The early results of the wind tunnel flutter suppression test using the piezoeletric actuator were presented in Ref.[1]. A rigid rectangular wing model is constrained by a plunge spring and a pitch spring, and a pair of piezoelectric actuators is bonded on both sides of the plunge spring so as to carry out the active control. Refs.[2,3] reported two flutter suppression wind tunnel tests where the distributed piezoelectric actuators were used. In Ref.[2] low speed wind tunnel tests were conducted with aluminum and composite plate-like rectangular models fully covered by piezoelectric actuators. Flutter speed is increased by 11%. In Ref.[3] a composite plate-like swept back model with piezoceramic actuators bonded on the inboard surface was tested in a transonic wind tunnel and a 12% increment of flutter dynamic pressure was achieved.  In the present investigation, an aluminum plate-like rectangular model with inboard bonded piezoceramic actuators is adopted. Active flutter suppression control law has been designed. A series of analyses and ground tests and, finally, low-speed wind tunnel tests with the active control system opened and closed are conducted. Reasonable results have been obtained.

  1. Adaptive Filtering for Aeroservoelastic Response Suppression Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — CSA Engineering proposes the design of an adaptive aeroelastic mode suppression for advanced fly-by-wire aircraft, which will partition the modal suppression...

  2. Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2005-01-01

    Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approx10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negat...

  3. Burst Suppression: A Review and New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Jonathan Dillon Kenny; M. Brandon Westover; ShiNung Ching; Brown, Emery N.; Ken Solt

    2014-01-01

    Burst suppression is a pattern of brain electrical activity characterized by alternating periods of high-amplitude bursts and electrical silence. Burst suppression can arise from several different pathological conditions, as well as from general anesthesia. Here we review current algorithms that are used to quantify burst suppression, its various etiologies, and possible underlying mechanisms. We then review clinical applications of anesthetic-induced burst suppression. Finally, we report the...

  4. Thermal stability evaluation of palm oil as energy transport media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal stability of palm oil as energy transport media in a hydraulic system was studied. The oils were aged by circulating the oil in an open loop hydraulic system at an isothermal condition of 55 deg. C for 600 h. The thermal behavior and kinetic parameters of fresh and degraded palm oil, with and without oxidation inhibitor, were studied using the dynamic heating rate mode of a thermogravimetric analyser (TGA). Viscometric properties, total acid number and iodine value analyses were used to complement the TGA data. The thermodynamic parameter of activation energy of the samples was determined by direct Arrhenius plot and integral methods. The results may have important applications in the development of palm oil based hydraulic fluid. The results were compared with commercial vegetable based hydraulic fluid. The use of F10 and L135 additives was found to suppress significantly the increase of acid level and viscosity of the fluid

  5. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway I: changes in porewater chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq eSiddique

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed clay particles in mine tailings and soft sediments remain suspended for decades, hindering consolidation and challenging effective management of these aqueous slurries. Current geotechnical engineering models of self-weight consolidation of tailings do not consider microbial contribution to sediment behavior, however, here we show that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings change the porewater chemistry and accelerate consolidation of oil sands tailings. A companion paper describes the role of microbes in alteration of clay chemistry in tailings. Microbial metabolism in mature fine tailings (MFT amended with an organic substrate (hydrolyzed canola meal produced methane (CH4 and carbon dioxide (CO2. Dissolution of biogenic CO2 lowered the pH of amended MFT to pH 6.4 versus unamended MFT (pH 7.7. About 12% more porewater was recovered from amended than unamended MFT during 2 months of active microbial metabolism, concomitant with consolidation of tailings. The lower pH in amended MFT dissolved carbonate minerals, thereby releasing divalent cations including calcium (Ca2+ and magnesium (Mg2+ and increasing bicarbonate (HCO3- in porewater. The higher concentrations increased the ionic strength of the porewater, in turn reducing the thickness of the diffuse double layer (DDL of clay particles by reducing the surface charge potential (repulsive forces of the clay particles. The combination of these processes accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. In addition, ebullition of biogenic gases created transient physical channels for release of porewater. In contrast, saturating the MFT with non-biogenic CO2 had little effect on consolidation. These results have significant implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds and broad importance in anaerobic environments such as contaminated harbors and estuaries containing soft sediments rich in clays and organics.

  6. Microbially-accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. Pathway I: changes in porewater chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddique, Tariq; Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Arkell, Nicholas; Young, Rozlyn; Li, Carmen; Guigard, Selma; Underwood, Eleisha; Foght, Julia M.

    2014-01-01

    Dispersed clay particles in mine tailings and soft sediments remain suspended for decades, hindering consolidation and challenging effective management of these aqueous slurries. Current geotechnical engineering models of self-weight consolidation of tailings do not consider microbial contribution to sediment behavior, however, here we show that microorganisms indigenous to oil sands tailings change the porewater chemistry and accelerate consolidation of oil sands tailings. A companion paper describes the role of microbes in alteration of clay chemistry in tailings. Microbial metabolism in mature fine tailings (MFT) amended with an organic substrate (hydrolyzed canola meal) produced methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2). Dissolution of biogenic CO2 lowered the pH of amended MFT to pH 6.4 vs. unamended MFT (pH 7.7). About 12% more porewater was recovered from amended than unamended MFT during 2 months of active microbial metabolism, concomitant with consolidation of tailings. The lower pH in amended MFT dissolved carbonate minerals, thereby releasing divalent cations including calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) and increasing bicarbonate (HCO−3) in porewater. The higher concentrations increased the ionic strength of the porewater, in turn reducing the thickness of the diffuse double layer (DDL) of clay particles by reducing the surface charge potential (repulsive forces) of the clay particles. The combination of these processes accelerated consolidation of oil sands tailings. In addition, ebullition of biogenic gases created transient physical channels for release of porewater. In contrast, saturating the MFT with non-biogenic CO2 had little effect on consolidation. These results have significant implications for management and reclamation of oil sands tailings ponds and broad importance in anaerobic environments such as contaminated harbors and estuaries containing soft sediments rich in clays and organics. PMID:24711805

  7. Main crops used to obtain fuel from vegetable oils in Brazil; Principais culturas para obtencao de oleos vegetais combustiveis no Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mourad, Anna Lucia [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (DE/FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia], Email: anna@ital.sp.gov.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper tries to identify how the National Program of Production and Use of Biodiesel may unfold itself in different geographical areas starting from the specific characteristics for each cultivation and volume production of each plant at present. By combining the production of palm, peanut, corn, soy beans, coconut, cotton, castor beans, sunflower and canola, of each geographical area, with the average oil yield as compared with the production of 2004, it has been calculated that the potential of oil production from areas in the South (32,9%) and Middle west (40,8%), having a high per capita income, are much higher than the areas the North (3,4%) and Northeast (10,1%), mainly due to the high soy bean and corn production. Considering the participation of all these oleaginous raw materials, it has been considered that it would be necessary to increase about 5% of the actual production of these plants for a later transformation in fuel to supply the bio diesel demand. This modest growth estimate requires caution on the part of the farmers and oil crushers and converters for they must project their investments correctly, so that their production can be absorbed by the market. The oil yield per hectare and the land use per bio fuel ton are indicators which have a great importance to be considered in the national program to evaluate aspects of economic, social and environmental feasibility. (author)

  8. Noise suppression in surface microseismic data by τ-p transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forghani-Arani, Farnoush; Batzle, Mike; Behura, Jyoti; Willis, Mark; Haines, Seth; Davidson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Surface passive seismic methods are receiving increased attention for monitoring changes in reservoirs during the production of unconventional oil and gas. However, in passive seismic data the strong cultural and ambient noise (mainly surface-waves) decreases the effectiveness of these techniques. Hence, suppression of surface-waves is a critical step in surface microseismic monitoring. We apply a noise suppression technique, based on the τ — p transform, to a surface passive seismic dataset recorded over a Barnett Shale reservoir undergoing a hydraulic fracturing process. This technique not only improves the signal-to-noise ratios of added synthetic microseismic events, but it also preserves the event waveforms.

