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Sample records for cannabis problems epidemiologic

  1. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Posada-Villa Jose; Medina-Mora Maria E; Martins Silvia S; Radovanovic Mirjana; Fiestas Fabian; Anthony James C

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the ...

  2. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Jan C. van Ours & Jenny Williams

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors a ecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main nding is that using cannabis increases the likelihood of mental health problems, with current use having a larger e ect than past use. The estimates suggest a dose response relationship between the frequency of recent cannabis use and the probab...

  3. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the likelihood of mental health problems, with current use having a larger effect than past use. The estimates suggest a dose response relationship between the frequency of recent cannabis use and the pr...

  4. Cannabis Problem Experiences Among Users of the Tobacco-Cannabis Combination Known As Blunts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background In most of the world, cannabis smokers mix loose tobacco inside a joint, pipe, spliff, or cone. More recently, a ‘blunt’ formulation combines these two drugs by inserting cannabis into a hollowed-out cigar. Epidemiological research linking simultaneous use of these two drugs and the development of cannabis use disorders (CUD) remains unclear. This study estimates associations linking blunt smoking with levels and subtypes of cannabis problems. Methods Cross-sectional data on 27,767 past-year cannabis users were analyzed from the US National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) conducted from 2009–2012. Ten self-reported items of DSM-IV CUD features elicited a single latent trait of cannabis problem (CP) severity, which was then regressed on past-year blunt smoking and past-month blunt frequency measures within the context of a conceptual model. Differential item functioning (DIF) analysis evaluated potential bias in CP feature response by blunt smoking history. Results Past-year blunt smoking was associated with higher CP severity compared to cannabis users who did not smoke blunts. Days of blunt smoking in the past month also predicted higher CP severity than less frequent blunt use. Those smoking blunts experienced more subjectively felt tolerance and having spent more time obtaining or using cannabis, but were less likely to experience other problems, even at the same level of CP severity. Conclusions These findings suggest smoking blunts might promote the development of problematic cannabis use. Responses to cannabis problems differed by history of blunt smoking, possibly implicating an influence of tobacco on measurement of cannabis use disorders. PMID:25746234

  5. Cannabis Beyond Good and Evil. How genetic and epidemiological factors shape the relationship between cannabis and psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Schubart, C. D.

    2013-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aimed to identify genetic and non-genetic (epidemiological) factors that shape the association between cannabis use and psychosis. We showed that the age of first use of cannabis is a determinant for the strength of the association between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms and general mental health, as is the amount of cannabis that is consumed. Moreover it is likely that the THC/CBD ratio in consumed cannabis products further shapes the relationship bet...

  6. Cannabis Beyond Good and Evil. How genetic and epidemiological factors shape the relationship between cannabis and psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schubart, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aimed to identify genetic and non-genetic (epidemiological) factors that shape the association between cannabis use and psychosis. We showed that the age of first use of cannabis is a determinant for the strength of the association between cannabis use and psycho

  7. Associations among trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder, cannabis use, and cannabis use disorder in a nationally representative epidemiologic sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevorkian, Salpi; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Belendiuk, Katherine; Carney, Dever M; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Berenz, Erin C

    2015-09-01

    Research in community and clinical samples has documented elevated rates of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) among individuals with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is a lack of research investigating relations between, and correlates of, trauma and cannabis phenotypes in epidemiologic samples. The current study examined associations between trauma (i.e., lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD) and cannabis phenotypes (i.e., lifetime cannabis use and CUD) in a nationally representative sample. Participants were individuals who participated in Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,396; 52.4% women; age, M = 48.0 years, SD = 16.9). Lifetime DSM-IV Criterion A trauma exposure was significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use (OR = 1.215) but was only marginally associated with CUD (OR = 0.997). Within the trauma-exposed sample, lifetime PTSD showed a significant association with CUD (OR = 1.217) but was only marginally associated with lifetime cannabis use (OR = 0.992). Partially consistent with hypotheses, lifetime trauma was associated with greater odds of lifetime cannabis use, whereas PTSD was associated with greater odds of CUD. Longitudinal research investigating patterns of onset of these events/disorders is needed. PMID:26415060

  8. Cannabis use, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems

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    Griffith-Lendering, Merel Frederique Heleen

    2013-01-01

    During early adolescence, there is no association between internalizing behaviour and cannabis use. There is an association between externalizing behaviour and cannabis use, where externalizing behaviour precedes cannabis use rather than the other way around. Secondly, during adolescence, there is a

  9. Approach-bias predicts development of cannabis problem severity in heavy cannabis users: results from a prospective FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    Full Text Available A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (abuse is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, neural approach-bias activations were measured with a Stimulus Response Compatibility task (SRC and compared between 33 heavy cannabis users and 36 matched controls. In addition, associations were examined between approach-bias activations and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Approach-bias activations did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, within the group of heavy cannabis users, a positive relation was observed between total lifetime cannabis use and approach-bias activations in various fronto-limbic areas. Moreover, approach-bias activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC independently predicted cannabis problem severity after six months over and beyond session-induced subjective measures of craving. Higher DLPFC/ACC activity during cannabis approach trials, but lower activity during cannabis avoidance trials were associated with decreases in cannabis problem severity. These findings suggest that cannabis users with deficient control over cannabis action tendencies are more likely to develop cannabis related problems. Moreover, the balance between cannabis approach and avoidance responses in the DLPFC and ACC may help identify individuals at-risk for cannabis use disorders and may be new targets for prevention and treatment.

  10. Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptom profiles and concurrent problems with alcohol and cannabis: sex differences in a representative, population survey

    OpenAIRE

    Kolla, Nathan J.; van der Maas, Mark; Toplak, Maggie E.; Erickson, Patricia G.; Mann, Robert E.; Seeley, Jane; Vingilis, Evelyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) shows a robust association with alcohol and cannabis misuse, and these relationships are expressed differently in males and females. Manifestation of specific ADHD symptom profiles, even in the absence of the full disorder, may also be related to problems with alcohol and cannabis, although these relationships have not been investigated in epidemiological studies. To address this question, we studied the sex-specific association...

  11. Approach-bias predicts development of cannabis problem severity in heavy cannabis users: results from a prospective FMRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Cousijn, J.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Ridderinkhof, K.R.; Brink, van den, Paul J.; Veltman, D.J.; Wiers, R.W.

    2012-01-01

    A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (ab)use is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), neural ap...

  12. Distress Tolerance Among Students Referred for Treatment Following Violation of Campus Cannabis Use Policy: Relations to Use, Problems, and Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Jeffries, Emily R; Terlecki, Meredith A; Ecker, Anthony H

    2016-09-01

    Students referred to treatment after violating campus drug policies represent a high-risk group. Identification of factors related to these students' cannabis use could inform prevention and treatment efforts. Distress tolerance (DT) is negatively related to substance-related behaviors and may be related to high-risk cannabis use vulnerability factors that can impact treatment outcome. Thus, the current study tested whether DT was related to cannabis use frequency, cannabis-related problems, and motivation to change cannabis use among 88 students referred for treatment after violating campus cannabis policies. DT was robustly, negatively related to cannabis use and related problems. DT was also significantly, negatively correlated with coping, conformity, and expansion motives. DT was directly and indirectly related to cannabis problems via coping (not conformity or expansion) motives. Motives did not mediate the relation of DT to cannabis use frequency. DT may be an important target in treatment with students who violate campus cannabis policies. PMID:26467215

  13. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

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    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling. PMID:25879473

  14. How high: Quantity as a predictor of cannabis-related problems

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    Earleywine Mitch

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on cannabis use has emphasized frequency as a predictor of problems. Studies of other drugs reveal that frequency relates to psychological and physiological outcomes, but quantity also plays an important role. In the study of cannabis, quantity has been difficult to assess due to the wide range of products and means of consumption. Methods The present study introduces three new measures of quantity, and examines their contribution to cannabis-related problems. Over 5,900 adults using cannabis once or more per month completed an internet survey that inquired about use, dependence, social problems and respiratory health. In addition to detailing their frequency of cannabis use, participants also reported three measures of quantity: number of quarter ounces consumed per month, usual intensity of intoxication, and maximum intensity of intoxication. Results Frequency of use, monthly consumption, and levels of intoxication predicted respiratory symptoms, social problems and dependence. What is more, each measure of quantity accounted for significant variance in outcomes after controlling for the effects of frequency. Conclusion These findings indicate that quantity is an important predictor of cannabis-related outcomes, and that the three quantity measures convey useful information about use.

  15. Coping with cannabis in a Caribbean country : from problem formulation to going public

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    Hymie Rubenstein

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzes the dialectic between problem discovery and formulation, ethical considerations, and the public dissemination of research results. Author describes his personal experience of fieldwork, the moral-ethical dilemmas it involved, and the circulation of research findings on cannabis production and consumption in St. Vincent. He became frustrated that his academic publications were only accessible to a tiny portion of St. Vincent's population and therefore decided to publish about cannabis in the local media.

  16. Early Cannabis Use and Estimated Risk of Later Onset of Depression Spells: Epidemiologic Evidence From the Population-based World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

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    de Graaf, R.; Radovanovic, M.; van Laar, M.; Fairman, B.; Degenhardt, L.; Aguilar-Gaxiola, S.; Bruffaerts, R.; De Girolamo, G.; Fayyad, J.; Gureje, O.; Haro, J.M.; Huang, Y.Q.; Kostychenko, S.; Lepine, J.P.; Matschinger, H.; Mora, M.E.M.; Neumark, Y.; Ormel, J.; Posada-Villa, J.; Stein, D.J.; Tachimori, H.; Wells, J.E.; Anthony, J.C.

    2010-01-01

    Early-onset cannabis use is widespread in many countries and might cause later onset of depression. Sound epidemiologic data across countries are missing. The authors estimated the suspected causal association that links early-onset (age <17 years) cannabis use with later-onset (age >= 17 years) ris

  17. Early Cannabis Use and Estimated Risk of Later Onset of Depression Spells : Epidemiologic Evidence From the Population-based World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, Ron; Radovanovic, Mirjana; van Laar, Margriet; Fairman, Brian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fayyad, John; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Huang, Yueqin; Kostychenko, Stanislav; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina Mora, Maria Elena; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Tachimori, Hisateru; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Early-onset cannabis use is widespread in many countries and might cause later onset of depression. Sound epidemiologic data across countries are missing. The authors estimated the suspected causal association that links early-onset (age <17 years) cannabis use with later-onset (age >= 17 years) ris

  18. Screening of cannabis-related problems among youth: the CPQ-A-S and CAST questionnaires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Artamendi Sergio

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis use among young people is a significant problem, making particularly necessary validated screening instruments that permit secondary prevention. The purpose of this study was to analyze and compare the psychometric properties of the CAST and CPQ-A-S questionnaires, two screening instruments specifically addressing the youth population. Methods Information was obtained on sociodemographics, frequency of substance use, psychopathological symptoms and cannabis-use problems, and the CPQ-A-S and CAST were applied, as well as an infrequency scale for discarding responses made randomly. The sample was made up of 144 young people aged 16 to 20 that had used cannabis in the last month, of which 71.5% were boys. Mean age of the sample was 17.38 years (SD = 1.16. Results The results show that from the psychometric point of view both the CAST and the CPQ-A-S are good screening instruments. Conclusions The CAST is shorter and presents slightly better internal consistency than the CPQ-A-S. Both instruments show high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of young people dependent on cannabis according to the DSM IV-TR criteria. The CPQ-A-S appears to show greater capacity for detecting psychopathological distress associated with use. Both questionnaires yield significant odds ratios as predictors of frequent cannabis use and of the DSM IV-TR abuse and dependence criteria. In general, the CPQ-A-S emerges as a better predictor than the CAST.

  19. From Cannabis to Problem Drinking? Use and Abuse from Youth to Adulthood

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    Hyggen Christer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The transition from youth to adulthood is associated with changes in the consumption of drugs and alcohol. The aim is to explore the process of “maturing out” of high levels of alcohol consumption, substance use and alcohol related problems from youth to adulthood. We are particularly interested in the relationship between the use of cannabis and alcohol consumption in relation to indicators of adult roles and responsibilities and alcohol-related problems over the life-course. METHODS - We used data from the norwegian longitudinal panel survey Arbeid, Livsstil og Helse (ALH. The data contains information on alcohol and drug consumption, alcohol related problems and a range of indicators of adulthood like marriage and parenthood from surveys repeated in 1985, 1987, 1989, 1993, 2003 and 2010. The sample was nationally representative for the cohorts born 1965-1968 and thus contains individual histories from youth (17-20 years to adulthood (42-45 years with response rates ranging from 80% in 1985 to 53% in 2010 (total n=1997. RESULTS - Alcohol consumption is found to be substantially higher among users of cannabis than among non-users throughout the period from youth to adulthood. The use of cannabis, the level of alcohol consumption and probability of experiencing alcohol related problems decrease as the cohorts grow older. Alcohol related problems are still associated with the level of involvement with cannabis: those with a current or previous involvement with cannabis report more alcohol related problems. Taking into account the decreasing trend of alcohol related problems with age we find that becoming a parent and/ or getting married reduces the risk of experiencing such problems.

  20. Quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among regular users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis: An analysis of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

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    Cougle, Jesse R; Hakes, Jahn K; Macatee, Richard J; Chavarria, Jesus; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Research is limited on the effects of regular substance use on mental health-related outcomes. We used a large nationally representative survey to examine current and future quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among past-year regular (weekly) users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Data on psychiatric disorders and quality of life from two waves (Wave 1 N = 43,093, Wave 2 N = 34,653) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to test study aims. In cross-sectional analyses, regular nicotine and cannabis use were associated with higher rates of psychiatric disorder, though regular alcohol use was associated with lower rates of disorders. Prospective analyses found that regular nicotine use predicted onset of anxiety, depressive, and bipolar disorders. Regular alcohol use predicted lower risk of these disorders. Regular cannabis use uniquely predicted the development of bipolar disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and social phobia. Lastly, regular alcohol use predicted improvements in physical and mental health-related quality of life, whereas nicotine predicted deterioration in these outcomes. Regular cannabis use predicted declines in mental, but not physical health. These data add to the literature on the relations between substance use and mental and physical health and suggest increased risk of mental health problems among regular nicotine and cannabis users and better mental and physical health among regular alcohol users. Examination of mechanisms underlying these relationships is needed. PMID:26022838

  1. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

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    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  2. Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klempova Danica

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.

  3. From Cannabis to Problem Drinking? Use and Abuse from Youth to Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Hyggen Christer; Hammer Torild

    2015-01-01

    AIMS - The transition from youth to adulthood is associated with changes in the consumption of drugs and alcohol. The aim is to explore the process of “maturing out” of high levels of alcohol consumption, substance use and alcohol related problems from youth to adulthood. We are particularly interested in the relationship between the use of cannabis and alcohol consumption in relation to indicators of adult roles and responsibilities and alcohol-related problems over the life-course. METHODS ...

  4. Kinetics methods for clinical epidemiology problems.

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    Corlan, Alexandru Dan; Ross, John

    2015-11-17

    Calculating the probability of each possible outcome for a patient at any time in the future is currently possible only in the simplest cases: short-term prediction in acute diseases of otherwise healthy persons. This problem is to some extent analogous to predicting the concentrations of species in a reactor when knowing initial concentrations and after examining reaction rates at the individual molecule level. The existing theoretical framework behind predicting contagion and the immediate outcome of acute diseases in previously healthy individuals is largely analogous to deterministic kinetics of chemical systems consisting of one or a few reactions. We show that current statistical models commonly used in chronic disease epidemiology correspond to simple stochastic treatment of single reaction systems. The general problem corresponds to stochastic kinetics of complex reaction systems. We attempt to formulate epidemiologic problems related to chronic diseases in chemical kinetics terms. We review methods that may be adapted for use in epidemiology. We show that some reactions cannot fit into the mass-action law paradigm and solutions to these systems would frequently exhibit an antiportfolio effect. We provide a complete example application of stochastic kinetics modeling for a deductive meta-analysis of two papers on atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and mortality. PMID:26578757

  5. Biological aspects of cannabis consumption in schizophrenia

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    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders are major health issues with particular implications for both the individual and the medical system. Epidemiological data show a more frequent consumption of drugs in schizophrenic patients when compared to the general population. Studies have shown that the abuse of substances is the most common comorbidity associated with schizophrenia. Among illicit substances, cannabis is the most commonly encountered among patients with schizophrenia. Similar clinical features of schizophrenia and cannabis consumption could be explained by some common neurobiological implications. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor stimulation is associated with psychotic-type phenomena and schizophrenia and NMDA receptors are involved in the clinical effects of cannabis consumption. Thus, the CB1 receptors that are spread mainly at the level of the NMDA secretory neurons are activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Moreover, cannabis abuse in association with other factors may contribute in triggering schizophrenia. Therefore, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia that abuse substances such as cannabis could represent a special category of patients that require a complex therapeutic approach, especially considering the multiple problems implicated, such as reduced compliance with treatment, unfavorable evolution and prognosis with multiple relapses and frequent hospitalizations.

  6. An Evaluation of Web-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines for Managing Problems Associated with Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg, Melissa M; Turner, Michael W; Rooke, Sally E; Langton, Julia M; Gates, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Background Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, and multiple treatment options and avenues exist for managing its use. There has been an increase in the development of clinical practice guidelines (CPGs) to improve standards of care in this area, many of which are disseminated online. However, little is known about the quality and accessibility of these online CPGs. Objective The purpose of study 1 was to determine the extent to which cannabis-related CPGs disseminated online a...

  7. Environmental epidemiology: Epidemiological investigation of community environmental health problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    This volume brings together the experiences of practicing epidemiologists in solving world-wide community environmental health problems. Emphasis is placed on problems facing the community, methods of analysis, and means and results of action. Actual case histories of various complexity provide exercises in solving community health problems using applicable elementary concepts of statistics.

  8. Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study.

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    Mokrysz, C; Landy, R; Gage, S H; Munafò, M R; Roiser, J P; Curran, H V

    2016-02-01

    There is much debate about the impact of adolescent cannabis use on intellectual and educational outcomes. We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of 2235 teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. By the age of 15, 24% reported having tried cannabis at least once. A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds (e.g. cigarette and alcohol use, childhood mental-health symptoms and behavioural problems), to test the relationships between cumulative cannabis use and IQ at the age of 15 and educational performance at the age of 16. After full adjustment, those who had used cannabis ⩾ 50 times did not differ from never-users on either IQ or educational performance. Adjusting for group differences in cigarette smoking dramatically attenuated the associations between cannabis use and both outcomes, and further analyses demonstrated robust associations between cigarette use and educational outcomes, even with cannabis users excluded. These findings suggest that adolescent cannabis use is not associated with IQ or educational performance once adjustment is made for potential confounds, in particular adolescent cigarette use. Modest cannabis use in teenagers may have less cognitive impact than epidemiological surveys of older cohorts have previously suggested. PMID:26739345

  9. Implicit associations and explicit expectancies towards cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls

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    JannaCousijn

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations towards cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated the relationship between these implicit affective associations and explicit expectancies, subjective craving, cannabis use, and cannabis related problems. Results show that heavy cannabis users had stronger implicit positive-arousal associations but weaker implicit negative associations towards cannabis compared to controls. Moreover, heavy cannabis users had stronger sedation but weaker negative explicit expectancies towards cannabis compared to controls. Within heavy cannabis users, more cannabis use was associated with stronger implicit negative associations whereas more cannabis use related problems was associated with stronger explicit negative expectancies, decreasing the overall difference on negative associations between cannabis users and controls. No other associations were observed between implicit associations, explicit expectancies, measures of cannabis use, cannabis use related problems, or subjective craving. These findings indicate that, in contrast to other substances of abuse like alcohol and tobacco, the relationship between implicit associations and cannabis use appears to be weak in heavy cannabis users.

  10. Welcome to the house of fun : Epidemiological findings on alcohol and cannabis use among Dutch adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Monshouwer, K.

    2008-01-01

    Substance use is generally considered as one of the most important types of risk behaviour among adolescents. In order to understand substance use patterns in the adolescent population and to be able to take timely, adequate and targeted measures to prevent substance use related harm, it is essential to closely monitor factors like the prevalence of use, age of first use, intensity of use, trends, risk factors and co-morbid problems. The aim of this thesis is to provide this information for t...

  11. Characteristics and Predictors of Health Problems from Use among High-Frequency Cannabis Users in a Canadian University Student Population

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    Fischer, Benedikt; Dawe, Meghan; Mcguire, Fraser; Shuper, Paul A; Jones, Wayne; Rudzinski, Katherine; Rehm, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Assess key cannabis use, risk and outcome characteristics among high-frequency cannabis users within a university student sample in Toronto, Canada. Methods: N = 134 active universities students (ages of 18-28) using cannabis at least three times per week were recruited by mass advertisement, telephone-screened and anonymously assessed by an…

  12. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

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    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    -term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

  13. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

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    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment. PMID:27215115

  14. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients

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    Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

  15. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

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    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  16. Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professionals Questions to Ask about Your Treatment Research Cannabis and Cannabinoids (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview Go to ... treatment (see Question 9 ). Questions and Answers About Cannabis What is Cannabis ? Cannabis , also known as marijuana , ...

  17. Mechanisms Underlying the Link between Cannabis Use and Prospective Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Carrie Cuttler; McLaughlin, Ryan J.; Peter Graf

    2012-01-01

    While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study, 805 students completed an online survey designed to assess cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis ...

  18. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    OpenAIRE

    Barnwell Sara; Earleywine Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even ...

  19. Simultaneous cannabis and tobacco use and cannabis-related outcomes in young women

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Pergadia, Michele L.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.; Heath, Andrew C

    2008-01-01

    Compared to those who reported a lifetime co-occurrence of cannabis and tobacco use, individuals who report simultaneous use of cannabis and tobacco are more likely to also report higher rates of substance-related problems and psychopathology. In a sample of young women, we examine (a) co-occurring use, or whether regular cigarette smoking is associated with increased cannabis involvement and (b) simultaneous use, a special form of co-occurring use where cannabis and cigarettes are typically ...

  20. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis use. While the effects of self-interest are not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use may not be as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was and not a...

  1. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, A.; Ours, J. C. >

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalizationfinding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis use. While the effects of self-interest are not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use may not be as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was and not as...

  2. Epidemiology of concurrent headache and sleep problems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Nunu; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Barloese, Mads;

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: There are no previous epidemiologic studies on concurrent headache and sleep problems (HSP). This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the prevalence of HSP in Denmark, broadly characterize those with HSP, and examine associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. METHODS......: A total of 129,150 randomly selected individuals were invited to participate in the Danish National Health Survey 2010. Respondents were asked about headache, sleep problems, depression and anxiety in the last two weeks, health-related lifestyle and quality of life (SF-12). Socioeconomic data were...... retrieved from national registers. Prevalence proportions were adjusted for stratified sampling and non-response. Regression analyses examined associations between HSP and socioeconomic/lifestyle factors. RESULTS: Of 68,518 respondents, 16.3% reported only headache, 21.1% only sleep problems, and 18.1% HSP...

  3. Mathematical Approaches to Problems in Resource Management and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Simon; Shoemaker, Christine

    1989-01-01

    Increasingly, mathematical methods are being used to advantage in addressing the problems facing humanity in managing its environment. Problems in resource management and epidemiology especially have demonstrated the utility of quantitative modeling. To explore these approaches, the Center of Applied Mathematics at Cornell University organized a conference in Fall, 1987, with the objective of surveying and assessing the state of the art. This volume records the proceedings of that conference. Underlying virtually all of these studies are models of population growth, from individual cells to large vertebrates. Cell population growth presents the simplest of systems for study, and is of fundamental importance in its own right for a variety of medical and environmental applications. In Part I of this volume, Michael Shuler describes computer models of individual cells and cell populations, and Frank Hoppensteadt discusses the synchronization of bacterial culture growth. Together, these provide a valuable introdu...

  4. Pothead or pot smoker? a taxometric investigation of cannabis dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taxometric methods were used to discern the latent structure of cannabis dependence. Such methods help determine if a construct is categorical or dimensional. Taxometric analyses (MAXEIG and MAMBAC were conducted on data from 1,474 cannabis-using respondents to the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC. Respondents answered questions assessing DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Results Both taxometric methods provided support for a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence. Conclusion Although the MAMBAC results were not entirely unequivocal, the majority of evidence favored a dimensional structure of cannabis dependence.

  5. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalizationfinding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis use.

  6. Problem gambling and homelessness: results from an epidemiologic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nower, Lia; Eyrich-Garg, Karin M; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of gambling disorder and comorbid psychiatric disorders in a homeless population and identify features related to potential subtypes. At baseline, participants were administered a structured interview including socio-demographic sections of the National Comorbidity Study (NCS) interview; seven diagnostic sections of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS); the alcohol and drug abuse sections of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Substance Abuse Module (CIDI-SAM); and the Homeless Supplement to the DIS. At nine months post-baseline assessment, participants were administered additional NCS family history questions and the South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS). Participants were an epidemiologic sample of 275 predominately African-American homeless individuals, grouped as lifetime non-gamblers (n = 60), recreational gamblers (n = 152), and problem gamblers (n = 63), recruited on the street and through homeless shelters. Results indicate that lifetime rates of sub-clinical problem (46.2%) and disordered (12.0%) gambling were significantly higher than in the general population. Problem gamblers were more likely than non-problem gamblers to meet diagnostic criteria for antisocial personality disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder, and any psychiatric disorder, and more likely than non-gamblers to use illicit drugs or meet criteria for abuse/dependence for nicotine, alcohol, or any substance. This study provides evidence that problem gambling is a significant public health issue among the African-American homeless population. Homeless services should include assessment for problem gambling along with psychiatric disorders and referrals to resources and treatment programs. Future studies should explore the relationship of the onset and course of problem gambling and other psychiatric disorders with homelessness as well as racial differences in gambling patterns and problem severity

  7. CANNABIS AND PSYCHIATRIC DISORDERS

    OpenAIRE

    Loga, Slobodan; Loga-Zec, Svjetlana; Spremo, Mira

    2010-01-01

    There are connection between use of cannabis and many psychiatric disturbances in adolescents, especially “cannabis psychosis", depression, panic attacks and suicide. Negative effects could occur either as a result of a specific pharmacological effect of cannabis, or as the result of stressful experiences during the intoxication of cannabis in young people. Potentially is very dangerous high frequency suicidal ideation among cannabis users.

  8. DSM-IV criteria-based clinical subtypes of cannabis use disorders: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)☆

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco, Carlos; Ogburn, Elizabeth; de los Cobos, José Pérez; Lujan, Juan; Nunes, Edward V.; Grant, Bridget; Liu, Shang-Min; Hasin, Deborah S.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research documented high homogeneity of alcohol use disorders (AUDs) as clinical entities. However, it is unknown whether this finding extends to other substance use disorders. We investigated this by examining the prevalence of all possible DSM-IV criteria-based clinical subtypes of current and lifetime cannabis use disorders in the general population. The number of possible (i.e., theoretical) clinical subtypes of cannabis abuse and dependence based on different combinations of the DS...

  9. DSM-5, psychiatric epidemiology and the false positives problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, J C

    2015-06-01

    The revision effort leading to the publication of the fifth edition of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) was flawed in process, goals and outcome. The revision process suffered from lack of an adequate public record of the rationale for changes, thus shortchanging future scholarship. The goals, such as dimensionalising diagnosis, incorporating biomarkers and separating impairment from diagnosis, were ill-considered and mostly abandoned. However, DSM-5's greatest problem, and the target of the most vigorous and sustained criticism, was its failure to take seriously the false positives problem. By expanding diagnosis beyond plausible boundaries in ways inconsistent with DSM-5's own definition of disorder, DSM-5 threatened the validity of psychiatric research, including especially psychiatric epidemiology. I present four examples: increasing the symptom options while decreasing the diagnostic threshold for substance use disorder, elimination of the bereavement exclusion from major depression, allowing verbal arguments as evidence of intermittent explosive disorder and expanding attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder to adults before addressing its manifest false positives problems. PMID:25675983

  10. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannabis users completed an Internet survey consisting of measures of cannabis and other drug use, in addition to measures of commonly reported negative problems resulting from cannabis use. We compared those who met a proxy measure of DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence (N = 1111 to those who did not meet the criteria (N = 1770. Cannabis dependent subjects consumed greater amounts of cannabis, alcohol, and a variety of other drugs. They also had lower levels of motivation, happiness, and satisfaction with life, with higher levels of depression and respiratory symptoms. Conclusion Although all of our subjects reported daily use, only those meeting proxy criteria for cannabis dependence reported significant associated problems. Our data suggest that dependence need not arise from daily use, but consuming larger amounts of cannabis and other drugs undoubtedly increases problems.

  11. Cannabis Prices and Dynamics of Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses duration models and self-reported cannabis histories from young Australians to study the dynamics of cannabis use. We find that low cannabis prices are associated with early initiation into cannabis use. While the decision to quit does not appear to be directly influenced by price, we find that the younger an individual is when they start using cannabis the less likely they are to quit. Therefore, low cannabis prices lead to early use and because of that they lead to a low qui...

  12. Pothead or pot smoker? a taxometric investigation of cannabis dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Earleywine Mitch; Denson Thomas F

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Taxometric methods were used to discern the latent structure of cannabis dependence. Such methods help determine if a construct is categorical or dimensional. Taxometric analyses (MAXEIG and MAMBAC) were conducted on data from 1,474 cannabis-using respondents to the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Respondents answered questions assessing DSM-IV criteria for cannabis dependence. Results Both taxometric methods provided sup...

  13. Medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murnion, Bridin

    2015-12-01

    A number of therapeutic uses of cannabis and its derivatives have been postulated from preclinical investigations. Possible clinical indications include spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, cancer-associated nausea and vomiting, cancer pain and HIV neuropathy. However, evidence is limited, may reflect subjective rather than objective outcomes, and is not conclusive. Controversies lie in how to produce, supply and administer cannabinoid products. Introduction of cannabinoids therapeutically should be supported by a regulatory and educational framework that minimises the risk of harm to patients and the community. The Regulator of Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2014 is under consideration in Australia to address this. Nabiximols is the only cannabinoid on the Australian Register of Therapeutic Goods at present, although cannabidiol has been recommended for inclusion in Schedule 4. PMID:26843715

  14. Cannabis cue reactivity and craving among never, infrequent and heavy cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Erika A; Kaye, Jesse T; Bryan, Angela D; Hutchison, Kent E; Ito, Tiffany A

    2014-04-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise, and cannabis cue images were presented, and a neutral auditory oddball task while event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Consistent with past research, greater cannabis use was associated with greater reactivity to cannabis images, as reflected in the P300 component of the ERP, but not to neutral auditory oddball cues. The latter indicates the specificity of cue reactivity differences as a function of substance-related cues and not generalized cue reactivity. Additionally, cannabis cue reactivity was significantly related to self-reported cannabis craving as well as problems associated with cannabis use. Implications for cannabis use and addiction more generally are discussed. PMID:24264815

  15. Mechanisms underlying the link between cannabis use and prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Cuttler

    Full Text Available While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study, 805 students completed an online survey designed to assess cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use indicative of a disorder, and frequency of experiencing prospective memory failures. The results showed small to moderate sized correlations between cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use, and prospective memory. However, a series of mediation analyses revealed that correlations between problems with cannabis use and prospective memory were driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory. For the second study, 48 non-users (who had never used cannabis, 48 experimenters (who had used cannabis five or fewer times in their lives, and 48 chronic users (who had used cannabis at least three times a week for one year were administered three objective prospective memory tests and three self-report measures of prospective memory. The results revealed no objective deficits in prospective memory associated with chronic cannabis use. In contrast, chronic cannabis users reported experiencing more internally-cued prospective memory failures. Subsequent analyses revealed that this effect was driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory as well as by use of alcohol and other drugs. Although our samples were not fully characterized with respect to variables such as neurological disorders and family history of substance use disorders, leaving open the possibility that these variables may play a role in the detected relationships, the present findings indicate that cannabis use has a modest effect on self-reported problems with

  16. Psycho-social characteristics of cannabis abusing youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licanin, Ifeta; Redzić, Amira

    2005-02-01

    It is a well known fact that drug abuse is most common in early adolescence. The most popular substances among youth are cannabis products (made from Cannabis sativa L., Cannabaceae). The majority of heroin and cocaine addicts have started with marijuana. The aim of this study is to show some psycho-social characteristics of adolescents who abuse cannabis. Research conducted during the year 2001 was epidemiological and prospective. The study group included 600 adolescents of equal gender and age distribution. Q 2000 questionnaire was used, as a comprehensive tool for all aspects of adolescent life. The results show strong peer impact on one's behavior. Youth who use cannabis had 2-3 friends of the same behavior, compared to others who had none. We found positive correlation between life stressful events and cannabis abuse. We also noticed tendency to delinquent behavior related to cannabis abuse (35%). PMID:15771607

  17. Emotional processing deficits in chronic cannabis use: A replication and extension

    OpenAIRE

    Hindocha, C.; Wollenberg, O.; Carter Leno, V.; Alvarez, B. O.; Curran, H V; Freeman, T P

    2014-01-01

    Heavy cannabis use is associated with interpersonal problems that may arise in part from the inaccurate perception of emotional faces. Only one study reports impairments in emotional facial affect processing in heavy cannabis users; however, it is not clear whether these findings were attributable to differences between cannabis users and controls in schizotypy or gender, rather than from cannabis use itself. A total of 25 frequent cannabis users and 34 non-using controls completed an emotion...

  18. Does Gender Contribute to Heterogeneity in Criteria for Cannabis Abuse and Dependence? Results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Previous research has noted that a unidimensional latent construct underlies criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence. However, no study to date has explored whether gender contributes to heterogeneity in the latent abuse and dependence construct and furthermore, whether after accounting for differences in the mean scores of abuse and dependence across genders, there is any evidence for heterogeneity in the individual abuse and dependence criteria. The present study utilizes data on criteri...

  19. La cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Stalrich Canet

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 20 ó 30 años hemos visto nuevos tipos de drogas que anteriormente no existían en nuestro mundo occidental o bien tenían una difusión bastante localizada y estable; me refiero, sobre todo, a los psicofármacos, los opiáceos y la cannabis corno las más importantes sin olvidar, no obstante, otras también actuales: los alucinógenos (sintéticos y naturales, inhalantes, etc. Estas nuevas r drogas conviven en nuestra sociedad con las otras más clásicas y generadoras de multitud de problemas como son el alcohol y el tabaco

  20. The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeler T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabea Schoeler, Sagnik BhattacharyyaDepartment of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UKAbstract: Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD, the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of Δ9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in Δ9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis

  1. Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P; Mokrysz, Claire; Lewis, David A; Morgan, Celia J A; Parsons, Loren H

    2016-05-01

    In an increasing number of states and countries, cannabis now stands poised to join alcohol and tobacco as a legal drug. Quantifying the relative adverse and beneficial effects of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids should therefore be prioritized. Whereas newspaper headlines have focused on links between cannabis and psychosis, less attention has been paid to the much more common problem of cannabis addiction. Certain cognitive changes have also been attributed to cannabis use, although their causality and longevity are fiercely debated. Identifying why some individuals are more vulnerable than others to the adverse effects of cannabis is now of paramount importance to public health. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about such vulnerability factors, the variations in types of cannabis, and the relationship between these and cognition and addiction. PMID:27052382

  2. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    OpenAIRE

    Aurélia Garry; Virginie Rigourd; Ammar Amirouche; Valérie Fauroux; Sylvie Aubry; Raphaël Serreau

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at ...

