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Sample records for cannabis problems epidemiologic

  1. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

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    Posada-Villa Jose

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426, Colombia (n = 5,782 and the United States (USA; n = 8,228. The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004 and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001. Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that

  2. Cannabis Epidemiology: A Selective Review

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    Anthony, James C.; Lopez-Quintero, Catalina; Alshaarawy, Omayma

    2017-01-01

    Background Globally, the most widely used set of compounds among the internationally regulated drugs is cannabis. Objective To review evidence from epidemiological research on cannabis, organized in relation to this field’s five main rubrics: quantity, location, causes, mechanisms, and prevention/control. Method The review covers a selection of evidence from standardized population surveys, official statistics, and governmental reports, as well as published articles and books identified via MEDLINE, Web of Science, and Google Scholar as of July 2016. Results In relation to quantity, an estimated 3% to 5% of the world population is thought to have tried a cannabis product, with at least one fairly recent use, mainly extra-medical and outside boundaries of prescribed use. Among cannabis users in the United States, roughly one in 7–8 has engaged in medical marijuana use. In relation to location, prevalence proportions reveal important variations across countries and between subgroups within countries. Regarding causes and mechanisms of starting to use cannabis, there is no compelling integrative and replicable conceptual model or theoretical formulation. Most studies of mechanisms have focused upon a ‘gateway sequence’ and person-to-person diffusion, with some recent work on disability-adjusted life years. A brief review of cannabis use consequences, as well as prevention and control strategies is also provided. Conclusion At present, we know much about the frequency and occurrence of cannabis use, with too little replicable definitive evidence with respect to the other main rubrics. Given a changing regulatory environment for cannabis products, new institutions such as an independent International Cannabis Products Safety Commission may be required to produce evidence required to weigh benefits versus costs. It is not clear that government sponsored research will be sufficient to meet consumer demand for balanced points of view and truly definitive evidence

  3. Association Between Cannabis and Psychosis: Epidemiologic Evidence.

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    Gage, Suzanne H; Hickman, Matthew; Zammit, Stanley

    2016-04-01

    Associations between cannabis use and psychotic outcomes are consistently reported, but establishing causality from observational designs can be problematic. We review the evidence from longitudinal studies that have examined this relationship and discuss the epidemiologic evidence for and against interpreting the findings as causal. We also review the evidence identifying groups at particularly high risk of developing psychosis from using cannabis. Overall, evidence from epidemiologic studies provides strong enough evidence to warrant a public health message that cannabis use can increase the risk of psychotic disorders. However, further studies are required to determine the magnitude of this effect, to determine the effect of different strains of cannabis on risk, and to identify high-risk groups particularly susceptible to the effects of cannabis on psychosis. We also discuss complementary epidemiologic methods that can help address these questions.

  4. Cannabis Beyond Good and Evil. How genetic and epidemiological factors shape the relationship between cannabis and psychosis

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    Schubart, C.D.

    2013-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis aimed to identify genetic and non-genetic (epidemiological) factors that shape the association between cannabis use and psychosis. We showed that the age of first use of cannabis is a determinant for the strength of the association between cannabis use and psycho

  5. Cannabis Use and Mental Health Problems

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    van Ours, J.C.; Williams, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether cannabis use leads to worse mental health. To do so, we account for common unobserved factors affecting mental health and cannabis consumption by modeling mental health jointly with the dynamics of cannabis use. Our main finding is that using cannabis increases the li

  6. Cannabis use, cognitive functioning and behaviour problems

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    Griffith-Lendering, Merel Frederique Heleen

    2013-01-01

    During early adolescence, there is no association between internalizing behaviour and cannabis use. There is an association between externalizing behaviour and cannabis use, where externalizing behaviour precedes cannabis use rather than the other way around. Secondly, during adolescence, there is a

  7. Approach-bias predicts development of cannabis problem severity in heavy cannabis users: results from a prospective FMRI study.

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    Janna Cousijn

    Full Text Available A potentially powerful predictor for the course of drug (abuse is the approach-bias, that is, the pre-reflective tendency to approach rather than avoid drug-related stimuli. Here we investigated the neural underpinnings of cannabis approach and avoidance tendencies. By elucidating the predictive power of neural approach-bias activations for future cannabis use and problem severity, we aimed at identifying new intervention targets. Using functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI, neural approach-bias activations were measured with a Stimulus Response Compatibility task (SRC and compared between 33 heavy cannabis users and 36 matched controls. In addition, associations were examined between approach-bias activations and cannabis use and problem severity at baseline and at six-month follow-up. Approach-bias activations did not differ between heavy cannabis users and controls. However, within the group of heavy cannabis users, a positive relation was observed between total lifetime cannabis use and approach-bias activations in various fronto-limbic areas. Moreover, approach-bias activations in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC independently predicted cannabis problem severity after six months over and beyond session-induced subjective measures of craving. Higher DLPFC/ACC activity during cannabis approach trials, but lower activity during cannabis avoidance trials were associated with decreases in cannabis problem severity. These findings suggest that cannabis users with deficient control over cannabis action tendencies are more likely to develop cannabis related problems. Moreover, the balance between cannabis approach and avoidance responses in the DLPFC and ACC may help identify individuals at-risk for cannabis use disorders and may be new targets for prevention and treatment.

  8. The occurrence of cannabis use disorders and other cannabis-related problems among first-year college students.

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    Caldeira, Kimberly M; Arria, Amelia M; O'Grady, Kevin E; Vincent, Kathryn B; Wish, Eric D

    2008-03-01

    This study reports the prevalence of cannabis use disorders (CUD) and other cannabis-related problems in a large cohort (n=1253) of first-year college students, 17 to 20 years old, at one large public university in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S. Interviewers assessed past-year cannabis use, other drug use, and cannabis-related problems (including DSM-IV criteria for CUD). The prevalence of CUD was 9.4%(wt) among all first-year students and 24.6% among past-year cannabis users (n=739). Of those endorsing any CUD criteria, 33.8% could be classified as diagnostic orphans. Among 474 "at-risk" cannabis users (>or= 5 times in the past year), concentration problems (40.1%), driving while high (18.6%) and missing class (13.9%) were among the most prevalent cannabis-related problems, even among those who endorsed no CUD criteria. Placing oneself at risk for physical injury was also commonly reported (24.3%). A significant proportion of cannabis-using college students meet diagnostic criteria for disorder. Even in the absence of disorder, users appear to be at risk for potentially serious cannabis-related problems. Implications for prevention, service delivery, and future research are discussed.

  9. Persistent cannabis dependence and alcohol dependence represent risks for midlife economic and social problems: A longitudinal cohort study.

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    Cerdá, Magdalena; Moffitt, Terrie E; Meier, Madeline H; Harrington, HonaLee; Houts, Renate; Ramrakha, Sandhya; Hogan, Sean; Poulton, Richie; Caspi, Avshalom

    2016-11-01

    With the increasing legalization of cannabis, understanding the consequences of cannabis use is particularly timely. We examined the association between cannabis use and dependence, prospectively assessed between ages 18-38, and economic and social problems at age 38. We studied participants in the Dunedin Longitudinal Study, a cohort (n=1,037) followed from birth to age 38. Study members with regular cannabis use and persistent dependence experienced downward socioeconomic mobility, more financial difficulties, workplace problems, and relationship conflict in early midlife. Cannabis dependence was not linked to traffic-related convictions. Associations were not explained by socioeconomic adversity, childhood psychopathology, achievement orientation, or family structure; cannabis-related criminal convictions; early onset of cannabis dependence; or comorbid substance dependence. Cannabis dependence was associated with more financial difficulties than alcohol dependence; no difference was found in risks for other economic or social problems. Cannabis dependence is not associated with fewer harmful economic and social problems than alcohol dependence.

  10. Do cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associate with cannabis use and problem gambling among Spanish adolescents?

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    Míguez Varela, M Del Carmen; Becoña, Elisardo

    2015-03-01

    This article examined the relationship between cigarette smoking or alcohol consumption and cannabis use and problem gambling among a random and representative sample of 1447 Spanish adolescents (797 males and 650 females with an average of 12.8 years). An ad-hoc questionnaire was used to assess cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption (beer, wine and spirits) and cannabis use. Gambling was assessed with the South Oaks Gambling Screen Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA). Results indicated a positive and significant association between cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and the two aforementioned variables. A larger percentage of cigarette smokers and drinkers was found among those participants who had consumed cannabis before or scored significantly in problem gambling. Additionally, multiple regression analysis confirmed that both cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption (beer and wine) were the most determinant variables for cannabis use and problem gambling.

  11. How high: Quantity as a predictor of cannabis-related problems

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    Earleywine Mitch

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on cannabis use has emphasized frequency as a predictor of problems. Studies of other drugs reveal that frequency relates to psychological and physiological outcomes, but quantity also plays an important role. In the study of cannabis, quantity has been difficult to assess due to the wide range of products and means of consumption. Methods The present study introduces three new measures of quantity, and examines their contribution to cannabis-related problems. Over 5,900 adults using cannabis once or more per month completed an internet survey that inquired about use, dependence, social problems and respiratory health. In addition to detailing their frequency of cannabis use, participants also reported three measures of quantity: number of quarter ounces consumed per month, usual intensity of intoxication, and maximum intensity of intoxication. Results Frequency of use, monthly consumption, and levels of intoxication predicted respiratory symptoms, social problems and dependence. What is more, each measure of quantity accounted for significant variance in outcomes after controlling for the effects of frequency. Conclusion These findings indicate that quantity is an important predictor of cannabis-related outcomes, and that the three quantity measures convey useful information about use.

  12. Coping with cannabis in a Caribbean country : from problem formulation to going public

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    Hymie Rubenstein

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Analyzes the dialectic between problem discovery and formulation, ethical considerations, and the public dissemination of research results. Author describes his personal experience of fieldwork, the moral-ethical dilemmas it involved, and the circulation of research findings on cannabis production and consumption in St. Vincent. He became frustrated that his academic publications were only accessible to a tiny portion of St. Vincent's population and therefore decided to publish about cannabis in the local media.

  13. Early Cannabis Use and Estimated Risk of Later Onset of Depression Spells : Epidemiologic Evidence From the Population-based World Health Organization World Mental Health Survey Initiative

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    de Graaf, Ron; Radovanovic, Mirjana; van Laar, Margriet; Fairman, Brian; Degenhardt, Louisa; Aguilar-Gaxiola, Sergio; Bruffaerts, Ronny; de Girolamo, Giovanni; Fayyad, John; Gureje, Oye; Maria Haro, Josep; Huang, Yueqin; Kostychenko, Stanislav; Lepine, Jean-Pierre; Matschinger, Herbert; Medina Mora, Maria Elena; Neumark, Yehuda; Ormel, Johan; Posada-Villa, Jose; Stein, Dan J.; Tachimori, Hisateru; Wells, J. Elisabeth; Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Early-onset cannabis use is widespread in many countries and might cause later onset of depression. Sound epidemiologic data across countries are missing. The authors estimated the suspected causal association that links early-onset (age <17 years) cannabis use with later-onset (age >= 17 years) ris

  14. From Cannabis to Problem Drinking? Use and Abuse from Youth to Adulthood

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    Hyggen Christer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available AIMS - The transition from youth to adulthood is associated with changes in the consumption of drugs and alcohol. The aim is to explore the process of “maturing out” of high levels of alcohol consumption, substance use and alcohol related problems from youth to adulthood. We are particularly interested in the relationship between the use of cannabis and alcohol consumption in relation to indicators of adult roles and responsibilities and alcohol-related problems over the life-course. METHODS - We used data from the norwegian longitudinal panel survey Arbeid, Livsstil og Helse (ALH. The data contains information on alcohol and drug consumption, alcohol related problems and a range of indicators of adulthood like marriage and parenthood from surveys repeated in 1985, 1987, 1989, 1993, 2003 and 2010. The sample was nationally representative for the cohorts born 1965-1968 and thus contains individual histories from youth (17-20 years to adulthood (42-45 years with response rates ranging from 80% in 1985 to 53% in 2010 (total n=1997. RESULTS - Alcohol consumption is found to be substantially higher among users of cannabis than among non-users throughout the period from youth to adulthood. The use of cannabis, the level of alcohol consumption and probability of experiencing alcohol related problems decrease as the cohorts grow older. Alcohol related problems are still associated with the level of involvement with cannabis: those with a current or previous involvement with cannabis report more alcohol related problems. Taking into account the decreasing trend of alcohol related problems with age we find that becoming a parent and/ or getting married reduces the risk of experiencing such problems.

  15. Externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of cannabis use : the TRAILS Study

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    Korhonen, T.; van Leeuwen, A.P.; Reijneveld, S.A.; Ormel, J.; Verhulst, F.C.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors Of Subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ag

  16. Externalizing Behavior Problems and Cigarette Smoking as Predictors of Cannabis Use: The TRAILS Study

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    Korhonen, Tellervo; van Leeuwen, Andrea Prince; Reijneveld, Sijmen A.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.; Huizink, Anja C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine externalizing behavior problems and cigarette smoking as predictors of subsequent cannabis use. Method: Dutch adolescents (N = 1,606; 854 girls and 752 boys) from the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) ongoing longitudinal study were examined at baseline (ages 10-12 [T1]) and at two follow-up assessments…

  17. Short scales to assess cannabis-related problems: a review of psychometric properties

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    Klempova Danica

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Aims The purpose of this paper is to summarize the psychometric properties of four short screening scales to assess problematic forms of cannabis use: Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS, Cannabis Use Disorders Identification Test (CUDIT, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST and Problematic Use of Marijuana (PUM. Methods A systematic computer-based literature search was conducted within the databases of PubMed, PsychINFO and Addiction Abstracts. A total of 12 publications reporting measures of reliability or validity were identified: 8 concerning SDS, 2 concerning CUDIT and one concerning CAST and PUM. Studies spanned adult and adolescent samples from general and specific user populations in a number of countries worldwide. Results All screening scales tended to have moderate to high internal consistency (Cronbach's α ranging from .72 to .92. Test-retest reliability and item total correlation have been reported for SDS with acceptable results. Results of validation studies varied depending on study population and standards used for validity assessment, but generally sensitivity, specificity and predictive power are satisfactory. Standard diagnostic cut-off points that can be generalized to different populations do not exist for any scale. Conclusion Short screening scales to assess dependence and other problems related to the use of cannabis seem to be a time and cost saving opportunity to estimate overall prevalences of cannabis-related negative consequences and to identify at-risk persons prior to using more extensive diagnostic instruments. Nevertheless, further research is needed to assess the performance of the tests in different populations and in comparison to broader criteria of cannabis-related problems other than dependence.

  18. Quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among regular users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis: An analysis of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

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    Cougle, Jesse R; Hakes, Jahn K; Macatee, Richard J; Chavarria, Jesus; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Research is limited on the effects of regular substance use on mental health-related outcomes. We used a large nationally representative survey to examine current and future quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among past-year regular (weekly) users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Data on psychiatric disorders and quality of life from two waves (Wave 1 N = 43,093, Wave 2 N = 34,653) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to test study aims. In cross-sectional analyses, regular nicotine and cannabis use were associated with higher rates of psychiatric disorder, though regular alcohol use was associated with lower rates of disorders. Prospective analyses found that regular nicotine use predicted onset of anxiety, depressive, and bipolar disorders. Regular alcohol use predicted lower risk of these disorders. Regular cannabis use uniquely predicted the development of bipolar disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and social phobia. Lastly, regular alcohol use predicted improvements in physical and mental health-related quality of life, whereas nicotine predicted deterioration in these outcomes. Regular cannabis use predicted declines in mental, but not physical health. These data add to the literature on the relations between substance use and mental and physical health and suggest increased risk of mental health problems among regular nicotine and cannabis users and better mental and physical health among regular alcohol users. Examination of mechanisms underlying these relationships is needed.

  19. Medical cannabis and chronic opioid therapy.

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    Reisfield, Gary M

    2010-12-01

    Fourteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for medical purposes. A small, high-quality literature supports the efficacy of medical cannabis for the treatment of neuropathic pain. The smoked botanical product, however, is associated with a number of adverse medical and psychiatric consequences. Furthermore, experimental data indicate that acute use of cannabis results in impairment of every important metric related to the safe operation of a motor vehicle. Epidemiological data show associations between recent cannabis use and both psychomotor impairment and motor vehicle crashes, associations that are strengthened by the concomitant use of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants. Finally, data from pain clinics reveals an unusually high prevalence of cannabis use in nearly all age groups and an association between cannabis use and opioid and other substance misuse. Based on available data and expert opinion, concomitant use of cannabis and opioids is an absolute contraindication to the operation of a motor vehicle. In patients who use cannabis and are prescribed opioids, heightened vigilance for opioid- and other substance-related problems is warranted. It is appropriate to refrain from prescribing opioids to individuals using medical cannabis if there is reasonable suspicion that the combination will pose a risk to the patient or others.

  20. The global epidemiology and contribution of cannabis use and dependence to the global burden of disease: results from the GBD 2010 study.

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    Louisa Degenhardt

    Full Text Available AIMS: Estimate the prevalence of cannabis dependence and its contribution to the global burden of disease. METHODS: Systematic reviews of epidemiological data on cannabis dependence (1990-2008 were conducted in line with PRISMA and meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (MOOSE guidelines. Culling and data extraction followed protocols, with cross-checking and consistency checks. DisMod-MR, the latest version of generic disease modelling system, redesigned as a Bayesian meta-regression tool, imputed prevalence by age, year and sex for 187 countries and 21 regions. The disability weight associated with cannabis dependence was estimated through population surveys and multiplied by prevalence data to calculate the years of life lived with disability (YLDs and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs. YLDs and DALYs attributed to regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia were also estimated. RESULTS: There were an estimated 13.1 million cannabis dependent people globally in 2010 (point prevalence0.19% (95% uncertainty: 0.17-0.21%. Prevalence peaked between 20-24 yrs, was higher in males (0.23% (0.2-0.27% than females (0.14% (0.12-0.16% and in high income regions. Cannabis dependence accounted for 2 million DALYs globally (0.08%; 0.05-0.12% in 2010; a 22% increase in crude DALYs since 1990 largely due to population growth. Countries with statistically higher age-standardised DALY rates included the United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and Western European countries such as the United Kingdom; those with lower DALY rates were from Sub-Saharan Africa-West and Latin America. Regular cannabis use as a risk factor for schizophrenia accounted for an estimated 7,000 DALYs globally. CONCLUSION: Cannabis dependence is a disorder primarily experienced by young adults, especially in higher income countries. It has not been shown to increase mortality as opioid and other forms of illicit drug dependence do. Our estimates

  1. Kinetics methods for clinical epidemiology problems.

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    Corlan, Alexandru Dan; Ross, John

    2015-11-17

    Calculating the probability of each possible outcome for a patient at any time in the future is currently possible only in the simplest cases: short-term prediction in acute diseases of otherwise healthy persons. This problem is to some extent analogous to predicting the concentrations of species in a reactor when knowing initial concentrations and after examining reaction rates at the individual molecule level. The existing theoretical framework behind predicting contagion and the immediate outcome of acute diseases in previously healthy individuals is largely analogous to deterministic kinetics of chemical systems consisting of one or a few reactions. We show that current statistical models commonly used in chronic disease epidemiology correspond to simple stochastic treatment of single reaction systems. The general problem corresponds to stochastic kinetics of complex reaction systems. We attempt to formulate epidemiologic problems related to chronic diseases in chemical kinetics terms. We review methods that may be adapted for use in epidemiology. We show that some reactions cannot fit into the mass-action law paradigm and solutions to these systems would frequently exhibit an antiportfolio effect. We provide a complete example application of stochastic kinetics modeling for a deductive meta-analysis of two papers on atrial fibrillation incidence, prevalence, and mortality.

  2. Biological aspects of cannabis consumption in schizophrenia

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    Serban Ionela Lacramioara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Schizophrenia and psychotic disorders are major health issues with particular implications for both the individual and the medical system. Epidemiological data show a more frequent consumption of drugs in schizophrenic patients when compared to the general population. Studies have shown that the abuse of substances is the most common comorbidity associated with schizophrenia. Among illicit substances, cannabis is the most commonly encountered among patients with schizophrenia. Similar clinical features of schizophrenia and cannabis consumption could be explained by some common neurobiological implications. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor stimulation is associated with psychotic-type phenomena and schizophrenia and NMDA receptors are involved in the clinical effects of cannabis consumption. Thus, the CB1 receptors that are spread mainly at the level of the NMDA secretory neurons are activated by tetrahydrocannabinol, the psychoactive component of cannabis. Moreover, cannabis abuse in association with other factors may contribute in triggering schizophrenia. Therefore, patients diagnosed with schizophrenia that abuse substances such as cannabis could represent a special category of patients that require a complex therapeutic approach, especially considering the multiple problems implicated, such as reduced compliance with treatment, unfavorable evolution and prognosis with multiple relapses and frequent hospitalizations.

  3. Cannabis use and mental health

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    van Gastel, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis use has been implicated as a risk factor for mental health problems, (subclinical) psychotic symptoms in particular. If cannabis use was a cause of these problems, cessation would lead to improved public mental health. If cannabis use was a mere consequence of a predisposition for mental he

  4. Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety

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    ... Use and Social Anxiety Study Parses Comorbidity of Cannabis Use and Social Anxiety Email Facebook Twitter October ... difficulties and other cannabis-related problems. SAD and Cannabis Use Severity Further analysis suggested that people with ...

  5. Cannabis careers revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of today's sociological research on recreational drug use is (explicitly or implicitly) inspired by Howard Becker's classical model of deviant careers. The aim of the present paper is to directly apply Becker's theory to empirical data on present-day cannabis use and to suggest...... in treatment for cannabis problems in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest a revision of Becker's career model in relation to four aspects: initiation of cannabis use, differentiation between socially integrated and individualised, disintegrated use, social control from non-users, and the users' moral stance...... on cannabis. A central point of the paper is that social interaction may both motivate cannabis use, as Becker proposed, and serve as a protective factor against extensive, problematic use....

  6. Vaping cannabis (marijuana): parallel concerns to e-cigs?

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    Budney, Alan J.; Sargent, James D.; Lee, Dustin C.

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of vaporization (‘vaping’) as a method for administering cannabis raises many of the same public health issues being debated and investigated in relation to e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Good epidemiological data on the prevalence of vaping cannabis are not yet available, but with current trends towards societal approval of medicinal and recreational use of cannabis, the pros and cons of vaping cannabis warrant study. As with e-cigs, vaping cannabis portends putative health benefit...

  7. Cannabis and suicidal behaviour among adolescents: a pilot study from Trinidad.

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    Maharajh, Hari D; Konings, Monique

    2005-08-08

    Cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Changing trends in these behaviours in younger age groups, higher incidence, gender differences and sociocultural variations present an enormous challenge. There is no consensus whether these complex relationships are either a direct or an indirect effect due to other mental disorders, or a social response of disclosure of drug taking habits to family members and school authorities. This paper reviews the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and cannabis use among adolescents and looks at the relationship of these behaviours regionally and internationally. The Caribbean islands have an established use of cannabis with higher suicidal rates, which provides an ideal setting to investigate the interrelationship of these disorders. Preliminary research findings in Trinidad indicate high rates of cannabis use among school students with higher rates in vocational schools compared to grammar schools. Utilising the CAPE questionnaire, depressive and psychotic experiences were common findings in adolescent cannabis users with a significant preponderance of depressive experiences (prelationship between suicidal behaviour and cannabis use, the latter awakening depressive experiences. Suicidal behaviour and cannabis use are major public health problems and require a multidimensional approach with culturally competent preventive interactions. School based prevention programmes are necessary at the levels of parent-teacher partnership and classroom intervention. The treatment of adolescent disorders remains a major challenge of the future. Double disorders such as cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are uncharted areas and need novel approaches.

  8. Characteristics and Predictors of Health Problems from Use among High-Frequency Cannabis Users in a Canadian University Student Population

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    Fischer, Benedikt; Dawe, Meghan; Mcguire, Fraser; Shuper, Paul A; Jones, Wayne; Rudzinski, Katherine; Rehm, Jurgen

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Assess key cannabis use, risk and outcome characteristics among high-frequency cannabis users within a university student sample in Toronto, Canada. Methods: N = 134 active universities students (ages of 18-28) using cannabis at least three times per week were recruited by mass advertisement, telephone-screened and anonymously assessed by an…

  9. [Cannabis smoking and lung cancer].

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    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; de Chazeron, I; Meurice, J-C

    2014-06-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in the world. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but it is mainly smoked mixed with tobacco. The combined smoking of cannabis and tobacco is a common-place phenomenon in our society. However, its use is responsible for severe pulmonary consequences. The specific impact of smoking cannabis is difficult to assess precisely and to distinguish from the effect of tobacco. Marijuana smoke contains polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogens at higher concentration than tobacco smoke. Cellular, tissue, animal and human studies, and also epidemiological studies, show that marijuana smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Cannabis exposure doubles the risk of developing lung cancer. This should encourage clinicians to identify cannabis use and to offer patients support in quitting.

  10. Cannabis e humor Cannabis and mood

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    Rafael Faria Sanches

    2010-06-01

    -term, the higher use of cannabis is associated with an increased risk of developing bipolar disorder, and probably, major depression in subjects initially without affective disorder, but was not found increased risk of cannabis use among those initially only with mania or depression. Another important observation is that substance abuse in bipolar patients may be associated with a number of negative characteristics, such as difficulty in recovering the affective symptoms, more hospitalizations, poor compliance with treatment, increased risk of suicide, aggression and a poor response to lithium. Psychosocial and pharmacological treatments are indicated for the management of comorbidity between cannabis and affective disorders. CONCLUSION: The relationship between cannabis use and mood changes are observed both in the epidemiological research and in the clinical settings.

  11. Epidemiology of voice problems in Dutch teachers

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    de Jong, F. I. C. R. S.; Kooijman, P. G. C.; Thomas, G.; Huinck, W. J.; Graamans, K.; Schutte, H. K.

    2006-01-01

    In order to assess voice complaints and absence from work due to voice problems among teachers of primary and secondary education, as well as among a control group, 2,117 questionnaires were analysed. The total group consisted of 1,878 teachers and 239 controls. Female teachers more frequently repor

  12. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Cannabis Dependence and Mental Health Problems in Help-Seeking Adolescent and Young Adult Outpatients

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    Norberg, Melissa M.; Battisti, Robert A.; Copeland, Jan; Hermens, Daniel F.; Hickie, Ian B.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to delineate the psychiatric profile of cannabis dependent young people (14-29 years old) with mental health problems (N = 36) seeking treatment via a research study. To do so, the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR Axis I Disorders and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Childhood Diagnoses were…

  13. Alcohol Use Problems Mediate the Relation between Cannabis Use Frequency and College Functioning among Students Mandated to an Alcohol Diversion Program

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    McChargue, Dennis E.; Klanecky, Alicia K.; Anderson, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the degree to which alcohol use problems explained the relationship between cannabis use frequency and college functioning. Undergraduates (N = 546) mandated to an alcohol diversion program at a Midwestern United States university completed screening questionnaires between October 2003 and April 2006. Sobel's (1982) test…

  14. [MEDICAL CANNABIS].

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    Naftali, Timna

    2016-02-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea and inflammation. Current research is inspecting the use of cannabis for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, dystonia, and chronic pain. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and:pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Despite their therapeutic potential, cannabinoids are not free of side effects including psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Controlled clinical studies investigating the therapeutic potential of cannabis are few and small, whereas pressure for expanding cannabis use is increasing. Currently, as long as cannabis is classified as an illicit drug and until further controlled studies are performed, the use of medical cannabis should be limited to patients who failed conventional better established treatment.

  15. [Medicinal cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meersch, H; Verschuere, A P; Bottriaux, F

    2006-01-01

    Pharmaceutical grade cannabis is available to Dutch patients from public pharmacies in the Netherlands. The first part of this paper reviews the pharmaceutical and pharmacological properties of medicinal cannabis. Detailed information about its composition and quality, potential applications, methods of administration, adverse reactions, drug interactions and safety during pregnancy or breastfeeding are given. The second part deals with the legal aspects of dispensing medicinal cannabis through pharmacies in view of the Belgian and Dutch legislation. The last part discusses the present Belgian regulation about the possession of cannabis.

  16. Clinical Approach to the Heavy Cannabis User in the Age of Medical Marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cermak, Timmen L

    2016-01-01

    This article begins with a case vignette exemplifying the common clinical problem of heavy marijuana users. The epidemiology and basic science underlying cannabis dependence is outlined, followed by clinical strategies for basing a therapeutic alliance on known research findings and using motivational interviewing to deal with typical patterns of denial.

  17. Intrauterine cannabis exposure leads to more aggressive behavior and attention problems in 18-month-old girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Hudziak, J.J.; Tiemeier, H.; Creemers, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The development of the fetal endocannabinoid receptor system may be vulnerable to maternal cannabis use during pregnancy and may produce long-term consequences in children. In this study, we aimed to determine the relationship between gestational cannabis use and childhood attention prob

  18. Pathways to psychosis in cannabis abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Amresh; Johnston, Megan; Terpstra, Kristen; Bureau, Yves

    2015-04-01

    Cannabis has been implicated as a risk factor for the development of schizophrenia, but the exact biological mechanisms remain unclear. In this review, we attempt to understand the neurobiological pathways that link cannabis use to schizophrenia. This has been an area of great debate; despite similarities between cannabis users and schizophrenia patients, the evidence is not sufficient to establish cause-and-effect. There have been advances in the understanding of the mechanisms of cannabis dependence as well as the role of the cannabinoid system in the development of psychosis and schizophrenia. The neurobiological mechanisms associated with the development of psychosis and effects from cannabis use may be similar but remain elusive. In order to better understand these associations, this paper will show common neurobiological and neuroanatomical changes as well as common cognitive dysfunction in cannabis users and patients of schizophrenia. We conclude that epidemiologic evidence highlights potential causal links; however, neurobiological evidence for causality remains weak.

  19. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    OpenAIRE

    Palali, A.; Ours, J. C. van

    2014-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis. While the self-interest effect is not very surprising, the effect of inside information suggests that cannabis use is not as harmful as cannabis users originally thought it was be...

  20. Cannabis Use and Support for Cannabis Legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalizationfinding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cannabis use.

  1. Mathematical Approaches to Problems in Resource Management and Epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Simon; Shoemaker, Christine

    1989-01-01

    Increasingly, mathematical methods are being used to advantage in addressing the problems facing humanity in managing its environment. Problems in resource management and epidemiology especially have demonstrated the utility of quantitative modeling. To explore these approaches, the Center of Applied Mathematics at Cornell University organized a conference in Fall, 1987, with the objective of surveying and assessing the state of the art. This volume records the proceedings of that conference. Underlying virtually all of these studies are models of population growth, from individual cells to large vertebrates. Cell population growth presents the simplest of systems for study, and is of fundamental importance in its own right for a variety of medical and environmental applications. In Part I of this volume, Michael Shuler describes computer models of individual cells and cell populations, and Frank Hoppensteadt discusses the synchronization of bacterial culture growth. Together, these provide a valuable introdu...

  2. Cannabis and Suicidal Behaviour Among Adolescents: A Pilot Study from Trinidad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari D. Maharajh

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are causes of adolescent morbidity and mortality worldwide. Changing trends in these behaviours in younger age groups, higher incidence, gender differences and sociocultural variations present an enormous challenge. There is no consensus whether these complex relationships are either a direct or an indirect effect due to other mental disorders, or a social response of disclosure of drug taking habits to family members and school authorities. This paper reviews the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and cannabis use among adolescents and looks at the relationship of these behaviours regionally and internationally. The Caribbean islands have an established use of cannabis with higher suicidal rates, which provides an ideal setting to investigate the interrelationship of these disorders. Preliminary research findings in Trinidad indicate high rates of cannabis use among school students with higher rates in vocational schools compared to grammar schools. Utilising the CAPE questionnaire, depressive and psychotic experiences were common findings in adolescent cannabis users with a significant preponderance of depressive experiences (p<0.01. Our findings suggest that there is a convincing relationship between suicidal behaviour and cannabis use, the latter awakening depressive experiences. Suicidal behaviour and cannabis use are major public health problems and require a multidimensional approach with culturally competent preventive interactions. School based prevention programmes are necessary at the levels of parent-teacher partnership and classroom intervention. The treatment of adolescent disorders remains a major challenge of the future. Double disorders such as cannabis use and suicidal behaviour are uncharted areas and need novel approaches.

  3. Therapeutic benefits of cannabis: a patient survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Charles W; Webb, Sandra M

    2014-04-01

    Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis ("marijuana") has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai'i. The response rate was 94%. Mean and median ages were 49.3 and 51 years respectively. Ninety-seven per cent of respondents used cannabis primarily for chronic pain. Average pain improvement on a 0-10 pain scale was 5.0 (from 7.8 to 2.8), which translates to a 64% relative decrease in average pain. Half of all respondents also noted relief from stress/anxiety, and nearly half (45%) reported relief from insomnia. Most patients (71%) reported no adverse effects, while 6% reported a cough or throat irritation and 5% feared arrest even though medical cannabis is legal in Hawai'i. No serious adverse effects were reported. These results suggest that Cannabis is an extremely safe and effective medication for many chronic pain patients. Cannabis appears to alleviate pain, insomnia, and may be helpful in relieving anxiety. Cannabis has shown extreme promise in the treatment of numerous medical problems and deserves to be released from the current Schedule I federal prohibition against research and prescription.

  4. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dangers of cann

  5. Cannabis use and support for cannabis legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A. (Ali); van Ours, J.C. (Jan C.)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the determinants of the support for cannabis legalization finding a causal effect of personal experience with cannabis use. Current and past cannabis users are more in favor of legalization. We relate this finding to self-interest and inside information about potential dan

  6. Mechanisms underlying the link between cannabis use and prospective memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie Cuttler

    Full Text Available While the effects of cannabis use on retrospective memory have been extensively examined, only a limited number of studies have focused on the links between cannabis use and prospective memory. We conducted two studies to examine the links between cannabis use and both time-based and event-based prospective memory as well as potential mechanisms underlying these links. For the first study, 805 students completed an online survey designed to assess cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use indicative of a disorder, and frequency of experiencing prospective memory failures. The results showed small to moderate sized correlations between cannabis consumption, problems with cannabis use, and prospective memory. However, a series of mediation analyses revealed that correlations between problems with cannabis use and prospective memory were driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory. For the second study, 48 non-users (who had never used cannabis, 48 experimenters (who had used cannabis five or fewer times in their lives, and 48 chronic users (who had used cannabis at least three times a week for one year were administered three objective prospective memory tests and three self-report measures of prospective memory. The results revealed no objective deficits in prospective memory associated with chronic cannabis use. In contrast, chronic cannabis users reported experiencing more internally-cued prospective memory failures. Subsequent analyses revealed that this effect was driven by self-reported problems with retrospective memory as well as by use of alcohol and other drugs. Although our samples were not fully characterized with respect to variables such as neurological disorders and family history of substance use disorders, leaving open the possibility that these variables may play a role in the detected relationships, the present findings indicate that cannabis use has a modest effect on self-reported problems with

  7. The relationship between cannabis use and measures of anxiety and depression in a sample of college campus cannabis users and non-users post state legalization in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy J. Troup

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available As part of an ongoing research program into the relationship between cannabis use and emotion processing, participants were assessed on their level of cannabis exposure using the Recreational Cannabis Use Examination, a measure developed specifically to assess cannabis use in Colorado post state legalization. Three groups were created based on self-reported use: a control group who have never used, a casual user group and a chronic user group. Each participant also completed two measures of mood assessment, the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Relationships between cannabis use groups and scores on these measures were then analyzed using both correlations and multivariate analysis of variance. Results indicate a relationship between casual cannabis use and scoring highly for depressive symptomatology on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale. There were no significant relationships between cannabis use and scores on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

  8. [Popper and the problem of induction in epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banegas, J R; Rodríguez Artalejo, F; del Rey Calero, J

    2000-01-01

    In this article we are discussing a few of the contributions by the Austro-British philosopher Karl R. Popper, one of our most influential contemporary thinkers, whose epistemological and socio-political theories have also penetrated the sphere of epidemiology. We are focusing mainly on the so-called problem of induction. We sustain, in line with Popper, that the scientific method does not use inductive reasoning, but rather hypothetical-deductive reasoning. Although the movement from the data evaluating a hypothesis to a conclusion on the latter goes from the specific to the general, that is, in an inductive direction, the induction does not exist as a reasoning process or inference. That is, there is no method that enables us to infer or to verify hypotheses or theories (we cannot explore all of the possible situations to see whether the theory stands up), or even to render them very probable. Besides, scientists look for highly informative theories, not highly probable ones. What we actually do is to propose a hypothesis as a tentative solution to a problem, to confront the prediction deduced from the hypothesis with actual experience, and evaluate whether the hypothesis is rejected or not by the facts. As theories cannot be verified, we can only accept them if they withstand an attempt to reject them. Consequently, the test of a theory consists of criticism or a serious attempt at falsification, that is, the elimination of error within a theory, in order to reject it if it is false. The objective is, thus, the search for true theories. For this purpose, the scientific method uses a systematic set of methodological (not logical) rules, that is, decisions. These methodological rules or principles can be summed up in two: [symbol: see text]be inventive and critical!, that is, propose bold hypotheses and subject them to severe tests of experience. Logic plays its role mainly by allowing us to deduce from a hypothesis the predictions to be confronted with the facts

  9. Is epidemiology correcting its vision problem? A perspective on our perspective: 2012 presidential address for American College of Epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeown, Robert E

    2013-10-01

    Epidemiology, like all disciplines, exists within and is shaped by a culture that frames its ways of understanding. In the last 60 years epidemiology as a discipline and scientific approach has undergone major transition, but remains challenged by vestiges of the limiting frameworks of our origins which shape the way we approach questions, and even the questions we choose to investigate. A part of the current transformation is a reframing of our perspective and a broadening of our methods to encourage creativity and to encompass new types of evidence and new approaches to investigation and interpretation. Epidemiologists are developing innovative ways to approach increasingly complex problems and becoming more open to multi-disciplinary approaches to solving epidemiologic challenges.

  10. The effect of cannabis use on memory function: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schoeler T

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tabea Schoeler, Sagnik BhattacharyyaDepartment of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UKAbstract: Investigating the effects of cannabis use on memory function appears challenging. While early observational investigations aimed to elucidate the longer-term effects of cannabis use on memory function in humans, findings remained equivocal and pointed to a pattern of interacting factors impacting on the relationship between cannabis use and memory function, rather than a simple direct effect of cannabis. Only recently, a clearer picture of the chronic and acute effects of cannabis use on memory function has emerged once studies have controlled for potential confounding factors and started to investigate the acute effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC and cannabidiol (CBD, the main ingredients in the extract of the cannabis plant in pharmacological challenge experiments. Relatively consistent findings have been reported regarding the acute impairments induced by a single dose of Δ9-THC on verbal and working memory. It is unclear whether they may persist beyond the intoxication state. In the long-term, these impairments seem particularly likely to manifest and may also persist following abstinence if regular and heavy use of cannabis strains high in Δ9-THC is started at an early age. Although still at an early stage, studies that employed advanced neuroimaging techniques have started to model the neural underpinnings of the effects of cannabis use and implicate a network of functional and morphological alterations that may moderate the effects of cannabis on memory function. Future experimental and epidemiological studies that take into consideration individual differences, particularly previous cannabis history and demographic characteristics, but also the precise mixture of the ingredients of the consumed cannabis are necessary to clarify the magnitude and the mechanisms by which cannabis

  11. La cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vicente Stalrich Canet

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available En los últimos 20 ó 30 años hemos visto nuevos tipos de drogas que anteriormente no existían en nuestro mundo occidental o bien tenían una difusión bastante localizada y estable; me refiero, sobre todo, a los psicofármacos, los opiáceos y la cannabis corno las más importantes sin olvidar, no obstante, otras también actuales: los alucinógenos (sintéticos y naturales, inhalantes, etc. Estas nuevas r drogas conviven en nuestra sociedad con las otras más clásicas y generadoras de multitud de problemas como son el alcohol y el tabaco

  12. La cannabis.

    OpenAIRE

    José Vicente Stalrich Canet

    1981-01-01

    En los últimos 20 ó 30 años hemos visto nuevos tipos de drogas que anteriormente no existían en nuestro mundo occidental o bien tenían una difusión bastante localizada y estable; me refiero, sobre todo, a los psicofármacos, los opiáceos y la cannabis corno las más importantes sin olvidar, no obstante, otras también actuales: los alucinógenos (sintéticos y naturales), inhalantes, etc. Estas nuevas r drogas conviven en nuestra sociedad con las otras más clásicas y generadoras de multitud de pro...

  13. Keep off the grass? Cannabis, cognition and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, H Valerie; Freeman, Tom P; Mokrysz, Claire; Lewis, David A; Morgan, Celia J A; Parsons, Loren H

    2016-05-01

    In an increasing number of states and countries, cannabis now stands poised to join alcohol and tobacco as a legal drug. Quantifying the relative adverse and beneficial effects of cannabis and its constituent cannabinoids should therefore be prioritized. Whereas newspaper headlines have focused on links between cannabis and psychosis, less attention has been paid to the much more common problem of cannabis addiction. Certain cognitive changes have also been attributed to cannabis use, although their causality and longevity are fiercely debated. Identifying why some individuals are more vulnerable than others to the adverse effects of cannabis is now of paramount importance to public health. Here, we review the current state of knowledge about such vulnerability factors, the variations in types of cannabis, and the relationship between these and cognition and addiction.

  14. Problem Drug Use, Marijuana, and European Projects: How Epidemiology Helped Czech Policy Reformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Morávek

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available I examine the transfer of the Problem Drug Use (PDU concept into Czech scientific discourse through European institutions’ projects, and view PDU’s utilization by Czech researchers in relation to marijuana decriminalization efforts.PDU is defined as intravenous and/or long-term and regular use of opiates, cocaine, or amphetamines. Out of a vast array of illicit drug use patterns, this concept isolates a relatively small population with the riskiest use patterns to become the focus of public policies. A series of European Union and Council of Europe projects in 1990’s helped bring PDU into European research mainstream. The new common standard, promoted by the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction, was utilized by Czech authors in a 2001 policy analysis entitled “Impact Analysis Project of the New Drug Legislation in the Czech Republic” (PAD. PDU played a crucial role in PAD’s drug problem modeling, focusing on a “hard core” of opiate and methamphetamine users, while diverting attention from a large group of cannabis users.By using the new European methodological standard, PAD’s authors constructed marijuana as a non-problem. This helped drug policy reformers in the Czech Government legitimize their focus on “harder” drugs, and subsequently propose more lenient sanctions for the possession and cultivation of marijuana. I argue that continued ignorance of marijuana problems might jeopardize the tolerant expert-driven drug policy in the Czech Republic. Measurement of problem cannabis use should be introduced.

  15. Decreased respiratory symptoms in cannabis users who vaporize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnwell Sara

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cannabis smoking can create respiratory problems. Vaporizers heat cannabis to release active cannabinoids, but remain cool enough to avoid the smoke and toxins associated with combustion. Vaporized cannabis should create fewer respiratory symptoms than smoked cannabis. We examined self-reported respiratory symptoms in participants who ranged in cigarette and cannabis use. Data from a large Internet sample revealed that the use of a vaporizer predicted fewer respiratory symptoms even when age, sex, cigarette smoking, and amount of cannabis used were taken into account. Age, sex, cigarettes, and amount of cannabis also had significant effects. The number of cigarettes smoked and amount of cannabis used interacted to create worse respiratory problems. A significant interaction revealed that the impact of a vaporizer was larger as the amount of cannabis used increased. These data suggest that the safety of cannabis can increase with the use of a vaporizer. Regular users of joints, blunts, pipes, and water pipes might decrease respiratory symptoms by switching to a vaporizer

  16. Epidemiological Study of Mental Health Problems among Handicapped School Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur Singh, Tej

    1988-01-01

    Indian teachers rating the prevalence of psychiatric problems in 79 school children with visual handicaps, 91 with hearing handicaps, and 105 nonhandicapped identified a higher prevalence than did psychiatrists. Although similar percentages of children in the 3 groups were diagnosed as having psychiatric problems, the types of problems experienced…

  17. Cannabis and Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Garry

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is a drug derived from hemp plant, Cannabis sativa, used both as a recreational drug or as medicine. It is a widespread illegal substance, generally smoked for its hallucinogenic properties. Little is known about the adverse effects of postnatal cannabis exposure throw breastfeeding because of a lack of studies in lactating women. The active substance of cannabis is the delta 9 TetraHydroCannabinol (THC. Some studies conclude that it could decrease motor development of the child at one year of age. Therefore, cannabis use and abuse of other drugs like alcohol, tobacco, or cocaine must be contraindicated during breastfeeding. Mothers who use cannabis must stop breastfeeding, or ask for medical assistance to stop cannabis use in order to provide her baby with all the benefits of human milk.

  18. Epidemiology of Attention Problems among Turkish Children and Adolescents: A National Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method: The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher…

  19. [Characteristics of Cannabis sativa L.: seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from Hibiscus cannabinus L].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Kitazawa, Takashi; Kawano, Noriaki; Iida, Osamu; Kawahara, Nobuo

    2010-02-01

    Illegal cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) cultivation is still a social problem worldwide. Fifty inquiries on cannabis that Research Center for Medicinal Plant Resources (Tsukuba Division) received between January 1, 2000 and March 31, 2009 were itemized in to 8 categories; 1: seed identification, 2: plant identification, 3: indoor cultivation, 4: outdoor cultivation, 5: germination and growth characteristics, 6: expected amount of cannabis products derived from illegal cannabis plant, 7: non-narcotic cannabis and 8: usage of medicinal cannabis. Top three inquiries were 1: seed identification (16 cases), 3: indoor cultivation (10 cases) and 4: outdoor cultivation (6 cases). Characteristics of cannabis, namely seed morphology, germination and growth characteristics, and distinction from kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) that is frequently misjudged as cannabis, were studied to contribute for prevention of illegal cannabis cultivation.

  20. Cannabis Smoking in 2015: A Concern for Lung Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biehl, Jason R; Burnham, Ellen L

    2015-09-01

    Recent legislative successes allowing expanded access to recreational and medicinal cannabis have been associated with its increased use by the public, despite continued debates regarding its safety within the medical and scientific communities. Despite legislative changes, cannabis is most commonly used by smoking, although alternatives to inhalation have also emerged. Moreover, the composition of commercially available cannabis has dramatically changed in recent years. Therefore, developing sound scientific information regarding its impact on lung health is imperative, particularly because published data conducted prior to widespread legalization are conflicting and inconclusive. In this commentary, we delineate major observations of epidemiologic investigations examining cannabis use and the potential associated development of airways disease and lung cancer to highlight gaps in pulmonary knowledge. Additionally, we review major histopathologic alterations related to smoked cannabis and define specific areas in animal models and human clinical translational investigations that could benefit from additional development. Given that cannabis has an ongoing classification as a schedule I medication, federal funding to support investigations of modern cannabis use in terms of medicinal efficacy and safety profile on lung health have been elusive. It is clear, however, that the effects of inhaled cannabis on lung health remain uncertain and given increasing use patterns, are worthy of further investigation.

  1. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2007-01-01

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and migraine. The discovery of cannabinoid-receptors and the endocannabinoid system have opened up a new and exciting field of research. But despite the pharmaceutical potential of cannabis, its classifi...

  2. Assessment of cannabis use disorders: a systematic review of screening and diagnostic instruments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Pelayo, H.; Batalla, A.; Balcells, M.M.; Colom, J.; Gual, A.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis use and misuse have become a public health problem. There is a need for reliable screening and assessment tools to identify harmful cannabis use at an early stage. We conducted a systematic review of published instruments used to screen and assess cannabis use disorders. METHOD:

  3. Epidemiology of concurrent headache and sleep problems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Nunu; Westergaard, Maria Lurenda; Barloese, Mads

    2014-01-01

    with 2.6% being severely affected. Prevalence was higher among women and the middle-aged. Severe HSP was associated with low socioeconomic position, non-Western ethnicity, unhealthy lifestyle, high stress and anxiety/depression. Those with HSP had substantially reduced quality of life; more so than those......: A total of 129,150 randomly selected individuals were invited to participate in the Danish National Health Survey 2010. Respondents were asked about headache, sleep problems, depression and anxiety in the last two weeks, health-related lifestyle and quality of life (SF-12). Socioeconomic data were...... having only headache or only sleep problems. CONCLUSIONS: HSP is a highly prevalent condition. Lifestyle modification, stress reduction, and screening for concurrent depression and anxiety may play important roles in management. The high prevalence of HSP suggests a common pathophysiological mechanism....

  4. The epidemiology of obesity: the size of the problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, W P T

    2008-04-01

    The epidemic of obesity took off from about 1980 and in almost all countries has been rising inexorably ever since. Only in 1997 did WHO accept that this was a major public health problem and, even then, there was no accepted method for monitoring the problem in children. It was soon evident, however, that the optimum population body mass index is about 21 and this is particularly true in Asia and Latin America where the populations are very prone to developing abdominal obesity, type 2 diabetes and hypertension. These features are now being increasingly linked to epigenetic programming of gene expression and body composition in utero and early childhood, both in terms of fat/lean tissue ratios and also in terms of organ size and metabolic pathway regulation. New Indian evidence suggests that insulin resistance at birth seems linked to low birth weight and a higher proportion of body fat with selective B12 deficiency and abnormalities of one carbon pool metabolism potentially responsible and affecting 75% of Indians and many populations in the developing world. Biologically there are also adaptive biological mechanisms which limit weight loss after weight gain and thereby in part account for the continuing epidemic despite the widespread desire to slim. Logically, the burden of disease induced by inappropriate diets and widespread physical inactivity can be addressed by increasing physical activity (PA), but simply advocating more leisure time activity is unrealistic. Substantial changes in urban planning and diet are needed to counter the removal of any every day need for PA and the decades of misdirected food policies which with free market forces have induced our current 'toxic environment'. Counteracting this requires unusual policy initiatives.

  5. Cannabis and Psychosis: a Critical Overview of the Relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksir, Charles; Hart, Carl L

    2016-02-01

    Interest in the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis has increased dramatically in recent years, in part because of concerns related to the growing availability of cannabis and potential risks to health and human functioning. There now exists a plethora of scientific articles addressing this issue, but few provide a clear verdict about the causal nature of the cannabis-psychosis association. Here, we review recent research reports on cannabis and psychosis, giving particular attention to how each report provides evidence relating to two hypotheses: (1) cannabis as a contributing cause and (2) shared vulnerability. Two primary kinds of data are brought to bear on this issue: studies done with schizophrenic patients and studies of first-episode psychosis. Evidence reviewed here suggests that cannabis does not in itself cause a psychosis disorder. Rather, the evidence leads us to conclude that both early use and heavy use of cannabis are more likely in individuals with a vulnerability to psychosis. The role of early and heavy cannabis use as a prodromal sign merits further examination, along with a variety of other problem behaviors (e.g., early or heavy use of cigarettes or alcohol and poor school performance). Future research studies that focus exclusively on the cannabis-psychosis association will therefore be of little value in our quest to better understand psychosis and how and why it occurs.

  6. Cannabis; extracting the medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2007-01-01

    The cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa L.) has a long history as a recreational drug, but also as part of traditional medicine in many cultures. Nowadays, it is used by a large number of patients worldwide, to ameliorate the symptoms of diseases varying from cancer and AIDS to multiple sclerosis and mi

  7. Psychosis and cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Häfner

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol and cannabis misuse is currently the most frequent co-morbidity disorder of schizophrenia. The following four issues will be dealt with: 1 the neurobiological basis of the psychosis-inducing, pathogenic effects of THC, the agent contained in cannabis products. 2 Can cannabis use - and for comparison alcohol abuse - prematurely trigger or even cause schizophrenia? 3 Are persons genetically liable to schizophrenia, psychosis-prone individuals or young persons before completion of brain development at an increased risk? 4 What consequences does cannabis use have on the symptomatology and further course of schizophrenia? Results from recent literature and the ABC Schizophrenia Study show that the risk for cannabis use in schizophrenia is about twice the size in healthy controls. In most cases cannabis use starts before first admission, in a third of cases before schizophrenia onset. There is an increased affinity to misuse already at the prodromal stage. Cannabis can prematurely trigger schizophrenia onset - on average eight years earlier than in non-use - and cause the illness partly in interaction with predisposing factors. Cannabis use in the course of schizophrenia increases positive symptoms and reduces affective flattening, thus leading to dysfunctional coping in some cases.