  9. Oil Reserve Center Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Like other countries,China has started to grow its strategic oil reserve in case oil supplies are cut On December 18,2007,the National Development and Reform Commission(NDRC),China’s top economic planner,announced that the national oil reserve center has been officially launched.The supervisory system over the oil reserves has three levels: the energy department of the NDRC,the oil reserve center,and the reserve bases.

  10. Oil companies make cutbacks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As oil prices are falling, the oil sector faces company restructuring, merger projects, closure of oil fields, and so on. Restructuring is motivated by the costs of offshore exploration and oil production projects. Saudi Arabia tries to fight the emergence of shale gases by reducing oil prices, and somehow succeeds as some projects in the USA are put into question again. Experts perceive this situation as an opportunity for the sector to improve its efficiency and reduce over-staffing

  11. Effect of pretreating of host oil on coprocessing. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wender, I.; Tierney, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    A petroleum vacuum resid (1,000 F+) was pretreated by catalytic hydrogenation and hydrocracking reactions and the pretreated resids (host oils) were then coprocessed with coal. The fraction of coal converted to soluble products and the yield of pentane-soluble oils were determined after coprocessing. The phenolic oxygen concentration of the oil product provided a means for estimating the fraction of coal liquids in the products; oils originating from coal had much higher concentrations of phenolic oxygen than those originating from petroleum. Resids that were pretreated by mild temperature hydrogenation reactions, where cracking was suppressed, became better host oils; when these pretreated resids were coprocessed with coal, more of the mixture was converted to tetrahydrofuran-soluble products. Depending on the pretreatment, the pentane-soluble oil yields following thermal coprocessing were either significantly lower or slightly higher than the oil yields obtained with untreated resid. The yield of oils was strongly affected by the concentration of coal in the feed. The presence of small amounts, less than 33% of coal, enhanced the conversion of petroleum resid to oils during coprocessing, although the increases were small. 91 refs.

  12. Distracted by cues for suppressed memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Paula T; Hayes, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    We examined the potential cost of practicing suppression of negative thoughts on subsequent performance in an unrelated task. Cues for previously suppressed and unsuppressed (baseline) responses in a think/no-think procedure were displayed as irrelevant flankers for neutral words to be judged for emotional valence. These critical flankers were homographs with one negative meaning denoted by their paired response during learning. Responses to the targets were delayed when suppression cues (compared with baseline cues and new negative homographs) were used as flankers, but only following direct-suppression instructions and not when benign substitutes had been provided to aid suppression. On a final recall test, suppression-induced forgetting following direct suppression and the flanker task was positively correlated with the flanker effect. Experiment 2 replicated these findings. Finally, valence ratings of neutral targets were influenced by the valence of the flankers but not by the prior role of the negative flankers. PMID:25904596

  13. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues. PMID:17848022

  14. Determinación de los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente y estandarizada de la proteína y aminoácidos de la torta de canola en lechones recién destetados

    OpenAIRE

    Gerardo Mariscal; Tércia C Reis; Jaime E Parra

    2008-01-01

    Para obtener los coeficientes de digestibilidad ileal aparente (CDIA) y estandarizada (CDIE) de la proteína y aminoácidos de pasta de canola (PC), se realizó un experimento en el que se utilizaron 24 lechones destetados a los 17 días de edad con un peso de 5.5 kg, a los cuales se les fijó una cánula simple en T al final del íleon distal. Los lechones recibieron uno de los tratamientos: Dieta de Referencia (DR) elaborada con caseína como única fuente de proteína y almidón de maíz, dietas CT...

  15. [Olive oil, immune system and infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertollano, M A; Puertollano, E; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; de Pablo Martínez, Manuel Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the suppression of immune system functions. For this reason, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been applied in the resolution of inflammatory disorders. Although the inhibition of several immune functions promotes beneficial effects on the human health, this state may lead to a significant reduction of immune protection against infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites). Nevertheless, less attention has been paid to the action of olive oil in immunonutrition. Olive oil, a main constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is capable of modulating several immune functions, but it does not reduce host immune resistance to infectious microorganisms. Based on these criteria, we corroborate that olive oil administration may exert beneficial effects on the human health and especially on immune system, because it contributes to the reduction of typical inflammatory activity observed in patients suffering from autoimmune disorders, but without exacerbating the susceptibility to pathogen agents. The administration of olive oil in lipid emulsions may exert beneficial effects on the health and particularly on the immune system of immunocompromised patients. Therefore, this fact acquires a crucial importance in clinical nutrition. This review contributes to clarify the interaction between the administration of diets containing olive oil and immune system, as well as to determine the effect promoted by this essential component of Mediterranean diet in the immunomodulation against an infectious agent. PMID:20204249

  16. Asian oil demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference presentation examined global oil market development and the role of Asian demand. It discussed plateau change versus cyclical movement in the global oil market; supply and demand issues of OPEC and non-OPEC oil; if high oil prices reduce demand; and the Asian oil picture in the global context. Asian oil demand has accounted for about 50 per cent of the global incremental oil market growth. The presentation provided data charts in graphical format on global and Asia-Pacific incremental oil demand from 1990-2005; Asia oil demand growth for selected nations; real GDP growth in selected Asian countries; and, Asia-Pacific oil production and net import requirements. It also included charts in petroleum product demand for Asia-Pacific, China, India, Japan, and South Korea. Other data charts included key indicators for China's petroleum sector; China crude production and net oil import requirements; China's imports and the share of the Middle East; China's oil exports and imports; China's crude imports by source for 2004; China's imports of main oil products for 2004; India's refining capacity; India's product balance for net-imports and net-exports; and India's trade pattern of oil products. tabs., figs

  17. Chaos suppression through asymmetric coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bragard, J.; Vidal, G.; Mancini, H.; Mendoza, C.; Boccaletti, S.

    2007-12-01

    We study pairs of identical coupled chaotic oscillators. In particular, we have used Roessler (in the funnel and no funnel regimes), Lorenz, and four-dimensional chaotic Lotka-Volterra models. In all four of these cases, a pair of identical oscillators is asymmetrically coupled. The main result of the numerical simulations is that in all cases, specific values of coupling strength and asymmetry exist that render the two oscillators periodic and synchronized. The values of the coupling strength for which this phenomenon occurs is well below the previously known value for complete synchronization. We have found that this behavior exists for all the chaotic oscillators that we have used in the analysis. We postulate that this behavior is presumably generic to all chaotic oscillators. In order to complete the study, we have tested the robustness of this phenomenon of chaos suppression versus the addition of some Gaussian noise. We found that chaos suppression is robust for the addition of finite noise level. Finally, we propose some extension to this research.