  3. Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna; Mechulam, Raphael; Lev, Lihi Bar; Konikoff, Fred M

    2014-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries as a treatment for a variety of ailments. It contains over 60 different cannabinoid compounds. Studies have revealed that the endocannabinoid system is involved in almost all major immune events. Cannabinoids may, therefore, be beneficial in inflammatory disorders. In murine colitis, cannabinoids decrease histologic and microscopic inflammation. In humans, cannabis has been used to treat a plethora of gastrointestinal problems, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and diabetic gastroparesis. Despite anecdotal reports on medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there are few controlled studies. In an observational study in 30 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), we found that medical cannabis was associated with improvement in disease activity and reduction in the use of other medications. In a more recent placebo-controlled study in 21 chronic CD patients, we showed a decrease in the CD activity index >100 in 10 of 11 subjects on cannabis compared to 4 of 10 on placebo. Complete remission was achieved in 5 of 11 subjects in the cannabis group and 1 of 10 in the placebo group. Yet, in an additional study, low-dose cannabidiol did not have an effect on CD activity. In summary, evidence is gathering that manipulating the endocannabinoid system can have beneficial effects in IBD, but further research is required to declare cannabinoids a medicine. We need to establish the specific cannabinoids, as well as appropriate medical conditions, optimal dose, and mode of administration, to maximize the beneficial effects while avoiding any potential harmful effects of cannabinoid use. PMID:24969296

  4. Cannabis-Related treatment demands in Belgium: a socio-demographic and treatment seeking profile

    OpenAIRE

    Colpaert, K; Vanderplasschen, W; Van Hal, G; Schuyten, G; Broekaert, E

    2010-01-01

    Aims Most people appear to stop using cannabis when getting older, but a certain subgroup becomes cannabis dependent, has problems in various life areas and needs treatment. Our aim is to compare a number of sociodemographic and treatment seeking variables between treatment seekers with primary cannabis problems and those with primary alcohol, opiate, amphetamine or cocaine problems. Understanding how primary canna-bis users seeking treatment differ from other treatment seekers may assist cli...

  5. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell Sara

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

  6. Cannabis and Breast feeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breast feeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breast feeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breast feeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  7. Are hazardous wastes hazardous? The problem with environmental epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weese, C.B. [Army Environmental Hygiene Agency, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD (United States). Occupational and Environmental Medicine Office

    1994-12-31

    According to recent opinion polls, the American public believes that hazardous wastes constitute a serious threat to public health. In contrast, many scientists and administrators do not share this belief. In the US, more than 6 billion tons of waste are produced annually--nearly 50,000 tons per person. One recent EPA survey found that more than 40 million people live within four miles and about 4 million within one mile of a hazardous waste site. As hazardous waste sites are characterized and remediated, citizens raise concerns over health effects and receive less than conclusive answers. Why is this so? The first reason, which is the basis of this discussion, addresses the inherent difficulties in conducting environmental epidemiology studies. The intent of the report was to review current knowledge of the human health effects caused by exposure to hazardous waste sites and to suggest how to improve the scientific basis for evaluating the effects of environmental pollution on public health.

  8. Epidemiology of Attention Problems among Turkish Children and Adolescents: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method: The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher…

  9. Can Cannabis be Considered a Substitute Medication for Alcohol?

    OpenAIRE

    Subbaraman, Meenakshi Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Substituting cannabis for alcohol may reduce drinking and related problems among alcohol-dependent individuals. Some even recommend prescribing medical cannabis to individuals attempting to reduce drinking. The primary aim of this review is to assess whether cannabis satisfies the seven previously published criteria for substitute medications for alcohol [e.g. ‘reduces alcohol-related harms’; ‘is safer in overdose than alcohol’; ‘should offer significant health economic benefits’; see C...

  10. Epidemiology of criniviruses, an emerging problem in world agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genus Crinivirus includes the whitefly-transmitted members of the family Closteroviridae. Whitefly-transmitted viruses have emerged as a major problem for world agriculture and are responsible for diseases that lead to losses measured in the billions of dollars annually. Criniviruses have emerge...

  11. Influence of Cannabis on Fatal Traffic Crash: A Detailed Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    VAN ELSLANDE, Pierre; FOURNIER, Jean-Yves; Jaffard, Magali

    2012-01-01

    The influence of cannabis on traffic crashes is a growing concern. Experimental studies provide ample evidences of cannabis influence on psychomotor and cognitive performances. Epidemiological works describe the excess crash risk that this substance causes. And yet, this psychotropic drug influence in causing crashes is still at the centre of many discussions. The present analysis consists in exploiting crash data in detail to obtain a more precise understanding of the failures that drivers a...

  12. [Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2010-02-01

    Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation. PMID:20118648

  13. Psychosis and cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Heinz Häfner

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1) the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2) Can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3) Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of bra...

  14. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2007-01-01

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine. The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and the endocannabinoid system have opened up a new and exciting field of research. But despite the pharmaceutical potential of cannabis, its classifi...

  15. Cannabis, Cocaine and Jobs

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study the employment effects of the use of cannabis and cocaine.For females no negative effects of drug use on the employment rate are found.For males there is a negative correlation between past cannabis and cocaine use and employment. However, after correcting for the effect of unobserved personal characteristics there is no negative effect of cannabis use or cocaine use on the employment status of males.

  16. Psychosis and cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Häfner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1 the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2 Can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3 Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4 What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

  17. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2007-01-01

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and mi

  18. Do medical cannabis laws encourage cannabis use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Dennis M; Charles Huber, J

    2007-05-01

    Medical cannabis is a contentious issue in the United States, with many fearing that introduction of state laws will increase use among the general population. The present study examined whether the introduction of such laws affects the level of cannabis use among arrestees and emergency department patients. Using the Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring system, data from adult arrestees for the period 1995-2002 were examined in three cities in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Jose), one city in Colorado (Denver), and one city in Oregon (Portland). Data were also analysed for juvenile arrestees in two of the California cities and Portland. Data on emergency department patients from the Drug Abuse Warning Network for the period 1994-2002 were examined in three metropolitan areas in California (Los Angeles, San Diego, San Francisco), one in Colorado (Denver), and one in Washington State (Seattle). The analysis followed an interrupted time-series design. No statistically significant pre-law versus post-law differences were found in any of the ADAM or DAWN sites. Thus, consistent with other studies of the liberalization of cannabis laws, medical cannabis laws do not appear to increase use of the drug. One reason for this might be that relatively few individuals are registered medical cannabis patients or caregivers. In addition, use of the drug by those already sick might "de-glamorise" it and thereby do little to encourage use among others. PMID:17689362

  19. [Perceptions of cannabis effects a qualitative study among adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, H; Roura, C; Kallmeyer, A

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare perceptions of cannabis use effects and risks of tolerance effect, withdrawal syndrome, dependence and repercussions on school, social, and familial functioning among adolescent cannabis users and non users. Subjects were 210 adolescents (121 boys, 89 girls; mean age=16.3 1.3) from the department of Pyrénées-Orientales, France. Subjects completed a questionnaire assessing the frequency of cannabis use, the method of using cannabis, and including open-ended questions (What are the different methods of cannabis use? What are their pleasant and unpleasant or negative effects? What are their risks? Do you think that cannabis effects decrease in intensity when you are used to it? When someone is used to cannabis and stop using it (or has no more of it), does she experience craving for cannabis and withdrawal symptoms? What do you think of cannabis use?). Among the subjects, 118 (56.2%) were cannabis users and 92 (43.8%) were non-users. Among users, 27% used cannabis once a Month or less than once a Month, 21%, more than once a Month; 24%, more than once a weeks; 6%, every day; 20%, more than once a day. The methods of using cannabis were joints (76%), bong (40%), pipe (23%), and ingestion (18%). Knowledge of methods of using cannabis was higher in users than non-users: joint (87% vs 64%, ppipe (38% vs 7%, pjoints. The effects of bong class cannabis as a hard drug. Physical negative effects or risk were reported by 35% of users versus 30% of non-users (p=0.44). Bong users described specific physical risks such as respiratory problems and fainting. No subjects reported the risk of road accidents. Most users and non-users considered that cannabis use causes dependence (60% vs 74%, p=0.03), tolerance (68% vs 60%, p=0.23), and withdrawal symptoms (76% vs 52%, p<0.001). A minority of users and non-users reported that cannabis use causes a deterioration in school functioning (42% vs 20%, p=0.69), in social activities (23% vs 14%, p=0

  20. Harmonizing Screening for Gambling Problems in Epidemiological Surveys - Development of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Perrot, Bastien; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to test the screening properties of several combinations of items from gambling scales, in order to harmonize screening of gambling problems in epidemiological surveys. The objective was to propose two brief screening tools (three items or less) for a use in interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Methods We tested the screening properties of combinations of items from several gambling scales, in a sample of 425 gamblers (301 non-problem gamblers and 124 disordered gamblers). Items tested included interview-based items (Pathological Gambling section of the DSM-IV, lifetime history of problem gambling, monthly expenses in gambling, and abstinence of 1 month or more) and self-report items (South Oaks Gambling Screen, Gambling Attitudes, and Beliefs Survey). The gold standard used was the diagnosis of a gambling disorder according to the DSM-5. Results Two versions of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG) were developed: the RSPG-Interview (RSPG-I), being composed of two interview items (increasing bets and loss of control), and the RSPG-Self-Assessment (RSPG-SA), being composed of three self-report items (chasing, guiltiness, and perceived inability to stop). Discussion and conclusions We recommend using the RSPG-SA/I for screening problem gambling in epidemiological surveys, with the version adapted for each purpose (RSPG-I for interview-based surveys and RSPG-SA for self-administered surveys). This first triage of potential problem gamblers must be supplemented by further assessment, as it may overestimate the proportion of problem gamblers. However, a first triage has the great advantage of saving time and energy in large-scale screening for problem gambling. PMID:27348558

  1. The medicalisation of revolt: a sociological analysis of medical cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Willy; Sandberg, Sveinung

    2013-01-01

    In a qualitative study, we investigated the medical motives of 100 Norwegian cannabis users, none of whom had legal access to medical cannabis. Cannabis was used therapeutically for conditions such as multiple sclerosis, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and rheumatism, as well as for quality of life conditions such as quality of sleep, relaxation and wellbeing. The borders between medical and recreational cannabis use were blurred. This article identifies strategies of medical cannabis users to gain social acceptance. Several respondents downplayed effects such as intoxication and euphoria. Others used the language of medicine and knowledge of current research in psychopharmacology. Cannabis was contrasted with the potential for abuse of prescription medicines. The medical cannabis movement has had little success in Norway. Medical professionals are unable to accept that users may be more knowledgeable than experts and medical users cannot discard the values of traditional cannabis culture. Calls for medical cannabis use are thus perceived as a gambit in attempts to have cannabis legalised. We argue that, despite having had little effect on health authorities, the medical cannabis movement may be having the unintended effect of medicalising cannabis use and using it as a cure for everyday problems. PMID:22827932

  2. Vaping cannabis (marijuana): parallel concerns to e-cigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J; Sargent, James D; Lee, Dustin C

    2015-11-01

    The proliferation of vaporization ('vaping') as a method for administering cannabis raises many of the same public health issues being debated and investigated in relation to e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Good epidemiological data on the prevalence of vaping cannabis are not yet available, but with current trends towards societal approval of medicinal and recreational use of cannabis, the pros and cons of vaping cannabis warrant study. As with e-cigs, vaping cannabis portends putative health benefits by reducing harm from ingesting toxic smoke. Indeed, vaping is perceived and being sold as a safer way to use cannabis, despite the lack of data on the health effects of chronic vaping. Other perceived benefits include better taste, more efficient and intense effects and greater discretion which allows for use in more places. Unfortunately, these aspects of vaping could prompt an increased likelihood of trying cannabis, earlier age of onset, more positive initial experiences, and more frequent use, thereby increasing the probability of problematic use or addiction. Sales and marketing of vaping devices with no regulatory guidelines, especially related to advertising or product development targeting youth, parallels concerns under debate related to e-cigs and youth. Thus, the quandary of whether or not to promote vaping as a safer method of cannabis administration for those wishing to use cannabis, and how to regulate vaping and vaping devices, necessitates substantial investigation and discussion. Addressing these issues in concert with efforts directed towards e-cigs may save time and energy and result in a more comprehensive and effective public health policy on vaping. PMID:26264448

  3. CANNABIS RELATED PSYCHIATRIC SYNDROMES: A SELECTIVE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Debasish; Malhotra, Anil,; Varma, Vijoy K.

    1994-01-01

    Association between cannabis use and various psychiatric syndromes does exist, but their nature remains elusive. Cannabis intoxication, ‘cannabis psychosis’ and certain other conditions related with cannabis use like flashbacks and prolonged depersonalization are discussed in this paper. The controversial nature of the cannabis - schizophrenia link is noted, and various methodological issues in clinical cannabis research are highlighted.

  4. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment where not only alcohol and tobacco but also cannabis is a legal drug.It turns out that alcohol and cannabis are intertemporal substitutes while tobacco and cannabis are intertemporal complements.Onl...

  5. Cannabis in cancer care

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, DI; Guzman, M.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Cannabis has been used in medicine for thousands of years prior to achieving its current illicit substance status. Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, mimic the effects of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), activating specific cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 found predominantly in the central nervous system and CB2 found predominantly in cells involved with immune function. Delta-9-tet...

  6. The medicalization of cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis has been considered as both an illicit drug and a medicine throughout its history. Introduced to the UK as a medicine in the nineteenth century, its medical utility was limited and it was not until tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), one of the principal active components in cannabis, was isolated in 1964 by Raphael Mechoulam and his team in Israel that scientific research on the drug expanded. Further major developments came in the 1980s, when the cannabinoid receptors in the brain were dis...

  7. [Cannabis and adolescence - drug misuse and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthel, T

    2007-02-01

    In the last decades the consumption of Cannabis increased strongly. Parents and teachers are disconcerted. Instruments, to successfully offer assistance, are missing to many physicians and therapists. We need sufficient knowledge of the substance, the effects, side effects and possible damages, so that treatment can be successful. At the same time we have to identify the development phase of adolescence, in which the consumption takes place. Thereby it is particularly important to question, whether the consumption of Cannabis initiates psychoses, the development of addiction is possible or mental and physical development is disturbed. In this article the problem of the consumption of Cannabis in the phases of adolescence will be represented according to the challenges of adolescent people. Further more some intervention approaches, which were successful, will be presented. PMID:17245676

  8. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

  9. Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Cousijn, Janna; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Repeated drug exposure can lead to an approach-bias, i.e. the relatively automatically triggered tendencies to approach rather that avoid drug-related stimuli. Our main aim was to study this approach-bias in heavy cannabis users with the newly developed cannabis Approach Avoidance Task (cannabis-AAT) and to investigate the predictive relationship between an approach-bias for cannabis-related materials and levels of cannabis use, craving, and the course of cannabis use. Design, settings a...

  10. Perspectives on daily cannabis use:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbæk, Mette; Asmussen Frank, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    AIM - To discuss similarities and differences in the way cannabis users with and without treatment experiences present their trajectories into daily use of cannabis. To observe the differences in patterns between the cannabis users’ descriptions of their recreational use and the development from a...... particular social contexts. All the respondents viewed it as a positive practice. The respondents highlighted certain differences of why, how and when cannabis was used as crucial in explaining how cannabis use had remained a recreational activity or had become problematic. Four trajectories into daily...... daily use is understood and perceived in different ways by daily cannabis users. It is not the amount of cannabis that determines whether daily use is considered problematic nor not. Rather, it is how, when and with whom cannabis is used that forms experiences and perceptions of problematic or...

  11. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment w

  12. Does cannabis affect dopaminergic signaling in the human brain? A systematic review of evidence to date.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sami, Musa Basser; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2015-08-01

    A significant body of epidemiological evidence has linked psychotic symptoms with both acute and chronic use of cannabis. Precisely how these effects of THC are mediated at the neurochemical level is unclear. While abnormalities in multiple pathways may lead to schizophrenia, an abnormality in dopamine neurotransmission is considered to be the final common abnormality. One would thus expect cannabis use to be associated with dopamine signaling alterations. This is the first systematic review of all studies, both observational as well as experimental, examining the acute as well as chronic effect of cannabis or its main psychoactive ingredient, THC, on the dopamine system in man. We aimed to review all studies conducted in man, with any reported neurochemical outcomes related to the dopamine system after cannabis, cannabinoid or endocannabinoid administration or use. We identified 25 studies reporting outcomes on over 568 participants, of which 244 participants belonged to the cannabis/cannabinoid exposure group. In man, there is as yet little direct evidence to suggest that cannabis use affects acute striatal dopamine release or affects chronic dopamine receptor status in healthy human volunteers. However some work has suggested that acute cannabis exposure increases dopamine release in striatal and pre-frontal areas in those genetically predisposed for, or at clinical high risk of psychosis. Furthermore, recent studies are suggesting that chronic cannabis use blunts dopamine synthesis and dopamine release capacity. Further well-designed studies are required to definitively delineate the effects of cannabis use on the dopaminergic system in man. PMID:26068702

  13. Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cousijn; A.E. Goudriaan; R.W. Wiers

    2011-01-01

    Aims Repeated drug exposure can lead to an approach-bias, i.e. the relatively automatically triggered tendencies to approach rather that avoid drug-related stimuli. Our main aim was to study this approach-bias in heavy cannabis users with the newly developed cannabis Approach Avoidance Task (cannabi

  14. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONTROL, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHOLERA IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I; Scherbakova, S A; Moskvitina, E A; Titova, S V

    2016-01-01

    Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required. PMID:27029123

  15. The association between cannabis use and anxiety disorders: Results from a population-based representative sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jürgen; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2016-03-01

    The cross-sectional association between cannabis use and anxiety disorders is well documented, yet less is known about the longitudinal association between the two. This study explored the association between cannabis use, cannabis use disorders (CUDs) and anxiety disorders in a 3-year prospective study. Data was drawn from waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety, panic disorder and specific phobias, were controlled for at baseline. Initiation of cannabis use was defined as any cannabis use by former lifetime abstainers in the time period between baseline and follow-up, CUDs were defined as a diagnosis of cannabis abuse or dependence. Results indicate that cannabis use was not associated with increased incidence of any anxiety disorder (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR)=1.12(0.63-0.98)). Though heavy cannabis use was associated with increased incidence of social anxiety in most models, this was not fully retained in the final adjusted model (AOR=1.98(0.99-1.98)). Investigation of the association between baseline CUDs and anxiety disorders at follow-up revealed similar results. Any baseline anxiety disorder was not associated with future initiation of cannabis use (AOR=1.03(0.62-1.69)) or onset of a CUD (AOR=0.68(0.41-1.14)), yet individuals with baseline panic disorder were more prone to initiate cannabis use at follow-up (AOR=2.2(1.15-4.18)), possibly as a means of self-medication. Our findings suggest that cannabis use and CUDs are not associated with increased incidence of most anxiety disorders and inversely, most anxiety disorders are not associated with increased incidence of cannabis use or CUDs. PMID:26775742

  16. Alcohol, cannabis y accidentalidad

    OpenAIRE

    Olave Porrua, Leticia; Matos Larrinaga, Jesús; Salguero Noguera, Martín; Ramos Cejudo, Juan; Mae Wood, Cristina; Iruarrizaga Díez, Itziar

    2011-01-01

    Se ha desarrollado este trabajo de revisión con el objetivo de concentrar los últimos avances en investigación del consumo de alcohol y cannabis y su infl uencia en la conducción. Se realizaron tres búsquedas sistemáticas en la base de datos Psycinfo, introduciendo las palabras clave 'alcohol' AND 'traffi c'y 'cannabis' AND 'traffi c', restringida a los últimos cinco años (de enero de 2006 a diciembre de 2010). El presente trabajo incluye los datos más relevantes sobre prevalen...

  17. Dissociation between implicit and explicit expectancies of cannabis use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmits, Emilie; Maurage, Pierre; Thirion, Romain; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-12-30

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly drugs used by teenagers. Expectancies about its effects play a crucial role in cannabis consumption. Various tools have been used to assess expectancies, mainly self-report questionnaires measuring explicit expectancies, but implicit measures based on experimental tasks have also been developed, measuring implicit expectancies. The aim of this study was to simultaneously assess implicit/explicit expectancies related to cannabis among adolescent users and non-users. 130 teenagers attending school (55 girls) were enrolled (Age: M=16.40 years); 43.84% had never used cannabis ("non-users") and 56.16% had used cannabis ("users"). They completed self-report questionnaires evaluating cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, effect expectancies (explicit expectancies), alcohol use, social and trait anxiety, depression, as well as three Implicit Association Tests (IAT) assessing implicit expectancies. Adolescents manifested more implicit affective associations (relaxation, excitation, negative) than neutral ones regarding cannabis. These were not related to explicit expectancies. Cannabis users reported more implicit relaxation expectancies and less negative explicit expectancies than non-users. The frequency of use and related problems were positively associated with the explicit expectancies regarding relaxation and enhancement, and were negatively associated with negative explicit expectancies and negative implicit expectancies. Findings indicate that implicit and explicit expectancies play different roles in cannabis use by adolescents. The implications for experimentation and prevention are discussed. PMID:26575651

  18. Recent developments in the epidemiology and management of tuberculosis – new solutions to old problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiss WM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang M Thaiss1, Cornelius C Thaiss2, Christoph A Thaiss31Christian-Albrechts-Universty, Kiel, 2Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis is an ancient human disease that is still a major cause of death and one of the most challenging public health problems worldwide. After decades of stagnancy, new public–private partnerships to fight the disease and the increasing awareness of a vicious circle between the tuberculosis epidemic and the obstruction of economic development have fuelled recent progress in our understanding of the disease. As a result, new strategies to improve management and treatment of tuberculosis have been initiated. At the same time, however, the devastating effect of human immunodeficiency virus on tuberculosis susceptibility and the rapid expansion of multidrug-resistant (MDR tuberculosis threaten to undermine the advances made by tuberculosis management programs. With an estimated 9 million new cases annually, tuberculosis affects a higher number of individuals worldwide than ever before. Here, recent developments in the epidemiology and management of tuberculosis are summarized and an overview is provided of emerging strategies to combat this ancient scourge.Keywords: tuberculosis, epidemiology, management, multidrug resistance, vaccine

  19. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  20. Motivational and control mechanisms underlying adolescent cannabis use disorders: A prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use disorders (CUDs are the most prevalent substance use disorders among adolescents in treatment. Yet, little is known about the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs. Studies in adult cannabis users suggest a significant role for cognitive control and cannabis-oriented motivational processes, such as attentional bias, approach bias, and craving in CUDs. The current 6-month prospective study investigated the relationships between attentional bias, approach bias, craving, cognitive control, and cannabis use in adolescent patients in treatment for a primary or secondary CUD. Moreover, we investigated if these motivational processes and cognitive control could predict treatment progression after 6 months. Adolescents with a CUD had an attentional but no approach bias towards cannabis. In contrast to adult findings on the role of attentional bias, approach bias and cognitive control, only cannabis craving significantly correlated with current cannabis use and predicted cannabis use-related problems and abstinence from cannabis 6 months later. These findings identify craving as a predictor of treatment outcome, thereby supporting an important role for craving in the course of adolescent cannabis use and dependence. This prospective study is among the first to investigate neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs, warranting future longitudinal studies.

  1. Cannabis Decriminalization and the Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a change in drugs policy on the age of onset ofcannabis use. We use 2012 survey data from the Czech Republic where in 2010 alaw was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. We estimate the effect of the policy change using a mixed proportional hazards framework that models the starting rate of cannabis use, i.e. the transition to first cannabis use. We find that the decriminalization of c...

  2. Cannabis Mobile Apps: A Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ramo, Danielle E; Popova, Lucy; GRANA, RACHEL; Zhao, Shirley; Chavez, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Background Mobile technology is pervasive and widely used to obtain information about drugs such as cannabis, especially in a climate of rapidly changing cannabis policy; yet the content of available cannabis apps is largely unknown. Understanding the resources available to those searching for cannabis apps will clarify how this technology is being used to reflect and influence cannabis use behavior. Objective We investigated the content of 59 cannabis-related mobile apps for Apple and Androi...

  3. Cannabis Decriminalization and the Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Chomynova, Pavla; Mravcik, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a change in drugs policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We use 2012 survey data from the Czech Republic where in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. We estimate the effect of the policy change using a mixed proportional hazards framework that models the starting rate of cannabis use, i.e. the transition to first cannabis use. We find that the decriminalization of...

  4. Pairwise measures of causal direction in the epidemiology of sleep problems and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Rosenström

    Full Text Available Depressive mood is often preceded by sleep problems, suggesting that they increase the risk of depression. Sleep problems can also reflect prodromal symptom of depression, thus temporal precedence alone is insufficient to confirm causality. The authors applied recently introduced statistical causal-discovery algorithms that can estimate causality from cross-sectional samples in order to infer the direction of causality between the two sets of symptoms from a novel perspective. Two common-population samples were used; one from the Young Finns study (690 men and 997 women, average age 37.7 years, range 30-45, and another from the Wisconsin Longitudinal study (3101 men and 3539 women, average age 53.1 years, range 52-55. These included three depression questionnaires (two in Young Finns data and two sleep problem questionnaires. Three different causality estimates were constructed for each data set, tested in a benchmark data with a (practically known causality, and tested for assumption violations using simulated data. Causality algorithms performed well in the benchmark data and simulations, and a prediction was drawn for future empirical studies to confirm: for minor depression/dysphoria, sleep problems cause significantly more dysphoria than dysphoria causes sleep problems. The situation may change as depression becomes more severe, or more severe levels of symptoms are evaluated; also, artefacts due to severe depression being less well presented in the population data than minor depression may intervene the estimation for depression scales that emphasize severe symptoms. The findings are consistent with other emerging epidemiological and biological evidence.

  5. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej S Buchowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise. AIMS: To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions. DESIGN: Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR monitoring (60-70% HR reserve over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight. PARTICIPANTS: Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 12, age 25±3 years, 8 females met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF. FINDINGS: Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD = 3.1, range 1.8-10.9. Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD = 1.6, range 0.9-5.4 and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD = 2.5, range 1.1-9.5 periods were lower than during the run-in period (both P<.005. Average MCQ factor scores for the pre- and post-exercise craving assessments were reduced for compulsivity (P  = .006, emotionality (P  = .002, expectancy (P  = .002, and purposefulness (P  = .002. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this pilot study warrant larger, adequately powered controlled trials to test the efficacy of prescribed moderate aerobic exercise as a component of cannabis dependence treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these

  6. [Psychiatric complications of cannabis use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscas, Sarah; Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel; Karila, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance, especially among young people. Cannabis use is extremely commonplace and frequently comorbid with psychiatric disorders that raise questions about the etiology. The use of cannabis is an aggravating factor of all psychiatric disorders. Psychiatric complications are related to the age of onset, duration of exposure and individual risk factors of the individual (mental and social health). The panic attack is the most common complication. The link with psychosis is narrow that leads to increased prevention for vulnerable populations. Cannabis is also an indicator of increased depressive vulnerability and an aggravating factor for bipolar disorder. PMID:24579344

  7. Attitudes to legalizing cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jenny; van Ours, Jan C; Grossman, Michael

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the relationship between cannabis use and attitudes to legalizing the use of cannabis. Predictions from theory provide a means of learning about the roles of information, self interest and regret in explaining differences in attitudes to legalization between those who currently use, those who have used in the past and those who have never used. Our empirical investigation suggests that users have a greater awareness of cannabis not being as harmful as abstainers think it is. This may explain why individuals are more inclined to be in favor of legalizing cannabis once they have used it themselves. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27037958

  8. Alcohol and cannabis use as risk factors for injury--a case-crossover analysis in a Swiss hospital emergency department.

    OpenAIRE

    Rehm Jürgen; Kuendig Hervé; Gmel Gerhard; Schreyer Nicolas; Daeppen Jean-Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background There is sufficient and consistent evidence that alcohol use is a causal risk factor for injury. For cannabis use, however, there is conflicting evidence; a detrimental dose-response effect of cannabis use on psychomotor and other relevant skills has been found in experimental laboratory studies, while a protective effect of cannabis use has also been found in epidemiological studies. Methods Implementation of a case-crossover design study, with a representative sample of ...

  9. Cannabis - the Israeli perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mechoulam, Raphael

    2016-05-01

    Short overviews are presented on the historical uses of cannabis in the Middle East and on the more recent scientific and medical research on phytocannabinoids and the endocannabinoid system, with emphasis on research contributions from Israel. These are followed by examples of research projects and clinical trials with cannabinoids and by a short report on the regulation of medical marijuana in Israel, which at present is administered to over 22,000 patients. PMID:26426888

  10. Cannabis use history and characteristics of quit attempts: a comparison study of treatment-seeking and non-treatment-seeking cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacek, Lauren R; Vandrey, Ryan

    2014-12-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit substance worldwide, and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are correspondingly high. Increased demand for treatment and relatively low rates of positive clinical outcomes has led to a large scientific investment in the development of interventions for the treatment of CUD. Much of this research is conducted with cannabis users who are not seeking treatment at the time of study participation, and it is unknown whether these individuals are representative of those who seek treatment. This study contrasted samples of cannabis users participating in screening interviews for treatment and nontreatment research studies. Several differences between groups emerged: Treatment-seekers were more likely to be female (43% vs. 29%), older (33.4 vs. 29.7 years), and have longer cannabis use histories compared with non-treatment-seekers (p = .007). Treatment-seekers were more likely to report experiencing guilt after using cannabis and to feel that cannabis use has been a problem for them. Additionally, treatment-seekers reported a greater mean number of reasons for making a quit attempt, experiencing a greater number of withdrawal symptoms, and employing more coping strategies during prior quit attempts. Despite the aforementioned differences, the 2 groups were similar on several key characteristics, particularly with regards to current levels of cannabis use and related problems. PMID:25150537

  11. Cannabis Decriminalization and the Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Chomynova, Pavla; Mravcik, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a change in drugs policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We use 2012 survey data from the Czech Republic where in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. We estimate the eff

  12. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  13. When cannabis is available and visible at school - A multilevel analysis of students' cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    Aims - To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers’ reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use

  14. Distance to Cannabis-Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In the Netherlands cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis-shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis- shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a Mixed Proportional Hazard rate framework to take account of obs

  15. Distance to cannabis-shops and age of onset of cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a mixed proportional hazard rate framework to take account of observable as

  16. The relation between AKT1, cannabis use and metabolic risk factors in psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liemburg, Edith; Bruins, Jojanneke; Van Beveren, Nico J.M.; Bruggeman, Richard; Alizadeh, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular and metabolic problems combined with a bad lifestyle are a major cause of a shortened life expectancy in chronic psychotic disorders. While the incidence of cannabis use is twice as high in psychosis compared to the general population, use of cannabis has been associated w

  17. Statistics on cannabis users skew perceptions of cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Melissa Burns

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight 1 differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; 2 how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and 3 the correlation between frequency of use in the past month and average grams consumed per day. Key findings: Focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanic. Further, data from a survey conducted in several European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations.

  18. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaekers, J. G.; van Wel, J. H.; Spronk, D B; S. W. Toennes; Kuypers, K.P.C.; Theunissen, E L; Verkes, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function,...

  19. What does a mouse tell us about neuregulin 1 – cannabis interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eKarl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The link between cannabis and psychosis has been debated although there is substantial epidemiological evidence showing that cannabis increases the risk of psychosis. It has been hypothesized that schizophrenia patients carrying particular risk genes might be more sensitive to the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis than other patients and healthy test subjects. Here we review the effects of cannabinoids on a mutant mouse model for the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1. The studies suggest a complex interaction between cannabis and Nrg1: the neuro-behavioural effects of cannabinoids were different in Nrg1 mutant and control mice and depended on exposure time, sex and age of test animals. This research provides the first evidence of complex cannabis-Nrg1 interactions suggesting Nrg1 as a prime target for future clinical investigations. Furthermore, it highlights that animal model research can broaden our understanding of the complex multi-factorial aetiology of schizophrenia. Finally, the findings are important to preventive psychiatry: if the genes that confer genetic vulnerability to cannabis-induced psychosis were identified patients at-high risk could be forewarned of the potential dangers of cannabis abuse.

  20. Evidence that familial liability for psychosis is expressed as differential sensitivity to cannabis - an analysis of patient-sibling and sibling-control pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, Rene S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2011-01-01

    Context: Individual differences in cannabis sensitivity may be associated with genetic risk for psychotic disorder. Objectives: To demonstrate and replicate, using 2 conceptually different genetic epidemiological designs, that (familial) liability to psychosis is associated with sensitivity to canna

  1. Cannabis in cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, D I; Guzman, M

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis has been used in medicine for thousands of years prior to achieving its current illicit substance status. Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, mimic the effects of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), activating specific cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 found predominantly in the central nervous system and CB2 found predominantly in cells involved with immune function. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main bioactive cannabinoid in the plant, has been available as a prescription medication approved for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and anorexia associated with the AIDS wasting syndrome. Cannabinoids may be of benefit in the treatment of cancer-related pain, possibly synergistic with opioid analgesics. Cannabinoids have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of HIV-related peripheral neuropathy, suggesting that they may be worthy of study in patients with other neuropathic symptoms. Cannabinoids have a favorable drug safety profile, but their medical use is predominantly limited by their psychoactive effects and their limited bioavailability. PMID:25777363

  2. Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin; López Núñez, Carla; Becker, Julia; Gmel, Gerhard; Schaub, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of cannabis and other illegal drugs is particularly prevalent in male young adults and is associated with severe health problems. This longitudinal study explored variables associated with the onset of cannabis use and the onset of illegal drug use other than cannabis separately in male young adults, including demographics, religion and religiosity, health, social context, substance use, and personality. Furthermore, we explored how far the gateway hypothesis and the common...

  3. Predictors of onset of cannabis and other drug use in male young adults: results from a longitudinal study

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Severin; López Núñez, Carla; Becker, Julia; Gmel, Gerhard; Schaub, Michael P

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of cannabis and other illegal drugs is particularly prevalent in male young adults and is associated with severe health problems. This longitudinal study explored variables associated with the onset of cannabis use and the onset of illegal drug use other than cannabis separately in male young adults, including demographics, religion and religiosity, health, social context, substance use, and personality. Furthermore, we explored how far the gateway hypothesis and the commo...

  4. New insights into cannabis consumption; abuses and possible therapeutic effects

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Luiza Baconi; Robert Daniel Vasile; Cristian Bălălău

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs known to humanity. The paper assesses the current knowledge on the cannabis, including the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids. Three varieties of Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The variety indica is used predominantly to obtain the drugs. Cannabis herb is usually named marijuana, while the cannabis oleoresin secreted by the glandular hairs found mainly...