  8. Kwaliteitsnormen Medicinale Cannabis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slijkhuis C; Hoving R; Blok-Tip L; Kaste D de; KCF

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal Cannabis can be legally supplied by pharmacists to patients from the first of September 2003, although still only on prescription. The quality of this product is tested conform the monograph Cannabis flos. In this monograph tests and quality standards, such as characteristics, loss on dry

  9. Cannabis use and dating violence among college students: A call for research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Haynes, Ellen; Strauss, Catherine; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-01-01

    Dating violence is a serious and prevalent problem on college campuses. Although there is a robust literature documenting that alcohol use is consistently associated with increased risk for perpetrating dating violence, little research has examined the role of cannabis in dating violence perpetration. With increasing legalisation of cannabis throughout the world, it is imperative to understand what role, if any, cannabis may play in the important public health problem of dating violence. In this commentary, we discuss the current state of the research on cannabis and dating violence and suggest avenues for additional research in this area. It is critical that we conduct methodologically sound research on the association between cannabis and dating violence so that we can understand what role, if any, cannabis exerts on this important problem. [Shorey RC, Haynes E, Strauss C, Temple JR, Stuart GL. Cannabis use and dating violence among college students: A call for research. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:17-19].

  10. Cannabis Use Disorder in Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Annabelle K; Magid, Viktoriya

    2016-07-01

    Cannabis use in the adolescent population poses a significant threat of addiction potential resulting in altered neurodevelopment. There are multiple mechanisms of treatment of cannabis use disorder including behavioral therapy management and emerging data on treatment via pharmacotherapy. Recognizing the diagnostic criteria for cannabis use disorder, cannabis withdrawal syndrome, and mitigating factors that influence adolescent engagement in cannabis use allows for comprehensive assessment and management in the adolescent population.

  11. Harmonizing Screening for Gambling Problems in Epidemiological Surveys - Development of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challet-Bouju, Gaëlle; Perrot, Bastien; Romo, Lucia; Valleur, Marc; Magalon, David; Fatséas, Mélina; Chéreau-Boudet, Isabelle; Luquiens, Amandine; Grall-Bronnec, Marie; Hardouin, Jean-Benoit

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to test the screening properties of several combinations of items from gambling scales, in order to harmonize screening of gambling problems in epidemiological surveys. The objective was to propose two brief screening tools (three items or less) for a use in interviews and self-administered questionnaires. Methods We tested the screening properties of combinations of items from several gambling scales, in a sample of 425 gamblers (301 non-problem gamblers and 124 disordered gamblers). Items tested included interview-based items (Pathological Gambling section of the DSM-IV, lifetime history of problem gambling, monthly expenses in gambling, and abstinence of 1 month or more) and self-report items (South Oaks Gambling Screen, Gambling Attitudes, and Beliefs Survey). The gold standard used was the diagnosis of a gambling disorder according to the DSM-5. Results Two versions of the Rapid Screener for Problem Gambling (RSPG) were developed: the RSPG-Interview (RSPG-I), being composed of two interview items (increasing bets and loss of control), and the RSPG-Self-Assessment (RSPG-SA), being composed of three self-report items (chasing, guiltiness, and perceived inability to stop). Discussion and conclusions We recommend using the RSPG-SA/I for screening problem gambling in epidemiological surveys, with the version adapted for each purpose (RSPG-I for interview-based surveys and RSPG-SA for self-administered surveys). This first triage of potential problem gamblers must be supplemented by further assessment, as it may overestimate the proportion of problem gamblers. However, a first triage has the great advantage of saving time and energy in large-scale screening for problem gambling.

  12. Prolonged cannabis withdrawal in young adults with lifetime psychiatric illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Fontaine, Madeleine; Nip, Emily; Zhang, Haiyue; Hanly, Ailish; Eden Evins, A

    2017-02-27

    Young adults with psychiatric illnesses are more likely to use cannabis and experience problems from use. It is not known whether those with a lifetime psychiatric illness experience a prolonged cannabis withdrawal syndrome with abstinence. Participants were fifty young adults, aged 18-25, recruited from the Boston-area in 2015-2016, who used cannabis at least weekly, completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV to identify Axis I psychiatric diagnoses (PD+ vs PD-), and attained cannabis abstinence with a four-week contingency management protocol. Withdrawal symptom severity was assessed at baseline and at four weekly abstinent visits using the Cannabis Withdrawal Scale. Cannabis dependence, age of initiation, and rate of abstinence were similar in PD+ and PD- groups. There was a diagnostic group by abstinent week interaction, suggesting a difference in time course for resolution of withdrawal symptoms by group, F(4,46)=3.8, p=0.009, controlling for sex, baseline depressive and anxiety symptoms, and frequency of cannabis use in the prior 90days. In post hoc analyses, there was a difference in time-course of cannabis withdrawal. PD- had significantly reduced withdrawal symptom severity in abstinent week one [t(46)=-2.2, p=0.03], while PD+ did not report improved withdrawal symptoms until the second abstinent week [t(46)=-4.1, p=0.0002]. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms improved over four weeks in young people with and without a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis. However, those with a psychiatric illness reported one week delayed improvement in withdrawal symptom severity. Longer duration of cannabis withdrawal may be a risk factor for cannabis dependence and difficulty quitting.

  13. Cannabis craving in response to laboratory-induced social stress among racially diverse cannabis users: The impact of social anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Julia D; Zvolensky, Michael J; Ecker, Anthony H; Jeffries, Emily R

    2016-04-01

    Social anxiety disorder appears to be a risk factor for cannabis-related problems. Although it is presumed that increases in cannabis craving during elevated social anxiety reflect an intent to cope with greater negative affectivity, it is unclear whether increases in physiological arousal during social stress are related to cannabis craving, especially among those with social anxiety disorder. Similarly, no studies have assessed motivational reasons for cannabis use during elevated social stress. Thus, the current study tested whether increases in state social anxiety (measured subjectively and via physiological arousal) were related to greater cannabis craving among 126 current cannabis users (88.9% with cannabis use disorder, 31.7% with social anxiety disorder, 54.0% non-Hispanic Caucasian) randomly assigned to either a social interaction or reading task. As predicted, cannabis users in the social interaction condition reported greater cannabis craving than those in the reading condition. This effect was particularly evident among those with social anxiety disorder. Although physiological arousal did not moderate the relationship between condition and craving, coping motives were the most common reasons cited for wanting to use cannabis and were reported more among those in the social interaction task. These experimental results uniquely add to a growing literature suggesting the importance of elevated state social anxiety (especially among those with social anxiety disorder) in cannabis use vulnerability processes.

  14. [Epidemiologic study of symptoms of minimal brain dysfunction: problems in quantitative evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, V; Beránková, A; Vopĕnka, P

    1990-02-01

    The paper deals with problems arising during processing of data from an epidemiological screening focused on the Minimum Brain Dysfunction complex in children of the first and second form of elementary school. A new rating scale for the screening has been proposed. Its formal properties were analyzed in detail. Nontraditional coding of partial items forming the scale is discussed. Finally, statistical methods used for analysis of associations between the MBD scale and various combinations of aetiopathological variables are reviewed.

  15. Cannabis induced asystole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brancheau, Daniel; Blanco, Jessica; Gholkar, Gunjan; Patel, Brijesh; Machado, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis or marijuana is the most used recreational, and until recently illegal, drug in the United States. Although cannabis has medicinal use, its consumption has been linked to motor vehicle accidents in dose dependent fashion. Marijuana and other cannabinoids produce a multitude of effects on the human body that may result in these motor vehicle accidents. Some of the effects that marijuana has been known to cause include altered sensorium, diminished reflexes, and increased vagal tone. We present a case of cannabis induced asystole from hypervagotonia.

  16. CANNABIS RELATED PSYCHIATRIC SYNDROMES: A SELECTIVE REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Basu, Debasish; Malhotra, Anil; Varma, Vijoy K.

    1994-01-01

    Association between cannabis use and various psychiatric syndromes does exist, but their nature remains elusive. Cannabis intoxication, ‘cannabis psychosis’ and certain other conditions related with cannabis use like flashbacks and prolonged depersonalization are discussed in this paper. The controversial nature of the cannabis - schizophrenia link is noted, and various methodological issues in clinical cannabis research are highlighted.

  17. Vaping cannabis (marijuana): parallel concerns to e-cigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budney, Alan J; Sargent, James D; Lee, Dustin C

    2015-11-01

    The proliferation of vaporization ('vaping') as a method for administering cannabis raises many of the same public health issues being debated and investigated in relation to e-cigarettes (e-cigs). Good epidemiological data on the prevalence of vaping cannabis are not yet available, but with current trends towards societal approval of medicinal and recreational use of cannabis, the pros and cons of vaping cannabis warrant study. As with e-cigs, vaping cannabis portends putative health benefits by reducing harm from ingesting toxic smoke. Indeed, vaping is perceived and being sold as a safer way to use cannabis, despite the lack of data on the health effects of chronic vaping. Other perceived benefits include better taste, more efficient and intense effects and greater discretion which allows for use in more places. Unfortunately, these aspects of vaping could prompt an increased likelihood of trying cannabis, earlier age of onset, more positive initial experiences, and more frequent use, thereby increasing the probability of problematic use or addiction. Sales and marketing of vaping devices with no regulatory guidelines, especially related to advertising or product development targeting youth, parallels concerns under debate related to e-cigs and youth. Thus, the quandary of whether or not to promote vaping as a safer method of cannabis administration for those wishing to use cannabis, and how to regulate vaping and vaping devices, necessitates substantial investigation and discussion. Addressing these issues in concert with efforts directed towards e-cigs may save time and energy and result in a more comprehensive and effective public health policy on vaping.

  18. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    OpenAIRE

    Ours, J. C. van

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment where not only alcohol and tobacco but also cannabis is a legal drug.It turns out that alcohol and cannabis are intertemporal substitutes while tobacco and cannabis are intertemporal complements.Onl...

  19. [Cannabis-induced disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyka, M; Preuss, U; Hoch, E

    2017-03-01

    Use and misuse of cannabis and marihuana are frequent. About 5% of the adult population are current users but only 1.2% are dependent. The medical use of cannabis is controversial but there is some evidence for improvement of chronic pain and spasticity. The somatic toxicity of cannabis is well proven but limited and psychiatric disorders induced by cannabis are of more relevance, e.g. cognitive disorders, amotivational syndrome, psychoses and delusional disorders as well as physical and psychological dependence. The withdrawal symptoms are usually mild and do not require pharmacological interventions. To date there is no established pharmacotherapy for relapse prevention. Psychosocial interventions include psychoeducation, behavioral therapy and motivational enhancement. The CANDIS protocol is the best established German intervention among abstinence-oriented therapies.

  20. Cannabis in cancer care

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Cannabis has been used in medicine for thousands of years prior to achieving its current illicit substance status. Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, mimic the effects of the endogenous cannabinoids (endocannabinoids), activating specific cannabinoid receptors, particularly CB1 found predominantly in the central nervous system and CB2 found predominantly in cells involved with immune function. Delta-9-tet...

  1. Kwaliteitsnormen Medicinale Cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Slijkhuis C; Hoving R; Blok-Tip L; Kaste D de; KCF

    2004-01-01

    Medicinal Cannabis can be legally supplied by pharmacists to patients from the first of September 2003, although still only on prescription. The quality of this product is tested conform the monograph Cannabis flos. In this monograph tests and quality standards, such as characteristics, loss on drying, content of delta 9 -trans-tetrahydrocannabinol, microbial contamination, and pesticide residues are given. In this report the monograph is described together with a short explanation.

  2. Simultaneous alcohol and cannabis expectancies predict simultaneous use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Earleywine Mitch

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicts increased negative consequences for users beyond individual or even concurrent use of the two drugs. Given the widespread use of the drugs and common simultaneous consumption, problems unique to simultaneous use may bear important implications for many substance users. Cognitive expectancies offer a template for future drug use behavior based on previous drug experiences, accurately predicting future use and problems. Studies reveal similar mechanisms underlying both alcohol and cannabis expectancies, but little research examines simultaneous expectancies for alcohol and cannabis use. Whereas research has demonstrated unique outcomes associated with simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use, this study hypothesized that unique cognitive expectancies may underlie simultaneous alcohol and cannabis use. Results: This study examined a sample of 2600 (66% male; 34% female Internet survey respondents solicited through advertisements with online cannabis-related organizations. The study employed known measures of drug use and expectancies, as well as a new measure of simultaneous drug use expectancies. Expectancies for simultaneous use of alcohol and cannabis predicted simultaneous use over and above expectancies for each drug individually. Discussion Simultaneous expectancies may provide meaningful information not available with individual drug expectancies. These findings bear potential implications on the assessment and treatment of substance abuse problems, as well as researcher conceptualizations of drug expectancies. Policies directing the treatment of substance abuse and its funding ought to give unique consideration to simultaneous drug use and its cognitive underlying factors.

  3. Marijuana (Cannabis) and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produced from the flowering top of the hemp plant, cannabis sativa — should be used for symptom management ... a task) while completing a test of working memory. The cannabis group performed more poorly on the ...

  4. Cannabis Use When it's Legal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses information about prime age individuals living in Amsterdam, to study whether the use of alcohol, or tobacco stimulates the use cannabis, i.e. whether alcohol or cannabis are stepping stones for cannabis.The special element of the study is that it concerns the use in an environment w

  5. The effect of cannabis compared with alcohol on driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, R Andrew; Poling, James; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of both alcohol and cannabis use and the high morbidity associated with motor vehicle crashes has lead to a plethora of research on the link between the two. Drunk drivers are involved in 25% of motor vehicle fatalities, and many accidents involve drivers who test positive for cannabis. Cannabis and alcohol acutely impair several driving-related skills in a dose-related fashion, but the effects of cannabis vary more between individuals than they do with alcohol because of tolerance, differences in smoking technique, and different absorptions of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient in marijuana. Detrimental effects of cannabis use vary in a dose-related fashion, and are more pronounced with highly automatic driving functions than with more complex tasks that require conscious control, whereas alcohol produces an opposite pattern of impairment. Because of both this and an increased awareness that they are impaired, marijuana smokers tend to compensate effectively while driving by utilizing a variety of behavioral strategies. Combining marijuana with alcohol eliminates the ability to use such strategies effectively, however, and results in impairment even at doses which would be insignificant were they of either drug alone. Epidemiological studies have been inconclusive regarding whether cannabis use causes an increased risk of accidents; in contrast, unanimity exists that alcohol use increases crash risk. Furthermore, the risk from driving under the influence of both alcohol and cannabis is greater than the risk of driving under the influence of either alone. Future research should focus on resolving contradictions posed by previous studies, and patients who smoke cannabis should be counseled to wait several hours before driving, and avoid combining the two drugs.

  6. Reaching out towards cannabis: approach-bias in heavy cannabis users predicts changes in cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousijn, J.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Repeated drug exposure can lead to an approach-bias, i.e. the relatively automatically triggered tendencies to approach rather that avoid drug-related stimuli. Our main aim was to study this approach-bias in heavy cannabis users with the newly developed cannabis Approach Avoidance Task (cannabi

  7. Dissociation between implicit and explicit expectancies of cannabis use in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmits, Emilie; Maurage, Pierre; Thirion, Romain; Quertemont, Etienne

    2015-12-30

    Cannabis is one of the most commonly drugs used by teenagers. Expectancies about its effects play a crucial role in cannabis consumption. Various tools have been used to assess expectancies, mainly self-report questionnaires measuring explicit expectancies, but implicit measures based on experimental tasks have also been developed, measuring implicit expectancies. The aim of this study was to simultaneously assess implicit/explicit expectancies related to cannabis among adolescent users and non-users. 130 teenagers attending school (55 girls) were enrolled (Age: M=16.40 years); 43.84% had never used cannabis ("non-users") and 56.16% had used cannabis ("users"). They completed self-report questionnaires evaluating cannabis use, cannabis-related problems, effect expectancies (explicit expectancies), alcohol use, social and trait anxiety, depression, as well as three Implicit Association Tests (IAT) assessing implicit expectancies. Adolescents manifested more implicit affective associations (relaxation, excitation, negative) than neutral ones regarding cannabis. These were not related to explicit expectancies. Cannabis users reported more implicit relaxation expectancies and less negative explicit expectancies than non-users. The frequency of use and related problems were positively associated with the explicit expectancies regarding relaxation and enhancement, and were negatively associated with negative explicit expectancies and negative implicit expectancies. Findings indicate that implicit and explicit expectancies play different roles in cannabis use by adolescents. The implications for experimentation and prevention are discussed.

  8. Perspectives on daily cannabis use:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronbæk, Mette; Asmussen Frank, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    of respondents with and without treatment experiences, we were able to compare perspectives on cannabis initiation and trajectories not commonly examined. FINDINGS - All the respondents had started to use cannabis socially as adolescents in the company of peers, using it with specific peer groups...... cannabis use were constructed from the users’ narratives. For some respondents, daily cannabis use in adulthood was an inclusive and non-problematic activity while others described their cannabis use developing into a problematic and exclusive habit. CONCLUSIONS - Trajectories into and continuation...

  9. [ACTUAL PROBLEMS OF EPIDEMIOLOGIC CONTROL, LABORATORY DIAGNOSTICS AND PROPHYLAXIS OF CHOLERA IN RUSSIAN FEDERATION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onischenko, G G; Popova, A Yu; Kutyrev, V V; Smirnova, N I; Scherbakova, S A; Moskvitina, E A; Titova, S V

    2016-01-01

    Main problems of system of epidemiologic control for cholera active in Russian Federation, as well as laboratory diagnostics and vaccine prophylaxis of this especially dangerous infection, that had emerged in the contemporary period of the ongoing 7th pandemic of cholera, are discussed. Features of the genome of natural strains of Vibrio cholerae of El Tor biovar, that possess a poten- tial epidemic threat, as well as problems, that have emerged during isolation of these strains from samples of water of surface water bodies during their monitoring, are also examined. The main direction of enhancement of the system of epidemiologic control for cholera consist in develop- ment of a new algorithm of differentiation of administrative territories of Russian Federation by types of epidemic manifestations, as well as optimization of monitoring of environment objects. Integration of modern highly informative technologies into practice, as well as development of new generation diagnostic preparations based on DNA-chips and immunechips is necessary to increase effectiveness of the conducted operative and retrospective diagnostics in the contemporary period. Creation of national cholera vaccine, ensuring simultaneous protection from cholera causative agents of both O1 and O139 serogroups, is also required.

  10. Medicinal cannabis in oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Frederike K; de Jong, Floris A; Mathijssen, Ron H J; Erkens, Joëlle A; Herings, Ron M; Verweij, Jaap

    2007-12-01

    In The Netherlands, since September 2003, a legal medicinal cannabis product, constituting the whole range of cannabinoids, is available for clinical research, drug development strategies, and on prescription for patients. To date, this policy, initiated by the Dutch Government, has not yet led to the desired outcome; the amount of initiated clinical research is less than expected and only a minority of patients resorts to the legal product. This review aims to discuss the background for the introduction of legal medicinal cannabis in The Netherlands, the past years of Dutch clinical experience in oncology practice, possible reasons underlying the current outcome, and future perspectives.

  11. Cannabis careers revisited: applying Howard S. Becker's theory to present-day cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Järvinen, Margaretha; Ravn, Signe

    2014-01-01

    A considerable part of today's sociological research on recreational drug use is (explicitly or implicitly) inspired by Howard Becker's classical model of deviant careers. The aim of the present paper is to directly apply Becker's theory to empirical data on present-day cannabis use and to suggest a revision of the theory. As part of this, we propose a stretch of the sociological approach represented by Becker and followers in order to include, not only recreational drug use, but also use for which young people have sought treatment. The paper is based on 30 qualitative interviews with young people in treatment for cannabis problems in Copenhagen, Denmark. We suggest a revision of Becker's career model in relation to four aspects: initiation of cannabis use, differentiation between socially integrated and individualised, disintegrated use, social control from non-users, and the users' moral stance on cannabis. A central point of the paper is that social interaction may both motivate cannabis use, as Becker proposed, and serve as a protective factor against extensive, problematic use.

  12. Characteristics of Cannabis-Only and Other Drug Users Who Visit the Emergency Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Susan I.; McCabe, Cameron T.; Hohman, Melinda; Clapp, John D.; Shillington, Audrey M.; Eisenberg, Kimberly; Sise, C. Beth; Castillo, Edward M.; Chan, Theodore C.; Sise, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Emergency department (ED) settings have gained interest as venues for illegal drug misuse prevention and intervention, with researchers and practitioners attempting to capitalize on the intersection of need and opportunity within these settings. This study of 686 adult patients visiting two EDs for various reasons who admitted drug use compared daily cannabis-only users, nondaily cannabis-only users, and other drug users on sociodemographic and drug-related severity outcomes. The three drug use groups did not differ on most sociodemographic factors or medical problem severity scores. Forty-five percent of the sample was identified as having a drug use problem. ED patients who used drugs other than cannabis were at particular risk for high drug use severity indicators and concomitant problems such as psychiatric problems and alcohol use severity. However, 19–29% of cannabis-only users were identified as having problematic drug use. Furthermore, daily cannabis-only users fared less well than nondaily cannabis users with regard to drug use severity indicators and self-efficacy for avoiding drug use. Results may assist emergency medicine providers and medical social workers in matching patients to appropriate intervention. For example, users of drugs other than cannabis (and perhaps heavy, daily cannabis-only users) may need referral to specialty services for further assessment. Enhancement of motivation and self-efficacy beliefs could be an important target of prevention and treatment for cannabis-only users screened in the ED. PMID:27689138

  13. Cannabis use, employment, and income: fixed-effects analysis of panel data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Ioana; French, Michael T

    2014-04-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the direction and magnitude of the association between cannabis use and labor market outcomes. Using panel data from waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions, the current paper estimates the associations between several patterns of cannabis use during the past year, current employment, and annual personal income. In the single-equation models (wave 2 data), nearly all patterns of cannabis use are significantly associated with worse labor market outcomes (p < 0.05). However, when using fixed-effects techniques to address unobserved and time-invariant individual heterogeneity, the estimates are generally smaller in magnitude and less likely to be statistically significant vis-à-vis the benchmark estimates. These findings suggest that unobserved individual heterogeneity is an important source of bias in models of cannabis use and labor market outcomes. Moreover, cannabis use may be less detrimental in the labor market than other studies have reported.

  14. Recent developments in the epidemiology and management of tuberculosis – new solutions to old problems?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaiss WM

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang M Thaiss1, Cornelius C Thaiss2, Christoph A Thaiss31Christian-Albrechts-Universty, Kiel, 2Ludwig-Maximilians-University, Munich, Germany; 3Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USAAbstract: Tuberculosis is an ancient human disease that is still a major cause of death and one of the most challenging public health problems worldwide. After decades of stagnancy, new public–private partnerships to fight the disease and the increasing awareness of a vicious circle between the tuberculosis epidemic and the obstruction of economic development have fuelled recent progress in our understanding of the disease. As a result, new strategies to improve management and treatment of tuberculosis have been initiated. At the same time, however, the devastating effect of human immunodeficiency virus on tuberculosis susceptibility and the rapid expansion of multidrug-resistant (MDR tuberculosis threaten to undermine the advances made by tuberculosis management programs. With an estimated 9 million new cases annually, tuberculosis affects a higher number of individuals worldwide than ever before. Here, recent developments in the epidemiology and management of tuberculosis are summarized and an overview is provided of emerging strategies to combat this ancient scourge.Keywords: tuberculosis, epidemiology, management, multidrug resistance, vaccine

  15. Persisting problems related to race and ethnicity in public health and epidemiology research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Moubarac

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A recent and comprehensive review of the use of race and ethnicity in research that address health disparities in epidemiology and public health is provided. First it is described the theoretical basis upon which race and ethnicity differ drawing from previous work in anthropology, social science and public health. Second, it is presented a review of 280 articles published in high impacts factor journals in regards to public health and epidemiology from 2009-2011. An analytical grid enabled the examination of conceptual, theoretical and methodological questions related to the use of both concepts. The majority of articles reviewed were grounded in a theoretical framework and provided interpretations from various models. However, key problems identified include a a failure from researchers to differentiate between the concepts of race and ethnicity; b an inappropriate use of racial categories to ascribe ethnicity; c a lack of transparency in the methods used to assess both concepts; and d failure to address limits associated with the construction of racial or ethnic taxonomies and their use. In conclusion, future studies examining health disparities should clearly establish the distinction between race and ethnicity, develop theoretically driven research and address specific questions about the relationships between race, ethnicity and health. One argue that one way to think about ethnicity, race and health is to dichotomize research into two sets of questions about the relationship between human diversity and health.

  16. Attitudes towards cannabis legalization in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    Sigurbjörg Lára Kristinsdóttir 1991

    2016-01-01

    The debate on whether or not cannabis should be legalized has been growing in recent years. The legality of cannabis varies from country to country. Possession of cannabis have been decriminalized or legalized in numerous countries. The main aim of the present study was to examine both what characterizes those who are in favor of cannabis legalization and the potential effect on the community and cannabis consumption if cannabis would be legalized. The participants were 1198 obtained from an ...

  17. Mental health problems and psychopathology in infancy and early childhood. An epidemiological study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Anne Mette

    2010-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The thesis includes seven published papers and an overview concerning the epidemiological aspects of mental health problems and psychopathology in children aged 0-3 years. The research behind the thesis focuses at psychopathology in the first years of life. The aim has been...... to investigate phenomenology, prevalence, risk factors and predictors, in order to contribute to the knowledge about early developmental psychopathology, and improve the scientific foundation for identification and treatment of mental illness of infants and toddlers, and optimize the foundation for prevention...... of neurodevelopmental psychopathology than has been described hitherto. Risk factors of emotional, behavioural and eating and sleeping disorders were psycho-social adversities in parents, and parent-child relationship disturbances seem to be the key mediator in the risk mechanisms. Risk factors of relationship...

  18. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej S Buchowski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise. AIMS: To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions. DESIGN: Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR monitoring (60-70% HR reserve over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight. PARTICIPANTS: Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 12, age 25±3 years, 8 females met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID. MEASUREMENTS: Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF. FINDINGS: Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD = 3.1, range 1.8-10.9. Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD = 1.6, range 0.9-5.4 and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD = 2.5, range 1.1-9.5 periods were lower than during the run-in period (both P<.005. Average MCQ factor scores for the pre- and post-exercise craving assessments were reduced for compulsivity (P  = .006, emotionality (P  = .002, expectancy (P  = .002, and purposefulness (P  = .002. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this pilot study warrant larger, adequately powered controlled trials to test the efficacy of prescribed moderate aerobic exercise as a component of cannabis dependence treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these

  19. Cannabis Decriminalization and the Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    OpenAIRE

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Chomynova, Pavla; Mravcik, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a change in drugs policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We use 2012 survey data from the Czech Republic where in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. We estimate the effect of the policy change using a mixed proportional hazards framework that models the starting rate of cannabis use, i.e. the transition to first cannabis use. We find that the decriminalization of...

  20. Traditional marijuana, high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose-response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co-administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high-potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high-potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids.

  1. Traditional marijuana, high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids: increasing risk for psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Robin M.; Quigley, Harriet; Quattrone, Diego; Englund, Amir; Di Forti, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence demonstrates that cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of psychotic outcomes, and confirms a dose‐response relationship between the level of use and the risk of later psychosis. High‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids carry the greatest risk. Experimental administration of tetrahydrocannabinol, the active ingredient of cannabis, induces transient psychosis in normal subjects, but this effect can be ameliorated by co‐administration of cannabidiol. This latter is a constituent of traditional hashish, but is largely absent from modern high‐potency forms of cannabis. Argument continues over the extent to which genetic predisposition is correlated to, or interacts with, cannabis use, and what proportion of psychosis could be prevented by minimizing heavy use. As yet, there is not convincing evidence that cannabis use increases risk of other psychiatric disorders, but there are no such doubts concerning its detrimental effect on cognitive function. All of the negative aspects are magnified if use starts in early adolescence. Irrespective of whether use of cannabis is decriminalized or legalized, the evidence that it is a component cause of psychosis is now sufficient for public health messages outlining the risk, especially of regular use of high‐potency cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:27717258

  2. Distance to Cannabis Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palali, Ali; van Ours, Jan C

    2015-11-01

    In the Netherlands, cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a mixed proportional hazard rate framework to take account of observable as well as unobservable characteristics that influence the uptake of cannabis. We find that distance matters. Individuals who grow up within 20 km of a cannabis shop have a lower age of onset.

  3. Pairwise measures of causal direction in the epidemiology of sleep problems and depression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Rosenström

    Full Text Available Depressive mood is often preceded by sleep problems, suggesting that they increase the risk of depression. Sleep problems can also reflect prodromal symptom of depression, thus temporal precedence alone is insufficient to confirm causality. The authors applied recently introduced statistical causal-discovery algorithms that can estimate causality from cross-sectional samples in order to infer the direction of causality between the two sets of symptoms from a novel perspective. Two common-population samples were used; one from the Young Finns study (690 men and 997 women, average age 37.7 years, range 30-45, and another from the Wisconsin Longitudinal study (3101 men and 3539 women, average age 53.1 years, range 52-55. These included three depression questionnaires (two in Young Finns data and two sleep problem questionnaires. Three different causality estimates were constructed for each data set, tested in a benchmark data with a (practically known causality, and tested for assumption violations using simulated data. Causality algorithms performed well in the benchmark data and simulations, and a prediction was drawn for future empirical studies to confirm: for minor depression/dysphoria, sleep problems cause significantly more dysphoria than dysphoria causes sleep problems. The situation may change as depression becomes more severe, or more severe levels of symptoms are evaluated; also, artefacts due to severe depression being less well presented in the population data than minor depression may intervene the estimation for depression scales that emphasize severe symptoms. The findings are consistent with other emerging epidemiological and biological evidence.

  4. Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojima Masayo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems.

  5. Cannabis - from cultivar to chemovar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, A; Fischedick, J T

    2012-01-01

    The medicinal use of Cannabis is increasing as countries worldwide are setting up official programs to provide patients with access to safe sources of medicinal-grade Cannabis. An important question that remains to be answered is which of the many varieties of Cannabis should be made available for medicinal use. Drug varieties of Cannabis are commonly distinguished through the use of popular names, with a major distinction being made between Indica and Sativa types. Although more than 700 different cultivars have already been described, it is unclear whether such classification reflects any relevant differences in chemical composition. Some attempts have been made to classify Cannabis varieties based on chemical composition, but they have mainly been useful for forensic applications, distinguishing drug varieties, with high THC content, from the non-drug hemp varieties. The biologically active terpenoids have not been included in these approaches. For a clearer understanding of the medicinal properties of the Cannabis plant, a better classification system, based on a range of potentially active constituents, is needed. The cannabinoids and terpenoids, present in high concentrations in Cannabis flowers, are the main candidates. In this study, we compared cultivars obtained from multiple sources. Based on the analysis of 28 major compounds present in these samples, followed by principal component analysis (PCA) of the quantitative data, we were able to identify the Cannabis constituents that defined the samples into distinct chemovar groups. The study indicates the usefulness of a PCA approach for chemotaxonomic classification of Cannabis varieties.

  6. The relation between AKT1, cannabis use and metabolic risk factors in psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liemburg, Edith; Bruins, Jojanneke; Van Beveren, Nico J.M.; Bruggeman, Richard; Alizadeh, Behrooz

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular and metabolic problems combined with a bad lifestyle are a major cause of a shortened life expectancy in chronic psychotic disorders. While the incidence of cannabis use is twice as high in psychosis compared to the general population, use of cannabis has been associated w

  7. Cannabis Decriminalization and the Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cervený, J.; van Ours, J.C.; Chomynova, Pavla; Mravcik, Viktor

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of a change in drugs policy on the age of onset of cannabis use. We use 2012 survey data from the Czech Republic where in 2010 a law was introduced decriminalizing personal possession of small quantities of several illicit drugs, including cannabis. We estimate the eff

  8. Distance to cannabis-shops and age of onset of cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2015-01-01

    In the Netherlands, cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a mixed proportional hazard rate framework to take account of observable as

  9. Distance to Cannabis-Shops and Age of Onset of Cannabis Use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, A.; van Ours, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In the Netherlands cannabis use is quasi-legalized. Small quantities of cannabis can be bought in cannabis-shops. We investigate how the distance to the nearest cannabis- shop affects the age of onset of cannabis use. We use a Mixed Proportional Hazard rate framework to take account of obs

  10. When Cannabis Is Available and Visible at School--A Multilevel Analysis of Students' Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsche, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers' reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use. Methods: A multilevel regression model was…

  11. When cannabis is available and visible at school - A multilevel analysis of students' cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.

    2010-01-01

    Aims - To investigate the links between the visibility of cannabis use in school (measured by teachers’ reports of students being under the influence of cannabis on school premises), the proportion of cannabis users in the class, perceived availability of cannabis, as well as adolescent cannabis use

  12. Cannabis and tolerance: acute drug impairment as a function of cannabis use history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramaekers, J.G.; Wel, J.H. van; Spronk, D.B.; Toennes, S.W.; Kuypers, K.P.; Theunissen, E.L.; Verkes, R.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use history as predictor of neurocognitive response to cannabis intoxication remains subject to scientific and policy debates. The present study assessed the influence of cannabis on neurocognition in cannabis users whose cannabis use history ranged from infrequent to daily use. Drug users

  13. Grey Matter Changes Associated with Heavy Cannabis Use: A Longitudinal sMRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Koenders

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug worldwide. Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies suggest that chronic cannabis exposure and the development of cannabis use disorders may affect brain morphology. However, cross-sectional studies cannot make a conclusive distinction between cause and consequence and longitudinal neuroimaging studies are lacking. In this prospective study we investigate whether continued cannabis use and higher levels of cannabis exposure in young adults are associated with grey matter reductions. Heavy cannabis users (N = 20, age baseline M = 20.5, SD = 2.1 and non-cannabis using healthy controls (N = 22, age baseline M = 21.6, SD = 2.45 underwent a comprehensive psychological assessment and a T1- structural MRI scan at baseline and 3 years follow-up. Grey matter volumes (orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, insula, striatum, thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus and cerebellum were estimated using the software package SPM (VBM-8 module. Continued cannabis use did not have an effect on GM volume change at follow-up. Cross-sectional analyses at baseline and follow-up revealed consistent negative correlations between cannabis related problems and cannabis use (in grams and regional GM volume of the left hippocampus, amygdala and superior temporal gyrus. These results suggests that small GM volumes in the medial temporal lobe are a risk factor for heavy cannabis use or that the effect of cannabis on GM reductions is limited to adolescence with no further damage of continued use after early adulthood. Long-term prospective studies starting in early adolescence are needed to reach final conclusions.

  14. [Topical problems of sanitary and epidemiologic examination concerning projects of sanitary protection zones in airports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isayeva, A M; Zibaryov, E V

    2015-01-01

    The article covers data on major errors in sanitary protection zones specification for civil airports, revealed through sanitary epidemiologic examination. The authors focus attention on necessity to develop unified methodic approach to evaluation of aviation noise effects, when justifying sanitary protection zone of airports and examining sanitary and epidemiologic project documents.

  15. Statistics on cannabis users skew perceptions of cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Melissa Burns

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Collecting information about the prevalence of cannabis use is necessary but not sufficient for understanding the size, dynamics, and outcomes associated with cannabis markets. This paper uses two data sets describing cannabis consumption in the United States and Europe to highlight 1 differences in inferences about sub-populations based on the measure used to quantify cannabis-related activity; 2 how different measures of cannabis-related activity can be used to more accurately describe trends in cannabis usage over time; and 3 the correlation between frequency of use in the past month and average grams consumed per day. Key findings: Focusing on days of use instead of prevalence shows substantially greater increases in U.S. cannabis use in recent years; however, the recent increase is mostly among adults, not youth. Relatively more rapid growth in use days also occurred among the college-educated and Hispanic. Further, data from a survey conducted in several European countries show a strong positive correlation between frequency of use and quantity consumed per day of use, suggesting consumption is even more skewed toward the minority of heavy users than is suggested by days-of-use calculations.

  16. What does a mouse tell us about neuregulin 1 – cannabis interactions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eKarl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The link between cannabis and psychosis has been debated although there is substantial epidemiological evidence showing that cannabis increases the risk of psychosis. It has been hypothesized that schizophrenia patients carrying particular risk genes might be more sensitive to the psychosis-inducing effects of cannabis than other patients and healthy test subjects. Here we review the effects of cannabinoids on a mutant mouse model for the schizophrenia candidate gene neuregulin 1 (Nrg1. The studies suggest a complex interaction between cannabis and Nrg1: the neuro-behavioural effects of cannabinoids were different in Nrg1 mutant and control mice and depended on exposure time, sex and age of test animals. This research provides the first evidence of complex cannabis-Nrg1 interactions suggesting Nrg1 as a prime target for future clinical investigations. Furthermore, it highlights that animal model research can broaden our understanding of the complex multi-factorial aetiology of schizophrenia. Finally, the findings are important to preventive psychiatry: if the genes that confer genetic vulnerability to cannabis-induced psychosis were identified patients at-high risk could be forewarned of the potential dangers of cannabis abuse.

  17. Contribution of health motive to cannabis use among high-school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabrol, Henri; Beck, Charline; Laconi, Stéphanie

    2017-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM), which is derived from a scale measuring alcohol use motives, has been the main instrument used to explore the role of motives in cannabis use and related problems. Two studies attempted to developed specific cannabis use motives but none of them showed a unique association to cannabis use and problems when controlling for MMM motives. The aim of our study was to examine if additional motives contributed to problematic use beyond MMM motives and psychopathological symptoms. Participants were 249 high-school students who completed the Cannabis Use Disorder Identification Test-Revised (CUDIT-R) assessing cannabis use and problematic use, the MMM and a new scale measuring motives derived from clinical experience with adolescents using cannabis (CED motives), and scales measuring anxiety and depressive symptoms and borderline personality traits. Among the 107 participants using cannabis, 39 reached the cut-off score for problematic cannabis use. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses controlling for psychopathological variables showed that only one CED motives, Health (sleep, form, energy, appetite, health), was a significant predictor of both frequency of use and problematic use symptoms. The importance of Health motive may be linked to the role of depressive symptoms and may have implication for treatment. We suggest to add the Health subscale to the MMM and to further study the role of health motive in both use and dependence.

  18. Long term stability of cannabis resin and cannabis extracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Christian

    2010-01-01

      The aim of the present study was to investigate the stability of cannabinoids in cannabis resin slabs and cannabis extracts upon long-term storage. The levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) on both neutral and acidic form were measured...... stored in extracted form at room temperature the degradation rate of acidic THC increased significantly relative to resin material with concentration halve-lives of 35 and 91 days in daylight and darkness, respectively. Once cannabis material is extracted into organic solvents, care should be taken...

  19. Evidence that familial liability for psychosis is expressed as differential sensitivity to cannabis - an analysis of patient-sibling and sibling-control pairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kahn, Rene S.; Linszen, Don H.; van Os, Jim; Wiersma, Durk; Bruggeman, Richard; Cahn, Wiepke; de Haan, Lieuwe; Krabbendam, Lydia; Myin-Germeys, Inez

    2011-01-01

    Context: Individual differences in cannabis sensitivity may be associated with genetic risk for psychotic disorder. Objectives: To demonstrate and replicate, using 2 conceptually different genetic epidemiological designs, that (familial) liability to psychosis is associated with sensitivity to canna

  20. (Re)introducing medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mather, Laurence E; Rauwendaal, Evert R; Moxham-Hall, Vivienne L; Wodak, Alex D

    2013-12-16

    • After considering extensive scientific and medical evidence, a New South Wales Legislative Council multiparty committee recommended that medicinal cannabis should lawfully be made available for selected-use pharmacotherapy. • The evidence indicates that cannabis has genuine medicinal utility in patients with certain neuropathic conditions, with acceptable levels of risk from mostly mild side effects. • The potential medical benefits of cannabis pharmacotherapy have largely been overlooked, with research and society's attention, in most parts of the world, being directed towards the hazards of its recreational use. • The NSW Government has since dismissed the unanimous and compassionate recommendations of their committee.

  1. Cannabis, the pregnant woman and her child: weeding out the myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaques, S C; Kingsbury, A; Henshcke, P; Chomchai, C; Clews, S; Falconer, J; Abdel-Latif, M E; Feller, J M; Oei, J L

    2014-06-01

    To review and summarise the literature reporting on cannabis use within western communities with specific reference to patterns of use, the pharmacology of its major psychoactive compounds, including placental and fetal transfer, and the impact of maternal cannabis use on pregnancy, the newborn infant and the developing child. Review of published articles, governmental guidelines and data and book chapters. Although cannabis is one of the most widely used illegal drugs, there is limited data about the prevalence of cannabis use in pregnant women, and it is likely that reported rates of exposure are significantly underestimated. With much of the available literature focusing on the impact of other illicit drugs such as opioids and stimulants, the effects of cannabis use in pregnancy on the developing fetus remain uncertain. Current evidence indicates that cannabis use both during pregnancy and lactation, may adversely affect neurodevelopment, especially during periods of critical brain growth both in the developing fetal brain and during adolescent maturation, with impacts on neuropsychiatric, behavioural and executive functioning. These reported effects may influence future adult productivity and lifetime outcomes. Despite the widespread use of cannabis by young women, there is limited information available about the impact perinatal cannabis use on the developing fetus and child, particularly the effects of cannabis use while breast feeding. Women who are using cannabis while pregnant and breast feeding should be advised of what is known about the potential adverse effects on fetal growth and development and encouraged to either stop using or decrease their use. Long-term follow-up of exposed children is crucial as neurocognitive and behavioural problems may benefit from early intervention aimed to reduce future problems such as delinquency, depression and substance use.

  2. Weeding Out the Truth: Adolescents and Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerman, Seth; Tau, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The use of cannabis for both legal (similar to alcohol) and medical purposes is becoming more common. Although cannabis remains an illegal Schedule 1 drug federally, as of November 2015, 23 states and the District of Columbia have legalized "medical" cannabis, and 4 states and the District of Columbia have legalized the use of cannabis for adults aged 21 years and older. It is very likely that more and more states will sooner rather than later allow cannabis for both medical and legal purposes. This review article will focus on a variety of issues relevant to the current debate about cannabis, and will address the following.

  3. Toxic Effects of Cannabis and Cannabinoids: Animal Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Beaulieu

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article reviews the main toxic effects of cannabis and cannabinoids in animals. Toxic effects can be separated into acute and chronic classifications. Acute toxicity studies show that it is virtually impossible to die from acute administration of marijuana or tetrahydrocannabinol, the main psychoactive component of cannabis. Chronic toxicity involves lesions of airway and lung tissues, as well as problems of neurotoxicity, tolerance and dependence, and dysregulations in the immune and hormonal systems. Animal toxicity data, however, are difficult to extrapolate to humans.

  4. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeney, Mistianne; Punja, Zamir K

    2015-01-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) suspension culture cells were transformed with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA101 carrying the binary plasmid pNOV3635. The plasmid contains a phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) selectable marker gene. Cells transformed with PMI are capable of metabolizing the selective agent mannose, whereas cells not expressing the gene are incapable of using the carbon source and will stop growing. Callus masses proliferating on selection medium were screened for PMI expression using a chlorophenol red assay. Genomic DNA was extracted from putatively transformed callus lines, and the presence of the PMI gene was confirmed using PCR and Southern hybridization. Using this method, an average transformation frequency of 31.23% ± 0.14 was obtained for all transformation experiments, with a range of 15.1-55.3%.

  5. Genetic and environmental influences on cannabis use initiation and problematic use: A meta-analysis of twin studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, C.J.H.; Zietsch, B.P.; Lynskey, M.T.; Medland, S.E.; Neale, M.C.; Martin, N.G.; Boomsma, D.I.; Vink, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Because cannabis use is associated with social, physical and psychological problems, it is important to know what causes some individuals to initiate cannabis use and a subset of those to become problematic users. Previous twin studies found evidence for both genetic and environmental inf

  6. Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis: A Patient Survey

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research regarding the therapeutic benefits of cannabis (“marijuana”) has been almost non-existent in the United States since cannabis was given Schedule I status in the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. In order to discover the benefits and adverse effects perceived by medical cannabis patients, especially with regards to chronic pain, we hand-delivered surveys to one hundred consecutive patients who were returning for yearly re-certification for medical cannabis use in Hawai‘i.

  7. fMRI study of neural sensitization to hedonic stimuli in long-term, daily cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filbey, Francesca M; Dunlop, Joseph; Ketcherside, Ariel; Baine, Jessica; Rhinehardt, Tyler; Kuhn, Brittany; DeWitt, Sam; Alvi, Talha

    2016-10-01

    Although there is emergent evidence illustrating neural sensitivity to cannabis cues in cannabis users, the specificity of this effect to cannabis cues as opposed to a generalized hyper-sensitivity to hedonic stimuli has not yet been directly tested. Using fMRI, we presented 53 daily, long-term cannabis users and 68 non-using controls visual and tactile cues for cannabis, a natural reward, and, a sensory-perceptual control object to evaluate brain response to hedonic stimuli in cannabis users. The results showed an interaction between group and reward type such that the users had greater response during cannabis cues relative to natural reward cues (i.e., fruit) in the orbitofrontal cortex, striatum, anterior cingulate gyrus, and ventral tegmental area compared to non-users (cluster-threshold z = 2.3, P behavior correlations between neural response to cannabis cues in fronto-striatal-temporal regions and subjective craving, marijuana-related problems, withdrawal symptoms, and levels of THC metabolites (cluster-threshold z = 2.3, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate hyper-responsivity, and, specificity of brain response to cannabis cues in long-term cannabis users that are above that of response to natural reward cues. These observations are concordant with incentive sensitization models suggesting sensitization of mesocorticolimbic regions and disruption of natural reward processes following drug use. Although the cross-sectional nature of this study does not provide information on causality, the positive correlations between neural response and indicators of cannabis use (i.e., THC levels) suggest that alterations in the reward system are, in part, related to cannabis use. Hum Brain Mapp 37:3431-3443, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cordle, F.

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s. The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  9. The use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess environmental health problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordle, F

    1984-09-01

    Historically, epidemiology has played an important role in the changes that have taken place over time as epidemics of important infectious diseases have been replaced with modern epidemics of chronic, degenerative diseases such as elevated blood pressure, various types of cancers, diabetes, and stroke, among others. Two illustrations of the early uses of epidemiologic methods in investigations of disease outbreaks are described in the work of John Snow, who described outbreaks of cholera in the 1800s (1936, Snow on Cholera, Commonwealth Fund, New York), and J. Goldberger, who investigated the incidence of pellagra in the early 1900s (1964, Goldberger on Pellagra, M. Terris, ed., Louisiana State Univ. Press, Baton Rouge). The more contemporary use of epidemiology and clinical toxicology to assess the outcome of human exposure to environmental contaminants in the food supply are described for exposure to the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and to the polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs). Exposure to the PCBs has occurred in a variety of locations worldwide, with the greatest exposure taking place in individuals of many countries who consume fish and in Japan and Taiwan through contaminated cooking oil. Exposure to PBBs has essentially been limited to the State of Michigan where widespread contamination of cattle, dairy products, and poultry has taken place.

  10. Public opinion and medical cannabis policies: examining the role of underlying beliefs and national medical cannabis policies

    OpenAIRE

    SZNITMAN, SHARON R.; Bretteville-Jensen, Anne Line

    2015-01-01

    Background Debate about medical cannabis legalization are typically informed by three beliefs: (1) cannabis has medical effects, (2) medical cannabis is addictive and (3) medical cannabis legalization leads to increased used of cannabis for recreational purposes (spillover effects). We examined how strongly these beliefs are associated with public support for medical cannabis legalization and whether this association differs across divergent medical cannabis policy regimes. Methods Robust reg...

  11. Medicinal cannabis: moving the debate forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton-Howes, Giles; McBride, Sam

    2016-11-18

    There has been increased interest in cannabis as a medicine both nationally and internationally. Internationally, cannabis is accepted as a medication for a variety of purposes in a variety of legal guises and this, associated with anecdotes of the utility of cannabis as medication has led for calls for it to be 'medicalised' in New Zealand. This viewpoint discusses the issues associated with this approach to accessing cannabis and some of the difficulties that may be associated with it. It is important doctors are at the forefront of the debate surrounding medicalised cannabis. Recommendations as to the ongoing debate are offered.

  12. Medicinal use of cannabis in the United States: historical perspectives, current trends, and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Sunil K; Carter, Gregory T; Sullivan, Mark D; ZumBrunnen, Craig; Morrill, Richard; Mayer, Jonathan D

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis (marijuana) has been used for medicinal purposes for millennia, said to be first noted by the Chinese in c. 2737 BCE. Medicinal cannabis arrived in the United States much later, burdened with a remarkably checkered, yet colorful, history. Despite early robust use, after the advent of opioids and aspirin, medicinal cannabis use faded. Cannabis was criminalized in the United States in 1937, against the advice of the American Medical Association submitted on record to Congress. The past few decades have seen renewed interest in medicinal cannabis, with the National Institutes of Health, the Institute of Medicine, and the American College of Physicians, all issuing statements of support for further research and development. The recently discovered endocannabinoid system has greatly increased our understanding of the actions of exogenous cannabis. Endocannabinoids appear to control pain, muscle tone, mood state, appetite, and inflammation, among other effects. Cannabis contains more than 100 different cannabinoids and has the capacity for analgesia through neuromodulation in ascending and descending pain pathways, neuroprotection, and anti-inflammatory mechanisms. This article reviews the current and emerging research on the physiological mechanisms of cannabinoids and their applications in managing chronic pain, muscle spasticity, cachexia, and other debilitating problems.

  13. Perceptions of cannabis as a stigmatized medicine: a qualitative descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bottorff Joan L

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite its increasing prevalence and acceptance among the general public, cannabis use continues to be viewed as an aberrant activity in many contexts. However, little is known about how stigma associated with cannabis use affects individuals who use cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP and what strategies these individuals employ to manage associated stigma. The aim of this Canadian study was to describe users’ perceptions of and responses to the stigma attached to using CTP. Methods Twenty-three individuals who were using CTP for a range of health problems took part in semi-structured interviews. Transcribed data were analyzed using an inductive approach and comparative strategies to explore participants’ perceptions of CTP and identify themes. Results Participant experiences of stigma were related to negative views of cannabis as a recreational drug, the current criminal sanctions associated with cannabis use, and using cannabis in the context of stigmatizing vulnerability (related to existing illness and disability. Strategies for managing the resulting stigma of using CTP included: keeping CTP ‘undercover’; educating those who did not approve of or understand CTP use; and using cannabis responsibly. Conclusions Understanding how individuals perceive and respond to stigma can inform the development of strategies aimed at reducing stigma associated with the use of CTP and thereby address barriers faced by those using this medicine.

  14. Passive inhalation of cannabis smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, B.; Mason, P.A.; Moffat, A.C.; King, L.J.; Marks, V.

    1984-09-01

    Six volunteers each smoked simultaneously, in a small unventilated room (volume 27 950 liter), a cannabis cigarette containing 17.1 mg delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). A further four subjects - passive inhalers - remained in the room during smoking and afterwards for a total of 3 h. Blood and urine samples were taken from all ten subjects and analyzed by radioimmunoassay for THC metabolites. The blood samples from the passive subjects taken up to 3 h after the start of exposure to cannabis smoke showed a complete absence of cannabinoids. In contrast, their urine samples taken up to 6 h after exposure showed significant concentrations of cannabinoid metabolites (less than or equal to 6.8 ng ml-1). These data, taken with the results of other workers, show passive inhalation of cannabis smoke to be possible. These results have important implications for forensic toxicologists who are frequently called upon to interpret cannabinoid levels in body fluids.