  18. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  19. Vegetable oils rich in alpha linolenic acid increment hepatic n-3 LCPUFA, modulating the fatty acid metabolism and antioxidant response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rincón-Cervera, Miguel Ángel; Valenzuela, Rodrigo; Hernandez-Rodas, María Catalina; Barrera, Cynthia; Espinosa, Alejandra; Marambio, Macarena; Valenzuela, Alfonso

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-linolenic acid (C18:3 n-3, ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the metabolic precursor of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) from the n-3 family with relevant physiological and metabolic roles: eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5 n-3, EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3, DHA). Western diet lacks of suitable intake of n-3 LCPUFA and there are recommendations to increase the dietary supply of such nutrients. Seed oils rich in ALA such as those from rosa mosqueta (Rosa rubiginosa), sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubis) and chia (Salvia hispanica) may constitute an alternative that merits research. This study evaluated hepatic and epididymal accretion and biosynthesis of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of Δ-5 and Δ-6 desaturase enzymes, the expression and DNA-binding activity of PPAR-α and SREBP-1c, oxidative stress parameters and the activity of antioxidative enzymes in rats fed sunflower oil (SFO, 1% ALA) as control group, canola oil (CO, 10% ALA), rosa mosqueta oil (RMO, 33% ALA), sacha inchi oil (SIO, 49% ALA) and chia oil (ChO, 64% ALA) as single lipid source. A larger supply of ALA increased the accretion of n-3 LCPUFA, the activity and expression of desaturases, the antioxidative status, the expression and DNA-binding of PPAR-α, the oxidation of fatty acids and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, whereas the expression and DNA-binding activity of SREBP-1c transcription factor and the biosynthetic activity of fatty acids declined. Results showed that oils rich in ALA such as SIO and ChO may trigger metabolic responses in rats such as those produced by n-3 PUFA. PMID:26995676

  20. The Russian oil economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contents: 1. Introduction 2. Risky Business - Oil in the Russian Empire 3. The Command Oil Economy 4. An Industry Fit for a Superpower 5. Malaise at the End of the Command Era 6. Desperate Measures 7. The New Wild West 8. Russian Oil in the 21 st Century Appendix A. The Early Regional Development of the Russian Oil Industry, 1860-1975 B. Reserve Classifications of the Soviet Union C. Long-Distance Oil Pipelines in Russia, 1908-1988 D. Internal Oil Pricing Policies of the Soviet Union. (Author)

  1. Bio-Friendly Alternatives for Xylene – Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Pavan G.; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Palakurthy, Pavan

    2015-01-01

    Background Xylene is a flammable liquid with characteristic petroleum or aromatic odours, it is miscible with most of the organic solvents and paraffin wax. Xylene clears tissues rapidly and renders transparency, facilitating clearing endpoint determination, this made it to be used as a clearing agent in routine histopathological techniques. Even though it is a good clearing agent, it causes damage to the tissues by its hardening effect particularly those fixed in non-protein coagulant fixatives. Apart from these tissue effects, it has severe, long lasting ill effects on health of technicians and pathologists when exposed to longer duration. Hence in order to overcome these effects and replace xylene with a safe alternative agent, the present study was carried out to assess the clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different natural oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil and Rose oil in comparison with that of Xylene. According to Bernoulli’s principle of fluid dynamics, to decrease viscosity of these oils and increase penetration into tissues for rapid clearing hot-air oven technique was used. Aims To assess:1) Clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil in comparison with that of xylene, 2) Application of Bernoulli’s principle of fluid dynamics in rapid clearing of tissues by using hot-air oven. Materials and Methods Forty different formalin fixed tissue samples were taken. Each sample of tissue was cut into 5 bits (40x5=200 total bits) which were subjected for dehydration in differential alcohol gradients. Later, each bit is kept in 4 different oils such as Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil and xylene and transferred into hot-air oven. Further routine steps of processing, sectioning and staining were done. Individual sections cleared in four different oils were assessed for cellular architecture, staining quality and a comparison was done between them. Results Results

  2. Retrospect and prospects of edible oil and bio-diesel in Pakistan - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    marginal yields. Comparative economic analysis shows that for sunflower and canola all conditions are favorable, as per frequency of crops, price and returns as oilseed get returns of 166% higher than Jatropha. Oil contents of sunflower and canola are higher than Jatropha. Analysis concludes that it is more feasible to grow oilseeds because in trade-off between food and fuel, food should win. Before launching commercial production of Jatropha in Pakistan key issues need to be addressed including maintaining the goal of food security, water scarcity, cost-effectivity, and feasibility of Jatropha in comparison with oilseeds, pulses, feed crops and fuel-wood plants. (author)

  3. Natural oil slicks fuel surface water microbial activities in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eZiervogel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a series of roller tank incubations with surface seawater from the Green Canyon oil reservoir, northern Gulf of Mexico, amended with either a natural oil slick (GCS-oil or pristine oil. The goal was to test whether bacterial activities of natural surface water communities facilitate the formation of oil-rich marine snow (oil snow. Although oil snow did not form during any of our experiments, we found specific bacterial metabolic responses to the addition of GCS-oil that profoundly affected carbon cycling within our 4-days incubations. Peptidase and -glucosidase activities indicative of bacterial enzymatic hydrolysis of peptides and carbohydrates, respectively, were suppressed upon the addition of GCS-oil relative to the non-oil treatment, suggesting that ascending oil and gas initially inhibits bacterial metabolism in surface water. Biodegradation of physically dispersed GCS-oil components indicated by the degradation of lower molecular weight n-alkanes as well as the rapid transformation of particulate oil-carbon (C: N >40 into the DOC pool, led to the production of carbohydrate- and peptide-rich degradation byproducts and bacterial metabolites such as transparent exopolymer particles (TEP. TEP formation was highest at day 4 in the presence of GCS-oil; in contrast, TEP levels in the non-oil treatment already peaked at day 2. Cell-specific enzymatic activities closely followed TEP concentrations in the presence and absence of GCS-oil. These results demonstrate that the formation of oil slicks and activities of oil-degrading bacteria result in a temporal offset of microbial cycling of organic matter, affecting food web interactions and carbon cycling in surface waters over cold seeps.

  4. HEAVY OIL DEVELOPMENT KEY TO CHINA'S OIL PRODUCTION GROWTH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Chunpeng

    2006-01-01

    @@ How to raise the heavy oil production rate has long been a difficult research project focused by international oil giants while the super-heavy oil development is particularly a world-class bottleneck for many oil producers. However, China's main oil companies will give priority to heavy oil exploration and production in the next decade to meet China's increasing energy needs.