  5. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, J. G.; van Wel, J. H.; Spronk, D. B.; Toennes, S. W.; Kuypers, K. P. C.; Theunissen, E. L.; Verkes, R. J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  6. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaekers, J G; van Wel, J H; Spronk, D B; Toennes, S W; Kuypers, K P C; Theunissen, E L; Verkes, R J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users (N = 122) received acute doses of cannabis (300 μg/kg THC), cocaine HCl (300 mg) and placebo. Cocaine served as active control for demonstrating neurocognitive test sensitivity. Executive function, impulse control, attention, psychomotor function and subjective intoxication were significantly worse after cannabis administration relative to placebo. Cocaine improved psychomotor function and attention, impaired impulse control and increased feelings of intoxication. Acute effects of cannabis and cocaine on neurocognitive performance were similar across cannabis users irrespective of their cannabis use history. Absence of tolerance implies that that frequent cannabis use and intoxication can be expected to interfere with neurocognitive performance in many daily environments such as school, work or traffic. PMID:27225696

  7. Injuries as a public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa: epidemiology and prospects for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordberg, E

    2000-12-01

    Injuries are common and on increase in most developing countries, including sub-Saharan Africa. A large proportion of the injuries are caused by road traffic accidents, falls, burns, assaults, bites, stings and other animal-related injuries, poisonings, drownings/near-drownings and suicide. Globally, injuries are responsible for about five per cent of the total mortality, and the overall global annual costs were estimated in the late 1980s at around 500 billion US dollars. The burden and pattern of injuries in Africa and other developing areas are poorly known and not well studied. The incidence is on the increase, partly due to rapid growth of motorised transport and to expansion of industrial production without adequate safety precautions. This is a review of data on various kinds of injuries in developing countries with a focus on sub-Saharan Africa. A computerised search of the relevant literature published between 1985 and 1998 was conducted and a manual search of journals publishing texts on health in low-income countries and in tropical environments was also done. A few studies on injury prevention policy and on research related to injury epidemiology and prevention have also been identified and included. It is concluded that in a relatively typical East African area with a total mortality rate of 1,300/100,000/year, injuries are likely to cause around 100 of these deaths. The corresponding total rate of significant injuries is estimated at 40,000/100,000/year with a breakdown as tabulated below. [table: see text] Although a few surveys and other investigations of injuries have been conducted over the years, injury epidemiology and control remain under-researched and relatively neglected subject areas. Much needs to be done. Collection and analysis of injury data need to be standardised, for example regarding age groups, gender disaggregation and severity. Injuries and accidents should be subdivided in at least road traffic injury, fall, burn, assault

  8. Problems and potential of researching epidemiological transition: examples from Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, D R

    1991-01-01

    The concept of epidemiological transition is now quite widely recognized, if not so widely accepted. The transition appears to progress at varying speeds and to different extents spatially; it seems that there can be considerable international, regional and local variations in its progress. The paper examines this contention in the case of a number of countries in Southeast Asia, principally Hong Kong, Malaysia and Thailand. Drawing on evidence from this region, the paper highlights the importance when researching epidemiological transition of the time period under consideration; socio-cultural variations; the nature and quality of data, and spatial scale. It makes some suggestions as to the potential of the concept of epidemiological transition in health care planning and development studies. PMID:1948152

  9. Distance to cannabis-shops and age of onset of cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In the Netherlands cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis-shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis- shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a Mixed Proportional Hazard rate framework to take account of observable as well as unobservable characteristics that in uence the uptake of cannabis. We find that distance matters. Individuals who grow up within 20 kilometers of a cannabis-shop have a lower age...

  10. Distance to Cannabis-Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In the Netherlands cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis-shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis- shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a Mixed Proportional Hazard rate framework to take account of observable as well as unobservable characteristics that in uence the uptake of cannabis. We find that distance matters. Individuals who grow up within 20 kilometers of a cannabis-shop have a lower age...

  11. Cannabis withdrawal in adolescent treatment seekers

    OpenAIRE

    Vandrey, Ryan; Budney, Alan J.; Kamon, Jody L.; Stanger, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    A valid cannabis withdrawal syndrome has been demonstrated in controlled studies with adult marijuana abusers, yet few published reports have examined cannabis withdrawal among adolescents. Adolescents presenting for outpatient substance abuse treatment, whose primary substance of abuse was cannabis, completed a questionnaire reporting the presence and severity of withdrawal symptoms during past periods of cannabis abstinence. Nearly two-thirds of the sample indicated that they had experience...

  12. Statistical problems in epidemiologic studies of the natural history of disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Brookmeyer, R

    1990-01-01

    The development of effective disease prevention and treatment programs depends on an understanding of the natural history of disease. A conceptual framework is presented for disease natural history and consists of an asymptomatic period of disease followed by a period of symptomatic disease. The focus is on epidemiologic studies for identifying risk factors of the onset of asymptomatic disease, for identifying cofactors of progression to symptomatic disease, and for estimating the duration of...

  13. Use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordle, F.

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s. The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  14. Cannabis Use and Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Anil; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis is a widely used illicit drug among adolescents, many of whom perceive little risk from cannabis. Cannabis use is associated with poor academic performance and increased school drop-outs. It is also associated with high-risk behaviors in adolescents like crime, violence, unprotected sexual encounters, and car accidents. Many of these…

  15. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured at...... room temperature, 4 °C and - 20 °C for up to 4 years. Acidic THC degrades exponentially via decarboxylation with concentration halve-lives of approximately 330 and 462 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. The degradation of neutral THC seems to occur somewhat slower. When cannabinoids were...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken to...

  16. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies

    OpenAIRE

    Sznitman, Sharon R.; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Methods Robust reg...

  17. An Epidemiological and Clinical Survey of Infertility Problems in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立法; 王敏峥; 杨文秀; 钱伟; 王一鑫

    1993-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of fertility was carried out in two cities and five counties of Henan province in China. 1.96% of couples were found to have primary infertility (2.01% if 12 women with recurrent rrdscarraiges were included ). The etiology, was analysed in 321 couples with primary infertility selected from the sample, In these 321 couples there were malefactors implicated in 26.8% of couples, female factors in 49% and both female and malefactors in 24%. The most commonly identified factors were: Varicocele ( 10.9% ) and ovulations disorders ( 32.08% ) in male and female respectively.

  18. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  19. Perceptions of cannabis as a stigmatized medicine: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its increasing prevalence and acceptance among the general public, cannabis use continues to be viewed as an aberrant activity in many contexts. However, little is known about how stigma associated with cannabis use affects individuals who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP and what strategies these individuals employ to manage associated stigma. The aim of this Canadian study was to describe users’ perceptions of and responses to the stigma attached to using CTP. Methods Twenty-three individuals who were using CTP for a range of health problems took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcribed data were analyzed using an inductive approach and comparative strategies to explore participants’ perceptions of CTP and identify themes. Results Participant experiences of stigma were related to negative views of cannabis as a recreational drug, the current criminal sanctions associated with cannabis use, and using cannabis in the context of stigmatizing vulnerability (related to existing illness and disability. Strategies for managing the resulting stigma of using CTP included: keeping CTP ‘undercover’; educating those who did not approve of or understand CTP use; and using cannabis responsibly. Conclusions Understanding how individuals perceive and respond to stigma can inform the development of strategies aimed at reducing stigma associated with the use of CTP and thereby address barriers faced by those using this medicine.

  20. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

    OpenAIRE

    Earleywine Mitch; Barnwell Sara

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studi...

  1. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP’s and nurses’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Norberg Melissa M; Gates Peter; Dillon Paul; Kavanagh David J; Manocha Ramesh; Copeland Jan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs) and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference ...

  2. Studies on cannabis, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seedlings from Cannabis sativa L. seeds irradiated with different doses of γ-rays were examined, in order to determine the dose sufficient to kill the young plants naturally, before their hallucinnogenic component increases. The seeds of ''Minamioshihara No. 1'', which were harvested in 1972 in Tochigi Prefecture, were irradiated with eight different doses of 60Co γ-rays in January 17, 1973, and the seedlings were examined several times during the subsequent 9 months, from March to November 1973, and their morphological and histological effects were examined, and the results are summarized as follows: Samples irradiated with 1500 and 1000 krads developed radicles about 3 mm in length. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, and 50 krads grew into young plants with the first set of leaves, without lateral roots. Samples irradiated with 30 krads grew to about 10 cm high with a few lateral roots, and the epicotyls about 1 cm in length. These young plants from the irradiated seeds stayed in the same condition and then died. Samples irradiated with 15 and 5 krads grew in the same way as the controls until the stage of flowering. Samples irradiated with 500, 200, 50, and 30 krads showerd the cell membranes of endodermis and pericycle to be partially lignified and suberized. The degree of change was related to the dose of γ-rays. Samples irradiated with 30 krads showed withered cells near the end of the lateral nerves on the first and second set of leaves. The economical dose of 60Co γ-rays for inhibiting young plants from developing into adult ones was a minimum of 30 krads which made the young plants die. Irradiation with 50 krads of γ-rays will be required to kill the young plants completely before they develop the hallucinogenic component. (auth.)

  3. Epidemiological comparisons of problems and positive qualities reported by adolescents in 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y;

    2007-01-01

    ) ranged from 3% to 9%, whereas those for gender and age ranged from less than 1% to 2%. Scores were significantly higher for girls than for boys on Internalizing Problems and significantly higher for boys than for girls on Externalizing Problems. Bicountry correlations for mean problem item scores......In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs.......5). Results indicate considerable consistency across 24 countries in adolescents' self-reported problems but less consistency for positive qualities....

  4. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  5. Computer and Therapist Based Brief Interventions among Cannabis-using Adolescents presenting to Primary Care: One Year Outcomes*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Maureen A.; Bohnert, Kipling; Resko, Stella; Barry, Kristen T.; Chermack, Stephen T.; Zucker, Robert A.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Booth, Brenda M.; Blow, Frederic C.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This paper describes outcomes from a randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of brief interventions delivered by a computer (CBI) or therapist (TBI) among adolescents in urban primary care clinics. Methods Patients (ages 12–18) self-administered a computer survey. Adolescents reporting past year cannabis use completed a baseline survey and were randomized to control, CBI or TBI, with primary (cannabis use, cannabis related consequences-CC) and secondary outcomes [alcohol use, other drug use (illicit and non-medical prescription drugs), and driving under the influence of cannabis (DUI)] assessed at 3, 6, and 12 months. Results 1416 adolescents were surveyed; 328 reported past year cannabis use and were randomized. Comparisons of the CBI relative to control showed that at 3 months the group by time interaction (GxT) was significant for other drug use and CC, but not for cannabis use, alcohol use, or DUI; at 6 months, the GxT interaction was significant for other drug use but not for cannabis use, alcohol use, or CC. For analyses comparing the TBI to control, at 3 months the GxT interaction was significant for DUI, but not significant for cannabis use, alcohol use, or CC; at 6 months, the GxT interaction was not significant for any variable. No significant intervention effects were observed at 12 months. Conclusion Among adolescent cannabis users presenting to primary care, a CBI decreased cannabis related problems and other drug use and a TBI decreased cannabis DUI in the short-term. Additional boosters may be necessary to enhance these reductions over time. PMID:23711998

  6. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. METHODS AND RESULTS: A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  7. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  8. Epidemiology of childhood conduct problems in Brazil: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Joseph; Anselmi, Luciana; Gallo, Erika Alejandra Giraldo; Fleitlich-Bilyk, Bacy; Isabel A. Bordin

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to review evidence on the prevalence of and risk factors for conduct problems in Brazil. Methods We searched electronic databases and contacted Brazilian researchers up to 05/2012. Studies were included in the review if they reported the prevalence of or risk factors for conduct problems, conduct disorder, or oppositional defiant disorder for 100 + Brazilian children aged ≤18 years, systematically sampled in schools or the community. Prevalence rates and sex differenc...

  9. Pairwise Measures of Causal Direction in the Epidemiology of Sleep Problems and Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenström, Tom; Jokela, Markus; Puttonen, Sampsa; Hintsanen, Mirka; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Viikari, Jorma S.; Raitakari, Olli T.; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa

    2012-01-01

    Depressive mood is often preceded by sleep problems, suggesting that they increase the risk of depression. Sleep problems can also reflect prodromal symptom of depression, thus temporal precedence alone is insufficient to confirm causality. The authors applied recently introduced statistical causal-discovery algorithms that can estimate causality from cross-sectional samples in order to infer the direction of causality between the two sets of symptoms from a novel perspective. Two common-popu...

  10. O problema do conhecimento verdadeiro na epidemiologia The problem of true knowledge in epidemiology

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    José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São examinadas as bases filosóficas da validação do conhecimento científico, com o intuito de estabelecer uma visão crítica a respeito da adoção das proposições de Popper na epidemiologia. Ressalta-se o caráter conservador que resulta das limitações técnicas implicadas na sua adoção, não obstante o evidente aumento da racionalidade e da criatividade heurística que propicia.The philosophical basis of the validation of scientific knowledge, with a view to stablishing a critical point of view as to the adoption of Popper's propositions in epidemiology is examined. The conservative character that results from the technical limitations implied in this adoption is a noteworthy aspect of the discussion, despite the evident increase in heuristic rationality and creativity that result.

  11. Baclofen in the management of cannabis dependence syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Imbert, Bruce; Labrune, Nathalie; Lancon, Christophe; Simon, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug in the world. However, only few studies have shown the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in targeting cannabis withdrawal symptoms or reducing the reinforcing effects of cannabis. Baclofen has been shown to reduce cannabis withdrawal symptoms and the subjective effects of cannabis. We think that the clinical utility of baclofen for cannabis dependence is a reasonable approach. A case report using baclofen is presented and provides preliminary sup...

  12. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study.

    OpenAIRE

    Pol, van der, J.P.; Liebregts, N.; Graaf, de, G.; Korf, D.J.; Brink, van den, A Arno; van de Laar,

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannabis users. Methods A prospective cohort of frequent cannabis users (aged 18-30, n = 600) with baseline and two follow-up assessments (18 and 36 months) was used. Only participants without lifetime d...

  13. Patient's perceptions of the cannabis-psychosis link--a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buadze, Anna; Kaiser, Stefan; Stohler, Rudolf; Roessler, Wulf; Seifritz, Erich; Liebrenz, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years a growing research effort has investigated the relation between cannabis use and schizophrenia at a neurobiological, epidemiological and clinical level. A number of systematic reviews and meta analyses have summarized the available evidence in the field. Conversely the patient's perception of the link between cannabis use and psychosis has been under investigation. Since patient's beliefs and attitudes strongly correlate with adherence to all forms of treatment, we conducted a systematic PUBMED database search for any English and German-language articles published until January 2012 that addressed patient's perception of a cannabis psychosis link. Six studies including psychotic subjects met inclusion criteria yielding a total sample of 97. The vast majority of patients with either schizophrenia or a recent psychosis disagreed with a causal link between cannabis use and their mental illness. We qualitatively reviewed the explanatory models underlying their views, which were multi-factorial, psychological, social, biological, esoteric and irrational factors. Most patient's believed that the temporal sequence of events did not clearly indicate a causal relationship for them. They thus discarded the hypothesis of a causal link between cannabis use and psychosis. Despite the heterogeneity of the included studies, findings are comparable and support the robustness of this review. Limitations and implications for clinicians and psychosis research are discussed. PMID:22716137

  14. Genomic Microbial Epidemiology Is Needed to Comprehend the Global Problem of Antibiotic Resistance and to Improve Pathogen Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyrsch, Ethan R.; Roy Chowdhury, Piklu; Chapman, Toni A.; Charles, Ian G.; Hammond, Jeffrey M.; Djordjevic, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of waste effluent from hospitals and intensive food animal production with antimicrobial residues is an immense global problem. Antimicrobial residues exert selection pressures that influence the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes in diverse microbial populations. Despite these concerns there is only a limited understanding of how antimicrobial residues contribute to the global problem of antimicrobial resistance. Furthermore, rapid detection of emerging bacterial pathogens and strains with resistance to more than one antibiotic class remains a challenge. A comprehensive, sequence-based genomic epidemiological surveillance model that captures essential microbial metadata is needed, both to improve surveillance for antimicrobial resistance and to monitor pathogen evolution. Escherichia coli is an important pathogen causing both intestinal [intestinal pathogenic E. coli (IPEC)] and extraintestinal [extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)] disease in humans and food animals. ExPEC are the most frequently isolated Gram negative pathogen affecting human health, linked to food production practices and are often resistant to multiple antibiotics. Cattle are a known reservoir of IPEC but they are not recognized as a source of ExPEC that impact human or animal health. In contrast, poultry are a recognized source of multiple antibiotic resistant ExPEC, while swine have received comparatively less attention in this regard. Here, we review what is known about ExPEC in swine and how pig production contributes to the problem of antibiotic resistance. PMID:27379026

  15. Alcohol and cannabis use as risk factors for injury – a case-crossover analysis in a Swiss hospital emergency department

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehm Jürgen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is sufficient and consistent evidence that alcohol use is a causal risk factor for injury. For cannabis use, however, there is conflicting evidence; a detrimental dose-response effect of cannabis use on psychomotor and other relevant skills has been found in experimental laboratory studies, while a protective effect of cannabis use has also been found in epidemiological studies. Methods Implementation of a case-crossover design study, with a representative sample of injured patients (N = 486; 332 men; 154 women from the Emergency Department (ED of the Lausanne University Hospital, which received treatment for different categories of injuries of varying aetiology. Results Alcohol use in the six hours prior to injury was associated with a relative risk of 3.00 (C.I.: 1.78, 5.04 compared with no alcohol use, a dose-response relationship also was found. Cannabis use was inversely related to risk of injury (RR: 0.33; C.I.: 0.12, 0.92, also in a dose-response like manner. However, the sample size for people who had used cannabis was small. Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis did not show significantly elevated risk. Conclusion The most surprising result of our study was the inverse relationship between cannabis use and injury. Possible explanations and underlying mechanisms, such as use in safer environments or more compensatory behavior among cannabis users, were discussed.

  16. Är cannabis den nya folkölen? : Unga cannabisanvändares tal om cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Mari; Tally, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine young adult cannabis users’ attitudes towards cannabis and their perception of the normalization of cannabis. The purpose was also to explore how their views of cannabis correspond with norms regarding cannabis. This study is based on interviews with five young adult cannabis users. The theoretical framework is based on Parker’s normalization thesis, Goffman’s notion of stigma, Becker’s definition of outsiders and the definition of social identity develope...

  17. The Social Context of Cannabis Use: Relationship to Cannabis Use Disorders and Depressive Symptoms among College Students

    OpenAIRE

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Wish, Eric D.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have investigated the association between the social context of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD). This longitudinal study of college students aimed to: develop a social context measure of cannabis use; examine the degree to which social context is associated with the transition from non-problematic cannabis use to CUD; and, examine the association between social context of cannabis use and depressive symptoms. The analytic sample consisted of 322 past-year cannabis use...

  18. Substitutes or Complements? Alcohol, Cannabis and Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Cameron; Jenny Williams

    1999-01-01

    This paper estimates the price responsiveness of cannabis, alcohol and cigarette use. Individual level data from four waves of the National Drug Strategy Household Survey are merged with previously unavailable state level data on cannabis prices, and ABS alcohol and tobacco price indices. In addition to own price effects, we estimate cross price effects and the impact of differing legal regimes for cannabis on the use of these three drugs. Establishing the nature of the interdependencies betw...

  19. Cannabis Use and Memory Brain Function in Adolescent Boys: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Block, R.I.; Luijten, M.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2010-01-01

    Early-onset cannabis use has been associated with later use/abuse, mental health problems (psychosis, depression), and abnormal development of cognition and brain function. During adolescence, ongoing neurodevelopmental maturation and experience shape the neural circuitry underlying complex cognitiv

  20. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-01

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit. PMID:26216862

  1. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  2. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie Løberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

  3. 12-month follow-up of an exploratory ‘brief intervention’ for high-frequency cannabis users among Canadian university students

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    Fischer Benedikt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for BIs in a cohort of young Canadian high-frequency cannabis users where select short-term effects (3 months had previously been assessed and demonstrated. Findings N = 134 frequent cannabis users were recruited from among university students in Toronto, randomized to either an oral or a written cannabis BI, or corresponding health controls, and assessed in-person at baseline, 3-months, and 12-months. N = 72 (54 % of the original sample were retained for follow-up analyses at 12-months where reductions in ‘deep inhalation/breathholding’ (Q = 13.1; p  Conclusions The results confirm findings from select other studies indicating the potential for longer-term and sustained risk reduction effects of BIs for cannabis use. While further research is needed on the long-term effects of BIs, these may be a valuable – and efficient – intervention tool in a public health approach to high-risk cannabis use.

  4. [Therapeutic use of cannabis derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benyamina, Amine; Reynaud, Michel

    2014-02-01

    The therapeutic use of cannabis has generated a lot of interest in the past years, leading to a better understanding of its mechanisms of action. Countries like the United States and Canada have modified their laws in order to make cannabinoid use legal in the medical context. It's also the case in France now, where a recent decree was issued, authorizing the prescription of medication containing "therapeutic cannabis" (decree no. 2013-473, June 5, 2013). Cannabinoids such as dronabinol, Sativex and nabilone have been tested for the treatment of acute and chronic pain. These agents are most promising to relieve chronic pain associated with cancer, with human immunodeficiency virus infection and with multiple sclerosis. However, longer-term studies are required to determine potential long-term adverse effects and risks of misuse and addiction. PMID:24701869

  5. Epigenetic Effects of Cannabis Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szutorisz, Henrietta; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2016-04-01

    The past decade has witnessed a number of societal and political changes that have raised critical questions about the long-term impact of marijuana (Cannabis sativa) that are especially important given the prevalence of its abuse and that potential long-term effects still largely lack scientific data. Disturbances of the epigenome have generally been hypothesized as the molecular machinery underlying the persistent, often tissue-specific transcriptional and behavioral effects of cannabinoids that have been observed within one's lifetime and even into the subsequent generation. Here, we provide an overview of the current published scientific literature that has examined epigenetic effects of cannabinoids. Though mechanistic insights about the epigenome remain sparse, accumulating data in humans and animal models have begun to reveal aberrant epigenetic modifications in brain and the periphery linked to cannabis exposure. Expansion of such knowledge and causal molecular relationships could help provide novel targets for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:26546076

  6. A controlled trial of an internet-based intervention program for cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tossmann, Hans-Peter; Jonas, Benjamin; Tensil, Marc-Dennan; Lang, Peter; Strüber, Evelin

    2011-11-01

    In the last decade, several programs for the treatment of cannabis-related disorders were developed. Until now, no information is available on the efficacy of Internet-based counseling approaches for this target group. This article describes the evaluation of "quit the shit," a web-based intervention developed to help young people to quit or reduce their cannabis use significantly. Cannabis users seeking web-based treatment were included in a two-arm controlled trial conducted on a website for drug-related information and prevention. After the baseline assessment, members of the treatment condition were randomized to a 50-day intervention program. Other trial participants were put on a waiting list. A post-test was conducted 3 months after randomization. Of all 1,292 subjects included in the trial, a total of 206 participants took part at the post-test. Per-protocol- and intention-to-treat analyses were conducted. Members of the treatment condition showed a significantly stronger reduction in cannabis use (primary outcome) than the control group. In the per-protocol analyses, moderate-to-strong effects were found for the reduction of the frequency and the reduction of the quantity of consumed cannabis. Small-to-moderate effects were observed on the secondary outcomes (use-related self-efficacy, anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction). Despite limitations concerning the interpretation of the results, the intervention seems to offer an effective treatment option for persons with cannabis-related problems. PMID:21651419

  7. Successful and unsuccessful cannabis quitters: Comparing group characteristics and quitting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooke Sally E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve treatments for cannabis use disorder, a better understanding of factors associated with successful quitting is required. Method This study examined differences between successful (n = 87 and unsuccessful (n = 78 cannabis quitters. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing demographic, mental health, and cannabis-related variables, as well as quitting strategies during their most recent quit attempt. Results Eighteen strategies derived from cognitive behavioral therapy were entered into a principal components analysis. The analysis yielded four components, representing (1 Stimulus Removal, (2 Motivation Enhancement, (3 (lack of Distraction, and (4 (lack of Coping. Between groups comparisons showed that unsuccessful quitters scored significantly higher on Motivation Enhancement and (lack of Coping. This may indicate that unsuccessful quitters focus on the desire to quit, but do not sufficiently plan strategies for coping. Unsuccessful quitters also had significantly more symptoms of depression and stress; less education; lower exposure to formal treatment; higher day-to-day exposure to other cannabis users; and higher cannabis dependence scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that coping, environmental modification, and co-morbid mental health problems may be important factors to emphasize in treatments for cannabis use disorder.

  8. Cannabis use, cognitive performance and mood in a sample of workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, E J K; Moss, S C; Simpson, S A; Smith, A P

    2006-01-01

    There are well documented acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on mental functioning. However, less is known about any effects on cognition within the context of work and everyday life. The aim of the study was to examine any association between cannabis use and cognitive performance, mood and human error at work. Cannabis users and controls completed a battery of laboratory based computer tasks measuring mood and cognitive function pre- and post-work at the start and end of a working week. They also completed daily diaries reporting their work performance. Cannabis use was associated with impairment in both cognitive function and mood, though cannabis users reported no more workplace errors than controls. Cannabis use was associated with lower alertness and slower response organization. In addition, users experienced working memory problems at the start, and psychomotor slowing and poorer episodic recall at the end of the working week. This pattern of results suggests two possible effects. First a 'hangover'-type effect which may increase with frequency of use. Second a subtle effect on cognitive function, perhaps more apparent under cognitive load and/or fatigue, which may increase with more prolonged use. The results also highlight the importance of the timing of testing within the context and routine of everyday life. PMID:16204329

  9. Cannabis treatment outcomes among legally coerced and non-coerced adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copeland Jan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Treatment seeking for cannabis dependence in general, and particularly the number of criminal justice referrals to cannabis treatment, has increased over the past decade. This study aims to compare the characteristics, psychosocial functioning and treatment outcome of those legally coerced into cannabis treatment compared to those entering treatment without legal coercion. Methods This study is a retrospective audit of the administrative clinical records of 27,198 adults presenting to public Texas treatment programs with cannabis as their primary drug problem between 2000 and 2005. Results Of the 69% legally coerced into treatment, there was less psychological distress and greater likelihood of having completed treatment compared with non-coerced clients. Participants who were legally coerced into treatment were also more likely to have received less intensive forms of treatment and to have not used cannabis in the month prior to 90-day post-treatment follow-up. Conclusion More public health information is needed on cannabis dependence and increased availability of subsidised early and brief interventions in a variety of primary health care settings would reduce the late presentations of the more severely impaired voluntary clients. The limitations of this dataset are discussed.

  10. Medical Cannabis in Arizona: Patient Characteristics, Perceptions, and Impressions of Medical Cannabis Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Many advances have been made toward understanding the benefits of medical cannabis. However, less is known about medical cannabis patients themselves. Prior research has uncovered many important patient characteristics, but most of that work has been conducted with participants in California, who may not represent medical cannabis patients throughout the United States. Furthermore, it is unknown if medical cannabis legalization, which typically imposes strict regulations on cannabis cultivation and sale, impacts patients' experiences acquiring and using cannabis. The goal of this study was to address these limitations by (1) examining the characteristics, perceptions, and behaviors of medical cannabis patients in Arizona; and (2) questioning participants with a history of cannabis use regarding their experiences with cannabis before and after legalization. Patients in Arizona share many characteristics with those in California, but also key differences, such as average age and degree of cannabis consumption. Participants also had positive perceptions of the effect of medical cannabis legalization, reporting that feelings of safety and awareness were higher after legalization compared to before. The results are discussed in relation to evidence from patients in other states and in terms of their potential policy implications. PMID:26317379

  11. Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.

    OpenAIRE

    Rothman, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic re...

  12. Medical Students' Satisfaction and Academic Performance with Problem-Based Learning in Practice-Based Exercises for Epidemiology and Health Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Mejías, E.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Olvera-Porcel, M. C.; Jiménez-Moleón, J. J.; Lardelli Claret, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on university students' satisfaction with and academic performance in a course on epidemiology and social and demographic health. The participants in this interventional study were 529 students (272 in the intervention group and 257 in the control group) enrolled in a…

  13. Predicting Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST) Scores : A recursive partitioning analysis using survey data from Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands and Sweden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankers, Matthijs; Frijns, Tom; Belackova, Vendula; Rossi, Carla; Svensson, Bengt; Trautmann, Franz; Van Laar, Margriet

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cannabis is Europe's most commonly used illicit drug. Some users do not develop dependence or other problems, whereas others do. Many factors are associated with the occurrence of cannabis-related disorders. This makes it difficult to identify key risk factors and markers to profile at

  14. Epidemiología y problemática médico forense del síndrome de latigazo cervical en España Epidemiology and forensic problems of the whiplash syndrome in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Garamendi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una revisión bibliográfica actualizada y centrada en los aspectos epidemiológicos del síndrome de latigazo cervical. En la revisión, se destaca la variedad y diversidad de conclusiones en los estudios publicados en relación tanto con el esguince cervical en su fase aguda (menos de 6 meses de evolución clínica como en su fase crónica (persistencia sintomática más allá de 6 meses de evolución. Finalmente, se apuntan algunos de los problemas que el trastorno produce en la actividad médico forense en España.We present a review of the current literature on the whiplash syndrome focusing on its epidemiological profiles. The review points out the variety and diversity of conclusions in the studies published on the acute whiplash syndrome (less than 6 months of clinical evolution and the chronic syndrome (symptomatic persistence after 6 months. Finally, we enumerate some of the problems the syndrome generates in forensic practise in Spain.

  15. Study of epidemiological features of health problems in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in an urban community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha K Deotale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause is said to be universal reproductive phenomenon. Menopause although not a disease is associated with annoying physiological changes and varied symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, urinary and genital changes, dyspareunia, insomnia and many psychological dysfunctions such as anxiety, depression, lack of concentration and decreased self-esteem. Every woman's experience of the menopause is unique; she may experience all of the symptoms or none of them. Some find the transition barely noticeable while others find it life altering. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among peri and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years residing at Government colony, Bandra, Mumbai, Maharashtra for a period of 1-year. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used for collecting data. A booklet on "care during menopause" was used for giving health education. Results: In this study, mean age at natural menopause was 45.32 years (standard deviation ±2.79. Our study participants reported mostly muscular and joint pain (44.86%, urological symptoms (23.43%, vasomotor symptoms (21.14%, vulvovaginal symptoms (19.43%, psychological symptoms (15.14%, weight gain (14.86%, psychosexual symptoms (11.43% and hirsutism (1.43%. Conclusions: There is a necessity of a multidisciplinary approach to the problems of menopause with more stress on promotive and preventive interventions. There should be provision of relevant health services, health education and promotional activities to cope up with the health needs of women in their postmenopausal years.

  16. Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer--misbrug og psykose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic...

  17. Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer misbrug og psykose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthoj, C.; Nordentoft, M.; Fink-Jensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic...

  18. Cannabis involvement in individuals with Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Nurnberger, John I.; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    In a study of 471 BD cases and 1761 controls, individuals with BD were 6.8 times more likely to report a lifetime history of cannabis use. Rates of DSM-IV cannabis use disorders in those with BD were 29.4% and were independently and significantly associated with increased suicide attempts, experience mixed episodes and disability attributable to BD.

  19. Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

  20. Cannabis in Europe: Dynamics in perception, policy and markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Korf

    2008-01-01

    After its re-introduction in the 1960s, cannabis has become the most widely used illicit drug in Europe. Along with the spread of cannabis use, its social meaning has changed over time. Today old paradigms are having renewed appeal, in particular on the subject of cannabis and schizophrenia. Cannabi

  1. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    OpenAIRE

    Faeh, D; Viswanathan, B; Chiolero, A; Warren, W.; Bovet, P.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors") are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered que...

  2. Consumo de cannabis en los estudiantes de secundaria de Barcelona: inicio en el consumo, efectos experimentados y expectativas Cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils of Barcelona [Spain]: initial use, reported effects and expectancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Morales

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las circunstancias del inicio del consumo, las razones para hacerlo, los efectos experimentados y las expectativas relacionadas con el consumo de cannabis en adolescentes de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuesta transversal realizada a una muestra de escolares de 3.º de ESO en 2005. El cuestionario era confidencial y autocumplimentado. Se dispone de datos de 2.043 alumnos de 47 centros escolares de Barcelona. Resultados: El 37,5% de los escolares declaró haber probado el cannabis, de los cuales un 10% lo hizo en el último mes. El consumo fue superior en centros públicos que en concertados-privados (p Objectives: To describe the circumstances of initial use of Cannabis, as well as the reasons for consumption, reported effects and expectations related to cannabis use, among adolescents in Barcelona. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of pupils in the third year of compulsory secondary education in 2005. The questionnaire was confidential and self-completed. Data were gathered from 2,043 secondary school pupils from 47 schools in Barcelona. Results: A total of 37.5% of students reported cannabis consumption at some time, and 10.0% of these students had used cannabis in the previous month. Cannabis use was more common in public schools than in subsidized or private schools (p < 0.001. More than half the adolescents (60.3% smoked cannabis for the first time in parks or on the street. Most (88.4% of the adolescents obtained cannabis from a classmate or friend and 92.3% did so without paying for it. The main reason for initial consumption was curiosity, and reasons for continuing use were a desire to feel better and to forget problems. The most frequently reported effects were memory loss, sadness and difficulties in studying or working. Cannabis use was positively related to the expectation that the drug induces relaxation and aids social and sexual relations, and negatively to the beliefs that the drug can

  3. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts. PMID:27249079

  4. Clustering of smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use in adolescents in a rapidly developing country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiolero Arnaud

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking, alcohol drinking and cannabis use ("risk behaviors" are often initiated at a young age but few epidemiological studies have assessed their joined prevalence in children in developing countries. This study aims at examining the joint prevalence of these behaviors in adolescents in the Seychelles, a rapidly developing country in the Indian Ocean. Methods Cross-sectional survey in a representative sample of secondary school students using an anonymous self-administered questionnaire (Global Youth Tobacco Survey. The questionnaire was completed by 1,321 (92% of 1,442 eligible students aged 11 to 17 years. Main variables of interest included smoking cigarettes on ≥1 day in the past 30 days; drinking any alcohol beverage on ≥1 day in the past 30 days and using cannabis at least once in the past 12 months. Results In boys and girls, respectively, prevalence (95% CI was 30% (26–34/21% (18–25 for smoking, 49% (45–54/48% (43–52 for drinking, and 17% (15–20/8% (6–10 for cannabis use. The prevalence of all these behaviors increased with age. Smokers were two times more likely than non-smokers to drink and nine times more likely to use cannabis. Drinkers were three times more likely than non-drinkers to smoke or to use cannabis. Comparison of observed versus expected frequencies of combination categories demonstrated clustering of these risk behaviors in students (P Conclusion Smoking, drinking and cannabis use were common and clustered among adolescents of a rapidly developing country. These findings stress the need for early and integrated prevention programs.