  15. An Epidemiological and Clinical Survey of Infertility Problems in Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程立法; 王敏峥; 杨文秀; 钱伟; 王一鑫

    1993-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of fertility was carried out in two cities and five counties of Henan province in China. 1.96% of couples were found to have primary infertility (2.01% if 12 women with recurrent rrdscarraiges were included ). The etiology, was analysed in 321 couples with primary infertility selected from the sample, In these 321 couples there were malefactors implicated in 26.8% of couples, female factors in 49% and both female and malefactors in 24%. The most commonly identified factors were: Varicocele ( 10.9% ) and ovulations disorders ( 32.08% ) in male and female respectively.

  16. [Alcohol, tobacco and cannabis: Review of teratogenicity studies in animals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spézia, F

    2006-10-01

    Despite an intensive national campaign of information, the drugs most frequently consumed by young adults undoubtedly continue to be alcohol, tobacco and cannabis. If the impact of these drugs on the health of the consumers can be evaluated in conjunction with the clinical and epidemiologic data, the consequences on the embryo due to their consumption by the pregnant women can be appreciated thanks to the abundant literature describing their effects in the gravid animal. Taking into account the abundant literature available in multiple animal species, the zero drug recommendation should be widely diffused to pregnant women.

  17. Therapeutic Use of Cannabis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Seymour

    2016-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa and its derivatives, cannabinoids, have grown increasingly popular as a potential therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies have shown that modulation of the endocannabinoid system, which regulates various functions in the body and has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD, has a therapeutic effect in mouse colitis. Epidemiologic data and human therapy studies reveal a possible role for cannabinoids in the symptomatic treatment of IBD, although it has yet to be determined in human populations whether cannabinoids have therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects in IBD or are simply masking its many debilitating symptoms. Large, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials using serial inflammatory markers, biopsy findings, and endoscopic disease severity to demonstrate objective improvement in IBD are necessary before cannabis can be empirically accepted and recommended as an IBD treatment option. Questions concerning its safety profile and adverse effects prompt the need for further research, particularly in regard to dosing and route of administration to maximize benefits and limit potential harms. Cannabis use should be reserved for symptomatic control in patients with severe IBD refractory to the currently available standard-of-care and complementary and alternative medicines. PMID:28035196

  18. Cannabis, motivation, and life satisfaction in an internet sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilcox Rand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although little evidence supports cannabis-induced amotivational syndrome, sources continue to assert that the drug saps motivation 1, which may guide current prohibitions. Few studies report low motivation in chronic users; another reveals that they have higher subjective wellbeing. To assess differences in motivation and subjective wellbeing, we used a large sample (N = 487 and strict definitions of cannabis use (7 days/week and abstinence (never. Standard statistical techniques showed no differences. Robust statistical methods controlling for heteroscedasticity, non-normality and extreme values found no differences in motivation but a small difference in subjective wellbeing. Medical users of cannabis reporting health problems tended to account for a significant portion of subjective wellbeing differences, suggesting that illness decreased wellbeing. All p-values were above p = .05. Thus, daily use of cannabis does not impair motivation. Its impact on subjective wellbeing is small and may actually reflect lower wellbeing due to medical symptoms rather than actual consumption of the plant.

  19. Epidemiological comparisons of problems and positive qualities reported by adolescents in 24 countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rescorla, Leslie; Achenbach, Thomas M; Ivanova, Masha Y

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors compared ratings of behavioral and emotional problems and positive qualities on the Youth Self-Report (T. M. Achenbach & L. A. Rescorla, 2001) by adolescents in general population samples from 24 countries (N = 27,206). For problem scales, country effect sizes (ESs.......5). Results indicate considerable consistency across 24 countries in adolescents' self-reported problems but less consistency for positive qualities....

  20. Cannabis and adolescent brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubman, Dan I; Cheetham, Ali; Yücel, Murat

    2015-04-01

    Heavy cannabis use has been frequently associated with increased rates of mental illness and cognitive impairment, particularly amongst adolescent users. However, the neurobiological processes that underlie these associations are still not well understood. In this review, we discuss the findings of studies examining the acute and chronic effects of cannabis use on the brain, with a particular focus on the impact of commencing use during adolescence. Accumulating evidence from both animal and human studies suggests that regular heavy use during this period is associated with more severe and persistent negative outcomes than use during adulthood, suggesting that the adolescent brain may be particularly vulnerable to the effects of cannabis exposure. As the endocannabinoid system plays an important role in brain development, it is plausible that prolonged use during adolescence results in a disruption in the normative neuromaturational processes that occur during this period. We identify synaptic pruning and white matter development as two processes that may be adversely impacted by cannabis exposure during adolescence. Potentially, alterations in these processes may underlie the cognitive and emotional deficits that have been associated with regular use commencing during adolescence.

  1. Pharmacology of Marihuana (Cannabis sativa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maickel, Roger P.

    1973-01-01

    A detailed discussion of marihuana (Cannabis sativa) providing the modes of use, history, chemistry, and physiologic properties of the drug. Cites research results relating to the pharmacologic effects of marihuana. These effects are categorized into five areas: behavioral, cardiovascular-respiratory, central nervous system, toxicity-toxicology,…

  2. Medical cannabis - the Canadian perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol - the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts.

  3. Cerebellar grey-matter deficits, cannabis use and first-episode schizophrenia in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Martin; Rasser, Paul E; Peck, Greg; Carr, Vaughan J; Ward, Philip B; Thompson, Paul M; Johnston, Patrick; Baker, Amanda; Schall, Ulrich

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological data link adolescent cannabis use to psychosis and schizophrenia, but its contribution to schizophrenia neuropathology remains controversial. First-episode schizophrenia (FES) patients show regional cerebral grey- and white-matter changes as well as a distinct pattern of regional grey-matter loss in the vermis of the cerebellum. The cerebellum possesses a high density of cannabinoid type 1 receptors involved in the neuronal diversification of the developing brain. Cannabis abuse may interfere with this process during adolescent brain maturation leading to 'schizophrenia-like' cerebellar pathology. Magnetic resonance imaging and cortical pattern matching techniques were used to investigate cerebellar grey and white matter in FES patients with and without a history of cannabis use and non-psychiatric cannabis users. In the latter group we found lifetime dose-dependent regional reduction of grey matter in the right cerebellar lobules and a tendency for more profound grey-matter reduction in lobule III with younger age at onset of cannabis use. The overall regional grey-matter differences in cannabis users were within the normal variability of grey-matter distribution. By contrast, FES subjects had lower total cerebellar grey-matter:total cerebellar volume ratio and marked grey-matter loss in the vermis, pedunculi, flocculi and lobules compared to pair-wise matched healthy control subjects. This pattern and degree of grey-matter loss did not differ from age-matched FES subjects with comorbid cannabis use. Our findings indicate small dose-dependent effects of juvenile cannabis use on cerebellar neuropathology but no evidence of an additional effect of cannabis use on FES cerebellar grey-matter pathology.

  4. Prospective Assessment of Cannabis Withdrawal in Adolescents with Cannabis Dependence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milin, Robert; Manion, Ian; Dare, Glenda; Walker, Selena

    2008-01-01

    A study to identify and assess the withdrawal symptoms in adolescents afflicted with cannabis dependence is conducted. Results conclude that withdrawal symptoms of cannabis were present in adolescents seeking treatment for this substance abuse.

  5. Sizing the cannabis market: a demand-side and user-specific approach in seven European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Laar, Margriet; Frijns, Tom; Trautmann, Franz; Lombi, Linda

    2013-06-01

    Demand-based estimates of total cannabis consumption rarely consider differences among different user types and variation across countries. To describe cannabis consumption patterns and estimate annual consumption for different user types across EU Member States, a web survey in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Sweden and United Kingdom (England & Wales) collected data on cannabis use patterns from 3,922 persons who had consumed cannabis at least once in the past year. They were classified into four groups based on their number of use days in the past 12 months: infrequent users or chippers (users (11-50 days), regular users (51-250 days) and intensive users (>250 days). User type specific data on typical amounts consumed were matched with data on numbers of users per user type estimated from existing population surveys, taking differences in mode of consumption, age and gender into account. Estimates were supplemented with data from populations of problem users to compensate for under coverage. Results showed remarkably consistent differences among user groups across countries. Both the average number of units consumed per typical use day and the average amount of cannabis consumed per unit increased across user types of increasing frequency of use. In all countries except Portugal, intensive users formed the smallest group of cannabis users but were responsible for the largest part of total annual cannabis consumption. Annual cannabis consumption varied across countries but confidence intervals were wide. Results are compared with previous estimates and discussed in the context of improving estimation methods.

  6. O problema do conhecimento verdadeiro na epidemiologia The problem of true knowledge in epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo de Carvalho Mesquita Ayres

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available São examinadas as bases filosóficas da validação do conhecimento científico, com o intuito de estabelecer uma visão crítica a respeito da adoção das proposições de Popper na epidemiologia. Ressalta-se o caráter conservador que resulta das limitações técnicas implicadas na sua adoção, não obstante o evidente aumento da racionalidade e da criatividade heurística que propicia.The philosophical basis of the validation of scientific knowledge, with a view to stablishing a critical point of view as to the adoption of Popper's propositions in epidemiology is examined. The conservative character that results from the technical limitations implied in this adoption is a noteworthy aspect of the discussion, despite the evident increase in heuristic rationality and creativity that result.

  7. Cannabis Use and Memory Brain Function in Adolescent Boys: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.; Block, R.I.; Luijten, M.; Ramsey, N.F.

    2010-01-01

    Early-onset cannabis use has been associated with later use/abuse, mental health problems (psychosis, depression), and abnormal development of cognition and brain function. During adolescence, ongoing neurodevelopmental maturation and experience shape the neural circuitry underlying complex cognitiv

  8. Inhaled medicinal cannabis and the immunocompromised patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruchlemer, Rosa; Amit-Kohn, Michal; Raveh, David; Hanuš, Lumír

    2015-03-01

    Medicinal cannabis is an invaluable adjunct therapy for pain relief, nausea, anorexia, and mood modification in cancer patients and is available as cookies or cakes, as sublingual drops, as a vaporized mist, or for smoking. However, as with every herb, various microorganisms are carried on its leaves and flowers which when inhaled could expose the user, in particular immunocompromised patients, to the risk of opportunistic lung infections, primarily from inhaled molds. The objective of this study was to identify the safest way of using medicinal cannabis in immunosuppressed patients by finding the optimal method of sterilization with minimal loss of activity of cannabis. We describe the results of culturing the cannabis herb, three methods of sterilization, and the measured loss of a main cannabinoid compound activity. Systematic sterilization of medicinal cannabis can eliminate the risk of fatal opportunistic infections associated with cannabis among patients at risk.

  9. Är cannabis den nya folkölen? : Unga cannabisanvändares tal om cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Jansson, Mari; Tally, Molly

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine young adult cannabis users’ attitudes towards cannabis and their perception of the normalization of cannabis. The purpose was also to explore how their views of cannabis correspond with norms regarding cannabis. This study is based on interviews with five young adult cannabis users. The theoretical framework is based on Parker’s normalization thesis, Goffman’s notion of stigma, Becker’s definition of outsiders and the definition of social identity develope...

  10. The Choice of Screening Instrument Matters: The Case of Problematic Cannabis Use Screening in Spanish Population of Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingo-Salvany, Antónia; Barrio Anta, Gregorio; Sánchez Mañez, Amparo; Llorens Aleixandre, Noelia; Brime Beteta, Begoña; Vicente, Julián

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of problem cannabis use screening instruments administration within wide school surveys, their psychometric properties, overlaps, and relationships with other variables. Students from 7 Spanish regions, aged 14–18, who attended secondary schools were sampled by two-stage cluster sampling (net sample 14,589). Standardized, anonymous questionnaire including DSM-IV cannabis abuse criteria, Cannabis Abuse Screening Test (CAST), and Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS) was self-completed with paper and pencil in the selected classrooms. Data was analysed using classical psychometric theory, bivariate tests, and multinomial logistic regression analysis. Not responding to instruments' items (10.5–12.3%) was associated with reporting less frequent cannabis use. The instruments overlapped partially, with 16.1% of positives being positive on all three. SDS was more likely to identify younger users with lower frequency of use who thought habitual cannabis use posed a considerable problem. CAST positivity was associated with frequent cannabis use and related problems. It is feasible to use short psychometric scales in wide school surveys, but one must carefully choose the screening instrument, as different instruments identify different groups of users. These may correspond to different types of problematic cannabis use; however, measurement bias seems to play a role too. PMID:25969832

  11. 12-month follow-up of an exploratory ‘brief intervention’ for high-frequency cannabis users among Canadian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Benedikt

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background One in three young people use cannabis in Canada. Cannabis use can be associated with a variety of health problems which occur primarily among intensive/frequent users. Availability and effectiveness of conventional treatment for cannabis use is limited. While Brief Interventions (BIs have been shown to result in short-term reductions of cannabis use risks or problems, few studies have assessed their longer-term effects. The present study examined 12-month follow-up outcomes for BIs in a cohort of young Canadian high-frequency cannabis users where select short-term effects (3 months had previously been assessed and demonstrated. Findings N = 134 frequent cannabis users were recruited from among university students in Toronto, randomized to either an oral or a written cannabis BI, or corresponding health controls, and assessed in-person at baseline, 3-months, and 12-months. N = 72 (54 % of the original sample were retained for follow-up analyses at 12-months where reductions in ‘deep inhalation/breathholding’ (Q = 13.1; p  Conclusions The results confirm findings from select other studies indicating the potential for longer-term and sustained risk reduction effects of BIs for cannabis use. While further research is needed on the long-term effects of BIs, these may be a valuable – and efficient – intervention tool in a public health approach to high-risk cannabis use.

  12. [Cannabis use and impairment of respiratory function].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Urban, T; Perriot, J; Peiffer, G; Meurice, J-C

    2013-04-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly smoked illicit substance in many countries including France. It can be smoked alone in plant form (marijuana) but in our country it is mainly smoked in the form of cannabis resin mixed with tobacco. The technique of inhaling cannabis differs from that of tobacco, increasing the time that the smoke spends in contact with the bronchial mucosal and its impact on respiratory function. One cigarette composed of cannabis and tobacco is much more harmful than a cigarette containing only tobacco. In cannabis smokers there is an increased incidence of respiratory symptoms and episodes of acute bronchitis. Cannabis produces a rapid bronchodilator effect; chronic use provokes a reduction in specific conductance and increase in airways resistance. Studies on the decline of Forced Expiratory Volume are discordant. Cannabis smoke and tetrahydrocannabinol irritate the bronchial tree. They bring about histological signs of airways inflammation and alter the fungicidal and antibacterial activity of alveolar macrophages. Inhalation of cannabis smoke is a risk factor for lung cancer. Stopping smoking cannabis will bring about important benefits for lung function. This should encourage clinicians to offer patients support in quitting smoking.

  13. Therapeutic potential of cannabis-related drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Stephen P H

    2016-01-04

    In this review, I will consider the dual nature of Cannabis and cannabinoids. The duality arises from the potential and actuality of cannabinoids in the laboratory and clinic and the 'abuse' of Cannabis outside the clinic. The therapeutic areas currently best associated with exploitation of Cannabis-related medicines include pain, epilepsy, feeding disorders, multiple sclerosis and glaucoma. As with every other medicinal drug of course, the 'trick' will be to maximise the benefit and minimise the cost. After millennia of proximity and exploitation of the Cannabis plant, we are still playing catch up with an understanding of its potential influence for medicinal benefit.

  14. Medicinal cannabis: rational guidelines for dosing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gregory T; Weydt, Patrick; Kyashna-Tocha, Muraco; Abrams, Donald I

    2004-05-01

    The medicinal value of cannabis (marijuana) is well documented in the medical literature. Cannabinoids, the active ingredients in cannabis, have many distinct pharmacological properties. These include analgesic, anti-emetic, anti-oxidative, neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory activity, as well as modulation of glial cells and tumor growth regulation. Concurrent with all these advances in the understanding of the physiological and pharmacological mechanisms of cannabis, there is a strong need for developing rational guidelines for dosing. This paper will review the known chemistry and pharmacology of cannabis and, on that basis, discuss rational guidelines for dosing.

  15. Quantification of Cannabinoid Content in Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Y.; Zhang, F.; Jia, K.; Wen, M.; Yuan, Ch.

    2015-09-01

    Cannabis is an economically important plant that is used in many fields, in addition to being the most commonly consumed illicit drug worldwide. Monitoring the spatial distribution of cannabis cultivation and judging whether it is drug- or fiber-type cannabis is critical for governments and international communities to understand the scale of the illegal drug trade. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the cannabinoids content in cannabis could be spectrally quantified using a spectrometer and to identify the optimal wavebands for quantifying the cannabinoid content. Spectral reflectance data of dried cannabis leaf samples and the cannabis canopy were measured in the laboratory and in the field, respectively. Correlation analysis and the stepwise multivariate regression method were used to select the optimal wavebands for cannabinoid content quantification based on the laboratory-measured spectral data. The results indicated that the delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in cannabis leaves could be quantified using laboratory-measured spectral reflectance data and that the 695 nm band is the optimal band for THC content quantification. This study provides prerequisite information for designing spectral equipment to enable immediate quantification of THC content in cannabis and to discriminate drug- from fiber-type cannabis based on THC content quantification in the field.

  16. Cannabis use and cognition in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie Løberg

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available People with schizophrenia frequently report cannabis use, and cannabis may be a risk factor for schizophrenia, mediated through effects on brain function and biochemistry. Thus, it is conceivable that cannabis may also influence cognitive functioning in this patients group. We report data from our own laboratory on the use of cannabis by schizophrenia patients, and review the existing literature on the effects of cannabis on cognition in schizophrenia and related psychosis. Of the 23 studies that were found, 14 reported that the cannabis users had better cognitive performance than the schizophrenia non-users. Eight studies reported no or minimal differences in cognitive performance in the two groups, but only one study reported better cognitive performance in the schizophrenia non-user group. Our own results confirm the overall impression from the literature review of better cognitive performance in the cannabis user group. These paradoxical findings may have several explanations, which are discussed. We suggest that cannabis causes a transient cognitive breakdown enabling the development of psychosis, imitating the typical cognitive vulnerability seen in schizophrenia. This is further supported by an earlier age of onset and fewer neurological soft signs in the cannabis-related schizophrenia group, suggesting an alternative pathway to psychosis.

  17. Successful and unsuccessful cannabis quitters: Comparing group characteristics and quitting strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rooke Sally E

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to improve treatments for cannabis use disorder, a better understanding of factors associated with successful quitting is required. Method This study examined differences between successful (n = 87 and unsuccessful (n = 78 cannabis quitters. Participants completed a questionnaire addressing demographic, mental health, and cannabis-related variables, as well as quitting strategies during their most recent quit attempt. Results Eighteen strategies derived from cognitive behavioral therapy were entered into a principal components analysis. The analysis yielded four components, representing (1 Stimulus Removal, (2 Motivation Enhancement, (3 (lack of Distraction, and (4 (lack of Coping. Between groups comparisons showed that unsuccessful quitters scored significantly higher on Motivation Enhancement and (lack of Coping. This may indicate that unsuccessful quitters focus on the desire to quit, but do not sufficiently plan strategies for coping. Unsuccessful quitters also had significantly more symptoms of depression and stress; less education; lower exposure to formal treatment; higher day-to-day exposure to other cannabis users; and higher cannabis dependence scores. Conclusions The findings suggest that coping, environmental modification, and co-morbid mental health problems may be important factors to emphasize in treatments for cannabis use disorder.

  18. Trends in the co-occurrence of tobacco and cannabis use in 15-year-olds from 2002 to 2010 in 28 countries of Europe and North America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille; de Looze, Margreet E;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cannabis and tobacco use frequently co-occur. Adolescents who consume both substances experience more respiratory distress and psychosocial problems and are less likely to stop compared with those who use either tobacco or cannabis alone. This study examined time trends in tobacco...

  19. Trends in the co-occurrence of tobacco and cannabis use in 15-year-olds from 2002 to 2010 in 28 countries of Europe and North America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Looze, M.E.; Hublet, Anne; Bendtsen, Pernille; Fotiou, Anastasios; Donnelley, Peter; Vilhjalmsson, Runar; Baska, Tibor; Aasvee, Katrin; Franelic, Iva; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; ter Bogt, T.F.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cannabis and tobacco use frequently co-occur. Adolescents who consume both substances experience more respiratory distress and psychosocial problems and are less likely to stop compared with those who use either tobacco or cannabis alone. This study examined time trends in tobacco and ca

  20. Medical Cannabis in Arizona: Patient Characteristics, Perceptions, and Impressions of Medical Cannabis Legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troutt, William D; DiDonato, Matthew D

    2015-01-01

    Many advances have been made toward understanding the benefits of medical cannabis. However, less is known about medical cannabis patients themselves. Prior research has uncovered many important patient characteristics, but most of that work has been conducted with participants in California, who may not represent medical cannabis patients throughout the United States. Furthermore, it is unknown if medical cannabis legalization, which typically imposes strict regulations on cannabis cultivation and sale, impacts patients' experiences acquiring and using cannabis. The goal of this study was to address these limitations by (1) examining the characteristics, perceptions, and behaviors of medical cannabis patients in Arizona; and (2) questioning participants with a history of cannabis use regarding their experiences with cannabis before and after legalization. Patients in Arizona share many characteristics with those in California, but also key differences, such as average age and degree of cannabis consumption. Participants also had positive perceptions of the effect of medical cannabis legalization, reporting that feelings of safety and awareness were higher after legalization compared to before. The results are discussed in relation to evidence from patients in other states and in terms of their potential policy implications.

  1. Epidemiological Study of Mammary Tumors in Female Dogs Diagnosed during the Period 2002-2012: A Growing Animal Health Problem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaritza Salas

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies enable us to analyze disease behavior, define risk factors and establish fundamental prognostic criteria, with the purpose of studying different types of diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the epidemiological characteristics of canine mammary tumors diagnosed during the period 2002-2012. The study was based on a retrospective study consisting of 1,917 biopsies of intact dogs that presented mammary gland lesions. Biopsies were sent to the Department of Pathology FMVZ-UNAM diagnostic service. The annual incidence of mammary tumors was 16.8%: 47.7% (benign and 47.5% (malignant. The highest number of cases was epithelial, followed by mixed tumors. The most commonly diagnosed tumors were tubular adenoma, papillary adenoma, tubular carcinoma, papillary carcinoma, solid carcinoma, complex carcinoma and carcinosarcoma. Pure breeds accounted for 80% of submissions, and the Poodle, Cocker Spaniel and German Shepherd were consistently affected. Adult female dogs (9 to 12 years old were most frequently involved, followed by 5- to 8-year-old females. Some association between breeds with histological types of malignant tumors was observed, but no association was found between breeds and BN. Mammary tumors in intact dogs had a high incidence. Benign and malignant tumors had similar frequencies, with an increase in malignant tumors in the past four years of the study. Epithelial tumors were more common, and the most affected were old adult females, purebreds and small-sized dogs. Mammary tumors in dogs are an important animal health problem that needs to be solved by improving veterinary oncology services in Mexico.

  2. Medical Students' Satisfaction and Academic Performance with Problem-Based Learning in Practice-Based Exercises for Epidemiology and Health Demographics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Mejías, E.; Amezcua-Prieto, C.; Martínez-Ruiz, V.; Olvera-Porcel, M. C.; Jiménez-Moleón, J. J.; Lardelli Claret, P.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of problem-based learning (PBL) on university students' satisfaction with and academic performance in a course on epidemiology and social and demographic health. The participants in this interventional study were 529 students (272 in the intervention group and 257 in the control group) enrolled in a…

  3. Cannabis use disorders and brain morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzetti, V.; Cousijn, J.; Preedy, V.R.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) affect 13.1. million individuals worldwide and represent the most vulnerable portion of regular cannabis users. Neuroanatomical alterations in the brain may mediate the adverse outcomes of CUDs. We reviewed findings from 16 structural neuroimaging studies of gray matter

  4. Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer--misbrug og psykose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete; Fink-Jensen, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic...

  5. The dynamics of cannabis use and dependence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Young adults who often smoke cannabis are at higher risk of dependence, but most do not become dependent. This thesis examined the question: Which frequent cannabis users are/become/stay dependent, and seek treatment, and which do not? It was answered with a three-year prospective cohort of 600 youn

  6. Cannabis og cannabinoidreceptorer misbrug og psykose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorthoj, C.; Nordentoft, M.; Fink-Jensen, A.

    2008-01-01

    Abuse of alcohol and drugs often co-occur with psychotic disorders. In this article, we introduce to the reader a number of receptors and neurotransmitter-systems involved in cannabis-abuse. Subsequently, we introduce the connection between abuse - particularly cannabis-abuse - and psychotic...

  7. Cannabis in Europe: Dynamics in perception, policy and markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korf, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    After its re-introduction in the 1960s, cannabis has become the most widely used illicit drug in Europe. Along with the spread of cannabis use, its social meaning has changed over time. Today old paradigms are having renewed appeal, in particular on the subject of cannabis and schizophrenia. Cannabi

  8. Quality of Web-Based Information on Cannabis Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; Chatton, Anne; Cochand, Sophie; Zullino, Daniele

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the quality of Web-based information on cannabis use and addiction and investigated particular content quality indicators. Three keywords ("cannabis addiction," "cannabis dependence," and "cannabis abuse") were entered into two popular World Wide Web search engines. Websites were assessed with a standardized proforma designed…

  9. Epidemiología y problemática médico forense del síndrome de latigazo cervical en España Epidemiology and forensic problems of the whiplash syndrome in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Garamendi

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos una revisión bibliográfica actualizada y centrada en los aspectos epidemiológicos del síndrome de latigazo cervical. En la revisión, se destaca la variedad y diversidad de conclusiones en los estudios publicados en relación tanto con el esguince cervical en su fase aguda (menos de 6 meses de evolución clínica como en su fase crónica (persistencia sintomática más allá de 6 meses de evolución. Finalmente, se apuntan algunos de los problemas que el trastorno produce en la actividad médico forense en España.We present a review of the current literature on the whiplash syndrome focusing on its epidemiological profiles. The review points out the variety and diversity of conclusions in the studies published on the acute whiplash syndrome (less than 6 months of clinical evolution and the chronic syndrome (symptomatic persistence after 6 months. Finally, we enumerate some of the problems the syndrome generates in forensic practise in Spain.

  10. Consumo de cannabis en los estudiantes de secundaria de Barcelona: inicio en el consumo, efectos experimentados y expectativas Cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils of Barcelona [Spain]: initial use, reported effects and expectancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Morales

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Describir las circunstancias del inicio del consumo, las razones para hacerlo, los efectos experimentados y las expectativas relacionadas con el consumo de cannabis en adolescentes de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuesta transversal realizada a una muestra de escolares de 3.º de ESO en 2005. El cuestionario era confidencial y autocumplimentado. Se dispone de datos de 2.043 alumnos de 47 centros escolares de Barcelona. Resultados: El 37,5% de los escolares declaró haber probado el cannabis, de los cuales un 10% lo hizo en el último mes. El consumo fue superior en centros públicos que en concertados-privados (p Objectives: To describe the circumstances of initial use of Cannabis, as well as the reasons for consumption, reported effects and expectations related to cannabis use, among adolescents in Barcelona. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a sample of pupils in the third year of compulsory secondary education in 2005. The questionnaire was confidential and self-completed. Data were gathered from 2,043 secondary school pupils from 47 schools in Barcelona. Results: A total of 37.5% of students reported cannabis consumption at some time, and 10.0% of these students had used cannabis in the previous month. Cannabis use was more common in public schools than in subsidized or private schools (p < 0.001. More than half the adolescents (60.3% smoked cannabis for the first time in parks or on the street. Most (88.4% of the adolescents obtained cannabis from a classmate or friend and 92.3% did so without paying for it. The main reason for initial consumption was curiosity, and reasons for continuing use were a desire to feel better and to forget problems. The most frequently reported effects were memory loss, sadness and difficulties in studying or working. Cannabis use was positively related to the expectation that the drug induces relaxation and aids social and sexual relations, and negatively to the beliefs that the drug can

  11. Study of epidemiological features of health problems in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women in an urban community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjusha K Deotale

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Menopause is said to be universal reproductive phenomenon. Menopause although not a disease is associated with annoying physiological changes and varied symptoms such as hot flushes, night sweats, urinary and genital changes, dyspareunia, insomnia and many psychological dysfunctions such as anxiety, depression, lack of concentration and decreased self-esteem. Every woman's experience of the menopause is unique; she may experience all of the symptoms or none of them. Some find the transition barely noticeable while others find it life altering. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among peri and postmenopausal women aged 40-60 years residing at Government colony, Bandra, Mumbai, Maharashtra for a period of 1-year. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was used for collecting data. A booklet on "care during menopause" was used for giving health education. Results: In this study, mean age at natural menopause was 45.32 years (standard deviation ±2.79. Our study participants reported mostly muscular and joint pain (44.86%, urological symptoms (23.43%, vasomotor symptoms (21.14%, vulvovaginal symptoms (19.43%, psychological symptoms (15.14%, weight gain (14.86%, psychosexual symptoms (11.43% and hirsutism (1.43%. Conclusions: There is a necessity of a multidisciplinary approach to the problems of menopause with more stress on promotive and preventive interventions. There should be provision of relevant health services, health education and promotional activities to cope up with the health needs of women in their postmenopausal years.

  12. Cannabis arteritis: ever more important to consider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Rui Pedro; Resende, Cristina Isabel Pinho; Vieira, Ana Paula; Brito, Celeste

    2017-03-13

    Cannabis arteritis (CA) is a major and underdiagnosed cause of peripheral arterial disease in young patients. A 34-year-old man, daily smoker of 20 cigarettes and two cannabis cigarettes for 14 years, presented with a necrotic plaque of left hallux for 3 weeks. The Doppler ultrasound and angiography were compatible with severe Buerger's disease. Submitted to a revascularisation procedure and hypocoagulation with rivaroxaban. He had ceased smoking but maintained consumption of cannabis. Owing to the persistence of distal necrosis, amputation of the hallux was performed with good evolution. CA is a subtype of Buerger's disease. It is poorly known but increasingly prevalent and manifests in cannabis users regardless of tobacco use. The drug is considered at least a cofactor of the arteriopathy. The most effective treatment is cessation of consumption. Being cannabis one of the most consumed drugs, its mandatory to ask about its use in all young patients with arteriopathy.

  13. [Eco-epidemiology: towards epidemiology of complexity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizouarn, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    In order to solve public health problems posed by the epidemiology of risk factors centered on the individual and neglecting the causal processes linking the risk factors with the health outcomes, Mervyn Susser proposed a multilevel epidemiology called eco-epidemiology, addressing the interdependence of individuals and their connection with molecular, individual, societal, environmental levels of organization participating in the causal disease processes. The aim of this epidemiology is to integrate more than a level of organization in design, analysis and interpretation of health problems. After presenting the main criticisms of risk-factor epidemiology focused on the individual, we will try to show how eco-epidemiology and its development could help to understand the need for a broader and integrative epidemiology, in which studies designed to identify risk factors would be balanced by studies designed to answer other questions equally vital to public health.

  14. Cannabis and neuropsychiatry, 1: benefits and risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Chittaranjan

    2016-05-01

    Cannabis is popularly believed to be a relatively benign substance. Cannabis is also considered to have potential medical benefits, and medical marijuana has been legislated in many parts of the world. However, a recent meta-analysis found that cannabinoids were associated with only modest benefits for chemotherapy-related nausea and vomiting, small and inconsistent benefits for pain and spasticity, and inconclusive benefits for other indications such as improvement of appetite and weight, reduction in tic severity, and improvement of mood or sleep. On the flip side, cannabinoids and cannabis have acute and long-term adverse effects. In randomized controlled trials, cannabinoids increase the risk of total adverse events, serious adverse events, and dropout due to adverse events. Cannabis impairs cognition, and driving after cannabis use is associated with an increased risk of traffic accidents, including fatal accidents. Long-term cannabis use may lead to dependence, respiratory conditions, psychosis, and possibly cancer, as well. Cannabis use during pregnancy may compromise certain pregnancy outcomes such as fetal growth, and use during adolescence may compromise neurodevelopment, social adjustment, and vocational success. The composition and bioavailability of cannabis vary across preparations of the substance and routes of administration; this limits the ability to generalize the findings of studies. The findings of older research may no longer apply to current strains of cannabis that are higher in psychotogenic content. It is important for medical professionals and the lay public to understand the limitations of the efficacy data and the seriousness of the risks associated with cannabis use in medical and recreational contexts.

  15. Gone to Pot - A Review of the Association between Cannabis and Psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajiv eRadhakrishnan

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide, with approximately 5 million daily users worldwide. Emerging evidence supports a number of associations between cannabis and psychosis/psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia. These associations based on case-studies, surveys, epidemiological studies, and experimental studies indicate that cannabinoids can produce acute, transient effects; acute, persistent effects as well as delayed, persistent effects that recapitulate the psychopathology and psychophysiology seen in psychotic illness such as schizophrenia. Acute exposure to both cannabis and synthetic cannabinoids (Spice/ K2 can produce a full range of transient psychotomimetic symptoms, cognitive deficits, and psychophysiological abnormalities that bear a striking resemblance to symptoms of schizophrenia. In individuals with an established psychotic disorder, cannabinoids can exacerbate symptoms, trigger relapse, and have negative consequences on the course of the illness. Several factors appear to moderate these associations, including family history, genetic factors, history of childhood abuse, and the age at onset of cannabis use. Exposure to cannabinoids in adolescence confers a higher risk for psychosis outcomes in later life and the risk is dose-related. Individuals with polymorphisms of COMT and AKT1 genes may be at increased risk for psychotic disorders in association with cannabinoids, as are individuals with a family history of psychotic disorders or a history of childhood trauma. The relationship between cannabis and schizophrenia fulfills many but not all of the standard criteria for causality, including temporality, biological gradient, biological plausibility, experimental evidence, consistency, and coherence. At the present time, the evidence indicates that cannabis may be a component cause in the emergence of psychosis, and warrants serious consideration from the point of view of public health policy.

  16. Naltrexone Maintenance Decreases Cannabis Self-Administration and Subjective Effects in Daily Cannabis Smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haney, Margaret; Ramesh, Divya; Glass, Andrew; Pavlicova, Martina; Bedi, Gillinder; Cooper, Ziva D

    2015-10-01

    Given that cannabis use is increasing in the United States, pharmacological treatment options to treat cannabis use disorder are needed. Opioid antagonists modulate cannabinoid effects and may offer a potential approach to reducing cannabis use. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study, we assessed the effects of naltrexone maintenance on the reinforcing, subjective, psychomotor, and cardiovascular effects of active and inactive cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking, daily cannabis smokers were randomized to receive naltrexone (50 mg: n=18 M and 5 F) or placebo (0 mg; n=26 M and 2 F) capsules for 16 days. Before, during, and after medication maintenance, participants completed 10 laboratory sessions over 4-6 weeks, assessing cannabis' behavioral and cardiovascular effects. Medication compliance was verified by observed capsule administration, plasma naltrexone, and urinary riboflavin. Relative to placebo, maintenance on naltrexone significantly reduced both active cannabis self-administration and its positive subjective effects ('good effect'). Participants in the placebo group had 7.6 times (95% CI: 1.1-51.8) the odds of self-administering active cannabis compared with the naltrexone group. This attenuation of reinforcing and positive subjective effects also influenced cannabis use in the natural ecology. Naltrexone had intrinsic effects: decreasing ratings of friendliness, food intake, and systolic blood pressure, and increasing spontaneous reports of stomach upset and headache, yet dropout rates were comparable between groups. In summary, we show for the first time that maintenance on naltrexone decreased cannabis self-administration and ratings of 'good effect' in nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers. Clinical studies in patients motivated to reduce their cannabis use are warranted to evaluate naltrexone's efficacy as a treatment for cannabis use disorder.

  17. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical cannabis displays herbal synergy of its components, pharmacokinetics of cannabis and dose titration, whether cannabis medicines produce cyclo-oxygenase inhibition, cannabis-drug interactions, and cytochrome P450 issues, whether cannabis randomized clinical trials are properly blinded, combatting the placebo effect in those trials via new approaches, the drug abuse liability (DAL) of cannabis-based medicines and their regulatory scheduling, their effects on cognitive function and psychiatric sequelae, immunological effects, cannabis and driving safety, youth usage, issues related to cannabis smoking and vaporization, cannabis concentrates and vape-pens, and laboratory analysis for contamination with bacteria and heavy metals. Finally, the issue of pesticide usage on cannabis crops is addressed. New and disturbing data on pesticide residues in legal cannabis products in Washington State are presented with the observation of an 84.6% contamination rate including potentially neurotoxic and carcinogenic agents. With ongoing developments in legalization of cannabis in medical and recreational settings, numerous scientific, safety, and public health issues remain. PMID:27683558

  18. Health aspects of cannabis: revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollister, Leo E.

    1998-07-01

    Literature pertaining to the effects of cannabis use and health which has been published during the past 11 years has been reviewed. Many older concerns about adverse effects on health (chromosomal damage, 'cannabinol psychosis', endocrine abnormalities, cardiac events, impaired immunity) no longer seem to elicit much interest. Continuing concerns about the adverse cognitive effects of chronic use indicate that these can be demonstrated by proper testing; some studies suggest that they may be long-lasting. Although cannabis does not produce a specific psychosis, the possibility exists that it may exacerbate schizophrenia in persons predisposed to that disorder. However, evidence from retrospective surveys must always be questioned. Tolerance and dependence have occurred in man, confirming previous findings in many other species. Addiction tends to be mild and is probably less severe than with other social drugs. Driving under the influence of cannabis is impaired acutely; how long such impairments last is still unknown. More exacting tasks, such as flying an airplane, may be impaired for as long as 24 hours. While there is no doubt that marijuana smoke contains carcinogens, an increase in cancer among users has thus far been anecdotal. Because of the long latent period between cancer induction and initiation of cigarette smoking, the full story is yet to be told. Marijuana use during pregnancy is not advised although the consequences are usually not greater than those of smoking cigarettes, and far less than those from alcohol use. Whether smoked marijuana should become a therapeutic agent requires a cost-benefit analysis of the potential benefits versus the adverse effects of such use as we now know them.

  19. Development and application of a LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of plasma bioavailabilities of different cannabinoids after the administration of "Cannabis sativa L." extracts and MarinolTM

    OpenAIRE

    Grauwiler, Sandra Béatrice

    2008-01-01

    A lively interest in the cannabis plant can be verified for a long time. As a drug in the traditional medicine, different pieces of the cannabis plant were used against a palette of diseases such as pain (head- and stomach-ache), menstrual problems and diarrhoea. Further, it was used as a sedative and to induce sleep [1]. At the beginning of the 20th century, a scientific interest for cannabis has emerged. Research was done to detect the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effe...

  20. Assessing Topographical Orientation Skills in Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Liana; Bianchini, Filippo; Iaria, Giuseppe; Tanzilli, Antonio; Guariglia, Cecilia

    2012-01-01

    The long-term effects of cannabis on human cognition are still unclear, but, considering that cannabis is a widely used substance and, overall, its potential use in therapeutic interventions, it is important to evaluate them. We hypothesize that the discrepancies among studies could be attributed to the specific cognitive function investigated and that skills subserved by the hippocampus, such as the spatial orientation abilities and, specifically, the ability to form and use cognitive maps, should be more compromised than others. Indeed it has been showed that cannabis users have a reduced hippocampus and that the hippocampus is the brain region in which cannabis has the greatest effect since it contains the highest concentration of cannabinoid receptors. To test this hypothesis we asked 15 heavy cannabis users and 19 nonusers to perform a virtual navigational test, the CMT, that assesses the ability to form and use cognitive maps. We found that using cannabis has no effect on these hippocampus-dependent orientation skills. We discuss the implications of our findings and how they relate to evidence reported in the literature that the intervention of functional reorganization mechanisms in cannabis user allows them to cope with the cognitive demands of navigational tasks. PMID:22272167

  1. Integrating cannabis into clinical cancer care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, D I

    2016-03-01

    Cannabis species have been used as medicine for thousands of years; only since the 1940s has the plant not been widely available for medical use. However, an increasing number of jurisdictions are making it possible for patients to obtain the botanical for medicinal use. For the cancer patient, cannabis has a number of potential benefits, especially in the management of symptoms. Cannabis is useful in combatting anorexia, chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting, pain, insomnia, and depression. Cannabis might be less potent than other available antiemetics, but for some patients, it is the only agent that works, and it is the only antiemetic that also increases appetite. Inhaled cannabis is more effective than placebo in ameliorating peripheral neuropathy in a number of conditions, and it could prove useful in chemotherapy-induced neuropathy. A pharmacokinetic interaction study of vaporized cannabis in patients with chronic pain on stable doses of sustained-release opioids demonstrated no clinically significant change in plasma opiates, while suggesting the possibility of synergistic analgesia. Aside from symptom management, an increasing body of in vitro and animal-model studies supports a possible direct anticancer effect of cannabinoids by way of a number of different mechanisms involving apoptosis, angiogenesis, and inhibition of metastasis. Despite an absence of clinical trials, abundant anecdotal reports that describe patients having remarkable responses to cannabis as an anticancer agent, especially when taken as a high-potency orally ingested concentrate, are circulating. Human studies should be conducted to address critical questions related to the foregoing effects.

  2. Cannabis: A Treasure Trove or Pandora's Box?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solymosi, Katalin; Köfalvi, Attila

    2016-10-04

    Cannabis is one of the earliest cultivated plants. Cannabis of industrial utility and culinary value is generally termed as hemp. Conversely, cannabis that is bred for medical, spiritual and recreational purposes is called marijuana. The female marijuana plant produces a significant quantity of bio- and psychoactive phytocannabinoids, which regained the spotlight with the discovery of the endocannabinoid system of the animals in the early 90's. Nevertheless, marijuana is surrounded by controversies, debates and misconceptions related to its taxonomic classification, forensic identification, medical potential, legalization and its long-term health consequences. In the first part, we provide an in-depth review of the botany and taxonomy of Cannabis. We then overview the biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids within the glandular trichomes with emphasis on the role of peculiar plastids in the production of the secreted material. We also compile the analytical methods used to determine the phytocannabinoid composition of glandular trichomes. In the second part, we revisit the psychobiology and molecular medicine of marijuana. We summarize our current knowledge on the recreational use of cannabis with respect to the modes of consumption, short-term effects, chronic health consequences and cannabis use disorder. Next, we overview the molecular targets of a dozen major and minor bioactive cannabinoids in the body. This helps us introduce the endocannabinoid system in an unprecedented detail: its up-to-date molecular biology, pharmacology, physiology and medical significance, and beyond. In conclusion, we offer an unbiased survey about cannabis to help better weigh its medical value versus the associated risks.

  3. Cannabis Cue Reactivity and Craving Among Never, Infrequent and Heavy Cannabis Users

    OpenAIRE

    Henry, Erika A.; Kaye, Jesse. T.; Bryan, Angela D.; Hutchison, Kent E.; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2013-01-01

    Substance cue reactivity is theorized as having a significant role in addiction processes, promoting compulsive patterns of drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior. However, research extending this phenomenon to cannabis has been limited. To that end, the goal of the current work was to examine the relationship between cannabis cue reactivity and craving in a sample of 353 participants varying in self-reported cannabis use. Participants completed a visual oddball task whereby neutral, exercise,...

  4. Analysis of Cannabis Seizures in NSW, Australia: Cannabis Potency and Cannabinoid Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Wendy Swift; Alex Wong; Li, Kong M.; Arnold, Jonathon C.; McGregor, Iain S.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD). Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous...

  5. Quality and Yield of Cannabis Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastorp, Grith; Lindholst, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. 180 seizures containing 667 different samples of cannabis products from 5 police districts in Jutland were examined from 2008 to the present. The samples were divided into the groups: hashish, marihuana (leaves and buds) and whole plants (indoors and outdoors). Cannabis seized from indoor...... cultivation was examined in order to determine THC content and yield. The results are used by the Danish Police Attorney to estimate expected yields in cases with unripe cannabis plants. The results indicate that the THC content found in locally grown marihuana is slightly higher than in hashish. However...

  6. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  7. Dependent cannabis users at a music festival - prevalence and correlates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    Background In most western countries, the most prevalent type of illicit substance-use dependence in most is cannabis dependence. Historically, cannabis has been associated with several music genres, and the drug is widely used at music festivals. Methods Based on a survey of 380 music festival...... guests, we estimated the prevalence of cannabis dependence, as defined by a score of 3 or more on the Severity of Dependence Scale, as well as festival goers' use of cannabis during the past year. Results 143 (38%) reported having used cannabis within the past year (past year cannabis users......), and of these respondents, 21 (15%) screened positive for cannabis dependence. Compared to non-dependent cannabis users, the cannabis dependent respondents were more likely to be daily smokers, they reported having attended fewer music festivals during their lifetime, and they scored higher on self-reported sensation...

  8. [Legalization of cannabis: between political irresponsibility and loss of responsibility of psychiatrists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Iannitelli, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In Italy a political parliamentary majority, recognized by all the press as "cross party", is going to approve the law that will legalize the use of cannabis. As diversified in different Countries, it is a phenomenon which affects substantially homogeneous many European nations, as well as several states of the USA and other Countries of the world. The authors, after listing the main harmful effects of cannabis, especially in young people, on cognitive functions and on the onset of several psychotic disorders, express the need for reflection by the mental health experts on a problem of extreme relevance and urgency care.

  9. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ko, Gordon D.; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive...

  10. Significance of cannabis use to dental practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, William James

    2011-04-01

    The illicit use of the three main forms of cannabis-marijuana, hash, hash oil-pose certain obstacles and challenges to the dental professional. There are a number of systemic, as well as oral/head and neck manifestations, associated with cannabis use. Dentists need to be aware of these manifestations in order to take whatever precautions and/or modifications to the proposed treatment that might be necessary.

  11. 20. Integrating Cannabis Into Clinical Care

    OpenAIRE

    Abrams, Donald

    2013-01-01

    Focus Areas: Integrative Approaches to Care, Mental Health, Alleviating Pain Cannabis is now available to patients as a medicine in 18 states and the District of Columbia. Unfortunately, due to the long-standing prohibition, most providers have little information regarding the medicinal use of this versatile botanical. The history of cannabis as medicine will be reviewed. This presentation will summarize the main components of the plant and their pharmacologic effects, highlighting the entour...

  12. Is the Party Over? Cannabis and Juvenile Psychiatric Disorder: The Past 10 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Joseph M.; Martin, Andres; Krabman, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To critically review cannabis research during the past 10 years in relation to rates of use, behavioral problems, and mental disorders in young people. Method: Studies published in English between 1994 and 2004 were identified through systematic searches of literature databases. The material was selectively reviewed focusing on child…

  13. Role of cannabis in psychiatric disturbance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, F

    1976-01-01

    Clinical observation suggests that cannabis is implicated in some types of psychiatric disturbance. A record of admissions to two urban and four rural hospitals in Jamaica is examined along with details of individual cases. One-third of male admissions to the psychiatric hospital have used cannabis. Of 74 males admitted to another psychiatric service over a 12-month period, 29 had used cannabis. Ten of these patients were diagnosed as "ganja psychosis," and four others were classified as "marijuana-modified mania." At another psychiatric service, 54 of 223 admissions (24.2%) for functional psychosis presented with cannabis usage as a comtributory factor. These 54 patients included 14 and seven cases of hypomanic and depressive reactions, respectively. At three other rural general hospitals, psychiatric admissions for psychosis showed 11 of 51, seven of 18, and 39 of 75 patients, respectively, in whom cannabis was considered directly responsible. These findings lend support to the idea of causation of illness or modification of existing illness. The negative findings of controlled studies in the same country are not inconsistent. A suggested classification for adverse reactions to cannabis offered by one author is recommended, because it is in accord with common local clinical experience.

  14. Early Versus Late Onset of Cannabis Use: Differences in Striatal Response to Cannabis Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetherill, Reagan R.; Hager, Nathan; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Mashhoon, Yasmin; Pater, Heather; Childress, Anna Rose; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2017-01-01

    Addiction theories posit that addiction is the result of a progressive transition from voluntary to habitual, compulsive drug use—changes that have been linked, in animals, to a shift from ventral to dorsal striatal control over drug-seeking behavior. Thus, we hypothesized that early-onset (EOs) cannabis users versus late-onset (LOs) cannabis users might exhibit, respectively, greater dorsal versus ventral striatal response to drug cues. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and an event-related blood oxygen level-dependent backward-masking task to evaluate striatal responses to backward-masked cannabis cues (vs. neutral cues) in EOs (cannabis use patterns. Direct comparisons revealed that EOs showed greater response to cannabis cues in the dorsal striatum than LOs (p 50 voxels). Within-group analyses revealed that EOs showed greater neural response to cannabis cues in the dorsal striatum, whereas LOs exhibited greater neural response to cannabis cues in the ventral striatum. Although cross-sectional, these findings are consistent with recent addiction theories suggesting a progressive shift from ventral to dorsal striatal control over drug-seeking behavior and highlight the importance of age of onset of cannabis use on the brain and cognition.

  15. Reasons for Cannabis Use and Effects of Cannabis Use as Reported by Patients with Psychotic Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Dekker; D.H. Linszen; L. de Haan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is one of the most commonly used substances in patients with a psychotic disorder and is associated with a higher risk of psychotic relapses. Identifying reasons for cannabis use and subjective effects in patients with psychotic disorders can provide insight into the functions o

  16. Cannabis Reclassification: What Is the Message to the Next Generation of Cannabis Users?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrystal, Patrick; Winning, Kerry

    2009-01-01

    At the beginning of 2004 the UK government downgraded the legal status of cannabis from a Class B to a Class C drug. Following a review of this decision two years later, cannabis remained a Class C substance--which for some contrasted with the potential harmful social and health effects associated with its use, particularly for young people. These…

  17. Predicting the transition from frequent cannabis use to cannabis dependence: a three-year prospective study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Frequent cannabis users are at high risk of dependence, still most (near) daily users are not dependent. It is unknown why some frequent users develop dependence, whereas others do not. This study aims to identify predictors of first-incidence DSM-IV cannabis dependence in frequent cannab

  18. Limitations to the Dutch cannabis toleration policy: Assumptions underlying the reclassification of cannabis above 15% THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Laar, Margriet; Van Der Pol, Peggy; Niesink, Raymond

    2016-08-01

    The Netherlands has seen an increase in Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations from approximately 8% in the 1990s up to 20% in 2004. Increased cannabis potency may lead to higher THC-exposure and cannabis related harm. The Dutch government officially condones the sale of cannabis from so called 'coffee shops', and the Opium Act distinguishes cannabis as a Schedule II drug with 'acceptable risk' from other drugs with 'unacceptable risk' (Schedule I). Even in 1976, however, cannabis potency was taken into account by distinguishing hemp oil as a Schedule I drug. In 2011, an advisory committee recommended tightening up legislation, leading to a 2013 bill proposing the reclassification of high potency cannabis products with a THC content of 15% or more as a Schedule I drug. The purpose of this measure was twofold: to reduce public health risks and to reduce illegal cultivation and export of cannabis by increasing punishment. This paper focuses on the public health aspects and describes the (explicit and implicit) assumptions underlying this '15% THC measure', as well as to what extent these are supported by scientific research. Based on scientific literature and other sources of information, we conclude that the 15% measure can provide in theory a slight health benefit for specific groups of cannabis users (i.e., frequent users preferring strong cannabis, purchasing from coffee shops, using 'steady quantities' and not changing their smoking behaviour), but certainly not for all cannabis users. These gains should be weighed against the investment in enforcement and the risk of unintended (adverse) effects. Given the many assumptions and uncertainty about the nature and extent of the expected buying and smoking behaviour changes, the measure is a political choice and based on thin evidence.