  5. Transesterification of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil by tin catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methanolysis of jojoba oil has been studied in the presence of tin powder, dibutyltin diacetate (C4H9)2Sn(OOCCH3)2, dioctyltin diacetate (C8H17)2Sn(OOCCH3)2, dibutyltin oxide (C4H9)2SnO, dioctyltin oxide (C8H17)2SnO, diphenyltin oxide (C6H5)2SnO, dibutyltin chloride dihydroxide (C4H9)2Sn(OH)2Cl, butyltinhydroxide hydrate (C4H9)Sn(=O)OH.xH2O, Ni nanoparticles and Pd nanoparticles act as catalysts. Among these, 1 weight % of dibutyltin diacetate shows the maximum conversion. Then, methanolysis of sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into methyl esters studied in the presence of 1% dibutyltin diacetate as a catalyst and was compared their percentage conversions. The experimental yield for the conversion of jojoba oil, sunflower oil, neem oil, rocket seed oil and linseed oil into biodiesel was found to be 71%, 51%, 50.78%, 40.90% and 39.66%, respectively. The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil into methyl esters was found to be increased up to 96% by increasing reaction time, without emulsion formation. The synthesis of jojoba seed oil biodiesel (JSOB), soybean oil biodiesel (SOB), neem oil biodiesel (NOB), rocket seed oil biodiesel (RSOB) and linseed oil biodiesel (LSOB) was confirmed by NMR (1H and 13C) and FT-IR analyses of biodiesel. - Highlights: • Transesterification of jojoba oil into biodiesel by tin and nano catalysts. • 1 weight % dibutyltin diacetate showed highest yield at 60 °C. • Catalytic conversion comparison of five oils using dibutyltin diacetate • The experimental yield of the conversion of jojoba oil increased with time. • FT-IR and NMR (1H and 13C) characterization

  6. Continuous flash suppression reduces negative afterimages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Naotsugu; Koch, Christof

    2005-08-01

    Illusions that produce perceptual suppression despite constant retinal input are used to manipulate visual consciousness. Here we report on a powerful variant of existing techniques, continuous flash suppression. Distinct images flashed successively at approximately 10 Hz into one eye reliably suppress an image presented to the other eye. The duration of perceptual suppression is at least ten times greater than that produced by binocular rivalry. Using this tool we show that the strength of the negative afterimage of an adaptor was reduced by half when it was perceptually suppressed by input from the other eye. The more completely the adaptor was suppressed, the more strongly the afterimage intensity was reduced. Paradoxically, trial-to-trial visibility of the adaptor did not correlate with the degree of reduction. Our results imply that formation of afterimages involves neuronal structures that access input from both eyes but that do not correspond directly to the neuronal correlates of perceptual awareness. PMID:15995700

  7. Engineered decoherence: Characterization and suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Swathi S.; Mahesh, T. S.

    2014-06-01

    Due to omnipresent environmental interferences, quantum coherences inevitably undergo irreversible transformations over certain time scales, thus leading to the loss of encoded information. This process, known as decoherence, has been a major obstacle in realizing efficient quantum information processors. Understanding the mechanism of decoherence is crucial in developing tools to inhibit it. Here we utilize a method proposed by Teklemariam et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062316 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevA.67.062316] to engineer artificial decoherence in the system qubits by randomly perturbing their surrounding ancilla qubits. Using a two-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum register, we characterize the artificial decoherence by noise spectroscopy and quantum process tomography. Further, we study the efficacy of dynamical decoupling sequences in suppressing the artificial decoherence. Here we describe the experimental results and their comparisons with theoretical simulations.

  8. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts

  9. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  10. Krill oil: new nutraceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2015-01-01

    Krill oil is a new available health product which is produced from deep marine species. Its property is to promote good health. The good lipid composition and antioxidant enrichment make krill oil a new nutraceutical for reducing health problems.

  11. Oil eating bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The article discusses the unusual technology of using oil-eating bacteria to increase oil recovery. The background for the discovery that bacteria injection into the reservoirs may increase the oil recovery is the study of microbial action in breaking down oil pollution. About 20 per cent of the organisms living naturally in the sea can eat oil. But they need water to grow. In the absence of water, the bacteria produce enzymes to make the oil water soluble and allow them to extract nutrients from them. Oil does not vanish upon being eaten, but enzymes from the digestive process act as effective detergents to wash away the oil, which is then easier to recover.

  12. Oil and its markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Roncaglia

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Oil markets are extremely complex, characterized by an interplay of economic, political, technological and ecological issues. The paper begins by pointing to the high ratio between fixed and variable costs as a characteristic of the oil sector in all its production stages. Then the story of the sector is sketched, since the expansion of Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Trust in the late Nineteenth century. Anti-trust intervention and collusion characterize the first part of the story; the notion of “trilateral oligopoly” (oil companies, producing and consuming countries is then utilized in interpreting the developments since the Second World War. An illustration and a critique of the role played by financial markets in the determination of oil prices is accompanied by a critique of the theories interpreting oil prices as determined by its nature as a scarce natural resource. Recent trends in the oil sector, with the development of shale oil, are briefly considered.

  13. Castor oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castor oil is a yellowish liquid often used as a lubricant and in laxatives. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing a large amount (overdose) of castor oil. This is for information only and not for ...

  14. Two Effects of Firepower: Attrition and Suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Wayne P.

    1995-01-01

    A new basis for the quantitative study of ground combat is introduced that argues the inadequacy of attrition models and the need to incorporate the effects of suppression of the enemy with firepower. A quantitative approach to suppression of enemy fire is offered. Then an analysis shows that the effect of own fire in suppressing enemy fire will, in suitable, frequent circumstances, reverse the conclusions derived from the Lanchester square law, so that the sq...

  15. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    OpenAIRE

    Magee, Joshua C; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analo...

  16. Studies on pressure suppression pool dynamic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several newly identified pressure suppression pool hydrodynamic loads associated with a loss-of-coolant accident, or actuation of the safety/relief valves, are attracting attention because of their potential influence on integrity of the BWR pressure suppression containment. This report provides a survey of the research works and experiences on performance of the pressure suppression system during abnormal and normal reactor operating conditions. Specific areas for future studies are also indicated. (author)

  17. Automotive gear oil lubricant from soybean oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of lubricants that are based on renewable materials is rapidly increasing. Vegetable oils have good lubricity, wear protection and low volatility which are desired properties for automotive gear lubricant applications. Soybean oil is used widely in the lubricant industry due to its properti...

  18. China Aviation Oil Acquires Overseas Oil Company

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ China Aviation Oil (Singapore) announced an acquisition of a 20.6 percent stake in Singapore Petroleum Company (SPC) from Satya Capital Inc Ltd, the largest investment the company has ever made in its history. China Aviation Oil (Singapore),which is the largest Chinese enterprise Singapore,will become the second largest shareholder of SPC after the acquisition.

  19. Dynamic resource allocation in disaster response: tradeoffs in wildfire suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Petrovic

    Full Text Available Challenges associated with the allocation of limited resources to mitigate the impact of natural disasters inspire fundamentally new theoretical questions for dynamic decision making in coupled human and natural systems. Wildfires are one of several types of disaster phenomena, including oil spills and disease epidemics, where (1 the disaster evolves on the same timescale as the response effort, and (2 delays in response can lead to increased disaster severity and thus greater demand for resources. We introduce a minimal stochastic process to represent wildfire progression that nonetheless accurately captures the heavy tailed statistical distribution of fire sizes observed in nature. We then couple this model for fire spread to a series of response models that isolate fundamental tradeoffs both in the strength and timing of response and also in division of limited resources across multiple competing suppression efforts. Using this framework, we compute optimal strategies for decision making scenarios that arise in fire response policy.