  5. Gone to Pot - A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv eRadhakrishnan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, with approximately 5 million daily users worldwide. Emerging evidence supports a number of associations between cannabis and psychosis/psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. These associations based on case-studies, surveys, epidemiological studies, and experimental studies indicate that cannabinoids can produce acute, transient effects; acute, persistent effects as well as delayed, persistent effects that recapitulate the psychopathology and psychophysiology seen in psychotic illness such as schizophrenia. Acute exposure to both cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids (Spice/ K2 can produce a full range of transient psychotomimetic symptoms, cognitive deficits, and psychophysiological abnormalities that bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of schizophrenia. In individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Several factors appear to moderate these associations, including family history, genetic factors, history of childhood abuse, and the age at onset of cannabis use. Exposure to cannabinoids in adolescence confers a higher risk for psychosis outcomes in later life and the risk is dose-related. Individuals with polymorphisms of COMT and AKT1 genes may be at increased risk for psychotic disorders in association with cannabinoids, as are individuals with a family history of psychotic disorders or a history of childhood trauma. The relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia fulfills many but not all of the standard criteria for causality, including temporality, biological gradient, biological plausibility, experimental evidence, consistency, and coherence. At the present time, the evidence indicates that cannabis may be a component cause in the emergence of psychosis, and warrants serious consideration from the point of view of public health policy.

  6. A Genomewide Association Study of DSM-IV Cannabis Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.; Hinrichs, Anthony; Grucza, Richard; Saccone, Scott F; Krueger, Robert; Neuman, Rosalind; Howells, William; Fisher, Sherri; Fox, Louis; Cloninger, Robert,; Dick, Danielle M; Doheny, Kimberly F.; Edenberg, Howard J.; Goate, Alison M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite twin studies showing that 50–70% of variation in DSM-IV cannabis dependence is attributable to heritable influences, little is known of specific genotypes that influence vulnerability to cannabis dependence. We conducted a genomewide association study of DSM-IV cannabis dependence. Association analyses of 708 DSM-IV cannabis dependent cases with 2,346 cannabis exposed nondependent controls was conducted using logistic regression in PLINK. None of the 948,142 SNPs met genomewide signif...

  7. Persistent cannabis users show neuropsychological decline from childhood to midlife

    OpenAIRE

    Meier, Madeline H.; Caspi, Avshalom; Ambler, Antony; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Keefe, Richard S. E.; McDonald, Kay; Ward, Aimee; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent reports show that fewer adolescents believe that regular cannabis use is harmful to health. Concomitantly, adolescents are initiating cannabis use at younger ages, and more adolescents are using cannabis on a daily basis. The purpose of the present study was to test the association between persistent cannabis use and neuropsychological decline and determine whether decline is concentrated among adolescent-onset cannabis users. Participants were members of the Dunedin Study, a prospecti...

  8. Negative consequences associated with dependence in daily cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Earleywine Mitch; Looby Alison

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cannabis is the most widely consumed illicit substance in America, with increasing rates of use. Some theorists tend to link frequency of use with cannabis dependence. Nevertheless, fewer than half of daily cannabis users meet DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis dependence. This study seeks to determine whether the negative aspects associated with cannabis use can be explained by a proxy measure of dependence instead of by frequency of use. Results Over 2500 adult daily cannab...

  9. The Long and Winding Road to Cannabis Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In almost all countries supply, distribution and use of cannabis is prohibited. Nevertheless, cannabis is the most popular illicit drug. Prohibition does not seem to work. The debate on legalization of cannabis is often emotional with strong views of both proponents and opponents but ignorance prevails. There are supposedly detrimental health effects of cannabis use but researchers debate whether they are causal or mere associations. As long as nowhere in the world cannabis is legalized it is...

  10. Cannabis, Cocaine and the Wages of Prime Age Males

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study whether wages of prime age male workers are affected by the use of cannabis and cocaine.The analysis shows that cocaine use and infrequent cannabis use do not affect wages.Frequent cannabis use has a negative wage effect.The age of onset is also important.The earlier current cannabis users have started to use cannabis the larger the negative impact on their wage.

  11. Investigating the interaction between schizotypy, divergent thinking and cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Schafer, G.; Feilding, A.; Morgan, C J; Agathangelou, M.; Freeman, T P; Valerie Curran, H.

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis acutely increases schizotypy and chronic use is associated with elevated rates of psychosis. Creative individuals have higher levels of schizotypy, however links between cannabis use, schizotypy and creativity have not been investigated. We investigated the effects of cannabis smoked naturalistically on schizotypy and divergent thinking, a measure of creativity. One hundred and sixty cannabis users were tested on 1 day when sober and another day when intoxicated with cannabis. State ...

  12. Polysubstance use in cannabis users referred for treatment: Drug use profiles, psychiatric comorbidity and cannabis-related beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Jason Paul Connor; Gullo, Matthew J.; Gary eChan; Ross McDonald Young; Wayne D Hall; Feeney, Gerald F. X.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Population-based surveys demonstrate cannabis users are more likely to use both illicit and licit substances, compared with non-cannabis users. Few studies have examined the substance use profiles of cannabis users referred for treatment. Coexisting mental health symptoms and underlying cannabis-related beliefs associated with these profiles remains unexplored.Methods: Comprehensive drug use and dependence severity (Severity of Dependence Scale- Cannabis [SDS-C]) data were collect...

  13. Polysubstance Use in Cannabis Users Referred for Treatment: Drug Use Profiles, Psychiatric Comorbidity and Cannabis-Related Beliefs

    OpenAIRE

    Connor, Jason P; Gullo, Matthew J; Chan, Gary; Young, Ross McD; Hall, Wayne D; Feeney, Gerald F. X.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Population-based surveys demonstrate cannabis users are more likely to use both illicit and licit substances, compared with non-cannabis users. Few studies have examined the substance use profiles of cannabis users referred for treatment. Co-existing mental health symptoms and underlying cannabis-related beliefs associated with these profiles remains unexplored. Methods: Comprehensive drug use and dependence severity (Severity of Dependence Scale-Cannabis) data were collected o...

  14. Associations between cigarette smoking and cannabis dependence: A longitudinal study of young cannabis users in the United Kingdom

    OpenAIRE

    Hindocha, C; Shaban, N. D.; Freeman, T. P.; Das, R K; Gale, G.; Schafer, G.; Falconer, C. J.; Morgan, C. J.; Curran, H V

    2015-01-01

    Aims To determine the degree to which cigarette smoking predicts levels of cannabis dependence above and beyond cannabis use itself, concurrently and in an exploratory four-year follow-up, and to investigate whether cigarette smoking mediates the relationship between cannabis use and cannabis dependence. Methods The study was cross sectional with an exploratory follow-up in the participants’ own homes or via telephone interviews in the United Kingdom. Participants were 298 cannabis and tobacc...

  15. Cannabis use motives and personality risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecimovic, Karen; Barrett, Sean P; Darredeau, Christine; Stewart, Sherry H

    2014-03-01

    According to the model of substance abuse of Conrod, Pihl, Stewart, and Dongier (2000), four personality factors (i.e., anxiety sensitivity [AS], introversion/hopelessness [I/H], sensation seeking [SS], and impulsivity [IMP]) are associated with elevated risk for substance use/misuse, with each personality factor being related to preference for particular drugs of abuse (e.g., AS with anxiolytics). However, cannabis use has not been consistently linked to any one of these personality factors. This may be due to the heterogeneity in cannabis use motives. The present study explored the association between these four personality risk factors and different cannabis use motives. Cannabis users completed an interview about their motives for cannabis use as well as the self-report Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS; Woicik, Conrod, Stewart, & Pihl, 2009), which measures the four personality risk factors. Results showed that AS was associated with conformity motives and I/H was associated with coping motives for cannabis use. SS was positively associated with expansion motives and IMP was associated with drug availability motives. Thus, personality risk factors in the model of Conrod et al. (2000) are associated with distinct cannabis use motives in a pattern consistent with theory. PMID:24368004

  16. Assessing Topographical Orientation Skills in Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Liana; Bianchini, Filippo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Tanzilli, Antonio; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, should be more compromised than others. Indeed it has been showed that cannabis users have a reduced hippocampus and that the hippocampus is the brain region in which cannabis has the greatest effect since it contains the highest concentration of cannabinoid receptors. To test this hypothesis we asked 15 heavy cannabis users and 19 nonusers to perform a virtual navigational test, the CMT, that assesses the ability to form and use cognitive maps. We found that using cannabis has no effect on these hippocampus-dependent orientation skills. We discuss the implications of our findings and how they relate to evidence reported in the literature that the intervention of functional reorganization mechanisms in cannabis user allows them to cope with the cognitive demands of navigational tasks. PMID:22272167

  17. Assessing Topographical Orientation Skills in Cannabis Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Palermo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, should be more compromised than others. Indeed it has been showed that cannabis users have a reduced hippocampus and that the hippocampus is the brain region in which cannabis has the greatest effect since it contains the highest concentration of cannabinoid receptors. To test this hypothesis we asked 15 heavy cannabis users and 19 nonusers to perform a virtual navigational test, the CMT, that assesses the ability to form and use cognitive maps. We found that using cannabis has no effect on these hippocampus-dependent orientation skills. We discuss the implications of our findings and how they relate to evidence reported in the literature that the intervention of functional reorganization mechanisms in cannabis user allows them to cope with the cognitive demands of navigational tasks.

  18. Implicit associations and explicit expectancies toward cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Beraha, Esther M.; Cousijn, Janna; Hermanides, Elisa; Goudriaan, Anna E; Reinout W Wiers

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations toward cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s) and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated t...

  19. Implicit associations and explicit expectancies towards cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Esther eBeraha; Janna eCousijn; Elisa eHermanides; Goudriaan, Anna E.; Wiers, Reinout W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations towards cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT’s) and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated ...

  20. Implicit associations and explicit expectancies toward cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls

    OpenAIRE

    Beraha, E.M.; Cousijn, J.; Hermanides, E.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative associations toward cannabis were measured with three Single Category Implicit Association Tests (SC-IAT's) and compared between 59 heavy cannabis users and 89 controls. Moreover, we investigated t...

  1. Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor...... cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However, the...

  2. AKT1 genotype moderates the acute psychotomimetic effects of naturalistically smoked cannabis in young cannabis smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, C J A; Freeman, T P; Powell, J; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    Smoking cannabis daily doubles an individual's risk of developing a psychotic disorder, yet indicators of specific vulnerability have proved largely elusive. Genetic variation is one potential risk modifier. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the AKT1 and catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genes have been implicated in the interaction between cannabis, psychosis and cognition, but no studies have examined their impact on an individual's acute response to smoked cannabis. A total 442 healthy young cannabis users were tested while intoxicated with their own cannabis-which was analysed for delta-9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC) and cannabidiol content-and also ± 7 days apart when drug-free. Psychotomimetic symptoms and working memory were assessed on both the sessions. Variation at the rs2494732 locus of the AKT1 gene predicted acute psychotic response to cannabis along with dependence on the drug and baseline schizotypal symptoms. Working memory following cannabis acutely was worse in females, with some suggestion of an impact of COMT polymorphism on working memory when drug-free. These findings are the first to demonstrate that AKT1 mediates the acute response to cannabis in otherwise healthy individuals and implicate the AKT1 pathway as a possible target for prevention and treatment of cannabis psychosis. PMID:26882038

  3. Suicidal Ideation Induced by Episodic Cannabis Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Raja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The report describes a patient who presented suicidal ideation only in two different occasions, immediately after acute cannabis intoxication. He used cannabis only in these two circumstances. Although a definite association between cannabis use and suicidal ideation or behavior has been already reported in the literature, the described case presents two original clinical aspects that deserve consideration. First, episodic assumption of cannabis induced suicidal ideation abruptly. Second, suicidal ideation appeared independent of mood depression, stressors, or life events, suggesting that suicidality may be not a direct consequence of depression and appears to be a relatively independent psychopathological dimension. There seems to be no linear relation between the severity of depression and the risk of suicide.

  4. Cannabis use, schizotypy, and negative priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertella, Lucy; Le Pelley, Mike E; Copeland, Jan

    2015-08-30

    The present study examined the effects of frequency of cannabis use, schizotypy, and age on cognitive control, as measured using a location-based negative priming task in a sample of 124 Australians aged 15-24 who had ever used cannabis. This study found that the schizotypy dimension of Impulsive Nonconformity had a significant effect on negative priming such that participants with higher scores on this dimension showed reduced negative priming. Also, higher levels of psychological distress were associated with greater negative priming. Finally, there was a significant age by cannabis use interaction indicating that younger, frequent users of cannabis may be more susceptible to its effects on cognitive control and perhaps at greater risk of developing a disorder on the psychosis dimension. PMID:26154815

  5. Cannabis abuse in patients with schizophrenia pattern and effects on symptomatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the relationship between cannabis abuse and its impact on the short-term outcome and severity of illness. ICD-10 criteria were used for diagnosis of schizophrenia. Severity and type of schizophrenic symptoms were assessed with the help of PANSS. Cases were identified as having problem with cannabis use with the help of section 12 of Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN) W.H.O. 1994. Amount, duration and frequency of cannabis use was also noted. Patients with cannabis use were younger had shorter duration of illness and earlier age at onset of illness. They exhibited more positive symptoms. A total of 20% cases met ICD-10 criteria of harmful use of cannabinoid, 76% met ICD-10 criteria of cannabinoid dependence syndrome. Schizophrenic patients with comorbid cannabis abuse exhibited more positive symptoms and violent behavior, and may be more likely to lead to dependence in persons with schizophrenia. This has implication for service development to meet the perceived needs of this group. (author)

  6. 'High' Achievers? Cannabis Access and Academic Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Marie, Olivier; Zölitz, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how legal cannabis access affects student performance. Identification comes from an exceptional policy introduced in the city of Maastricht which discriminated legal access based on individuals’ nationality. We apply a difference-in-difference approach using administrative panel data on over 54,000 course grades of local students enrolled at Maastricht University before and during the partial cannabis prohibition. We find that the academic performance of students who a...

  7. 20. Integrating Cannabis Into Clinical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care, Mental Health, Alleviating Pain Cannabis is now available to patients as a medicine in 18 states and the District of Columbia. Unfortunately, due to the long-standing prohibition, most providers have little information regarding the medicinal use of this versatile botanical. The history of cannabis as medicine will be reviewed. This presentation will summarize the main components of the plant and their pharmacologic effects, highlighting the entour...

  8. Cannabis, Collaterals, and Coronary Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpa De Silva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old gentleman, who regularly smoked cannabis, presented with chest pain and diaphoresis. He was haemodynamically stable. ECG showed ST depression, inferiorly, and 1 mm ST elevation in lead aVR. Emergent coronary angiography showed thrombotic occlusion of the left main coronary artery (LMCA, the dominant RCA provided Rentrop grade II collaterals to the LAD. The LMCA was successfully reopened by deployment of a bare-metal stent. Animal heart models suggest that endogenous cannibinoids may cause ischaemic preconditioning. This case suggests that the severity of ischaemia, and hence ECG changes and haemodynamic consequences following an acute occlusion of the LMCA, can be ameliorated by coronary collateralisation and possibly by preconditioning of the myocardium.

  9. Reasons for Cannabis Use and Effects of Cannabis Use as Reported by Patients with Psychotic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dekker; D.H. Linszen; L. de Haan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances in patients with a psychotic disorder and is associated with a higher risk of psychotic relapses. Identifying reasons for cannabis use and subjective effects in patients with psychotic disorders can provide insight into the functions o

  10. Cannabis Reclassification: What Is the Message to the Next Generation of Cannabis Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…

  11. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Pol; N. Liebregts; R. de Graaf; D.J. Korf; W. van den Brink; M. van Laar

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannab

  12. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  13. Limitations to the Dutch cannabis toleration policy: Assumptions underlying the reclassification of cannabis above 15% THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Margriet; Van Der Pol, Peggy; Niesink, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug. In 2011, an advisory committee recommended tightening up legislation, leading to a 2013 bill proposing the reclassification of high potency cannabis products with a THC content of 15% or more as a Schedule I drug. The purpose of this measure was twofold: to reduce public health risks and to reduce illegal cultivation and export of cannabis by increasing punishment. This paper focuses on the public health aspects and describes the (explicit and implicit) assumptions underlying this '15% THC measure', as well as to what extent these are supported by scientific research. Based on scientific literature and other sources of information, we conclude that the 15% measure can provide in theory a slight health benefit for specific groups of cannabis users (i.e., frequent users preferring strong cannabis, purchasing from coffee shops, using 'steady quantities' and not changing their smoking behaviour), but certainly not for all cannabis users. These gains should be weighed against the investment in enforcement and the risk of unintended (adverse) effects. Given the many assumptions and uncertainty about the nature and extent of the expected buying and smoking behaviour changes, the measure is a political choice and based on thin evidence. PMID:27471078

  14. Medicinal Use of Cannabis: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Kalant

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids.

  15. Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety Email Facebook Twitter October 25, 2013 A recent ... relationship between cannabis use disorder (CUD) and social anxiety disorder (SAD). The findings affirmed that a significant ...

  16. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, D I

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use. For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite. Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia. Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis. Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating. Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects. PMID:27022315

  17. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, D.I.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use. For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite. Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia. Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis. Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating. Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects. PMID:27022315

  18. Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Calvigioni, Daniela; Yasmin L. Hurd; Harkany, Tibor; Keimpema, Erik

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis remains one of the world’s most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal “legal” highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnan...

  19. Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Kotuła; Paulina Sobstyl; Jan Sobstyl; Paulina Chwil; Karol Terlecki; Jolanta Karwat; Paulina Gil-Kulik; Alicja Niedojadło; Janusz Kocki

    2014-01-01

    Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 an...

  20. Multiple sclerosis, cannabis, and cognition: A structural MRI study

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffer Romero; Bennis Pavisian; William R. Staines; Anthony Feinstein

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A subset of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) smoke cannabis to relieve symptoms including spasticity and pain. Recent evidence suggests that smoking cannabis further impairs cognition in people with MS and is linked to impaired functional brain changes. No such association, however, has been reported between cannabis use and structural brain changes, hence the focus of the present study. Methods: Twenty patients with MS who smoke cannabis for symptom relief, and 19 matched ...

  1. The Effects of Cannabis Use on Physical and Mental Health

    OpenAIRE

    van Ours, J.C.; J. Williams

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use affects physical and mental health. To do so, information on prime aged individuals living in Amsterdam in 1994 is used. Dutch data offer a clear advantage in estimating the health impacts of cannabis use because the legal status of cannabis in the Netherlands ensures that estimates are free from confounding with the physical and psychological effects of engaging in a criminal activity. Accounting for selection into cannabis use and shared frailtie...

  2. Effects of peer network interactions on adolescent cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Moriarty, John; Higgins, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    PurposeThis study capitalises on three waves of longitudinal data from a cohort of 4351 secondary school pupils to examine the effects on individuals’ cannabis use uptake of both peer cannabis use and position within a peer network.Design/methodology/approachBoth cross-sectional and individual fixed effects models are used to estimate the effect on cannabis use of nominated friends’ cannabis use, of reciprocity and transitivity of nominations across the friendship cluster, and of interactions...

  3. Reactivity to Cannabis Cues in Virtual Reality Environments†

    OpenAIRE

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Copp, Hilary L.; Traylor, Amy; Graap, Ken M.; Carter, Brian L.; Walton, Alicia; Ferrer, Mirtha

    2009-01-01

    Virtual reality (VR) cue environments have been developed and successfully tested in nicotine, cocaine, and alcohol abusers. Aims in the current article include the development and testing of a novel VR cannabis cue reactivity assessment system. It was hypothesized that subjective craving levels and attention to cannabis cues would be higher in VR environments merits with cannabis cues compared to VR neutral environments. Twenty nontreatment-seeking current cannabis smokers participated in th...

  4. THE EFFECT OF CANNABIS COMPARED WITH ALCOHOL ON DRIVING

    OpenAIRE

    Sewell, R. Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of toler...

  5. Adolescent Cannabis Use Increases Risk for Cocaine-Induced Paranoia

    OpenAIRE

    Kalayasiri, Rasmon; Gelernter, Joel; Farrer, Lindsay; Weiss, Roger; Brady, Kathleen; Gueorguieva, Ralitza; Kranzler, Henry R.; Malison, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis can produce and/or exacerbate psychotic symptoms in vulnerable individuals. Early exposure to cannabis, particularly in combination with genetic factors, increases the risk of a subsequent, primary, psychotic disorder. Because paranoia is a common feature of stimulant abuse and cocaine dependent individuals frequently endorse a history of cannabis abuse, we examined whether early cannabis exposure, in conjunction with polymorphic variation in the catechol-O-methyl transferase gene (C...

  6. Medical use of cannabis: an addiction medicine perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J; Lloyd-Jones, D M; Ogden, E; Bonomo, Y

    2015-06-01

    The use of cannabis for medical purposes, evident throughout history, has become a topic of increasing interest. Yet on the present medical evidence, cannabis-based treatments will only be appropriate for a small number of people in specific circumstances. Experience with cannabis as a recreational drug, and with use of psychoactive drugs that are prescribed and abused, should inform harm reduction in the context of medical cannabis. PMID:26059881

  7. Adolescent Cannabis Use in Relation to Parents and Peers

    OpenAIRE

    Ísak Stefánsson 1992

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of parental monitoring and peer cannabis-use on adolescent cannabis use. The relationship between the variables was examined using multiple linear hierarchical regression on data collected from a large sample of Icelandic secondary school students, collected by the Icelandic Centre for Social Research and Analysis (ISCRA). Three hypotheses were made: a) parental monitoring predicts decreased cannabis use, b) peer cannabis use predicts inc...

  8. Anterior Myocardial Infarction And Developing Ventricular Aneurysm After Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Yalcin

    2014-01-01

        Incidence of drug abuse and cannabis have increased in young adults, recently. Cannabis induced myocardial infarction has rarely been reported in these people. Herein, we reported 20 years old male who had acute anterior myocardial infarction and developing apical ventricular aneurysm after heavy cannabis use.

  9. Cannabis, Cocaine and the Wages of Prime Age Males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study whether wages of prime age male workers are affected by the use of cannabis and cocaine.The analysis shows that cocaine use and infrequent cannabis use do not affect wages.Frequent cannabis use has a negative wage effect.Th

  10. The Long and Winding Road to Cannabis Legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In almost all countries supply, distribution and use of cannabis is prohibited. Nevertheless, cannabis is the most popular illicit drug. Prohibition does not seem to work. The debate on legalization of cannabis is often emotional with strong views of both proponents and opponents but ignorance preva

  11. Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

  12. CTX-M-Type Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Italy: Molecular Epidemiology of an Emerging Countrywide Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Mugnaioli, Claudia; Luzzaro, Francesco; De Luca, Filomena; Brigante, Gioconda; Perilli, Mariagrazia; Amicosante, Gianfranco; Stefani, Stefania; Toniolo, Antonio; Rossolini, Gian Maria

    2006-01-01

    A nationwide survey of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production among Enterobacteriaceae, carried out in 2003, showed that CTX-M-type enzymes have achieved a sizeable prevalence among ESBL producers in Italy, mostly in Escherichia coli and, to a lesser extent, in Klebsiella pneumoniae. In this work, we report on the molecular epidemiology of the CTX-M-producing isolates from that survey and on the mechanisms of dissemination of these emerging resistance determinants. The CTX-M-producin...

  13. Polysubstance use in cannabis users referred for treatment: Drug use profiles, psychiatric comorbidity and cannabis-related beliefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Paul Connor

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Population-based surveys demonstrate cannabis users are more likely to use both illicit and licit substances, compared with non-cannabis users. Few studies have examined the substance use profiles of cannabis users referred for treatment. Coexisting mental health symptoms and underlying cannabis-related beliefs associated with these profiles remains unexplored.Methods: Comprehensive drug use and dependence severity (Severity of Dependence Scale- Cannabis [SDS-C] data were collected on a sample of 826 cannabis users referred for treatment. Patients completed the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, Cannabis Expectancy Questionnaire (CEQ, and Cannabis Refusal Self-Efficacy Questionnaire (CRSEQ and Positive Symptoms and Manic-Excitement subscales of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS. Latent class analysis (LCA was performed on last month use of drugs to identify patterns of multiple drug use. Mental health comorbidity and cannabis beliefs were examined by identified drug use pattern.Results: A three-class solution provided the best fit to the data- (1 Cannabis and tobacco users (n = 176, (2 Cannabis, tobacco, and alcohol users (n = 498, and (3 wide-ranging substance users (n = 132. Wide-ranging substance users (3 reported higher levels of cannabis dependence severity, negative cannabis expectancies, lower opportunistic and emotional relief self-efficacy, higher levels of depression and anxiety, and higher manic-excitement and positive psychotic symptoms.Conclusion: In a sample of cannabis users referred for treatment, wide-ranging substance use was associated with elevated risk on measures of cannabis dependence, comorbid psychopathology and dysfunctional cannabis cognitions. These findings have implications for cognitive-behavioural assessment and treatment.

  14. The Role of Study and Work in Cannabis Use and Dependence Trajectories among Young Adult Frequent Cannabis Users

    OpenAIRE

    Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; van Laar, Margriet; de Graaf, Ron; van den Brink, Wim; Korf, Dirk J.

    2013-01-01

    Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interv...

  15. E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Giroud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs has given cannabis smokers a new method of inhaling cannabinoids. E-cigs differ from traditional marijuana cigarettes in several respects. First, it is assumed that vaporizing cannabinoids at lower temperatures is safer because it produces smaller amounts of toxic substances than the hot combustion of a marijuana cigarette. Recreational cannabis users can discretely “vape” deodorized cannabis extracts with minimal annoyance to the people around them and less chance of detection. There are nevertheless several drawbacks worth mentioning: although manufacturing commercial (or homemade cannabinoid-enriched electronic liquids (e-liquids requires lengthy, complex processing, some are readily on the Internet despite their lack of quality control, expiry date, and conditions of preservation and, above all, any toxicological and clinical assessment. Besides these safety problems, the regulatory situation surrounding e-liquids is often unclear. More simply ground cannabis flowering heads or concentrated, oily THC extracts (such as butane honey oil or BHO can be vaped in specially designed, pen-sized marijuana vaporizers. Analysis of a commercial e-liquid rich in cannabidiol showed that it contained a smaller dose of active ingredient than advertised; testing our laboratory-made, purified BHO, however, confirmed that it could be vaped in an e-cig to deliver a psychoactive dose of THC. The health consequences specific to vaping these cannabis preparations remain largely unknown and speculative due to the absence of comprehensive, robust scientific studies. The most significant health concerns involve the vaping of cannabinoids by children and teenagers. E-cigs could provide an alternative gateway to cannabis use for young people. Furthermore, vaping cannabinoids could lead to environmental and passive contamination.

  16. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007: demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bou-Matar Ché B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis (marijuana had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

  17. Pathways from cannabis to psychosis: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K Burns

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is complex and remains unclear. Researchers and clinicians remain divided regarding key issues such as whether or not cannabis is an independent cause of psychosis and schizophrenia. This paper reviews the field in detail, examining questions of causality, the neurobiological basis for such causality and for differential inter-individual risk, the clinical and cognitive features of psychosis in cannabis users, and patterns of course and outcome of psychosis in the context of cannabis use. The author proposes two major pathways from cannabis to psychosis based on a differentiation between early-initiated lifelong cannabis use and a scenario where vulnerable individuals without a lifelong pattern of use consume cannabis over a relatively brief period of time just prior to psychosis onset. Additional key factors determining the clinical and neurobiological manifestation of psychosis as well as course and outcome in cannabis users include: underlying genetic and developmental vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; and whether or not cannabis use ceases or continues after the onset of psychosis. Finally, methodological guidelines are presented for future research aimed at both elucidating the pathways that lead from cannabis to psychosis and clarifying the long-term outcome of the disorder in those who have a history of using cannabis.

  18. Cannabis och psykos : Finns det ett samband ?

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Ina

    2014-01-01

    Detta examensarbete är en kvalitativ litteraturstudie med en induktiv innehållsanalys av Graneheim & Lunmans modellen.Syfte med detta slutarbete är att sammanställa artiklarna inom området psykos och cannabis, så att personalen på 15-3B har uppdaterat material om ämnet till förfogandet på sin arbetsplats. Cullbergs teori om regression är den teoretiska referensramen. Urvalsmetoden var genomgående litteratursökning. Forskningsfrågan var finns det ett samband mellan cannabis användning och utlö...

  19. Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Marie

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.

  20. Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis.

    OpenAIRE

    Pin Marie; Buclin Thierry; Appenzeller Monique; Rothuizen Laura E; Augsburger Marc; Ménétrey Annick; Favrat Bernard; Mangin Patrice; Giroud Christian

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation) following oral ad...

  1. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP’s and nurses’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Melissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference satchels to delegates of Healthed seminars focused on topics relevant to women and children’s health. Differences between GPs and nurses were analyzed using χ2- tests and two-sample t-tests, while logistic regression examined predictors of service provision. Results GPs were more likely than nurses to have engaged in cannabis-related service provision, but also more frequently reported barriers related to time, interest, and having more important issues to address. Nurses reported less knowledge, skills, and role legitimacy. Perceived screening skills predicted screening and referral to alcohol and other drug (AOD services, while knowing a regular user increased the likelihood of referrals only. Conclusions Approaches to increase cannabis-related screening and intervention may be improved by involving nurses, and by leveraging the relationship between nurses and doctors, in primary care.

  2. Environmental epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.

    OpenAIRE

    Pekkanen, J; Pearce, N.

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiology is struggling increasingly with problems with correlated exposures and small relative risks. As a consequence, some scholars have strongly emphasized molecular epidemiology, whereas others have argued for the importance of the population context and the reintegration of epidemiology into public health. Environmental epidemiology has several unique features that make these debates especially pertinent to it. The very large number of environmental exposures require prioritization, ...

  3. Congenital Malformations and Consequential Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Werler, Martha M.

    2015-01-01

    A call for a shift in the discipline of epidemiology, away from those aimed at identifying risk factors and toward those aimed at more directly improving health – so called consequential epidemiology. This call for epidemiologists to engage in solving the biggest public health problems has been heralded for decades by Cates and more recently by Galea [Am J Epidemiol 2013; 178; 1185–94]. In consideration of the consequential epidemiology perspective, the impacts of epidemiologic research of bi...

  4. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform. PMID:27323630

  5. Residual effects of prolonged heavy cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; van der Laan JW; Slangen JL; LGM

    1996-01-01

    Recente literatuur werd geraadpleegd om na te gaan of langdurig gebruik van van grote hoeveelheden cannabis (dagelijks gebruik gedurende minimaal 6 maanden) leidt tot aanhoudende cognitieve effecten en effecten op het immuunsysteem. Het resultaat van deze studie is weergegeven in het huidige rappor

  6. Counselling young cannabis users by text message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    factual information to advice and counselling. The messages prompt reflection and awareness among the recipients, and their repetitive, serial nature plays a significant part in the process of change. This is especially true of the young people whose use of cannabis is recreational. For them, the SMS...... services offer a less demanding, potentially less confrontational alternative to traditional forms of counselling and treatment....

  7. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, D. I.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use.

  8. Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janichek Jennifer L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303 were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC, a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and

  9. New insights into cannabis consumption; abuses and possible therapeutic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luiza Baconi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs known to humanity. The paper assesses the current knowledge on the cannabis, including the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids. Three varieties of Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The variety indica is used predominantly to obtain the drugs. Cannabis herb is usually named marijuana, while the cannabis oleoresin secreted by the glandular hairs found mainly on the flowering or fruiting tops of the plant is known as hashish. More than 400 known chemicals are present in cannabis, at least 70 of which are called cannabinoids. The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC. It is now recognized that there are three types of cannabinoids: natural (phytocannabinoids, endogenous cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabioids. Cannabinoids exert their actions by binding to specific membrane protein, the cannabinoid receptor. To date, two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, named cannabinoid-1 (CB1, most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and cannabinoid-2 (CB2 receptors, found predominantly in peripheral tissues with immune functions have been cloned. Therefore, the concept of endogenous cannabinoid system (endocannabinoid system, SEC has been developed. Based on the current scientific evidence, there are several effects of cannabinoids with potential therapeutic use: antiemetic, analgesic in cancerous pains, and chronic neuropathic pain, in multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injuries. Cannabis consume can result in a state of drug dependency and cannabis withdrawal has been included in DSM-V. Cannabis plant remains controversial in the twenty-first century and the potential therapeutic of specific cannabinoid compounds and medical marijuana remains under active medical research.

  10. Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Linked to IQ Decline Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline Email Facebook ... that cannabis use may harm the developing brain. Cannabis Use Correlates With Cognitive Decline The study participants ...

  11. Poor School Satisfaction and Number of Cannabis Using Peers within School Classes as Individual Risk Factors for Cannabis Use among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.

    2010-01-01

    There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…

  12. Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis G. Pinho Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos de neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência. MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade, nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis.

  13. Dependent cannabis users at a music festival - prevalence and correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Background In most western countries, the most prevalent type of illicit substance-use dependence in most is cannabis dependence. Historically, cannabis has been associated with several music genres, and the drug is widely used at music festivals. Methods Based on a survey of 380 music festival...... these respondents, 21 (15%) screened positive for cannabis dependence. Compared to non-dependent cannabis users, the cannabis dependent respondents were more likely to be daily smokers, they reported having attended fewer music festivals during their lifetime, and they scored higher on self...... at a music festival, one in seven of those respondents showed indication of cannabis dependence. This suggests a need for both available treatment options and primary prevention of dependence....

  14. [Association of sleep problems with self-rated health - a large epidemiologic survey in the working population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Naoto; Nakatani, Junko; Nakata, Akinori

    2014-12-01

    To investigate the association between various sleep problems and self-rated health (SRH), a total of 43,092 (34,164 men and 8,928 women) employees were surveyed by means of a self-administered questionnaire. The risk of suboptimal (poor, very poor) SRH associated with sleep problems was estimated using multivariable logistic regression with odds ratios (ORs) as measures of associations. Because the prevalence of suboptimal SRH differed by sex (men 29.4% and women 34.1%, P awakening (OR=3.87 for men, 4.25 for women), with difficulty waking up in the morning (OR=3.30 for men, 3.40 for women), feeling tired when waking up in the morning (OR=4.97 for men, 4.82 for women), and excessive daytime sleepiness at work (OR=2.34 for men, 2.11 for women) had a significantly higher odds of suboptimal SRH compared to those without sleep problems. The association between sleep problems and suboptimal SRH did not differ between men and women. In conclusion, the data point to an independent relationship between sleep problems and suboptimal SRH among Japanese employees. PMID:25501763

  15. Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Solowij

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno.OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to

  16. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    OpenAIRE

    Melamede Robert

    2005-01-01

    Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke c...

  17. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    OpenAIRE

    Zuardi A.W.; Crippa J.A.S.; Hallak J.E.C.; Moreira F.A.; Guimarães F.S.

    2006-01-01

    A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis) component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD), a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxi...