  19. Medicinal Use of Cannabis: History and Current Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Kalant

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To provide an overview of the history and pharmacology of cannabis in relation to current scientific knowledge concerning actual and potential therapeutic uses of cannabis preparations and pure cannabinoids.

  20. Thinking high: the impact of cannabis on human cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Kowal, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focused on the effects of cannabis on mental functions and the brain. Specifically, the investigation aimed at exploring how cannabis affects creative thinking, awareness of errors, and the neurotransmitter dopamine among regular cannabis users. It was discovered that cannabis does not improve creativity and that it can decrease error awareness and impair dopaminergic functioning. Consequently, these findings allow for a better understanding of the nature...

  1. Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Lidia Kotuła; Paulina Sobstyl; Jan Sobstyl; Paulina Chwil; Karol Terlecki; Jolanta Karwat; Paulina Gil-Kulik; Alicja Niedojadło; Janusz Kocki

    2014-01-01

    Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 an...

  2. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Dillon Paul; Gates Peter; Swift Wendy

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone a...

  3. Mull it over: cannabis vaporizers and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gartner, Coral E

    2015-11-01

    Legalization of cannabis is likely to lead to greater use. Balanced regulation of potentially less harmful modes of administration, such as vaporizers, is needed. Further research is warranted not only on the direct health effects of vaping cannabis, but also on its potential to decrease co-administration of tobacco with cannabis.

  4. Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

  5. Thinking high : the impact of cannabis on human cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowal, M.A.

    2016-01-01

    The research presented in this thesis focused on the effects of cannabis on mental functions and the brain. Specifically, the investigation aimed at exploring how cannabis affects creative thinking, awareness of errors, and the neurotransmitter dopamine among regular cannabis users. It was discovere

  6. The Long and Winding Road to Cannabis Legalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    In almost all countries supply, distribution and use of cannabis is prohibited. Nevertheless, cannabis is the most popular illicit drug. Prohibition does not seem to work. The debate on legalization of cannabis is often emotional with strong views of both proponents and opponents but ignorance preva

  7. Cannabis, Cocaine and the Wages of Prime Age Males

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ours, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper uses a dataset collected among inhabitants of Amsterdam, to study whether wages of prime age male workers are affected by the use of cannabis and cocaine.The analysis shows that cocaine use and infrequent cannabis use do not affect wages.Frequent cannabis use has a negative wage effect.Th

  8. E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Giroud

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs has given cannabis smokers a new method of inhaling cannabinoids. E-cigs differ from traditional marijuana cigarettes in several respects. First, it is assumed that vaporizing cannabinoids at lower temperatures is safer because it produces smaller amounts of toxic substances than the hot combustion of a marijuana cigarette. Recreational cannabis users can discretely “vape” deodorized cannabis extracts with minimal annoyance to the people around them and less chance of detection. There are nevertheless several drawbacks worth mentioning: although manufacturing commercial (or homemade cannabinoid-enriched electronic liquids (e-liquids requires lengthy, complex processing, some are readily on the Internet despite their lack of quality control, expiry date, and conditions of preservation and, above all, any toxicological and clinical assessment. Besides these safety problems, the regulatory situation surrounding e-liquids is often unclear. More simply ground cannabis flowering heads or concentrated, oily THC extracts (such as butane honey oil or BHO can be vaped in specially designed, pen-sized marijuana vaporizers. Analysis of a commercial e-liquid rich in cannabidiol showed that it contained a smaller dose of active ingredient than advertised; testing our laboratory-made, purified BHO, however, confirmed that it could be vaped in an e-cig to deliver a psychoactive dose of THC. The health consequences specific to vaping these cannabis preparations remain largely unknown and speculative due to the absence of comprehensive, robust scientific studies. The most significant health concerns involve the vaping of cannabinoids by children and teenagers. E-cigs could provide an alternative gateway to cannabis use for young people. Furthermore, vaping cannabinoids could lead to environmental and passive contamination.

  9. E-Cigarettes: A Review of New Trends in Cannabis Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giroud, Christian; de Cesare, Mariangela; Berthet, Aurélie; Varlet, Vincent; Concha-Lozano, Nicolas; Favrat, Bernard

    2015-08-21

    The emergence of electronic cigarettes (e-cigs) has given cannabis smokers a new method of inhaling cannabinoids. E-cigs differ from traditional marijuana cigarettes in several respects. First, it is assumed that vaporizing cannabinoids at lower temperatures is safer because it produces smaller amounts of toxic substances than the hot combustion of a marijuana cigarette. Recreational cannabis users can discretely "vape" deodorized cannabis extracts with minimal annoyance to the people around them and less chance of detection. There are nevertheless several drawbacks worth mentioning: although manufacturing commercial (or homemade) cannabinoid-enriched electronic liquids (e-liquids) requires lengthy, complex processing, some are readily on the Internet despite their lack of quality control, expiry date, and conditions of preservation and, above all, any toxicological and clinical assessment. Besides these safety problems, the regulatory situation surrounding e-liquids is often unclear. More simply ground cannabis flowering heads or concentrated, oily THC extracts (such as butane honey oil or BHO) can be vaped in specially designed, pen-sized marijuana vaporizers. Analysis of a commercial e-liquid rich in cannabidiol showed that it contained a smaller dose of active ingredient than advertised; testing our laboratory-made, purified BHO, however, confirmed that it could be vaped in an e-cig to deliver a psychoactive dose of THC. The health consequences specific to vaping these cannabis preparations remain largely unknown and speculative due to the absence of comprehensive, robust scientific studies. The most significant health concerns involve the vaping of cannabinoids by children and teenagers. E-cigs could provide an alternative gateway to cannabis use for young people. Furthermore, vaping cannabinoids could lead to environmental and passive contamination.

  10. Genome-wide association study of lifetime cannabis use based on a large meta-analytic sample of 32 330 subjects from the International Cannabis Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, S; Minică, C C; Verweij, K J H; Mbarek, H; Bernard, M; Derringer, J; van Eijk, K R; Isen, J D; Loukola, A; Maciejewski, Dominique F.; Mihailov, E; van der Most, P J; Sánchez-Mora, C; Roos, L; Sherva, R; Walters, R; Ware, J J; Abdellaoui, A; Bigdeli, T B; Branje, S J T; Brown, S A; Bruinenberg, M; Casas, M; Esko, T; Garcia-Martinez, I; Gordon, S D; Harris, J M; Hartman, C A; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Hickie, I B; Hickman, M; Hopfer, C J; Hottenga, J J; Huizink, A C; Irons, D E; Kahn, R S; Korhonen, T; Kranzler, H R; Krauter, K; van Lier, P A C; Lubke, G H; Madden, P A F; Mägi, R; McGue, M K; Medland, S E; Meeus, W H J; Miller, M B; Montgomery, G W; Nivard, M G; Nolte, I M; Oldehinkel, A J; Pausova, Z; Qaiser, B; Quaye, L; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Richarte, V; Rose, R J; Shin, J; Stallings, M C; Stiby, A I; Wall, T L; Wright, M J; Koot, H M; Paus, T; Hewitt, J K; Ribasés, M; Kaprio, J; Boks, M P; Snieder, H; Spector, T; Munafò, M R; Metspalu, A; Gelernter, J; Boomsma, D I; Iacono, W G; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Derks, E M; Vink, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely produced and consumed illicit psychoactive substance worldwide. Occasional cannabis use can progress to frequent use, abuse and dependence with all known adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Individual differences in cannabis initiation are heritable (

  11. Genome-wide association study of lifetime cannabis use based on a large meta-analytic sample of 32330 subjects from the International Cannabis Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stringer, S.; Minica, C. C.; Verweij, K. J. H.; Mbarek, H.; Bernard, M.; Derringer, J.; van Eijk, K. R.; Isen, J. D.; Loukola, A.; Maciejewski, D. F.; Mihailov, E.; van der Most, P. J.; Sanchez-Mora, C.; Roos, L.; Sherva, R.; Walters, R.; Ware, J. J.; Abdellaoui, A.; Bigdeli, T. B.; Branje, S. J. T.; Brown, S. A.; Bruinenberg, M.; Casas, M.; Esko, T.; Garcia-Martinez, I.; Gordon, S. D.; Harris, J. M.; Hartman, C. A.; Henders, A. K.; Heath, A. C.; Hickie, I. B.; Hickman, M.; Hopfer, C. J.; Hottenga, J. J.; Huizink, A. C.; Irons, D. E.; Kahn, R. S.; Korhonen, T.; Kranzler, H. R.; Krauter, K.; van Lier, P. A. C.; Lubke, G. H.; Madden, P. A. F.; Magi, R.; McGue, M. K.; Medland, S. E.; Meeus, W. H. J.; Miller, M. B.; Montgomery, G. W.; Nivard, M. G.; Nolte, I. M.; Oldehinkel, A. J.; Pausova, Z.; Qaiser, B.; Quaye, L.; Ramos-Quiroga, J. A.; Richarte, V.; Rose, R. J.; Shin, J.; Stallings, M. C.; Stiby, A. I.; Wall, T. L.; Wright, M. J.; Koot, H. M.; Paus, T.; Hewitt, J. K.; Ribases, M.; Kaprio, J.; Boks, M. P.; Snieder, H.; Spector, T.; Munafo, M. R.; Metspalu, A.; Gelernter, J.; Boomsma, D. I.; Iacono, W. G.; Martin, N. G.; Gillespie, N. A.; Derks, E. M.; Vink, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely produced and consumed illicit psychoactive substance worldwide. Occasional cannabis use can progress to frequent use, abuse and dependence with all known adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Individual differences in cannabis initiation are heritable (

  12. Cannabis tea revisited: a systematic evaluation of the cannabinoid composition of cannabis tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno; Bastola, Krishna; Rashidi, Hassan; Bender, Johan; Verpoorte, Rob

    2007-08-15

    Cannabis is one of the oldest known medicinal plants, and a large variety of biological activities have been described. The main constituents, the cannabinoids, are thought to be most important for these activities. Although smoking of cannabis is by far the most common way of consumption, a significant part of medicinal users consume it in the form of a tea. However, not much is known about the composition of cannabis tea, or the effect of different parameters during preparation, handling or storage. In this study we used the high-grade cannabis available in Dutch pharmacies to study the cannabinoid composition of tea under standardized and quantitative conditions. Experimental conditions were systematically varied in order to mimic the possible variations made by medicinal users. During analysis there was a specific focus on the cannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol and its acidic precursor, tetrahydrocannabinolic acid. Also the role of non-psychoactive cannabinoids as components of cannabis tea are discussed. The results obtained in this study provide a clear quantitative insight in the phytochemistry of cannabis tea preparation and can contribute to a better appreciation of this mode of cannabis administration.

  13. [Medical cannabis: the opportunity versus the temptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naftali, Timna

    2011-12-01

    The cannabis plant has been known to humanity for centuries as a remedy for pain, diarrhea, and inflammation. Current research has shown cannabis to be a useful remedy for many diseases, including multiple sclerosis, dystonia, and chronic pain. Cannabinoids are used to improve food intake in anorexia of AIDS patients and to prevent vomiting due to cancer chemotherapy. In inflammatory conditions cannabinoids improve pain in rheumatoid arthritis and pain and diarrhea in Crohn's disease. Cannabinoids reduce the size of brain infarct and cardiac reperfusion injury. However, cannabinoid treatment is not free of side effects including euphoria, psychosis, anxiety, paranoia, dependence and abuse. Since the cannabinoid system is involved in many physiological and pathological processes, the therapeutic potential is great. We must not be blind to the opportunity offered to us by medical cannabis just because it is an illicit drug, nor should we be temped by the quick response of patients to the central effect of cannabis. More research is warranted to explore the full potential of cannabis as medicine.

  14. Analysis of cannabis seizures in NSW, Australia: cannabis potency and cannabinoid profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Swift

    Full Text Available Recent analysis of the cannabinoid content of cannabis plants suggests a shift towards use of high potency plant material with high levels of Δ(9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC and low levels of other phytocannabinoids, particularly cannabidiol (CBD. Use of this type of cannabis is thought by some to predispose to greater adverse outcomes on mental health and fewer therapeutic benefits. Australia has one of the highest per capita rates of cannabis use in the world yet there has been no previous systematic analysis of the cannabis being used. In the present study we examined the cannabinoid content of 206 cannabis samples that had been confiscated by police from recreational users holding 15 g of cannabis or less, under the New South Wales "Cannabis Cautioning" scheme. A further 26 "Known Provenance" samples were analysed that had been seized by police from larger indoor or outdoor cultivation sites rather than from street level users. An HPLC method was used to determine the content of 9 cannabinoids: THC, CBD, cannabigerol (CBG, and their plant-based carboxylic acid precursors THC-A, CBD-A and CBG-A, as well as cannabichromene (CBC, cannabinol (CBN and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THC-V. The "Cannabis Cautioning" samples showed high mean THC content (THC+THC-A = 14.88% and low mean CBD content (CBD+CBD-A = 0.14%. A modest level of CBG was detected (CBG+CBG-A = 1.18% and very low levels of CBC, CBN and THC-V (<0.1%. "Known Provenance" samples showed no significant differences in THC content between those seized from indoor versus outdoor cultivation sites. The present analysis echoes trends reported in other countries towards the use of high potency cannabis with very low CBD content. The implications for public health outcomes and harm reduction strategies are discussed.

  15. Long term marijuana users seeking medical cannabis in California (2001–2007: demographics, social characteristics, patterns of cannabis and other drug use of 4117 applicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bou-Matar Ché B

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis (marijuana had been used for medicinal purposes for millennia. Cannabinoid agonists are now attracting growing interest and there is also evidence that botanical cannabis is being used as self-medication for stress and anxiety as well as adjunctive therapy by the seriously ill and by patients with terminal illnesses. California became the first state to authorize medicinal use of cannabis in 1996, and it was recently estimated that between 250,000 and 350,000 Californians may now possess the physician's recommendation required to use it medically. More limited medical use has also been approved in 12 additional states and new initiatives are being considered in others. Despite that evidence of increasing public acceptance of "medical" use, a definitional problem remains and all use for any purpose is still prohibited by federal law. Results California's 1996 initiative allowed cannabis to be recommended, not only for serious illnesses, but also "for any other illness for which marijuana provides relief," thus maximally broadening the range of allowable indications. In effect, the range of conditions now being treated with federally illegal cannabis, the modes in which it is being used, and the demographics of the population using it became potentially discoverable through the required screening of applicants. This report examines the demographic profiles and other selected characteristics of 4117 California marijuana users (62% from the Greater Bay Area who applied for medical recommendations between late 2001 and mid 2007. Conclusion This study yielded a somewhat unexpected profile of a hitherto hidden population of users of America's most popular illegal drug. It also raises questions about some of the basic assumptions held by both proponents and opponents of current policy.

  16. Cannabis depenalisation, drug consumption and crime - evidence from the 2004 cannabis declassification in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braakmann, Nils; Jones, Simon

    2014-08-01

    This paper investigates the link between cannabis depenalisation and crime using individual-level panel data for England and Wales from 2003 to 2006. We exploit the declassification of cannabis in the UK in 2004 as a natural experiment. Specifically, we use the fact that the declassification changed expected punishments differently in various age groups due to thresholds in British criminal law and employ a difference-in-differences type design using data from the longitudinal version of the Offending, Crime and Justice Survey. Our findings suggest essentially no increases in either cannabis consumption, consumption of other drugs, crime and other forms of risky behaviour.

  17. Decriminalization of cannabis--potential risks for children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amirav, Israel; Luder, Anthony; Viner, Yuri; Finkel, Martin

    2011-04-01

    The legalization of cannabis for medicinal purposes is becoming increasingly widespread worldwide. The anticipated growing ease of access to cannabis may create an increased risk for passive and/or active ingestion by children. We report a case of a 1.5-year-old infant who presented with unexplained coma that was later proved to be associated with the ingestion of cannabis. This case highlights the importance of considering cannabis ingestion in the differential diagnosis of infantile and toddler coma and the need for public education regarding the risks of childhood exposure in the light of the legalization of cannabis for medical purposes and its greater availability.

  18. Pathways from cannabis to psychosis: a review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan K Burns

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The nature of the relationship between cannabis use and psychosis is complex and remains unclear. Researchers and clinicians remain divided regarding key issues such as whether or not cannabis is an independent cause of psychosis and schizophrenia. This paper reviews the field in detail, examining questions of causality, the neurobiological basis for such causality and for differential inter-individual risk, the clinical and cognitive features of psychosis in cannabis users, and patterns of course and outcome of psychosis in the context of cannabis use. The author proposes two major pathways from cannabis to psychosis based on a differentiation between early-initiated lifelong cannabis use and a scenario where vulnerable individuals without a lifelong pattern of use consume cannabis over a relatively brief period of time just prior to psychosis onset. Additional key factors determining the clinical and neurobiological manifestation of psychosis as well as course and outcome in cannabis users include: underlying genetic and developmental vulnerability to schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; and whether or not cannabis use ceases or continues after the onset of psychosis. Finally, methodological guidelines are presented for future research aimed at both elucidating the pathways that lead from cannabis to psychosis and clarifying the long-term outcome of the disorder in those who have a history of using cannabis.

  19. Two cases of "cannabis acute psychosis" following the administration of oral cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Marie

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis is the most commonly used illegal drug and its therapeutic aspects have a growing interest. Short-term psychotic reactions have been described but not clearly with synthetic oral THC, especially in occasional users. Case presentations We report two cases of healthy subjects who were occasional but regular cannabis users without psychiatric history who developed transient psychotic symptoms (depersonalization, paranoid feelings and derealisation following oral administration of cannabis. In contrast to most other case reports where circumstances and blood concentrations are unknown, the two cases reported here happened under experimental conditions with all subjects negative for cannabis, opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, benzodiazepines and alcohol, and therefore the ingested dose, the time-events of effects on behavior and performance as well as the cannabinoid blood levels were documented. Conclusion While the oral route of administration achieves only limited blood concentrations, significant psychotic reactions may occur.

  20. Screening and managing cannabis use: comparing GP’s and nurses’ knowledge, beliefs, and behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberg Melissa M

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background General practitioners (GPs and nurses are ideally placed to address the significant unmet demand for the treatment of cannabis-related problems given the numbers of people who regularly seek their care. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences between GPs and nurses’ perceived knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors toward cannabis use and its screening and management. Methods This study involved 161 nurses and 503 GPs who completed a survey distributed via conference satchels to delegates of Healthed seminars focused on topics relevant to women and children’s health. Differences between GPs and nurses were analyzed using χ2- tests and two-sample t-tests, while logistic regression examined predictors of service provision. Results GPs were more likely than nurses to have engaged in cannabis-related service provision, but also more frequently reported barriers related to time, interest, and having more important issues to address. Nurses reported less knowledge, skills, and role legitimacy. Perceived screening skills predicted screening and referral to alcohol and other drug (AOD services, while knowing a regular user increased the likelihood of referrals only. Conclusions Approaches to increase cannabis-related screening and intervention may be improved by involving nurses, and by leveraging the relationship between nurses and doctors, in primary care.

  1. Sex differences in cannabis withdrawal symptoms among treatment-seeking cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Evan S; Weerts, Elise M; Vandrey, Ryan

    2015-12-01

    Over 300,000 individuals enter treatment for cannabis-use disorders (CUDs) in the United States annually. Cannabis withdrawal is associated with poor CUD-treatment outcomes, but no prior studies have examined sex differences in withdrawal among treatment-seeking cannabis users. Treatment-seeking cannabis users (45 women and 91 men) completed a Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (Budney, Novy, & Hughes, 1999, Budney, Moore, Vandrey, & Hughes, 2003) at treatment intake to retrospectively characterize withdrawal symptoms experienced during their most recent quit attempt. Scores from the 14-item Composite Withdrawal Discomfort Scale (WDS), a subset of the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist that corresponds to valid cannabis withdrawal symptoms described in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; APA, 2013) were calculated. Demographic and substance-use characteristics, overall WDS scores, and scores on individual WDS symptoms were compared between women and men. Women had higher overall WDS scores than men, and women had higher scores than men on 6 individual symptoms in 2 domains, mood symptoms (i.e., irritability, restlessness, increased anger, violent outbursts), and gastrointestinal symptoms (i.e., nausea, stomach pain). Follow-up analyses isolating the incidence and severity of WDS symptoms demonstrated that women generally reported a higher number of individual withdrawal symptoms than men, and that they reported experiencing some symptoms as more severe. This is the first report to demonstrate that women seeking treatment for CUDs may experience more withdrawal then men during quit attempts. Prospective studies of sex differences in cannabis withdrawal are warranted.

  2. Neurophysiology of motor function following cannabis discontinuation in chronic cannabis smokers: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillay, Srinivasan S; Rogowska, Jadwiga; Kanayama, Gen; Jon, Duk-In; Gruber, Staci; Simpson, Norah; Cherayil, Monisha; Pope, Harrison G; Yurgelun-Todd, Deborah A

    2004-12-07

    The objective of this study was to identify the differences in cerebral activation between chronic cannabis smokers and controls in response to finger sequencing. We hypothesized that attentional areas related to motor function as well as primary and supplementary motor cortices would show diminished activation in chronic cannabis smokers. Nine cannabis smokers and 16 controls were included in these analyses. Scanning was performed on a GE 1.5T scanner. Echo planar images and high-resolution MR images were acquired. The challenge paradigm included left and right finger sequencing. Group differences in cerebral activation were examined for Brodmann areas (BA) 4, 6, 24, and 32 using ROI analyses in SPM. Cannabis users, tested within 4-36 h of discontinuation, exhibited significantly less activation than controls in BA 24 and 32 bilaterally during right- and left-sided sequencing and for BA 6 in all tasks except for left-sided sequencing in the left hemisphere. There were no statistically significant differences for BA 4. None of these regional activations correlated with urinary cannabis concentration and verbal IQ for smokers. These results suggest that recently abstinent chronic cannabis smokers produce reduced activation in motor cortical areas in response to finger sequencing compared to controls.

  3. Residual effects of prolonged heavy cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Amsterdam JGC; van der Laan JW; Slangen JL; LGM

    1996-01-01

    Recente literatuur werd geraadpleegd om na te gaan of langdurig gebruik van van grote hoeveelheden cannabis (dagelijks gebruik gedurende minimaal 6 maanden) leidt tot aanhoudende cognitieve effecten en effecten op het immuunsysteem. Het resultaat van deze studie is weergegeven in het huidige rappor

  4. Investigations into the hypothesis of transgenic cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascini, Fidelia

    2012-05-01

    The unusual concentration of cannabinoids recently found in marijuana samples submitted to the forensic laboratory for chemical analysis prompted an investigation into whether genetic modifications have been made to the DNA of Cannabis sativa L. to increase its potency. Traditional methods for the detection of genetically modified organisms (GMO) were used to analyze herbal cannabis preparations. Our analyses support the hypothesis that marijuana samples submitted to forensic laboratories and characterized by an abnormal level of Δ(9)-THC are the product of breeding selection rather than of transgenic modifications. Further, this research has shown a risk of false positive results associated with the poor quality of the seized samples and probably due to the contamination by other transgenic vegetable products. On the other hand, based on these data, a conclusive distinction between the hypothesis of GMO plant contamination and the other of genetic modification of cannabis cannot be made requiring further studies on comparative chemical and genetic analyses to find out an explanation for the recently detected increased potency of cannabis.

  5. Polyketide synthases in Cannabis sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores Sanchez, Isvett Josefina

    2008-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. plants produce a diverse array of secondary metabolites, which have been grouped in cannabinoids, flavonoids, stilbenoids, terpenoids, alkaloids and lignans; the cannabinoids are the best known group of natural products from this plant. The pharmacological aspects of this secondar

  6. Counselling young cannabis users by text message

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Ditte

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the results of a study of two SMS services aimed at providing young people with information on cannabis and helping them to reduce their consumption of the drug. The attitude of the 12 participants in the study towards the SMS services is generally positive, but they prefer ...

  7. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM IN AUSTRALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2016-03-01

    Attempts at medicinal cannabis law reform in Australia are not new. However, in historical perspective 2015 and 2016 will be seen as the time when community debate about legalisation of medicinal cannabis reached a tipping point in a number of Australian jurisdictions and when community impetus for change resulted in major reform initiatives. In order to contextualise the changes, the August 2015 Report of the Victorian Law Reform Commission (VLRC) and then the Access to Medicinal Cannabis Bill 2015 (Vic) introduced in December 2015 into the Victorian Parliament by the Labor Government are scrutinised. In addition, this editorial reviews the next phase of developments in the course of 2015 and 2016, including the Commonwealth Narcotic Drugs Amendment Act 2016 and the Queensland Public Health (Medicinal Canna- bis) Bill 2016. It identifies the principal features of the legislative initiatives against the backdrop of the VLRC proposals. It observes that the principles underlying the Report and the legislative developments in the three Australian jurisdictions are closely aligned and that their public health approach, their combination of evidence-based pragmatism, and their carefully orchestrated checks and balances against abuse and excess constitute a constructive template for medicinal cannabis law reform.

  8. Medical cannabis – the Canadian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Gordon D; Bober, Sara L; Mindra, Sean; Moreau, Jason M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been widely used as a medicinal agent in Eastern medicine with earliest evidence in ancient Chinese practice dating back to 2700 BC. Over time, the use of medical cannabis has been increasingly adopted by Western medicine and is thus a rapidly emerging field that all pain physicians need to be aware of. Several randomized controlled trials have shown a significant and dose-dependent relationship between neuropathic pain relief and tetrahydrocannabinol – the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. Despite this, barriers exist to use from both the patient perspective (cost, addiction, social stigma, lack of understanding regarding safe administration) and the physician perspective (credibility, criminality, clinical evidence, patient addiction, and policy from the governing medical colleges). This review addresses these barriers and draws attention to key concerns in the Canadian medical system, providing updated treatment approaches to help clinicians work with their patients in achieving adequate pain control, reduced narcotic medication use, and enhanced quality of life. This review also includes case studies demonstrating the use of medical marijuana by patients with neuropathic low-back pain, neuropathic pain in fibromyalgia, and neuropathic pain in multiple sclerosis. While significant preclinical data have demonstrated the potential therapeutic benefits of cannabis for treating pain in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, fibromyalgia, and cancer, further studies are needed with randomized controlled trials and larger study populations to identify the specific strains and concentrations that will work best with selected cohorts. PMID:27757048

  9. [Cannabis, hemp and hashish: always returning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabre, André-Julien

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis has a long story, the story of an endless return through ages and countries, all over the world. There is no mention of an "hedonist" use of cannabis in Ancient Greek or Roman sources but cannabism is largely attested in Orient as early as in the Middle Ages, even if many tales about Haschishins and Crusaders remain highly controversial. The "come back" of cannabism can be traced back in Europe at the end of XVIIIth century after the Egyptian campaigns of Bonaparte. Thus was launched an increasing vogue of orientalism, soonly after followed by the emergence of cannabism in Paris or London and, half a century later, the United States. After a brief armistice, cannabis rises up again with force at the end of XXth century, all over the world. In our times cannabis remains in the centre of all discussions about hallucinogen substances and many ethical, moral or medical questions are still unanswered. Our final comments will go to the everlasting "come back" of cannabism: search of exotism, attempt to escape from reality or as suggested by recent physiologic studies, close inter-relations between sensorial paths and the upper brainstem centers.

  10. Clinical service desires of medical cannabis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janichek Jennifer L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medical cannabis dispensaries following the social or hybrid model offer supplementary holistic services in addition to dispensing medical cannabis. Historically, alternative physical health services have been the norm for these dispensaries, including services such as yoga, acupuncture, or chiropractor visits. A clinical service dearth remains for medical cannabis patients seeking substance use, misuse, dependence, and mental health services. This study examined patient desires for various clinical services and level of willingness to participate in specific clinical services. Methods Anonymous survey data (N = 303 were collected at Harborside Health Center (HHC, a medical cannabis dispensary in Oakland, CA. The sample was 70% male, 48% Caucasian and 21% African American. The mean male age was 38 years old and female mean age was 30. Sixty two percent of the male participants and 44% of the female participants are single. Sixteen percent of the population reported having a domestic partner. Forty six percent of the participants are employed full time, 41% have completed at least some college, and 49% make less than $40,000 a year. Results A significant portion of the sample, 62%, indicated a desire to participate in free clinical services at HHC, 34% would like more information about substances and use, and 41% want to learn more about reducing harms from substance use. About one quarter of the participants marked "would" or "likely would" participate in individual services such as consultation. Approximately 20% indicated "would" or "likely would" participate in psycho-educational forums, harm reduction information sharing sessions, online support groups, and coping, life, and social skills group. There was little interest in traditional NA/AA 12-step groups or adapted 12-step groups. Conclusions Desired clinical services can be qualified as a combination of harm reduction, educational, skills-based, peer support and

  11. Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Is Linked to IQ Decline Early-Onset, Regular Cannabis Use Is Linked to IQ Decline Email Facebook ... that cannabis use may harm the developing brain. Cannabis Use Correlates With Cognitive Decline The study participants ...

  12. New insights into cannabis consumption; abuses and possible therapeutic effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Luiza Baconi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is one of the oldest psychotropic drugs known to humanity. The paper assesses the current knowledge on the cannabis, including the mechanisms of action and the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids. Three varieties of Cannabis plant are recognised: Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica, and Cannabis ruderalis. The variety indica is used predominantly to obtain the drugs. Cannabis herb is usually named marijuana, while the cannabis oleoresin secreted by the glandular hairs found mainly on the flowering or fruiting tops of the plant is known as hashish. More than 400 known chemicals are present in cannabis, at least 70 of which are called cannabinoids. The major psychoactive constituent in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC. It is now recognized that there are three types of cannabinoids: natural (phytocannabinoids, endogenous cannabinoids, and synthetic cannabioids. Cannabinoids exert their actions by binding to specific membrane protein, the cannabinoid receptor. To date, two subtypes of cannabinoid receptors, named cannabinoid-1 (CB1, most abundantly expressed in the central nervous system and cannabinoid-2 (CB2 receptors, found predominantly in peripheral tissues with immune functions have been cloned. Therefore, the concept of endogenous cannabinoid system (endocannabinoid system, SEC has been developed. Based on the current scientific evidence, there are several effects of cannabinoids with potential therapeutic use: antiemetic, analgesic in cancerous pains, and chronic neuropathic pain, in multiple sclerosis or spinal cord injuries. Cannabis consume can result in a state of drug dependency and cannabis withdrawal has been included in DSM-V. Cannabis plant remains controversial in the twenty-first century and the potential therapeutic of specific cannabinoid compounds and medical marijuana remains under active medical research.

  13. Human studies of cannabinoids and medicinal cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, P

    2005-01-01

    Cannabis has been known as a medicine for several thousand years across many cultures. It reached a position of prominence within Western medicine in the nineteenth century but became mired in disrepute and legal controls early in the twentieth century. Despite unremitting world-wide suppression, recreational cannabis exploded into popular culture in the 1960s and has remained easily obtainable on the black market in most countries ever since. This ready availability has allowed many thousands of patients to rediscover the apparent power of the drug to alleviate symptoms of some of the most cruel and refractory diseases known to humankind. Pioneering clinical research in the last quarter of the twentieth century has given some support to these anecdotal reports, but the methodological challenges to human research involving a pariah drug are formidable. Studies have tended to be small, imperfectly controlled, and have often incorporated unsatisfactory synthetic cannabinoid analogues or smoked herbal material of uncertain composition and irregular bioavailability. As a result, the scientific evaluation of medicinal cannabis in humans is still in its infancy. New possibilities in human research have been opened up by the discovery of the endocannabinoid system, a rapidly expanding knowledge of cannabinoid pharmacology, and a more sympathetic political environment in several countries. More and more scientists and clinicians are becoming interested in exploring the potential of cannabis-based medicines. Future targets will extend beyond symptom relief into disease modification, and already cannabinoids seem to offer particular promise in the treatment of certain inflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions. This chapter will begin with an outline of the development and current status of legal controls pertaining to cannabis, following which the existing human research will be reviewed. Some key safety issues will then be considered, and the chapter will conclude with

  14. Poor School Satisfaction and Number of Cannabis Using Peers within School Classes as Individual Risk Factors for Cannabis Use among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Dominic A.; Andersen, Anette; Holstein, Bjorn E.

    2010-01-01

    There is little information available on the topic of poor school satisfaction as a risk factor for cannabis use among adolescents. We examined if there was an association between poor school satisfaction, school class cannabis use and individual cannabis use. Further, we investigated if many cannabis users within the school class statistically…

  15. Neurobiologia da Cannabis: do sistema endocanabinoide aos transtornos por uso de Cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis G. Pinho Costa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Diante das lacunas na efetividade das terapêuticas para transtornos por uso de Cannabis, a droga ilícita mais consumida no mundo, este trabalho propõe-se a rever os conhecimentos sobre o substrato neuroanatômico, biomolecular e celular do sistema endocanabinoide, descrever os mecanismos de neuroplasticidade dependente dos canabinoides e relacioná-los com a neurobiologia dos transtornos por uso de Cannabis (abuso e dependência. MÉTODOS: Recorreu-se às bases de dados Medline, Scopus e ISI Web of Knowledge; as palavras-chave pesquisadas foram "Cannabis", "neurobiology", "endocannabinoid system", "endocannabinoids", "receptors, cannabinoid", "neuronal plasticity", "long-term synaptic depression", "long-term potentiation", "marijuana abuse" e "tetrahydrocannabinol". Foram incluídos 80 trabalhos nesta revisão. DISCUSSÃO: A distribuição neuroanatômica, celular e biomolecular do sistema endocanabinoide adequa-se perfeitamente às suas funções de neuromodulação (via neuroplasticidade e metaplasticidade, nomeadamente em vias relacionadas aos transtornos por uso de substâncias. Os canabinoides exógenos perturbam essas funções. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema endocanabinoide contribui para a definição de setpoints em diversas vias neuronais, incluindo vias cruciais na instalação de transtornos por uso de substâncias; com o uso de Cannabis, esses setpoints tornar-se-ão mais permissivos, facilitando os transtornos por uso de Cannabis. Os avanços no entendimento da neurobiologia da Cannabis abrem uma janela de oportunidades para novas estratégias terapêuticas nos transtornos por uso de Cannabis.

  16. Safety Issues Concerning the Medical Use of Cannabis and Cannabinoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark A Ware

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety issues are a major barrier to the use of cannabis and cannabinoid medications for clinical purposes. Information on the safety of herbal cannabis may be derived from studies of recreational cannabis use, but cannabis exposure and effects may differ widely between medical and recreational cannabis users. Standardized, quality-controlled cannabinoid products are available in Canada, and safety profiles of approved medications are available through the Canadian formulary. In the present article, the evidence behind major safety issues related to cannabis use is summarized, with the aim of promoting informed dialogue between physicians and patients in whom cannabinoid therapy is being considered. Caution is advised in interpreting these data, because clinical experience with cannabinoid use is in the early stages. There is a need for long-term safety monitoring of patients using cannabinoids for a wide variety of conditions, to further guide therapeutic decisions and public policy.

  17. Did Cannabis Precipitate an STEMI in a Young Woman?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jehangir, Waqas; Stanton, Michael; Khan, Rafay; Sahgal, Puneet; Yousif, Abdalla

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis is a substance that contains compounds that bind cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2. Cannabis also contains substances that do not bind these receptors. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the compound in cannabis responsible for its psychoactive effects and binding to cannabinoid receptors. Despite increasing popularity of the medical and recreational uses of cannabis, little attention has been paid to the adverse effects of the use of the substance. Evidence demonstrating an association between cannabis use and acute coronary syndromes has emerged with case reports and in vitro studies. This case report highlights an ST-segment myocardial infarction in a 27-year-old female with little cardiovascular risk factors, but a significant history of frequent cannabis use. PMID:28197241

  18. The return of the underground retail cannabis market? Attitudes of Dutch coffeeshop owners and cannabis users to the proposed ‘cannabis ID’ and the consequences they expect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Korf; M. Wouters; A. Benschop

    2011-01-01

    The sale of cannabis to persons aged 18 or older is permitted in the Netherlands under certain conditions in commercial establishments called coffeeshops. The present Dutch government has proposed that access to coffeeshops be restricted to persons holding a cannabis ID, a mandatory membership card

  19. INCANT: A transnational randomized trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with cannabis use disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Rigter (Henk); I. Pelc (Isidore); P. Tossmann (Peter); O. Phan (Olivier); E. Grichting (Esther); V. Hendriks (Vincent); C. Rowe (Cindy)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In 2003, the governments of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland agreed that there was a need in Europe for a treatment programme for adolescents with cannabis use disorders and other behavioural problems. Based on an exhaustive literature review of evide

  20. Cannabis Use and Memory Brain Function in Adolescent Boys: A Cross-Sectional Multicenter Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Gerry; Block, Robert I.; Luijten, Maartje; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Early-onset cannabis use has been associated with later use/abuse, mental health problems (psychosis, depression), and abnormal development of cognition and brain function. During adolescence, ongoing neurodevelopmental maturation and experience shape the neural circuitry underlying complex cognitive functions such as memory and…

  1. Cannabis, schizophrenia and other psychoses : longitudinal studies on Swedish conscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Manrique-Garcia, Edison

    2014-01-01

    AIM The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the association between cannabis use and psychiatric disorders with emphasis on schizophrenia, other psychoses, depression and long term effects on mortality. Specific objectives were to: 1) investigate the long-term risk of schizophrenia, and other psychoses including brief psychoses among users and non-users of cannabis, (2) assess the risk of depression among users and non-users of cannabis, (3) determinate whet...

  2. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues.

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issue in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirement for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration Botanical Guidance. The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanical can...

  3. Current Therapeutic Cannabis Controversies and Clinical Trial Design Issues

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This overview covers a wide range of cannabis topics, initially examining issues in dispensaries and self-administration, plus regulatory requirements for production of cannabis-based medicines, particularly the Food and Drug Administration “Botanical Guidance.” The remainder pertains to various cannabis controversies that certainly require closer examination if the scientific, consumer, and governmental stakeholders are ever to reach consensus on safety issues, specifically: whether botanica...

  4. Anormalidades cognitivas no uso da cannabis Cognitive abnormalities and cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Solowij

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evidências de que o uso de cannabis prejudica funções cognitivas em humanos têm-se acumulado nas décadas recentes. O propósito desta revisão é o de atualizar o conhecimento nesta área com novos achados a partir da literatura mais recente. MÉTODO: As buscas na literatura foram realizadas utilizando-se o banco de dados Web of Science até fevereiro de 2010. Foram buscados os termos "cannabi*" ou "marijuana" e "cogniti*" ou "memory" ou "attention" ou "executive function", e os estudos em humanos foram revisados preferencialmente em relação aos estudos em animais. DISCUSSÃO: O uso de cannabis prejudica a memória, a atenção, o controle inibitório, as funções executivas e a tomada de decisões, tanto durante como após o período de intoxicação aguda, persistindo por horas, dias, semanas ou mais após o último uso. Os estudos de desafio farmacológico em humanos estão elucidando a natureza e os substratos neurais das alterações cognitivas associadas a vários canabinoides. O uso pesado ou de longo prazo de cannabis parece resultar em anormalidades cognitivas mais duradouras e possivelmente em alterações cerebrais estruturais. Efeitos cognitivos adversos maiores estão associados ao uso de cannabis quando este começa no início da adolescência. CONCLUSÃO: O sistema canabinoide endógeno está envolvido nos mecanismos de regulação neural que modulam os processos subjacentes a uma gama de funções cognitivas que estão prejudicadas pela cannabis. Os déficits em usuários humanos muito provavelmente refletem, portanto, neuroadaptações e o funcionamento alterado do sistema canabinoide endógeno.OBJECTIVE: Evidence that cannabis use impairs cognitive function in humans has been accumulating in recent decades. The purpose of this overview is to update knowledge in this area with new findings from the most recent literature. METHOD: Literature searches were conducted using the Web of Science database up to

  5. Cannabis smoke condensate III: the cannabinoid content of vaporised Cannabis sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomahacova, B; Van der Kooy, F; Verpoorte, R

    2009-11-01

    Cannabis sativa is a well-known recreational drug and, as such, a controlled substance of which possession and use are illegal in most countries of the world. Due to the legal constraints on the possession and use of C. sativa, relatively little research on the medicinal qualities of this plant has been conducted. Interest in the medicinal uses of this plant has, however, increased in the last decades. The methods of administration for medicinal purposes are mainly through oral ingestion, smoking, and nowadays also inhalation through vaporization. During this study the commercially available Volcano vaporizing device was compared with cannabis cigarette smoke. The cannabis smoke and vapor (obtained at different temperatures) were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In addition, different quantities of cannabis material were also tested with the vaporizer. The cannabinoids:by-products ratio in the vapor obtained at 200 degrees C and 230 degrees C was significantly higher than in the cigarette smoke. The worst ratio of cannabinoids:by-products was obtained from the vaporized cannabis sample at 170 degrees C.

  6. Cannabis use during adolescent development: susceptibility to psychiatric illness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eChadwick

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. Cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannbinol (THC, that interfere with the brain’s endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain’s developmental trajectory towards a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis-users to motivational, affective and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

  7. Cannabis Use during Adolescent Development: Susceptibility to Psychiatric Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Benjamin; Miller, Michael L; Hurd, Yasmin L

    2013-10-14

    Cannabis use is increasingly pervasive among adolescents today, even more common than cigarette smoking. The evolving policy surrounding the legalization of cannabis reaffirms the need to understand the relationship between cannabis exposure early in life and psychiatric illnesses. cannabis contains psychoactive components, notably Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), that interfere with the brain's endogenous endocannabinoid system, which is critically involved in both pre- and post-natal neurodevelopment. Consequently, THC and related compounds could potentially usurp normal adolescent neurodevelopment, shifting the brain's developmental trajectory toward a disease-vulnerable state, predisposing early cannabis users to motivational, affective, and psychotic disorders. Numerous human studies, including prospective longitudinal studies, demonstrate that early cannabis use is associated with major depressive disorder and drug addiction. A strong association between schizophrenia and cannabis use is also apparent, especially when considering genetic factors that interact with this environmental exposure. These human studies set a foundation for carefully controlled animal studies which demonstrate similar patterns following early cannabinoid exposure. Given the vulnerable nature of adolescent neurodevelopment and the persistent changes that follow early cannabis exposure, the experimental findings outlined should be carefully considered by policymakers. In order to fully address the growing issues of psychiatric illnesses and to ensure a healthy future, measures should be taken to reduce cannabis use among teens.

  8. Cannabis smoke condensate II: influence of tobacco on tetrahydrocannabinol levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Kooy, F; Pomahacova, B; Verpoorte, R

    2009-02-01

    Medicinal cannabis has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Various forms of administration are used, of which smoking is very common but the least desirable. Smoking cannabis generates a large amount of unwanted side products, of which carcinogenic compounds are the most dangerous. A common practice among recreational drug users, and to a lesser degree patients who uses cannabis as medicine, is to mix the cannabis material with commercially available tobacco in order to increase the burning efficiency of the cigarette and to reduce the overall costs of the cigarette. In this study cannabis material has been mixed with tobacco in order to determine whether tobacco has an influence on the amount of and ratio between tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN) administered while smoking. A small-scale smoking machine has been used and cannabis mixed with various ratios of tobacco was smoked. The trapped smoke was quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the amount of THC, CBG, and CBN was determined for each cigarette. We have found that tobacco increases the amount of THC inhaled per gram of cannabis from 32.70 +/- 2.29 mg/g for a 100% cannabis cigarette to 58.90 +/- 2.30 mg/g for a 25% cannabis cigarette. This indicates that tobacco increases the vaporization efficiency of THC by as much as 45% under the conditions tested.

  9. Cannabis and tobacco smoke are not equally carcinogenic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melamede Robert

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract More people are using the cannabis plant as modern basic and clinical science reaffirms and extends its medicinal uses. Concomitantly, concern and opposition to smoked medicine has occurred, in part due to the known carcinogenic consequences of smoking tobacco. Are these reactions justified? While chemically very similar, there are fundamental differences in the pharmacological properties between cannabis and tobacco smoke. Cannabis smoke contains cannabinoids whereas tobacco smoke contains nicotine. Available scientific data, that examines the carcinogenic properties of inhaling smoke and its biological consequences, suggests reasons why tobacco smoke, but not cannabis smoke, may result in lung cancer.

  10. Cannabis Allergy: What do We Know Anno 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuyper, Ine; Ryckebosch, Hanne; Van Gasse, Athina L; Sabato, Vito; Faber, Margaretha; Bridts, Chris H; Ebo, Didier G

    2015-10-01

    For about a decade, IgE-mediated cannabis (marihuana) allergy seems to be on the rise. Both active and passive exposure to cannabis allergens may lead to a cannabis sensitization and/or allergy. The clinical manifestations of a cannabis allergy can vary from mild to life-threatening reactions, often depending on the route of exposure. In addition, sensitization to cannabis allergens can trigger various secondary cross-allergies, mostly for plant-derived food. This clinical entity, which we have designated as the "cannabis-fruit/vegetable syndrome" might also imply cross-reactivity with tobacco, latex and plant-food derived alcoholic beverages. These secondary cross-allergies are mainly described in Europe and appear to result from cross-reactivity between non-specific lipid transfer proteins or thaumatin-like proteins present in Cannabis sativa and their homologues that are ubiquitously distributed throughout plant kingdom. At present, diagnosis of cannabis-related allergies rests upon a thorough history completed with skin testing using native extracts from buds and leaves. However, quantification of specific IgE antibodies and basophil activation tests can also be helpful to establish correct diagnosis. In the absence of a cure, treatment comprises absolute avoidance measures including a stop of any further cannabis (ab)use.

  11. Study designs may influence results: the problems with questionnaire-based case-control studies on the epidemiology of glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Christoffer; Schüz, Joachim; Andreasen, Anne-Marie Serena; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-03-07

    Glioma is a rare brain tumour with a very poor prognosis and the search for modifiable factors is intense. We reviewed the literature concerning risk factors for glioma obtained in case-control designed epidemiological studies in order to discuss the influence of this methodology on the observed results. When reviewing the association between three exposures, medical radiation, exogenous hormone use and allergy, we critically appraised the evidence from both case-control and cohort studies. For medical radiation and hormone replacement therapy (HRT), questionnaire-based case-control studies appeared to show an inverse association, whereas nested case-control and cohort studies showed no association. For allergies, the inverse association was observed irrespective of study design. We recommend that the questionnaire-based case-control design be placed lower in the hierarchy of studies for establishing cause-and-effect for diseases such as glioma. We suggest that a state-of-the-art case-control study should, as a minimum, be accompanied by extensive validation of the exposure assessment methods and the representativeness of the study sample with regard to the exposures of interest. Otherwise, such studies cannot be regarded as 'hypothesis testing' but only 'hypothesis generating'. We consider that this holds true for all questionnaire-based case-control studies on cancer and other chronic diseases, although perhaps not to the same extent for each exposure-outcome combination.British Journal of Cancer advance online publication, 7 March 2017; doi:10.1038/bjc.2017.46 www.bjcancer.com.

  12. Cannabis abuse in adolescence and the risk of psychosis: a brief review of the preclinical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubino, T; Parolaro, D

    2014-07-03

    Epidemiological studies suggest that Cannabis use during adolescence confers an increased risk for developing psychotic symptoms later in life. However, despite their interest, the epidemiological data are not conclusive, due to their heterogeneity; thus modeling the adolescent phase in animals is useful for investigating the impact of Cannabis use on deviations of adolescent brain development that might confer a vulnerability to later psychotic disorders. Although scant, preclinical data seem to support the presence of impaired social behaviors, cognitive and sensorimotor gating deficits as well as psychotic-like signs in adult rodents after adolescent cannabinoid exposure, clearly suggesting that this exposure may trigger a complex behavioral phenotype closely resembling a schizophrenia-like disorder. Similar treatments performed at adulthood were not able to produce such phenotype, thus pointing to a vulnerability of the adolescent brain towards cannabinoid exposure. The neurobiological substrate of the adolescent vulnerability is still largely unknown and experimental studies need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanism underlying these effects. However, the few data available seem to suggest that heavy adolescent exposure to cannabinoids is able to modify neuronal connectivity in specific brain areas long after the end of the treatment. This is likely due to disruption of maturational events within the endocannabinoid system during adolescence that in turn impact on the correct neuronal refinement peculiar of the adolescent brain, thus leading to altered adult brain functionality and behavior.

  13. The potency of cannabis in New Zealand from 1976 to 1996.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulsen, H A; Sutherland, G J

    2000-01-01

    The potency of cannabis plant and cannabis products seized in New Zealand over the period of 20 years is studied. The earlier part of the study includes mainly imported cannabis oil and cannabis resin, and both imported and locally grown cannabis plant, that was seized by the police. The later part of the study includes little imported material. Cannabis plant is now locally grown, cannabis oil is locally manufactured and imported cannabis resin is rarely seized. The average potency of the cannabis plant available to the user has not increased over the 20 years period. Cannabis leaf contains on average 1% THC and the female flowering heads on average 3.5% THC. The average potency of cannabis oil has dropped from its peak at 34% THC in 1985 to 13% THC in 1995.

  14. Randomized controlled trial of motivational enhancement therapy with nontreatment-seeking adolescent cannabis users: a further test of the teen marijuana check-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert; Roffman, Roger; Demarce, Josephine; Lozano, Brian; Towe, Sheri; Berg, Belinda

    2011-09-01

    Cannabis use adversely affects adolescents and interventions that are attractive to adolescents are needed. This trial compared the effects of a brief motivational intervention for cannabis use with a brief educational feedback control and a no-assessment control. Participants were randomized into one of three treatment conditions: Motivational Enhancement Therapy (MET), Educational Feedback Control (EFC), or Delayed Feedback Control (DFC). Those who were assigned to MET and EFC were administered a computerized baseline assessment immediately following randomization and completed assessments at the 3- and 12-month follow-up periods. Participants in the DFC condition were not assessed until the 3-month follow-up. Following the completion of treatment sessions, all participants were offered up to four optional individual treatment sessions aimed at cessation of cannabis use. The research was conducted in high schools in Seattle, Washington. The participant s included 310 self-referred adolescents who smoked cannabis regularly. The main outcome measures included days of cannabis use, associated negative consequences, and engagement in additional treatment. At the 3-month follow-up, participants in both the MET and EFC conditions reported significantly fewer days of cannabis use and negative consequences compared to those in the DFC. The frequency of cannabis use was less in MET relative to EFC at 3 months, but it did not translate to differences in negative consequences. Reductions in use and problems were sustained at 12 months, but there were no differences between MET and EFC interventions. Engagement in additional treatment was minimal and did not differ by condition. Brief interventions can attract adolescent cannabis users and have positive impacts on them, but the mechanisms of the effects are yet to be identified.

  15. Effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobus, Joanna; Tapert, Susan F

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews neuroimaging, neurocognitive, and preclinical findings on the effects of cannabis on the adolescent brain. Marijuana is the second most widely used intoxicant in adolescence, and teens who engage in heavy marijuana use often show disadvantages in neurocognitive performance, macrostructural and microstructural brain development, and alterations in brain functioning. It remains unclear whether such disadvantages reflect pre-existing differences that lead to increased substances use and further changes in brain architecture and behavioral outcomes. Future work should focus on prospective investigations to help disentangle dose-dependent effects from pre-existing effects, and to better understand the interactive relationships with other commonly abused substances (e.g., alcohol) to better understand the role of regular cannabis use on neurodevelopmental trajectories.

  16. Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the Endocannabinoid System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B

    2016-07-01

    Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system. These include common foodstuffs, herbs, spices, and more exotic ingredients: kava, chocolate, black pepper, and many others that are examined in this review.

  17. The social context of cannabis use: relationship to cannabis use disorders and depressive symptoms among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E; Wish, Eric D; Arria, Amelia M

    2009-09-01

    Few studies have investigated the association between the social context of cannabis use and cannabis use disorder (CUD). This longitudinal study of college students aimed to: develop a social context measure of cannabis use; examine the degree to which social context is associated with the transition from non-problematic cannabis use to CUD; and, examine the association between social context of cannabis use and depressive symptoms. The analytic sample consisted of 322 past-year cannabis users at baseline. Four distinct and internally consistent social context scales were found (i.e., social facilitation, emotional pain, sex seeking, and peer acceptance). Persistent CUD (meeting DSM-IV criteria for CUD at baseline and 12 months later) was associated with using cannabis in social facilitation or emotional pain contexts, controlling for frequency of cannabis use and alcohol use quantity. Students with higher levels of depressive symptoms were more likely to use cannabis in an emotional pain or sex-seeking context. These findings highlight the importance of examining the social contextual factors relating to substance use among college students.