  20. A new oil crisis?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent developments in the oil market are discussed, focusing on the causes of recent price increase, expectations for the near future, why previous oil crises resulted into a recession, and the expected consequences of the oil price increase for the economic growth and inflation. The negative consequences of the high oil price for the European economy can be limited under the condition that claims for higher wages are moderate. 2 refs

  1. The oil distribution file

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of articles addresses the recent evolutions of the French domestic fuel oil market, the development of the Argos oil company (a Dutch group) on this market, the situation and the recent evolution of the German oil product market in 2007 and 2008, the problem faced by the mandatory introduction of biofuels in Belgium and in Spain, the evolution of the Italian oil product market, and the mandatory introduction of biofuels in the United Kingdom in 2008

  2. Indonesia's palm oil subsector

    OpenAIRE

    Larson, Donald F

    1996-01-01

    Debate on Indonesia's palm oil policy was stimulated by a sharp increase in cooking oil prices in 1994-95 and a resulting increase in the export tax rate on crude palm oil. Palm oil has been one of the fastest growing subsectors in Indonesia. Using a quantitative model, the author analyzes the effect of government policies, including the export tax, buffer stock operations by the BULOG (the national logistics agency), and directed sales from public estates. The author acknowledges the export ...

  3. Intraventricular Silicone Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Mathis, Stéphane; Boissonnot, Michèle; Tasu, Jean-Pierre; Simonet, Charles; Ciron, Jonathan; Neau, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Intracranial silicone oil is a rare complication of intraocular endotamponade with silicone oil. We describe a case of intraventricular silicone oil fortuitously observed 38 months after an intraocular tamponade for a complicated retinal detachment in an 82 year-old woman admitted in the Department of Neurology for a stroke. We confirm the migration of silicone oil along the optic nerve. We discuss this rare entity with a review of the few other cases reported in the medical literatu...

  4. Extracting oil from coffee

    OpenAIRE

    Elkin Mauricio López Fontal

    2010-01-01

    The present work describes oil being extracted from toasted coffee by the extrusion method; two products are obtained from this process: coffee oil and pulp. Toasted coffee was used which has a high amount of sensorial compounds. It should be noted that a significant criterion in evaluating the quality of coffee lies in its aroma. When extracting oil from coffee, a significant part of toasted coffee’s aromatic content leaves with it, varying according to the extraction method. A fixed oil h...

  5. Crude oil desulfurization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Hsu, G. C.; Ernest, J. B. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    High sulfur crude oil is desulfurized by a low temperature (25-80 C.) chlorinolysis at ambient pressure in the absence of organic solvent or diluent but in the presence of water (water/oil=0.3) followed by a water and caustic wash to remove sulfur and chlorine containing reaction products. The process described can be practiced at a well site for the recovery of desulfurized oil used to generate steam for injection into the well for enhanced oil recovery.

  6. NOVEL BIPHASE CODE -INTEGRATED SIDELOBE SUPPRESSION CODE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Feixue; Ou Gang; Zhuang Zhaowen

    2004-01-01

    A kind of novel binary phase code named sidelobe suppression code is proposed in this paper. It is defined to be the code whose corresponding optimal sidelobe suppression filter outputs the minimum sidelobes. It is shown that there do exist sidelobe suppression codes better than the conventional optimal codes-Barker codes. For example, the sidelobe suppression code of length 11 with filter of length 39 has better sidelobe level up to 17dB than that of Barker code with the same code length and filter length.

  7. Suppression of Aspergillus by Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib;

    suppressed growth of A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, A. terreus and E. nidulans. HPLC and LC-DAD-MS results showed an increase in phenazine-1-carboxylic acid and phenazine-1-carboxamide production by P. aeruginosa in the contact area of Aspergillus. Different quinolones were also identified......, here among 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4-quinolone (PQS). An unidentified green pseudomonas compound was also observed. Interestingly the P. aeruginosa mutant rpoN was unable to suppress A. fumigatus, but suppressed A. flavus, A. oryzae and A. niger. However several other P. aeruginosa mutants suppressed A...

  8. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression. PMID:26517321

  9. Why Big Bad Oil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olien, Diana Davids; Olien, Roger M.

    1996-01-01

    Investigates the negative and hostile public opinion towards the oil industry, in general, and Standard Oil, in particular. Discovers that those most responsible for criticizing Standard Oil had an economic interest in doing so. Defends the company's record and refutes its critics' charges. (MJP)

  10. OIL AS POLITICAL WEAPON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana, BUICAN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil (called by some black gold has not always been as coveted and used, but only in the last hundred years has established itself as a highly sought after as an indispensable proper functioning of modern economic activity that an important factor in international politics. International oil regime has changed in the last decades. In 1960, oil regime was a private oligopol which had links with governments main consuming countries. By then the price of a barrel of oil was two U.S. dollars and seven major transnational oil companies decided the amount of oil that will be produced. Meanwhile the world region with the largest oil exports were more strongly expressed nationalism and decolonization. Result, it was so in the late 60s in the region occur independent states. They have created an organization aim of this resource to their advantage - OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. Thus since 1973 there have been changes in the international regime governing oil field, namely producing countries were fixed production rate and price. After this time the oil weapon has become increasingly important in the management of international relations. Oil influenced the great powers to Middle East conflicts that occurred in the last century, but their attitude about the emergence of new sources of oil outside OPEC. In the late 90's, Russia has become a major supplier of oil to the West.

  11. Oil Spill Cleanup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauble, Christena Ann

    2011-01-01

    Several classroom activities using a model of a seashore and an oil spill demonstrate the basic properties of oil spills in oceans. Students brainstorm about how to best clean up the mess. They work in teams, and after agreeing on how they will proceed, their method is tested by measuring the amount of oil removed and by rating the cleanliness of…

  12. Sassafras oil overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassafras oil comes from the root bark of the sassafras tree. Sassafras oil overdose occurs when someone swallows more than the ... Safrole is the poisonous ingredient in sassafras oil. It is a clear or ... yellow oily liquid. It can be dangerous in large amounts.

  13. Cod Liver Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cod liver oil can be obtained from eating fresh cod liver or by taking supplements. Cod liver oil is used for high cholesterol, high triglycerides, ... ear infections (otitis media). Some people put cod liver oil on their skin to speed wound healing. ...