  18. Impact of Cannabis Use on the Development of Psychotic Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; D’Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2014-01-01

    The link between cannabis use and psychosis comprises three distinct relationships: acute psychosis associated with cannabis intoxication, acute psychosis that lasts beyond the period of acute intoxication, and persistent psychosis not time-locked to exposure. Experimental studies reveal that cannabis, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and synthetic cannabinoids reliably produce transient positive, negative, and cognitive symptoms in healthy volunteers. Case-studies indicate that cannabinoids can in...

  19. Cannabis Use and Dependence among French Schizophrenic Inpatients

    OpenAIRE

    Michel eLejoyeux

    2014-01-01

    Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: One hundred one schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire, and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates, and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assesse...

  20. Cannabis, schizophrenia and other psychoses : longitudinal studies on Swedish conscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique-Garcia, Edison

    2014-01-01

    AIM The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between cannabis use and psychiatric disorders with emphasis on schizophrenia, other psychoses, depression and long term effects on mortality. Specific objectives were to: 1) investigate the long-term risk of schizophrenia, and other psychoses including brief psychoses among users and non-users of cannabis, (2) assess the risk of depression among users and non-users of cannabis, (3) determinate whet...

  1. Pathways from Cannabis to Psychosis: A Review of the Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Burns, Jonathan K.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is complex and remains unclear. Researchers and clinicians remain divided regarding key issues such as whether or not cannabis is an independent cause of psychosis and schizophrenia. This paper reviews the field in detail, examining questions of causality, the neurobiological basis for such causality and for differential inter-individual risk, the clinical and cognitive features of psychosis in cannabis users, and patterns of c...

  2. Medical education on cannabis and cannabinoids: Perspectives, challenges, and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M A; Ziemianski, D

    2015-06-01

    The global regulatory landscape regarding the medical use of cannabis and cannabinoids is changing rapidly. This has considerable impact on health care professionals who currently receive little or no education on issues regarding medical cannabis. We propose a 'cannabis curriculum' that covers the spectrum of historical, botanical, physiological, clinical and legal issues to allow health care professionals to engage in meaningful discussions with their patients and colleagues around this stigmatized and controversial subject. PMID:25728558

  3. Cannabinoids act as necrosis-inducing factors in Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Shoyama, Yoshinari; Sugawa, Chitomi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Morimoto, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is well known to produce unique secondary metabolites called cannabinoids. We recently discovered that Cannabis leaves induce cell death by secreting tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) into leaf tissues. Examinations using isolated Cannabis mitochondria demonstrated that THCA causes mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) though opening of MPT pores, resulting in mitochondrial dysfunction (the important feature of necrosis). Although Ca2+ is known to cause opening of anima...

  4. Yield and turnover of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) plantations in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Wouter; Surmont, Tim; Van Damme, Patrick; De Ruyver, Brice

    2012-07-10

    In prosecution, Belgian judiciary currently uses outdated yield figures (28.1g per plant, sold at € 3/g at grower level) for fining illicit indoor cannabis plantations. Using state-of-the-art cultivation techniques, our growth experiments showed that yield is better expressed in g/m(2) cultivated surface area rather than in g per plant, and that yield varies significantly between different cannabis strains. It was found that the lower-bound of the one-sided 95% confidence interval of the yield of an indoor cannabis plantation can be set at 575 g/m(2). Prices and pricing mechanisms were investigated using interviews with respondents selected through snowball sampling. Results reveal that (i) the Belgian cannabis market chain is highly complex; (ii) unit prices are predominantly determined by transaction sizes; but also (iii) a set of product- and socially-related price-fixing mechanisms have an equally important role. At grower level, respondents reported prices for 1 g of dry cannabis buds to range € 3.00-4.25. PMID:22502940

  5. Cannabis Withdrawal is Common among Treatment-Seeking Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence and Major Depression, and is Associated with Rapid Relapse to Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius, Jack R.; Chung, Tammy; Martin, Christopher; Wood, D. Scott; Clark, Duncan B.

    2008-01-01

    Recently, reports have suggested that cannabis withdrawal occurs commonly in adults with cannabis dependence, though it is unclear whether this extends to those with comorbid depression or to comorbid adolescents. We hypothesized that cannabis withdrawal would be common among our sample of comorbid adolescents and young adults, and that the presence of cannabis withdrawal symptoms would be associated with a self-reported past history of rapid reinstatement of cannabis dependence symptoms (rap...

  6. Attentional bias in adults with cannabis use disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujanovic, Anka A; Wardle, Margaret C; Liu, Shijing; Dias, Nadeeka R; Lane, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    There has been modest examination of attentional bias in individuals with cannabis use disorders. Clinical implications of this work are directly relevant to better informing extant evidence-based treatment for substance use disorders (e.g., relapse prevention) and/or developing novel interventions. The overarching aim of this investigation was to examine a novel attentional bias task in adults with cannabis use disorders. Participants were comprised of 25 adults (8 women: M age = 31, SD = 6.8; range = 22-45) with cannabis use disorders (n = 12) and controls (n = 13) without any current (past month) psychopathology. Relative to controls, adults with cannabis use disorders had greater attentional bias scores. These differences were present only at the 125-ms probe time, where the cannabis use disorders group showed greater attentional bias to cannabis cues than the control group (adjusted p = .001, cannabis use disorders mean = 59.9, control mean = -24.8, Cohen's d-effect size for 125 ms = 1.03). The cannabis use disorders group also reported significantly greater perceived stress and post-task stress scores than the control group, but stress was not related to attentional bias. This study informs understanding of the influence of cannabis cues on visual detection and reaction time under different cue-target onset times, as attentional bias was most prevalent under time pressure to detect the probe. PMID:26566718

  7. Cannabis Allergy: What do We Know Anno 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Ine; Ryckebosch, Hanne; Van Gasse, Athina L; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha; Bridts, Chris H; Ebo, Didier G

    2015-10-01

    For about a decade, IgE-mediated cannabis (marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may lead to a cannabis sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical manifestations of a cannabis allergy can vary from mild to life-threatening reactions, often depending on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can trigger various secondary cross-allergies, mostly for plant-derived food. This clinical entity, which we have designated as the "cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome" might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, latex and plant-food derived alcoholic beverages. These secondary cross-allergies are mainly described in Europe and appear to result from cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in Cannabis sativa and their homologues that are ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures including a stop of any further cannabis (ab)use. PMID:26178655

  8. Cannabis use and dependence among French schizophrenic inpatients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichelLejoyeux

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: To assess the prevalence of cannabis use and dependence in a population of schizophrenic inpatients and to compare schizophrenics with and without cannabis consumption. Methods: 101 schizophrenic patients were examined during their first week of hospitalization. They answered the PANNS scale of schizophrenia, the CAGE and the Fagerström questionnaire and the DSM-IV-TR criteria for cannabis, alcohol, opiates and nicotine use dependence were checked. We also assessed socio-demographic characteristics, the motive of cannabis consumption and the number of cannabis joints and alcoholic drinks taken.Results: The prevalence of cannabis consumption was 33.6% among schizophrenic inpatients. Schizophrenics consuming cannabis were younger than non-schizophrenics (33.3 vs 44.7 years pConclusion: 33.6 % of the schizophrenic patients hospitalized in psychiatry consume cannabis and most of them are dependent on cannabis and alcohol. Hospitalization in psychiatry may provide an opportunity to systematically identify a dependence disorder and to offer appropriate information and treatment

  9. Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens. PMID:24133461

  10. Cannabis use during adolescent development: susceptibility to psychiatric illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MichaelLawrenceMiller

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. Cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory towards a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis-users to motivational, affective and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

  11. Cannabis Use and Memory Brain Function in Adolescent Boys: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Gerry; Block, Robert I.; Luijten, Maartje; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early-onset cannabis use has been associated with later use/abuse, mental health problems (psychosis, depression), and abnormal development of cognition and brain function. During adolescence, ongoing neurodevelopmental maturation and experience shape the neural circuitry underlying complex cognitive functions such as memory and…

  12. Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-07-01

    Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review. PMID:27179600

  13. Harm reduction-the cannabis paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article examines harm reduction from a novel perspective. Its central thesis is that harm reduction is not only a social concept, but also a biological one. More specifically, evolution does not make moral distinctions in the selection process, but utilizes a cannabis-based approach to harm reduction in order to promote survival of the fittest. Evidence will be provided from peer-reviewed scientific literature that supports the hypothesis that humans, and all animals, make and use internally produced cannabis-like products (endocannabinoids as part of the evolutionary harm reduction program. More specifically, endocannabinoids homeostatically regulate all body systems (cardiovascular, digestive, endocrine, excretory, immune, nervous, musculo-skeletal, reproductive. Therefore, the health of each individual is dependant on this system working appropriately.

  14. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs. PMID:26739323

  15. Gambling and football: Epidemiological research on gambling participation and problem gambling among adult football players in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Tryggvi Þór Einarsson 1990

    2016-01-01

    There is not much known about the gambling behaviour of Icelandic football players. Aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of total gambling participation and problem gambling among Icelandic football players, to examine if Icelandic football players have been involved in behaviour that could possibly be related to game fixing and to examine players attitudes towards banning coaches and players to gamble on games the Icelandic championship. Participants were 725, of which 75...

  16. Approaches to and Treatment Strategies for Playing-Related Pain Problems Among Czech Instrumental Music Students: An Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos I; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-09-01

    The current study examined the severity of playing-related pain (PRP) problems among music students at the Prague State Conservatoire, as well as the various treatment methods used by these students and how they approach and deal with these phenomena while studying. In total, 180 instrumental students participated and completed a paper questionnaire. Of these, 88.9% reported that they had experienced PRP at least once in their lives, with 12.6% experiencing pain every time they play. The onset of PRP seemed to coincide with the transition period on entry to the conservatoire and was associated with the increase in hours of practice. Specific body regions associated with playing each particular instrument were most frequently affected, with females being more susceptible than males to the development of PRP. An alarming 35% of the affected students tended not to seek help at all, whereas those who did tended to seek advice first from their instrument tutor and second from medical doctors. Most students who visited doctors reported that medical treatments only partially helped them to overcome PRP problems. The most frequent treatment methods used were resting, gel or creams, and physical exercises. Students believed that inappropriate posture played a key role in the development of their PRP problems. Finally, students indicated a willingness to be aware of and educated about PRP issues during their studies. Further exploration of PRP problems among student musicians is warranted. Better understanding of differing attitudes toward, use of, and efficiency of various treatment methods after the occurrence of PRPs will provide additional insight for prevention and treatment. PMID:26395614

  17. Lifecourse SEP and tobacco and cannabis use

    OpenAIRE

    Bowes, Lucy; Chollet, Aude; Fombonne, Eric; Galéra, Cédric; Melchior, Maria

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social inequalities in substance use have been well-documented; however, the impact of changes in socio-economic position from childhood to adulthood is unclear. We examined the relationship between intergenerational trajectories of social position and tobacco and cannabis use among young adults. METHODS: Data come from 1103 participants (mean age: 28.9 years) of the Trajectoires Epidémiologiques en Population (TEMPO) study and their parents, participants of the GAZEL study, Franc...

  18. Environmental epidemiology: An introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Mohsen Arbabi; Masoud Amiri

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology is increasingly coping with problems correlated with exposures which may have small relative risks. In fact, many chronic diseases, as the most recent common diseases all over the world, may have unknown etiology but also potentially related to environmental exposures. Environmental epidemiology considers the effect of environmental factors on health. More exposure with increasing number of potential environmental hazards has changed the initial application of environmental epide...

  19. Developmental trajectories of adolescent cannabis use and their relationship to young adult social and behavioural adjustment: A longitudinal study of Australian youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E; Hemphill, Sheryl A; Evans-Whipp, Tracy J; Toumbourou, John W; Patton, George C

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to identify distinct developmental trajectories (sub-groups of individuals who showed similar longitudinal patterns) of cannabis use among Australian adolescents, and to examine associations between trajectory group membership and measures of social and behavioural adjustment in young adulthood. Participants (n=852, 53% female) were part of the International Youth Development Study. Latent class growth analysis was used to identify distinct trajectories of cannabis use frequency from average ages 12 to 19, across 6 waves of data. Logistic regression analyses and analyses of covariance were used to examine relationships between trajectory group membership and young adult (average age: 21) adjustment, controlling for a range of covariates. Three trajectories were identified: abstainers (62%), early onset users (11%), and late onset occasional users (27%). The early onset users showed a higher frequency of antisocial behaviour, violence, cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, cigarette use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. The late onset occasional users reported a higher frequency of cannabis use, cannabis-related harms, illicit drug use, and alcohol harms, compared to the abstinent group in young adulthood. There were no differences between the trajectory groups on measures of employment, school completion, post-secondary education, income, depression/anxiety, or alcohol use problems. In conclusion, early onset of cannabis use, even at relatively low frequency during adolescence, is associated with poorer adjustment in young adulthood. Prevention and intervention efforts to delay or prevent uptake of cannabis use should be particularly focussed on early adolescence prior to age 12. PMID:26414206

  20. Deciding medical problems in radiation protection for thirty years in the Boris Kidric Institute - Experimental and epidemiological experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with some research work carried out in the Medical Protection Laboratory of the Boris Kidric Institute of Nuclear Sciences - Vinca. Four research fields have been chosen: the analysis of contribution of collaborators Medical Protection Laboratory on symposium Yugoslav Radiation Protection Association (IRPA); from 1963 to 1989 years; the appearance on the meeting IAEA, International seminars, symposium and Congress, including European and international congress IRPA with presentation the most important obtained results; the activity in the frame research projects and contribution for solving important problems in the field of medical aspects of radiation protection in developing and applicable research; the survey current and practical trends in the future (author)

  1. Standardized cannabis in multiple sclerosis: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Hornby, Paul; Sharma, Manju

    2010-01-01

    A 52 year old female suffering from severe progressive multiple sclerosis was administered quantifiable amounts of standardized cannabis and monitored over the period of one year, while providing daily pain charts and records of her condition. An average daily intake of 500 mg of Tetrahydrocannabinol as cannabis was required to achieve a desired quality of life.

  2. Multiple sclerosis, cannabis, and cognition: A structural MRI study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristoffer Romero

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation: These results suggest that cannabis use in MS results in more widespread cognitive deficits, which correlate with tissue volume in subcortical, medial temporal, and prefrontal regions. These are the first findings demonstrating an association between cannabis use, cognitive impairment and structural brain changes in MS patients.

  3. Acute effects of cannabis on breath-holding duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Metrik, Jane

    2016-08-01

    Distress intolerance (an individual's perceived or actual inability to tolerate distressing psychological or physiological states) is associated with cannabis use. It is unknown whether a biobehavioral index of distress intolerance, breath-holding duration, is acutely influenced (increased or decreased) by cannabis. Such information may further inform understanding of the expression of psychological or physiological distress postcannabis use. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7%-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed duration of breath holding. Participants (n = 88; 65.9% male) were nontreatment-seeking frequent cannabis users who smoked placebo or active THC cigarette on two separate study days and completed a breath-holding task postsmoking. Controlling for baseline breath-holding duration and participant sex, THC produced significantly shorter breath-holding durations relative to placebo. There was a significant interaction of drug administration × frequency of cannabis use, such that THC decreased breath-holding time among less frequent but not among more frequent users. Findings indicate that cannabis may exacerbate distress intolerance (via shorter breath-holding durations). As compared to less frequent cannabis users, frequent users display tolerance to cannabis' acute effects including increased ability to tolerate respiratory distress when holding breath. Objective measures of distress intolerance are sensitive to contextual factors such as acute drug intoxication, and may inform the link between cannabis use and the expression of psychological distress. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27454678

  4. Experiences of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended "Generation Next" seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the…

  5. How Robustly Does Cannabis Use Associate to College Grades? Findings from Two Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Julia A.; Roth, Madeline G.; Johnson, Douglas N.; Jones, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Along with recent changes in cannabis legalization and decriminalization, there has been an increasing amount of attention aimed at cannabis use and outcomes in college. Although some amount of cannabis use might be expected under theories of collegiate identity development, public health research indicates that cannabis use ultimately associates…

  6. Four decades of cannabis criminals in Canada: 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Erickson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Canada was one of the first countries in the world to criminalise cannabis in 1923. It was not until the late 1960s and an associated upsurge of youthful cannabis use that the government and various stakeholders seriously interrogated the appropriateness of this punitive prohibition. Nevertheless, despite numerous opportunities for law reform for over four decades, cannabis possession continues to be illegal and as a result, hundreds of thousands of Canadians have received criminal records under these laws. This article reviews federal attempts at cannabis law reform and uses data spanning several decades to examine the characteristics of individuals convicted of cannabis possession and the implications of criminalisation on their lives.

  7. Policy designs for cannabis legalization: starting with the eight Ps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau

    2014-07-01

    The cannabis policy landscape is changing rapidly. In November 2012 voters in Colorado and Washington State passed ballot initiatives to remove the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and possession of cannabis. This paper does not address the question of whether cannabis should be legal; it instead focuses on the design considerations confronting jurisdictions that are pondering a change in cannabis policy. Indeed, whether or not cannabis legalization is net positive or negative for public health and public safety largely depends on regulatory decisions and how they are implemented. This essay presents eight of these design choices which all conveniently begin with the letter "P": production, profit motive, promotion, prevention, potency, purity, price, and permanency. PMID:24853283

  8. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lanz

    Full Text Available Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot and total CBD (CBDtot in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3% and CBD (≥ 94.6%. The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis.

  9. Implicit associations and explicit expectancies toward cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Beraha; J. Cousijn; E. Hermanides; A.E. Goudriaan; R.W. Wiers

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative

  10. Ammonia release from heated "street" cannabis leaf and its potential toxic effects on cannabis users

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bloor, R.; Wang, T. S.; Španěl, Patrik; Smith, D.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, č. 10 (2008), s. 1671-1677. ISSN 0965-2140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ammonia * cannabis * respiratory Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.244, year: 2008

  11. Believability of Messages about Cannabis, Cocaine and Heroin among Never-Triers, Trier-Rejecters and Current Users of Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C.; Rossiter, John R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the believability of strong warnings about the negative consequences of drug use among young adults in Australia who have never tried, currently use, or have tried and rejected cannabis. It finds that the strong warnings about cannabis are generally believed by never-triers. The same warnings are perceived by current users as…

  12. The role of general parenting and cannabis-specific parenting practices in adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Methods: Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N = 3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in 2011. Result

  13. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Paul

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope. Results Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%, depression (56%, arthritis (35%, persistent nausea (27% and weight loss (26%. Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%, and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half (41% experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89% in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79% for investigating alternative delivery methods. Conclusion Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.

  14. Cannabis microbiome sequencing reveals several mycotoxic fungi native to dispensary grade Cannabis flowers [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McKernan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Disease Control estimates 128,000 people in the U.S. are hospitalized annually due to food borne illnesses. This has created a demand for food safety testing targeting the detection of pathogenic mold and bacteria on agricultural products. This risk extends to medical Cannabis and is of particular concern with inhaled, vaporized and even concentrated Cannabis products . As a result, third party microbial testing has become a regulatory requirement in the medical and recreational Cannabis markets, yet knowledge of the Cannabis microbiome is limited. Here we describe the first next generation sequencing survey of the fungal communities found in dispensary based Cannabis flowers by ITS2 sequencing, and demonstrate the sensitive detection of several toxigenic Penicillium and Aspergillus species, including P. citrinum and P. paxilli, that were not detected by one or more culture-based methods currently in use for safety testing.

  15. Cannabis users differ from non-users on measures of personality and schizotypy

    OpenAIRE

    FRIDBERG, DANIEL J.; Vollmer, Jennifer M.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Skosnik, Patrick D

    2011-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that cannabis use may be a risk factor for schizophrenia (SZ), and chronic cannabis users score higher than non-users on measures of schizotypal personality traits. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relations between normal personality, schizotypy, and cannabis use. Sixty-two chronic cannabis users and 45 cannabis-naïve controls completed a measure of normal personality, the NEO-Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), and two measures of schizoty...

  16. Levels of selected metals in leaves of Cannabis sativa L. cultivated in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Zerihun, Agalu; Chandravanshi, Bhagwan Singh; Debebe, Ayalew; Mehari, Bewketu

    2015-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa L. is one of the illicit drug bearing plants. Cannabis products are the most widely trafficked drugs worldwide. The highest levels of cannabis production in the world take place in the African continent. A small volume of cannabis is produced in rural areas of Ethiopia, of which a small portion is exported to neighboring countries and the majority is consumed at home. The literature survey revealed that there is no report on the metal contents in cannabis cultivated...

  17. Chronic Chagas' heart disease: a disease on its way to becoming a worldwide health problem: epidemiology, etiopathology, treatment, pathogenesis and laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Saravia, Silvia Gilka; Haberland, Annekathrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Schimke, Ingolf

    2012-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Nearly 30% of infected patients develop life-threatening complications, and with a latency of 10-30 years, mostly Chagas' heart disease which is currently the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America, enormously burdening economic resources and dramatically affecting patients' social and labor situations. Because of increasing migration, international tourism and parasite transfer by blood contact, intrauterine transfer and organ transplantation, Chagas' heart disease could potentially become a worldwide problem. To raise awareness of this problem, we reflect on the epidemiology and etiopathology of Chagas' disease, particularly Chagas' heart disease. To counteract Chagas' heart disease, in addition to the general interruption of the infection cycle and chemotherapeutic elimination of the infection agent, early and effective causal or symptomatic therapies would be indispensable. Prerequisites for this are improved knowledge of the pathogenesis and optimized patient management. From economic and logistics viewpoints, this last prerequisite should be performed using laboratory medicine tools. Consequently, we first summarize the mechanisms that have been suggested as driving Chagas' heart disease, mainly those associated with the presence of autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors; secondly, we indicate new treatment strategies involving autoantibody apheresis and in vivo autoantibody neutralization; thirdly, we present laboratory medicine tools such as autoantibody estimation and heart marker measurement, proposed for diagnosis, risk assessment and patient guidance and lastly, we critically reflect upon the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress markers in Chagas' heart disease. PMID:21165698

  18. Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaub Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding

  19. Cannabis use by children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    McArdle, P A

    2006-01-01

    A popular internet site1 describes cannabis as “a leafy plant, the leaves and flowering tops (buds) of which may be either smoked or eaten. It also comes in a more concentrated resinous form called hashish, and as a sticky black liquid called hash oil”. It is said that users often report a pleasant “subjective enhancement of visual and auditory perception, sometimes with synaesthesia (sounds take on visual colourful qualities)” and the sense that time passes more quickly than real time, a “fa...

  20. Cannabis in Sport: Anti-Doping Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Mazzoni, Irene; Rabin, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Since 2004, when the World Anti-Doping Agency assumed the responsi-bility for establishing and maintaining the list of prohibited substances and methods in sport (i.e. the Prohibited List), cannabinoids have been prohibited in all sports during competition. The basis for this prohibition can be found in the World Anti-Doping Code, which defines the three criteria used to consider banning a substance. In this context, we discuss the potential of can-nabis to enhance sports performance, the ris...

  1. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy Improves Frontolimbic Regulation of Emotion in Alcohol and/or Cannabis Misusing Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojtalik, Jessica A.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Phillips, Mary L.; Matcheri S Keshavan; Newhill, Christina E.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who misuse substances are burdened with impairments in emotion regulation. Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) may address these problems by enhancing prefrontal brain function. A small sample of outpatients with schizophrenia and alcohol and/or cannabis substance use problems participating in an 18-month randomized trial of CET (n = 10) or usual care (n = 4) completed posttreatment functional neuroimaging using an emotion regulation task. General linear models ...

  2. Environmental epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopfler, F.; Craun, G.

    1986-01-01

    Topics covered in this book include the following: Use of biological monitoring to assess exposure data; environmental epidemiologic considerations for assessing exposure and associating exposure with morbidity/mortality; health and exposure data bases; and assessment of exposure to environmental contaminants for epidemiologic studies (1) Air Exposure Indoor and Outdoor (2) Water and Occupational Exposures.

  3. Endodontic Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials.

  4. Protein estimation and palynlogical studies of cannabis sativa l. pollen in relation to respiratory allergies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Airborne pollen allergies and asthma are on a rise in the metropolitan city of Islamabad. Knowledge of allergenic pollen is limited in the area. Cannabis sativa L. or commonly known as Hemp is widely spread weed in the city. Morphological studies performed via light microscopy and SEM have shown that the pollen of Cannabis sativa are 21 micro m long having triporate aperture, spheroidal in shape and scaberate exine. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of pollen proteins has also be done in to recognize allergenic protein bands. Bradford's analysis for proteins quantification has shown that the hemp pollen has 30.69 mg/g protein in fresh weight of pollen. While SDS-PAGE analysis showed 11 bands of various protein size ranging from 17kDa to 150kDa. The research findings indicate that Cannabis sativa, could be a potent allergenic pollen-producing weed that might cause serious health problems in the population of Islamabad. (author)

  5. Neuroprotection in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis by Cannabis-Based Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Gareth; Riddall, Dieter R; Selwood, David L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major immune-mediated, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Compounds within cannabis, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) can limit the inappropriate neurotransmissions that cause MS-related problems and medicinal cannabis is now licenced for the treatment of MS symptoms. However, the biology indicates that the endocannabinoid system may offer the potential to control other aspects of disease. Although there is limited evidence that the cannabinoids from cannabis are having significant immunosuppressive activities that will influence relapsing autoimmunity, we and others can experimentally demonstrate that they may limit neurodegeneration that drives progressive disability. Here we show that synthetic cannabidiol can slow down the accumulation of disability from the inflammatory penumbra during relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in ABH mice, possibly via blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In addition, whilst non-sedating doses of Δ9-THC do not inhibit relapsing autoimmunity, they dose-dependently inhibit the accumulation of disability during EAE. They also appear to slow down clinical progression during MS in humans. Although a 3 year, phase III clinical trial did not detect a beneficial effect of oral Δ9-THC in progressive MS, a planned subgroup analysis of people with less disability who progressed more rapidly, demonstrated a significant slowing of progression by oral Δ9-THC compared to placebo. Whilst this may support the experimental and biological evidence for a neuroprotective effect by the endocannabinoid system in MS, it remains to be established whether this will be formally demonstrated in further trials of Δ9-THC/cannabis in progressive MS. PMID:25537576

  6. Affect dysregulation in cannabis abusers: a study in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorard, Géraldine; Berthoz, Sylvie; Phan, Olivier; Corcos, Maurice; Bungener, Catherine

    2008-08-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity and impaired emotional functioning have been previously reported in adult substance abusers but have been less well documented in adolescents. Thus, we investigated mental health problems and emotion regulation abilities in adolescents and young adults with cannabis dependence. Moreover, we explored the relationships between consumption modalities and affective style. Therefore, 32 cannabis abusers (CA) and 30 healthy controls completed a battery of self-reports measuring depression (BDI-13), anxiety (STAI-Y), alexithymia (TAS20; BVAQ-B), anhedonia (PAS; SAS), and sensation seeking (SSS). The MINI was administered to evaluate cannabis dependence and axis I DSM-IV comorbid diagnoses. A semi-structured clinical interview was given to determine psychoactive substance use. Statistical analyses revealed that more than half of the CA reported at least one other non-drug or alcohol comorbid diagnosis. The most common were mood and anxiety disorders. CA subjects scored significantly higher on all affective dimensions except alexithymia total scores; however, they had greater scores for the two subscales measuring the difficulties in identifying feelings. Logistic regressions demonstrated that CA subjects were more likely to experience high levels of trait anxiety, physical anhedonia and sensation seeking than the controls. Various correlations were observed between the affective scores and the substance considered. The amount of substance use and, particularly, the prevalence of polydrug use we observed are alarming. This study demonstrates that cannabis dependence in adolescents and young adults is related to a great psychological distress and specific emotional dimensions and puts emphasis on the importance of substance use prevention as early as middle school. PMID:18301941

  7. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both. PMID:26126326

  8. Effectiveness of a Self-Guided Web-Based Cannabis Treatment Program: Randomized Controlled Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Rooke, Sally; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa; Hine, Donald; McCambridge, Jim

    2013-01-01

    Background Self-help strategies offer a promising way to address problems with access to and stigma associated with face-to-face drug and alcohol treatment, and the Internet provides an excellent delivery mode for such strategies. To date, no study has tested the effectiveness of a fully self-guided web-based treatment for cannabis use and related problems. Objectives The current study was a two-armed randomized controlled trial aimed at testing the effectiveness of Reduce Your Use, a fully s...

  9. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Isaac

    Full Text Available Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy.Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software.Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients.This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future

  10. Roadside sobriety tests and attitudes toward a regulated cannabis market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many argue that prohibition creates more troubles than alternative policies, but fewer than half of American voters support a taxed and regulated market for cannabis. Some oppose a regulated market because of concerns about driving after smoking cannabis. Although a roadside sobriety test for impairment exists, few voters know about it. The widespread use of a roadside sobriety test that could detect recent cannabis use might lead some voters who currently oppose a regulated market to support it. In contrast, a question that primes respondents about the potential for driving after cannabis use might lead respondents to be less likely to support a regulated market. Methods Phone interviews with a national sample of 1002 registered voters asked about support for a regulated cannabis market and support for such a market if a reliable roadside sobriety test were widely available. Results In this sample of registered voters, 36% supported a regulated cannabis market. Exploratory chi-square tests revealed significantly higher support among men and Caucasians but no link to age or education. These demographic variables covaried significantly. Logistic regression revealed that gender, ethnicity, and political party were significant when all predictors were included. Support increased significantly with a reliable roadside sobriety test to 44%, but some respondents who had agreed to the regulated market no longer agreed when the sobriety test was mentioned. Logistic regression revealed that ethnicity and political affiliation were again significant predictors of support with a reliable sobriety test, but gender was no longer significant. None of these demographic variables could identify who would change their votes in response to the reliable roadside test. Conclusion Increased awareness and use of roadside sobriety tests that detect recent cannabis use could increase support for a regulated cannabis market. Identifying concerns of

  11. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal–known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists’ perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists’ views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy. Methods Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software. Results Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients. Discussion This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which

  12. Metabolic Syndrome – Epidemiological Problem?

    OpenAIRE

    Gierach, Marcin; Junik, Roman

    2013-01-01

    The main components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are abdominal obesity, hypertension, lipid disorders such as aterogenic dyslipidemia and carbohydrates disorders such as impaired fasting glucose or diabetes mellitus type 2 The first definition of MetS was described by Reaven in 1988 and was named as syndrome X. In the United States of America, the metabolic syndrome affects about 25 % of US adults. In Poland, data based on NATPOL PLUS study, according to NCEP-ATP III criteria, metabolic s...

  13. Cannabis-induced impairment of learning and memory

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; Ahmed, Noha Al-Said; El-Khyat, Zakaria A.; El-Shamarka, Marwa El-Sayed; Hussein, Jihan Seid; Salem, Neveen A

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa preparations are the most commonly used illicit drugs worldwide. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of Cannabis sativa extract in the working memory version of the Morris water maze (MWM; Morris, 1984) test and determine the effect of standard memory enhancing drugs. Cannabis sativa was given at doses of 5, 10 or 20 mg/kg (expressed as Δ^9-tetrahydrocannabinol) alone or co-administered with donepezil (1 mg/kg), piracetam (150 mg/ kg), vinpocetine (1.5 mg/kg) ...

  14. The role of study and work in cannabis use and dependence trajectories among young adult frequent cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke eLiebregts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e. feelings of being in control.

  15. Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Moraes Ramos Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência.Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la pr

  16. The Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study on the course of frequent cannabis use and dependence: objectives, methods and sample characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Pol; N. Liebregts; R. de Graaf; D.J. Korf; W. van den Brink; M. van Laar

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the prospective cohort design of the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study, which investigates (i) the three-year natural course of frequent cannabis use (≥ three days per week in the past 12 months) and cannabis dependence; and (ii) the factors involved in the

  17. Intervenções farmacológica e psicossocial para os distúrbios por uso da cannabis Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cannabisuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Budney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cannabis continua sendo a substância ilegal mais amplamente utilizada na maioria dos países desenvolvidos. Seu potencial aditivo foi estabelecido e a necessidade de intervenções em problemas relacionados à cannabis se tornou clara. Este artigo faz uma revisão sobre as pesquisas que avaliam os tratamentos potenciais para transtornos por uso de cannabis. MÉTODO: Uma busca nos bancos de dados de publicações identificou os estudos e revisões na literatura científica sobre as intervenções psicossociais e farmacológicas nos transtornos por uso de cannabis. RESULTADOS: Para adultos, as intervenções com base comportamental geram efeitos positivos significativos na abstinência e nas reduções no uso de cannabis. Em adolescentes, tratamentos similares e intervenções com base na família demonstraram eficácia. Entre os estudos, os índices de resposta parecem ser modestos mesmo com os mais potentes tratamentos psicossociais. As avaliações das abordagens farmacológicas para os transtornos por uso de cannabis têm ainda que fornecer dados sobre a eficácia clínica de qualquer medicação específica. Enfoques baseados em agonistas e antagonistas parecem ser os mais promissores. Os avanços na compreensão da neurobiologia do sistema canabinoide são fonte de otimismo no sentido de que a síntese de compostos que alteram o funcionamento do sítio receptor CB1 possa produzir medicações promissoras. CONCLUSÃO: As pesquisas clínicas identificaram tratamentos psicossociais eficazes, mas ainda não produziram farmacoterapias eficazes. Muitos estudos ainda têm que ser feitos para aumentar a potência e o acesso às intervenções para aqueles que buscam o tratamento para transtornos por uso de cannabis.OBJECTIVE: Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance in most developed countries. Its addictive potential has been established and the need for interventions for cannabis-related problems has become apparent

  18. Cannabis misinterpretation and misadventure in a coroner's court.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, William Patrick

    2012-10-01

    A 37-year-old, one-pack-per-day tobacco smoker collapsed and died at home. At autopsy, he had an occluded left anterior descending coronary artery. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was found in his urine but no cannabinoids were detected in his blood. Misadventure was the inquest verdict on the basis of the urinary cannabis, with acute myocardial infarction as the primary cause and cannabis as the secondary cause of death. Such a conclusion is a misinterpretation of the evidence when the time duration for cannabis as a trigger for myocardial infarction is at most two hours. The absence of cannabis in the blood likely places the time since inhalation at more than two hours. The role of tobacco smoking as a trigger was ignored. Cotinine, the biochemical marker of tobacco smoke, should be added to the standard toxicological screen in the guidelines on autopsy practice of the Royal College of Pathologists.

  19. Neighborhood crime and adolescent cannabis use in Canadian adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, Margreet; Janssen, I; Elgar, Frank J.; Craig, Wendy; Pickett, W.

    2015-01-01

    Although neighbourhood factors have been proposed as determinants of adolescent behaviour, few studies document their relative etiological importance. We investigated the relationship between neighbourhood crime and cannabis use in a nationally representative sample of Canadian adolescents. Data fro

  20. Eysenck Personality Dimensions in a Sample of Cannabis Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Vahdat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available     Objective: The objective of this study is to examine Eysenck personality dimensions in cannabis users  Method:100 regular cannabis users were selected and completed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ which easures Neuroticism (N,Extraversion-Introversion (E-I and Psychoticism (P dimensions of Eysenck personality structures  Results:The scores of 51% of cannabis users were higher than mean in all dimensions of EPQ. Also the mean score of N and P were higher than the score which Eysenck has reported for Iranian population Conclusions:This research reinforces our call for a public health information campaign about a drug which may young people still see as being risk-free.Psychiatric morbidity and cases of psychotic disorder could be prevented by discouraging cannabis use among vulnerable youths.