  18. The effect of cannabis on regular cannabis consumers' ability to ride a bicycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, Benno; Schwender, Holger; Roth, Eckhard H; Hellen, Florence; Mindiashvili, Nona; Rickert, Annette; Ritz-Timme, Stefanie; Grieser, Almut; Monticelli, Fabio; Daldrup, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    To assess the effects of cannabis on the ability required to ride a bicycle, repetitive practical cycling tests and medical examinations were carried out before and after inhalative consumption of cannabis. A maximum of three joints with body weight-adapted THC content (300 μg THC per kg body weight) could be consumed by each test subject. Fourteen regular cannabis-consuming test subjects were studied (12 males, 2 females). In summary, only a few driving faults were observed even under the influence of very high THC concentrations. A defined THC concentration that leads to an inability to ride a bicycle cannot be presented. The test subjects showed only slight distinctive features that can be documented using a medical test routinely run for persons under suspicion of driving under the influence of alcohol or drugs.

  19. [AWMF-guideline: disorders related to cannabis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, U; Harries-Hedder, K; Leweke, F M; Schneider, U; Tossmann, P

    2004-06-01

    Actually, guidelines for treatment of substance-related disorders were written under the overall control of the DG-Sucht e. V. and the DGPPN e. V. This appears within the framework of the Arbeitsgemeinschaft der Wissenschaftlichen Medizinischen Fachgesellschaft (AWMF). The leading objective of these guidelines is the description of the current scientifically proven and evidence-based medicine in addiction to derive recommendations to therapy. In this context, the guideline for treatment of cannabis-related disorders is introduced.

  20. Approaches to and Treatment Strategies for Playing-Related Pain Problems Among Czech Instrumental Music Students: An Epidemiological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioannou, Christos I; Altenmüller, Eckart

    2015-09-01

    The current study examined the severity of playing-related pain (PRP) problems among music students at the Prague State Conservatoire, as well as the various treatment methods used by these students and how they approach and deal with these phenomena while studying. In total, 180 instrumental students participated and completed a paper questionnaire. Of these, 88.9% reported that they had experienced PRP at least once in their lives, with 12.6% experiencing pain every time they play. The onset of PRP seemed to coincide with the transition period on entry to the conservatoire and was associated with the increase in hours of practice. Specific body regions associated with playing each particular instrument were most frequently affected, with females being more susceptible than males to the development of PRP. An alarming 35% of the affected students tended not to seek help at all, whereas those who did tended to seek advice first from their instrument tutor and second from medical doctors. Most students who visited doctors reported that medical treatments only partially helped them to overcome PRP problems. The most frequent treatment methods used were resting, gel or creams, and physical exercises. Students believed that inappropriate posture played a key role in the development of their PRP problems. Finally, students indicated a willingness to be aware of and educated about PRP issues during their studies. Further exploration of PRP problems among student musicians is warranted. Better understanding of differing attitudes toward, use of, and efficiency of various treatment methods after the occurrence of PRPs will provide additional insight for prevention and treatment.

  1. Gambling and football: Epidemiological research on gambling participation and problem gambling among adult football players in Iceland

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    There is not much known about the gambling behaviour of Icelandic football players. Aims of the current study were to examine the prevalence of total gambling participation and problem gambling among Icelandic football players, to examine if Icelandic football players have been involved in behaviour that could possibly be related to game fixing and to examine players attitudes towards banning coaches and players to gamble on games the Icelandic championship. Participants were 725, of which 75...

  2. A Clinico-Epidemiological Study on Health Problems of Post-Menopausal Women in Rural Area of Vadodara District, Gujarat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald Shailendra Christian

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Health issues of postmenopausal women pose a significant challenge to public health, considering the facts like; there hasn’t been a specific health program for such women in the country and the rising geriatric population. Objectives: 1. To find out the health problems among rural post-menopausal women. 2. To compare the results with few of the studies in the past with different settings. Methods: Design: Cross-sectional study, Participants: 147 post-menopausal women residing in Piparia village of Vadodara district were involved in the study, based on sample size calculation and necessary assumptions. Information was filled up in a pre-tested questionnaire. Objectives: 1. To find out the health problems among rural post-menopausal women. 2. To compare the results with few of the studies in the past with different settings. Results: Most of them suffered from physical symptoms of tiredness (88.4% and headache (74.8%. This was followed by vasomotor symptoms like hot flushes (40.1%, night sweats (40.8% and palpitations (37.4% as well as psychological symptoms like insomnia (57.1%, anxiety (38.1% and lack of concentration in the work (33.3%. Conclusion: The rural post-menopausal women suffer from variety of health problems and it has also some relevance to the settings they come from. [Natl J of Med Res 2012; 2(4.000: 478-480

  3. Accidental cannabis poisoning in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupan Mežnar, Anja; Brvar, Miran; Kralj, Gregor; Kovačič, Dragan

    2016-12-01

    There are two main varieties of Cannabis sativa plant, namely, hemp which is cultivated for fiber and seeds and contains low amounts of psychoactive cannabinoids and the other which is cultivated for the drug cannabis or marijuana. Increasing popularity of hemp food products and alleged beneficial effects of cannabinoids in the drug variety of cannabis might lead to confusion in the lay population and unintentional ingestion of marijuana, as described in this case report. During a workshop on the use of hemp for medicinal purposes, there was a degustation of various hemp food products including also cookies that were brought by one of the attendees. Approximately 1 h after ingestion of cookies, people experienced nausea and vomiting, dizziness, sleepiness and difficulty walking. Twelve people were referred to emergency department, where two were admitted to intensive care because of central nervous system depression. They were all managed with supportive measures and were discharged home without health-related consequences.

  4. The pharmacologic and clinical effects of medical cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgelt, Laura M; Franson, Kari L; Nussbaum, Abraham M; Wang, George S

    2013-02-01

    Cannabis, or marijuana, has been used for medicinal purposes for many years. Several types of cannabinoid medicines are available in the United States and Canada. Dronabinol (schedule III), nabilone (schedule II), and nabiximols (not U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved) are cannabis-derived pharmaceuticals. Medical cannabis or medical marijuana, a leafy plant cultivated for the production of its leaves and flowering tops, is a schedule I drug, but patients obtain it through cannabis dispensaries and statewide programs. The effect that cannabinoid compounds have on the cannabinoid receptors (CB(1) and CB(2) ) found in the brain can create varying pharmacologic responses based on formulation and patient characteristics. The cannabinoid Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol has been determined to have the primary psychoactive effects; the effects of several other key cannabinoid compounds have yet to be fully elucidated. Dronabinol and nabilone are indicated for the treatment of nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and of anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. However, pain and muscle spasms are the most common reasons that medical cannabis is being recommended. Studies of medical cannabis show significant improvement in various types of pain and muscle spasticity. Reported adverse effects are typically not serious, with the most common being dizziness. Safety concerns regarding cannabis include the increased risk of developing schizophrenia with adolescent use, impairments in memory and cognition, accidental pediatric ingestions, and lack of safety packaging for medical cannabis formulations. This article will describe the pharmacology of cannabis, effects of various dosage formulations, therapeutics benefits and risks of cannabis for pain and muscle spasm, and safety concerns of medical cannabis use.

  5. General and oral health implications of cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, C M; Hirsch, R; Johnstone, S

    2005-06-01

    Cannabis, commonly known as marijuana, is the most frequently used illicit drug in Australia. Therefore, oral health care providers are likely to encounter patients who are regular users. An upward trend in cannabis use is occurring in Australia, with 40 per cent of the population aged 14 and above having used the drug. There are three main forms of cannabis: marijuana, hash and hash oil, all of which contain the main psychoactive constituent delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis is most commonly smoked, however it can be added to foods. THC from cannabis enters the bloodstream and exerts its effects on the body via interaction with endogenous receptors. Cannabis affects almost every system of the body, particularly the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune systems. It also has acute and chronic effects on the mental health of some users. Therefore, chronic abuse is a concern because of its negative effects on general physical and mental health. Cannabis abusers generally have poorer oral health than non-users, with an increased risk of dental caries and periodontal diseases. Cannabis smoke acts as a carcinogen and is associated with dysplastic changes and pre-malignant lesions within the oral mucosa. Users are also prone to oral infections, possibly due to the immunosuppressive effects. Dental treatment on patients intoxicated on cannabis can result in the patient experiencing acute anxiety, dysphoria and psychotic-like paranoiac thoughts. The use of local anaesthetic containing epinephrine may seriously prolong tachycardia already induced by an acute dose of cannabis. Oral health care providers should be aware of the diverse adverse effects of cannabis on general and oral health and incorporate questions about patients' patterns of use in the medical history.

  6. Cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia: a Mendelian randomization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaucher, J; Keating, B J; Lasserre, A M; Gan, W; Lyall, D M; Ward, J; Smith, D J; Pell, J P; Sattar, N; Paré, G; Holmes, M V

    2017-01-24

    Cannabis use is observationally associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia, but whether the relationship is causal is not known. Using a genetic approach, we took 10 independent genetic variants previously identified to associate with cannabis use in 32 330 individuals to determine the nature of the association between cannabis use and risk of schizophrenia. Genetic variants were employed as instruments to recapitulate a randomized controlled trial involving two groups (cannabis users vs nonusers) to estimate the causal effect of cannabis use on risk of schizophrenia in 34 241 cases and 45 604 controls from predominantly European descent. Genetically-derived estimates were compared with a meta-analysis of observational studies reporting ever use of cannabis and risk of schizophrenia or related disorders. Based on the genetic approach, use of cannabis was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia (odds ratio (OR) of schizophrenia for users vs nonusers of cannabis: 1.37; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-1.67; P-value=0.007). The corresponding estimate from observational analysis was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.19-1.67; P-value for heterogeneity =0.76). The genetic markers did not show evidence of pleiotropic effects and accounting for tobacco exposure did not alter the association (OR of schizophrenia for users vs nonusers of cannabis, adjusted for ever vs never smoker: 1.41; 95% CI, 1.09-1.83). This adds to the substantial evidence base that has previously identified cannabis use to associate with increased risk of schizophrenia, by suggesting that the relationship is causal. Such robust evidence may inform public health messages about cannabis use, especially regarding its potential mental health consequences.Molecular Psychiatry advance online publication, 24 January 2017; doi:10.1038/mp.2016.252.

  7. Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toonen, M.A.J.; Ribot, S.A.; Thissen, J.T.N.M.

    2006-01-01

    To obtain a reliable estimation on the yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in The Netherlands, cannabis plants confiscated by the police were used to determine the yield of dried female flower buds. The developmental stage of flower buds of the seized plants was described on a scale from 1

  8. Genetic predisposition to schizophrenia associated with increased use of cannabis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Power, R.A.; Verweij, K.J.H.; Zuhair, M.; Montgomery, G.W.; Henders, A.K.; Heath, A.C.; Madden, P.A.F.; Medland, S.E.; Wray, N.R.; Martin, N.G.

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis is the most commonly used illicit drug worldwide. With debate surrounding the legalization and control of use, investigating its health risks has become a pressing area of research. One established association is that between cannabis use and schizophrenia, a debilitating psychiatric disord

  9. Tasty THC: Promises and Challenges of Cannabis Edibles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrus, Daniel G.; Capogrossi, Kristen L.; Cates, Sheryl C.; Gourdet, Camille K.; Peiper, Nicholas C.; Novak, Scott P.; Lefever, Timothy W.; Wiley, Jenny L.

    2016-01-01

    Food products containing cannabis extract (edibles) have emerged as a popular and lucrative facet of the legalized market for both recreational and medicinal cannabis. The many formulations of cannabis extracts used in edibles present a unique regulatory challenge for policy makers. Though edibles are often considered a safe, discreet, and effective means of attaining the therapeutic and/or intoxicating effects of cannabis without exposure to the potentially harmful risks of cannabis smoking, little research has evaluated how ingestion differs from other methods of cannabis administration in terms of therapeutic efficacy, subjective effects, and safety. The most prominent difference between ingestion and inhalation of cannabis extracts is the delayed onset of drug effect with ingestion. Consumers often do not understand this aspect of edible use and may consume a greater than intended amount of drug before the drug has taken effect, often resulting in profoundly adverse effects. Written for the educated layperson and for policy makers, this paper explores the current state of research regarding edibles, highlighting the promises and challenges that edibles present to both users and policy makers, and describes the approaches that four states in which recreational cannabis use is legal have taken regarding regulating edibles. PMID:28127591

  10. Neuronal substrates and functional consequences of prenatal cannabis exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvigioni, Daniela; Hurd, Yasmin L; Harkany, Tibor; Keimpema, Erik

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis remains one of the world's most widely used substance of abuse amongst pregnant women. Trends of the last 50 years show an increase in popularity in child-bearing women together with a constant increase in cannabis potency. In addition, potent herbal "legal" highs containing synthetic cannabinoids that mimic the effects of cannabis with unknown pharmacological and toxicological effects have gained rapid popularity amongst young adults. Despite the surge in cannabis use during pregnancy, little is known about the neurobiological and psychological consequences in the exposed offspring. In this review, we emphasize the importance of maternal programming, defined as the intrauterine presentation of maternal stimuli to the foetus, in neurodevelopment. In particular, we focus on cannabis-mediated maternal adverse effects, resulting in direct central nervous system alteration or sensitization to late-onset chronic and neuropsychiatric disorders. We compare clinical and preclinical experimental studies on the effects of foetal cannabis exposure until early adulthood, to stress the importance of animal models that permit the fine control of environmental variables and allow the dissection of cannabis-mediated molecular cascades in the developing central nervous system. In sum, we conclude that preclinical experimental models confirm clinical studies and that cannabis exposure evokes significant molecular modifications to neurodevelopmental programs leading to neurophysiological and behavioural abnormalities.

  11. Experiences of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit drug by Australian secondary school students yet there is scant research investigating school staff responses to student cannabis use. As such, this study surveyed 1,692 school staff who attended "Generation Next" seminars throughout Australia. The self-complete survey identified that the…

  12. Colonic perforation: a lethal consequence of cannabis body packing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawich, Shamir O; Downes, Ross; Martin, Allie C; Evans, Necia R; Mitchell, Derek I G; Williams, Eric

    2010-07-01

    Body packing is one method of smuggling cannabis across international borders. The practice is prevalent in Jamaica. There has been one reported death from this practice in medical literature. We report a second fatal case of cannabis body packing, reinforcing the dangerous nature of this practice.

  13. Prior Cannabis Use Is Associated with Outcome after Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napoli, M. Di; Zha, A.M.; Godoy, D.A.; Masotti, L.; Schreuder, F.H.B.M.; Popa-Wagner, A.; Behrouz, R.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent evidence suggests that a potential harmful relationship exists between cannabis use and ischemic stroke. The purpose of this study was to determine the implications of cannabis use in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) patients. METHODS: An analysis of an international, multicenter, ob

  14. How Robustly Does Cannabis Use Associate to College Grades? Findings from Two Cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Julia A.; Roth, Madeline G.; Johnson, Douglas N.; Jones, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Along with recent changes in cannabis legalization and decriminalization, there has been an increasing amount of attention aimed at cannabis use and outcomes in college. Although some amount of cannabis use might be expected under theories of collegiate identity development, public health research indicates that cannabis use ultimately associates…

  15. Policy designs for cannabis legalization: starting with the eight Ps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilmer, Beau

    2014-07-01

    The cannabis policy landscape is changing rapidly. In November 2012 voters in Colorado and Washington State passed ballot initiatives to remove the prohibition on the commercial production, distribution, and possession of cannabis. This paper does not address the question of whether cannabis should be legal; it instead focuses on the design considerations confronting jurisdictions that are pondering a change in cannabis policy. Indeed, whether or not cannabis legalization is net positive or negative for public health and public safety largely depends on regulatory decisions and how they are implemented. This essay presents eight of these design choices which all conveniently begin with the letter "P": production, profit motive, promotion, prevention, potency, purity, price, and permanency.

  16. Four decades of cannabis criminals in Canada: 1970-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia G. Erickson

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Canada was one of the first countries in the world to criminalise cannabis in 1923. It was not until the late 1960s and an associated upsurge of youthful cannabis use that the government and various stakeholders seriously interrogated the appropriateness of this punitive prohibition. Nevertheless, despite numerous opportunities for law reform for over four decades, cannabis possession continues to be illegal and as a result, hundreds of thousands of Canadians have received criminal records under these laws. This article reviews federal attempts at cannabis law reform and uses data spanning several decades to examine the characteristics of individuals convicted of cannabis possession and the implications of criminalisation on their lives.

  17. [Cannabis use: what to do in general practice?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benard, Victoire; Rolland, Benjamin; Messaadi, Nassir; Petit, Aymeric; Cottencin, Olivier; Karila, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use is now more frequent than alcohol drinking or tobacco smoking among young people (15-34years), whereas it may induce numerous medical aftermaths. Identifying and assessing cannabis use in general practice have become a current public health issue. The two steps of screening consist in spotting risky use of cannabis, and then in checking criteria for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Risky use requires a "brief intervention" by the general practitioner (GP). In case of CUD, the new DSM-5 criteria allow measuring the severity of the subsequent disorder, and listing the medical and social consequences. Using these criteria can help the GP to decide when the patient should be referred to an addiction-specialized unit. The GP has also to spot the different physical and psychiatric complications of cannabis use, in order to coordinate care between the different specialists.

  18. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanz, Christian; Mattsson, Johan; Soydaner, Umut; Brenneisen, Rudolf

    2016-01-01

    Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot) and total CBD (CBDtot) in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3%) and CBD (≥ 94.6%). The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis.

  19. Medicinal Cannabis: In Vitro Validation of Vaporizers for the Smoke-Free Inhalation of Cannabis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lanz

    Full Text Available Inhalation by vaporization is a promising application mode for cannabis in medicine. An in vitro validation of 5 commercial vaporizers was performed with THC-type and CBD-type cannabis. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to determine recoveries of total THC (THCtot and total CBD (CBDtot in the vapor. High-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection was used for the quantitation of acidic cannabinoids in the residue and to calculate decarboxylation efficiencies. Recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 4 electrically-driven vaporizers were 58.4 and 51.4%, 66.8 and 56.1%, 82.7 and 70.0% and 54.6 and 56.7% for Volcano Medic®, Plenty Vaporizer®, Arizer Solo® and DaVinci Vaporizer®, respectively. Decarboxylation efficiency was excellent for THC (≥ 97.3% and CBD (≥ 94.6%. The gas-powered Vape-or-Smoke™ showed recoveries of THCtot and CBDtot in the vapor of 55.9 and 45.9%, respectively, and a decarboxylation efficiency of ≥ 87.7 for both cannabinoids. However, combustion of cannabis was observed with this device. Temperature-controlled, electrically-driven vaporizers efficiently decarboxylate inactive acidic cannabinoids and reliably release their corresponding neutral, active cannabinoids. Thus, they offer a promising application mode for the safe and efficient administration of medicinal cannabis.

  20. Implicit associations and explicit expectancies toward cannabis in heavy cannabis users and controls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beraha, E.M.; Cousijn, J.; Hermanides, E.; Goudriaan, A.E.; Wiers, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive biases, including implicit memory associations are thought to play an important role in the development of addictive behaviors. The aim of the present study was to investigate implicit affective memory associations in heavy cannabis users. Implicit positive-arousal, sedation, and negative

  1. Believability of Messages about Cannabis, Cocaine and Heroin among Never-Triers, Trier-Rejecters and Current Users of Cannabis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C.; Rossiter, John R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the believability of strong warnings about the negative consequences of drug use among young adults in Australia who have never tried, currently use, or have tried and rejected cannabis. It finds that the strong warnings about cannabis are generally believed by never-triers. The same warnings are perceived by current users as…

  2. The role of general parenting and cannabis-specific parenting practices in adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, E.; Verdurmen, J.E.E.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Vollebergh, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To investigate general and cannabis-specific parenting practices in relation to adolescent cannabis and other illicit drug use. Methods: Data were derived from the Dutch National School Survey on Substance Use among students (N = 3209; aged 12-16 years) and one of their parents in 2011. Result

  3. Survey of Australians using cannabis for medical purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillon Paul

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The New South Wales State Government recently proposed a trial of the medical use of cannabis. Australians who currently use cannabis medicinally do so illegally and without assurances of quality control. Given the dearth of local information on this issue, this study explored the experiences of medical cannabis users. Methods Australian adults who had used cannabis for medical purposes were recruited using media stories. A total of 147 respondents were screened by phone and anonymous questionnaires were mailed, to be returned by postage paid envelope. Results Data were available for 128 participants. Long term and regular medical cannabis use was frequently reported for multiple medical conditions including chronic pain (57%, depression (56%, arthritis (35%, persistent nausea (27% and weight loss (26%. Cannabis was perceived to provide "great relief" overall (86%, and substantial relief of specific symptoms such as pain, nausea and insomnia. It was also typically perceived as superior to other medications in terms of undesirable effects, and the extent of relief provided. However, nearly one half (41% experienced conditions or symptoms that were not helped by its use. The most prevalent concerns related to its illegality. Participants reported strong support for their use from clinicians and family. There was almost universal interest (89% in participating in a clinical trial of medical cannabis, and strong support (79% for investigating alternative delivery methods. Conclusion Australian medical cannabis users are risking legal ramifications, but consistent with users elsewhere, claim moderate to substantial benefits from its use in the management of their medical condition. In addition to strong public support, medical cannabis users show strong interest in clinical cannabis research, including the investigation of alternative delivery methods.

  4. Cannabis microbiome sequencing reveals several mycotoxic fungi native to dispensary grade Cannabis flowers [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin McKernan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Center for Disease Control estimates 128,000 people in the U.S. are hospitalized annually due to food borne illnesses. This has created a demand for food safety testing targeting the detection of pathogenic mold and bacteria on agricultural products. This risk extends to medical Cannabis and is of particular concern with inhaled, vaporized and even concentrated Cannabis products . As a result, third party microbial testing has become a regulatory requirement in the medical and recreational Cannabis markets, yet knowledge of the Cannabis microbiome is limited. Here we describe the first next generation sequencing survey of the fungal communities found in dispensary based Cannabis flowers by ITS2 sequencing, and demonstrate the sensitive detection of several toxigenic Penicillium and Aspergillus species, including P. citrinum and P. paxilli, that were not detected by one or more culture-based methods currently in use for safety testing.

  5. Do patients think cannabis causes schizophrenia? - A qualitative study on the causal beliefs of cannabis using patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaub Michael

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a considerable amount of debate among the research community whether cannabis use may cause schizophrenia and whether cannabis use of patients with schizophrenia is associated with earlier and more frequent relapses. Considering that studies exploring patients' view on controversial topics have contributed to our understanding of important clinical issues, it is surprising how little these views have been explored to add to our understanding of the link between cannabis and psychosis. The present study was designed to elucidate whether patients with schizophrenia who use cannabis believe that its use has caused their schizophrenia and to explore these patients other beliefs and perceptions about the effects of the drug. Methods We recruited ten consecutive patients fulfilling criteria for paranoid schizophrenia and for a harmful use of/dependence from cannabis (ICD-10 F20.0 + F12.1 or F12.2 from the in- and outpatient clinic of the Psychiatric University Hospital Zurich. They were interviewed using qualitative methodology. Furthermore, information on amount, frequency, and effects of use was obtained. A grounded theory approach to data analysis was taken to evaluate findings. Results None of the patients described a causal link between the use of cannabis and their schizophrenia. Disease models included upbringing under difficult circumstances (5 or use of substances other than cannabis (e. g. hallucinogens, 3. Two patients gave other reasons. Four patients considered cannabis a therapeutic aid and reported that positive effects (reduction of anxiety and tension prevailed over its possible disadvantages (exacerbation of positive symptoms. Conclusions Patients with schizophrenia did not establish a causal link between schizophrenia and the use of cannabis. We suggest that clinicians consider our findings in their work with patients suffering from these co-occurring disorders. Withholding treatment or excluding

  6. Problem and current lines in investigations on the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and its control in the U.S.S.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellina, O I

    1981-01-01

    The present epidemiological situation of the three nosoforms of leismaniasis (i.e. anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis, zoonotic cutaneous leishmainiasis and visceral leishmaniasis) in the U.S.S.R. is exposed. The current lines in inveestigation of their epidemiology are then presented, with special reference to the methods used and the results obtained for their control.

  7. [Cannabis poisoning after eating salad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, H; Vonesch, H J

    1997-02-08

    We describe 4 patients who suffered gastrointestinal disorders and psychological effects after eating salad prepared with hemp seed oil. The concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in this oil far exceeded the recommended tolerance dose. Our observations prompted the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health to publish warnings in the press concerning consumption of this oil. We describe the symptoms of orally ingested THC and point out unresolved problems connected with food containing hemp.

  8. Chronic Chagas' heart disease: a disease on its way to becoming a worldwide health problem: epidemiology, etiopathology, treatment, pathogenesis and laboratory medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Saravia, Silvia Gilka; Haberland, Annekathrin; Wallukat, Gerd; Schimke, Ingolf

    2012-01-01

    Chagas' disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is ranked as the most serious parasitic disease in Latin America. Nearly 30% of infected patients develop life-threatening complications, and with a latency of 10-30 years, mostly Chagas' heart disease which is currently the major cause of morbidity and mortality in Latin America, enormously burdening economic resources and dramatically affecting patients' social and labor situations. Because of increasing migration, international tourism and parasite transfer by blood contact, intrauterine transfer and organ transplantation, Chagas' heart disease could potentially become a worldwide problem. To raise awareness of this problem, we reflect on the epidemiology and etiopathology of Chagas' disease, particularly Chagas' heart disease. To counteract Chagas' heart disease, in addition to the general interruption of the infection cycle and chemotherapeutic elimination of the infection agent, early and effective causal or symptomatic therapies would be indispensable. Prerequisites for this are improved knowledge of the pathogenesis and optimized patient management. From economic and logistics viewpoints, this last prerequisite should be performed using laboratory medicine tools. Consequently, we first summarize the mechanisms that have been suggested as driving Chagas' heart disease, mainly those associated with the presence of autoantibodies against G-protein-coupled receptors; secondly, we indicate new treatment strategies involving autoantibody apheresis and in vivo autoantibody neutralization; thirdly, we present laboratory medicine tools such as autoantibody estimation and heart marker measurement, proposed for diagnosis, risk assessment and patient guidance and lastly, we critically reflect upon the increase in inflammation and oxidative stress markers in Chagas' heart disease.

  9. Neuroprotection in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis and Progressive Multiple Sclerosis by Cannabis-Based Cannabinoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pryce, Gareth; Riddall, Dieter R; Selwood, David L; Giovannoni, Gavin; Baker, David

    2015-06-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the major immune-mediated, demyelinating, neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system. Compounds within cannabis, notably Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC) can limit the inappropriate neurotransmissions that cause MS-related problems and medicinal cannabis is now licenced for the treatment of MS symptoms. However, the biology indicates that the endocannabinoid system may offer the potential to control other aspects of disease. Although there is limited evidence that the cannabinoids from cannabis are having significant immunosuppressive activities that will influence relapsing autoimmunity, we and others can experimentally demonstrate that they may limit neurodegeneration that drives progressive disability. Here we show that synthetic cannabidiol can slow down the accumulation of disability from the inflammatory penumbra during relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in ABH mice, possibly via blockade of voltage-gated sodium channels. In addition, whilst non-sedating doses of Δ9-THC do not inhibit relapsing autoimmunity, they dose-dependently inhibit the accumulation of disability during EAE. They also appear to slow down clinical progression during MS in humans. Although a 3 year, phase III clinical trial did not detect a beneficial effect of oral Δ9-THC in progressive MS, a planned subgroup analysis of people with less disability who progressed more rapidly, demonstrated a significant slowing of progression by oral Δ9-THC compared to placebo. Whilst this may support the experimental and biological evidence for a neuroprotective effect by the endocannabinoid system in MS, it remains to be established whether this will be formally demonstrated in further trials of Δ9-THC/cannabis in progressive MS.

  10. [Medical grade cannabis (MGC): regulation mechanisms, the present situation around the world and in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelef, Assaf; Mashiah, Moty; Schumacher, Ilana; Shine, Ofir; Baruch, Yehuda

    2011-12-01

    Over the past several years, there is an increased demand and use of medical grade cannabis (MGC) in Israel and around the world. Regulation of cannabis growth, use and distribution has been a subject for many discussions in the Israeli medical system, parliament and the media. The increased demand for this kind of treatment, which is considered to be safe and effective in various indications, caused increased interest in the MGC approval mechanisms. Some countries have created regulation and control mechanisms for MGC. The United Nation convention of 1961 defines the medical legal use of narcotic substances. The convention demands full governmental control of the stock of narcotic substances, including cannabis and a governmental mechanism which will license, supervise, control, document and report the yield and consumption. In the Netherlands there is full accordance with the United Nations requirements and there is a special office for MGC which approves growth, production and marketing. MGC is prescribed in the Netherlands and supplied by a pharmacist as a regular drug. In Canada, after a long legal struggle, patients pressured the government to begin a federal program of MGC. In the U.S.A there are differences in cannabis authorization policy between some of the states and the federal government, which opposes MGC use and therefore, places numerous obstacles. Currently in Israel, the Director General of the Ministry of Health, appoints a representative to certify MGC and approve marijuana growers. MGC is directly supplied by the marijuana growers. This is a problematic model which lacks separation between the growers and the patients. Another problem is that the United Nations requirements are not fulfilled. In this review we present the advantages and drawbacks of the current model and propositions for future models for control and regulation of MGC.

  11. Cannabis use by children and young people

    OpenAIRE

    McArdle, P A

    2006-01-01

    A popular internet site1 describes cannabis as “a leafy plant, the leaves and flowering tops (buds) of which may be either smoked or eaten. It also comes in a more concentrated resinous form called hashish, and as a sticky black liquid called hash oil”. It is said that users often report a pleasant “subjective enhancement of visual and auditory perception, sometimes with synaesthesia (sounds take on visual colourful qualities)” and the sense that time passes more quickly than real time, a “fa...

  12. Cannabis use by children and young people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McArdle, P A

    2006-08-01

    A popular internet site describes cannabis as "a leafy plant, the leaves and flowering tops (buds) of which may be either smoked or eaten. It also comes in a more concentrated resinous form called hashish, and as a sticky black liquid called hash oil". It is said that users often report a pleasant "subjective enhancement of visual and auditory perception, sometimes with synaesthesia (sounds take on visual colourful qualities)" and the sense that time passes more quickly than real time, a "fatuous euphoria", as well as relaxation and relief from stress.

  13. Medical uses of marijuana (Cannabis sativa): fact or fallacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maule, W J

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) has been used throughout the world medically, recreationally and spiritually for thousands of years. In South Africa, from the mid-19th century to the 1920s, practitioners prescribed it for a multitude of conditions. In 1928 it was classified as a Schedule I substance, illegal, and without medical value. Ironically, with this prohibition, cannabis became the most widely used illicit recreational drug, not only in South Africa, but worldwide. Cannabis is generally regarded as enjoyable and relaxing without the addictive risks of opioids or stimulants. In alternative medicine circles it has never lost its appeal. To date 23 States in the USA have legalised its medical use despite the federal ban. Unfortunately, little about cannabis is not without controversy. Its main active ingredient, δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), was not isolated until 1964, and it was not until the 1990s that the far-reaching modulatory activities of the endocannabinoid system in the human body was studied. This system's elucidation raises the possibility of many promising pharmaceutical applications, even as restrictions show no sign of abating. Recreational use of cannabis continues to increase, despite growing evidence of its addictive potential, particularly in the young. Public approval drives medical cannabis legalisation efforts without the scientific data normally required to justify a new medication's introduction. This review explores these controversies and whether cannabis is a panacea, a scourge, or both.

  14. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Isaac

    Full Text Available Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal-known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many other chronic conditions. Many are calling for the legalisation of medicinal cannabis including consumers, physicians and politicians. Pharmacists are the gatekeepers of medicines and future administrators/dispensers of cannabis to the public, however very little has been heard about pharmacists' perspectives. Therefore the aim of this study was to explore pharmacists' views about medicinal cannabis; its legalisation and supply in pharmacy.Semi-structured interviews with 34 registered pharmacists in Australia were conducted. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed ad verbatim and thematically analysed using the NVivo software.Emergent themes included stigma, legislation, safety and collaboration. Overall the majority of pharmacists felt national legalisation of a standardised form of cannabis would be suitable, and indicated various factors and strategies to manage its supply. The majority of participants felt that the most suitable setting would be via a community pharmacy setting due to the importance of accessibility for patients.This study explored views of practicing pharmacists, revealing a number of previously undocumented views and barriers about medicinal cannabis from a supply perspective. There were several ethical and professional issues raised for consideration. These findings highlight the important role that pharmacists hold in the supply of medicinal cannabis. Additionally, this study identified important factors, which will help shape future

  15. A Proof-of-Concept Randomized Controlled Study of Gabapentin: Effects on Cannabis Use, Withdrawal and Executive Function Deficits in Cannabis-Dependent Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, Barbara J.; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M.; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial w...

  16. [Maternal cannabis use and intra-uterine growth restriction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davitian, C; Uzan, M; Tigaizin, A; Ducarme, G; Dauphin, H; Poncelet, C

    2006-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug, especially among young women in Western societies. The effects of cannabis use during pregnancy have been studied for many years. The vast majority of studies have shown a link between maternal consumption of cannabis and foetal development. Foetal growth restriction seems to be the major complication of cannabis exposure. Nevertheless, all these studies have suffered from several methodological biases. The maternal marijuana use should be first and foremost detected in pregnant women for a specific addiction management and pregnancy follow-up.

  17. Cannabis finds its way into treatment of Crohn's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schicho, Rudolf; Storr, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In ancient medicine, cannabis has been widely used to cure disturbances and inflammation of the bowel. A recent clinical study now shows that the medicinal plant Cannabis sativa has lived up to expectations and proved to be highly efficient in cases of inflammatory bowel diseases. In a prospective placebo-controlled study, it has been shown what has been largely anticipated from anecdotal reports, i.e. that cannabis produces significant clinical benefits in patients with Crohn's disease. The mechanisms involved are not yet clear but most likely include peripheral actions on cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, and may also include central actions.

  18. Cannabis-induced psychosis associated with high potency "wax dabs".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierre, Joseph M; Gandal, Michael; Son, Maya

    2016-04-01

    With mounting evidence that the risk of cannabis-induced psychosis may be related to both dose and potency of tetrahydrocannbinol (THC), increasing reports of psychosis associated with cannabinoids containing greater amounts of THC are anticipated. We report two cases of emergent psychosis after using a concentrated THC extract known as cannabis "wax," "oil," or "dabs" raising serious concerns about its psychotic liability. Although "dabbing" with cannabis wax is becoming increasingly popular in the US for both recreational and "medicinal" intentions, our cases raise serious concerns about its psychotic liability and highlight the importance of understanding this risk by physicians recommending cannabinoids for purported medicinal purposes.

  19. The role of study and work in cannabis use and dependence trajectories among young adult frequent cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nienke eLiebregts

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Life course theory considers events in study and work as potential turning points in deviance, including illicit drug use. This qualitative study explores the role of occupational life in cannabis use and dependence in young adults. Two and three years after the initial structured interview, 47 at baseline frequent cannabis users were interviewed in-depth about the dynamics underlying changes in their cannabis use and dependence. Overall, cannabis use and dependence declined, including interviewees who quit using cannabis completely, in particular with students, both during their study and after they got employed. Life course theory appeared to be a useful framework to explore how and why occupational life is related to cannabis use and dependence over time. Our study showed that life events in this realm are rather common in young adults and can have a strong impact on cannabis use. While sometimes changes in use are temporary, turning points can evolve from changes in educational and employment situations; an effect that seems to be related to the consequences of these changes in terms of amount of leisure time and agency (i.e. feelings of being in control.

  20. Dose-dependent effects of cannabis on the neural correlates of error monitoring in frequent cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowal, Mikael A; van Steenbergen, Henk; Colzato, Lorenza S; Hazekamp, Arno; van der Wee, Nic J A; Manai, Meriem; Durieux, Jeffrey; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Cannabis has been suggested to impair the capacity to recognize discrepancies between expected and executed actions. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence regarding the acute impact of cannabis on the neural correlates of error monitoring. In order to contribute to the available knowledge, we used a randomized, double-blind, between-groups design to investigate the impact of administration of a low (5.5 mg THC) or high (22 mg THC) dose of vaporized cannabis vs. placebo on the amplitudes of the error-related negativity (ERN) and error positivity (Pe) in the context of the Flanker task, in a group of frequent cannabis users (required to use cannabis minimally 4 times a week, for at least 2 years). Subjects in the high dose group (n=18) demonstrated a significantly diminished ERN in comparison to the placebo condition (n=19), whereas a reduced Pe amplitude was observed in both the high and low dose (n=18) conditions, as compared to placebo. The results suggest that a high dose of cannabis may affect the neural correlates of both the conscious (late), as well as the initial automatic processes involved in error monitoring, while a low dose of cannabis might impact only the conscious (late) processing of errors.

  1. Intervenções farmacológica e psicossocial para os distúrbios por uso da cannabis Pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for cannabisuse disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan J. Budney

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: A cannabis continua sendo a substância ilegal mais amplamente utilizada na maioria dos países desenvolvidos. Seu potencial aditivo foi estabelecido e a necessidade de intervenções em problemas relacionados à cannabis se tornou clara. Este artigo faz uma revisão sobre as pesquisas que avaliam os tratamentos potenciais para transtornos por uso de cannabis. MÉTODO: Uma busca nos bancos de dados de publicações identificou os estudos e revisões na literatura científica sobre as intervenções psicossociais e farmacológicas nos transtornos por uso de cannabis. RESULTADOS: Para adultos, as intervenções com base comportamental geram efeitos positivos significativos na abstinência e nas reduções no uso de cannabis. Em adolescentes, tratamentos similares e intervenções com base na família demonstraram eficácia. Entre os estudos, os índices de resposta parecem ser modestos mesmo com os mais potentes tratamentos psicossociais. As avaliações das abordagens farmacológicas para os transtornos por uso de cannabis têm ainda que fornecer dados sobre a eficácia clínica de qualquer medicação específica. Enfoques baseados em agonistas e antagonistas parecem ser os mais promissores. Os avanços na compreensão da neurobiologia do sistema canabinoide são fonte de otimismo no sentido de que a síntese de compostos que alteram o funcionamento do sítio receptor CB1 possa produzir medicações promissoras. CONCLUSÃO: As pesquisas clínicas identificaram tratamentos psicossociais eficazes, mas ainda não produziram farmacoterapias eficazes. Muitos estudos ainda têm que ser feitos para aumentar a potência e o acesso às intervenções para aqueles que buscam o tratamento para transtornos por uso de cannabis.OBJECTIVE: Cannabis remains the most widely used illicit substance in most developed countries. Its addictive potential has been established and the need for interventions for cannabis-related problems has become apparent

  2. The Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study on the course of frequent cannabis use and dependence: objectives, methods and sample characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the prospective cohort design of the Dutch Cannabis Dependence (CanDep) study, which investigates (i) the three-year natural course of frequent cannabis use (≥ three days per week in the past 12 months) and cannabis dependence; and (ii) the factors involved in the

  3. Sintomas depressivos e uso de Cannabis em adolescentes Síntomas depresivos en adolescentes usuarios de Cannabis Depressive symptoms in young Cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Moraes Ramos Andrade

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A depressão é um dos transtornos psiquiátricos mais comuns na adolescência. Os quadros depressivos costumam apresentar elevadas taxas de comorbidades psiquiátricas, sendo freqüente o abuso de substâncias psicoativas. O artigo investiga a associação dos sintomas depressivos e o uso da cannabis. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática, análise dos artigos indexados no Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science e Lilacs, entre 2000 e 2005, descritores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager e cannabis. RESULTADOS: Revisados 36 artigos completos, resultando no estudo de 9 artigos, que tratam de sintomas depressivos ou depressão e o uso ou dependência de cannabis em adolescentes. Os estudos confirmam a associação entre sintomas depressivos e o uso de cannabis na adolescência, sendo esta associação mais freqüente no uso precoce e regular de cannabis. CONCLUSÃO: Os sintomas depressivos/depressão estão relacionados ao uso/abuso e dependência de cannabis na adolescência. A investigação clínica e os programas de prevenção devem abordar estes transtornos na adolescência.Este artículo busca investigar la asociación de los síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia. MÉTODO: Ha sido realizado, a través de revisión sistemática, el análisis de los artículos indexados localizados en los sistemas Medline, PsycInfo, ProQuest, Web of Science y Lilacs, entre 2000 y 2005, utilizando los descriptores: depressive symptoms, depressive, adolescence, teenager y cannabis. RESULTADOS: La mayoría de los estudios confirma existir una asociación entre síntomas depresivos y el uso de cannabis en la adolescencia, cabe destacar que esta asociación es más frecuente en el uso precoz y regular de cañabais. CONCLUSIÓN: Los síntomas depresivos/Depresión están relacionados al uso/abuso y dependencia de cañabais en la adolescencia, siendo entonces importante que estas variables puedan ser investigadas en la pr

  4. What every dentist needs to know about cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechthand, Moshe M; Bashirelahi, Nasir

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of marijuana use rises along with its legalization, it has become increasingly important for dentists to understand the potential benefits and risks of marijuana use. This article reviews potential effects of cannabis on oral and systemic health.

  5. Providing medical marijuana: the importance of cannabis clubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, H W; Mandel, J

    1998-01-01

    In 1996, shortly after the San Francisco Cannabis Club was raided and (temporarily) closed by state authorities, the authors conducted an ethnographic study by interviewing selected former members to ascertain how they had benefited from the use of medical marijuana and how they had utilized the clubs. Interviews were augmented by participant observation techniques. Respondents reported highly positive health benefits from marijuana itself, and underscored even greater benefits from the social aspects of the clubs, which they described as providing important emotional supports. As such, cannabis clubs serve as crucial support mechanisms/groups for people with a wide variety of serious illnesses and conditions. The authors concluded that of the various methods so far proposed, the cannabis clubs afford the best therapeutic setting for providing medical cannabis and for offering a healing environment composed of like-minded, sympathetic friends.

  6. Socialization instances linked to cannabis experimentation among French teenagers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovic, Sonia; Genolini, Christophe; Delpierre, Cyrille; Spilka, Stanislas; Ehlinger, Virginie; Ross, Jim; Arnaud, Catherine; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    France presents one of the highest prevalence of teenagers aged 15-year-olds who report they already have experienced cannabis in Europe. Data from the French 2010 Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HSBC) survey and environmental parameters typifying schools' neighborhoods were used to study cannabis experimentation. We conducted a two-level logistic regression (clusters being schools) on 4,175 French 8th-10th graders from 156 schools. Several individual parameters were linked to cannabis experimentation. Living in a non-intact family, feeling insufficiently monitored, having poor communication with mother and being from a family with a high socio-economic status (SES) were all associated with increased risk of cannabis experimentation. At environmental level, only being in a priority education area was linked to this behavior, without explaining differences among schools.

  7. MEDICINAL CANNABIS LAW REFORM: LESSONS FROM CANADIAN LITIGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freckelton, Ian

    2015-06-01

    This editorial reviews medicinal cannabis litigation in Canada's superior courts between 1998 and 2015. It reflects upon the outcomes of the decisions and the reasoning within them. It identifies the issues that have driven Canada's jurisprudence in relation to access to medicinal cannabis, particularly insofar as it has engaged patients' rights to liberty and security of the person. It argues that the sequence of medicinal schemes adopted and refined in Canada provides constructive guidance for countries such as Australia which are contemplating introduction of medicinal cannabis as a therapeutic option in compassionate circumstances for patients. In particular, it contends that Canada's experience suggests that strategies calculated to introduce such schemes in a gradualist way, enabling informed involvement by medical practitioners and pharmacists, and that provide for safe and inexpensive accessibility to forms of medicinal cannabis that are clearly distinguished from recreational use and unlikely to be diverted criminally maximise the chances of such schemes being accepted by key stakeholders.

  8. Cannabis: a controversial 21st-century drug of antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greydanus, D; Holt, M

    2014-05-01

    Cannabis consumption has been popular for thousands of years and its historical use is noted in many parts of the world including ancient China, India, the Middle East. It is currently the most popular illicit drug in the world, is being utilized as a medicinal plant, and many parts of the world are legalizing this drug. This discussion considers various aspects of cannabis use including its prevalence, history, co-morbid drug abuse, designer cannabinoids, psychiatric adverse effects, medical adverse effects, and management options. The youth of the world should be comprehensively taught that cannabis is neither a safe nor a benign drug. Prevention with comprehensive drug education is the best plan for our youth since management of a chronic or heavy cannabis consummer remains difficult and fraught with failure if cessation is the goal. Caveat emptor!

  9. Eysenck Personality Dimensions in a Sample of Cannabis Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Vahdat

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available     Objective: The objective of this study is to examine Eysenck personality dimensions in cannabis users  Method:100 regular cannabis users were selected and completed Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ which easures Neuroticism (N,Extraversion-Introversion (E-I and Psychoticism (P dimensions of Eysenck personality structures  Results:The scores of 51% of cannabis users were higher than mean in all dimensions of EPQ. Also the mean score of N and P were higher than the score which Eysenck has reported for Iranian population Conclusions:This research reinforces our call for a public health information campaign about a drug which may young people still see as being risk-free.Psychiatric morbidity and cases of psychotic disorder could be prevented by discouraging cannabis use among vulnerable youths.

  10. Medical cannabis: Another piece in the mosaic of autoimmunity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, D; Katz, I; Porat-Katz, B S; Shoenfeld, Y

    2017-02-01

    Legalization of cannabis' medicinal use is rapidly increasing worldwide, raising the need to evaluate medical implications of cannabis. Currently, evidence supports cannabis and its active ingredients as immune-modulating agents, affecting T-cells, B-cells, monocytes, and microglia cells, causing an overall reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and an increase in anti-inflammatory cytokines. Due to the supporting evidence of cannabinoids as an immune-modulating agent, research focusing on cannabinoids and autoimmunity has emerged. Several clinical trials in multiple sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease, and fibromyalgia suggest cannabis' effectiveness as an immune-modulator. However, contradicting results and lack of large-scale clinical trials obscure these results. Although lacking clinical research, in vitro and in vivo experiments in rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes type 1, and systemic sclerosis demonstrate a correlation between disease activity and cannabinoids.

  11. Cannabis misinterpretation and misadventure in a coroner's court.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, William Patrick

    2012-10-01

    A 37-year-old, one-pack-per-day tobacco smoker collapsed and died at home. At autopsy, he had an occluded left anterior descending coronary artery. Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was found in his urine but no cannabinoids were detected in his blood. Misadventure was the inquest verdict on the basis of the urinary cannabis, with acute myocardial infarction as the primary cause and cannabis as the secondary cause of death. Such a conclusion is a misinterpretation of the evidence when the time duration for cannabis as a trigger for myocardial infarction is at most two hours. The absence of cannabis in the blood likely places the time since inhalation at more than two hours. The role of tobacco smoking as a trigger was ignored. Cotinine, the biochemical marker of tobacco smoke, should be added to the standard toxicological screen in the guidelines on autopsy practice of the Royal College of Pathologists.

  12. Epidemiology of work related neck and upper limb problems: psychosocial and personal risk factors (part I) and effective interventions from a bio behavioural perspective (part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, P M; Ijmker, S; van den Heuvel, S; Blatter, B M

    2006-09-01

    Work related neck and upper limb symptoms have a multi-factorial origin. Possible risk factors are of a physical, psychosocial or personal origin. These factors can reinforce each other and their influence can also be mediated by cultural or societal factors. Initially, most research on neck and upper limb symptoms focused on work-related physical exposure. Nowadays, psychosocial work characteristics are recognized as important risk factors. Various models have been developed to offer frameworks for possible pathways, but their empirical support is still not conclusive. In part I of this paper an overview is presented of the results of recent epidemiological studies on work related psychosocial and personal risk factors for neck and upper limb symptoms. In addition, the interplay between these factors and the possible intermediate role of an individuals work style in this process is explored. In contrast to previous reviews, it is now possible to base the conclusions on the effect of work related psychosocial factors on neck and upper limb symptoms on quite a few longitudinal studies. These studies show that high work demands or little control at work are often related to these symptoms. However, this relationship is neither very strong nor very specific. Perceived stress is studied in not as many studies but more consistently related to neck and upper limb symptoms. This also applies to general distress or other pain (co-morbidity). Job dissatisfaction does not contribute to neck and upper limb symptoms. Too little research on personal characteristics is available to draw any conclusions. It is plausible that behavioural aspects, such as work style, are of importance in the etiology of work related upper limb symptoms. However, studies concerning these factors are promising but too scarce to draw conclusions. Future studies should address these behavioural aspects. In part II, the recent studies on the effectiveness of preventive measures for work related neck and

  13. Factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis: una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes Factors associated with the onset of cannabis use: a systematic review of cohort studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mònica Guxens

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Determinar los factores asociados al inicio del consumo de cannabis a partir de una revisión sistemática de estudios de cohortes. Métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica informatizada utilizando diversas palabras clave y sus combinaciones. Entre los estudios identificados se seleccionaron los estudios originales de diseño longitudinal que utilizaran como variable dependiente el inicio de consumo de cannabis, así como los estudios de revisión, publicados entre enero de 1980 y mayo de 2004. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica de los estudios mediante 2 revisores, de manera independiente y a partir de unos criterios prestablecidos, clasificando los artículos en 3 categorías: alta, intermedia o baja calidad. Se midió el nivel de concordancia de los revisores a partir del coeficiente kappa. Resultados: Se identificaron 32 estudios que cumplían los criterios de selección, de los cuales 13 fueron determinados de alta calidad. Las causas de exclusión fueron el sesgo de selección, por la inclusión de consumidores al inicio de la cohorte estudiada, y la falta de ajuste por los potenciales confusores. Los factores que se relacionaron con una mayor evidencia con el inicio del consumo de cannabis fueron el sexo masculino, el consumo de tabaco y alcohol, tener una relación problemática con los padres y el consumo de cannabis por parte de los amigos. Conclusiones: Los resultados señalan la importancia de diversos factores individuales, familiares y del entorno en el inicio del consumo de cannabis, que deberían considerarse de forma conjunta en el abordaje preventivo entre los adolescentes.Objective: To determine the factors associated with the onset of cannabis use through a systematic review of cohort studies. Methods: An internet-based search was performed using several keywords and their combinations. Original studies with longitudinal design and the onset of cannabis use as dependent variable, as well as review studies

  14. Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yekini Shehu

    2010-01-01

    real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized f-projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general H-monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

  15. [Pathological gambling and addiction to cannabis: common psychosocial profile?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolaa, Nathalie; Boyer, Laurent; Simon, Nicolas; Aghababian, Valérie; Lançon, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    Addiction can involve substances (heroin, cannabis, cocaine) or be characterised by behaviour (pathological gambling, addiction to sport, etc.). The question is to establish whether or not there is a specific personality profile (character, temperament) and emotional functioning (anxiety, depression, alexithymia) in subjects presenting addictive behaviour with and without substance use. To find some answers, a team from Sainte-Marguerite General Hospital in Marseille carried out a study comparing a group of cannabis addicts and a group of pathological gamblers.

  16. The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa

    OpenAIRE

    van Bakel, Harm; Stout, Jake M.; Cote, Atina G; Tallon, Carling M; Sharpe, Andrew G; Hughes, Timothy R.; Page, Jonathan E.

    2011-01-01

    Background Cannabis sativa has been cultivated throughout human history as a source of fiber, oil and food, and for its medicinal and intoxicating properties. Selective breeding has produced cannabis plants for specific uses, including high-potency marijuana strains and hemp cultivars for fiber and seed production. The molecular biology underlying cannabinoid biosynthesis and other traits of interest is largely unexplored. Results We sequenced genomic DNA and RNA from the marijuana strain Pur...

  17. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications.

    OpenAIRE

    Dufresnes, C.; Jan, C.; Bienert, F.; Goudet, J; Fumagalli, L

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking....

  18. A critique of cannabis legalization proposals in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalant, Harold

    2016-08-01

    An editorial in this issue describes a cannabis policy framework document issued by a major Canadian research centre, calling for legalization of non-medical use under strict controls to prevent increase in use, especially by adolescents and young adults who are most vulnerable to adverse effects of cannabis. It claims that such a system would eliminate the severe personal, social and monetary costs of prohibition, diminish the illicit market, and provide more humane management of cannabis use disorders. It claims that experience with regulation of alcohol and tobacco will enable a system based on public health principles to control access of youth to cannabis without the harm caused by prohibition. The present critique argues that the claims made against decriminalization and for legalization are unsupported, or even contradicted, by solid evidence. Early experience in other jurisdictions suggests that legalization increases use by adolescents and its attendant harms. Regulation of alcohol use does not provide a good model for cannabis controls because there is widespread alcohol use and harm among adolescents and young adults. Government monopolies of alcohol sale have been used primarily as sources of revenue rather than for guarding public health, and no reason has been offered to believe they would act differently with respect to cannabis. Good policy decisions require extensive unbiased information about the individual and social benefits and costs of both drug use and proposed control measures, and value judgments about the benefit/harm balance of each option. Important parts of the necessary knowledge about cannabis are not yet available, so that the value judgments are not yet possible. Therefore, a better case can be made for eliminating some of the harms of prohibition by decriminalization of cannabis possession and deferring decision about legalization until the necessary knowledge has been acquired.

  19. The Role of Medicinal Cannabis in Clinical Therapy: Pharmacists' Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sami Isaac; Bandana Saini; Chaar, Betty B

    2016-01-01

    Background Medicinal cannabis has recently attracted much media attention in Australia and across the world. With the exception of a few countries, cannabinoids remain illegal–known for their adverse effects rather than their medicinal application and therapeutic benefit. However, there is mounting evidence demonstrating the therapeutic benefits of cannabis in alleviating neuropathic pain, improving multiple sclerosis spasticity, reducing chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and many oth...

  20. Standardized extracts of cannabis for treatment of arthritis and migraine

    OpenAIRE

    Heinrich, M.

    2005-01-01

    Preparations derived from Cannabis nativa have been used as medicines throughout Europe and Asiasince the earliest written records, especially in the treatment of pain and inflammation. A number ofstudies have focused on specific aspects of Cannabis and its constituents, but very little commercialdevelopment activity has focused on the production of high quality, high value, standardised extracts(preferably low in the psychoactive constituent THC) which are orally active and suitable for clin...

  1. Cannabis hyperemesis syndrome: A case report review of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul I. Mahmad

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: Our patient reported the vomiting episodes were associated with the regular usage of cannabis over 19 years. One theory on the effectiveness of hot showers states that it may correct the disequilibrium of the thermoregulatory system in the hypothalamus. Another theory suggests that the concept of peripheral vasodilation and redistribution of blood flow from the splanchnic circulation to peripheral musculature helps decrease vomiting. This research gap shows that further studying of cannabis and its effects are still needed.

  2. RAPD analysis of seized marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Pinarkara,Emine; Seyit A. KAYIS; Hakki, Erdogan E.; Sag,Ayla

    2009-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is a multiple-use plant. However, its cultivation is strictly controlled due to its psychoactive nature and usage in producing drugs such as marijuana, and hashish. In this study, psychoactive type Cannabis samples, which were seized from 29 different locations of Turkey, were used. Interests were to identify the genetic relatedness of the seized samples and to partition molecular variance between and within populations. Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNAs were employed for...

  3. "CAN Stop" - Implementation and evaluation of a secondary group prevention for adolescent and young adult cannabis users in various contexts - study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moré Kerstin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current research shows that overall numbers for cannabis use among adolescents and young adults dropped in recent years. However, this trend is much less pronounced in continuous cannabis use. With regard to the heightened risk for detrimental health- and development-related outcomes, adolescents and young adults with continuous cannabis use need special attention. The health services structure for adolescents and young adults with substance related problems in Germany, is multifaceted, because different communal, medical and judicial agencies are involved. This results in a rather decentralized organizational structure of the help system. This and further system-inherent characteristics make the threshold for young cannabis users rather high. Because of this, there is a need to establish evidence-based low-threshold help options for young cannabis users, which can be easily disseminated. Therefore, a training programme for young cannabis users (age 14-21 was developed in the "CAN Stop" project. Within the project, we seek to implement and evaluate the training programme within different institutions of the help system. The evaluation is sensitive to the different help systems and their specific prerequisites. Moreover, within this study, we also test the practicability of a training provision through laypersons. Methods/Design The CAN Stop study is a four-armed randomized wait-list controlled trial. The four arms are needed for the different help system settings, in which the CAN Stop training programme is evaluated: (a the drug addiction aid and youth welfare system, (b the out-patient medical system, (c the in-patient medical system and (d prisons for juvenile offenders. Data are collected at three points, before and after the training or a treatment as usual, and six months after the end of either intervention. Discussion The CAN Stop study is expected to provide an evidence-based programme for young cannabis users

  4. Application of medical cannabis in patients with the neurodegeneration disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kotuła

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Medical cannabis is the dried flowers of the female Cannabis sativa L. plant. Cannabis contains a number of active elements, including dronabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Dronabinol is usually the main ingredient. The body’s own cannabinoid system has been identified. The discovery of this system, which comprises endocannabinoids and receptors, confirmed that cannabis has a positive effect on certain illnesses and conditions. Two types of cannabinoid receptors have been identified: CB1 and CB2 receptors. The first type CB1 is mostly found in the central nervous system, modulate pain. It also has an anti-emetic effect, and has influence on the memory and the motor system. The second type of receptors CB2 is peripheral, and it is primarily found in immune system cells and it is responsible for the immunomodulatory effects of cannabinoids. Medical cannabis can help in cases of the neurodegeneration disorders, for example Parkinson’s disease, Huntington’s Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Patients generally tolerate medical cannabis well.

  5. Longitudinal changes in white matter microstructure after heavy cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Mary P; Collins, Paul F; Lim, Kelvin O; Muetzel, R L; Luciana, M

    2015-12-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of cannabis users report alterations in brain white matter microstructure, primarily based on cross-sectional research, and etiology of the alterations remains unclear. We report findings from longitudinal voxelwise analyses of DTI data collected at baseline and at a 2-year follow-up on 23 young adult (18-20 years old at baseline) regular cannabis users and 23 age-, sex-, and IQ-matched non-using controls with limited substance use histories. Onset of cannabis use was prior to age 17. Cannabis users displayed reduced longitudinal growth in fractional anisotropy in the central and parietal regions of the right and left superior longitudinal fasciculus, in white matter adjacent to the left superior frontal gyrus, in the left corticospinal tract, and in the right anterior thalamic radiation lateral to the genu of the corpus callosum, along with less longitudinal reduction of radial diffusion in the right central/posterior superior longitudinal fasciculus, corticospinal tract, and posterior cingulum. Greater amounts of cannabis use were correlated with reduced longitudinal growth in FA as was relatively impaired performance on a measure of verbal learning. These findings suggest that continued heavy cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood alters ongoing development of white matter microstructure, contributing to functional impairment.

  6. Reliability and validity of the Marijuana Motives Measure among young adult frequent cannabis users and associations with cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benschop, Annemieke; Liebregts, Nienke; van der Pol, Peggy; Schaap, Rick; Buisman, Renate; van Laar, Margriet; van den Brink, Wim; de Graaf, Ron; Korf, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    The Marijuana Motives Measure (MMM) has so far been examined mainly in student populations, often with relatively limited involvement in cannabis use. This study evaluated the factor structure of the MMM in a demographically mixed sample of 600 young adult (18-30 years) frequent (≥ 3 days per week) cannabis users in the Netherlands. Analysis confirmed a five-factor solution, denoting coping, enhancement, social, conformity and expansion motives. Additionally, the original MMM was extended with two items (boredom and habit), which formed a distinct, internally consistent sixth factor labelled routine motives. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, coping and routine motives showed significant associations with 12-month DSM-IV cannabis dependence. The results suggest general reliability and validity of the MMM in a heterogeneous population of experienced cannabis users.

  7. The Effect of Changes in Cannabis Exposure on Psychotic Symptoms in Patients With Comorbid Cannabis Use Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftdahl, Nanna Gilliam; Nordentoft, Merete; Hjorthøj, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It remains unclear whether there is an association between severity of cannabis use and psychotic symptom severity over time. Shedding light on this under-researched matter could have clinical implications for this patient group. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of a randomized......, parallel-group, superiority, assessor-blinded trial. We followed 60 patients with dually diagnosed psychosis and cannabis use disorders from the Danish CapOpus trial, which included assessments at baseline, post-treatment (6 months) and 10 months. Cannabis use was registered by self-report assisted...... and persistent cannabis use (severe use group) had significantly higher scores, as compared to those with minor use, on the positive symptom (17.0, 95% CI [4.7-19.2] vs. 12.7, 95% CI [10.4-15.0], respectively, adjusted p

  8. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome: A Paradoxical Cannabis Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivonne Marie Figueroa-Rivera

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite well-established antiemetic properties of marijuana, there has been increasing evidence of a paradoxical effect in the gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, given rise to a new and underrecognized clinical entity called the Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Reported cases in the medical literature have established a series of patients exhibiting a classical triad of symptoms: cyclic vomiting, chronic marijuana use, and compulsive bathing. We present a case of a 29-year-old man whose clinical presentation strongly correlates with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Despite a diagnosis of exclusion, this syndrome should be considered plausible in the setting of a patient with recurrent intractable vomiting and a strong history of cannabis use as presented in this case.

  9. [Cannabis--Position Paper of the German Respiratory Society (DGP)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuter, M; Nowak, D; Rüther, T; Hoch, E; Thomasius, R; Vogelberg, C; Brockstedt, M; Hellmann, A; Gohlke, H; Jany, B; Loddenkemper, R

    2016-02-01

    In this position paper, the adverse health effects of cannabis are reviewed based on the existing scientific literature; in addition possible symptom-relieving effects on some diseases are depicted. In Germany, cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. Approximately 600,000 adult persons show abusive or addictive cannabis consumption. In 12 to 17 year old adolescents, cannabis use increased from 2011 to 2014 from 2.8 to 6.4%, and the frequency of regular use from 0.2 to 1.5%. Currently, handling of cannabinoids is much debated in politics as well as in general public. Health aspects have to be incorporated into this debate. Besides analysing mental and neurological side effects, this position paper will mainly focus on the influences on the bronchopulmonary and cardiovascular system. There is strong evidence for the induction of chronic bronchitis. Allergic reactions including asthma are known, too. Associations with other diseases like pulmonary emphysema, lung cancer and pneumonia are not sufficiently proven, however cannot be excluded either. In connection with the use of cannabis cardiovascular events such as coronary syndromes, peripheral vascular diseases and cerebral complications have been noted. Often, the evidence is insufficient due to various reasons; most notably, the overlapping effects of tobacco and cannabis use can frequently not be separated adequately. Empirically, early beginning, high-dosed, long-lasting and regular cannabis consumption increase the risk of various psychological and physical impairments and negatively affect age-based development. Concerns therefore relate especially to children and adolescents. There is only little scientific evidence for medical benefits through cannabis as a remedy; systematic research of good quality, in particular prospective, randomised, placebo-controlled double-blinded studies are rare. The medical societies signing this position paper conclude that cannabis consumption is linked to adverse health

  10. Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henquet, C.J.; Krabbendam, L.; Spauwen, P.H.M.; Kaplan, C.; Lieb, R.; Wittchen, H.U.; Os, J. van

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relation between cannabis use and psychotic symptoms in individuals with above average predisposition for psychosis who first used cannabis during adolescence. DESIGN: Analysis of prospective data from a population based sample. Assessment of substance use, predispositi

  11. Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischedick, Justin Thomas; Hazekamp, Arno; Erkelens, Tjalling; Choi, Young Hae; Verpoorte, Rob

    2010-12-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important medicinal plant. In order to develop cannabis plant material as a medicinal product quality control and clear chemotaxonomic discrimination between varieties is a necessity. Therefore in this study 11 cannabis varieties were grown under the same environmental conditions. Chemical analysis of cannabis plant material used a gas chromatography flame ionization detection method that was validated for quantitative analysis of cannabis monoterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, and cannabinoids. Quantitative data was analyzed using principal component analysis to determine which compounds are most important in discriminating cannabis varieties. In total 36 compounds were identified and quantified in the 11 varieties. Using principal component analysis each cannabis variety could be chemically discriminated. This methodology is useful for both chemotaxonomic discrimination of cannabis varieties and quality control of plant material.

  12. Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

  13. Predictors of age at onset of tobacco and cannabis use in Danish adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wium-Andersen, Ida Kim; Wium-Andersen, Marie Kim; Becker, Ulrik

    2010-01-01

    Early onset of tobacco and cannabis use predicts later substance abuse and risk behaviour and has large health consequences.......Early onset of tobacco and cannabis use predicts later substance abuse and risk behaviour and has large health consequences....

  14. The Cannabis Infringement Notice scheme in Western Australia: a review of policy, police and judicial perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Adam; Hawks, David

    2005-07-01

    Western Australia (WA) became the fourth Australian jurisdiction to adopt a 'prohibition with civil penalties scheme' for minor cannabis offences when its Cannabis Infringement Notice (CIN) scheme became law on 22 March 2004. This study examined the attitudes and practices of policy makers, members of the law enforcement and magistracy and other judicial sectors involved in enforcing the new scheme, and their views as to its likely impact on the drug market. As part of the pre--post evaluation of the legislative reforms a sample of 30 police, other criminal justice personnel and policy makers have been qualitatively interviewed. Data were collected both at the pre-implementation stage (March and June 2003) and shortly after the Act became operational (mid-June 2004). The Western Australia Police Service's implementation of the CIN scheme has been extremely professional. However, these early results suggest that while the CIN scheme has been designed to take into account problems with similar schemes elsewhere in Australia, possible problems include: some operational police being unsure about the operation of the scheme; expected savings in police resources will probably be reduced by procedures which require offenders to be taken back to the station rather than issue notices on the spot as intended by the scheme's architects; probable net widening; problems with exercise of police discretion to issue a CIN; and public misunderstanding of the scheme. In the early months of the scheme understanding of the new laws among both police and members of the public was far from perfect. For the system to achieve the outcomes intended by legislators, it is essential that levels of understanding improve. Media and other campaigns to inform the public that cannabis cultivation and use remain illegal, and to warn about risks associated with cannabis use, should be extended. As it will be at least 18 months before the scheme is operationally settled in, the media and others

  15. Routes of administration of cannabis used for nonmedical purposes and associations with patterns of drug use.

    OpenAIRE

    Baggio, S.; Deline, S.; Studer, J.; Mohler-Kuo, M.; Daeppen, J.B.; Gmel, G.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Little is known regarding cannabis administration routes for nonmedical use-that is, its delivery methods (e.g., joints, water pipe, food). Therefore, we examined the prevalence rates of different cannabis delivery methods and assessed the relationship of the distinct administration routes with problematic drug use. Subgroups of cannabis users were also investigated (i.e., "pure" cannabis users, previously described as employing a harmless route of administration, and water pipe user...

  16. Hippocampal harms, protection and recovery following regular cannabis use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel, M; Lorenzetti, V; Suo, C; Zalesky, A; Fornito, A; Takagi, M J; Lubman, D I; Solowij, N

    2016-01-12

    Shifting policies towards legalisation of cannabis for therapeutic and recreational use raise significant ethical issues for health-care providers seeking evidence-based recommendations. We investigated whether heavy cannabis use is associated with persistent harms to the hippocampus, if exposure to cannabidiol offers protection, and whether recovery occurs with abstinence. To do this, we assessed 111 participants: 74 long-term regular cannabis users (with an average of 15.4 years of use) and 37 non-user healthy controls. Cannabis users included subgroups of participants who were either exposed to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but not to cannabidiol (CBD) or exposed to both, and former users with sustained abstinence. Participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging from which three measures of hippocampal integrity were assessed: (i) volume; (ii) fractional anisotropy; and (iii) N-acetylaspartate (NAA). Three curve-fitting models across the entire sample were tested for each measure to examine whether cannabis-related hippocampal harms are persistent, can be minimised (protected) by exposure to CBD or recovered through long-term abstinence. These analyses supported a protection and recovery model for hippocampal volume (P=0.003) and NAA (P=0.001). Further pairwise analyses showed that cannabis users had smaller hippocampal volumes relative to controls. Users not exposed to CBD had 11% reduced volumes and 15% lower NAA concentrations. Users exposed to CBD and former users did not differ from controls on any measure. Ongoing cannabis use is associated with harms to brain health, underpinned by chronic exposure to THC. However, such harms are minimised by CBD, and can be recovered with extended periods of abstinence.

  17. Maintenance of Brucella abortus free herds; a review with emphasis on the epidemiology and the problems in diagnosing brucellosis in areas of low prevalence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bercovich, Z.

    1998-01-01

    This review covers some epidemiological aspects that allow Brucella to survive, spread, and maintain itself in the environment. Because the success of maintaining Brucella-free herds is determined by the efficiency of the serological tests to detect a single infected animal the limitations of the tr

  18. Time-course of the DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal symptoms in poly-substance abusers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Thylstrup, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence is accumulating that a cannabis withdrawal syndrome is common, of clinical significance, and has a clear time course. Up till now, very limited data exist on the cannabis withdrawal symptoms in patients with co-morbid substance use disorders, other than cannabis use and tobacc...

  19. Three-Year Course of Cannabis Dependence and Prediction of Persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pol, P.; Liebregts, N.; de Graaf, R.; Korf, D.J.; van den Brink, W.; van Laar, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To examine the course and the predictors of the persistence of cannabis dependence. Methods: Through cannabis outlets and chain referral, a prospective enriched community cohort of 207 young adults (aged 18-30) with DSM-IV cannabis dependence at baseline (T0) was formed and followed-up after 1

  20. A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marroun, H. el; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; Brink, W. van den; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Cannabis is commonly used among pregnant women. It is unclear whether cannabis exposure causes hemodynamic modifications in the fetus, like tobacco does. Aims: This study aims to ascertain fetal blood redistribution due to intrauterine cannabis exposure. Methods: This study was embedded in the Gener

  1. A prospective study on intrauterine cannabis exposure and fetal blood flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Marroun, H.; Tiemeier, H.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Roos-Hesselink, J.W.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.; Hofman, A.; Verhulst, F.C.; van den Brink, W.; Huizink, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cannabis is commonly used among pregnant women. It is unclear whether cannabis exposure causes hemodynamic modifications in the fetus, like tobacco does. Aims: This study aims to ascertain fetal blood redistribution due to intrauterine cannabis exposure. Methods: This study was embedded

  2. The prevalence and incidence of medicinal cannabis on prescription in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hazekamp, Arno; Heerdink, Eibert R.

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of countries are providing pharmaceutical grade cannabis to chronically ill patients. However, little published data is known about the extent of medicinal cannabis use and the characteristics of patients using cannabis on doctor's prescription. This study describes a retrospective

  3. Motivational and control mechanisms underlying adolescent cannabis use disorders: a prospective study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cousijn, J.; van Benthem, P.; van der Schee, E.; Spijkerman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use disorders (CUDs) are the most prevalent substance use disorders among adolescents in treatment. Yet, little is known about the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying adolescent CUDs. Studies in adult cannabis users suggest a significant role for cognitive control and cannabis-oriented

  4. Taming THC: potential cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid-terpenoid entourage effects

    OpenAIRE

    Russo, Ethan B.

    2011-01-01

    Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) has been the primary focus of cannabis research since 1964, when Raphael Mechoulam isolated and synthesized it. More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest. Innovative conventional plant breeding has yielded cannabis chemotypes expres...

  5. Global patterns of domestic cannabis cultivation: sample characteristics and patterns of growing across eleven countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.R. Potter; M.J. Barratt; A. Malm; M. Bouchard; T. Blok; A.S. Christensen; T. Decorte; V. Asmussen Frank; P. Hakkarainen; A. Klein; S. Lenton; J. Perälä; B. Werse; M. Wouters

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To provide an overview of: demographic characteristics; experiences with growing cannabis; methods and scale of growing operations; reasons for growing; personal use of cannabis and other drugs; participation in cannabis and other drug markets; contacts with the criminal justice system for res

  6. Intrauterine Cannabis Exposure Affects Fetal Growth Trajectories: The Generation R Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Marroun, Hanan; Tiemeier, Henning; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Jaddoe, Vincent W. V.; Hofman, Albert; Verhulst, Frank C.; van den Brink, Wim; Huizink, Anja C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Cannabis is the most commonly consumed illicit drug among pregnant women. Intrauterine exposure to cannabis may result in risks for the developing fetus. The importance of intrauterine growth on subsequent psychological and behavioral child development has been demonstrated. This study examined the relation between maternal cannabis use…

  7. Feasibility of Momentary Sampling Assessment of Cannabis Use in Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Shimrit K.; de Moor, Carl; Kendall, Ashley D.; Shrier, Lydia A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the feasibility of recruiting and retaining adolescents and young adults with frequent cannabis use for a 2-week momentary sampling study of cannabis use. Participants responded to random signals on a handheld computer with reports of their use. Participants also initiated reports pre- and post-cannabis use. Participants had…

  8. Applying a Social Determinants of Health Perspective to Early Adolescent Cannabis Use--An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyshka, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world. Although the risk of problematic cannabis use is relatively low, the lifetime prevalence of dependence is greater than for all other illicit drugs. As such, the population burden of problematic cannabis use warrants attention. Many health and psychosocial risks associated with cannabis…

  9. A Meta-Analysis of Interventions to Reduce Adolescent Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Kimberly; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Sarteschi, Christy; Vaughn, Michael G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This meta-analytic review assesses the effectiveness of substance abuse interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use. Method: A systematic search identified 15 randomized controlled evaluations of interventions to reduce adolescent cannabis use published between 1960 and 2008. The primary outcome variables, frequency of cannabis use,…

  10. Prenatal Cannabis Exposure and Infant Development: “A Tolerated Matter”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. El Marroun (Hanan)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractSince centuries, cannabis is used for recreational, spiritual and medicinal purposes. Today, cannabis is one of the most commonly used illicit substances, also among pregnant women. In the last decades, levels of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis products have increased, and these high

  11. A genetic perspective on the proposed inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in DSM-5

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij, K.J.H.; Agrawal, A.; Nat, N.O.; Creemers, H.E.; Huizink, A.C.; Martin, N.G.; Lynskey, M.T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Various studies support the inclusion of cannabis withdrawal in the diagnosis of cannabis use disorder (CUD) in the upcoming DSM-5. The aims of the current study were to (1) estimate the prevalence of DSM-5 cannabis withdrawal (criterion B), (2) estimate the role of genetic and environmen

  12. Genome-wide association study of lifetime cannabis use based on a large meta-analytic sample of 32 330 subjects from the International Cannabis Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, S; Minică, C C; Verweij, K J H; Mbarek, H; Bernard, M; Derringer, J; van Eijk, K R; Isen, J D; Loukola, A; Maciejewski, D F; Mihailov, E; van der Most, P J; Sánchez-Mora, C; Roos, L; Sherva, R; Walters, R; Ware, J J; Abdellaoui, A; Bigdeli, T B; Branje, S J T; Brown, S A; Bruinenberg, M; Casas, M; Esko, T; Garcia-Martinez, I; Gordon, S D; Harris, J M; Hartman, C A; Henders, A K; Heath, A C; Hickie, I B; Hickman, M; Hopfer, C J; Hottenga, J J; Huizink, A C; Irons, D E; Kahn, R S; Korhonen, T; Kranzler, H R; Krauter, K; van Lier, P A C; Lubke, G H; Madden, P A F; Mägi, R; McGue, M K; Medland, S E; Meeus, W H J; Miller, M B; Montgomery, G W; Nivard, M G; Nolte, I M; Oldehinkel, A J; Pausova, Z; Qaiser, B; Quaye, L; Ramos-Quiroga, J A; Richarte, V; Rose, R J; Shin, J; Stallings, M C; Stiby, A I; Wall, T L; Wright, M J; Koot, H M; Paus, T; Hewitt, J K; Ribasés, M; Kaprio, J; Boks, M P; Snieder, H; Spector, T; Munafò, M R; Metspalu, A; Gelernter, J; Boomsma, D I; Iacono, W G; Martin, N G; Gillespie, N A; Derks, E M; Vink, J M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is the most widely produced and consumed illicit psychoactive substance worldwide. Occasional cannabis use can progress to frequent use, abuse and dependence with all known adverse physical, psychological and social consequences. Individual differences in cannabis initiation are heritable (40–48%). The International Cannabis Consortium was established with the aim to identify genetic risk variants of cannabis use. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association data of 13 cohorts (N=32 330) and four replication samples (N=5627). In addition, we performed a gene-based test of association, estimated single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability and explored the genetic correlation between lifetime cannabis use and cigarette use using LD score regression. No individual SNPs reached genome-wide significance. Nonetheless, gene-based tests identified four genes significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use: NCAM1, CADM2, SCOC and KCNT2. Previous studies reported associations of NCAM1 with cigarette smoking and other substance use, and those of CADM2 with body mass index, processing speed and autism disorders, which are phenotypes previously reported to be associated with cannabis use. Furthermore, we showed that, combined across the genome, all common SNPs explained 13–20% (P<0.001) of the liability of lifetime cannabis use. Finally, there was a strong genetic correlation (rg=0.83; P=1.85 × 10−8) between lifetime cannabis use and lifetime cigarette smoking implying that the SNP effect sizes of the two traits are highly correlated. This is the largest meta-analysis of cannabis GWA studies to date, revealing important new insights into the genetic pathways of lifetime cannabis use. Future functional studies should explore the impact of the identified genes on the biological mechanisms of cannabis use. PMID:27023175

  13. Dietary fats and pharmaceutical lipid excipients increase systemic exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zgair, Atheer; Wong, Jonathan Cm; Lee, Jong Bong; Mistry, Jatin; Sivak, Olena; Wasan, Kishor M; Hennig, Ivo M; Barrett, David A; Constantinescu, Cris S; Fischer, Peter M; Gershkovich, Pavel

    2016-01-01

    There has been an escalating interest in the medicinal use of Cannabis sativa in recent years. Cannabis is often administered orally with fat-containing foods, or in lipid-based pharmaceutical preparations. However, the impact of lipids on the exposure of patients to cannabis components has not been explored. Therefore, the aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of oral co-administration of lipids on the exposure to two main active cannabinoids, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). In this study, oral co-administration of lipids enhanced the systemic exposure of rats to THC and CBD by 2.5-fold and 3-fold, respectively, compared to lipid-free formulations. In vitro lipolysis was conducted to explore the effect of lipids on the intestinal solubilisation of cannabinoids. More than 30% of THC and CBD were distributed into micellar fraction following lipolysis, suggesting that at least one-third of the administered dose will be available for absorption following co-administration with lipids. Both cannabinoids showed very high affinity for artificial CM-like particles, as well as for rat and human CM, suggesting high potential for intestinal lymphatic transport. Moreover, comparable affinity of cannabinoids for rat and human CM suggests that similar increased exposure effects may be expected in humans. In conclusion, co-administration of dietary lipids or pharmaceutical lipid excipients has the potential to substantially increase the exposure to orally administered cannabis and cannabis-based medicines. The increase in patient exposure to cannabinoids is of high clinical importance as it could affect the therapeutic effect, but also toxicity, of orally administered cannabis or cannabis-based medicines.

  14. State of the art treatments for cannabis dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danovitch, Itai; Gorelick, David A

    2012-06-01

    The treatment of cannabis dependence can be viewed as a cup half empty or half full. On the one hand, few people who might benefit from treatment actually receive it. Among those who undergo treatment in randomized trials, long-term abstinence is achieved by fewer than 20%. Moderate use goals have been associated with decreases in consequences, but the differential impact of such goals on the long-term course of cannabis dependence is unknown. Optimal duration of treatment is unclear, and certain populations, particularly patients with co-occurring disorders, have not been studied adequately. Twelve-step programs are low cost, effective for other substance use disorders, and readily available in most regions of the world. However, their role and efficacy in cannabis dependence has not been examined. Finally, effective pharmacologic treatments are under development, but none have yet been firmly established. On the other hand, psychotherapeutic strategies used to treat other substance use disorders can be effective for cannabis dependence. A recent meta-analysis of psychosocial interventions for illicit substance use disorders found that treatments for cannabis dependence had comparatively larger effect sizes than treatments for other substance use disorders. Combination therapies have proven most effective, particularly those that begin with a motivational intervention, utilize incentives to enhance the commitment to change, and teach behavioral and cognitive copings skills to prevent relapse. Among adolescents, family engagement and collaboration with community stakeholders adds substantial value. Although only 9% of cannabis users develop cannabis dependence, the volume of people who smoke cannabis ensures that the total number of people in need of help is larger than the capacity of substance abuse specialty services. Thus, although efforts to refine and improve the efficacy of treatment interventions continue, innovations that increase the availability and

  15. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiman Amanda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one

  16. Cannabis, possible cardiac deaths and the coroner in Ireland.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Tormey, W P

    2012-01-10

    BACKGROUND: The elevated risk of triggering a myocardial infarction by smoking cannabis is limited to the first 2 h after smoking. AIM: To examine the possible role of cannabis in cardiac deaths. CASES AND RESULTS: From 3,193 coroners\\' cases over 2 years, there were 13 cases where the clinical information was compatible with a primary cardiac cause of death. An inquest was held in three cases. Myocardial infarction was the primary cause of death in 54%. Other causes were sudden adult death syndrome, sudden death in epilepsy, and poisoning by alcohol and diazepam. Cannabis was mentioned once only on a death certificate, but not as a cause of death. Blood delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol-carboxylic acid was recorded in one case and in no case was plasma tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) measured. CONCLUSIONS: To attribute sudden cardiac death to cannabis, plasma THC should be measured in the toxicology screen in coroners\\' cases where urine cannabinoids are positive. A positive urine cannabinoids immunoassay alone is insufficient evidence in the linkage of acute cardiac death and cannabis.

  17. Medical cannabis and mental health: A guided systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Zach; Gonzalez, Raul; Crosby, Kim; S Thiessen, Michelle; Carroll, Chris; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O

    2017-02-01

    This review considers the potential influences of the use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes (CTP) on areas of interest to mental health professionals, with foci on adult psychopathology and assessment. We identified 31 articles relating to the use of CTP and mental health, and 29 review articles on cannabis use and mental health that did not focus on use for therapeutic purposes. Results reflect the prominence of mental health conditions among the reasons for CTP use, and the relative dearth of high-quality evidence related to CTP in this context, thereby highlighting the need for further research into the harms and benefits of medical cannabis relative to other therapeutic options. Preliminary evidence suggests that CTP may have potential for the treatment of PTSD, and as a substitute for problematic use of other substances. Extrapolation from reviews of non-therapeutic cannabis use suggests that the use of CTP may be problematic among individuals with psychotic disorders. The clinical implications of CTP use among individuals with mood disorders are unclear. With regard to assessment, evidence suggests that CTP use does not increase risk of harm to self or others. Acute cannabis intoxication and recent CTP use may result in reversible deficits with the potential to influence cognitive assessment, particularly on tests of short-term memory.

  18. Cannabis cultivation: Methodological issues for obtaining medical-grade product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, Suman; Lata, Hemant; ElSohly, Mahmoud A; Walker, Larry A; Potter, David

    2017-02-12

    As studies continue to reveal favorable findings for the use of cannabidiol in the management of childhood epilepsy syndromes and other disorders, best practices for the large-scale production of Cannabis are needed for timely product development and research purposes. The processes of two institutions with extensive experience in producing large-scale cannabidiol chemotype Cannabis crops-GW Pharmaceuticals and the University of Mississippi-are described, including breeding, indoor and outdoor growing, harvesting, and extraction methods. Such practices have yielded desirable outcomes in Cannabis breeding and production: GW Pharmaceuticals has a collection of chemotypes dominant in any one of eight cannabinoids, two of which-cannabidiol and cannabidivarin-are supporting epilepsy clinical trial research, whereas in addition to a germplasm bank of high-THC, high-CBD, and intermediate type cannabis varieties, the team at University of Mississippi has established an in vitro propagation protocol for cannabis with no detectable variations in morphologic, physiologic, biochemical, and genetic profiles as compared to the mother plants. Improvements in phytocannabinoid yields and growing efficiency are expected as research continues at these institutions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Cannabinoids and Epilepsy".

  19. Cannabis in the Treatment of Dystonia, Dyskinesias, and Tics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppel, Barbara S

    2015-10-01

    Cannabis has been used for many medicinal purposes, including management of spasms, dystonia, and dyskinesias, with variable success. Its use for tetanus was described in the second century BCE, but the literature continues to include more case reports and surveys of its beneficial effects in managing symptoms of hyperkinetic movement disorders than randomized controlled trials, making evidence-based recommendations difficult. This paper reviews clinical research using various formulations of cannabis (botanical products, oral preparations containing ∆(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and/or cannabidiol) and currently available preparations in the USA (nabilone and dronabinol). This has been expanded from a recent systematic review of cannabis use in several neurologic conditions to include case reports and case series and results of anonymous surveys of patients using cannabis outside of medical settings, with the original evidence classifications marked for those papers that followed research protocols. Despite overlap in some patients, dyskinesias will be treated separately from dystonia and chorea; benefit was not established beyond individual patients for these conditions. Tics, usually due to Tourettes, did respond to cannabis preparations. Side effects reported in the trials will be reviewed but those due to recreational use, including the dystonia that can be secondary to synthetic marijuana preparations, are outside the scope of this paper.

  20. Medical use of cannabis. Cannabidiol: a new light for schizophrenia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiana, Serena

    2013-01-01

    The medical properties of cannabis have been known for many centuries; its first documented use dates back to 2800 BC when it was described for its hallucinogenic and pain-relieving properties. In the first half of the twentieth century, a number of pharmaceutical companies marked cannabis for indications such as asthma and pain, but since then its use has sharply declined, mainly due to its unpredictable effects, but also for socio-political issues. Recently, great attention has been directed to the medical properties of phytocannabinoids present in the cannabis plant alongside the main constituent Δ⁹-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC); these include cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD), cannabigerol (CBG), and tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV). Evidence suggests an association between cannabis and schizophrenia: schizophrenics show a higher use of marijuana as compared to the healthy population. Additionally, the use of marijuana can trigger psychotic episodes in schizophrenic patients, and this has been ascribed to THC. Given the need to reduce the side effects of marketed antipsychotics, and their weak efficacy on some schizophrenic symptoms, cannabinoids have been suggested as a possible alternative treatment for schizophrenia. CBD, a non-psychoactive constituent of the Cannabis sativa plant, has been receiving growing attention for its anti-psychotic-like properties. Evidence suggests that CBD can ameliorate positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Behavioural and neurochemical models suggest that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical anti-psychotic drugs and a clinical trial reported that this cannabinoid is a well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia.

  1. Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex, a cannabis-based medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ethan B; Guy, Geoffrey W; Robson, Philip J

    2007-08-01

    Cannabis sativa L. has been utilized for treatment of pain and sleep disorders since ancient times. This review examines modern studies on effects of Delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) on sleep. It goes on to report new information on the effects on sleep in the context of medical treatment of neuropathic pain and symptoms of multiple sclerosis, employing standardized oromucosal cannabis-based medicines containing primarily THC, CBD, or a 1 : 1 combination of the two (Sativex). Sleep-laboratory results indicate a mild activating effect of CBD, and slight residual sedation with THC-predominant extracts. Experience to date with Sativex in numerous Phase I-III studies in 2000 subjects with 1000 patient years of exposure demonstrate marked improvement in subjective sleep parameters in patients with a wide variety of pain conditions including multiple sclerosis, peripheral neuropathic pain, intractable cancer pain, and rheumatoid arthritis, with an acceptable adverse event profile. No tolerance to the benefit of Sativex on pain or sleep, nor need for dosage increases have been noted in safety extension studies of up to four years, wherein 40-50% of subjects attained good or very good sleep quality, a key source of disability in chronic pain syndromes that may contribute to patients' quality of life.

  2. Variation in the THC content of illicitly imported Cannabis products--1984-1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, J E; O'Neil, P J; Leggo, K P

    1990-12-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content of more than 180 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products, seized by H.M. Customs and Excise on entry into Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1984-1989, has been determined by gas chromatography. The average THC content of herbal cannabis remained high due to good quality cannabis from Jamaica and the USA, but that of cannabis resin was slightly lower. Resin from Morocco has changed significantly in its physical appearance. There was no fresh seizure of cannabis oil in this period.

  3. Epidemiological causality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  4. Drinking, cannabis use and driving among Ontario students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adlaf, Edward M; Mann, Robert E; Paglia, Angela

    2003-03-04

    Little is known about the risk of injury among adolescents who drive after the use of alcohol or cannabis or ride in cars driven by drunk drivers. We examined data from self-administered interviews with 1846 students in grades 7 to 13 who participated in the 2001 Ontario Student Drug Use Survey about their experiences related to alcohol, cannabis and driving during the 12 months preceding the survey. In all, 31.9% of the students reported being a passenger in a car driven by a drunk driver; of the students in grades 10 to 13 who had a driver's licence, 15.1% reported driving within an hour after consuming 2 or more drinks, and 19.7% reported driving within an hour after using cannabis. Our study shows that a sizeable proportion of adolescents are exposed to alcohol- and drug-related driving risks.

  5. Cannabis effects on driving longitudinal control with and without alcohol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Rebecca L; Brown, Timothy L; Milavetz, Gary; Spurgin, Andrew; Pierce, Russell S; Gorelick, David A; Gaffney, Gary; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2016-11-01

    Although evidence suggests cannabis impairs driving, its driving-performance effects are not fully characterized. We aimed to establish cannabis' effects on driving longitudinal control (with and without alcohol, drivers' most common drug combination) relative to psychoactive ∆(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) blood concentrations. Current occasional (≥1×/last 3 months, ≤3 days per week) cannabis smokers drank placebo or low-dose alcohol, and inhaled 500 mg placebo, low (2.9%), or high (6.7%) THC vaporized cannabis over 10 min ad libitum in separate sessions (within-subject, six conditions). Participants drove (National Advanced Driving Simulator, University of Iowa) simulated drives 0.5-1.3 h post-inhalation. Blood and breath alcohol samples were collected before (0.17 and 0.42 h) and after (1.4 and 2.3 h) driving. We evaluated the mean speed (relative to limit), standard deviation (SD) of speed, percent time spent >10% above/below the speed limit (percent speed high/percent speed low), longitudinal acceleration, and ability to maintain headway relative to a lead vehicle (headway maintenance) against blood THC and breath alcohol concentrations (BrAC). In N=18 completing drivers, THC was associated with a decreased mean speed, increased percent speed low and increased mean following distance during headway maintenance. BrAC was associated with increased SD speed and increased percent speed high, whereas THC was not. Neither was associated with altered longitudinal acceleration. A less-than-additive THC*BrAC interaction was detected in percent speed high (considering only non-zero data and excluding an outlying drive event), suggesting cannabis mitigated drivers' tendency to drive faster with alcohol. Cannabis was associated with slower driving and greater headway, suggesting a possible awareness of impairment and attempt to compensate. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Limited use of medicinal cannabis but for labeled indications after legalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkens, J A; Janse, A F C; Herings, R M C

    2005-11-01

    Since September 2003, cannabis is available for medicinal purposes in Dutch pharmacies to. It was anticipated that the medicinal cannabis use via illegal ways would decrease. The objective of this study was to get insight in the use of medicinal cannabis in daily practise as dispensed by community pharmacies and to characterize the users as well as the symptoms and conditions cannabis is prescribed for.A prospective follow-up study among 200 patients who filled a prescription for medicinal cannabis was performed in the period between September 2003 and January 2004. The patients filled out a structured questionnaire concerning symptoms and conditions and their experience with cannabis. Of all patients, 42% suffered from multiple sclerosis, 11% suffered from rheumatic diseases, and 60% of respondents already used cannabis before the legalization. Cannabis was mainly used for chronic pain and muscle cramp/stiffness.The indication of medicinal cannabis use was in accordance with the labeled indications. However, more than 80% of the patients still obtained cannabis for medicinal purpose from the illegal circuit. Because of the higher prices in pharmacies, ongoing debate on the unproven effectiveness of the drug and the hesitation by physicians to prescribe cannabis.

  7. Cannabis and Exercise Science: A Commentary on Existing Studies and Suggestions for Future Directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillman, Arielle S; Hutchison, Kent E; Bryan, Angela D

    2015-10-01

    Policies regarding cannabis use are rapidly changing, yet public officials have limited access to scientific information that might inform the creation of these policies. One important area in which to begin investigations is the link between recreational cannabis use and health, specifically exercise. There are common anecdotal reports that cannabis decreases motivation, including motivation to exercise. On the other hand, there are also anecdotal reports that cannabis is used prior to athletic activity. In fact, the World Anti-Doping Agency includes cannabis as a prohibited substance in sport, partly because it is believed that it may enhance sports performance. At the current time, there is limited scientific evidence to support either one of these opposing lay perspectives. Given recent political, cultural, and legal trends, and the growing acceptance of recreational cannabis use, it is important to develop a more nuanced understanding of the relationship between cannabis and exercise, specifically the potential effects of use on exercise performance, motivation, and recovery.

  8. Effect of cannabis smoking on lung function and respiratory symptoms: a structured literature review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luis IG; Ind, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    As cannabis use increases, physicians need to be familiar with the effects of both cannabis and tobacco on the lungs. However, there have been very few long-term studies of cannabis smoking, mostly due to legality issues and the confounding effects of tobacco. It was previously thought that cannabis and tobacco had similar long-term effects as both cause chronic bronchitis. However, recent large studies have shown that, instead of reducing forced expiratory volume in 1 s and forced vital capacity (FVC), marijuana smoking is associated with increased FVC. The cause of this is unclear, but acute bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects of cannabis may be relevant. Bullous lung disease, barotrauma and cannabis smoking have been recognised in case reports and small series. More work is needed to address the effects of cannabis on lung function, imaging and histological changes. PMID:27763599

  9. Variation in the THC content in illicitly imported Cannabis products--Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, P B; Gough, T A; Johncock, S I; Taylor, B J; Wyles, L T

    1982-01-01

    The tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) contents of 220 samples of fresh illicit Cannabis products seized on entry into the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland over the period 1979-1981 have been determined by gas chromatography. During that period there was a general increase in the quality of both cannabis and cannabis resin, but with wide variations in THC contents both within and between countries. Some very high quality samples of cannabis, cannabis resin and cannabis oil from the Indian sub-continent have been analysed. There have been considerable changes in the number of fresh samples from several countries, compared with the previous survey. Fresh cannabis oil samples were very rare during the period covered by this survey.

  10. Aspectos terapêuticos de compostos da planta Cannabis sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honório Káthia Maria

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Several cannabinoid compounds present therapeutic properties, but also have psychotropic effects, limiting their use as medicine. Nowadays, many important discoveries on the compounds extracted from the plant Cannabis sativa (cannabinoids have contributed to understand the therapeutic properties of these compounds. The main discoveries in the last years on the cannabinoid compounds were: the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2, the endogenous cannabinoids and the possible mechanisms of action involved in the interaction between cannabinoid compounds and the biological receptors. So, from the therapeutical aspects presented in this work, we intended to show the evolution of the Cannabis sativa research and the possible medicinal use of cannabinoid compounds.

  11. Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Hersch-Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems.

  12. INCANT: a transnational randomized trial of Multidimensional Family Therapy versus treatment as usual for adolescents with cannabis use disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grichting Esther

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2003, the governments of Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Switzerland agreed that there was a need in Europe for a treatment programme for adolescents with cannabis use disorders and other behavioural problems. Based on an exhaustive literature review of evidence-based treatments and an international experts meeting, Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT was selected for a pilot study first, which was successful, and then for a joint, transnational randomized controlled trial named INCANT (INternational CAnnabis Need for Treatment. Methods/design INCANT is a randomized controlled trial (RCT with an open-label, parallel group design. This study compares MDFT with treatment as usual (TAU at and across sites in Brussels, Berlin, Paris, The Hague and Geneva. Assessments are at baseline and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after randomization. A minimum of 450 cases in total is required; sites will recruit 60 cases each in Belgium and Switzerland, and a maximum of 120 each in France, Germany and the Netherlands. Eligible for INCANT are adolescents from 13 through 18 years of age with a cannabis use disorder (dependence or abuse, with at least one parent willing to take part in the treatment. Randomization is concealed to, and therefore beyond control by, the researcher/site requesting it. Randomization is stratified as to gender, age and level of cannabis consumption. Assessments focus on substance use; mental function; behavioural problems; and functioning regarding family, school, peers and leisure time. For outcome analyses, the study will use state of the art latent growth curve modelling techniques, including all randomized participants according to the intention-to-treat principle. INCANT has been approved by the appropriate ethical boards in Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the University of Miami Miller School of Medicine. INCANT is funded by the (federal Ministries of Health of Belgium

  13. Preparation and Distribution of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Dosage Formulations for Investigational and Therapeutic Use in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Brian F.; Pollard, Gerald T.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is classified as a schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Agency, meaning that it has no medicinal value. Production is legally restricted to a single supplier at the University of Mississippi, and distribution to researchers is tightly controlled. However, a majority of the population is estimated to believe that cannabis has legitimate medical or recreational value, numerous states have legalized or decriminalized possession to some degree, and the federal government does not strictly enforce its law and is considering rescheduling. The explosive increase in open sale and use of herbal cannabis and its products has occurred with widely variable and in many cases grossly inadequate quality control at all levels—growing, processing, storage, distribution, and use. This paper discusses elements of the analytical and regulatory system that need to be put in place to ensure standardization for the researcher and to reduce the hazards of contamination, overdosing, and underdosing for the end-user. PMID:27630566

  14. Cannabis (Cannabis sativa or C. indica) agriculture and the environment: a systematic, spatially-explicit survey and potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Brenner, Jacob C.

    2016-04-01

    Cannabis agriculture is a multi-billion dollar industry in the United States that is changing rapidly with policy liberalization. Anecdotal observations fuel speculation about associated environmental impacts, and there is an urgent need for systematic empirical research. An example from Humboldt County California, a principal cannabis-producing region, involved digitizing 4428 grow sites in 60 watersheds with Google Earth imagery. Grows were clustered, suggesting disproportionate impacts in ecologically important locales. Sixty-eight percent of grows were >500 m from developed roads, suggesting risk of landscape fragmentation. Twenty-two percent were on steep slopes, suggesting risk of erosion, sedimentation, and landslides. Five percent were cannabis agriculture documented in our study demands that it be regulated and researched on par with conventional agriculture.

  15. Preparation and Distribution of Cannabis and Cannabis-Derived Dosage Formulations for Investigational and Therapeutic Use in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Frazier Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis is classified as a schedule I controlled substance by the US Drug Enforcement Agency, meaning that it has no medicinal value. Production is legally restricted to a single supplier at the University of Mississippi, and distribution to researchers is tightly controlled. However, a majority of the population is estimated to believe that cannabis has legitimate medical or recreational value, numerous states have legalized or decriminalized possession to some degree, and the federal government does not strictly enforce its law and is considering rescheduling. The explosive increase in open sale and use of herbal cannabis and its products has occurred with widely variable and in many cases grossly inadequate quality control at all levels—growing, processing, storage, distribution, and use. This paper discusses elements of the analytical and regulatory system that need to be put in place to ensure standardization for the researcher and to reduce the hazards of contamination, overdosing and underdosing for the end-user.

  16. Cannabis Use in Adolescence and Young Adulthood: A Review of Findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Carolyn; Patton, George C

    2016-06-01

    The Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (VAHCS) is a long-term Australian cohort study that has documented cannabis use in young Australians from the mid-teens to the mid-30s. The study findings have described the natural history of early cannabis use, remission, and escalation and the social and mental health consequences of different patterns of use. The adverse consequences of cannabis use are most clear-cut in heavy early adolescent users. These consequences include educational failure, persisting mental health problems, and progression to other substance use. For later onset and occasional users, the risks are lower and appear to entail modest elevations in risk for other drug use compared with never users. With growing evidence of health consequences, there is a strong case for actions around early heavy adolescent users. Prevention of early use, identification and treatment of early heavy users, and harm reduction through diversion of early heavy users away from the custodial justice system into health care are all priority responses.

  17. [Cannabis: Effects in the Central Nervous System. Therapeutic, societal and legal consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Olmos, Víctor Manuel; Parra-Bernal, Marisela C

    2016-01-01

    The consumption of marijuana extracted from Cannabis sativa and indica plants involves an important cultural impact in Mexico. Their psychological stimulatory effect is widely recognized; their biochemical and molecular components interact with CB1 and CB2 (endocannabinoid system) receptors in various central nervous system structures (CNS) and immune cells. The psychoactive element Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) can be reproduced synthetically. Systematic reviews show evidence of therapeutic effectiveness of therapeutic marijuana only for certain symptoms of multiple sclerosis (spasticity, spasms and pain), despite attempts for its widespread use, including refractory childhood epilepsy. Evidence indicates significant adverse effects of smoked marijuana on the structure, functioning and brain connectivity. Cannabis exposure during pregnancy affects fetal brain development, potentially leading to later behavioral problems in children. Neuropsychological tests and advanced imaging techniques show involvement in the learning process in adolescents with substance use. Also, marijuana increases the cognitive impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis. Social and ethical consequences to legally free marijuana for recreational use may be deleterious transcendentally. The medicinal or psychoactive cannabinol no addictive effect requires controlled proven efficacy and safety before regulatory approval studies.

  18. Conference on "Multidisciplinary approaches to nutritional problems". Symposium on "Nutrition and health". Cruciferous vegetable intake and the risk of human cancer: epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Kyung; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2009-02-01

    Over several decades a number of epidemiological studies have identified the inverse associations between cruciferous vegetables and the risk of several cancers, including gastric, breast, colo-rectal, lung, prostate, bladder and endometrial cancers, via plausible physiological mechanisms. Although retrospective case-control studies have consistently reported inverse associations between the risk of these cancers and the intake of cruciferous vegetables and isothiocyanate-containing plants, current prospective cohort studies have found these associations to be weaker and less consistent. Genetic variations affecting the metabolism of glucosinolate hydrolysis products may modulate the effects of cruciferous vegetable consumption on cancer risk, which may be one of the reasons for the discrepancies between retrospective and prospective studies. In addition, methodological issues such as measurement errors of dietary exposure, misclassification, recall bias, publication bias, confounding and study design should be carefully considered in interpreting the results of case-control and cohort studies and in drawing conclusions in relation to the potential effects of cruciferous vegetables on cancers. Although recent comprehensive reviews of numerous studies have purported to show the specific protective role of cruciferous vegetables, and particularly Brassicas, against cancer risk, the current epidemiological evidence suggests that cruciferous vegetable consumption may reduce the risk only of gastric and lung cancers. However, there is at present no conclusive evidence that the consumption of cruciferous vegetables attenuates the risk of all other cancers.

  19. Cannabis use predicts future psychotic symptoms, and vice versa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferdinand, R.F.; Sondeijker, F.; Ende, J. van den; Huizink, A.C.; Verhulst, F.C.

    2005-01-01

    Aims - To assess if cannabis use is a risk factor for future psychotic symptoms, and vice versa, in adolescents and young adults from the general population. Design Cohort study. Setting/participants - 'Zuid Holland' study, a 14-year follow-up study of 1580 initially 4-16-year-olds who were drawn ra

  20. New approaches to treating cannabis dependence: from neuroscience to practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Cousijn; F. Filbey

    2015-01-01

    The existence of cannabis dependence has been questioned for a long time (Murray et al., 2007). This debate has partly stemmed from an outdated view on substance use disorders (SUDs; Leshner, 1997), which measured the relative harm of substances of abuse through the severity of physical dependence (

  1. Trajectory of adolescent cannabis use on addiction vulnerability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Yasmin L; Michaelides, Michael; Miller, Michael L; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2014-01-01

    The adolescent brain is a period of dynamic development making it vulnerable to environmental factors such as drug exposure. Of the illicit drugs, cannabis is most used by teenagers since it is perceived by many to be of little harm. This perception has led to a growing number of states approving its legalization and increased accessibility. Most of the debates and ensuing policies regarding cannabis were done without consideration of its impact on one of the most vulnerable population, namely teens, or without consideration of scientific data. We provide an overview of the endocannabinoid system in relation to adolescent cannabis exposure and provide insights regarding factors such as genetics and behavioral traits that confer risk for subsequent addiction. While it is clear that more systematic scientific studies are needed to understand the long-term impact of adolescent cannabis exposure on brain and behavior, the current evidence suggests that it has a far-reaching influence on adult addictive behaviors particularly for certain subsets of vulnerable individuals. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'NIDA 40th Anniversary Issue'.

  2. Cannabis, cannabidiol, and epilepsy--from receptors to clinical response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaflarski, Jerzy P; Bebin, E Martina

    2014-12-01

    Recreational cannabis use in adults with epilepsy is widespread. The use of cannabis for medicinal purposes is also becoming more prevalent. For this purpose, various preparations of cannabis of varying strengths and content are being used. The recent changes in the legal environment have improved the availability of products with high cannabidiol (CBD) and low tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) concentrations. There is some anecdotal evidence of their potential efficacy, but the mechanisms of such action are not entirely clear. Some suspect an existence of synergy or "entourage effect" between CBD and THC. There is strong evidence that THC acts via the cannabinoid receptor CB1. The mechanism of action of CBD is less clear but is likely polypharmacological. The scientific data support the role of the endocannabinoid system in seizure generation, maintenance, and control in animal models of epilepsy. There are clear data for the negative effects of cannabis on the developing and mature brain though these effects appear to be relatively mild in most cases. Further data from well-designed studies are needed regarding short- and long-term efficacy and side effects of CBD or high-CBD/low-THC products for the treatment of seizures and epilepsy in children and adults.

  3. New developments in fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Zhang, Qingying; Amaducci, Stefano; Yang, Ming; Trindade, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Fiber hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) is a sustainable and high yielding industrial crop that can help to meet the high global demand for fibers. Hemp can be grown for fiber, seeds, and/or for dual purpose in a wide range of geographic zones and climates. Currently the main hemp producing regions in th

  4. Crop physiology of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der H.

    1994-01-01

    Fibre hemp ( Cannabis sativa L.) may be an alternative to wood as a raw material for the production of paper pulp. The effects of enviromnental factors and cultural measures on the functioning, yield and quality of fibre hemp crops in the Netherlands were investigated.Until flowering (generally in

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Cannabis Signaling in the Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronan, Patrick J; Wongngamnit, Narin; Beresford, Thomas P

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis has been cultivated and used by humans for thousands of years. Research for decades was focused on understanding the mechanisms of an illegal/addictive drug. This led to the discovery of the vast endocannabinoid system. Research has now shifted to understanding fundamental biological questions related to one of the most widespread signaling systems in both the brain and the body. Our understanding of cannabinoid signaling has advanced significantly in the last two decades. In this review, we discuss the state of knowledge on mechanisms of Cannabis signaling in the brain and the modulation of key brain neurotransmitter systems involved in both brain reward/addiction and psychiatric disorders. It is highly probable that various cannabinoids will be found to be efficacious in the treatment of a number of psychiatric disorders. However, while there is clearly much potential, marijuana has not been properly vetted by the medical-scientific evaluation process and there are clearly a range of potentially adverse side-effects-including addiction. We are at crossroads for research on endocannabinoid function and therapeutics (including the use of exogenous treatments such as Cannabis). With over 100 cannabinoid constituents, the majority of which have not been studied, there is much Cannabis research yet to be done. With more states legalizing both the medicinal and recreational use of marijuana the rigorous scientific investigation into cannabinoid signaling is imperative.

  6. PHARMACOLOGICAL AND MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY ASPECTS OF CANNABIS COMPOUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Cotelea

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The current communication includes a general overview of the scientific interest and medicianl chemistry aspects of Cannabis compounds. It relates to metabolism, pharmacological action and phisico-chemical analysis of these compounds, as well as of some isomers differing in spatial arrangement of functional groups.

  7. Medicinal cannabis extracts for the treatment of multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Paul F

    2004-07-01

    Prior to 2002, few clinical data were available to indicate whether cannabis extracts may be beneficial. However, in the last two years, results of several placebo-controlled clinical trials of orally administered compounds have been published, and these cast doubt on the efficacy of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta9-THC) in objectively reducing spasticity in MS. By contrast, it has been claimed that sublingually administered cannabis extracts that contain approximately equal concentrations of delta9-THC and cannabidiol, a natural cannabinoid that does not act on the CB1 receptor, can produce a statistically and clinically significant reduction in spasticity, although this claim has yet to be thoroughly validated. Nonetheless, results of preclinical trials also lend support to the hypothesis that the endogenous cannabinoid system may be involved in the regulation of spasticity and pain. A better indication of the clinical potential of the different cannabis extracts will have to await the publication of the most recent clinical trial data. This review critically evaluates the most recent evidence available on the potential use of medicinal extracts of cannabis to relieve pain and spasticity in multiple sclerosis.

  8. Functional MRI studies in human Ecstasy and cannabis users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, G.

    2006-01-01

    Cannabis and ecstasy are among the most widely used illicit drugs in the world. However, there are substantial concerns about their neurotoxic potential for brain and brain function. Despite previous research, some crucial questions regarding the causality, course and clinical relevance have remaine

  9. Neurocognitive moderation of associations between cannabis use and psychoneuroticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cannabis use has been associated with neurocognitive impairments and psychopathology. The strength of such associations does however appear to depend on many different factors, such as duration and intensity of use, but also differential susceptibility due to genetic make-up and environm

  10. The Pharmacological Basis of Cannabis Therapy for Epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Doodipala Samba; Golub, Victoria M

    2016-04-01

    Recently, cannabis has been suggested as a potential alternative therapy for refractory epilepsy, which affects 30% of epilepsy, both adults and children, who do not respond to current medications. There is a large unmet medical need for new antiepileptics that would not interfere with normal function in patients with refractory epilepsy and conditions associated with refractory seizures. The two chief cannabinoids are Δ-9-tetrahyrdrocannabinol, the major psychoactive component of marijuana, and cannabidiol (CBD), the major nonpsychoactive component of marijuana. Claims of clinical efficacy in epilepsy of CBD-predominant cannabis or medical marijuana come mostly from limited studies, surveys, or case reports. However, the mechanisms underlying the antiepileptic efficacy of cannabis remain unclear. This article highlights the pharmacological basis of cannabis therapy, with an emphasis on the endocannabinoid mechanisms underlying the emerging neurotherapeutics of CBD in epilepsy. CBD is anticonvulsant, but it has a low affinity for the cannabinoid receptors CB1 and CB2; therefore the exact mechanism by which it affects seizures remains poorly understood. A rigorous clinical evaluation of pharmaceutical CBD products is needed to establish the safety and efficacy of their use in the treatment of epilepsy. Identification of mechanisms underlying the anticonvulsant efficacy of CBD is also critical for identifying other potential treatment options.

  11. Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moosmann, Bjoern; Roth, Nadine; Auwärter, Volker

    2015-10-07

    Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in the hair of persons who solely handled cannabis material. In the light of the serious consequences of positive test results the mechanisms of drug incorporation into hair urgently need scientific evaluation. Here we show that neither THC nor THCA-A are incorporated into human hair in relevant amounts after systemic uptake. THC-COOH, which is considered an incontestable proof of THC uptake according to the current scientific doctrine, was found in hair, but was also present in older hair segments, which already grew before the oral THC intake and in sebum/sweat samples. Our studies show that all three cannabinoids can be present in hair of non-consuming individuals because of transfer through cannabis consumers, via their hands, their sebum/sweat, or cannabis smoke. This is of concern for e.g. child-custody cases as cannabinoid findings in a child's hair may be caused by close contact to cannabis consumers rather than by inhalation of side-stream smoke.

  12. Relationship between cannabis and psychosis: Reasons for use and associated clinical variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mané, Anna; Fernández-Expósito, Miguel; Bergé, Daniel; Gómez-Pérez, Laura; Sabaté, Agnés; Toll, Alba; Diaz, Laura; Diez-Aja, Cristobal; Perez, Victor

    2015-09-30

    The mechanism underneath the relationship between cannabis and psychosis remains controversial, for which several hypotheses have been proposed, including cannabis as self-medication and cannabis as a risk for the development of psychosis. The aim of this work was to study the relationship between cannabis and psychosis in first-episode psychosis cannabis users and non-users, and non-psychotic cannabis users. The age at the first psychotic episode, duration of untreated psychosis, psychopathology and reasons for cannabis use were assessed. First-episode psychosis cannabis users showed an earlier age at psychosis onset than non-user patients. No significant differences in symptomatology were found. The distinguishing reasons to use cannabis for patients with first-episode psychosis with respect to non-psychotic users were to arrange their thoughts and deal with hallucinations and suspiciousness. These findings are in agreement with both hypotheses: self-medication and secondary psychosis hypothesis. However, longitudinal prospective cohort studies assessing reasons for cannabis use are needed to investigate both hypotheses and their complementarity.

  13. Minnesota Pharmacists and Medical Cannabis: A Survey of Knowledge, Concerns, and Interest Prior to Program Launch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Joy; Arneson, Tom; St. Peter, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To assess Minnesota pharmacists’ preparedness for the state’s medical cannabis program in terms of professional competency in policies and regulations and in pharmacotherapy, as well as their concerns and perceptions about the impact on their practice. The secondary objective was to identify pharmacists’ perceptions about ways to reduce potential gaps in knowledge. Methods A Web-based 14-item questionnaire was distributed to all pharmacists whose email addresses were registered with the Minnesota Board of Pharmacy. Results Pharmacists reported limited knowledge of Minnesota state-level cannabis policies and regulations and felt that they were inadequately trained in cannabis pharmacotherapy. Most pharmacists were unprepared to counsel patients on medical cannabis and had many concerns regarding its availability and usage. Only a small proportion felt that the medical cannabis program would impact their practice. Pharmacists’ leading topics of interest for more education included Minnesota’s regulations on the medical cannabis program, cannabis pharmacotherapy, and the types and forms of cannabis products available for commercialization. Preferred modes of receiving information were electronic-based, including email and online continuing education credit. Since the survey’s completion, educational presentations have been provided to pharmacists and health professionals in Minnesota. Conclusion Pharmacists need more training and education on the regulatory and clinical aspects of cannabis in preparation for their work with patients in the medical cannabis program. PMID:27904305

  14. [Medicinal use of cannabis in the Netherlands: towards a responsible pattern of use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Floris A

    2009-01-01

    Since 2003, medicinal cannabis has been legally cultivated and distributed in the Netherlands under the auspices of the Dutch Office of Medicinal Cannabis (BMC), part of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. As a result of this measure, the indication, dosage, administration route, and safety of cannabis can now be investigated, information necessary for justifying its potentially future position as a standard medicinal product. Despite the current lack of reliable scientific efficacy data, standardised medicinal cannabis without microbes has also been made available on prescription. This has led to a safer and more responsible use. However, it is a bridge too far to say that 'it doesn't hurt to try'. The legalization of medicinal cannabis has also stimulated the development of new purified cannabis-based products, although it is claimed that some patients specifically benefit from using cannabis as a whole product. Despite disappointing sales at the end of 2007, the Minister of Health, Welfare and Sport has announced that the current policy will be extended for a further five years. The Minister also indicated that he would consider discontinuing the availability of medicinal cannabis for patients, if new cannabis products are granted market authorization. This might, however, give rise to a new era of illegal cannabis use for medicinal purposes, notably for the use as a whole product.

  15. Gender moderates the impact of stereotype threat on cognitive function in cannabis users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looby, Alison; Earleywine, Mitch

    2010-09-01

    Research reveals mixed results for the effects of cannabis on cognitive functioning. These divergent results might stem from stereotype threat (ST), which occurs when individuals believe that a group to which they belong is inferior, resulting in poor test performance. Widespread media coverage of purported cannabis-related deficits in cognitive functioning may elicit ST among cannabis users, particularly among men, who may be more likely than women to identify with the cannabis-user stereotype. To investigate this hypothesis, cannabis users (30 male, 27 female) read a summary of research indicating either that cannabis produced deficits (ST condition), or that cannabis actually created no changes in cognitive functions. Participants then completed cognitive tests. Examination of the gender x condition interaction revealed significant results on 4 tests: the California Verbal Learning Test-II immediate recall task, the Controlled Oral Word Association Test for number of words generated and number of switches between clusters, and the Digit Symbol Substitution Task. Males exposed to ST performed worse on all tests compared to men not exposed to ST, while women exposed to ST performed better than women not exposed. These results suggest that cognitive deficits observed in male cannabis users may be attributed to ST rather than decreased functioning. Surprisingly, women in the ST condition scored higher than controls. Perhaps female users do not identify with the typical cannabis stereotype. This study highlights the importance of disconfirming relevant stereotypes prior to examination of the cognitive abilities of cannabis users.

  16. Differentiation of drug and non-drug Cannabis using a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotherham, D; Harbison, S A

    2011-04-15

    Cannabis sativa is both an illegal drug and a legitimate crop. The differentiation of illegal drug Cannabis from non-drug forms of Cannabis is relevant in the context of the growth of fibre and seed oil varieties of Cannabis for commercial purposes. This differentiation is currently determined based on the levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in adult plants. DNA based methods have the potential to assay Cannabis material unsuitable for analysis using conventional means including seeds, pollen and severely degraded material. The purpose of this research was to develop a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assay for the differentiation of "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis plants. An assay was developed based on four polymorphisms within a 399 bp fragment of the tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase gene, utilising the snapshot multiplex kit. This SNP assay was tested on 94 Cannabis plants, which included 10 blind samples, and was able to differentiate between "drug" and "non-drug"Cannabis in all cases, while also differentiating between Cannabis and other species. Non-drug plants were found to be homozygous at the four sites assayed while drug Cannabis plants were either homozygous or heterozygous.

  17. Avoiding emotional bonds: An examination of the dimensions of therapeutic alliance among cannabis users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison eHealey

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing need to provide treatment for cannabis users, yet engaging and maintaining this population in treatment is particularly difficult. Although past research has focused on the importance of therapeutic alliance on drug treatment outcomes, this is the first study to examine the dimensions of therapeutic alliance for cannabis users compared with users of alcohol or other drugs in a naturalistic setting. The acceptability of Internet-delivered interventions for drug and alcohol treatments is also investigated. Participants (N = 77 included clients who were receiving outpatient drug and alcohol treatment at a publicly-funded health service, including a Specialist Cannabis Clinic. The results indicated that one particular domain of alliance, Bond, was consistently lower, from both client and clinician perspectives, for current cannabis users relative to those not currently using cannabis. Client perceptions of Bond decreased as the severity of cannabis use increased (r =-0.373, p=0.02. Cannabis Clinic clients did not report a significantly lower Bond with their clinicians, suggesting that specialised cannabis services may be better placed to provide appropriate treatment for this population than embedding cannabis treatment within traditional drug and alcohol treatment teams. In addition, Internet/computer based treatments may be one potential way to engage, transition or retain cannabis users in treatment.Trial Registration: Australian Clinical Trial Registration Number: ACTRN12611000382976

  18. Cannabis use in people with severe mental illness: The association with physical and mental health - a cohort study : A Pharmacotherapy Monitoring and Outcome Survey study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Jojanneke; Pijnenborg, Marieke Gh; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A; Visser, Ellen; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Bruggeman, Richard; Jörg, Frederike

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In the general population cannabis use is associated with better cardiometabolic outcomes. Patients with severe mental illness frequently use cannabis, but also present increased cardiometabolic risk factors. We explore the association between cannabis use and cardiometabolic risk factors

  19. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Jan, Catherine; Bienert, Friederike; Goudet, Jérôme; Fumagalli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs) in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties) and drug (15 marijuana varieties) production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal) diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide. PMID:28107530

  20. Broad-Scale Genetic Diversity of Cannabis for Forensic Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresnes, Christophe; Jan, Catherine; Bienert, Friederike; Goudet, Jérôme; Fumagalli, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis (hemp and marijuana) is an iconic yet controversial crop. On the one hand, it represents a growing market for pharmaceutical and agricultural sectors. On the other hand, plants synthesizing the psychoactive THC produce the most widespread illicit drug in the world. Yet, the difficulty to reliably distinguish between Cannabis varieties based on morphological or biochemical criteria impedes the development of promising industrial programs and hinders the fight against narcotrafficking. Genetics offers an appropriate alternative to characterize drug vs. non-drug Cannabis. However, forensic applications require rapid and affordable genotyping of informative and reliable molecular markers for which a broad-scale reference database, representing both intra- and inter-variety variation, is available. Here we provide such a resource for Cannabis, by genotyping 13 microsatellite loci (STRs) in 1 324 samples selected specifically for fibre (24 hemp varieties) and drug (15 marijuana varieties) production. We showed that these loci are sufficient to capture most of the genome-wide diversity patterns recently revealed by NGS data. We recovered strong genetic structure between marijuana and hemp and demonstrated that anonymous samples can be confidently assigned to either plant types. Fibres appear genetically homogeneous whereas drugs show low (often clonal) diversity within varieties, but very high genetic differentiation between them, likely resulting from breeding practices. Based on an additional test dataset including samples from 41 local police seizures, we showed that the genetic signature of marijuana cultivars could be used to trace crime scene evidence. To date, our study provides the most comprehensive genetic resource for Cannabis forensics worldwide.

  1. Cannabis and Tobacco Use: Where Are the Boundaries? A Qualitative Study on Cannabis Consumption Modes among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akre, Christina; Michaud, Pierre-Andre; Berchtold, Andre; Suris, Joan-Carles

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to identify tobacco and cannabis co-consumptions and consumers' perceptions of each substance. A qualitative research including 22 youths (14 males) aged 15-21 years in seven individual interviews and five focus groups. Discussions were recorded, transcribed verbatim and transferred to Atlas.ti software for narrative…

  2. Epidemiology chapter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfram, J H; Butaev, M K; Duysheev, A; Gabbasova, A R; Khasanov, O S; Kulakov, Yu K; Mkrtchyan, A R; Myrzabekov, A M; Nurgaziev, R Z; Tsirel'son, L E; Willer, R D; Yaraev, R G; Zheludkov, M M

    2010-10-01

    This chapter outlines the epidemiology of brucellosis in the Russian Federation and in five countries bordering Russia. Since the Soviet Union's dissolution, Russia and the newly formed independent republics have failed to maintain policies to control brucellosis and other zoonotic diseases. Many of these republics, due to weak animal control and prevention systems and dangerous food preparation practices, are still burdened with the human cost of brucellosis. The final summary of this section provides an example of the successful transboundary cooperative efforts between Arizona and Mexico, which could be applied to the situation between Russia and the bordering independent republics.

  3. The check your cannabis screener: a new online personalized feedback tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, John A; van Mierlo, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This brief report describes the development and first year of use of an Internet-based screener for Cannabis users. Two versions of the Check Your Cannabis screener were compared, one linked to an already established harm reduction website for young Cannabis users (as an exercise called "Check how I compare with others," on www.WhatsWithWeed.ca) and the other a standalone version (www.CheckYourCannabis.net). The What's With Weed version attracted ten times more users and had a significantly younger audience as compared to the standalone version, underlining the benefits of targeting a website to a specific audience and linking to websites with already established reputations. Further work is needed to establish any impact on actual Cannabis use from taking the Check Your Cannabis screener.

  4. [Renal and spleen infarction after massive consumption of cannabis and cocaine in a young man].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Guen, P-Y; Gestin, S; Plat, E; Quéhé, P; Bressollette, L

    2011-02-01

    Cannabis is the most widely consumed drug in the world, particularly among young subjects. Cocaine is the third leading illicit drug. Cases of renal infarction associated with combined consumption of cannabis and cocaine have been reported in the literature. We describe the case of a 24-year-old man who presented renal and spleen infarction after massive consumption of cannabis and cocaine. Both vascular events arose on healthy arteries. Etiological tests were negative leading to the conclusion that the events resulted from a toxic cause related to cannabis and cocaine consumption. Different mechanisms, potentially including thrombosis, might explain the association of cannabis and cocaine with vascular events. We suggest that a systematic search for cannabis and cocaine consumption among young victims of vascular disease might be useful.

  5. [Co-occurrent cannabis and tobacco uses: Clinical knowledge and therapeutic prospects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwitzer, Thomas; Gillet, Claudine; Bisch, Michaël; Di Patrizio, Paolo; Schwan, Raymund; Laprevote, Vincent

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis and tobacco are two of the most prevalent addictive drugs used worldwide. Concurrent use of cannabis and tobacco is common, whether simultaneous in joints or not. In France, cannabis is mainly used in joints also containing tobacco. According to the current literature, combined use of cannabis and tobacco exacerbates on additive or multiplicative mode the somatic, psychological and social consequences of each drug. In addition, concurrent use of cannabis and tobacco potentiates tobacco and cannabis dependence, which maintains the use of both drugs, increases the risk of relapse and reduces motivation to care. Combined use thus leads to a reduced likelihood of therapeutic success. We discuss the usefulness of simultaneous cessation treatment together with the use of currently available pharmacological and psychological help as valuable therapeutic tools.

  6. The normalisation of cannabis use among young people: Symbolic boundary work in focus groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarvinen, Margaretha; Demant, Jakob Johan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses ‘techniques of neutralisation’ among young people discussing cannabis in focus group interviews. The paper is based on data from focus group interviews with young Danes followed from when they were 14–15 years old in 2004 until they were 18–19 years old in 2008. In this period......, the participants’ attitudes towards cannabis undergo a radical change from being negative and sceptical into being predominantly positive and accepting; a change we describe as a ‘normalisation’ of cannabis use. Four techniques of neutralisation are identified in this process. First, the participants redefine...... the setting of cannabis use, simultaneously creating a new type of togetherness: relaxed social intoxication. Second, the effects of cannabis use are transformed from being ‘strange’ and ‘unpredictable’ to being ‘controllable’ by the individual user. Third, participants change their classification of cannabis...

  7. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Lexie Zhiyan; Rangan, Anna; Mehlsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight...... is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self......-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136) of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight...

  8. Association between schizotypal and borderline personality disorder traits, and cannabis use in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Patrick; Chabrol, Henri

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association of schizotypal and borderline personality traits to cannabis use. Participants were 476 college students (95 males; 381 females; mean age of males=21; mean age of females=20.7) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing cannabis use, schizotypal and borderline personality traits. Problematic cannabis use, depressive symptoms, borderline and schizotypal traits were significantly inter-correlated. A logistic regression analysis showed that only borderline traits contributed significantly to cannabis use in the total sample. A multiple regression analysis showed that only schizotypal traits were positively and uniquely associated to problematic cannabis use symptoms among users. These results may imply that schizotypal traits are not a risk factor for initiating use, but may facilitate the development of problematic use symptoms among users. This study showed the necessity of taking into account schizotypal traits when exploring the relationships between depressive symptoms, borderline traits and cannabis use.

  9. Is the medical use of cannabis a therapeutic option for children?

    OpenAIRE

    Rieder, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a psychoactive compound with a long history of recreational and therapeutic use. Current considerations regarding cannabis use for medical purposes in children have been stimulated by recent case reports describing its beneficial effect with refractory epilepsy. Overall, there are insufficient data to support either the efficacy or safety of cannabis use for any indications in children, and an increasing body of data suggests possible harm, most importantly in specific conditions....

  10. Effects of Cannabis sativa extract on haloperidol-induced catalepsy and oxidative stress in the mice

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Salam, Omar M.E.; El-Din M. Gaafar, Alaa; El Sayed El-Shamarka, Marawa; Salem, Neveen A.

    2012-01-01

    Haloperidol is a classic antipsychotic drug known for its propensity to cause extrapyramidal symptoms due to blockade of dopamine D2 receptors in the striatum. Interest in medicinal uses of cannabis is growing. Cannabis sativa has been suggested as a possible adjunctive in treatment of Parkinson's disease. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of an extract of Cannabis sativa on catalepsy and brain oxidative stress induced by haloperidol administration i...

  11. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiati...

  12. Correlates to the variable effects of cannabis in young adults: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camera Ariella A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cannabis use can frequently have adverse affects in those that use it and these can be amplified by various characteristics of an individual, from demographic and environmental variations to familial predisposition for mental illnesses. Methods The current study of 100 individuals, who were cannabis users during their adolescence and may still be users, was a survey of the self perceived effects of cannabis and their correlates. A reliable family member was also interviewed for determination of family history of various major mental illnesses and substance use. Results As many as 40% of cannabis users had paranoid feelings (suspiciousness when using cannabis, although the most frequent effect was feeling relaxed (46%. Having a familial background for mental illnesses such as depression or schizophrenia did not determine the effects of cannabis nor its pattern of use, although the number of subjects with such a history was small. An age at which an individual began using cannabis did have an effect on how heavily it was used and the heavier the cannabis use, the more likely the individual was also to have had psychotic symptoms after use. There were no sex differences in effects of cannabis. These results are tempered by the reliance on self-report for many of the variables ascertained. Conclusion Cannabis can frequently have negative effects in its users, which can be amplified by certain demographic and/or psychosocial factors. Thus, users with a specific profile may be at a higher risk of unpleasant effects from cannabis use and caution should be noted when cannabis is administered to young people for medicinal purposes.

  13. Evaluating the effects of gamma-irradiation for decontamination of medicinal cannabis

    OpenAIRE

    Arno eHazekamp

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiati...

  14. Attentional dysfunction in abstinent long-term cannabis users with and without schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentzsch, Johannes; Stadtmann, Ada; Montag, Christiane; Kunte, Hagen; Plöckl, Doris; Hellweg, Rainer; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kronenberg, Golo; Jockers-Scherübl, Maria Christiane

    2016-08-01

    Long-term cannabis use may confer cognitive deficits and increased risk of psychosis. However, the relationship between cannabis use and schizophrenia is complex. In particular, little is known about the effects of chronic cannabis use on the attention-related electric brain response in schizophrenia. We investigated auditory novelty and oddball P300 evoked potentials in a mixed sample of first-episode and chronic schizophrenic patients and healthy controls with (SZCA, n = 20; COCA, n = 20, abstinence ≥28 days) or without (SZ, n = 20; CO, n = 20) chronic cannabis use. Duration of regular cannabis use was 8.3 ± 5.6 (SZCA) and 9.1 ± 7.1 (COCA) years. In general, schizophrenic patients showed reduced P300 amplitudes. Cannabis use was associated with both a reduced early and late left-hemispheric novelty P300. There was a significant 'diagnosis × cannabis' interaction for the left-hemispheric late novelty P300 in that cannabis use was associated with a reduced amplitude in the otherwise healthy but not in the schizophrenic group compared with their relative control groups (corrected p  0.9, respectively). The left-hemispheric late novelty P300 in the otherwise healthy cannabis group correlated inversely with amount and duration of cannabis use (r = -0.50, p = 0.024; r = -0.57, p = 0.009, respectively). Our study confirms attentional deficits with chronic cannabis use. However, cannabis use may lead to different cognitive sequelae in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls, possibly reflecting preexisting alterations in the endocannabinoid system in schizophrenia.

  15. Cold Pressing and Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Hemp (Cannabis sativa) Seed Oil

    OpenAIRE

    Aladić, K.; S. Jokić; Moslavac, T.; Tomas, S.; S Vidović; Vladić, J.; Šubarić, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, the Cannabis sativa L. hemp variety has been unfairly neglected because of its similarity to the illegal kind Cannabis indica used as a narcotic. The objective of this study was to evaluate the process of oil extraction from Cannabis sativa seeds by cold pressing, followed by extraction with supercritical CO2. In the pressing experiments, the response surface methodology was conducted in order to study the effects of temperature, frequency, and nozzle size on oil reco...

  16. Epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Peeters (Wouter); R. van den Brande (Ruben); S. Polinder (Suzanne); A. Brazinova (Alexandra); E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); H.F. Lingsma (Hester); A.I.R. Maas (Andrew)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a critical public health and socio-economic problem throughout the world, making epidemiological monitoring of incidence, prevalence and outcome of TBI necessary. We aimed to describe the epidemiology of traumatic brain injury in Europe and to

  17. Association Between Use of Cannabis in Adolescence and Weight Change into Midlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lexie Zhiyan; Rangan, Anna; Mehlsen, Jesper; Andersen, Lars Bo; Larsen, Sofus C.; Heitmann, Berit L.

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis use has been found to stimulate appetite and potentially promote weight gain via activation of the endocannabinoid system. Despite the fact that the onset of cannabis use is typically during adolescence, the association between adolescence cannabis use and long-term change in body weight is generally unknown. This study aims to examine the association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change to midlife, while accounting for the use of other substances. The study applied 20 to 22 years of follow-up data on 712 Danish adolescents aged between 15 and 19 years at baseline. Self-reported height and weight, cannabis, cigarette and alcohol use, socioeconomic status (SES) and physical activity levels were assessed in baseline surveys conducted in 1983 and 1985. The follow-up survey was conducted in 2005. In total 19.1% (n = 136) of adolescents reported having used/using cannabis. Weight gain between adolescence and midlife was not related to cannabis exposure during adolescence in either crude or adjusted models, and associations were not modified by baseline alcohol intake or smoking. However, cannabis use was significantly associated with cigarette smoking (p<0.001) and alcohol intake (p<0.001) and inversely associated with physical activity levels (p = 0.04). In conclusion, this study does not provide evidence of an association between adolescence cannabis use and weight change from adolescence to midlife. PMID:28060830

  18. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Rafaela Torres Portugal; Nogueira, Sarah de Oliveira; do Nascimento, João Paulo Rodrigues; de Lima, Laisa Soares; da Nóbrega, Taís Bastos; Virgínio, Mariana da Silva; Moreno, Lucas Monte da Costa; Sampaio, Bruno Henrique Barbosa; Souza, Fábio Gomes de Matos e

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD) implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO) of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD) was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear. PMID:26097750

  19. The Check Your Cannabis Screener: A New Online Personalized Feedback Tool

    OpenAIRE

    Cunningham, John A; van Mierlo, Trevor

    2009-01-01

    This brief report describes the development and first year of use of an Internet-based screener for Cannabis users. Two versions of the Check Your Cannabis screener were compared, one linked to an already established harm reduction website for young Cannabis users (as an exercise called “Check how I compare with others,” on www.WhatsWithWeed.ca) and the other a standalone version (www.CheckYourCannabis.net). The What’s With Weed version attracted ten times more users and had a significantly y...

  20. Predicting creativity: the role of psychometric schizotypy and cannabis use in divergent thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Kyle S; Firmin, Ruth L; Bonfils, Kelsey A; Chun, Charlotte A; Buckner, Julia D; Cohen, Alex S

    2014-12-15

    Evidence suggests that divergent thinking (DT), a measure of creativity, is associated with positive schizotypy and cannabis use. Given the high rates of cannabis use among those with schizotypy, it is unclear if the relation of DT to schizotypy is due to co-occurring cannabis use. In this study, we examined the relations between DT, schizotypy, and cannabis use among positive schizotypy (n=66), negative schizotypy (n=22), and non-schizotypy (n=60) groups. Results revealed that DT was greater in the positive schizotypy group, on the order of small to medium effects, compared to negative and non-schizotypy groups. Cannabis use and DT were associated in the non-schizotypy group, but not in the positive or negative schizotypy groups. Across all groups, positive schizotypy significantly predicted DT; however, cannabis use was not a significant predictor of DT. In line with previous findings, cannabis use and DT were only related in individuals low in creativity. This suggests that a ceiling effect may be present, with only cannabis users who are low in creativity receiving any increase in DT. Future research should aim to clarify the DT-cannabis relationship.

  1. Evaluating the Effects of Gamma-Irradiation for Decontamination of Medicinal Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazekamp, Arno

    2016-01-01

    In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative UPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  2. Evaluating the effects of gamma-irradiation for decontamination of medicinal cannabis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eHazekamp

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In several countries with a National medicinal cannabis program, pharmaceutical regulations specify that herbal cannabis products must adhere to strict safety standards regarding microbial contamination. Treatment by gamma irradiation currently seems the only method available to meet these requirements. We evaluated the effects of irradiation treatment of four different cannabis varieties covering different chemical compositions. Samples were compared before and after standard gamma-irradiation treatment by performing quantitative HPLC analysis of major cannabinoids, as well as qualitative GC analysis of full cannabinoid and terpene profiles. In addition, water content and microscopic appearance of the cannabis flowers was evaluated. This study found that treatment did not cause changes in the content of THC and CBD, generally considered as the most important therapeutically active components of medicinal cannabis. Likewise, the water content and the microscopic structure of the dried cannabis flowers were not altered by standard irradiation protocol in the cannabis varieties studied. The effect of gamma-irradiation was limited to a reduction of some terpenes present in the cannabis, but keeping the terpene profile qualitatively the same. Based on the results presented in this report, gamma irradiation of herbal cannabis remains the recommended method of decontamination, at least until other more generally accepted methods have been developed and validated.

  3. An Event-Related Potential Study on the Effects of Cannabis on Emotion Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troup, Lucy J; Bastidas, Stephanie; Nguyen, Maia T; Andrzejewski, Jeremy A; Bowers, Matthew; Nomi, Jason S

    2016-01-01

    The effect of cannabis on emotional processing was investigated using event-related potential paradigms (ERPs). ERPs associated with emotional processing of cannabis users, and non-using controls, were recorded and compared during an implicit and explicit emotional expression recognition and empathy task. Comparisons in P3 component mean amplitudes were made between cannabis users and controls. Results showed a significant decrease in the P3 amplitude in cannabis users compared to controls. Specifically, cannabis users showed reduced P3 amplitudes for implicit compared to explicit processing over centro-parietal sites which reversed, and was enhanced, at fronto-central sites. Cannabis users also showed a decreased P3 to happy faces, with an increase to angry faces, compared to controls. These effects appear to increase with those participants that self-reported the highest levels of cannabis consumption. Those cannabis users with the greatest consumption rates showed the largest P3 deficits for explicit processing and negative emotions. These data suggest that there is a complex relationship between cannabis consumption and emotion processing that appears to be modulated by attention.

  4. La fiscalización del cannabis, ¿una paradoja?

    OpenAIRE

    Agüí Palomo, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    El cannabis es conocido en nuestra sociedad por su uso como droga de abuso, bien en forma de marihuana, de hachís y, menos frecuentemente de aceite de hachís. Además, la planta del cáñamo (cannabis sativa) es utilizada para producción de fibras, biocombustibles, grasas vegetales, etc. ¿Qué situación legal encontramos en el cultivo del cannabis? ¿Está permitida la producción de plantas con determinados contenidos en THC? Cannabis is known in our society for iys use as a drug ...

  5. The Use of Cannabis as a Predictor of Early Onset of Bipolar Disorder and Suicide Attempts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Torres Portugal Leite

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Bipolar disorder (BD implies risk of suicide. The age at onset (AAO of BD carries prognostic significance. Substance abuse may precede the onset of BD and cannabis is the most common illicit drug used. The main goal of this study is to review the association of cannabis use as a risk factor for early onset of BD and for suicide attempts. Materials and Methods. PubMed database was searched for articles using key words “bipolar disorder,” “suicide attempts,” “cannabis,” “marijuana,” “early age at onset,” and “early onset.” Results. The following percentages in bipolar patients were found: suicide attempts 3.6–42%; suicide attempts and substance use 5–60%; suicide attempts and cannabis use 15–42%. An early AAO was associated with cannabis misuse. The mean age of the first manic episode in individuals with and without BD and cannabis use disorder (CUD was 19.5 and 25.1 years, respectively. The first depressive episode was at 18.5 and 24.4 years, respectively. Individuals misusing cannabis showed increased risk of suicide. Discussion. Cannabis use is associated with increased risk of suicide attempts and with early AAO. However, the effect of cannabis at the AAO and suicide attempts is not clear.

  6. Application of medical cannabis in patients with central nerve system disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kotuła

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis sativa is an annual plant in the Cannabaceae family, species of the genus Cannabis. Cannabis contains active elements, including Δ9-tetrahydrocanabinol (THC and cannabidiol (CBD. Neurological disorders are typically associated with neurodegeneration. It means that there is no causal treatment. Usually we can only modulate disease. It is very necessary to patients to reduce pain sensation or excessive muscle tension. The paper contains a description of therapeutic possibilities treatment of cannabis in neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, Tourette syndrome and spasticity.

  7. Does cannabis use affect treatment outcome in bipolar disorder? A longitudinal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Rossum, Inge; Boomsma, Maarten; Tenback, Diederik

    2009-01-01

    . Additionally, cannabis users experienced less satisfaction with life and had a lower probability of having a relationship compared with nonusers. There was little evidence that cannabis-outcome associations were mediated by third variables. An independent impact of cannabis use on psychopathologic outcomes...... treatment outcome measures was examined over the course of 1 year, as well as the effects on these associations of third mediating variables. Over 12 months of treatment, cannabis users exhibited less compliance and higher levels of overall illness severity, mania, and psychosis compared with nonusers...

  8. Mathematical epidemiology

    CERN Document Server

    Driessche, Pauline; Wu, Jianhong

    2008-01-01

    Based on lecture notes of two summer schools with a mixed audience from mathematical sciences, epidemiology and public health, this volume offers a comprehensive introduction to basic ideas and techniques in modeling infectious diseases, for the comparison of strategies to plan for an anticipated epidemic or pandemic, and to deal with a disease outbreak in real time. It covers detailed case studies for diseases including pandemic influenza, West Nile virus, and childhood diseases. Models for other diseases including Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, fox rabies, and sexually transmitted infections are included as applications. Its chapters are coherent and complementary independent units. In order to accustom students to look at the current literature and to experience different perspectives, no attempt has been made to achieve united writing style or unified notation. Notes on some mathematical background (calculus, matrix algebra, differential equations, and probability) have been prepared and may be downlo...

  9. Cannabis-based medicines--GW pharmaceuticals: high CBD, high THC, medicinal cannabis--GW pharmaceuticals, THC:CBD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    GW Pharmaceuticals is undertaking a major research programme in the UK to develop and market distinct cannabis-based prescription medicines [THC:CBD, High THC, High CBD] in a range of medical conditions. The cannabis for this programme is grown in a secret location in the UK. It is expected that the product will be marketed in the US in late 2003. GW's cannabis-based products include selected phytocannabinoids from cannabis plants, including D9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The company is investigating their use in three delivery systems, including sublingual spray, sublingual tablet and inhaled (but not smoked) dosage forms. The technology is protected by patent applications. Four different formulations are currently being investigated, including High THC, THC:CBD (narrow ratio), THC:CBD (broad ratio) and High CBD. GW is also developing a specialist security technology that will be incorporated in all its drug delivery systems. This technology allows for the recording and remote monitoring of patient usage to prevent any potential abuse of its cannabis-based medicines. GW plans to enter into agreements with other companies following phase III development, to secure the best commercialisation terms for its cannabis-based medicines. In June 2003, GW announced that exclusive commercialisation rights for the drug in the UK had been licensed to Bayer AG. The drug will be marketed under the Sativex brand name. This agreement also provides Bayer with an option to expand their license to include the European Union and certain world markets. GW was granted a clinical trial exemption certificate by the Medicines Control Agency to conduct clinical studies with cannabis-based medicines in the UK. The exemption includes investigations in the relief of pain of neurological origin and defects of neurological function in the following indications: multiple sclerosis (MS), spinal cord injury, peripheral nerve injury, central nervous system damage, neuroinvasive

  10. Coping-motivated marijuana use correlates with DSM-5 cannabis use disorder and psychological distress among emerging adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moitra, Ethan; Christopher, Paul P; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2015-09-01

    Compared to other age cohorts, emerging adults, ages 18-25 years, have the highest rates of marijuana (MJ) use. We examined the relationship of using MJ to cope with negative emotions, relative to using MJ for enhancement or social purposes, to MJ-associated problems and psychological distress among emerging adults. Participants were 288 community-dwelling emerging adults who reported current MJ use as part of a "Health Behaviors" study. Linear and logistic regressions were used to evaluate the adjusted association of coping-motivated MJ use with the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) cannabis use disorder, MJ-related problem severity, depressive symptoms, and perceived stress. After adjusting for other variables in the regression model, using MJ to cope was positively associated with having DSM-5 cannabis use disorder (OR = 1.85, 95% CI [1.31, 2.62], p associated significantly with any of the dependent variables. Using MJ to cope with negative emotions in emerging adults is associated with MJ-related problems and psychological distress. Assessment of MJ use motivation may be clinically important among emerging adults.

  11. Cannabinoids production in Cannabis sativa L.: An in vitro approach

    OpenAIRE

    Farag, Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) is the oldest known medicinal plant. For millennia, the plant has also been used for fibre and oil production.The most prominent feature of C. sativa is the psychoactive effect ascribed to its secondary metabolites, cannabinoids (mainly to tetrahydrocannabinol, THC). However, many other pharmacological properties of the aforementioned specialized compounds have been described. Currently, the demand for THC for various medical applications is substantial, while...

  12. Finding cannabinoids in hair does not prove cannabis consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Bjoern Moosmann; Nadine Roth; Volker Auwärter

    2015-01-01

    Hair analysis for cannabinoids is extensively applied in workplace drug testing and in child protection cases, although valid data on incorporation of the main analytical targets, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THC-COOH), into human hair is widely missing. Furthermore, ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A), the biogenetic precursor of THC, is found in the hair of persons who solely handled cannabis material. In the light of the serious consequences of positive tes...

  13. A proof-of-concept randomized controlled study of gabapentin: effects on cannabis use, withdrawal and executive function deficits in cannabis-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Barbara J; Crean, Rebecca; Goodell, Vivian; Light, John M; Quello, Susan; Shadan, Farhad; Buffkins, Kimberly; Kyle, Mark; Adusumalli, Murali; Begovic, Adnan; Rao, Santosh

    2012-06-01

    There are no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for cannabis dependence. Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug in the world, and patients seeking treatment for primary cannabis dependence represent 25% of all substance use admissions. We conducted a phase IIa proof-of-concept pilot study to examine the safety and efficacy of a calcium channel/GABA modulating drug, gabapentin, for the treatment of cannabis dependence. A 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted in 50 unpaid treatment-seeking male and female outpatients, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed with current cannabis dependence. Subjects received either gabapentin (1200 mg/day) or matched placebo. Manual-guided, abstinence-oriented individual counseling was provided weekly to all participants. Cannabis use was measured by weekly urine toxicology and by self-report using the Timeline Followback Interview. Cannabis withdrawal symptoms were assessed using the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist. Executive function was measured using subtests from the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. Relative to placebo, gabapentin significantly reduced cannabis use as measured both by urine toxicology (p=0.001) and by the Timeline Followback Interview (p=0.004), and significantly decreased withdrawal symptoms as measured by the Marijuana Withdrawal Checklist (pGabapentin was also associated with significantly greater improvement in overall performance on tests of executive function (p=0.029). This POC pilot study provides preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of gabapentin for treatment of cannabis dependence that merits further study, and provides an alternative conceptual framework for treatment of addiction aimed at restoring homeostasis in brain stress systems that are dysregulated in drug dependence and withdrawal.

  14. Maintenance Check-ups Following Treatment for Cannabis Dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Denise D; Stephens, Robert S; Towe, Sheri; Banes, Kelsey; Roffman, Roger

    2015-09-01

    Substance use disorders, including cannabis use disorders and associated negative consequences, are best considered chronic and in need of continuing care. In contrast, most treatment efficacy studies evaluate a fixed number of intervention sessions at a single point in time. The present study evaluated the efficacy of posttreatment maintenance check-ups (MCUs) in maintaining and improving outcomes following nine sessions of motivational enhancement treatment/cognitive behavioral treatment (MET/CBT). Adults dependent on cannabis (n=74) were randomly assigned to the MCU or a no check-up (NCU) condition and followed up at 3- and 9-months. MCU sessions occurred 1 and 4months following the completion of the base treatment. Additional MET/CBT sessions were available to participants throughout the follow-up period. The MCUs specifically encouraged treatment re-entry for those showing ongoing signs of disorder. Participants in the MCU condition reported significantly greater abstinent rates at both follow-ups and were using on fewer days at the 3-month but not the 9-month follow-up. Contrary to hypotheses, MCU participants did not attend more additional treatment and differences in rates of cannabis use emerged prior to the first MCU session. Future research with longer follow-up periods and longer monitoring of outcomes is needed to fully evaluate the utility of MCUs or other forms of continuing care.

  15. Cannabidiol, a Cannabis sativa constituent, as an antipsychotic drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuardi A.W.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A high dose of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, the main Cannabis sativa (cannabis component, induces anxiety and psychotic-like symptoms in healthy volunteers. These effects of delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol are significantly reduced by cannabidiol (CBD, a cannabis constituent which is devoid of the typical effects of the plant. This observation led us to suspect that CBD could have anxiolytic and/or antipsychotic actions. Studies in animal models and in healthy volunteers clearly suggest an anxiolytic-like effect of CBD. The antipsychotic-like properties of CBD have been investigated in animal models using behavioral and neurochemical techniques which suggested that CBD has a pharmacological profile similar to that of atypical antipsychotic drugs. The results of two studies on healthy volunteers using perception of binocular depth inversion and ketamine-induced psychotic symptoms supported the proposal of the antipsychotic-like properties of CBD. In addition, open case reports of schizophrenic patients treated with CBD and a preliminary report of a controlled clinical trial comparing CBD with an atypical antipsychotic drug have confirmed that this cannabinoid can be a safe and well-tolerated alternative treatment for schizophrenia. Future studies of CBD in other psychotic conditions such as bipolar disorder and comparative studies of its antipsychotic effects with those produced by clozapine in schizophrenic patients are clearly indicated.

  16. The interplay between parental monitoring and the dopamine D4 receptor gene in adolescent cannabis use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Otten

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both environmental risk and genetic variation is believed to play a role in substance use. A candidate environmental variable is parenting. Recent studies have found support for the idea that the dopamine system affects the susceptibility to environmental influences. In the present study we will examine the interplay between effects of parental monitoring and the presence of the DRD4 7-repeat allele in adolescent lifetime cannabis use and the developmental course of cannabis use. METHODS: A total of 311 adolescents participated in a five-wave longitudinal design. First, we conducted logistic regression analyses to examine the prospective associations between parental monitoring, the DRD4 polymorphism, their interaction and lifetime cannabis use. Second, individual growth parameters were calculated for frequency of cannabis use. Linear regression was used to assess the relationship between parental monitoring, the DRD4 polymorphism, their interaction, and the frequency of cannabis use. RESULTS: There were no significant main effects of parental monitoring or the DRD4 polymorphism. However, both analyses showed that over a period of four years, a when experiencing low levels of parental monitoring, individuals with the 7-repeat allele were more likely to show lifetime cannabis use and a stronger increase in frequency of cannabis use than individuals without this allele; b when experiencing high levels of parental monitoring, individuals with the 7-repeat allele were less likely to show lifetime cannabis use and they showed a smaller increase in frequency of cannabis use than individuals without the 7-repeat allele. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that carriers of the DRD4 7-repeat allele are disproportionally affected by the negative and positive effects of parental monitoring such that carriers of the DRD4 7-repeat allele, as compared to non-carriers, are more likely to use cannabis when levels of parental monitoring are low, and less

  17. Therapeutic satisfaction and subjective effects of different strains of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunt, Tibor M; van Genugten, Marianne; Höner-Snoeken, Kathrin; van de Velde, Marco J; Niesink, Raymond J M

    2014-06-01

    In The Netherlands, pharmaceutical-grade cultivated cannabis is distributed for medicinal purposes as commissioned by the Ministry of Health. Few studies have thus far described its therapeutic efficacy or subjective (adverse) effects in patients. The aims of this study are to assess the therapeutic satisfaction within a group of patients using prescribed pharmaceutical-grade cannabis and to compare the subjective effects among the available strains with special focus on their delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol content. In a cross-sectional and natural design, users of pharmaceutical-grade cannabis were investigated with questionnaires. Medical background of the patients was asked as well as experienced therapeutic effects and characteristics of cannabis use. Subjective effects were measured with psychometric scales and used to compare among the strains of cannabis used across this group of patients. One hundred two patients were included; their average age was 53 years and 76% used it for more than a year preceding this study. Chronic pain (53%; n = 54) was the most common medical indication for using cannabis followed by multiple sclerosis (23%; n = 23), and 86% (n = 88) of patients (almost) always experienced therapeutic satisfaction when using pharmaceutical cannabis. Dejection, anxiety, and appetite stimulation were found to differ among the 3 strains of cannabis. These results show that patients report therapeutic satisfaction with pharmaceutical cannabis, mainly pain alleviation. Some subjective effects were found to differ among the available strains of cannabis, which is discussed in relation to their different tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol content. These results may aid in further research and critical appraisal for medicinally prescribed cannabis products.

  18. History of cannabis as a medicine: a review História da cannabis como medicamento: uma revisão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Waldo Zuardi

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis as a medicine was used before the Christian era in Asia, mainly in India. The introduction of cannabis in the Western medicine occurred in the midst of the 19th century, reaching the climax in the last decade of that century, with the availability and usage of cannabis extracts or tinctures. In the first decades of the 20th century, the Western medical use of cannabis significantly decreased largely due to difficulties to obtain consistent results from batches of plant material of different potencies. The identification of the chemical structure of cannabis components and the possibility of obtaining its pure constituents were related to a significant increase in scientific interest in such plant, since 1965. This interest was renewed in the 1990's with the description of cannabinoid receptors and the identification of an endogenous cannabinoid system in the brain. A new and more consistent cycle of the use of cannabis derivatives as medication begins, since treatment effectiveness and safety started to be scientifically proven.Antes da Era Cristã, a cannabis foi utilizada na Ásia como medicamento, com grande importância na Índia. A introdução da cannabis na Medicina Ocidental ocorreu em meados do século XIX, atingindo o clímax na última década deste século, com a disponibilidade e o uso de extratos e tinturas da cannabis. Nas primeiras décadas do século XX, o uso médico da cannabis no Ocidente diminuiu significativamente, em grande parte pela dificuldade na obtenção de resultados consistentes de amostras da planta com diferentes potências. A identificação da estrutura química de componentes da cannabis e a possibilidade de se obter seus constituintes puros foram relacionadas a um aumento significativo no interesse científico pela planta, desde 1965. Este interesse foi renovado nos anos 90, com a descrição dos receptores de canabinóides e a identificação de um sistema canabinóide endógeno no cérebro. Usos

  19. Cannabis Use and Related Harms in the Transition to Young Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study of Australian Secondary School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes-Balog, Kirsty E.; Hemphill, Sheryl A.; Patton, George C.; Toumbourou, John W.

    2013-01-01

    The current study documents the changing rates of cannabis use, misuse and cannabis-related social harms among Australian adolescents as they grow into young adulthood. It utilised data from a longitudinal study of young people at ages 15, 16, 17, and 19. The rates of cannabis use were found to increase as participants aged; past year use…

  20. 21 CFR 1308.35 - Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exemption of certain cannabis plant material, and... ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Exempt Cannabis Plant... cannabis plant material, and products made therefrom, that contain tetrahydrocannabinols. (a) Any...

  1. Coccidioidomycosis: epidemiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown J

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Jennifer Brown,1 Kaitlin Benedict,2 Benjamin J Park,2 George R Thompson III1,31Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of California, Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA; 2Mycotic Diseases Branch, Division of Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology, One Shields Avenue, Tupper Hall, Coccidioidomycosis Serology Laboratory, University of California, Davis, CA, USAAbstract: Coccidioidomycosis consists of a spectrum of disease, ranging from a mild, self-limited, febrile illness to severe, life-threatening infection. It is caused by the soil-dwelling fungi, Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii, which are present in diverse endemic areas. Climate changes and environmental factors affect the Coccidioides lifecycle and influence infection rates. The incidence of coccidioidomycosis has risen substantially over the past two decades. The vast majority of Coccidioides infections occur in the endemic zones, such as California, Arizona, Mexico, and Central America. Infections occurring outside those zones appear to be increasingly common, and pose unique clinical and public health challenges. It has long been known that elderly persons, pregnant women, and members of certain ethnic groups are at risk for severe or disseminated coccidioidomycosis. In recent years, it has become evident that persons with immunodeficiency diseases, diabetics, transplant recipients, and prisoners are also particularly vulnerable.Keywords: coccidioidomycosis, Coccidioides, epidemiology, incidence, risk factors, geography

  2. [Sociology and epidemiology of consumption of psychoactive substances in adolescents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, F; Legleye, S

    2009-12-01

    Epidemiological monitoring of drug use among adolescents or young adults is a major concern for public policy makers. This surveillance requires the use of adapted methodological solutions. This article presents how far epidemiological surveillance is a useful tool for monitoring drug use at adolescence. It also presents the results of the French general population surveys among adolescents or young adults, and the trends in the last decade. It relies on a survey among 17 years old adolescents and a general population survey among adults (analysis is restricted to people aged 18-25). A European school survey among 16 years old is also presented to compare the French situation to other European countries levels of use. The use of psychoactive substance increases fast with age during adolescence however results vary from one substance to another. Since year 2000, tobacco use is decreasing when alcohol use frequency appears stable between 2003 and 2005, although drunkenness has increased from 2000 to 2005. The frequency of lifetime or occasional use of cannabis appears stable since 2000. Among 17 years old, the proportion of regular users of cannabis has been stable between 2000 and 2005. Finally, the prevalence of ecstasy and cocaine increased during this period of time, despite being less than 4%, but the levels of the other illicit substances are low and stable. The results on alcohol variables and tobacco use in France are rather close to the European average. Four out of five 16 years old students had drunk alcohol during the past 12 months and 36 percent had been drunk during this period (vs 39% in the average European country). About one-third of the students had smoked cigarettes during the past 30 days (close to the 29% in the average European country). The use of cannabis, however, is clearly more prevalent in France. Almost one-third (31%) of the students had already used cannabis (vs 19% in the average European country). The use of inhalants was reported

  3. Welcome to the house of fun : Epidemiological findings on alcohol and cannabis use among Dutch adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monshouwer, K.

    2008-01-01

    Substance use is generally considered as one of the most important types of risk behaviour among adolescents. In order to understand substance use patterns in the adolescent population and to be able to take timely, adequate and targeted measures to prevent substance use related harm, it is essentia

  4. Swiss Adolescents' and Adults' Perceptions of Cannabis Use: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menghrajani, P.; Klaue, K.; Dubois-Arber, F.; Michaud, P.-A.

    2005-01-01

    Few studies have attempted to investigate the nature of adolescents and adults conceptions and perceptions of cannabis use. Our objectives were to explore adolescent and adult perception of use and misuse of cannabis, and their opinions and beliefs about the current legal context and preventive strategies. We used focus group discussions with four…

  5. A Belated Green Revolution for Cannabis: Virtual Genetic Resources to Fast-Track Cultivar Development

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Timothy Welling; Timothy Shapter; Terry James Rose; Lei Liu; Rhia Stanger; Graham John King

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis is a predominantly diecious phenotypically diverse domesticated genus with few if any extant natural populations. International narcotics conventions and associated legislation have constrained the establishment, characterization, and use of Cannabis genetic resource collections. This has resulted in the underutilization of genepool variability in cultivar development and has limited the inclusion of secondary genepools associated with genetic improvement strategies of the Green Revo...

  6. Brain volume in male patients with recent onset schizophrenia with and without cannabis use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, L.; Machielsen, M.W.; van der Meer, F.J.; van Gasselt, A.C.; Meijer, C.J.; van den Brink, W.; Koeter, M.W.; Caan, M.W.; Cousijn, J.; den Braber, A.; van 't Ent, D.; Rive, M.M.; Schene, A.H.; van de Giessen, E.; Huyser, C.; de Kwaasteniet, B.P.; Veltman, D.J.; de Haan, L.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is highly comorbid with cannabis use disorders (CUDs), and this comorbidity is associated with an unfavourable course. Early onset or frequent cannabis use may influence brain structure. A key question is whether comorbid CUDs modulate brain morphology alterations associate

  7. Brain volume in male patients with recent onset schizophrenia with and without cannabis use disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenders, L.; Machielsen, M.W.; Meer, F.J. van der; Gasselt, A.C. van; Meijer, C.J.W.; Brink, W. van den; Koeter, M.W.; Caan, M.W.; Cousijn, J.; Braber, A.; Ent, D. van 't; Rive, M.M.; Schene, A.H.; Giessen, E. van de; Huyser, C.; Kwaasteniet, B.P. de; Veltman, D.J.; Haan, L. de

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia is highly comorbid with cannabis use disorders (CUDs), and this comorbidity is associated with an unfavourable course. Early onset or frequent cannabis use may influence brain structure. A key question is whether comorbid CUDs modulate brain morphology alterations associate

  8. Cannabis use and childhood trauma interact additively to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adolescence.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harley, M

    2010-10-01

    Adolescent cannabis use has been shown in many studies to increase the risk of later psychosis. Childhood trauma is associated with both substance misuse and risk for psychosis. In this study our aim was to investigate whether there is a significant interaction between cannabis use and childhood trauma in increasing the risk for experiencing psychotic symptoms during adolescence.

  9. Cannabis and a lower BMI in psychosis : What is the role of AKT1?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liemburg, Edith J.; Bruins, Jojanneke; van Beveren, Nico; Islam, Md Atiqul; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Bruggeman, R.; Wiersma, D.; Cahn, W.; Kahn, R. S.; de Haan, L.; Meijer, C. J.; Myin-Germeys, I.; van Os, J.

    2016-01-01

    Cannabis use has been associated with favorable outcomes on metabolic risk factors. The cause of this relation is still unknown. In this study we investigated whether this effect is mediated by the AKT1 gene, as activation of the related enzyme by cannabis may cause metabolic changes. Six Single Nuc

  10. Medicinal cannabis does not influence the clinical pharmacokinetics of irinotecan and docetaxel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K. Engels (Frederike); F.A. de Jong (Floris); A. Sparreboom (Alex); R.A. Mathot (Ron); W.J. Loos (Walter); J.J.E.M. Kitzen (Jos); P. de Bruijn (Peter); J. Verweij (Jaap); A.H.J. Mathijssen (Ron)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractObjective. To date, data regarding the potential of cannabinoids to modulate cytochrome P450 isozyme 3A (CYP3A) activity are contradictory. Recently, a standardized medicinal cannabis product was introduced in The Netherlands. We anticipated an increased use of medicinal cannabis concurr

  11. Perceived Role Legitimacy and Role Importance of Australian School Staff in Addressing Student Cannabis Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Peter J.; Norberg, Melissa M.; Dillon, Paul; Manocha, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of cannabis use by Australian secondary school students makes schools an ideal setting for the delivery of substance use prevention programs. Although efficacious school-based cannabis prevention programs exist, there is scant research investigating the perceived role legitimacy and role importance of school staff. As such,…

  12. Effect of Long-Term Cannabis Use on Axonal Fibre Connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesky, Andrew; Solowij, Nadia; Yucel, Murat; Lubman, Dan I.; Takagi, Michael; Harding, Ian H.; Lorenzetti, Valentina; Wang, Ruopeng; Searle, Karissa; Pantelis, Christos; Seal, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Cannabis use typically begins during adolescence and early adulthood, a period when cannabinoid receptors are still abundant in white matter pathways across the brain. However, few studies to date have explored the impact of regular cannabis use on white matter structure, with no previous studies examining its impact on axonal connectivity. The…

  13. Social Skills as Precursors of Cannabis Use in Young Adolescents: A Trails Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel F. H.; Huijbregts, Stephan C. J.; Huizink, Anja C.; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C.; Vollebergh, Wilma A. M.; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up…

  14. Cannabis use and vulnerability for psychosis in early adolescence-a TRAILS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel F H; Wigman, Johanna T W; Prince van Leeuwen, Andrea; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Huizink, Anja C; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C; van Os, Jim; Swaab, Hanna; Vollebergh, Wilma A M

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: To examine the direction of the longitudinal association between vulnerability for psychosis and cannabis use throughout adolescence. DESIGN: Cross-lagged path analysis was used to identify the temporal order of vulnerability for psychosis and cannabis use, while controlling for gender, family

  15. Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis use: predictors of negative outcomes in first episode psychosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itxaso González-Ortega

    Full Text Available Although depressive symptoms in first episode psychosis have been associated with cannabis abuse, their influence on the long-term functional course of FEP patients who abuse cannabis is unknown. The aims of the study were to examine the influence of subclinical depressive symptoms on the long-term outcome in first episode-psychosis patients who were cannabis users and to assess the influence of these subclinical depressive symptoms on the ability to quit cannabis use.64 FEP patients who were cannabis users at baseline were followed-up for 5 years. Two groups were defined: (a patients with subclinical depressive symptoms at least once during follow-up (DPG, and (b patients without subclinical depressive symptoms during follow-up (NDPG. Psychotic symptoms were measured using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS, depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17, and psychosocial functioning was assessed using the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF. A linear mixed-effects model was used to analyze the combined influence of cannabis use and subclinical depressive symptomatology on the clinical outcome.Subclinical depressive symptoms were associated with continued abuse of cannabis during follow-up (β= 4.45; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.78 to 11.17; P = .001 and with worse functioning (β = -5.50; 95% CI: -9.02 to -0.33; P = .009.Subclinical depressive symptoms and continued cannabis abuse during follow-up could be predictors of negative outcomes in FEP patients.

  16. The relationship between non-acute adolescent cannabis use and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Megan A; Sellman, John D; Porter, Richard J; Frampton, Christopher M

    2007-05-01

    Research indicates that cannabis continues to be a popular illegal drug internationally. Furthermore, adolescent rates of use appear to be significant. Whilst the non-acute effect of cannabis use on adult cognition has been extensively researched, there has been less examination of adolescents. This study aimed to investigate the non-acute relationship between cannabis and cognitive function in a sample of adolescents with a continuum of cannabis use, taking into account additional predictor variables (psychiatric functioning, general functioning, demographics and other drug use). Seventy adolescents were recruited from clinical and community sources as well as through newspaper advertisements. After 12 hours abstinence from cannabis, adolescents completed a two-hour interview covering: demographics; alcohol and drug use history; drug use in the past 28 days; depression; further psychiatric functioning (including ADHD and Conduct Disorder); and cognitive functioning as measured by computerised tasks (CANTAB) and traditional pen and paper tests. Adolescents who were regular cannabis users (more than once a week) had a significantly poorer performance on four measures of cognitive function reflecting attention, spatial working memory and learning. Cannabis use remained an independent predictor of performance on the working memory and strategy measures after additional predictor variables were included in a multivariate regression analysis. The results suggest that aspects of adolescent cognitive function are independently related to the frequency of cannabis use beyond acute intoxication.

  17. Protective and therapeutic effects of cannabis plant extract on liver cancer induced by dimethylnitrosamine in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neveen Abd El Moneim Hussein

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The protective effect of cannabis extract is more pronounced in group taking cannabis before DMNA. Cannabinoids might exert their anti-tumor effects by the direct induction of apoptosis and can decrease telomerase activity by inhibiting the expression of the TERT gene. Coordination between inhibition of telomerase activity and induction of apoptosis might be a potential therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

  18. First systematic evaluation of the potency of Cannabis sativa plants grown in Albania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruci, Zana; Papoutsis, Ioannis; Athanaselis, Sotirios; Nikolaou, Panagiota; Pazari, Ermira; Spiliopoulou, Chara; Vyshka, Gentian

    2012-10-10

    Cannabis products (marijuana, hashish, cannabis oil) are the most frequently abused illegal substances worldwide. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of Cannabis sativa plant, whereas cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are other major but no psychoactive constituents. Many studies have already been carried out on these compounds and chemical research was encouraged due to the legal implications concerning the misuse of marijuana. The aim of this study was to determine THC, CBD and CBN in a significant number of cannabis samples of Albanian origin, where cannabis is the most frequently used drug of abuse, in order to evaluate and classify them according to their cannabinoid composition. A GC-MS method was used, in order to assay cannabinoid content of hemp samples harvested at different maturation degree levels during the summer months and grown in different areas of Albania. This method can also be used for the determination of plant phenotype, the evaluation of psychoactive potency and the control of material quality. The highest cannabinoid concentrations were found in the flowers of cannabis. The THC concentrations in different locations of Albania ranged from 1.07 to 12.13%. The influence of environmental conditions on cannabinoid content is discussed. The cannabinoid content of cannabis plants were used for their profiling, and it was used for their classification, according to their geographical origin. The determined concentrations justify the fact that Albania is an area where cannabis is extensively cultivated for illegal purposes.

  19. Progress toward pharmacotherapies for cannabis-use disorder: an evidence-based review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Copel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Jan Copeland, Izabella Pokorski UNSW Medicine, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: Cannabis is the most widely used and variably regulated drug in the world, with increasing trends of use being reported in the US, Australia, Asia, and Africa. Evidence has shown a decrease in the age of commencement of cannabis use in some developed countries and a prolongation of risk of initiation to cannabis use beyond adolescence among more recent users. Cannabis use is associated with numerous health risks and long-term morbidity, as well as risk of developing cannabis-use disorders. Cannabis users infrequently seek professional treatment, and normally do so after a decade of use. Cannabis-use disorders are currently treated using a selection of psychosocial interventions. Severity of withdrawal is a factor that increases the risk of relapse, and is the target of pharmacotherapy studies. Currently, there is no approved pharmacotherapy for cannabis-use disorders. A number of approaches have been examined, and trials are continuing to find a safe and effective medication with little abuse liability. Keywords: marijuana, treatment, intervention, withdrawal, cannabinoid

  20. Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and early onset of cannabis use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huizink, Anja C.; Ferdinand, Robert F.; Ormel, Johan; Verhulst, Frank C.

    2006-01-01

    Aims To identify early onset cannabis users by measuring basal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, which may be a risk factor for early onset substance use when showing low activity. Design In a prospective cohort study, adolescents who initiated cannabis use at an early age (9-12 ye

  1. Family motivational intervention for reducing cannabis use in recent-onset schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.M. Smeerdijk

    2015-01-01

    Cannabis use in highly prevalent among young adults with recent-onset schizophrenia and has been associated with an adverse course of the illness. Despite these association, the evidence for effective interventions for treating cannabis use in patients with psychosis is limited. This thesis focuses

  2. The legalization of cannabis derivatives in Spain: Hypothesis on a potential emerging market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Arturo; Gamella, Juan F; Parra, Iván

    2016-10-07

    First, this paper estimates the dimensions of the market for cannabis in Spain using data on the extent of consumption and the main patterns of use of consumers. Then the paper reviews the hypothetical production and distribution costs of these drugs in different production regimes under different legal conditions. The review shows that current prices of cannabis in the illegal market could be notably reduced if production and distribution of cannabis were decriminalized and even more if they were performed by legal enterprises. Thirdly, we examine the relationship between prices and consumption levels by analysing the price elasticity of demand. A fall in the prices of cannabis products will likely result in an increase in the number of users and in the total amount consumed. Lastly we consider several alternatives for the taxation of cannabis derivatives to counteract the likely fall in prices, and their pros and cons.

  3. Re-branding cannabis: the next generation of chronic pain medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Gregory T; Javaher, Simone P; Nguyen, Michael Hv; Garret, Sharon; Carlini, Beatriz H

    2015-01-01

    The field of pain medicine is at a crossroads given the epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths from prescription opioids. Cannabis and its active ingredients, cannabinoids, are a much safer therapeutic option. Despite being slowed by legal restrictions and stigma, research continues to show that when used appropriately, cannabis is safe and effective for many forms of chronic pain and other conditions, and has no overdose levels. Current literature indicates many chronic pain patients could be treated with cannabis alone or with lower doses of opioids. To make progress, cannabis needs to be re-branded as a legitimate medicine and rescheduled to a more pharmacologically justifiable class of compounds. This paper discusses the data supporting re-branding and rescheduling of cannabis.

  4. The medicinal use of cannabis in the UK: results of a nationwide survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, M A; Adams, H; Guy, G W

    2005-03-01

    The use of cannabis for medical purposes is a controversial but an important topic of public and scientific interest. We report on the results of a self-administered questionnaire study conducted in the United Kingdom between 1998 and 2002. The questionnaire consisted of 34 items and included demographic data, disease and medication use patterns and cannabis use profiles. Subjects were self-selected; 3663 questionnaires were distributed and 2969 were returned [1805 (60.9%) women, mean age 52.7 years (SD 12.7)]. Medicinal cannabis use was reported by patients with chronic pain (25%), multiple sclerosis and depression (22% each), arthritis (21%) and neuropathy (19%). Medicinal cannabis use was associated with younger age, male gender and previous recreational use (p cannabis and cannabinoids with standardised and quality-controlled products.

  5. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.

  6. The use of tobacco and cannabis at an international music festival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesse, Morten; Tutenges, Sébastien; Schliewe, Sanna

    2010-01-01

    users who had not used a substance in the past 12 months. Results: New onset of tobacco use was reported by 9.2% of never-smokers, and new onset of cannabis use was reported by 9.3% of never-smokers of cannabis. Resumption of tobacco use was reported by 24% of past year abstainers, and resumption...... of cannabis use was reported by 30% of past year abstainers. New onset of other types of substances was reported by less than 0.5% of subjects, but among past year abstainers, 5–10% reported resumption of amphetamine, ketamine, MDMA and cocaine use. New onset smokers of cannabis were significantly younger...... than never-smokers. Conclusion: Music festivals such as the Roskilde Festival may be important arenas for the prevention of onset of tobacco and cannabis use and for a return to substance use....

  7. Tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis de los escolares de Barcelona (1987-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariza C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis entre los adolescentes escolarizados entre 1987 y 1999 de la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuestas transversales realizadas a muestras representativas de escolares de segundo curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO entre 1987 y 1999. Los cuestionarios eran anónimos y autocontestados. Se dispone de datos de 5.013 escolares de la ciudad de Barcelona que participan en alguna de las 5 encuestas. Resultados: Tras disminuir de forma uniforme entre 1987 y 1996, en 1999 se observa un aumento del 13,4% en el consumo regular (diario o semanal de tabaco y del 38,7% en el consumo experimental de tabaco, respecto a las prevalencias observadas en 1996. Con respecto al consumo de alcohol, se observa una disminución global del 14% de los escolares que ha bebido al menos medio vaso de alcohol entre 1987 y 1999. El consumo problemático de alcohol se iguala en ambos sexos, y la proporción que declara haberse emborrachado alguna vez es en 1999 superior en las chicas (14,0% que en los chicos (10,5%. Mientras en 1996 un 6,9% declaraba haber probado cannabis, la proporción en 1999, sin diferencias entre sexos, era del 7,3% de la población estudiada. Conclusiones: En el período estudiado se observa un aumento del consumo regular de tabaco, una disminución del consumo de alcohol y una estabilización del consumo de cannabis. Las diferencias entre ambos sexos tienden a desaparecer.

  8. Tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis de los escolares de Barcelona (1987-1999 Trends in tobacco, alcohol and cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils in Barcelona, Spain [1987-1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ariza

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Describir las tendencias en el consumo de tabaco, alcohol y cannabis entre los adolescentes escolarizados entre 1987 y 1999 de la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Encuestas transversales realizadas a muestras representativas de escolares de segundo curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria (ESO entre 1987 y 1999. Los cuestionarios eran anónimos y autocontestados. Se dispone de datos de 5.013 escolares de la ciudad de Barcelona que participan en alguna de las 5 encuestas. Resultados: Tras disminuir de forma uniforme entre 1987 y 1996, en 1999 se observa un aumento del 13,4% en el consumo regular (diario o semanal de tabaco y del 38,7% en el consumo experimental de tabaco, respecto a las prevalencias observadas en 1996. Con respecto al consumo de alcohol, se observa una disminución global del 14% de los escolares que ha bebido al menos medio vaso de alcohol entre 1987 y 1999. El consumo problemático de alcohol se iguala en ambos sexos, y la proporción que declara haberse emborrachado alguna vez es en 1999 superior en las chicas (14,0% que en los chicos (10,5%. Mientras en 1996 un 6,9% declaraba haber probado cannabis, la proporción en 1999, sin diferencias entre sexos, era del 7,3% de la población estudiada. Conclusiones: En el período estudiado se observa un aumento del consumo regular de tabaco, una disminución del consumo de alcohol y una estabilización del consumo de cannabis. Las diferencias entre ambos sexos tienden a desaparecer.Objective: To describe trends in tobacco, alcohol, and cannabis consumption among secondary school pupils in Barcelona between 1987 and 1999. Methods: Cross-sectional surveys administered to representative samples of pupils in the second year of secondary school between 1987 and 1999. The questionnaires were anonymous and self-completed. We present data from 5013 secondary school pupils from Barcelona who participated in one of the five surveys. Results: Regular smoking (daily and weekly showed a

  9. Diversity Analysis in Cannabis sativa Based on Large-Scale Development of Expressed Sequence Tag-Derived Simple Sequence Repeat Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Chunsheng Gao; Pengfei Xin; Chaohua Cheng; Qing Tang; Ping Chen; Changbiao Wang; Gonggu Zang; Lining Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. is an important economic plant for the production of food, fiber, oils, and intoxicants. However, lack of sufficient simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers has limited the development of cannabis genetic research. Here, large-scale development of expressed sequence tag simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers was performed to obtain more informative genetic markers, and to assess genetic diversity in cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Based on the cannabis transcriptome, 4,577 SS...

  10. Clinical Epidemiology Of Stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraja D

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke is a huge public health problem because of its high morbidity and disability. The epidemiology of stroke is of relevance to construct practical paradigms to tackle this major health issue in the community. Recent data have shown that about 72-86% of strokes are ischemic, 9-18% are due to hemorrhage (intracerebral of subarachnoid and the rest are undefined. The risk factors for stroke are multiple and combined. At present, stroke is no more considered as unavoidable and untreatable. It is an emergency and specialized units and teams improve outcome and lower costs. Death related to stroke is declining in many countries and in both sexes. This decrease in multifactorial. The detection and more effective treatment of hypertension may play an important factor, as well as the improved medical care and improvement in diagnostic procedures. While stroke incidence appears stable and stroke mortality is slowly declining, the absolute magnitude of stroke is likely to grow over the next 30 years. as the population ages, the absolute number of stroke victims and demands on healthcare and other support systems is likely to increase substantially in the future. Keeping this in perspective, this chapter shall focus on the epidemiology of stroke in the world and in Indian, in particular.

  11. Cannabinoid Concentrations in Hair from Documented Cannabis Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huestis, Marilyn A.; Gustafson, Richard A.; Moolchan, Eric T.; Bames, Allan; Bourland, James A.; Sweeney, Stacy A.; Hayes, Eugene F.; Carpenter, Patrick M.; Smith, Michael L.

    2008-01-01

    Fifty-three head hair specimens were collected from 38 males with a history of cannabis use documented by questionnaire, urinalysis and controlled, double blind administration of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in an institutional review board approved protocol. The subjects completed a questionnaire indicating daily cannabis use (N = 18) or non-daily use, i.e. 1 to 5 cannabis cigarettes per week, (N = 20). Drug use was also documented by a positive cannabinoid urinalysis, a hair specimen was collected from each subject and they were admitted to a closed research unit. Additional hair specimens were collected following smoking of two 2.7% THC cigarettes (N = 13) or multiple oral doses totaling 116 mg THC (N = 2). Cannabinoid concentrations in all hair specimens were determined by ELISA and GCMSMS. Pre- and post dose detection rates did not differ statistically, therefore, all 53 specimens were considered as one group for further comparisons. Nineteen specimens (36%) had no detectable THC or 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) at the GCMSMS limits of quantification (LOQ) of 1.0 and 0.1 pg/mg hair, respectively. Two specimens (3.8%) had measurable THC only, 14 (26%) THCCOOH only, and 18 (34%) both cannabinoids. Detection rates were significantly different (p 0.3, Fisher's exact test). For specimens with detectable cannabinoids, concentrations ranged from 3.4 to > 100 pg THC/mg and 0.10 to 7.3 pg THCCOOH/mg hair. THC and THCCOOH concentrations were positively correlated (r = 0.38, p < 0.01, Pearson's product moment correlation). Using an immunoassay cutoff concentration of 5 pg THC equivalents/mg hair, 83% of specimens that screened positive were confirmed by GCMSMS at a cutoff concentration of 0.1 pg THCCOOH/mg hair. PMID:16963215

  12. Complete sequence of a cryptic virus from hemp (Cannabis sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Angelika; Matoušek, Jaroslav; Steger, Gerhard; Schubert, Jörg

    2012-02-01

    Hemp (Cannabis sativa) was found to be a useful propagation host for hop latent virus, a carlavirus. However, when virus preparations were analysed by electron microscopy, along with the expected filamentous particles, spherical particles with a diameter of around 34 nm were found. RNA from virus preparations was purified, and cDNA was prepared and cloned. Sequence information was used to search databases, and the greatest similarity was found with Primula malacoides virus 1, a putative new member of the genus Partitivirus. The full sequences of RNA 1 and RNA 2 of this new hemp cryptic virus were obtained.

  13. An epidemiological investigation on the behavior problems of children aged 3 ~7 years old in Zhenjiang city%镇江市3~7岁儿童行为问题流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常宪鲁; 张燕; 王华云

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the epidemiological features of behavior problems of children aged 3 ~7 years old in Zhenjiang city, provide interventional measures for reducing the occurrence of behavior problems in children. Methods; Conners Parent Symptom Questionnaire ( PSQ ) and a self - designed questionnaire about the effect factors of children behaviors were used to survey 724 children aged 3 ~ 7 years old in urban area and rural area of Zhenjiang city. Results: The detection rate of behavior problems in children aged 3 ~ 7 years old was 13. 1% , the detection rates of behavior problems in boys and girls were 17. 0% and 9. 2% , respectively, there was significant difference (P<0. 01) . There was significant difference in character problems between boys and girls (P<0. 05) . There was also significant difference in impulse, hyperactivity and hyperactive index between boys and girls (P <0. 01) . Univariate analysis found that the effect factors of behavior problems in children aged 3 ~ 7 years old included maternal anxiety or depression during pregnancy, physical health state during pregnancy, paternal educational level, complications during perinatal period, past medical history of children and the time of starting to speak of children. Multivariate stepwise regression analysis found that maternal anxiety or depression during pregnancy, poor physical health state during pregnancy and complications during perinatal period were the main risk factors of behavior problems in children. Conclusion: The behavior problems of children aged 3 ~7 years old are resulted from multiple factors, keeping good maternal spirit and reducing complications during perinatal period have important significances to reduce the behavior problems of children.%目的:探讨镇江市3~7岁儿童行为问题的流行病学特点,为减少儿童行为问题的发生提供干预措施.方法:应用Conners父母症状问卷(Parent Symptom Questionnaire,PSQ)和自编儿童

  14. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015.

  15. [Epidemiology of urinary lithiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joual, A; Rais, H; Rabii, R; el Mrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyse the epidemiological profile of urinary stones based on one thousand cases observed in our institution over a 10-year period. The mean age of the patients was 45 years and two-thirds of patients were males. The kidney was the commonest site of stones, in 57.8% of cases. The stone was radiopaque in 86.4% of cases and was a staghorn calculus in 12.2% of cases. An associated renal malformation was observed in 10.4% of cases. Urinary stones is therefore a common disease, essentially observed in a young population and characterized by recurrence. It therefore constitutes a public health problem and prevention consists of detecting recurrences and treating stone-inducing factors.

  16. Alterations of monetary reward and punishment processing in chronic cannabis users: an FMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzi, Björn; Lissek, Silke; Edel, Marc-Andreas; Tegenthoff, Martin; Nicolas, Volkmar; Scherbaum, Norbert; Juckel, Georg; Roser, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in reward and punishment processing have been reported in adults suffering from long-term cannabis use. However, previous findings regarding the chronic effects of cannabis on reward and punishment processing have been inconsistent. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to reveal the neural correlates of reward and punishment processing in long-term cannabis users (n = 15) and in healthy control subjects (n = 15) with no history of drug abuse. For this purpose, we used the well-established Monetary Incentive Delay (MID) task, a reliable experimental paradigm that allows the differentiation between anticipatory and consummatory aspects of reward and punishment processing. Regarding the gain anticipation period, no significant group differences were observed. In the left caudate and the left inferior frontal gyrus, cannabis users were - in contrast to healthy controls - not able to differentiate between the conditions feedback of reward and control. In addition, cannabis users showed stronger activations in the left caudate and the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus following feedback of no punishment as compared to healthy controls. We interpreted these deficits in dorsal striatal functioning as altered stimulus-reward or action-contingent learning in cannabis users. In addition, the enhanced lateral prefrontal activation in cannabis users that is related to non-punishing feedback may reflect a deficit in emotion regulation or cognitive reappraisal in these subjects.

  17. Cue-induced craving for marijuana in cannabis-dependent adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundahl, Leslie H; Johanson, Chris-Ellyn

    2011-06-01

    Recent interest in the development of medications for treatment of cannabis-use disorders indicates the need for laboratory models to evaluate potential compounds prior to undertaking clinical trials. To investigate whether a cue-reactivity paradigm could induce marijuana craving in cannabis-dependent adults, 16 (eight female) cannabis-dependent and 16 (eight female) cannabis-naïve participants were exposed to neutral and marijuana-related cues, and subsequent changes in mood, self-reported craving, and physiologic function were assessed. Significant Group X cue interactions were found on all three VAS craving indices as well as on the Compulsivity scale of the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire-Brief Form (MCQ-BF). Cannabis-dependent individuals responded to marijuana-related cues with significantly increased reports of marijuana craving compared to neutral cue exposure, although there were no cue-induced changes in any of the physiological measures. There were no significant gender differences on any of the measures. These results indicate that marijuana craving can be induced and assessed in cannabis-dependent, healthy adults within a laboratory setting, and support the need for further research of the cue reactivity paradigm in the development of medications to treat cannabis-use disorders.

  18. The Importance of Family Relations for Cannabis Users: The Case of Serbian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Terzic Supic

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is transitional stage of physical and mental human development occuring between childhood and adult life. Social interactions and environmental factors together are important predictors of adolescent cannabis use. This study aimed to examine the relationship between the social determinants and adolescents behavior with cannabis consumption.Methods: A cross sectional study as part of the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and other Drugs was conducted among 6.150 adolescents aged 16 years in three regions of Serbia, and three types of schools (gymnasium, vocational – professional, and vocational – handicraft during May – June 2008. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out to obtain adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals in which the dependent variable was cannabis consumption non-user and user.Results: Among 6.7% of adolescents who had tried cannabis at least one in their lives, boys were more involved in cannabis use than girls, especially boys from gymnasium school. Well off family, lower education of mother, worse relations with parents were significantly associated with cannabis use (P < 0.05. Behaviors like skipping from schools, frequent evening outs, and playing on slot machines were also related to cannabis use (P < 0.05.Conclusions: The study confirmed the importance of family relationship development. Drug use preventive programmes should include building interpersonal trust in a family lifecycle and school culture.

  19. A study of cannabis potency in France over a 25 years period (1992-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dujourdy, Laurence; Besacier, Fabrice

    2017-03-01

    Cannabis contains a unique class of compounds known as the cannabinoids. Pharmacologically, the principal psychoactive constituent is Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). The amount of THC in conjunction with selected additional cannabinoid compounds (cannabidiol/CBD, cannabinol/CBN), determines the strength or potency of the cannabis product. Recently, reports have speculated over the change in the quality of cannabis products, from nearly a decade, specifically concerning the increase in cannabinoid content. This article exploits the analytical data of cannabis samples analyzed in the five French forensic police laboratories over 25 years. The increase potency of both herbal and resin cannabis in France is proved through the monitoring of THC content. For cannabis resin, it has slowly risen from 1992 to 2009, before a considerable increase in the last four years (mean THC content in mid-2016 is 23% compared to 10% in 2009). For herbal cannabis, it has known three main stages of growth (mean THC content is 13% in 2015 and mid-2016 compared to 7% in 2009 and 2% in 1995). The calculation of THC/CBD ratios in both herbal and resin samples confirms the recent change in chemotypes in favor of high potency categories. Finally, the CBN/THC ratios in marijuana samples were measured in order to evaluate the freshness of French seized hemp.

  20. Clozapine Treatment and Cannabis Use in Adolescents with Psychotic Disorders – A Retrospective Cohort Chart Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Sephora M.; Ansarian, Aylar; Courtney, Darren B.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the association between clozapine treatment and frequency of cannabis use in adolescents with co-occurring psychotic and cannabis use disorder in a retrospective cohort chart review. Method We conducted a retrospective cohort chart review of patients diagnosed with a psychotic disorder and concurrent cannabis use disorder admitted to a tertiary care youth inpatient unit from 2010–2012. Longitudinal exposure and outcome data was coded month-by-month. Frequency of cannabis use was measured using a 7-point ordinal scale. Severity of psychosis was measured on a 3-point ordinal scale. Mixed effects regression modeling was used to describe the relationship between exposure and outcome variables. Results Thirteen patients had exposure to clozapine and fourteen had no exposure to clozapine. Cannabis use decreased in patients treated with clozapine, compared to patients treated with other antipsychotics (OR 2.8; 95% CI 0.97–7.9). Compared to no medication, clozapine exposure was associated with significantly less cannabis use (OR 7.1; 95% CI 2.3–22.3). Relative to treatment with other antipsychotics, clozapine exposure was significantly associated with lower severity of psychotic symptoms (OR 3.7; 95% CI 1.2–11.8). Conclusions Clozapine may lead to decreased cannabis use and psychotic symptoms in adolescents with concurrent psychosis and substance use. Clinical trials are warranted. PMID:28331504

  1. Characterizing cannabis-induced psychosis: a study with prepulse inhibition of the startle reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Muñoz, Isabel; Jurado-Barba, Rosa; Ponce, Guillermo; Martínez-Gras, Isabel; Jiménez-Arriero, Miguel Ángel; Moratti, Stephan; Rubio, Gabriel

    2014-12-15

    Cannabis-induced psychotic disorder (CIPD) refers to psychotic symptoms that arise in the context of cannabis intoxication. Prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits have been extensively identified in schizophrenia and in cannabis abusers. We aimed to characterize PPI in CIPD patients. We used a sample of 48 CIPD patients, 54 schizophrenia patients and cannabis abuse (SCHZ), 44 cannabis dependents (CD), and 44 controls. CIPD, SCHZ and CD were abstinent of cannabis consumption for 9 months. Participants were assessed with PPI at 30, 60, and 120 ms. At 30 ms, CIPD showed lower PPI levels than controls, and SCHZ obtained worse functioning than controls and CD. At 60 ms, only SCHZ exhibited worse PPI percentages (of object) than controls. Finally, at 120 ms, CIPD showed higher PPI levels than SCHZ, and SCHZ obtained lower percentages than controls. We found that CIPD and SCHZ patients showed deficits at the most pre-attentional levels, whereas CIPD patients performed better than SCHZ at higher attentional levels. These results suggest that CIPD constitutes a different group of patients than that of SCHZ. Deficits in PPI functioning at 30 ms could be a useful psychophysiological measure to detect CIPD patients, who are frequently confused with cannabis abusers whose symptoms may mimic that of schizophrenia.

  2. Longitudinal associations between social anxiety symptoms and cannabis use throughout adolescence: the role of peer involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelemans, Stefanie A; Hale, William W; Raaijmakers, Quinten A W; Branje, Susan J T; van Lier, Pol A C; Meeus, Wim H J

    2016-05-01

    There appear to be contradicting theories and empirical findings on the association between adolescent Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) symptoms and cannabis use, suggesting potential risk as well as protective pathways. The aim of this six-year longitudinal study was to further examine associations between SAD symptoms and cannabis use over time in adolescents from the general population, specifically focusing on the potential role that adolescents' involvement with their peers may have in these associations. Participants were 497 Dutch adolescents (57 % boys; M age = 13.03 at T1), who completed annual self-report questionnaires for 6 successive years. Cross-lagged panel analysis suggested that adolescent SAD symptoms were associated with less peer involvement 1 year later. Less adolescent peer involvement was in turn associated with lower probabilities of cannabis use as well as lower frequency of cannabis use 1 year later. Most importantly, results suggested significant longitudinal indirect paths from adolescent SAD symptoms to cannabis use via adolescents' peer involvement. Overall, these results provide support for a protective function of SAD symptoms in association with cannabis use in adolescents from the general population. This association is partially explained by less peer involvement (suggesting increased social isolation) for those adolescents with higher levels of SAD symptoms. Future research should aim to gain more insight into the exact nature of the relationship between anxiety and cannabis use in adolescents from the general population, especially regarding potential risk and protective processes that may explain this relationship.

  3. Cannabis, pesticides and conflicting laws: the dilemma for legalized States and implications for public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Dave

    2014-08-01

    State laws on the legalization of medical and recreational cannabis are rapidly evolving. Similar to other crops, cannabis is susceptible to multiple pests during cultivation. Growers have an economic incentive to produce large yields and high quality plants, and may resort to pesticides to achieve these outcomes. Currently, there are no pesticides registered for cannabis in the United States, given its illegal status by the federal government. This discrepancy creates a regulatory vacuum and dilemma for States with legal medical and recreational cannabis that seek to balance lawful compliance with pesticides and worker or public health. Pesticide use presents occupational safety issues that can be mitigated through established worker protection measures. The absence of approved products for cannabis may result in consumer exposures to otherwise more hazardous pesticides or higher residue levels. While many legal and scientific hurdles exist to register conventional pesticides for use on cannabis, legalized States have explored other opportunities to leverage the present regulatory infrastructure. Stakeholder engagement and outreach to the cannabis industry from credible sources could mitigate pesticide misuse and harm.

  4. Cannabis policy reforms in the Americas: a comparative analysis of Colorado, Washington, and Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Bryce

    2014-07-01

    Legal reforms in the Americas are influencing the public debate on cannabis policy. Uruguay and the two US states of Colorado and Washington have taken steps to regulate and legitimize the production, distribution, and use of cannabis and its derivatives. Earlier experiences with medical cannabis in the United States and limited access and production models in Europe have been insightful. However, these reforms are going further still, venturing into a new area of cannabis policy. A lack of empirical evidence regarding the effects of such reforms poses a challenge for policymakers. These examples will inform the design and implementation of any future cannabis policies. Therefore, a clear understanding of the details of each jurisdiction is necessary in developing future legal changes. Literature comparing the models of Uruguay, Colorado, and Washington is thin. This paper is based on an exhaustive examination of the laws, regulations, and discussions with regulators and functionaries of each jurisdiction. The research and analysis herein will provide policymakers with a greater understanding of the laws and regulations relevant to legal cannabis in these three jurisdictions, as well as draw to their attention some potential impacts and challenges of cannabis reform that require additional consideration to ensure public safety and health.

  5. Cannabis use and mental health-related quality of life among individuals with depressive disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspis, Itay; Feingold, Daniel; Weiser, Mark; Rehm, Jurgen; Shoval, Gal; Lev-Ran, Shaul

    2015-12-15

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit substance among individuals with depressive disorders. This study aimed to evaluate whether among individuals with depressive disorders, higher frequency of cannabis use would be associated with poorer Quality of Life (QoL), based on a large nationally representative US sample. Individuals with depressive disorders (N=3416) were divided into categories according to no use (N=3096), occasional use (less than weekly, N=176) and regular (at least weekly, N=144) use of cannabis in the past 12 months. QoL was assessed using the Short-Form 12 (SF-12) questionnaire. Women who used cannabis regularly had a significantly lower SF-12 Mental Component Summary score (MCS) compared to non-users, with a mean difference of 0.4 Standard Deviations (SDs). Comparison of subscale scores showed no significant differences. No significant difference was noted when comparing women who used cannabis occasionally to non-users. No differences were found among men when comparing MCS and mental subscale scores of both regular and occasional users to non-users. Our findings highlight the importance of taking gender and the frequency of cannabis use into account, when assessing functional and emotional aspects of cannabis use among individuals with depressive disorders.

  6. Ehrlichiosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  7. Anaplasmosis: Statistics and Epidemiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a tick Diseases transmitted by ticks Statistics and Epidemiology Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... Holman RC, McQuiston JH, Krebs JW, Swerdlow DL. Epidemiology of human ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis in the United ...

  8. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  9. [Dermato-epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfelbacher, C J; Diepgen, T L; Weisshaar, E

    2011-11-01

    Dermato-epidemiology is an important scientific discipline which investigates skin diseases using epidemiological methods. Epidemiology is the science of the distribution and determinants of disease in specified populations. We describe fundamental terms of dermato-epidemiology (measures of disease occurrence, measures of risk), different study types (observational studies, interventional studies), the selection of statistical tests, bias and confounding as well as the principles of evidence-based dermatology, and give illustrative examples.

  10. Further Evidence That Cannabis Moderates Familial Correlation of Psychosis-Related Experiences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruud van Winkel

    Full Text Available Familial correlations underlie heritability estimates of psychosis. If gene-environment interactions are important, familial correlation will vary as a function of environmental exposure.Associations between sibling and parental schizotypy (n = 669 pairs, n = 1222 observations, and between sibling schizotypy and patient CAPE psychosis (n = 978 pairs, n = 1723 observations were examined as a function of sibling cannabis use. This design is based on the prediction that in unaffected siblings who are not exposed, vulnerability for psychosis will remain latent, whereas in case of exposure, latent psychosis vulnerability may become expressed, at the level of schizotypal symptoms, causing the phenotypic correlation between relatives to become "visible" under the influence of cannabis.Siblings exposed to recent cannabis use resembled their patient-relative more closely in terms of positive schizotypy (urinalysis(+:B = 0.30, P<.001; urinalysis(-:B = 0.10, p<0.001; p-interaction = 0.0135. Similarly, the familial correlation in positive schizotypy between parent and sibling was significantly greater in siblings recently exposed to cannabis (urinalysis(+:B = 0.78, P<.001; urinalysis(-:B = 0.43, p<0.001; p interaction = 0.0017. Results were comparable when using lifetime cannabis frequency of use as exposure instead of recent use. Parental schizotypy did not predict cannabis use in the healthy sibling, nor in the patient. Similarly, parental cannabis use was not associated with level of schizotypy in the sibling, nor with psychotic symptoms in the patient, making gene-environment correlation unlikely.Familial correlation of psychosis-related experiences varies considerably as a function of exposure to cannabis, confirming the importance of gene-cannabis interaction in shifts of expression of psychosis-related experiences.

  11. An fMRI-Based Neural Signature of Decisions to Smoke Cannabis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedi, Gillinder; Lindquist, Martin A; Haney, Margaret

    2015-11-01

    Drug dependence may be at its core a pathology of choice, defined by continued decisions to use drugs irrespective of negative consequences. Despite evidence of dysregulated decision making in addiction, little is known about the neural processes underlying the most clinically relevant decisions drug users make: decisions to use drugs. Here, we combined functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), machine learning, and human laboratory drug administration to investigate neural activation underlying decisions to smoke cannabis. Nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis smokers completed an fMRI choice task, making repeated decisions to purchase or decline 1-12 placebo or active cannabis 'puffs' ($0.25-$5/puff). One randomly selected decision was implemented. If the selected choice had been bought, the cost was deducted from study earnings and the purchased cannabis smoked in the laboratory; alternatively, the participant remained in the laboratory without cannabis. Machine learning with leave-one-subject-out cross-validation identified distributed neural activation patterns discriminating decisions to buy cannabis from declined offers. A total of 21 participants were included in behavioral analyses; 17 purchased cannabis and were thus included in fMRI analyses. Purchasing varied lawfully with dose and cost. The classifier discriminated with 100% accuracy between fMRI activation patterns for purchased vs declined cannabis at the level of the individual. Dorsal striatum, insula, posterior parietal regions, anterior and posterior cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex all contributed reliably to this neural signature of decisions to smoke cannabis. These findings provide the basis for a brain-based characterization of drug-related decision making in drug abuse, including effects of psychological and pharmacological interventions on these processes.

  12. Using biological samples in epidemiological research on drugs of abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallvard Gjerde

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood, oral fluid (saliva, urine and hair are the most commonly used biological matrices for drug testing in epidemiological drug research. Other biological matrices may also be used for selected purposes. Blood reflects recent drug intake and may be used to assess impairment. Oral fluid reflects drug presence in blood and thereby also recent intake, but drug concentrations in this matrix cannot be used to accurately estimate concentrations in blood. Urine reflects drug use during the last few days and in some cases for a longer period, but does not indicate the dose size or frequency of use. Hair reflects drug use during several months, but is a poor matrix for detecting use of cannabis. If using a single drug dose, this can be detected in blood and urine if the sample is taken within the detection timeframes, in most cases also in oral fluid. Single drug use is most often insufficient for producing a positive test result in a sample of hair. For cocaine and amphetamine, weekly use may be needed, while for cannabis a positive result is not guaranteed even after daily use. Refusal rates are lowest for oral fluid and highest for blood and hair samples. The analytical costs are lowest for urine and highest for hair. Combined use of questionnaires/interviews and drug testing detects more drug use than when using only one of those methods and is therefore expected to give more accurate data.

  13. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  14. Stroke from Vasospasm due to Marijuana Use: Can Cannabis Synergistically with Other Medications Trigger Cerebral Vasospasm?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marium Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of imaging proven cerebral vasospasm causing ischemic stroke in a young patient chronically on buprenorphine-naloxone for heroin remission who started smoking cannabis on a daily basis. With cannabis legalization spreading across the states in the USA, it is important for physicians not only to be aware of cannabis reported association with cerebral vasospasm in some patients but also to be on the lookout for possible interacting medications that can synergistically affect cerebral vessels causing debilitating strokes.

  15. Legalization, decriminalization & medicinal use of cannabis: a scientific and public health perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svrakic, Dragan M; Lustman, Patrick J; Mallya, Ashok; Lynn, Taylor Andrea; Finney, Rhonda; Svrakic, Neda M

    2012-01-01

    Empirical and clinical studies clearly demonstrate significant adverse effects of cannabis smoking on physical and mental health as well as its interference with social and occupational functioning. These negative data far outweigh a few documented benefits for a limited set of medical indications, for which safe and effective alternative treatments are readily available. If there is any medical role for cannabinoid drugs, it lies with chemically defined compounds, not with unprocessed cannabis plant. Legalization or medical use of smoked cannabis is likely to impose significant public health risks, including an increased risk of schizophrenia, psychosis, and other forms of substance use disorders.

  16. The Cannabis Dilemma: A Review of Its Associated Risks and Clinical Efficacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melvyn Weibin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis, also known as marijuana, has 9-tetrahydrocannabinol as the main constituent. There has been strict legislation governing the utilization of cannabis locally and worldwide. However, there has been an increasing push to make cannabis legalized, in view of its potential medical and therapeutic effects, for various medical disorders ranging from development disorders to cancer treatment, and being an adjunctive medication for various neurological conditions. It is the aim of this review paper to explore the evidence base for its proposed therapeutic efficacy and to compare the evidence base supporting its proposed therapeutic efficacy with its known and well-researched medical and psychiatric side effects.

  17. Sanctioning Large-Scale Domestic Cannabis Production - Potency, Yield and Professionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kim; Lindholst, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Domestically cultivated cannabis, referred to as sinsemilla, constitutes a growing share of the illicit drug markets in the Scandinavian countries. In this study we present forensic evidence of THC content in sinsemilla and resin confiscated by the Danish police from 2008 to 2012. The purpose...... that courts do not apply a yield-percentage estimate. The specificities of domestic cannabis cultivation also relate to the sanction criteria „professionalism”. Firstly, the number of plants found can provide for calculation of an aggregate quantum. Secondly, this can be related to the formal quantum......-scale cannabis cases would improve by applying a 1:1 potency level between sinsemilla and resin....

  18. Psychotic experiences are linked to cannabis use in adolescents in the community because of common underlying environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakoor, Sania; Zavos, Helena M S; McGuire, Philip; Cardno, Alastair G; Freeman, Daniel; Ronald, Angelica

    2015-06-30

    Cannabis users are more likely to have psychotic experiences (PEs). The degree to which these associations are driven by genetic or environmental influences in adolescence is unknown. This study estimated the genetic and environmental contributions to the relationship between cannabis use and PEs. Specific PEs were measured in a community-based twin sample (4830 16-year-old pairs) using self-reports and parent-reports. Adolescents reported on ever using cannabis. Multivariate liability threshold structural equation model-fitting was conducted. Cannabis use was significantly correlated with PEs. Modest heritability (37%), common environmental influences (55%) and unique environment (8%) were found for cannabis use. For PEs, modest heritability (27-54%), unique environmental influences (E=12-50%) and little common environmental influences (11-20%), with the exception of parent-rated Negative Symptoms (42%), were reported. Environmental influences explained all of the covariation between cannabis use and paranoia, cognitive disorganization and parent-rated negative symptoms (bivariate common environment=69-100%, bivariate unique environment=28-31%), whilst the relationship between cannabis use and hallucinations indicated familial influences. Cannabis use explains 2-5% of variance in positive, cognitive, and negative PEs. Cannabis use and psychotic experience co-occur due to environmental factors. Focus on specific environments may reveal why adolescent cannabis use and psychotic experiences tend to 'travel together'.

  19. An fMRI study of neuronal activation in schizophrenia patients with and without previous cannabis use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Else-Marie eLøberg

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have mostly shown positive effects of cannabis use on cognition in patients with schizophrenia, which could reflect lower neurocognitive vulnerability. There are however no studies comparing whether such cognitive differences have neuronal correlates. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare whether patients with previous cannabis use differ in brain activation from patients who has never used cannabis. The patients groups were compared on the ability to up-regulate an effort mode network during a cognitive task and down-regulate activation in the same network during a task-absent condition. Task-present and task-absent brain activation was measured by functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging (fMRI. Twenty-six patients with a DSM-IV and ICD-10 diagnosis of schizophrenia were grouped into a previous cannabis user group and a no-cannabis group. An auditory dichotic listening task with instructions of attention focus on either the right or left ear stimulus was used to tap verbal processing, attention and cognitive control, calculated as an aggregate score. When comparing the two groups, there were remaining activations in the task-present condition for the cannabis group, not seen in the no-cannabis group, while there was remaining activation in the task-absent condition for the no-cannabis group, not seen in the cannabis group. Thus, the patients with previous cannabis use showed increased activation in an effort mode network and decreased activation in the default mode network as compared to the no-cannabis group. It is concluded that the present study show some differences in brain activation to a cognitively challenging task between previous cannabis and no-cannabis schizophrenia patients.

  20. Dose-response effect between cannabis use and psychosis liability in a non-clinical population: evidence from a snowball sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Veguilla, Miguel; Barrigón, María Luisa; Hernández, Laureano; Rubio, José Luis; Gurpegui, Manuel; Sarramea, Fernando; Cervilla, Jorge; Gutiérrez, Blanca; James, Anthony; Ferrin, Maite

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations between daily cannabis use and the specific profiles of subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical population obtained through snowball sampling, taking into account alcohol use, other drug use, social exclusion and age at onset of cannabis use. We included 85 daily cannabis users and 100 non-daily cannabis users. Both the case and the control populations were identified by snowball sampling. Daily cannabis use was associated with more alcohol intake and other drug use, as well as with early onset in the use of cannabis. Daily cannabis use appeared to exert a dose-response effect on first-rank symptoms, mania symptoms and auditory hallucinations, even after adjusting for sex, age, other drug use, social exclusion and age at onset of cannabis use. The paranoid dimension was only associated with the heaviest consumption of cannabis. Initial age of cannabis use modified the effects of daily cannabis use on the first-rank and voices experiences. Daily cannabis use was associated with significantly more first-rank and voices experiences among those subjects who started to use cannabis before 17 years of age. Our study supports the association of psychotic experiences with cannabis use even among non-psychotic subjects.