  14. Contaminated oil management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas circulator oils are the primary source of contaminated oil arising as Low Level Waste (LLW) from AGR and Magnox gas cooled reactors operated by British Energy and BNFL Magnox Generation, respectively. In addition, there are oil arisings from the PWR operated by British Energy at Sizewell B. The paper initially identifies the quantities and types of oil involved. The primary method of disposal is on-site or off-site combustion in authorised facilities and typical installations and their operational modes are described. The generation of waste circulator oils at stations is highly variable with some reporting no annual accumulations whilst others accumulate hundreds, or thousands of litres per year. At present some sites have significant stores of oil with no approved disposal route. In the Magnox reactor context the oil arisings are either as clean but contaminated circulator oil from circulator maintenance or dirty oil associated with and removed from sludge arisings. In the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) context the arisings are mainly due to circulator maintenance, with some oil being recycled. Sizewell B also has lubricating oil arisings. A range of alternative technologies for the treatment of LLW oil is reviewed and a number of physical/chemical destruction technologies identified and evaluated. The paper summarises the results of these studies and indicates where future technologies could be deployed with advantage. (author)

  15. Counteracting foaming caused by lipids or proteins in biogas reactors using rapeseed oil or oleic acid as antifoaming agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kougias, Panagiotis; Boe, Kanokwan; Einarsdottir, E. S.;

    2015-01-01

    deterioration of the methanogenic process. Many commercial antifoams are derivatives of fatty acids or oils. However, it is well known that lipids can induce foaming in manure based biogas plants. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of rapeseed oil and oleic acid on foam reduction and process performance...... carboxylic ends, is responsible for their foam promoting or foam counteracting behaviour. Thus, it was concluded that the fatty acids and oils could suppress foaming, while salt of fatty acids could generate foam....

  16. The role of renewable liquid transportation fuels in Canada's climate action plan: Pros and cons, and stages of development of ethanol, biodiesel, and thermal depolymerization oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The feasibility of using ethanol from grain as a partial replacement for gasoline is examined. Although ethanol is widely seen as a desirable renewable transportation fuel, there are concerns about the amount of fossil fuel energy used in its production, both at the farm and the factory level. Indeed, some people claim that there is, in fact, a net energy loss when ethanol is produced from grain, not to mention the concerns about the use of grain for fuel instead of food in a world where millions of people go hungry every day of their life. The emission from ethanol plants and the cost of producing ethanol from grain are related issues that cause concern. The report urges examination of alternatives to fermentation of plant materials such as gasification, and materials other than corn, such as woody material or hay which, although more complex and not yet commercially developed, are showing promise, and deserve further attention. Other renewable liquid transportation fuels such as biodiesel from canola oil, and thermal depolymerization oils that can be derived from a wide variety of waste renewable organic materials, are also suggested as potential fuel sources. Both of these appear promising and require testing to determine implications of further developing these technologies as replacement transportation fuels. The report contains a bibliography of 37 items for ethanol, 12 items for biodiesel, and two items for thermal depolymerization oil

  17. Emotional and non-emotional memories are suppressible under direct suppression instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. van Schie (Kevin); E.G. Geraerts (Elke); M.C. Anderson (Michael)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractResearch on retrieval suppression has produced varying results concerning whether negatively valenced memories are more or less suppressible than neutral memories. This variability may arise if, across studies, participants adopt different approaches to memory control. Cognitive and neur

  18. Utah Heavy Oil Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Bauman; S. Burian; M. Deo; E. Eddings; R. Gani; R. Goel; C.K. Huang; M. Hogue; R. Keiter; L. Li; J. Ruple; T. Ring; P. Rose; M. Skliar; P.J. Smith; J.P. Spinti; P. Tiwari; J. Wilkey; K. Uchitel

    2009-10-20

    The Utah Heavy Oil Program (UHOP) was established in June 2006 to provide multidisciplinary research support to federal and state constituents for addressing the wide-ranging issues surrounding the creation of an industry for unconventional oil production in the United States. Additionally, UHOP was to serve as an on-going source of unbiased information to the nation surrounding technical, economic, legal and environmental aspects of developing heavy oil, oil sands, and oil shale resources. UHOP fulGilled its role by completing three tasks. First, in response to the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Section 369(p), UHOP published an update report to the 1987 technical and economic assessment of domestic heavy oil resources that was prepared by the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission. The UHOP report, entitled 'A Technical, Economic, and Legal Assessment of North American Heavy Oil, Oil Sands, and Oil Shale Resources' was published in electronic and hard copy form in October 2007. Second, UHOP developed of a comprehensive, publicly accessible online repository of unconventional oil resources in North America based on the DSpace software platform. An interactive map was also developed as a source of geospatial information and as a means to interact with the repository from a geospatial setting. All documents uploaded to the repository are fully searchable by author, title, and keywords. Third, UHOP sponsored Give research projects related to unconventional fuels development. Two projects looked at issues associated with oil shale production, including oil shale pyrolysis kinetics, resource heterogeneity, and reservoir simulation. One project evaluated in situ production from Utah oil sands. Another project focused on water availability and produced water treatments. The last project considered commercial oil shale leasing from a policy, environmental, and economic perspective.

  19. Emotional and non-emotional memories are suppressible under direct suppression instructions

    OpenAIRE

    van Schie, Kevin; Geraerts, Elke; Anderson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    textabstractResearch on retrieval suppression has produced varying results concerning whether negatively valenced memories are more or less suppressible than neutral memories. This variability may arise if, across studies, participants adopt different approaches to memory control. Cognitive and neurobiological research points to two mechanisms that achieve retrieval suppression: thought-substitution and direct suppression (Benoit & Anderson, 2012; Bergström, de Fockert, & Richardson-Klavehn, ...

  20. Suppression on Your Own Terms: Internally Generated Displays of Craving Suppression Predict Rebound Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Sayers, W. Michael; Sayette, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Research on emotion suppression has shown a rebound effect, in which expression of the targeted emotion increases following a suppression attempt. In prior investigations, participants have been explicitly instructed to suppress their responses, which has drawn the act of suppression into metaconsciousness. Yet emerging research emphasizes the importance of nonconscious approaches to emotion regulation. This study is the first in which a craving rebound effect was evaluated without simultaneo...

  1. Historical Oil Shocks

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, James D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper surveys the history of the oil industry with a particular focus on the events associated with significant changes in the price of oil. Although oil was used much differently and was substantially less important economically in the nineteenth century than it is today, there are interesting parallels between events in that era and more recent developments. Key post-World-War-II oil shocks reviewed include the Suez Crisis of 1956-57, the OPEC oil embargo of 1973-1974, the Iranian revo...

  2. Oil-eating microbes control oil slicks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers with Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) have demonstrated a new environmentally safe method that uses a naturally occurring seawater microbe, powdered clay, and fertilizer to contain and break down oil spills. The philosophy is to accelerate nature and use natural organisms to break down the oil. While the concept of using oil-eating microbes is not new, this process involves applying a powdered clay, called Petro-Lock, to the slick to coagulate the oil and prevent it from sinking. The microbe, Marine-D, is applied with a nitrogen-based fertilizer to begin digesting the oil. The fertilizer provides nutrients for the microbes, which secrete a fatty acid that can be eaten by plankton. When the microbes have digested all of the oil, they die, sink to the ocean floor, and decompose. Bench and large scale testing results indicate that the microbes digest about 75% of the oil after 36 days. Further testing will incorporate wave action and will simulate deep-water and beach conditions

  3. Oil-eating microbes control oil slicks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, J. (Lockheed Missiles Space Co., Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States))

    1992-04-01

    Researchers with Lockheed Missiles and Space Company (LMSC) have demonstrated a new environmentally safe method that uses a naturally occurring seawater microbe, powdered clay, and fertilizer to contain and break down oil spills. The philosophy is to accelerate nature and use natural organisms to break down the oil. While the concept of using oil-eating microbes is not new, this process involves applying a powdered clay, called Petro-Lock, to the slick to coagulate the oil and prevent it from sinking. The microbe, Marine-D, is applied with a nitrogen-based fertilizer to begin digesting the oil. The fertilizer provides nutrients for the microbes, which secrete a fatty acid that can be eaten by plankton. When the microbes have digested all of the oil, they die, sink to the ocean floor, and decompose. Bench and large scale testing results indicate that the microbes digest about 75% of the oil after 36 days. Further testing will incorporate wave action and will simulate deep-water and beach conditions.

  4. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, EH; Hindriks, [No Value; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, A; Van Knippenberg, A; Hindriks, I; van Knipppenberg, A.

    2004-01-01

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in self-con

  5. Electricity/oil substitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which electricity could substitute for imported oil in Canada is assessed and it is concluded that the bulk of projected oil imports could be displaced. This substitution of electricity for oil could be largely completed within two decades, with existing technology, using Canadian resources. The substitution of electricity for imported oil would result in relatively low energy costs and would stimulate economic growth. Energy self-sufficiency through the substitution of electricity for oil is uniquely a Canadian option; it is not open to other industrial countries. The option exists because of Canada's resources of oil sands for essential liquid fuels, hydraulic and nuclear electrical potential, and natural gas as an interim source of energy. While other countries face an energy crisis due to declining supplies of oil, Canada faces opportunities. The policies of Federal and Provincial governments, as perceived by individual decision makers, will have a major influence on Canada's ability to realize opportunities. (auth)

  6. The Russian oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article proposes a brief discussion of various assessments of Russian oil reserves, of the evolutions of Russian oil production (Russia is the second world producer after Saudi Arabia), of the distribution of Russian oil exports among various regions, and of the decrease of Russian oil consumption between 1992 and 2002. It describes the evolution of the actor system as the oil sector has been largely privatised since 1992, and indicates the main companies which should control the Russia market on a medium term. It also discusses the obstacles for the development of Production Sharing Agreements (PSA) between these companies. It addresses the issue of modernisation of the oil transport system as its status and its condition are often an obstacle to oil export for Russian companies. The article finally discusses the price issue, the relationship between Russia and other OPEC countries, and the need for huge investments

  7. Oil My Love

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author first describes how oil will disappear from non-producing countries, notably France and Europe and will therefore lead to an energy crisis. He outlines that renewable energies will have a weak contribution in the replacement of fossil energies (in this case, oil and gas). To illustrate these trends, the author proposes an appendix which presents and discusses the evolution of global consumption of fossil fuels, the evolution of production of different oil grades, a forecast of global oil demand by 2035, evolutions of productions and exports. Another appendix discusses additional issues on oil: the meaning of reserves, solutions for France in case of shortage of oil, the world oil situation (USA, China, Russia, the European Union, Japan)

  8. Kapok oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased need for biodiesel feedstocks has caused various vegetable oils to be examined for this purpose. In the present work, the methyl esters of kapok (Ceiba pentandra) oil were prepared. The essential fuel properties were comprehensively determined and evaluated in comparison to specifications in biodiesel standards and some prior results. The kinematic viscosity of kapok oil methyl esters was greater than expected, an observation traced to the elevated amounts of methyl esters with cyclic moieties. Overall, kapok oil is a potential biodiesel feedstock. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of kapok methyl esters are reported. - Highlights: • Methyl esters of kapok oil generally acceptable as a biodiesel fuel. • Kapok oil methyl esters a fuel with elevated content of fatty acid methyl esters containing cyclic moieties. • Kinematic viscosity of kapok oil methyl esters elevated likely due to fatty ester methyl esters with cyclic moieties. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  9. Oil sands and petrochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted to evaluate new feedstocks from Alberta's vast oil sands resources to supplement natural gas liquids. The long-term competitiveness of Alberta's petrochemical industry can be increased by having both gas and oil feedstock options. Several schemes were evaluated to help Alberta develop synergies for its oil sands and petrochemical industries through cost effective integration of oil sands, upgrading, refining and petrochemical development. It was shown that phased integration of oil sands and petrochemical developments is technically and economically feasible to co-produce high grade fuels and petrochemicals. Alberta has the potential to become a world-scale energy and petrochemical producer. Alberta's oil sands facilities are potentially capable of supporting new world-scale plants producing ethylene, propylene, benzene, para-xylene, and other high-value-added derivatives. The products can be produced by integrating existing and new oil sands upgrading plants, refineries and petrochemical plants. tabs., figs

  10. Heavy flavour suppression and flow

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Santosh K

    2011-01-01

    The drag and diffusion coefficients of charm and bottom quarks propagating through quark gluon plasma have been evaluated for conditions relevant to nuclear collisions at Large Hadron Collider and Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. Both the radiative and collisional processes of energy loss are included in evaluating the {\\it effective} drag and diffusion coefficients. The Landau-Pomeronchuk-Migdal (LPM) and the dead cone effects on the radiative energy loss of heavy quarks have been included. With the effective transport coefficients the Fokker Plank (FP) equation has been solved for the evolution of heavy quarks in QGP. The solution of the FP equation has been used to evaluate the nuclear suppression factor, $R_{\\mathrm AA}$ and the elliptic flow, $v_2^{HF}$ for the non-photonic single electron spectra resulting from the semi-leptonic decays of hadrons containing charm and bottom quarks. It is observed that the experimental data from RHIC on $R_{\\mathrm AA}$ and $v_2^{HF} $ can be reproduced simultaneously wi...

  11. Impacts of suppressing guide on information spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Jinghong; Ma, Baojun; Wu, Ye

    2015-01-01

    It is quite common that guides are introduced to suppress the information spreading in modern society for different purposes. In this paper, an agent-based model is established to quantitatively analyze the impacts of suppressing guides on information spreading. We find that the spreading threshold depends on the attractiveness of the information and the topology of the social network with no suppressing guides at all. Usually, one would expect that the existence of suppressing guides in the spreading procedure may result in less diffusion of information within the overall network. However, we find that sometimes the opposite is true: the manipulating nodes of suppressing guides may lead to more extensive information spreading when there are audiences with the reversal mind. These results can provide valuable theoretical references to public opinion guidance on various information, e.g., rumor or news spreading.

  12. Magnitude Differences in Bioactive Compounds, Chemical Functional Groups, Fatty Acid Profiles, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion, Molecular Structure, and Metabolic Characteristics of Protein in Newly Developed Yellow-Seeded and Black-Seeded Canola Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridou, Katerina; Zhang, Xuewei; Vail, Sally; Yu, Peiqiang

    2015-06-10

    Recently, new lines of yellow-seeded (CS-Y) and black-seeded canola (CS-B) have been developed with chemical and structural alteration through modern breeding technology. However, no systematic study was found on the bioactive compounds, chemical functional groups, fatty acid profiles, inherent structure, nutrient degradation and absorption, or metabolic characteristics between the newly developed yellow- and black-seeded canola lines. This study aimed to systematically characterize chemical, structural, and nutritional features in these canola lines. The parameters accessed include bioactive compounds and antinutrition factors, chemical functional groups, detailed chemical and nutrient profiles, energy value, nutrient fractions, protein structure, degradation kinetics, intestinal digestion, true intestinal protein supply, and feed milk value. The results showed that the CS-Y line was lower (P ≤ 0.05) in neutral detergent fiber (122 vs 154 g/kg DM), acid detergent fiber (61 vs 99 g/kg DM), lignin (58 vs 77 g/kg DM), nonprotein nitrogen (56 vs 68 g/kg DM), and acid detergent insoluble protein (11 vs 35 g/kg DM) than the CS-B line. There was no difference in fatty acid profiles except C20:1 eicosenoic acid content (omega-9) which was in lower in the CS-Y line (P condensed tannins with averages of 0.3 and 3.1 g/kg DM, respectively. When protein was portioned into five subfractions, significant differences were found in PA, PB1 (65 vs 79 g/kg CP), PB2, and PC fractions (10 vs 33 g/kg CP), indicating protein degradation and supply to small intestine differed between two new lines. In terms of protein structure spectral profile, there were no significant differences in functional groups of amides I and II, α helix, and β-sheet structure as well as their ratio between the two new lines, indicating no difference in protein structure makeup and conformation between the two lines. In terms of energy values, there were significant differences in total digestible nutrient

  13. MacOil--An Oil Exploration Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, H. Robert

    1989-01-01

    Described is a simulation program designed to teach the geology of oil exploration in a game format. Discussed are information and tools provided, information management, data sets, and availability of the program. (CW)

  14. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators-the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional)

  15. Oil vulnerability index of oil-importing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the relative oil vulnerability of 26 net oil-importing countries for the year 2004 on the basis of various indicators - the ratio of value of oil imports to gross domestic product (GDP), oil consumption per unit of GDP, GDP per capita and oil share in total energy supply, ratio of domestic reserves to oil consumption, exposure to geopolitical oil market concentration risks as measured by net oil import dependence, diversification of supply sources, political risk in oil-supplying countries, and market liquidity. The approach using the principal component technique has been adopted to combine these individual indicators into a composite index of oil vulnerability. Such an index captures the relative sensitivity of various economies towards developments of the international oil market, with a higher index indicating higher vulnerability. The results show that there are considerable differences in the values of individual indicators of oil vulnerability and overall oil vulnerability index among the countries (both inter and intraregional). (author)

  16. Screening for Antiviral Activities of Isolated Compounds from Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Astani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60–80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40–98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV.

  17. Screening for antiviral activities of isolated compounds from essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astani, Akram; Reichling, Jürgen; Schnitzler, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of star anise as well as phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes, for example, trans-anethole, eugenol, β-eudesmol, farnesol, β-caryophyllene and β-caryophyllene oxide, which are present in many essential oils, were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) in vitro. Antiviral activity was analyzed by plaque reduction assays and mode of antiviral action was determined by addition of the drugs to uninfected cells, to the virus prior to infection or to herpesvirus-infected cells. Star anise oil reduced viral infectivity by >99%, phenylpropanoids inhibited HSV infectivity by about 60-80% and sesquiterpenes suppressed herpes virus infection by 40-98%. Both, star anise essential oil and all isolated compounds exhibited anti-HSV-1 activity by direct inactivation of free virus particles in viral suspension assays. All tested drugs interacted in a dose-dependent manner with herpesvirus particles, thereby inactivating viral infectivity. Star anise oil, rich in trans-anethole, revealed a high selectivity index of 160 against HSV, whereas among the isolated compounds only β-caryophyllene displayed a high selectivity index of 140. The presence of β-caryophyllene in many essential oils might contribute strongly to their antiviral ability. These results indicate that phenylpropanoids and sesquiterpenes present in essential oils contribute to their antiviral activity against HSV. PMID:20008902

  18. Oil: Economics and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is presented of the evolution of the international petroleum sector since 1973 with a special emphasis on the interdependence between the economic and political factors that influence it. Two issues are focused on: the effects of the nationalization of oil companies on the sharing of oil rents and on changes in the structure of the oil market; and the determination of oil prices. Definitions are presented of oil rents, and the reasons for OPEC nationalization of oil companies are explored. The effects of nationalization on market structures, expansion of free markets, and vertical integration are discussed. The existence of an oil price floor and the reasons for such a floor are examined. It is shown that nationalization induced an internalization of rents by the producing countries, leading to the emergence of a differential rent supported by the politics of the industrialized countries. Nationalization led to the breakup of systems of vertical and horizontal integration, with replacement by a new dual structure with OPEC controlling the upstream activities of the oil sector and oil companies controlling the downstream ones. Prices move between a floor price set by the costs of substitute deposits in the U.S., while the determination of ceiling levels by OPEC rests on successive fragile compromises. Overall oil is still a strategic product, despite the existence of spot markets, forward trading options, etc. 29 refs

  19. The oil price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Statistical analysis cannot, alone, provide an oil price forecast. So, one needs to understand the fundamental phenomena which control the past trends since the end of world war II After a first period during which oil, thanks to its abundance, was able to increase its market share at the expense of other energies, the first oil shock reflects the rarefaction of oil resource with the tilting of the US production curve from growth to decline. Since then, the new situation is that of a ''cohabitation'' between oil and the other energies with the oil price, extremely volatile, reflecting the trial and error adjustment of the market share left to the other energies. Such a context may explain the recent oil price surge but the analogy between the US oil situation at the time of the first shock and that existing today for the world outside Middle East suggest another possibility, that of a structural change with higher future oil prices. The authors examine these two possibilities, think that the oil price will reflect both as long as one or the other will not become proven, and conclude with a series of political recommendations. (authors)

  20. Hydrogen suppresses UO 2 corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbol, Paul; Fors, Patrik; Gouder, Thomas; Spahiu, Kastriot

    2009-08-01

    Release of long-lived radionuclides such as plutonium and caesium from spent nuclear fuel in deep geological repositories will depend mainly on the dissolution rate of the UO 2 fuel matrix. This dissolution rate will, in turn, depend on the redox conditions at the fuel surface. Under oxidative conditions UO 2 will be oxidised to the 1000 times more soluble UO 2.67. This may occur in a repository as the reducing deep groundwater becomes locally oxidative at the fuel surface under the effect of α-radiolysis, the process by which α-particles emitted from the fuel split water molecules. On the other hand, the groundwater corrodes canister iron generating large amounts of hydrogen. The role of molecular hydrogen as reductant in a deep bedrock repository is questioned. Here we show evidence of a surface-catalysed reaction, taking place in the H 2-UO 2-H 2O system where molecular hydrogen is able to reduce oxidants originating from α-radiolysis. In our experiment the UO 2 surface remained stoichiometric proving that the expected oxidation of UO 2.00 to UO 2.67 due to radiolytic oxidants was absent. As a consequence, the dissolution of UO 2 stopped when equilibrium was reached between the solid phase and U 4+ species in the aqueous phase. The steady-state concentration of uranium in solution was determined to be 9 × 10 -12 M, about 30 times lower than previously reported for reducing conditions. Our findings show that fuel dissolution is suppressed by H 2. Consequently, radiotoxic nuclides in spent nuclear fuel will remain immobilised in the UO 2 matrix. A mechanism for the surface-catalysed reaction between molecular hydrogen and radiolytic oxidants is proposed.