  1. Epidemiological criminology

    OpenAIRE

    Ignjatović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Paper deals with one of so-called „new criminologies“ - specific amalgam composed by criminological and epidemiological experiences. First of all, the author points the main characteristics of these two sciences and their connections. After such explanations, he give examples of famous research in the field of ‘epidemiological criminology’. They show how many important issues in criminology has been neglected until the end of the twentieth century (evaluati...

  2. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  3. Standardized extracts of cannabis for treatment of arthritis and migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, M.

    2005-01-01

    Preparations derived from Cannabis nativa have been used as medicines throughout Europe and Asiasince the earliest written records, especially in the treatment of pain and inflammation. A number ofstudies have focused on specific aspects of Cannabis and its constituents, but very little commercialdevelopment activity has focused on the production of high quality, high value, standardised extracts(preferably low in the psychoactive constituent THC) which are orally active and suitable for clin...

  4. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired. PMID:27292414

  5. Cannabis and driving: results from a general population survey.

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, FJ; Fierro, I.; Del Río, MC

    2007-01-01

    Producción Científica The role of illicit drugs on driving, and particularly of cannabis and driving, is the object of increasing awareness. While there is increasing evidence of their effect on psychomotor performance and increased risk of involvement in traffic accidents, limited information is available concerning factors that can predict the likelihood of driving under the influence of cannabis. The present study aims to determine the past year prevalence of driving under the influence...

  6. Medical cannabis vs. synthetic cannabinoids: What does the future hold?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognini, D; Ross, R A

    2015-06-01

    The medical use of cannabis has an intricate therapeutic history that finds its roots in ancient China (∼2700 BC). The main psychoactive component of cannabis, Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9) -THC), was discovered in 1964. This was a significant breakthrough, as it allowed the generation of synthetic analogs of Δ(9) -THC, the discovery of cannabinoid receptors, and the generation of synthetic small molecules. Despite this, today there is still a paucity of drugs that target the cannabinoid system. PMID:25761845

  7. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M.; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Pur...

  8. Factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis: una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes Factors associated with the onset of cannabis use: a systematic review of cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Guxens

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis a partir de una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica informatizada utilizando diversas palabras clave y sus combinaciones. Entre los estudios identificados se seleccionaron los estudios originales de diseño longitudinal que utilizaran como variable dependiente el inicio de consumo de cannabis, así como los estudios de revisión, publicados entre enero de 1980 y mayo de 2004. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica de los estudios mediante 2 revisores, de manera independiente y a partir de unos criterios prestablecidos, clasificando los artículos en 3 categorías: alta, intermedia o baja calidad. Se midió el nivel de concordancia de los revisores a partir del coeficiente kappa. Resultados: Se identificaron 32 estudios que cumplían los criterios de selección, de los cuales 13 fueron determinados de alta calidad. Las causas de exclusión fueron el sesgo de selección, por la inclusión de consumidores al inicio de la cohorte estudiada, y la falta de ajuste por los potenciales confusores. Los factores que se relacionaron con una mayor evidencia con el inicio del consumo de cannabis fueron el sexo masculino, el consumo de tabaco y alcohol, tener una relación problemática con los padres y el consumo de cannabis por parte de los amigos. Conclusiones: Los resultados señalan la importancia de diversos factores individuales, familiares y del entorno en el inicio del consumo de cannabis, que deberían considerarse de forma conjunta en el abordaje preventivo entre los adolescentes.Objective: To determine the factors associated with the onset of cannabis use through a systematic review of cohort studies. Methods: An internet-based search was performed using several keywords and their combinations. Original studies with longitudinal design and the onset of cannabis use as dependent variable, as well as review studies

  9. Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kotuła

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2 receptors. The first type CB1 is mostly found in the central nervous system, modulate pain. It also has an anti-emetic effect, and has influence on the memory and the motor system. The second type of receptors CB2 is peripheral, and it is primarily found in immune system cells and it is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids. Medical cannabis can help in cases of the neurodegeneration disorders, for example Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Patients generally tolerate medical cannabis well.

  10. Herbicidal treatments for control of Cannabis sativa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, M

    1977-01-01

    In order to test herbicides for the destruction of illicit stands of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) a series of commercially available herbicides were sprayed on glasshouse-grown plants having 2 to 6 leaves. The following herbicides caused complete kill or severe injury to cannabis plants: (a) herbicides with root and foliage activity--ametryn, atrazine, metribuzin, prometryn, terbutryne, diuron, fluometuron, linuron, methabenzthiazuron, phenobenzuron, ethofumesate, karbutilate, methazole and oxadiazon; and (b) foliar-acting herbicides with brief or no soil persistence--amitrole, bentazon, 2,4-D, diquat + paraquat, glyphosate and phenmedipham. In field experiments herbicides of the latter group, and ioxynil, metribuzin, and a MSMA-cacodylate mixture, caused death or severe damage to young cannabis plants. Glyphosate, ioxynil and bentazon destroyed developed cannabis plants. In glasshouse and field experiments the following herbicides applied to young cannabis plants caused marked deformations of stems, leaves and/or inflorescences: barban, butralin, dalapon, difenzoquat, dinitramine, diphenamid, IPC, napropamide, penoxalin, triffuralin, and U-27267. PMID:585583

  11. Chemistry, Metabolism, and Toxicology of Cannabis: Clinical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Srinivas Bharath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the most widely abused substances throughout the world. The primary psychoactive constituent of cannabis, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9_THC, produces a myriad of pharmacological effects in animals and humans. Although it is used as a recreational drug, it can potentially lead to dependence and behavioral disturbances and its heavy use may increase the risk for psychotic disorders.Many studies that endeavor to understand the mechanism of action of cannabis concentrate on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids in humans. However, there is limited research on the chronic adverse effects and retention of cannabinoids in human subjects.Cannabis can be detected in body fluids following exposure through active/passive inhalation and exposure through breastfeeding. Cannabis detection is directly dependent on accurate analytical procedures for detection of metabolites and verification of recent use.In this review, an attempt has been made to summarize the properties of cannabis and its derivatives, and to discuss the implications of its use with emphasis on bioavailability, limit of detection, carry over period and passive inhalation, important factors for detection and diagnosis.

  12. Can reduce - the effects of chat-counseling and web-based self-help, web-based self-help alone and a waiting list control program on cannabis use in problematic cannabis users: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schaub, Michael P; Haug, Severin; Wenger, Andreas; Berg, Oliver (Ed.); Sullivan, Robin; Beck, Thilo; Stark, Lars

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In European countries, including Switzerland, as well as in many states worldwide, cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance after alcohol and tobacco. Although approximately one in ten users develop serious problems of dependency, only a minority attends outpatient addiction counseling centers. The offer of a combined web-based self-help and chat counseling treatment could potentially also reach those users who hesitate to approach such treatment centers and help...

  13. Can reduce - the effects of chat-counseling and web-based self-help, web-based self-help alone and a waiting list control program on cannabis use in problematic cannabis users: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Schaub, Michael P; Haug, Severin; Wenger, Andreas; Berg, Oliver (Ed.); Sullivan, Robin; Beck, Thilo; Stark, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background In European countries, including Switzerland, as well as in many states worldwide, cannabis is the most widely used psychoactive substance after alcohol and tobacco. Although approximately one in ten users develop serious problems of dependency, only a minority attends outpatient addiction counseling centers. The offer of a combined web-based self-help and chat counseling treatment could potentially also reach those users who hesitate to approach such treatment centers and help the...

  14. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥ 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users. PMID:25240105

  15. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Paradoxical Cannabis Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Marie Figueroa-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-established antiemetic properties of marijuana, there has been increasing evidence of a paradoxical effect in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, given rise to a new and underrecognized clinical entity called the Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Reported cases in the medical literature have established a series of patients exhibiting a classical triad of symptoms: cyclic vomiting, chronic marijuana use, and compulsive bathing. We present a case of a 29-year-old man whose clinical presentation strongly correlates with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Despite a diagnosis of exclusion, this syndrome should be considered plausible in the setting of a patient with recurrent intractable vomiting and a strong history of cannabis use as presented in this case.

  16. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Paradoxical Cannabis Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Rivera, Ivonne Marie; Estremera-Marcial, Rodolfo; Sierra-Mercado, Marielly; Gutiérrez-Núñez, José; Toro, Doris H

    2015-01-01

    Despite well-established antiemetic properties of marijuana, there has been increasing evidence of a paradoxical effect in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, given rise to a new and underrecognized clinical entity called the Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Reported cases in the medical literature have established a series of patients exhibiting a classical triad of symptoms: cyclic vomiting, chronic marijuana use, and compulsive bathing. We present a case of a 29-year-old man whose clinical presentation strongly correlates with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Despite a diagnosis of exclusion, this syndrome should be considered plausible in the setting of a patient with recurrent intractable vomiting and a strong history of cannabis use as presented in this case. PMID:26266060

  17. The carbon footprint of indoor Cannabis production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production – legal in some jurisdictions and illicit in others – utilizes highly energy intensive processes to control environmental conditions during cultivation. This article estimates the energy consumption for this practice in the United States at 1% of national electricity use, or $6 billion each year. One average kilogram of final product is associated with 4600 kg of carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, or that of 3 million average U.S. cars when aggregated across all national production. The practice of indoor cultivation is driven by criminalization, pursuit of security, pest and disease management, and the desire for greater process control and yields. Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy. The unchecked growth of electricity demand in this sector confounds energy forecasts and obscures savings from energy efficiency programs and policies. While criminalization has contributed to the substantial energy intensity, legalization would not change the situation materially without ancillary efforts to manage energy use, provide consumer information via labeling, and other measures. Were product prices to fall as a result of legalization, indoor production using current practices could rapidly become non-viable. - Highlights: ► The emergent industry of indoor Cannabis production utilizes highly energy intensive processes and is highly inefficient. ► In the United States, this represents an annual energy expenditure of $6 billion. ► One kg of final product is associated with emissions of 4600 kg of CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. ► Aggregate U.S. emissions are equivalent those of 3 million cars. ► Energy analysts and policymakers have not previously addressed this use of energy.

  18. Environmental epidemiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopfler, F.C.; Craun, G.F. (eds.)

    1986-01-01

    This volume is a compendium of peer-reviewed papers presented at the Symposium on Exposure Measurement and Evaluation Methods for Epidemiology, cosponsored in 1985 by the Health Effects Research Laboratory, USEPA, and the Division of Environmental Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The book is divided into four sections: Use of Biological Monitoring to Assess Exposure, Epidemiologic Considerations for Assessing Exposure, Health and Exposure Data Bases, and Assessment of Exposure to Environmental Contaminants for Epidemiologic Studies. Both background papers and detailed reports of human studies are presented. The Biological Monitoring section contains reports of efforts to quantify adducts in blood and urine samples. In the section on Epidemiologic Considerations the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic studies of persons residing near hazardous waste sites and those exposed to arsenic in drinking water is described. The review of Data Bases includes government and industry water quality monitoring systems, the FDA Market Basket Study, major EPA air monitoring data, the National Database on Body Burden of Toxic chemicals, and the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey. Methods of assessing current exposure and estimating past exposure are detailed in the final section. Exposure to trichloroethylene in shower water, the relationship between water quality and cardiovascular disease, the contribution of environmental lead exposures to pediatric blood lead levels, and data from the TEAM study in which researchers compare indoor, outdoor, and breath analysis of air pollutant exposures are also discussed.

  19. Maintenance of Brucella abortus free herds; a review with emphasis on the epidemiology and the problems in diagnosing brucellosis in areas of low prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This review covers some epidemiological aspects that allow Brucella to survive, spread, and maintain itself in the environment. Because the success of maintaining Brucella-free herds is determined by the efficiency of the serological tests to detect a single infected animal the limitations of the tr

  20. Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

  1. Predictors of age at onset of tobacco and cannabis use in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Becker, Ulrik;

    2010-01-01

    Early onset of tobacco and cannabis use predicts later substance abuse and risk behaviour and has large health consequences.......Early onset of tobacco and cannabis use predicts later substance abuse and risk behaviour and has large health consequences....

  2. Assessing the public health impacts of legalizing recreational cannabis use in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, W; Weier, M

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in assessing the public health impact of legalizing cannabis use in Colorado and Washington State is the absence of any experience with legal cannabis markets. The Netherlands created a de facto legalized cannabis market for recreational use, but policy analysts disagree about how it has affected rates of cannabis use. Some US states have created de facto legal supply of cannabis for medical use. So far this policy does not appear to have increased cannabis use or cannabis-related harm. Given experience with more liberal alcohol policies, the legalization of recreational cannabis use is likely to increase use among current users. It is also likely that legalization will increase the number of new users among young adults but it remains uncertain how many may be recruited, within what time frame, among which groups within the population, and how many of these new users will become regular users. PMID:25777798

  3. Gynaekologisk epidemiologi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Øjvind

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological research has good possibilities in Denmark due to the fact that all people have a personal PIN code and due to our many National health registers. In gynaecology the National Register of Patients, the Birth Registry, IVF-registry, Cancer Registry and latest the National Prescription...... Database offer unique possibilities of linking exposure data with many clinical outcomes. Danish epidemiology has contributed with morbidity analyses on children concieved by in vitro fertilisation, pharmacoepidemiological studies on short and long term effects of oral contraceptives and hormone therapy...

  4. Alcohol and relatively pure cannabis use, but not schizotypy, are associated with cognitive attenuations

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Daniela A.; David eNutt; Christine eMohr

    2014-01-01

    Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug) use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioural marker of psychotic (-like) symptoms or the consequence of an enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis ...

  5. Alcohol and Relatively Pure Cannabis Use, but Not Schizotypy, are Associated with Cognitive Attenuations

    OpenAIRE

    Herzig, Daniela A.; David J. Nutt; Mohr, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug) use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioral marker of psychotic (-like) symptoms or the consequence of enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis user...

  6. Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Thylstrup, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacc...

  7. The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazekamp, Arno; Heerdink, Eibert R.

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of countries are providing pharmaceutical grade cannabis to chronically ill patients. However, little published data is known about the extent of medicinal cannabis use and the characteristics of patients using cannabis on doctor's prescription. This study describes a retrospective

  8. The role of leisure and delinquency in frequent cannabis use and dependence trajectories among young adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Liebregts; P. van der Pol; M. van Laar; R. de Graaf; W. van den Brink; D.J. Korf

    2015-01-01

    Background The link between leisure and cannabis use has been widely studied, but less so for young adults, and rarely with a focus on frequent cannabis use. Also, little is known about how changes in leisure develop over time and how they are related to transitions in cannabis use and dependence. M

  9. Applying a Social Determinants of Health Perspective to Early Adolescent Cannabis Use--An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyshka, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Although the risk of problematic cannabis use is relatively low, the lifetime prevalence of dependence is greater than for all other illicit drugs. As such, the population burden of problematic cannabis use warrants attention. Many health and psychosocial risks associated with cannabis…

  10. A Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Sarteschi, Christy; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This meta-analytic review assesses the effectiveness of substance abuse interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use. Method: A systematic search identified 15 randomized controlled evaluations of interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use published between 1960 and 2008. The primary outcome variables, frequency of cannabis use,…

  11. A genetic perspective on the proposed inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Agrawal, A.; Nat, N.O.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.; Martin, N.G.; Lynskey, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Various studies support the inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in the diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (CUD) in the upcoming DSM-5. The aims of the current study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal (criterion B), (2) estimate the role of genetic and environmen

  12. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  13. Prenatal Cannabis Exposure and Infant Development: “A Tolerated Matter”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. El Marroun (Hanan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSince centuries, cannabis is used for recreational, spiritual and medicinal purposes. Today, cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit substances, also among pregnant women. In the last decades, levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis products have increased, and these high

  14. Single doses of THC and cocaine decrease proficiency of impulse control in heavy cannabis users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, J.H. van; Kuypers, K.P.; Theunissen, E.L.; Toennes, S.W.; Spronk, D.B.; Verkes, R.J.; Ramaekers, J.G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cannabis is the most popular drug used in the European Union, closely followed by cocaine. Whereas cannabis impairs neurocognitive function in occasional cannabis users, such impairments appear less prominent in heavy users, possibly as a result of tolerance. The present stud

  15. Three-Year Course of Cannabis Dependence and Prediction of Persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van der Pol; N. Liebregts; R. de Graaf; D.J. Korf; W. van den Brink; M. van Laar

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To examine the course and the predictors of the persistence of cannabis dependence. Methods: Through cannabis outlets and chain referral, a prospective enriched community cohort of 207 young adults (aged 18-30) with DSM-IV cannabis dependence at baseline (T0) was formed and followed-up after 1

  16. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  17. Subjective aggression during alcohol and cannabis intoxication before and after aggression exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E B; Theunissen, E L; Kuypers, K P C; Toennes, S W; Ramaekers, J G

    2016-01-01

    RATIONALE: Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on sub

  18. Genome-wide association study of lifetime cannabis use based on a large meta-analytic sample of 32 330 subjects from the International Cannabis Consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, S; Minică, C C; Verweij, K J H; Mbarek, H; Bernard, M; Derringer, J; van Eijk, K R; Isen, J D; Loukola, A; Maciejewski, D F; Mihailov, E; van der Most, P J; Sánchez-Mora, C; Roos, L; Sherva, R; Walters, R; Ware, J J; Abdellaoui, A; Bigdeli, T B; Branje, S J T; Brown, S A; Bruinenberg, M; Casas, M; Esko, T; Garcia-Martinez, I; Gordon, S D; Harris, J M; Hartman, C A; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Hickie, I B; Hickman, M; Hopfer, C J; Hottenga, J J; Huizink, A C; Irons, D E; Kahn, R S; Korhonen, T; Kranzler, H R; Krauter, K; van Lier, P A C; Lubke, G H; Madden, P A F; Mägi, R; McGue, M K; Medland, S E; Meeus, W H J; Miller, M B; Montgomery, G W; Nivard, M G; Nolte, I M; Oldehinkel, A J; Pausova, Z; Qaiser, B; Quaye, L; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Richarte, V; Rose, R J; Shin, J; Stallings, M C; Stiby, A I; Wall, T L; Wright, M J; Koot, H M; Paus, T; Hewitt, J K; Ribasés, M; Kaprio, J; Boks, M P; Snieder, H; Spector, T; Munafò, M R; Metspalu, A; Gelernter, J; Boomsma, D I; Iacono, W G; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Derks, E M; Vink, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely produced and consumed illicit psychoactive substance worldwide. Occasional cannabis use can progress to frequent use, abuse and dependence with all known adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Individual differences in cannabis initiation are heritable (40-48%). The International Cannabis Consortium was established with the aim to identify genetic risk variants of cannabis use. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data of 13 cohorts (N=32 330) and four replication samples (N=5627). In addition, we performed a gene-based test of association, estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and explored the genetic correlation between lifetime cannabis use and cigarette use using LD score regression. No individual SNPs reached genome-wide significance. Nonetheless, gene-based tests identified four genes significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use: NCAM1, CADM2, SCOC and KCNT2. Previous studies reported associations of NCAM1 with cigarette smoking and other substance use, and those of CADM2 with body mass index, processing speed and autism disorders, which are phenotypes previously reported to be associated with cannabis use. Furthermore, we showed that, combined across the genome, all common SNPs explained 13-20% (P<0.001) of the liability of lifetime cannabis use. Finally, there was a strong genetic correlation (rg=0.83; P=1.85 × 10(-8)) between lifetime cannabis use and lifetime cigarette smoking implying that the SNP effect sizes of the two traits are highly correlated. This is the largest meta-analysis of cannabis GWA studies to date, revealing important new insights into the genetic pathways of lifetime cannabis use. Future functional studies should explore the impact of the identified genes on the biological mechanisms of cannabis use. PMID:27023175

  19. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one

  20. History of Epidemiological Aspects of Yellow Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Downs, Wilbur G.

    1982-01-01

    This review attempts to follow the trail of the development of epidemiological aspects and concepts of yellow fever and yellow fever transmission (vectors, vertebrate hosts, spacing of epidemic outbreaks) with less emphasis on well-documented early history and more emphasis on epidemiological problems still remaining, plus discussion of possible means of resolving certain of these problems.

  1. Cannabis, possible cardiac deaths and the coroner in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, W P

    2012-01-10

    BACKGROUND: The elevated risk of triggering a myocardial infarction by smoking cannabis is limited to the first 2 h after smoking. AIM: To examine the possible role of cannabis in cardiac deaths. CASES AND RESULTS: From 3,193 coroners\\' cases over 2 years, there were 13 cases where the clinical information was compatible with a primary cardiac cause of death. An inquest was held in three cases. Myocardial infarction was the primary cause of death in 54%. Other causes were sudden adult death syndrome, sudden death in epilepsy, and poisoning by alcohol and diazepam. Cannabis was mentioned once only on a death certificate, but not as a cause of death. Blood delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was recorded in one case and in no case was plasma tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured. CONCLUSIONS: To attribute sudden cardiac death to cannabis, plasma THC should be measured in the toxicology screen in coroners\\' cases where urine cannabinoids are positive. A positive urine cannabinoids immunoassay alone is insufficient evidence in the linkage of acute cardiac death and cannabis.

  2. Methodologic frontiers in environmental epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothman, K J

    1993-01-01

    Environmental epidemiology comprises the epidemiologic study of those environmental factors that are outside the immediate control of the individual. Exposures of interest to environmental epidemiologists include air pollution, water pollution, occupational exposure to physical and chemical agents, as well as psychosocial elements of environmental concern. The main methodologic problem in environmental epidemiology is exposure assessment, a problem that extends through all of epidemiologic research but looms as a towering obstacle in environmental epidemiology. One of the most promising developments in improving exposure assessment in environmental epidemiology is to find exposure biomarkers, which could serve as built-in dosimeters that reflect the biologic footprint left behind by environmental exposures. Beyond exposure assessment, epidemiologists studying environmental exposures face the difficulty of studying small effects that may be distorted by confounding that eludes easy control. This challenge may prompt reliance on new study designs, such as two-stage designs in which exposure and disease information are collected in the first stage, and covariate information is collected on a subset of subjects in state two. While the analytic methods already available for environmental epidemiology are powerful, analytic methods for ecologic studies need further development. This workshop outlines the range of methodologic issues that environmental epidemiologists must address so that their work meets the goals set by scientists and society at large. PMID:8206029

  3. Epidemiology of Lyme borreliosis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    Basel : Karger, 2009 - (Lipsker, D.; Jaulhac, B., B.), s. 31-50 ISBN 978-3-8055-9114-0. - (Current Problems in Dermatology. 37) Grant ostatní: 6th Framework Programme(XE) GOCE-2003-010284 EDEN Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato * infectious disease s * natural focality of disease s * incidence rates * environmental effects Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Disease s ; Clinical Immunology

  4. Epidemiology of hypertension as a public health problem: an overview as background for evaluation of blood lead-blood pressure relationship.

    OpenAIRE

    Tyroler, H A

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the epidemiology of blood pressure is presented as background for the International Symposium of Blood Lead-Blood Pressure Relationships. The correlates of blood pressure distributions in populations are varied and numerous. They have to be considered as either potential confounders or modifiers of any blood pressure-blood lead relationship detected. The relation of blood pressure to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality emphasizes the importance of detecting and elucidating a...

  5. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B; Guy, Geoffrey W; Robson, Philip J

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life. PMID:17712817

  6. Gender Differences in Internalizing Symptoms and Suicide Risk Among Men and Women Seeking Treatment for Cannabis Use Disorder from Late Adolescence to Middle Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Katherine T; Li, Ningfei; McClure, Erin A; Sonne, Susan C; Gray, Kevin M

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis continues to rise in popularity as the perception of its harmfulness decreases and evidence of its deleterious developmental effect increases. While internalizing distress and suicide risk have been linked with cannabis use problems [DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (CUD); DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence] it remains unclear how this association varies over the course of development in treatment-seeking men and women. The current study utilized the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN) to conduct a cross-sectional comparison of internalizing distress and suicide risk among men (n=437) and women (n=163) spanning ages 18-50 who met DSM-5 criteria for CUD. Interactions between gender and developmental stage (i.e., late adolescence, early adulthood, and middle adulthood) were observed for suicide risk and anxiety but not depression problems. Specifically, women seeking CUD treatment in late adolescence and middle adulthood exhibited significantly higher rates of anxiety and suicide risk compared to men seeking treatment during the same developmental stages. Internalizing distress and suicide risk did not differ between treatment-seeking men and women in the early adult stage. Overall, results suggest that the structure of risk for CUD may differ in men and women across the lifespan and that women presenting for CUD treatment during late adolescence and middle adulthood may uniquely benefit from intervention designed to address these elevations in anxiety and suicide risk. PMID:27211992

  7. Digital epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Salathé

    Full Text Available Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges.

  8. Future time perspective as predictor of cannabis use: Exploring the role of substance perception among French adolescents.

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolidis, Thémis; Fieulaine, Nicolas; Florence, Soulé

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the relation of Future time perspective (FTP) to cannabis use and tested the potential mediating role of cannabis perception, with a sample of 276 French adolescents. FTP was assessed using ZTPI subscale, cannabis perception was evaluated from a list of nine items related to drug-oriented perception (DOP), and participants were asked to report both their cannabis use and the level of use. Results showed that FTP acts as a significant predictor of cannabis use, and is signi...

  9. The cannabis pathway to non-affective psychosis may reflect less neurobiological vulnerability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of cannabis use reported in non-affective psychosis. Early prospective longitudinal studies conclude that cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, and neurochemical studies on cannabis have suggested potential mechanisms for this effect. Recent advances in the field of neuroscience and genetics may have important implications for our understanding of this relationship. Importantly, we need to better understand the vulnerability x cannabis interaction to shed light on the mediators of cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis. Thus, the present study reviews recent literature on several variables relevant for understanding the relationship between cannabis and psychosis, including age of onset, cognition, brain functioning, family history, genetics and neurological soft signs (NSS in non-affective psychosis. Compared with non-using non-affective psychosis, the present review shows that there seem to be fewer stable cognitive deficits in patients with cannabis use and psychosis, in addition to fewer NSS and possibly more normalized brain functioning, indicating less neurobiological vulnerability for psychosis. There are, however, some familiar and genetic vulnerabilities present in the cannabis psychosis group which may influence the cannabis pathway to psychosis by increasing sensitivity to cannabis. Furthermore, an earlier age of onset suggests a different pathway to psychosis in the cannabis-using patients. Two alternative vulnerability models are presented to integrate these seemingly paradoxical findings.

  10. The Cannabis Pathway to Non-Affective Psychosis may Reflect Less Neurobiological Vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løberg, Else-Marie; Helle, Siri; Nygård, Merethe; Berle, Jan Øystein; Kroken, Rune A; Johnsen, Erik

    2014-01-01

    There is a high prevalence of cannabis use reported in non-affective psychosis. Early prospective longitudinal studies conclude that cannabis use is a risk factor for psychosis, and neurochemical studies on cannabis have suggested potential mechanisms for this effect. Recent advances in the field of neuroscience and genetics may have important implications for our understanding of this relationship. Importantly, we need to better understand the vulnerability × cannabis interaction to shed light on the mediators of cannabis as a risk factor for psychosis. Thus, the present study reviews recent literature on several variables relevant for understanding the relationship between cannabis and psychosis, including age of onset, cognition, brain functioning, family history, genetics, and neurological soft signs (NSS) in non-affective psychosis. Compared with non-using non-affective psychosis, the present review shows that there seem to be fewer stable cognitive deficits in patients with cannabis use and psychosis, in addition to fewer NSS and possibly more normalized brain functioning, indicating less neurobiological vulnerability for psychosis. There are, however, some familiar and genetic vulnerabilities present in the cannabis psychosis group, which may influence the cannabis pathway to psychosis by increasing sensitivity to cannabis. Furthermore, an earlier age of onset suggests a different pathway to psychosis in the cannabis-using patients. Two alternative vulnerability models are presented to integrate these seemingly paradoxical findings. PMID:25477825

  11. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  12. The normalisation of cannabis use among young people: Symbolic boundary work in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2011-01-01

    of cannabis in relation to other substances. While 14–15 year olds draw a clear dividing-line between alcohol and illegal drugs (including cannabis), 18–19 year olds put cannabis on the same footing as alcohol but differentiate it from ‘hard’ drugs. Fourth, participants dichotomise cannabis use into......This paper analyses ‘techniques of neutralisation’ among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14–15 years old in 2004 until they were 18–19 years old in 2008. In this period......, the participants’ attitudes towards cannabis undergo a radical change from being negative and sceptical into being predominantly positive and accepting; a change we describe as a ‘normalisation’ of cannabis use. Four techniques of neutralisation are identified in this process. First, the participants...

  13. Decreased spontaneous eye blink rates in chronic cannabis users: evidence for striatal cannabinoid-dopamine interactions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael A Kowal

    Full Text Available Chronic cannabis use has been shown to block long-term depression of GABA-glutamate synapses in the striatum, which is likely to reduce the extent to which endogenous cannabinoids modulate GABA- and glutamate-related neuronal activity. The current study aimed at investigating the effect of this process on striatal dopamine levels by studying the spontaneous eye blink rate (EBR, a clinical marker of dopamine level in the striatum. 25 adult regular cannabis users and 25 non-user controls matched for age, gender, race, and IQ were compared. Results show a significant reduction in EBR in chronic users as compared to non-users, suggesting an indirect detrimental effect of chronic cannabis use on striatal dopaminergic functioning. Additionally, EBR correlated negatively with years of cannabis exposure, monthly peak cannabis consumption, and lifetime cannabis consumption, pointing to a relationship between the degree of impairment of striatal dopaminergic transmission and cannabis consumption history.

  14. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture and the environment: a systematic, spatially-explicit survey and potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Brenner, Jacob C.

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research. An example from Humboldt County California, a principal cannabis-producing region, involved digitizing 4428 grow sites in 60 watersheds with Google Earth imagery. Grows were clustered, suggesting disproportionate impacts in ecologically important locales. Sixty-eight percent of grows were >500 m from developed roads, suggesting risk of landscape fragmentation. Twenty-two percent were on steep slopes, suggesting risk of erosion, sedimentation, and landslides. Five percent were cannabis agriculture documented in our study demands that it be regulated and researched on par with conventional agriculture.

  15. Cognitive enhancement therapy improves fronto-limbic regulation of emotion in alcohol and/or cannabis misusing schizophrenia: a preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Jessica Ann Wojtalik; Hogarty, Susan S.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Phillips, Mary L.; Matcheri S Keshavan; Newhill, Christina E.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who misuse substances are burdened with impairments in emotion regulation. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy (CET) may address these problems by enhancing prefrontal brain function. A small sample of outpatients with schizophrenia and alcohol and/or cannabis substance use problems participating in an 18-month randomized trial of CET (n = 10) or usual care (n = 4) completed post-treatment functional neuroimaging using an emotion regulation task. General linear models...

  16. INCANT: a transnational randomized trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with cannabis use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grichting Esther

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the governments of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland agreed that there was a need in Europe for a treatment programme for adolescents with cannabis use disorders and other behavioural problems. Based on an exhaustive literature review of evidence-based treatments and an international experts meeting, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT was selected for a pilot study first, which was successful, and then for a joint, transnational randomized controlled trial named INCANT (INternational CAnnabis Need for Treatment. Methods/design INCANT is a randomized controlled trial (RCT with an open-label, parallel group design. This study compares MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU at and across sites in Brussels, Berlin, Paris, The Hague and Geneva. Assessments are at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after randomization. A minimum of 450 cases in total is required; sites will recruit 60 cases each in Belgium and Switzerland, and a maximum of 120 each in France, Germany and the Netherlands. Eligible for INCANT are adolescents from 13 through 18 years of age with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse, with at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. Randomization is concealed to, and therefore beyond control by, the researcher/site requesting it. Randomization is stratified as to gender, age and level of cannabis consumption. Assessments focus on substance use; mental function; behavioural problems; and functioning regarding family, school, peers and leisure time. For outcome analyses, the study will use state of the art latent growth curve modelling techniques, including all randomized participants according to the intention-to-treat principle. INCANT has been approved by the appropriate ethical boards in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. INCANT is funded by the (federal Ministries of Health of Belgium

  17. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses. PMID:27254840

  18. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies. PMID:27428345

  19. Pharmacology and toxicology of Cannabis derivatives and endocannabinoid agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerra, Gilberto; Zaimovic, Amir; Gerra, Maria L; Ciccocioppo, Roberto; Cippitelli, Andrea; Serpelloni, Giovanni; Somaini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    For centuries Cannabis sativa and cannabis extracts have been used in natural medicine. Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main active ingredient of Cannabis. THC seems to be responsible for most of the pharmacological and therapeutic actions of cannabis. In a few countries THC extracts (i.e. Sativex) or THC derivatives such as nabilone, and dronabinol are used in the clinic for the treatment of several pathological conditions like chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. On the other hand the severe side effects and the high abuse liability of these agents represent a serious limitation in their medical use. In addition, diversion in the use of these active ingredients for recreational purpose is a concern. Over recent years, alternative approaches using synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists or agents acting as activators of the endocannabinoid systems are under scrutiny with the hope to develop more effective and safer clinical applications. Likely, in the near future few of these new molecules will be available for clinical use. The present article review recent study and patents with focus on the cannabinoid system as a target for the treatment of central nervous system disorders with emphasis on agonists. PMID:19832688

  20. Functional MRI studies in human Ecstasy and cannabis users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis and ecstasy are among the most widely used illicit drugs in the world. However, there are substantial concerns about their neurotoxic potential for brain and brain function. Despite previous research, some crucial questions regarding the causality, course and clinical relevance have remaine

  1. Subjective effects of cannabis before the first psychotic episode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.D. Peters; P. Koning; P. Dingemans; H. Becker; D.H. Linszen; L. de Haan

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to gain more insight into the positive and negative effects of cannabis in the prodromal phase of schizophrenia and in the ultrahigh-risk (UHR) state for psychosis. Method: A theory-driven questionnaire was used to examine subjective effects in the prodrom

  2. Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker

    2015-01-01

    Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in the hair of persons who solely handled cannabis material. In the light of the serious consequences of positive test results the mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair urgently need scientific evaluation. Here we show that neither THC nor THCA-A are incorporated into human hair in relevant amounts after systemic uptake. THC-COOH, which is considered an incontestable proof of THC uptake according to the current scientific doctrine, was found in hair, but was also present in older hair segments, which already grew before the oral THC intake and in sebum/sweat samples. Our studies show that all three cannabinoids can be present in hair of non-consuming individuals because of transfer through cannabis consumers, via their hands, their sebum/sweat, or cannabis smoke. This is of concern for e.g. child-custody cases as cannabinoid findings in a child's hair may be caused by close contact to cannabis consumers rather than by inhalation of side-stream smoke. PMID:26443501

  3. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in

  4. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in th

  5. Cannabis use and age at onset of schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, ND; Selten, JP; Van der Tweel, [No Value; Feller, WG; Hoek, HW; Kahn, RS

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the study was to assess the independent influences of gender and cannabis use on milestones of early course in schizophrenia. Method: in this population-based, first-contact incidence study conducted in The Hague, the Netherlands, patients (N=133) were interviewed with the

  6. Long-Term Heavy Cannabis Use: Implications for Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggans, Niall; Dalgarno, Phil; Johnson, Lindsay; Shewan, David

    2004-01-01

    There is growing evidence that cannabis can have negative effects on health. While the ongoing debate about the nature and duration of these effects recognizes mild cognitive impairment, the evidence for irreversibility of cognitive impairment and causal links with psychiatric illness is not conclusive. There is undoubtedly potential for…

  7. The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Golub, Victoria M

    2016-04-01

    Recently, cannabis has been suggested as a potential alternative therapy for refractory epilepsy, which affects 30% of epilepsy, both adults and children, who do not respond to current medications. There is a large unmet medical need for new antiepileptics that would not interfere with normal function in patients with refractory epilepsy and conditions associated with refractory seizures. The two chief cannabinoids are Δ-9-tetrahyrdrocannabinol, the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of marijuana. Claims of clinical efficacy in epilepsy of CBD-predominant cannabis or medical marijuana come mostly from limited studies, surveys, or case reports. However, the mechanisms underlying the antiepileptic efficacy of cannabis remain unclear. This article highlights the pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy, with an emphasis on the endocannabinoid mechanisms underlying the emerging neurotherapeutics of CBD in epilepsy. CBD is anticonvulsant, but it has a low affinity for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2; therefore the exact mechanism by which it affects seizures remains poorly understood. A rigorous clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical CBD products is needed to establish the safety and efficacy of their use in the treatment of epilepsy. Identification of mechanisms underlying the anticonvulsant efficacy of CBD is also critical for identifying other potential treatment options. PMID:26787773

  8. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seeds after plasma treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šerá, Božena; Gajdová, Iveta; Gavril, B.; Hnatiuc, E.; Šerý, M.; Špatenka, P.

    Brasov: Universitatea Transilvania din Brasov, 2012 - (Clotea, L.; Cernat, M.). s. 251-251 ISBN 978-1-4673-1650-7. [International Conference on Optimization of Electrical and Electronic Equipment /13./ OPTIM 2012. 24.05.-26.05.2012, Brasov] Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Cannabis sativa L. * plasma treatment Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics

  9. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ziegler, A.; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, G.; Schubert, J.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 157, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-385. ISSN 0304-8608 R&D Projects: GA ČR GCP501/10/J018 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Cannabis sativa * Partitivirus * cryptic virus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.030, year: 2012

  10. Avoiding emotional bonds: An examination of the dimensions of therapeutic alliance among cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison eHealey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to provide treatment for cannabis users, yet engaging and maintaining this population in treatment is particularly difficult. Although past research has focused on the importance of therapeutic alliance on drug treatment outcomes, this is the first study to examine the dimensions of therapeutic alliance for cannabis users compared with users of alcohol or other drugs in a naturalistic setting. The acceptability of Internet-delivered interventions for drug and alcohol treatments is also investigated. Participants (N = 77 included clients who were receiving outpatient drug and alcohol treatment at a publicly-funded health service, including a Specialist Cannabis Clinic. The results indicated that one particular domain of alliance, Bond, was consistently lower, from both client and clinician perspectives, for current cannabis users relative to those not currently using cannabis. Client perceptions of Bond decreased as the severity of cannabis use increased (r =-0.373, p=0.02. Cannabis Clinic clients did not report a significantly lower Bond with their clinicians, suggesting that specialised cannabis services may be better placed to provide appropriate treatment for this population than embedding cannabis treatment within traditional drug and alcohol treatment teams. In addition, Internet/computer based treatments may be one potential way to engage, transition or retain cannabis users in treatment.Trial Registration: Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976

  11. Prevalence and correlates of cannabis use in an outpatient VA posttraumatic stress disorder clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentes, Emily L; Schry, Amie R; Hicks, Terrell A; Clancy, Carolina P; Collie, Claire F; Kirby, Angela C; Dennis, Michelle F; Hertzberg, Michael A; Beckham, Jean C; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2016-05-01

    Recent research has documented high rates of comorbidity between cannabis use disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in veterans. However, despite possible links between PTSD and cannabis use, relatively little is known about cannabis use in veterans who present for PTSD treatment, particularly among samples not diagnosed with a substance use disorder. This study examined the prevalence of cannabis use and the psychological and functional correlates of cannabis use among a large sample of veterans seeking treatment at a Veterans Affairs (VA) PTSD specialty clinic. Male veterans (N = 719) who presented at a VA specialty outpatient PTSD clinic completed measures of demographic variables, combat exposure, alcohol, cannabis and other drug use, and PTSD and depressive symptoms. The associations among demographic, psychological, and functional variables were estimated using logistic regressions. Overall, 14.6% of participants reported using cannabis in the past 6 months. After controlling for age, race, service era, and combat exposure, past 6-month cannabis use was associated with unmarried status, use of tobacco products, other drug use, hazardous alcohol use, PTSD severity, depressive symptom severity, and suicidality. The present findings show that cannabis use is quite prevalent among veterans seeking PTSD specialty treatment and is associated with poorer mental health and use of other substances. It may be possible to identify and treat individuals who use cannabis in specialty clinics (e.g., PTSD clinics) where they are likely to present for treatment of associated mental health issues. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27214172

  12. Cannabis use in people with severe mental illness: The association with physical and mental health - a cohort study : A Pharmacotherapy Monitoring and Outcome Survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Jojanneke; Pijnenborg, Marieke Gh; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Visser, Ellen; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Bruggeman, Richard; Jörg, Frederike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the general population cannabis use is associated with better cardiometabolic outcomes. Patients with severe mental illness frequently use cannabis, but also present increased cardiometabolic risk factors. We explore the association between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors

  13. Epidemiology of IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease (IBD) What is IBD? Addressing IBD Epidemiology Epidemiology of the IBD Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... 5:1424-9. 2 Loftus EV, Jr. Clinical epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease: Incidence, prevalence, and environmental ...

  14. Cannabis and Tobacco Use: Where Are the Boundaries? A Qualitative Study on Cannabis Consumption Modes among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify tobacco and cannabis co-consumptions and consumers' perceptions of each substance. A qualitative research including 22 youths (14 males) aged 15-21 years in seven individual interviews and five focus groups. Discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and transferred to Atlas.ti software for narrative…

  15. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Benschop; N. Liebregts; P. van der Pol; R. Schaap; R. Buisman; M. van Laar; W. van den Brink; R. de Graaf; D.J. Korf

    2014-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥3 days per week) c

  16. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  17. [Sanitary and epidemiological well-being in children and adolescents: state-of-the-art and ways of solving the problem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onishchenko, G G

    2007-01-01

    In the children and adolescents of the Russian Federation, there is an increase in the incidence of a number of nosological entities, a significant prevalence of chronic diseases, and a reduction in health quality in children. According to the statistical data, in the past 5 years, the overall incidence has increased by 16% in children (aged 0-14 years) (171268 per 100,000 children in 2005) by 18% in adolescents. The incidence of diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, anemias, as well diseases of the respiratory, urogenital, and nervous systems, and congenital anomalies continues to increase. Along with socioeconomic causes, this is all due to the negative influence of environmental factors, dietary defects, and, in some cases, poor upbringing and teaching conditions, which do not comply with the hygienic standards and sanitary rules. Under the established conditions, the maintenance and improvement of children's health is the most important state task, the provision of their sanitary and epidemiological welfare being one of the major constituents in its accomplishment. In the past 3 years, the principal state sanitary inspector has issued 17 regulations on different aspects of the sanitary and epidemiological well-being of children and adolescents. The preparation of the draft "National Program for the Prevention of Adverse Health Influence of Environmental Factors for the Sake of the Future of Children and Adolescents for 2007-2010" has been currently completed. The Group of Eight Summit has noted that resolute opposition to threats of infectious diseases, the leading cause of death in the world, is vital to the global development and welfare of mankind. It has adopted the resolution that it is essential to make specific achievements in the strengthening international cooperation in the surveillance and monitoring of infectious diseases; to intensify researches; to second the efforts of appropriate international organizations, which are aimed at effectively

  18. Association between schizotypal and borderline personality disorder traits, and cannabis use in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of schizotypal and borderline personality traits to cannabis use. Participants were 476 college students (95 males; 381 females; mean age of males=21; mean age of females=20.7) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing cannabis use, schizotypal and borderline personality traits. Problematic cannabis use, depressive symptoms, borderline and schizotypal traits were significantly inter-correlated. A logistic regression analysis showed that only borderline traits contributed significantly to cannabis use in the total sample. A multiple regression analysis showed that only schizotypal traits were positively and uniquely associated to problematic cannabis use symptoms among users. These results may imply that schizotypal traits are not a risk factor for initiating use, but may facilitate the development of problematic use symptoms among users. This study showed the necessity of taking into account schizotypal traits when exploring the relationships between depressive symptoms, borderline traits and cannabis use. PMID:27149691

  19. Does cannabis use affect treatment outcome in bipolar disorder? A longitudinal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rossum, Inge; Boomsma, Maarten; Tenback, Diederik;

    2009-01-01

    Research suggests that cannabis use affects negatively on onset and outcome of schizophrenia, but less is known about possible effects in mood disorders. Bipolar in- and outpatients (N = 3459) were enrolled in an observational study. The influence of cannabis exposure on clinical and social...... treatment outcome measures was examined over the course of 1 year, as well as the effects on these associations of third mediating variables. Over 12 months of treatment, cannabis users exhibited less compliance and higher levels of overall illness severity, mania, and psychosis compared with nonusers....... Additionally, cannabis users experienced less satisfaction with life and had a lower probability of having a relationship compared with nonusers. There was little evidence that cannabis-outcome associations were mediated by third variables. An independent impact of cannabis use on psychopathologic outcomes in...

  20. Alcohol and relatively pure cannabis use, but not schizotypy, are associated with cognitive attenuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela A Herzig

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Elevated schizotypy relates to similar cognitive attenuations as seen in psychosis and cannabis/polydrug use. Also, in schizotypal populations cannabis and polydrug (including licit drug use are enhanced. These cognitive attenuations may therefore either be a behavioural marker of psychotic (-like symptoms or the consequence of an enhanced drug use in schizotypal populations. To elucidate this, we investigated the link between cognitive attenuation and cannabis use in largely pure cannabis users (35 CU and non-using controls (48 nCU, accounting for the potential additional influence of both schizotypy and licit drug use (alcohol, nicotine. Cognitive attenuations commonly seen in psychosis were associated with cannabis and alcohol use, but not schizotypy. Future studies should therefore consider i non-excessive licit substance use (e.g. alcohol in studies investigating the effect of cannabis use on cognition and ii both enhanced illicit and licit substance use in studies investigating cognition in schizotypal populations.

  1. [Co-occurrent cannabis and tobacco uses: Clinical knowledge and therapeutic prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzer, Thomas; Gillet, Claudine; Bisch, Michaël; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Schwan, Raymund; Laprevote, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis and tobacco are two of the most prevalent addictive drugs used worldwide. Concurrent use of cannabis and tobacco is common, whether simultaneous in joints or not. In France, cannabis is mainly used in joints also containing tobacco. According to the current literature, combined use of cannabis and tobacco exacerbates on additive or multiplicative mode the somatic, psychological and social consequences of each drug. In addition, concurrent use of cannabis and tobacco potentiates tobacco and cannabis dependence, which maintains the use of both drugs, increases the risk of relapse and reduces motivation to care. Combined use thus leads to a reduced likelihood of therapeutic success. We discuss the usefulness of simultaneous cessation treatment together with the use of currently available pharmacological and psychological help as valuable therapeutic tools. PMID:27235655

  2. Cannabinoid replacement therapy (CRT): Nabiximols (Sativex) as a novel treatment for cannabis withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allsop, D J; Lintzeris, N; Copeland, J; Dunlop, A; McGregor, I S

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is a common recreational drug that is generally considered to have low addictive potential. However, an increasing number of cannabis users are seeking treatment for dependence on the drug. There is interest in using agonist (substitution) pharmacotherapies to treat cannabis dependence and here we outline a novel approach involving a buccal spray (nabiximols) that contains tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). We review recent research with nabiximols and highlight findings relevant to clinical practice. PMID:25777582

  3. Application of medical cannabis in patients with central nerve system disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Kotuła; Alicja Petniak; Ewa Kołodziej; Magdalena Amarowicz; Marcin Urbańczuk; Katarzyna Schab; Paulina Gil-Kulik; Jolanta Karwat; Jarosław Kotuła; Paulina Mulawka; Dominika Mulawka; Janusz Kocki

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family, species of the genus Cannabis. Cannabis contains active elements, including Δ9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Neurological disorders are typically associated with neurodegeneration. It means that there is no causal treatment. Usually we can only modulate disease. It is very necessary to patients to reduce pain sensation or excessive muscle tension. The paper contains a description of therapeutic possibilities trea...

  4. Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ducruet Thierry; Ware Mark A; Robinson Ann R

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Cannabis, in herbal form, is widely used as self-medication by patients with diseases such as HIV/AIDS and multiple sclerosis suffering from symptoms including pain, muscle spasticity, stress and insomnia. Valid clinical studies of herbal cannabis require a product which is acceptable to patients in order to maximize adherence to study protocols. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial of 4 different herbal cannabis preparations among 8 experienced and...

  5. Drug vaping applied to cannabis: Is “Cannavaping” a therapeutic alternative to marijuana?

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent Varlet; Nicolas Concha-Lozano; Aurélie Berthet; Grégory Plateel; Bernard Favrat; Mariangela De Cesare; Estelle Lauer; Marc Augsburger; Aurélien Thomas; Christian Giroud

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic cannabis administration is increasingly used in Western countries due to its positive role in several pathologies. Dronabinol or tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) pills, ethanolic cannabis tinctures, oromucosal sprays or table vaporizing devices are available but other cannabinoids forms can be used. Inspired by the illegal practice of dabbing of butane hashish oil (BHO), cannabinoids from cannabis were extracted with butane gas, and the resulting concentrate (BHO) was atomized with spec...

  6. E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Giroud; Mariangela De Cesare; Aurélie Berthet; Vincent Varlet; Nicolas Concha-Lozano; Bernard Favrat

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has given cannabis smokers a new method of inhaling cannabinoids. E-cigs differ from traditional marijuana cigarettes in several respects. First, it is assumed that vaporizing cannabinoids at lower temperatures is safer because it produces smaller amounts of toxic substances than the hot combustion of a marijuana cigarette. Recreational cannabis users can discretely “vape” deodorized cannabis extracts with minimal annoyance to the people around ...

  7. Cannabis use among Navy personnel in Sri Lanka: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    de Silva, Varuni Asanka; Jayasekera, Nicholas; Hanwella, Raveen

    2016-01-01

    Background Prevalence of cannabis use among military populations vary. There is evidence that drug use is associated with combat exposure and PTSD. The objective of the study was to assess the prevalence of cannabis use among Sri Lanka Navy (SLN) personnel and to identify any relationship with cannabis use and combat exposure. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out among representative samples of SLN Special Forces (Special Boat Squadron) and regular forces deployed in combat area...

  8. Are IQ and educational outcomes in teenagers related to their cannabis use? A prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Mokrysz, Claire; Landy, R; Gage, Suzanne H.; Munafo, Marcus R.; Roiser, J.P.; Curran, H V

    2016-01-01

    There is much debate about the impact of adolescent cannabis use on intellectual and educational outcomes. We investigated associations between adolescent cannabis use and IQ and educational attainment in a sample of 2235 teenagers from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. By the age of 15, 24% reported having tried cannabis at least once. A series of nested linear regressions was employed, adjusted hierarchically by pre-exposure ability and potential confounds (e.g. cigarette...

  9. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; El-Din M. Gaafar, Alaa; El Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration i...

  10. Tolerance and cross-tolerance to neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol in heavy cannabis users

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaekers, Johannes G.; Theunissen, Eef L.; de Brouwer, Marjolein; Toennes, Stefan W.; Moeller, Manfred R; Kauert, Gerhold

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Previous research has shown that heavy cannabis users develop tolerance to the impairing effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on neurocognitive functions. Animal studies suggest that chronic cannabis consumption may also produce cross-tolerance for the impairing effects of alcohol, but supportive data in humans is scarce. Purpose The present study was designed to assess tolerance and cross-tolerance to the neurocognitive effects of THC and alcohol in heavy cannabis users. Met...

  11. Stroke with neuropsychiatric sequelae after cannabis use in a man: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Giroud Maurice; Chauvet-Gelinier Jean-Christophe; Khoumri Catia; Meille Vincent; Leclerq Stéphanie; Trojak Benoit; Bonin Bernard; Gisselmann André

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The outcome of cerebral ischemic stroke associated with cannabis use is usually favorable. Here we report the first case of cannabis-related stroke followed by neuropsychiatric sequelae. Case presentation A 24-year-old Caucasian man was discovered in a deeply comatose non-reactive state after cannabis use. A magnetic resonance imaging scan of his brain showed bilateral multiple ischemic infarcts. The patient remained deeply comatose for four days, after which time he dev...

  12. Cannabis Use and Anxiety: Is Stress the Missing Piece of the Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Temple, Elizabeth C.; Driver, Matthew; Brown, Rhonda F.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Comorbidity between anxiety and cannabis use is common yet the nature of the association between these conditions is not clear. Four theories were assessed, and a fifth hypothesis tested to determine if the misattribution of stress symptomology plays a role in the association between state-anxiety and cannabis. Methods: Three-hundred-sixteen participants ranging in age from 18 to 71 years completed a short online questionnaire asking about their history of cannabis use and sympt...

  13. Cannabis Use and Anxiety: Is Stress the Missing Piece of the Puzzle?

    OpenAIRE

    Elizabeth Clare Temple; Matthew eDriver; Rhonda Frances Brown

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Comorbidity between anxiety and cannabis use is common yet the nature of the association between these conditions is not clear. Four theories were assessed, and a fifth hypothesis tested to determine if the misattribution of stress symptomology plays a role in the association between state-anxiety and cannabis. Methods: Three-hundred-sixteen participants ranging in age from 18-71 years completed a short online questionnaire asking about their history of cannabis use and symptoms of...

  14. Correlates to the variable effects of cannabis in young adults: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camera Ariella A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis use can frequently have adverse affects in those that use it and these can be amplified by various characteristics of an individual, from demographic and environmental variations to familial predisposition for mental illnesses. Methods The current study of 100 individuals, who were cannabis users during their adolescence and may still be users, was a survey of the self perceived effects of cannabis and their correlates. A reliable family member was also interviewed for determination of family history of various major mental illnesses and substance use. Results As many as 40% of cannabis users had paranoid feelings (suspiciousness when using cannabis, although the most frequent effect was feeling relaxed (46%. Having a familial background for mental illnesses such as depression or schizophrenia did not determine the effects of cannabis nor its pattern of use, although the number of subjects with such a history was small. An age at which an individual began using cannabis did have an effect on how heavily it was used and the heavier the cannabis use, the more likely the individual was also to have had psychotic symptoms after use. There were no sex differences in effects of cannabis. These results are tempered by the reliance on self-report for many of the variables ascertained. Conclusion Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which can be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Thus, users with a specific profile may be at a higher risk of unpleasant effects from cannabis use and caution should be noted when cannabis is administered to young people for medicinal purposes.

  15. Interaction Between Functional Genetic Variation of DRD2 and Cannabis Use on Risk of Psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colizzi, Marco; Iyegbe, Conrad; Powell, John; Ursini, Gianluca; Porcelli, Annamaria; Bonvino, Aurora; Taurisano, Paolo; Romano, Raffaella; Masellis, Rita; Blasi, Giuseppe; Morgan, Craig; Aitchison, Katherine; Mondelli, Valeria; Luzi, Sonija; Kolliakou, Anna; David, Anthony; Murray, Robin M; Bertolino, Alessandro; Di Forti, Marta

    2015-09-01

    Both cannabis use and the dopamine receptor (DRD2) gene have been associated with schizophrenia, psychosis-like experiences, and cognition. However, there are no published data investigating whether genetically determined variation in DRD2 dopaminergic signaling might play a role in individual susceptibility to cannabis-associated psychosis. We genotyped (1) a case-control study of 272 patients with their first episode of psychosis and 234 controls, and also from (2) a sample of 252 healthy subjects, for functional variation in DRD2, rs1076560. Data on history of cannabis use were collected on all the studied subjects by administering the Cannabis Experience Questionnaire. In the healthy subjects' sample, we also collected data on schizotypy and cognitive performance using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire and the N-back working memory task. In the case-control study, we found a significant interaction between the rs1076560 DRD2 genotype and cannabis use in influencing the likelihood of a psychotic disorder. Among cannabis users, carriers of the DRD2, rs1076560, T allele showed a 3-fold increased probability to suffer a psychotic disorder compared with GG carriers (OR = 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-7.63). Among daily users, T carrying subjects showed a 5-fold increase in the odds of psychosis compared to GG carriers (OR = 4.82; 95% CI: 1.39-16.71). Among the healthy subjects, T carrying cannabis users had increased schizotypy compared with T carrying cannabis-naïve subjects, GG cannabis users, and GG cannabis-naïve subjects (all P ≤ .025). T carrying cannabis users had reduced working memory accuracy compared with the other groups (all P ≤ .008). Thus, variation of the DRD2, rs1076560, genotype may modulate the psychosis-inducing effect of cannabis use. PMID:25829376

  16. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  17. Extraction of High Quality DNA from Seized Moroccan Cannabis Resin (Hashish)

    OpenAIRE

    El Alaoui, Moulay Abdelaziz; Melloul, Marouane; Alaoui Amine, Sanaâ; Stambouli, Hamid; El Bouri, Aziz; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; El Fahime, Elmostafa

    2013-01-01

    The extraction and purification of nucleic acids is the first step in most molecular biology analysis techniques. The objective of this work is to obtain highly purified nucleic acids derived from Cannabis sativa resin seizure in order to conduct a DNA typing method for the individualization of cannabis resin samples. To obtain highly purified nucleic acids from cannabis resin (Hashish) free from contaminants that cause inhibition of PCR reaction, we have tested two protocols: the CTAB protoc...

  18. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiati...

  19. Environmental epidemiology: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekkanen, J; Pearce, N

    2001-01-01

    Epidemiology is struggling increasingly with problems with correlated exposures and small relative risks. As a consequence, some scholars have strongly emphasized molecular epidemiology, whereas others have argued for the importance of the population context and the reintegration of epidemiology into public health. Environmental epidemiology has several unique features that make these debates especially pertinent to it. The very large number of environmental exposures require prioritization, and the relative risks are usually very low. Furthermore, many environmental exposures can be addressed only by comparing populations rather than individuals, and the disruption of both local and global ecosystems requires us to develop new methods of study design. The population context is also very important to consider in risk management decisions because of the involuntary nature of most environmental exposures and the diversity of possible outcomes, both health- and nonhealth-related. Studies at the individual or molecular level tend to focus the research hypotheses and subsequent interventions at that level, even when research and interventions at other levels may be more appropriate. Thus, only by starting from the population and ecosystem levels can we ensure that these are given appropriate consideration. Although better research is needed at all levels, it is crucially important to choose the most appropriate level, or levels, of research for a particular problem. Only by conducting research at all these levels and by developing further methods to combine evidence from these different levels can we hope to address the challenges facing environmental epidemiology today. PMID:11171517

  20. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; de Matos E Souza, Fábio Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words "bipolar disorder," "suicide attempts," "cannabis," "marijuana," "early age at onset," and "early onset." Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6-42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5-60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15-42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear. PMID:26097750

  1. Association of cannabis use with prodromal symptoms of psychosis in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miettunen, Jouko; Törmänen, Sari; Murray, Graham K; Jones, Peter B; Mäki, Pirjo; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma; Taanila, Anja; Heinimaa, Markus; Joukamaa, Matti; Veijola, Juha

    2008-06-01

    Recent interest has focused on the association between cannabis use and risk of psychosis. In the largest unselected, population-based study on this topic to date, we examined cannabis use and prodromal symptoms of psychosis at age 15-16 years among 6330 adolescents. Those who had tried cannabis (n=352; 5.6% of the total sample) were more likely to present three or more prodromal symptoms even after controlling for confounders including previous behavioural symptoms (OR=2.23; 95% CI 1.70-2.94). A dose-response effect was seen. We conclude that cannabis use is associated with prodromal symptoms of psychosis in adolescence. PMID:18515902

  2. La fiscalización del cannabis, ¿una paradoja?

    OpenAIRE

    Agüí Palomo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    El cannabis es conocido en nuestra sociedad por su uso como droga de abuso, bien en forma de marihuana, de hachís y, menos frecuentemente de aceite de hachís. Además, la planta del cáñamo (cannabis sativa) es utilizada para producción de fibras, biocombustibles, grasas vegetales, etc. ¿Qué situación legal encontramos en el cultivo del cannabis? ¿Está permitida la producción de plantas con determinados contenidos en THC? Cannabis is known in our society for iys use as a drug ...

  3. Application of medical cannabis in patients with central nerve system disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kotuła

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family, species of the genus Cannabis. Cannabis contains active elements, including Δ9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Neurological disorders are typically associated with neurodegeneration. It means that there is no causal treatment. Usually we can only modulate disease. It is very necessary to patients to reduce pain sensation or excessive muscle tension. The paper contains a description of therapeutic possibilities treatment of cannabis in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Tourette syndrome and spasticity.

  4. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Torres Portugal Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  5. Impact of ADHD and Cannabis Use on Executive Functioning in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Tamm, Leanne; Epstein, Jeffery N.; Lisdahl, Krista M.; Tapert, Susan; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Arnold, L. Eugene; Velanova, Katerina; Abikoff, Howard; Swanson, James M.

    2013-01-01

    BackgroundAttention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cannabis use are each associated with specific cognitive deficits. Few studies have investigated the neurocognitive profile of individuals with both an ADHD history and regular cannabis use. The greatest cognitive impairment is expected among ADHD Cannabis Users compared to those with ADHD-only, Cannabis use-only, or neither.MethodsYoung adults (24.2±1.2 years) with a childhood ADHD diagnosis who did (n=42) and did not (n=45) repor...

  6. Evaluating the effects of gamma-irradiation for decontamination of medicinal cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eHazekamp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative HPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  7. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated. PMID:27199751

  8. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated. PMID:27199751

  9. Technologie pěstování a hnojení konopí (Cannabis) a způsoby jeho využití

    OpenAIRE

    Jarošová, Markéta

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary is Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) considered as a very promising plant whose parts can be used almost completely. Hemp is grown especially for fiber and seed. The plant is good biodegradable, so it causes no problems with waste disposal. The root system is deep and loosens the soil and prevents erosion. Hemp accumulate heavy metals from contaminated soils.To achieve the economic benefit are suitable fertile , deep soils with good nutrient supply and neutral or slightly alkaline reacti...

  10. Spontaneous pneumothorax: epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause

    OpenAIRE

    Noppen, M

    2010-01-01

    Spontaneous pneumothorax represents a common clinical problem. An overview of relevant and updated information on epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause(s) of spontaneous (primary and secondary) pneumothorax is described.

  11. Spontaneous pneumothorax: epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noppen

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous pneumothorax represents a common clinical problem. An overview of relevant and updated information on epidemiology, pathophysiology and cause(s of spontaneous (primary and secondary pneumothorax is described.

  12. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  13. Intimate partner violence and specific substance use disorders: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Philip H.; Homish, Gregory G.; Leonard, Kenneth E.; Cornelius, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    The association between substance use and intimate partner violence (IPV) is robust. It is less clear how the use of specific substances relates to relationship violence. This study examined IPV perpetration and victimization related to the following specific substance use disorders: alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and opioid. The poly-substance use of alcohol and cocaine, as well as alcohol and marijuana were also examined. Data were analyzed from wave two of the National Epidemiologic Study on A...

  14. [Bilateral adrenal hemorrhage (BAH): cannabis and vascular involvement].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaille, V; Taylor, S; Borghgraef, J; Rossi, C

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 39-year-old man with bilateral adrenal haemorrhage. The diagnosis is rarely primarily made with imaging alone. Our patient had a previous history of a stroke six years prior to this episode. We evoke the possibility that long-term daily cannabis use could be the underlying cause of the patient's vascular pathologies. After thorough review of existing literature, this link was found to be probable. Cannabis is the most consumed recreational drug in the world, and this tendency is ever-increasing. Serious complications other than psychiatric resulting from consumption are reported with increasing frequency. Neurological, cerebrovascular, cardiovascular and respiratory complications have been observed. It is thus important to remain vigilant when patients are hospitalised notably through the emergency department, in order to obtain a complete anamnesis, optimise screening, and to adapt the treatment of these patients. PMID:27487697

  15. Specialized psychosocial treatment plus treatment as usual (TAU) versus TAU for patients with cannabis use disorder and psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthoj, C. R.; Fohlmann, A.; Larsen, A. M.;

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis abuse in psychotic patients is associated with rehospitalizations, reduced adherence and increased symptom severity. Previous psychosocial interventions have been ineffective in cannabis use, possibly because of low sample sizes and short interventions. We investigated whethe...

  16. Cannabis sativa: The Plant of the Thousand and One Molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle M.; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fiber since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibers. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metab...

  17. Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Andre, Christelle M.; Jean-Francois eHausman; Gea eGuerriero

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important herbaceous species originating from Central Asia, which has been used in folk medicine and as a source of textile fibre since the dawn of times. This fast-growing plant has recently seen a resurgence of interest because of its multi-purpose applications: it is indeed a treasure trove of phytochemicals and a rich source of both cellulosic and woody fibres. Equally highly interested in this plant are the pharmaceutical and construction sectors, since its metab...

  18. Effect of hydrolysis on identifying prenatal cannabis exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Teresa R.; Barnes, Allan J.; Huestis, Marilyn A.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of prenatal cannabis exposure is important due to potential cognitive and behavioral consequences. A two-dimensional gas chromatography–mass spectrometry method for cannabinol, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC), 8β,11-dihydroxy-THC, and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) quantification in human meconium was developed and validated. Alkaline, enzymatic, and enzyme–alkaline tandem hydrolysis conditions were optimized with THC- and THCCOOH-glucuronide reference...

  19. Peer Effects in Adolescent Cannabis Use: It's the Friends, Stupid

    OpenAIRE

    John Moriarty; Duncan McVicar; Kathryn Higgins

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines peer effects in adolescent cannabis use from several different reference groups, exploiting survey data that have many desirable properties and have not previously been used for this purpose. Treating the school grade as the reference group, and using both neighbourhood fixed effects and IV for identification, we find evidence of large, positive, and statistically significant peer effects. Treating nominated friends as the reference group, and using both school fixed effec...

  20. Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bjoern Moosmann; Nadine Roth; Volker Auwärter

    2015-01-01

    Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in the hair of persons who solely handled cannabis material. In the light of the serious consequences of positive tes...

  1. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit) instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cann...

  2. Pregnenolone Can Protect the Brain from Cannabis Intoxication

    OpenAIRE

    Vallee, M; Vitiello, S.; Bellocchio, L.; Hebert-Chatelain, E.; Monlezun, S.; Martin-Garcia, E.; Kasanetz, F.; Baillie, G. L.; Panin, F.; Cathala, A.; Roullot-Lacarriere, V.; Fabre, S.; Hurst, D. P.; Lynch, D. L.; Shore, D. M.

    2014-01-01

    Pregnenolone is considered the inactive precursor of all steroid hormones and its potential functional effects have been largely neglected. The administration of the main active principle of Cannabis sativa (marijuana) Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) substantially increases the synthesis of pregnenolone in the brain via the activation of type-1 cannabinoid (CB1) receptor. Pregnenolone then, acting as a signaling specific inhibitor of the CB1 receptor, reduces several effects of THC. This negati...

  3. [Tetrahydrocannabinol pharmacokinetics; new synthetic cannabinoids; road safety and cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goullé, Jean-Perre; Guerbet, Michel

    2014-03-01

    Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive ingredient of cannabis, a drug which is commonly smoked This paper focuses on the pharmacokinetics of THC. The average THC content in cannabis plant material has risen by a factor offour over the past 20 years, from 4% to 16%. This increase has important implications not only for the pharmacokinetics but also for the pharmacology of THC The mean bioavailability of THC in smoked cannabis is about 25%. In a cigarette containing 3.55% of THC, a peak plasma level of about 160 ng/mL occurs approximately 10 min after inhalation. THC is quickly cleared from plasma in a multiphasic manner and is widely distributed to tissues, leading to its pharmacologic effects. Body fat is a long-term storage site. This particular pharmacokinetic behavior explains the lack of correlation between the THC blood level and clinical effects, contrary to ethanol. The main THC metabolites are 11-OH-THC (the only active metabolite) and THC-COOH, which is eliminated in feces and urine over several weeks. Therefore, abstinence can be established by analyzing THC-COOH in urine, while blood THC analysis is used to confirm recent exposure. Cannabis is the main illicit drug found among vehicle drivers. Various traffic safety studies indicate that recent use of this drug at least doubles the risk of causing an accident, and that simultaneous alcohol consumption multiplies this risk by afactor of 14. Since 2009, synthetic cannabinoids have emerged on the illicit drug market. These substances act on the same CB1 receptors as THC, but with higher afinity. Their pharmacokinetics differs from that of THC, as they are metabolized into multiple derivatives, most of which are more active than THC itself. PMID:26427296

  4. Comparison of protocols for DNA extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Soler Aleixandre, Salvador; Sifres Cuerda, Alicia Gemma; Llosa, E.; Llamas, M.; Vilanova Navarro, Santiago; Prohens Tomás, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis sativa is an important crop cultivated both for industrial (var. sativa) and medicinal and recreational (var. indica) purposes. Cultivation of var. indica plants is generally forbidden and this difficults genetic studies. An alternative is the extraction of DNA from seed embryos. In order to develop an efficient protocol for DNA extraction of C. sativa seeds we have tested six DNA extraction methods in seeds and leaves of a C. sativa var. sativa accession. We found that the best prot...

  5. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Honório Káthia Maria; Arroio Agnaldo; Silva Albérico Borges Ferreira da

    2006-01-01

    Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action ...

  6. What place for ▾ cannabis extract in MS?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological condition that is estimated to affect around 60,000 people in England and Wales, with a lifetime risk in the UK of 1 in 1,000.(1,2) Spasticity (an increase in muscle tone) is a common symptom of MS, resulting in muscle spasms, immobility, disturbed sleep and pain.(3,4) Complex drug combinations are sometimes necessary to manage symptoms of MS, but these are often only partially effective and associated with unacceptable side effects.(5) Cannabis extract containing delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) and cannabidiol are the principal extracts from the cannabis plant present in a licensed preparation (▾Sativex - GW Pharma Ltd), the first cannabinoid preparation to be approved for medical use. Sativex has been licensed "for symptom improvement in adult patients with moderate to severe spasticity due to MS who have not responded adequately to other anti-spasticity medication and who demonstrate clinically significant improvement in spasticity related symptoms during an initial trial of therapy".(6) Here we review the evidence for cannabis extract and its place in the treatment of the condition. PMID:23241565

  7. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuardi A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  8. Coping-motivated marijuana use correlates with DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and psychological distress among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Ethan; Christopher, Paul P; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Compared to other age cohorts, emerging adults, ages 18-25 years, have the highest rates of marijuana (MJ) use. We examined the relationship of using MJ to cope with negative emotions, relative to using MJ for enhancement or social purposes, to MJ-associated problems and psychological distress among emerging adults. Participants were 288 community-dwelling emerging adults who reported current MJ use as part of a "Health Behaviors" study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the adjusted association of coping-motivated MJ use with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) cannabis use disorder, MJ-related problem severity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. After adjusting for other variables in the regression model, using MJ to cope was positively associated with having DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.31, 2.62], p depression (b = .36, 95% CI [.23, .49], p < .01), and perceived stress (b = .37, 95% CI [.22, .51], p < .01). Using MJ for enhancement purposes or for social reasons was not associated significantly with any of the dependent variables. Using MJ to cope with negative emotions in emerging adults is associated with MJ-related problems and psychological distress. Assessment of MJ use motivation may be clinically important among emerging adults. PMID:25915689

  9. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products. PMID:24747979

  10. Cannabis Use and Anxiety: Is Stress the Missing Piece of the Puzzle?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Clare Temple

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Comorbidity between anxiety and cannabis use is common yet the nature of the association between these conditions is not clear. Four theories were assessed, and a fifth hypothesis tested to determine if the misattribution of stress symptomology plays a role in the association between state-anxiety and cannabis. Methods: Three-hundred-sixteen participants ranging in age from 18-71 years completed a short online questionnaire asking about their history of cannabis use and symptoms of stress and anxiety. Results: Past and current cannabis users reported higher incidence of lifetime anxiety than participants who had never used cannabis, however these groups did not differ in state-anxiety, stress or age of onset of anxiety. State-anxiety and stress were not associated with frequency of cannabis use, but reported use to self-medicate for anxiety was positively associated with all three. Path analyses indicated two different associations between anxiety and cannabis use, pre-existing and high state-anxiety was associated with i higher average levels of intoxication and, in turn, acute anxiety responses to cannabis use; ii frequency of cannabis use via the mediating effects of stress and self-medication. Conclusions: None of the theories was fully supported by the findings. However, as cannabis users reporting self-medication for anxiety were found to be self-medicating stress symptomology, there was some support for the stress misattribution hypothesis. With reported self-medication for anxiety being the strongest predictor of frequency of use, it is suggested that researchers, clinicians and cannabis users pay greater attention to the overlap between stress and anxiety symptomology and the possible misinterpretation of these related but distinct conditions.

  11. A review of the cultivation and processing of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) for production of prescription medicines in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, David J

    2014-01-01

    The quality demands of the pharmaceutical industry require prescription medicines to be consistent in their active ingredient content. Achieving this, using raw cannabis as a feedstock, is especially challenging. The plant material is extremely inhomogeneous, and the ratios of active ingredients are affected by a range of factors. These include the genetics of the plant, the growing and storage conditions, the state of maturity at harvest, and the methods used to process and formulate the material. The reasons for this variability are described, with particular emphasis on the botanical considerations. To produce the complex botanical medicine Sativex®, which contains the cannabinoids Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and a range of other ingredients, GW Pharmaceuticals had to manage these variables. This medicine, for the treatment of spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, is the first cannabis-based medicine to be approved in the UK. The company's methodology for producing this and other chemotypes is described. PMID:24115748

  12. History of cannabis as a medicine: a review História da cannabis como medicamento: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Waldo Zuardi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis as a medicine was used before the Christian era in Asia, mainly in India. The introduction of cannabis in the Western medicine occurred in the midst of the 19th century, reaching the climax in the last decade of that century, with the availability and usage of cannabis extracts or tinctures. In the first decades of the 20th century, the Western medical use of cannabis significantly decreased largely due to difficulties to obtain consistent results from batches of plant material of different potencies. The identification of the chemical structure of cannabis components and the possibility of obtaining its pure constituents were related to a significant increase in scientific interest in such plant, since 1965. This interest was renewed in the 1990's with the description of cannabinoid receptors and the identification of an endogenous cannabinoid system in the brain. A new and more consistent cycle of the use of cannabis derivatives as medication begins, since treatment effectiveness and safety started to be scientifically proven.Antes da Era Cristã, a cannabis foi utilizada na Ásia como medicamento, com grande importância na Índia. A introdução da cannabis na Medicina Ocidental ocorreu em meados do século XIX, atingindo o clímax na última década deste século, com a disponibilidade e o uso de extratos e tinturas da cannabis. Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, o uso médico da cannabis no Ocidente diminuiu significativamente, em grande parte pela dificuldade na obtenção de resultados consistentes de amostras da planta com diferentes potências. A identificação da estrutura química de componentes da cannabis e a possibilidade de se obter seus constituintes puros foram relacionadas a um aumento significativo no interesse científico pela planta, desde 1965. Este interesse foi renovado nos anos 90, com a descrição dos receptores de canabinóides e a identificação de um sistema canabinóide endógeno no cérebro. Usos

  13. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa Therapeutical aspects of compounds of the plant Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Káthia Maria Honório; Agnaldo Arroio; Albérico Borges Ferreira da Silva

    2006-01-01

    Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action ...

  14. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  15. Functioning of cannabis abuse and dependence criteria across two different countries: the United States and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delforterie, M.J.; Creemers, H.E.; Agrawal, A.; Lynskey, M.T.; Jak, Suzanne; van der Ende, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cross-national differences could affect the likelihood of endorsement of DSM cannabis abuse and dependence criteria. The present study examines whether cannabis abuse and dependence criteria function differently across U.S. and Dutch cannabis users. METHOD: Data on lifetime endorsement o

  16. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any...

  17. Cannabis use and callosal white matter structure and integrity in recent-onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dekker; N. Schmitz; B.D. Peters; T.A. van Amelsvoort; D.H. Linszen; L. de Haan

    2010-01-01

    Adolescent-onset cannabis use, compared with adult-onset use, has been associated with a higher risk for developing symptoms of schizophrenia-like psychotic disorders. To test the hypothesis that onset of cannabis use in early adolescence in male schizophrenia patients is associated with abnormaliti

  18. Progress toward pharmacotherapies for cannabis-use disorder: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jan Copeland, Izabella Pokorski UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Cannabis is the most widely used and variably regulated drug in the world, with increasing trends of use being reported in the US, Australia, Asia, and Africa. Evidence has shown a decrease in the age of commencement of cannabis use in some developed countries and a prolongation of risk of initiation to cannabis use beyond adolescence among more recent users. Cannabis use is associated with numerous health risks and long-term morbidity, as well as risk of developing cannabis-use disorders. Cannabis users infrequently seek professional treatment, and normally do so after a decade of use. Cannabis-use disorders are currently treated using a selection of psychosocial interventions. Severity of withdrawal is a factor that increases the risk of relapse, and is the target of pharmacotherapy studies. Currently, there is no approved pharmacotherapy for cannabis-use disorders. A number of approaches have been examined, and trials are continuing to find a safe and effective medication with little abuse liability. Keywords: marijuana, treatment, intervention, withdrawal, cannabinoid

  19. Disposition of smoked cannabis with high [Delta]9-tetrahydrocannabinol content: A kinetic model.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunault, C.C.; van Eijkeren, J.C.; Mensinga, T.T.; de Vries, I.; Leenders, M.E.C.; Meulenbelt, J.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction No model exists to describe the disposition and kinetics of inhaled cannabis containing a high THC dose. We aimed to develop a kinetic model providing estimates of the THC serum concentrations after smoking cannabis cigarettes containing high THC doses (up to 69 mg THC).Methods Twenty-f

  20. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  1. Cannabis use and depression: a longitudinal study of a national cohort of Swedish conscripts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manrique-Garcia Edison

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While there is increasing evidence on the association between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes, it is still unclear whether this also applies to depression. We aim to assess whether risk of depression and other affective outcomes is increased among cannabis users. Methods A cohort study of 45 087 Swedish men with data on cannabis use at ages 18–20. Diagnoses of unipolar disorder, bipolar disorder, affective psychosis and schizoaffective disorder were identified from inpatient care records over a 35-year follow-up period. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to assess the hazard ratio (HR of developing these disorders in relation to cannabis exposure. Results Only subjects with the highest level of cannabis use had an increased crude hazard ratio for depression (HR 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.0-2.2, but the association disappeared after adjustment for confounders. There was a strong graded association between cannabis use and schizoaffective disorder, even after control for confounders, although the numbers were small (HR 7.4, 95% CI, 1.0-54.3. Conclusion We did not find evidence for an increased risk of depression among those who used cannabis. Our finding of an increased risk of schizoaffective disorder is consistent with previous findings on the relation between cannabis use and psychosis.

  2. Cannabis use and childhood trauma interact additively to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harley, M

    2010-10-01

    Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.

  3. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  4. Effect of Long-Term Cannabis Use on Axonal Fibre Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Andrew; Solowij, Nadia; Yucel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I.; Takagi, Michael; Harding, Ian H.; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wang, Ruopeng; Searle, Karissa; Pantelis, Christos; Seal, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis use typically begins during adolescence and early adulthood, a period when cannabinoid receptors are still abundant in white matter pathways across the brain. However, few studies to date have explored the impact of regular cannabis use on white matter structure, with no previous studies examining its impact on axonal connectivity. The…

  5. Increased Exposure to Alcohol and Cannabis Education and Changes in Use Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Reginald G.

    1989-01-01

    Used data from Ontario Alcohol and Drug Use Among Students survey (N=4,267) to determine how reported alcohol and cannabis (marijuana) use changed with increased exposure to drug education. Concluded drug education had stronger influence on younger students and lighter drinkers but little impact on heavy drinkers. Found decrease in cannabis use…

  6. Cannabis use and vulnerability for psychosis in early adolescence-a TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel F H; Wigman, Johanna T W; Prince van Leeuwen, Andrea; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Huizink, Anja C; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; van Os, Jim; Swaab, Hanna; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the direction of the longitudinal association between vulnerability for psychosis and cannabis use throughout adolescence. DESIGN: Cross-lagged path analysis was used to identify the temporal order of vulnerability for psychosis and cannabis use, while controlling for gender, family

  7. Family motivational intervention for reducing cannabis use in recent-onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Smeerdijk

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use in highly prevalent among young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and has been associated with an adverse course of the illness. Despite these association, the evidence for effective interventions for treating cannabis use in patients with psychosis is limited. This thesis focuses

  8. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and early onset of cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, Anja C.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims To identify early onset cannabis users by measuring basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which may be a risk factor for early onset substance use when showing low activity. Design In a prospective cohort study, adolescents who initiated cannabis use at an early age (9-12 ye

  9. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and early onset of cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.C. Huizink (Anja); R.F. Ferdinand (Robert); J. Ormel (Johan Hans); F.C. Verhulst (Frank)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAims: To identify early onset cannabis users by measuring basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which may be a risk factor for early onset substance use when showing low activity. Design: In a prospective cohort study, adolescents who initiated cannabis use at an earl

  10. The relationship between bipolar disorder and cannabis use in daily life: an experience sampling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Tyler

    Full Text Available Although cannabis use is common in bipolar disorder and may contribute to worse clinical outcomes, little is understood about the relationship between this drug and bipolar disorder over the course of daily life. The aim of study was to examine the effect of cannabis on affect and bipolar symptoms in a group of individuals with bipolar disorder.Twenty-four participants with bipolar disorder type I or type II completed diaries for 6 days using Experience Sampling Methodology to investigate the temporal associations between cannabis, affect and bipolar disorder symptoms.The results indicated that higher levels of positive affect increase the odds of using cannabis (OR:1.25 ,CI:1.06-1.47, P=0.008. However, neither negative affect, manic nor depressive symptoms predicted the use of cannabis. Cannabis use was associated with subsequent increases in positive affect (β=0.35, CI:0.20-0.51, P=0.000, manic symptoms (β=0.20,CI:0.05-0.34, P=0.009 and depressive symptoms (β= 0.17,CI:0.04-0.29, P=0.008.The findings indicate that cannabis use is associated with a number of subsequent psychological effects. However there was no evidence that individuals with BD were using cannabis to self-medicate minor fluctuations in negative affect or bipolar disorder symptoms over the course of daily life. The findings in relation to existing literature and clinical implications are discussed.

  11. Progress toward pharmacotherapies for cannabis-use disorder: an evidence-based review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, Jan; Pokorski, Izabella

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used and variably regulated drug in the world, with increasing trends of use being reported in the US, Australia, Asia, and Africa. Evidence has shown a decrease in the age of commencement of cannabis use in some developed countries and a prolongation of risk of initiation to cannabis use beyond adolescence among more recent users. Cannabis use is associated with numerous health risks and long-term morbidity, as well as risk of developing cannabis-use disorders. Cannabis users infrequently seek professional treatment, and normally do so after a decade of use. Cannabis-use disorders are currently treated using a selection of psychosocial interventions. Severity of withdrawal is a factor that increases the risk of relapse, and is the target of pharmacotherapy studies. Currently, there is no approved pharmacotherapy for cannabis-use disorders. A number of approaches have been examined, and trials are continuing to find a safe and effective medication with little abuse liability. PMID:27217809

  12. Brief Treatments for Cannabis Dependence: Findings From a Randomized Multisite Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Thomas F.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of 2 brief interventions for cannabis-dependent adults. A multisite randomized controlled trial compared cannabis use outcomes across 3 study conditions: (a) 2 sessions of motivational enhancement therapy (MET); (b) 9 sessions of multicomponent therapy that included MET, cognitive-behavioral therapy, and case…

  13. Social Skills as Precursors of Cannabis Use in Young Adolescents: A Trails Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Huizink, Anja C.; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up…

  14. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver cancer induced by dimethylnitrosamine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Abd El Moneim Hussein

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The protective effect of cannabis extract is more pronounced in group taking cannabis before DMNA. Cannabinoids might exert their anti-tumor effects by the direct induction of apoptosis and can decrease telomerase activity by inhibiting the expression of the TERT gene. Coordination between inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis might be a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  15. Behavioral Characterization of the Effects of Cannabis Smoke and Anandamide in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnzeel, Adriaan W.; Qi, Xiaoli; Guzhva, Lidia V.; Wall, Shannon; Deng, Jie V.; Gold, Mark S.; Febo, Marcelo; Setlow, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis and its effects have been well-studied. However, cannabis contains many other cannabinoids that affect brain function. Therefore, these studies investigated the effect of cannabis smoke exposure on locomotor activity, rearing, anxiety-like behavior, and the development of dependence in rats. It was also investigated if cannabis smoke exposure leads to tolerance to the locomotor-suppressant effects of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide. Cannabis smoke was generated by burning 5.7% Δ9-THC cannabis cigarettes in a smoking machine. The effect of cannabis smoke on the behavior of rats in a small and large open field and an elevated plus maze was evaluated. Cannabis smoke exposure induced a brief increase in locomotor activity followed by a prolonged decrease in locomotor activity and rearing in the 30-min small open field test. The cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) receptor antagonist rimonabant increased locomotor activity and prevented the smoke-induced decrease in rearing. Smoke exposure also increased locomotor activity in the 5-min large open field test and the elevated plus maze test. The smoke exposed rats spent more time in the center zone of the large open field, which is indicative of a decrease in anxiety-like behavior. A high dose of anandamide decreased locomotor activity and rearing in the small open field and this was not prevented by rimonabant or pre-exposure to cannabis smoke. Serum Δ9-THC levels were 225 ng/ml after smoke exposure, which is similar to levels in humans after smoking cannabis. Exposure to cannabis smoke led to dependence as indicated by more rimonabant-precipitated somatic withdrawal signs in the cannabis smoke exposed rats than in the air-control rats. In conclusion, chronic cannabis smoke exposure in rats leads to clinically relevant Δ9-THC levels, dependence, and has a biphasic effect

  16. Epidemiological methods: a brief review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidemiology, the study of disease distributions in populations and the factors which influence these distributions, is an observational science, i.e., its data base consists of measurements made on free living individuals characterized by presence or absence of disease states and putative risk factors. Epidemiological studies are usually classified as descriptive or analytical. Descriptive studies are primarily used for planning and evaluating health programs or to generate etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are primarily used for testing etiological hypotheses. Analytical studies are designed either as cohort investigations in which populations with and without a putative risk factor are followed through time to ascertain their differential incidence of disease, or case-control investigations in which the history of exposure to a putative risk factor is compared among persons with a disease and appropriate controls free of disease. Both descriptive and analytical epidemiological studies have been applied to health physics problems. Examples of such problems and the epidemiological methods used to explore them will be presented

  17. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  18. Re-branding cannabis: the next generation of chronic pain medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gregory T; Javaher, Simone P; Nguyen, Michael Hv; Garret, Sharon; Carlini, Beatriz H

    2015-01-01

    The field of pain medicine is at a crossroads given the epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths from prescription opioids. Cannabis and its active ingredients, cannabinoids, are a much safer therapeutic option. Despite being slowed by legal restrictions and stigma, research continues to show that when used appropriately, cannabis is safe and effective for many forms of chronic pain and other conditions, and has no overdose levels. Current literature indicates many chronic pain patients could be treated with cannabis alone or with lower doses of opioids. To make progress, cannabis needs to be re-branded as a legitimate medicine and rescheduled to a more pharmacologically justifiable class of compounds. This paper discusses the data supporting re-branding and rescheduling of cannabis. PMID:25537695

  19. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis. PMID:26842658

  20. Comorbid psychiatric disorders and stages of change in cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercilio P. Oliveira

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine whether and to what extent cannabis dependence is associated with comorbid psychiatric disorders and specific stages of change in treatment-seeking patients. Methods: We evaluated 80 cannabis-dependent, treatment-seeking patients residing in an urban area. Data on cannabis dependence, psychiatric disorders, and motivation were obtained using the Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry and the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA. Results: A diagnosis of schizophrenia was found to correlate with lower motivation scores (p = 0.038, which could have a negative effect on adherence to treatment. Conclusion: The high prevalence of concurrent psychiatric disorders in cannabis-dependent patients should serve as a stimulus for early screening and treatment of such disorders. Health care professionals should be aware of the magnitude of this association to increase the level of motivation in cannabis-dependent patients with severe concurrent psychiatric disorders.

  1. Tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis de los escolares de Barcelona (1987-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis entre los adolescentes escolarizados entre 1987 y 1999 de la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuestas transversales realizadas a muestras representativas de escolares de segundo curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO entre 1987 y 1999. Los cuestionarios eran anónimos y autocontestados. Se dispone de datos de 5.013 escolares de la ciudad de Barcelona que participan en alguna de las 5 encuestas. Resultados: Tras disminuir de forma uniforme entre 1987 y 1996, en 1999 se observa un aumento del 13,4% en el consumo regular (diario o semanal de tabaco y del 38,7% en el consumo experimental de tabaco, respecto a las prevalencias observadas en 1996. Con respecto al consumo de alcohol, se observa una disminución global del 14% de los escolares que ha bebido al menos medio vaso de alcohol entre 1987 y 1999. El consumo problemático de alcohol se iguala en ambos sexos, y la proporción que declara haberse emborrachado alguna vez es en 1999 superior en las chicas (14,0% que en los chicos (10,5%. Mientras en 1996 un 6,9% declaraba haber probado cannabis, la proporción en 1999, sin diferencias entre sexos, era del 7,3% de la población estudiada. Conclusiones: En el período estudiado se observa un aumento del consumo regular de tabaco, una disminución del consumo de alcohol y una estabilización del consumo de cannabis. Las diferencias entre ambos sexos tienden a desaparecer.

  2. Controlled vaporized cannabis, with and without alcohol: subjective effects and oral fluid-blood cannabinoid relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-07-01

    Vaporized cannabis and concurrent cannabis and alcohol intake are commonplace. We evaluated the subjective effects of cannabis, with and without alcohol, relative to blood and oral fluid (OF, advantageous for cannabis exposure screening) cannabinoid concentrations and OF/blood and OF/plasma vaporized-cannabinoid relationships. Healthy adult occasional-to-moderate cannabis smokers received a vaporized placebo or active cannabis (2.9% and 6.7% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) with or without oral low-dose alcohol (~0.065g/210L peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC]) in a within-subjects design. Blood and OF were collected up to 8.3 h post-dose and subjective effects measured at matched time points with visual-analogue scales and 5-point Likert scales. Linear mixed models evaluated subjective effects by THC concentration, BrAC, and interactions. Effects by time point were evaluated by dose-wise analysis of variance (ANOVA). OF versus blood or plasma cannabinoid ratios and correlations were evaluated in paired-positive specimens. Nineteen participants (13 men) completed the study. Blood THC concentration or BrAC significantly associated with subjective effects including 'high', while OF contamination prevented significant OF concentration associations alcohol potentiating the duration of the cannabis effects. Effect-versus-THC concentration and effect-versus-alcohol concentration hystereses were counterclockwise and clockwise, respectively. OF/blood and OF/plasma THC significantly correlated (all Spearman r≥0.71), but variability was high. Vaporized cannabis subjective effects were similar to those previously reported after smoking, with duration extended by concurrent alcohol. Cannabis intake was identified by OF testing, but OF concentration variability limited interpretation. Blood THC concentrations were more consistent across subjects and more accurate at predicting cannabis' subjective effects. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26257143

  3. Age of Alcohol and Cannabis Use Onset Mediates the Association of Transmissible Risk in Childhood and Development of Alcohol and Cannabis Disorders: Evidence for Common Liability

    OpenAIRE

    Kirisci, Levent; Tarter, Ralph; Ridenour, Ty; Zhai, Zu Wei; Fishbein, Diana; Reynolds, Maureen; Vanyukov, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Age at the time of first alcohol and cannabis use was investigated in relation to a measure of transmissible (intergenerational) risk for addiction in childhood and development of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and cannabis use disorder (CUD). It was hypothesized that age at the time of first experience with either substance mediates the association between transmissible risk and subsequent diagnosis of both disorders. The Transmissible Liability Index (TLI; (Vanyukov et al., 2009) was administer...

  4. Tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis de los escolares de Barcelona (1987-1999 Trends in tobacco, alcohol and cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils in Barcelona, Spain [1987-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ariza

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis entre los adolescentes escolarizados entre 1987 y 1999 de la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuestas transversales realizadas a muestras representativas de escolares de segundo curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO entre 1987 y 1999. Los cuestionarios eran anónimos y autocontestados. Se dispone de datos de 5.013 escolares de la ciudad de Barcelona que participan en alguna de las 5 encuestas. Resultados: Tras disminuir de forma uniforme entre 1987 y 1996, en 1999 se observa un aumento del 13,4% en el consumo regular (diario o semanal de tabaco y del 38,7% en el consumo experimental de tabaco, respecto a las prevalencias observadas en 1996. Con respecto al consumo de alcohol, se observa una disminución global del 14% de los escolares que ha bebido al menos medio vaso de alcohol entre 1987 y 1999. El consumo problemático de alcohol se iguala en ambos sexos, y la proporción que declara haberse emborrachado alguna vez es en 1999 superior en las chicas (14,0% que en los chicos (10,5%. Mientras en 1996 un 6,9% declaraba haber probado cannabis, la proporción en 1999, sin diferencias entre sexos, era del 7,3% de la población estudiada. Conclusiones: En el período estudiado se observa un aumento del consumo regular de tabaco, una disminución del consumo de alcohol y una estabilización del consumo de cannabis. Las diferencias entre ambos sexos tienden a desaparecer.Objective: To describe trends in tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils in Barcelona between 1987 and 1999. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys administered to representative samples of pupils in the second year of secondary school between 1987 and 1999. The questionnaires were anonymous and self-completed. We present data from 5013 secondary school pupils from Barcelona who participated in one of the five surveys. Results: Regular smoking (daily and weekly showed a

  5. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy Improves Frontolimbic Regulation of Emotion in Alcohol and/or Cannabis Misusing Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtalik, Jessica A; Hogarty, Susan S; Cornelius, Jack R; Phillips, Mary L; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Newhill, Christina E; Eack, Shaun M

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who misuse substances are burdened with impairments in emotion regulation. Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) may address these problems by enhancing prefrontal brain function. A small sample of outpatients with schizophrenia and alcohol and/or cannabis substance use problems participating in an 18-month randomized trial of CET (n = 10) or usual care (n = 4) completed posttreatment functional neuroimaging using an emotion regulation task. General linear models explored CET effects on brain activity in emotional neurocircuitry. Individuals treated with CET had significantly greater activation in broad regions of the prefrontal cortex, limbic, and striatal systems implicated in emotion regulation compared to usual care. Differential activation favoring CET in prefrontal regions and the insula mediated behavioral improvements in emotional processing. Our data lend preliminary support of CET effects on neuroplasticity in frontolimbic and striatal circuitries, which mediate emotion regulation in people with schizophrenia and comorbid substance misuse problems. PMID:26793128

  6. Cognitive Enhancement Therapy Improves Frontolimbic Regulation of Emotion in Alcohol and/or Cannabis Misusing Schizophrenia: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtalik, Jessica A.; Hogarty, Susan S.; Cornelius, Jack R.; Phillips, Mary L.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Newhill, Christina E.; Eack, Shaun M.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with schizophrenia who misuse substances are burdened with impairments in emotion regulation. Cognitive enhancement therapy (CET) may address these problems by enhancing prefrontal brain function. A small sample of outpatients with schizophrenia and alcohol and/or cannabis substance use problems participating in an 18-month randomized trial of CET (n = 10) or usual care (n = 4) completed posttreatment functional neuroimaging using an emotion regulation task. General linear models explored CET effects on brain activity in emotional neurocircuitry. Individuals treated with CET had significantly greater activation in broad regions of the prefrontal cortex, limbic, and striatal systems implicated in emotion regulation compared to usual care. Differential activation favoring CET in prefrontal regions and the insula mediated behavioral improvements in emotional processing. Our data lend preliminary support of CET effects on neuroplasticity in frontolimbic and striatal circuitries, which mediate emotion regulation in people with schizophrenia and comorbid substance misuse problems. PMID:26793128

  7. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  8. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  9. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  10. [Epidemiology of osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazio, Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Osteoporosis represents a major and increasing public health problem with the aging of population. Major clinical consequences and economic burden of the disease are fractures. Many risk factors are associated with the fractures including low bone mass, hormonal disorders, personal and family history of fractures, low body weight, use of certain drugs (e.g. glucocorticoids), cigarette smoking, elevated intake of alchohol, low physical activity, insufficient level of vitamin D and low intake of calcium. This epidemiological review describes frequency, importance of risk factors and impact of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures. Objective measures of bone mineral density along with clinical assessment of risk factors can help identify patients who will benefit from prevention and intervention efforts and eventually reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with osteoporosis-related fractures. PMID:17580550

  11. Chromothripsis and epigenomics complete causality criteria for cannabis- and addiction-connected carcinogenicity, congenital toxicity and heritable genotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reece, Albert Stuart; Hulse, Gary Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    The recent demonstration that massive scale chromosomal shattering or pulverization can occur abruptly due to errors induced by interference with the microtubule machinery of the mitotic spindle followed by haphazard chromosomal annealing, together with sophisticated insights from epigenetics, provide profound mechanistic insights into some of the most perplexing classical observations of addiction medicine, including cancerogenesis, the younger and aggressive onset of addiction-related carcinogenesis, the heritability of addictive neurocircuitry and cancers, and foetal malformations. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and other addictive agents have been shown to inhibit tubulin polymerization which perturbs the formation and function of the microtubules of the mitotic spindle. This disruption of the mitotic machinery perturbs proper chromosomal segregation during anaphase and causes micronucleus formation which is the primary locus and cause of the chromosomal pulverization of chromothripsis and downstream genotoxic events including oncogene induction and tumour suppressor silencing. Moreover the complementation of multiple positive cannabis-cancer epidemiological studies, and replicated dose-response relationships with established mechanisms fulfils causal criteria. This information is also consistent with data showing acceleration of the aging process by drugs of addiction including alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, stimulants and opioids. THC shows a non-linear sigmoidal dose-response relationship in multiple pertinent in vitro and preclinical genotoxicity assays, and in this respect is similar to the serious major human mutagen thalidomide. Rising community exposure, tissue storage of cannabinoids, and increasingly potent phytocannabinoid sources, suggests that the threshold mutagenic dose for cancerogenesis will increasingly be crossed beyond the developing world, and raise transgenerational transmission of teratogenicity as an increasing concern. PMID:27208973

  12. Diversity Analysis in Cannabis sativa Based on Large-Scale Development of Expressed Sequence Tag-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Chunsheng; Xin, Pengfei; Cheng, Chaohua; Tang, Qing; Ping CHEN; Wang, Changbiao; Zang, Gonggu; Zhao, Lining

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fiber, oils, and intoxicants. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has limited the development of cannabis genetic research. Here, large-scale development of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers was performed to obtain more informative genetic markers, and to assess genetic diversity in cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Based on the cannabis transcriptome, 4,577 SS...

  13. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  14. Cue-Reactivity in Cannabis-Dependent Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Nickerson, Lisa D.; Ravichandran, Caitlin; Lundahl, Leslie H.; Rodolico, John; Dunlap, Steven; Trksak, George H.; Lukas, Scott E

    2011-01-01

    We measured event-related potentials (ERPs) with a craving manipulation to investigate the neural correlates of drug cue-reactivity in 13 cannabis-dependent (CD) adolescents (ages 14–17). The P300 responses to marijuana (MJ) pictures (MJ-P300) and control pictures (C-P300) were assessed after handling neutral objects and again after handling MJ paraphernalia (MJP). Self-reported drug craving and heart rates also were measured. MJ-P300 were larger than C-P300 (p

  15. An epidemiological investigation on the behavior problems of children aged 3 ~7 years old in Zhenjiang city%镇江市3~7岁儿童行为问题流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常宪鲁; 张燕; 王华云

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the epidemiological features of behavior problems of children aged 3 ~7 years old in Zhenjiang city, provide interventional measures for reducing the occurrence of behavior problems in children. Methods; Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire ( PSQ ) and a self - designed questionnaire about the effect factors of children behaviors were used to survey 724 children aged 3 ~ 7 years old in urban area and rural area of Zhenjiang city. Results: The detection rate of behavior problems in children aged 3 ~ 7 years old was 13. 1% , the detection rates of behavior problems in boys and girls were 17. 0% and 9. 2% , respectively, there was significant difference (P<0. 01) . There was significant difference in character problems between boys and girls (P<0. 05) . There was also significant difference in impulse, hyperactivity and hyperactive index between boys and girls (P <0. 01) . Univariate analysis found that the effect factors of behavior problems in children aged 3 ~ 7 years old included maternal anxiety or depression during pregnancy, physical health state during pregnancy, paternal educational level, complications during perinatal period, past medical history of children and the time of starting to speak of children. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis found that maternal anxiety or depression during pregnancy, poor physical health state during pregnancy and complications during perinatal period were the main risk factors of behavior problems in children. Conclusion: The behavior problems of children aged 3 ~7 years old are resulted from multiple factors, keeping good maternal spirit and reducing complications during perinatal period have important significances to reduce the behavior problems of children.%目的:探讨镇江市3~7岁儿童行为问题的流行病学特点,为减少儿童行为问题的发生提供干预措施.方法:应用Conners父母症状问卷(Parent Symptom Questionnaire,PSQ)和自编儿童

  16. What to make of cannabis and cognition in MS: In search of clarity amidst the haze.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Anthony; Banwell, Emma; Pavisian, Bennis

    2015-12-01

    Given data showing that cannabis (herbal drug from the Cannabis sativa plant) can impair cognition in healthy subjects, the possibility that it may also do so in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) should be cause for concern. Approximately 20% of people with MS inhale or ingest cannabis for a variety of symptoms, or as a lifestyle choice. In addition, pharmaceutically manufactured cannabis (in capsules or spray) is prescribed most often for pain and spasticity; however, there is a dearth of literature on the cognitive effects of cannabis. Furthermore, methodological limitations introduce a cautionary note when interpreting the data. The evidence, which must therefore be considered preliminary, suggests that smoked cannabis may further compromise information processing speed and memory, with magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) demonstrating more inefficient patterns of cerebral activation during task performance. The findings related to pharmaceutically manufactured cannabis are equivocal. There is a pressing need for further research to inform clinical opinion, which at present reflects a combination of uncertainty and dogma. PMID:26453678

  17. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspis, Itay; Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jurgen; Shoval, Gal; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-12-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among individuals with depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate whether among individuals with depressive disorders, higher frequency of cannabis use would be associated with poorer Quality of Life (QoL), based on a large nationally representative US sample. Individuals with depressive disorders (N=3416) were divided into categories according to no use (N=3096), occasional use (less than weekly, N=176) and regular (at least weekly, N=144) use of cannabis in the past 12 months. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Women who used cannabis regularly had a significantly lower SF-12 Mental Component Summary score (MCS) compared to non-users, with a mean difference of 0.4 Standard Deviations (SDs). Comparison of subscale scores showed no significant differences. No significant difference was noted when comparing women who used cannabis occasionally to non-users. No differences were found among men when comparing MCS and mental subscale scores of both regular and occasional users to non-users. Our findings highlight the importance of taking gender and the frequency of cannabis use into account, when assessing functional and emotional aspects of cannabis use among individuals with depressive disorders. PMID:26388103

  18. Evaluation of herbal cannabis characteristics by medical users: a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ducruet Thierry

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis, in herbal form, is widely used as self-medication by patients with diseases such as HIV/AIDS and multiple sclerosis suffering from symptoms including pain, muscle spasticity, stress and insomnia. Valid clinical studies of herbal cannabis require a product which is acceptable to patients in order to maximize adherence to study protocols. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled crossover trial of 4 different herbal cannabis preparations among 8 experienced and authorized cannabis users with chronic pain. Preparations were varied with respect to grind size, THC content and humidity. Subjects received each preparation on a separate day and prepared the drug in their usual way in a dedicated and licensed clinical facility. They were asked to evaluate the products based on appearance (smell, colour, humidity, grind size, ease of preparation and overall appearance and smoking characteristics (burn rate, hotness, harshness and taste. Five-point Likert scores were assigned to each characteristic. Scores were compared between preparations using ANOVA. Results Seven subjects completed the study, and the product with highest THC content (12%, highest humidity (14% and largest grind size (10 mm was rated highest overall. Significant differences were noted between preparations on overall appearance and colour (p = 0.003. Discussion While the small size of the study precludes broad conclusions, the study shows that medical cannabis users can appreciate differences in herbal product. A more acceptable cannabis product may increase recruitment and retention in clinical studies of medical cannabis.

  19. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects. PMID:25799565

  20. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björn Enzi

    Full Text Available Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15 and in healthy control subjects (n = 15 with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects.