WorldWideScience

Sample records for canine vector-borne diseases

  1. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

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    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  2. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

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    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  3. Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea

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    Ahn KyuSung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%. The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%, followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%, E. canis (6.1% and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%. In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%, and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

  4. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

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    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  5. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve lasting...

  6. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    of samples and hence early detection of outbreaks. Models for vector borne diseases in Denmark have demonstrated dramatic variation in outbreak risk during the season and between years. The Danish VetMap project aims to make these risk based surveillance estimates available on the veterinarians smart phones...

  7. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

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    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  8. Recent study on canine vector-borne zoonoses in southern Slovakia - serologic survey.

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    Čabanová, Viktória; Pantchev, Nikola; Hurníková, Zuzana; Miterpáková, Martina

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade a significant spread of Canine Vector Borne Diseases has been recorded in Central Europe. The aim of the study described here, was to collect current data on the occurrence and distribution of three major canine vector-borne pathogens in the veterinary clinical practice by a newly-developed commercial ELISA test for the detection of Dirofilaria immitis antigen as well as specific circulating antibodies to Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Circulating D. immitis antigen was detected in five of 180 investigated sera samples. Two of D. immitis seropositive dogs revealed also microfilariae of D. repens in the blood and three of them were negative for the presence of microfilariae in the Knott's test. From the practical point of view, the finding of D. immitis occult infections might influence existing knowledge about distribution of this species among dogs in Central European countries. In 11.7% of the tested dogs the presence of specific antibodies against A. phagocytophilum was confirmed. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. were detected in 2.8% of tested sera samples. Coinfection with A. phagocytophilum and B. burgdorferi s.l. was observed in two dogs from Košice district in south-eastern Slovakia. Our data point toward the presence of Canine Vector Borne Diseases in the studied area. Therefore, veterinarians should include these diseases in their differential diagnosis and higher awareness should be focused also on prophylactic measures to prevent the pathogens transmission by arthropod vectors.

  9. Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases

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    Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck, Amber Read, Heidi Hillesland, Nichole Klein, Angray Kang, Ravi Durvasula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes.

  10. Vector-borne infectious diseases and influenza

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    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a serious viral disease of animals and humans in Africa and the Middle East that is transmitted by mosquitoes. First isolated in Kenya during an outbreak in 1930 subsequent outbreaks have had a significant impact on animal and human health and national economies, and it is...

  11. Review of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

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    Ma, Siu-keung Edmond; Wong, Wang Christine; Leung, Chi-wah Ryan; Lai, Sik-to Thomas; Lo, Yee-chi Janice; Wong, Kai-hay Howard; Chan, Man-chung; Que, Tak-lun; Chow, Ka-wai Mary; Yuen, Ming-chi; Lau, Tin-wai Winnie; Simon, John

    2011-05-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong has changed over the past decade but still poses a significant public health risk. We provided a comprehensive review of the epidemiological information and analysed the trends of major vector-borne diseases, including the vector situation in Hong Kong. The incidence of malaria has dropped dramatically in the past few decades and is now mainly an imported disease acquired from malaria endemic countries. Locally acquired dengue fever occurred in 2002 and 2003, and thereafter all cases were imported, mainly from Southeast Asia areas. Only a few local cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported in the past decade. In contrast, there is a notable increase in scrub typhus and spotted fever cases. The emergence of chikungunya fever in Asia and Indian Ocean countries also resulted in importation of human cases. Given the heavy traffic between this international city and other parts of the world, as well as the presence of vectors in this densely populated area, vigilance should be maintained against these infections. Comprehensive public health measures encompassing disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control measures with support from all sectors of the community are required to combat the old and newly emerging vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

  12. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease.

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    Levy, Michael Z; Barbu, Corentin M; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S; Behrman, Jere R; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-08-22

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases.

  13. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

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    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  14. Common themes in changing vector-borne disease scenarios.

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    Molyneux, David H

    2003-01-01

    The impact of climate change on disease patterns is controversial. However, global burden of disease studies suggest that infectious diseases will contribute a proportionately smaller burden of disease over the next 2 decades as non-communicable diseases emerge as public health problems. However, infectious diseases contribute proportionately more in the poorest quintile of the population. Notwithstanding the different views of the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections this paper reviews the conditions which drive the changing epidemiology of these infections and suggests that such change is linked by common themes including interactions of generalist vectors and reservoir hosts at interfaces with humans, reduced biodiversity associated with anthropogenic environmental changes, increases in Plasmodium falciparum: P. vivax ratios and well-described land use changes such as hydrological, urbanization, agricultural, mining and forest-associated impacts (extractive activities, road building, deforestation and migration) which are seen on a global scale.

  15. [The state of vector-borne diseases in Indonesia].

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    Rodhain, F

    2000-01-01

    From epidemiological point of view, Indonesia is an extremely interesting area owing its insular structure and ecological, anthropological, cultural and economical diversity. As everywhere, vector-borne diseases are the result of complex and variable epidemiological systems, subject both to biogeographical rules and human activity. Two main arboviroses are present in Indonesia: dengue and Japanese encephalitis. Dengue appears as an endemoepidemic disease and is mostly circumscribed to urban areas. Haemorrhagic cases were first observed in 1968; since then, the incidence has been constantly increasing and the disease is now one of the principal causes of child lethality. Japanese encephalitis is a rural endemic disease transmitted by rice-field mosquitoes; its incidence remains relatively low since pigs, which are usual link-hosts for the virus, are uncommon in this mainly Muslem country. Human clinical cases are recorded from non-Muslem islands such as Bali or Irian Jaya which raises the question of immunisation for travellers. Recently, Japanese encephalitis was observed on east of the Wallace line which had been considered as the eastern cut-off line. Malaria is common throughout the country, Plasmodium vivax being the most frequent species. Some of the Anopheline vectors are related to brackish water as are coastal species; others have been favoured by rice growing. Several species bite and rest outdoors, rendering control measures complex. Moreover, chloroquine resistance is increasing in both P. falciparum and P. vivax. All three filaria species responsible for human lymphatic filariasis exist in Indonesia. Bancroft filariasis is present in rather limited foci on most of the islands; malayan filariasis is very prevalent on many islands, mostly in coastal areas, and Timor filariasis exist only on a few small islands. These parasitic diseases are cumulative and do not practically endanger the health of travellers. In the past, plague was common on Java island

  16. Vector-borne diseases: the basic reproduction number R0 and risk maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the derivation of the basic reproduction number (R0) for vector-borne diseases, in the context of studying the effect of climate change on the risk of emergence diseases. Vector-borne diseases are transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by vectors, usuall

  17. Vector-borne pathogens: New and emerging arboviral diseases affecting public health

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    Dengue and Zika have quickly become two of the most important vector-borne diseases affecting Public health around the world. This presentation will introduce vector-borne diseases and all the vectors implicated. A focus will be made on the most important arboviral diseases (Zika and dengue) describ...

  18. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases...

  19. Will integrated surveillance systems for vectors and vector-borne diseases be the future of controlling vector-borne diseases? A practical example from China.

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    Wu, Y; Ling, F; Hou, J; Guo, S; Wang, J; Gong, Z

    2016-07-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the world's major public health threats and annually responsible for 30-50% of deaths reported to the national notifiable disease system in China. To control vector-borne diseases, a unified, effective and economic surveillance system is urgently needed; all of the current surveillance systems in China waste resources and/or information. Here, we review some current surveillance systems and present a concept for an integrated surveillance system combining existing vector and vector-borne disease monitoring systems. The integrated surveillance system has been tested in pilot programmes in China and led to a 21·6% cost saving in rodent-borne disease surveillance. We share some experiences gained from these programmes.

  20. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey

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    Kerem Ural

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from İzmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%, followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%, A. phagocytophilum (7.49% and D. immitis (2.28%. Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p<0.01 among control group and other groups. Conclusions. Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi, is moderately to widely distributed in dogs residing in the Aegean region in Turkey.

  1. Vector-borne disease intelligence: Strategies to deal with disease burden and threats

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    Marieta eBraks

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the complex nature of vector-borne diseases, whereby monitoring of human case patients does not suffice, public health authorities experience challenges in surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases. Knowledge on the presence and distribution of vectors and the pathogens they transmit is vital to a risk assessment process to permit effective early warning, surveillance and control of vector-borne diseases. Upon accepting this reality, public health authorities face the phenomenon of an exponential rise in the number of possible surveillance targets and how to decide which are essential. Here, . we propose a comprehensive approach that integrates three surveillance strategies: population-based surveillance, disease-based surveillance and context-based surveillance for EU member states to tailor the best surveillance strategy for control of vector-borne diseases in their geographic region. By classifying the surveillance structure into 5 different contexts, we hope to provide guidance in optimizing surveillance efforts. Contextual surveillance strategies for vector-borne diseases entail combining organization and data collection approaches that result in disease intelligence rather than a preset static structure.

  2. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool

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    Huang Zhuojie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements

  3. Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum

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    Baneth Gad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians

  4. Towards a resource-based habitat approach for spatial modelling of vector-borne disease risks

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    Hartemink, N.; Vanwambeke, S.O.; Purse, B.V.; Gilbert, M.; Van Dyck, H.

    2015-01-01

    Given the veterinary and public health impact of vector-borne diseases, there is a clear need to assess the suitability of landscapes for the emergence and spread of these diseases. Current approaches for predicting disease risks neglect key features of the landscape as components of the functional

  5. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

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    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them.

  6. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

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    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  7. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

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    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  8. Integrated mapping of establishment risk for emerging vector-borne infections: a case study of canine leishmaniasis in southwest France.

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    Nienke Hartemink

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis is endemic in the Mediterranean Basin, where the dog is the main reservoir host. The disease's causative agent, Leishmania infantum, is transmitted by blood-feeding female sandflies. This paper reports an integrative study of canine leishmaniasis in a region of France spanning the southwest Massif Central and the northeast Pyrenees, where the vectors are the sandflies Phlebotomus ariasi and P. perniciosus. METHODS: Sandflies were sampled in 2005 using sticky traps placed uniformly over an area of approximately 100 by 150 km. High- and low-resolution satellite data for the area were combined to construct a model of the sandfly data, which was then used to predict sandfly abundance throughout the area on a pixel by pixel basis (resolution of c. 1 km. Using literature- and expert-derived estimates of other variables and parameters, a spatially explicit R(0 map for leishmaniasis was constructed within a Geographical Information System. R(0 is a measure of the risk of establishment of a disease in an area, and it also correlates with the amount of control needed to stop transmission. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first analysis that combines a vector abundance prediction model, based on remotely-sensed variables measured at different levels of spatial resolution, with a fully mechanistic process-based temperature-dependent R(0 model. The resulting maps should be considered as proofs-of-principle rather than as ready-to-use risk maps, since validation is currently not possible. The described approach, based on integrating several modeling methods, provides a useful new set of tools for the study of the risk of outbreaks of vector-borne diseases.

  9. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

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    Satya Kalluri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  10. Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: Surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, H.C.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Conraths, F.J.; Holsteg, M.; Hoereth-Boentgen, D.; Gethmann, J.; Schaik, van G.

    2014-01-01

    Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe an

  11. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-10-26

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  12. Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hildebrand, von A.; Ragunathan, V.; Das, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. A

  13. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

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    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly

  14. Zoonoses and vector-borne diseases in Croatia - a multidisciplinary approach

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    Josip Margaletić, PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases create constant and serious concerns for public health. The majority of emerging infectious diseases (EID are wildlife zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. Croatia has a long tradition in the control, management and research of EID zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. There has also been a long and advantageous tradition in the collaboration of different experts and professionals in EID research in Croatia involving physician clinicians in infectious diseases, microbiologists, pathologists, veterinarians and animal scientists, ecologists, forestry experts, wildlife scientists, public health specialists and epidemiologists and laboratory scientists. The University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb established the Centre for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in liaison with national and international partners from Europe and the United States. This Centre is working in line with the ‘One Health initiative’ which recognises the inter-relationships between human, animal and environmental health.

  15. Global climate change and vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming will have different effects on different diseases because of the complex and idiosynchratic interactions between vectors, hosts, and pathogens that influence transmission dynamics of each pathogen. Human activities, including urbanization, rapid global travel, and vector management, have profound effects on disease transmission that can operate on more rapid time scales than does global climate change. The general concern about global warming encouraging the spread of tropical diseases is legitimate, but the effects vary among diseases, and the ecological implications are difficult to predict.

  16. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorentz Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%, followed by L. infantum (12.2% and E. canis (10.1%. Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR, 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German

  17. Other vector-borne parasitic diseases: animal helminthiases, bovine besnoitiosis and malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvallet, G; Boireau, P

    2015-08-01

    The parasitic diseases discussed elsewhere in this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review are not the only ones to make use of biological vectors (such as mosquitoes or ticks) or mechanical vectors (such as horse flies or Stomoxys flies). The authors discuss two major groups of vector-borne parasitic diseases: firstly, helminthiasis, along with animal filariasis and onchocerciasis, which are parasitic diseases that often take a heavytoll on artiodactylsthroughoutthe world; secondly, parasitic diseases caused by vector-borne protists, foremost of which is bovine besnoitiosis (or anasarca of cattle), which has recently spread through Europe by a dual mode of transmission (direct and by vector). Other protists, such as Plasmodium and Hepatozoon, are also described briefly.

  18. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit.

  19. A surface hydrology model for regional vector borne disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Asare, Ernest; Bomblies, Arne; Amekudzi, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    Small, sun-lit temporary pools that form during the rainy season are important breeding sites for many key mosquito vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and other diseases. The representation of this surface hydrology in mathematical disease models is challenging, due to their small-scale, dependence on the terrain and the difficulty of setting soil parameters. Here we introduce a model that represents the temporal evolution of the aggregate statistics of breeding sites in a single pond fractional coverage parameter. The model is based on a simple, geometrical assumption concerning the terrain, and accounts for the processes of surface runoff, pond overflow, infiltration and evaporation. Soil moisture, soil properties and large-scale terrain slope are accounted for using a calibration parameter that sets the equivalent catchment fraction. The model is calibrated and then evaluated using in situ pond measurements in Ghana and ultra-high (10m) resolution explicit simulations for a village in Niger. Despite the model's simplicity, it is shown to reproduce the variability and mean of the pond aggregate water coverage well for both locations and validation techniques. Example malaria simulations for Uganda will be shown using this new scheme with a generic calibration setting, evaluated using district malaria case data. Possible methods for implementing regional calibration will be briefly discussed.

  20. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Bélanger, Denise; Michel, Pascal

    2011-12-29

    The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular.

  1. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne

  2. Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Aerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

  3. Public health and vector-borne diseases - a new concept for risk governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H

    2013-12-01

    Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented.

  4. Global dynamics of a vector-borne disease model with latency and saturating incidence rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a vector-borne disease model containing latency and nonlinear incidence rates. Global analysis is completely determined by suitable Lyapunov functionals. We explicitely determine the basic reproduction number and find that if this number is less than one then disease dies out, but if the number is larger than one, the disease causing strain become endemic. The study shows that the latency delay explicitely in°uence the disease persistence. Keywords: Latency, saturating incidence, basic reproduction number, global attractivity, Lyapunov functionals.

  5. Mathematical analysis of a power-law form time dependent vector-borne disease transmission model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Tridip; Saha, Bapi

    2017-03-06

    In the last few years, fractional order derivatives have been used in epidemiology to capture the memory phenomena. However, these models do not have proper biological justification in most of the cases and lack a derivation from a stochastic process. In this present manuscript, using theory of a stochastic process, we derived a general time dependent single strain vector borne disease model. It is shown that under certain choice of time dependent transmission kernel this model can be converted into the classical integer order system. When the time-dependent transmission follows a power law form, we showed that the model converted into a vector borne disease model with fractional order transmission. We explicitly derived the disease-free and endemic equilibrium of this new fractional order vector borne disease model. Using mathematical properties of nonlinear Volterra type integral equation it is shown that the unique disease-free state is globally asymptotically stable under certain condition. We define a threshold quantity which is epidemiologically known as the basic reproduction number (R0). It is shown that if R0 > 1, then the derived fractional order model has a unique endemic equilibrium. We analytically derived the condition for the local stability of the endemic equilibrium. To test the model capability to capture real epidemic, we calibrated our newly proposed model to weekly dengue incidence data of San Juan, Puerto Rico for the time period 30th April 1994 to 23rd April 1995. We estimated several parameters, including the order of the fractional derivative of the proposed model using aforesaid data. It is shown that our proposed fractional order model can nicely capture real epidemic.

  6. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  7. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

  8. An environmental data set for vector-borne disease modeling and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling.

  9. The role of remote sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, M

    2012-12-01

    There have been several attempts made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors, biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time. This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectors and vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined with geographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-borne diseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic and environmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the information derived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture, soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of other geoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classical studies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseases control. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association with geoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonal variations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector -borne diseases can be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  10. A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS AND VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD-ȘANDRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Geospatial Analysis of the Relationship between Environmental Drivers and Vector-Borne Diseases. Human health is profoundly affected by weather and climate. Environmental health is becoming a major preoccupation on a world-wide scale; there is a close correlation between a population’s state of health and the quality of its environment, considering many infectious diseases are at least partly dependent on environmental factors. When we talk about the environment, we realize that it includes and affects fields of action from our daily life. Earth observation from space, with validation from in situ observations, provide a greater understanding of the environment and enable us to monitor and predict key environmental phenomena and events that can affect our livelihoods and health. Even thought, the use of Earth observation is growing in usefulness for a wide variety of uses, it is extremely unlikely that Earth Observation will be able to detect infectious diseases directly. Instead, Earth observation can be used to detect high NDVI index (and possibly attribute the high surface chlorophyll concentration to a particular disease, and help predict the movement of the agents carrying vector-borne disease. Many diseases need certain temperature and moisture conditions to breed. The primary objective of analyzing environmental health risk and vulnerabilities is to support the Development Regions to strengthen their capacity to assess, visualize and analyze health risks and incorporate the results of this analysis in a health risk map for disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and response plans. At the same time, such an analysis applied in health, allows starting the collection and homogenization of baseline data, information and maps to help health authorities and decision makers to take informed decisions in times of crises. Informational Health Platform would be used for the integration of data coming from different sources in order to

  11. Vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; Medlock, Jolyon M; Hubalek, Zdenek; Hjertqvist, Marika; Perrin, Yvon; Lancelot, Renaud; Duchyene, Els; Hendrickx, Guy; Stroo, Arjan; Heyman, Paul; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the complex nature of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), whereby monitoring of human case patients does not suffice, public health authorities experience challenges in surveillance and control of VBDs. Knowledge on the presence and distribution of vectors and the pathogens that they transmit is vital to the risk assessment process to permit effective early warning, surveillance, and control of VBDs. Upon accepting this reality, public health authorities face an ever-increasing range of possible surveillance targets and an associated prioritization process. Here, we propose a comprehensive approach that integrates three surveillance strategies: population-based surveillance, disease-based surveillance, and context-based surveillance for EU member states to tailor the best surveillance strategy for control of VBDs in their geographic region. By classifying the surveillance structure into five different contexts, we hope to provide guidance in optimizing surveillance efforts. Contextual surveillance strategies for VBDs entail combining organization and data collection approaches that result in disease intelligence rather than a preset static structure.

  12. Integrating Transgenic Vector Manipulation with Clinical Interventions to Manage Vector-Borne Diseases.

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    Kenichi W Okamoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many vector-borne diseases lack effective vaccines and medications, and the limitations of traditional vector control have inspired novel approaches based on using genetic engineering to manipulate vector populations and thereby reduce transmission. Yet both the short- and long-term epidemiological effects of these transgenic strategies are highly uncertain. If neither vaccines, medications, nor transgenic strategies can by themselves suffice for managing vector-borne diseases, integrating these approaches becomes key. Here we develop a framework to evaluate how clinical interventions (i.e., vaccination and medication can be integrated with transgenic vector manipulation strategies to prevent disease invasion and reduce disease incidence. We show that the ability of clinical interventions to accelerate disease suppression can depend on the nature of the transgenic manipulation deployed (e.g., whether vector population reduction or replacement is attempted. We find that making a specific, individual strategy highly effective may not be necessary for attaining public-health objectives, provided suitable combinations can be adopted. However, we show how combining only partially effective antimicrobial drugs or vaccination with transgenic vector manipulations that merely temporarily lower vector competence can amplify disease resurgence following transient suppression. Thus, transgenic vector manipulation that cannot be sustained can have adverse consequences-consequences which ineffective clinical interventions can at best only mitigate, and at worst temporarily exacerbate. This result, which arises from differences between the time scale on which the interventions affect disease dynamics and the time scale of host population dynamics, highlights the importance of accounting for the potential delay in the effects of deploying public health strategies on long-term disease incidence. We find that for systems at the disease-endemic equilibrium, even

  13. Global warming and the potential spread of vector-borne diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patz, J. [Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    1996-12-31

    Climatic factors influence many vector-borne infectious diseases, in addition to demographic, biological, and ecological determinants. The United Nation`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates an unprecedented global rise of 2.0 C by the year 2100. Of major concern is that these changes can affect the spread of many serious infectious diseases, including malaria and dengue fever. Global warming would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the mosquito`s geographic range, increasing reproductive and biting rates, and shortening pathogen incubation period. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from the projected increase in climate variability and sea level rise could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. A review of this literature, as well as preliminary data from ongoing studies will be presented.

  14. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  15. Vector-borne diseases in humans and animals: activities of the Swiss Tropical Institute and risks for Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinsstag, J; Schelling, E

    2003-12-01

    The recent outbreak of anaplasmosis in a Swiss cattle herd triggered a discussion of the risk of vector-borne diseases in animals and humans in relation to climate changes and other factors. This overview presents the Swiss Tropical Institute's (STI) activities on vector-borne diseases (malaria, trypanosomosis, and leishmaniosis in humans and tick-borne diseases in livestock), describes the possible risks for humans and animals in Switzerland, and discusses options for action in the domains of public health, livestock production and companion animals. Switzerland is increasingly confronted with vector-borne diseases in humans and animals, but this is mainly due to an increase in imported cases. The emergence of a disease in one sector (human or veterinary medicine) may predict future trends in the other. A stronger intersectoral collaboration between public health and veterinary institutions at the federal and cantonal level is needed.

  16. Multi-disease data management system platform for vector-borne diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Eisen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging information technologies present new opportunities to reduce the burden of malaria, dengue and other infectious diseases. For example, use of a data management system software package can help disease control programs to better manage and analyze their data, and thus enhances their ability to carry out continuous surveillance, monitor interventions and evaluate control program performance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We describe a novel multi-disease data management system platform (hereinafter referred to as the system with current capacity for dengue and malaria that supports data entry, storage and query. It also allows for production of maps and both standardized and customized reports. The system is comprised exclusively of software components that can be distributed without the user incurring licensing costs. It was designed to maximize the ability of the user to adapt the system to local conditions without involvement of software developers. Key points of system adaptability include 1 customizable functionality content by disease, 2 configurable roles and permissions, 3 customizable user interfaces and display labels and 4 configurable information trees including a geographical entity tree and a term tree. The system includes significant portions of functionality that is entirely or in large part re-used across diseases, which provides an economy of scope as new diseases downstream are added to the system at decreased cost. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a system with great potential for aiding disease control programs in their task to reduce the burden of dengue and malaria, including the implementation of integrated vector management programs. Next steps include evaluations of operational implementations of the current system with capacity for dengue and malaria, and the inclusion in the system platform of other important vector-borne diseases.

  17. Operational vector-borne disease surveillance and control: closing the capabilities gap through research at overseas military laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian P; Clark, Jeffrey W; Barbara, Kathryn A; Mundal, Kirk D; Furman, Barry D; McAvin, James C; Richardson, Jason H

    2009-01-01

    Malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, leishmaniasis, and a myriad of other vector-borne diseases pose significant threats to the warfighter and to the overall combat effectiveness of units. Military preventive medicine (PM) assets must accurately evaluate the vector-borne disease threat and then implement and/or advise the commander on countermeasures to reduce a particular threat. The success of these measures is contingent upon the biology of the disease vector and on the tools or methods used to conduct vector/pathogen surveillance and vector control. There is a significant gap between the tools available and those required for operational PM assets to provide real-time, effective surveillance and control. A network of US Army and US Navy overseas laboratories is focused on closing the current capabilities gap. Their mission is to develop and field test tools and methods to enhance the combatant commander's ability to identify and mitigate the threat posed by these vector-borne diseases.

  18. Emergence and prevalence of human vector-borne diseases in sink vector populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilhem Rascalou

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining 'source' populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining 'sink' vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15-55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale.

  19. Promoting Spatial Data Synthesis for Vector-Borne Disease Assessment in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD ŞANDRU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the continually human interaction with the environment, the present paper reveals the spatial data integration of environmental factors such as topography, vegetation and surface temperature with epidemiological statistical data for assessing vector-borne diseases in Romania, monitored between 2009 and 2011. This study is a small piece of a big puzzle, part of an extended research that evaluates the contribution of geospatial and ground observation data to public health assessment. It is intended to implement a useful and innovative system for Romania’s public health, which provides information on various aspects such as the prevalence of diseases, facilities that are available in order to take decisions on, either for creating infrastructure facilities or for taking immediate actions to handle situations.

  20. Modeling the spread of vector-borne diseases on bipartite networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Bisanzio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases for which transmission occurs exclusively between vectors and hosts can be modeled as spreading on a bipartite network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In such models the spreading of the disease strongly depends on the degree distribution of the two classes of nodes. It is sufficient for one of the classes to have a scale-free degree distribution with a slow enough decay for the network to have asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. Data on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks on mice and lizards from two independent studies are well described by a scale-free distribution compatible with an asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. The commonly used negative binomial, instead, cannot describe the right tail of the empirical distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extreme aggregation of vectors on hosts, described by the power-law decay of the degree distribution, makes the epidemic threshold decrease with the size of the network and vanish asymptotically.

  1. Impact of climate change in the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in domestic carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beugnet, F; Chalvet-Monfray, K

    2013-12-01

    Vector-borne diseases are medically important in humans and animals but were long considered tropical and known to first affect production animals. This is no longer true and we can see today that they are common in domestic animals and that they are also present in temperate countries, especially in Europe. In recent years, an increase in the diagnosis of vector borne diseases among humans and animals has been observed, which may partly due to the development of diagnostic tools. Their study requires exchanges and collaborations between the many actors involved, especially since the epidemiology seems to be constantly evolving. The veterinary practitioner is the first one to notice the emergence of cases and to implement prevention measures. He also acts as a sentinel to alert epidemiologists. Many factors can explain the epidemiological changes, i.e. all human factors, such as the increase in commercial transportation, but also owners traveling with their pet during the holidays, the development of "outdoor" activities, the increase of individual housings with gardens; to these human factors must be added the ignorance of the risks, linked to animals in general and to wildlife in particular; then the environmental changes: forest fragmentation, establishment of parks; the increase of wild mammal populations (deer, carnivores, rodents, etc.); finally, climate changes. Climate change is a reality which may explain the increase of density of arthropod vectors, but also of their hosts, changes in periods of activity and variations in geographical distribution. The authors show the proof of the climate modifications and then explain how it has an impact in Europe on ticks, mosquitoes, sandflies and even fleas. They conclude on the practical consequences for veterinary practitioners, especially with the diagnosis of parasitic diseases or diseases in areas where they usually do not occur. However, not any epidemiological modification should be linked to climate change

  2. The role of Remote Sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palaniyandi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been several attemps made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors,biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time.This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications forspatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectorsand vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined withgeographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-bornediseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic andenvironmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the informationderived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture,soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of othergeoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classicalstudies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseasescontrol. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation ofthe vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association withgeoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonalvariations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector-borne diseasescan be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  3. Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...... for continuous risk assessment of the potential for local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. In this system R0-models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0...... partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. We have also used the R0 models to predict the potential impact of climate change on four selected vector borne disease: Bluetongue in cattle, African Horse Sickness in horses, Dirofilariasis in dogs and Vivax...

  4. Man bites mosquito: understanding the contribution of human movement to vector-borne disease dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Adams

    Full Text Available In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it.

  5. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  6. R0 for vector-borne diseases: impact of the assumption for the duration of the extrinsic incubation period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, Nienke; Cianci, Daniela; Reiter, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and notably the basic reproduction number R0 have become popular tools for the description of vector-borne disease dynamics. We compare two widely used methods to calculate the probability of a vector to survive the extrinsic incubation period. The two methods are based on diff

  7. R0 for vector-borne diseases : impact of the assumption for the duration of the extrinsic incubation period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.; Cianci, D.; Reiter, P.

    2015-01-01

    Mathematical modeling and notably the basic reproduction number R0 have become popular tools for the description of vector-borne disease dynamics. We compare two widely used methods to calculate the probability of a vector to survive the extrinsic incubation period. The two methods are based on diff

  8. Mapping the basic reproduction number (Ro) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.; Purse, B.V.; Meiswinkel, R.; Brown, H.E.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Boender, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool f

  9. Prototype Early Warning Systems for Vector-Borne Diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Semenza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and environmental change, social and demographic determinants and health system capacity are significant drivers of infectious diseases which can also act as epidemic precursors. Thus, monitoring changes in these drivers can help anticipate, or even forecast, an upsurge of infectious diseases. The European Environment and Epidemiology (E3 Network has been built for this purpose and applied to three early warning case studies: (1 The environmental suitability of malaria transmission in Greece was mapped in order to target epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control activities. Malaria transmission in these areas was interrupted in 2013 through such integrated preparedness and response activities. (2 Since 2010, recurrent West Nile fever outbreaks have ensued in South/eastern Europe. Temperature deviations from a thirty year average proved to be associated with the 2010 outbreak. Drivers of subsequent outbreaks were computed through multivariate logistic regression models and included monthly temperature anomalies for July and a normalized water index. (3 Dengue is a tropical disease but sustained transmission has recently emerged in Madeira. Autochthonous transmission has also occurred repeatedly in France and in Croatia mainly due to travel importation. The risk of dengue importation into Europe in 2010 was computed with the volume of international travelers from dengue affected areas worldwide.These prototype early warning systems indicate that monitoring drivers of infectious diseases can help predict vector-borne disease threats.

  10. Protection of Military Personnel Against Vector-Borne Diseases: A Review of Collaborative Work of the Australian and US Military Over the Last 30 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frances, Stephen P; Edstein, Michael D; Debboun, Mustapha; Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Australian and US military medical services have collaborated since World War II to minimize vector-borne diseases such as malaria, dengue, and scrub typhus. In this review, collaboration over the last 30 years is discussed. The collaborative projects and exchange scientist programs have resulted in mutually beneficial outcomes in the fields of drug development and personal protection measures against vector-borne diseases.

  11. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  12. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  13. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Rock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into the role of vector biting and its interaction with vector mortality and spread of disease. Through the PDE model, the roles of the vector death and bite rates are examined in a way which is impossible under the traditional ODE formulation. It is demonstrated that incorporating more realistic functions for vector biting and mortality in a model may give rise to different dynamics than those seen under a more simple ODE formulation. The numerical results indicate that the efficacy of control methods that increase vector mortality may not be as great as predicted under a standard host–vector model, whereas other controls including treatment of humans may be more effective than previously thought.

  14. Incidence of Vector-borne Disease and Climate Change: A Study in Semi-arid Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Bounoua, L.

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniases are among the most important emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases, second only to malaria in terms of the number of affected people. Leishmaniases are endemic in 88 countries worldwide and threaten about 350 million people (WHO, 2007). Since the first reported case of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Saida, Algeria in 1991, 1,275 cases have been recorded (Makhlouf & Houti, 2010) with the vast majority of study-area cases (99%) reported between the years of 2000 and 2009. An investigation of potential climatic indicators for the apparent shift in disease prevalence was conducted by comparing anomalies in the climate data specific to the local pathogen cycle. It was determined that long term climate trends have resulted in conditions that promote the prevalence of ZCL. Increased precipitation have resulted in greater vegetation and promoted host and vector population growth through a trophic cascade. Increased minimum temperatures have lengthened the annual duration of sandfly activity. Short term variations in maximum temperatures, however show a correlation with disease suppression in the subsequent years. These findings indicate a potential to forecast the risk of ZCL infection through models of the trophic cascade and sandfly population growth.

  15. Vector-borne disease problems in rapid urbanization: new approaches to vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, A B; Slooff, R

    1992-01-01

    Owing to population growth, poor levels of hygiene, and increasing urban poverty, the urban environment in many developing countries is rapidly deteriorating. Densely packed housing in shanty towns or slums and inadequate drinking-water supplies, garbage collection services, and surface-water drainage systems combine to create favourable habitats for the proliferation of vectors and reservoirs of communicable diseases. As a consequence, vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis and dengue are becoming major public health problems associated with rapid urbanization in many tropical countries. The problems in controlling these diseases and eliminating vectors and pests can be resolved by decision-makers and urban planners by moving away from the concept of "blanket" applications of pesticides towards integrated approaches. Sound environmental management practices and community education and participation form the mainstay of some of the most outstanding successes in this area. On the basis of these examples, it is argued that the municipal authorities need to apply a flexible methodology, which must be based on the possibilities of mobilizing community resources, with minimal reliance on routine pesticidal spraying. In this way, vector control becomes a by-product of human development in the city environment. This is now a true challenge.

  16. The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae as a potential carrier of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luna, Carlos J; Arkle, Samuel; Harrington, David; George, David R; Guy, Jonathan H; Sparagano, Olivier A E

    2008-12-01

    The poultry red mite Dermanyssus gallinae is an obligatory blood-sucking parasite that is considered to be one of the most important ectoparasites in the poultry industry, mainly because it is responsible for important economic losses, leads to a reduction of welfare of laying hens, and may pose a disease risk to humans. As a result of these problems, much of the current research on this parasite targets new methods of control. Less attention has been paid to the importance of D. gallinae as a carrier of vector-borne diseases. Some authors have mentioned the possible involvement of D. gallinae in the transmission (both in vitro and directly isolated from the mites) of viral and bacterial agents. Our research group has demonstrated the presence of Mycobacterium spp. within D. gallinae. DNA coding for Mycobacterium spp. was successfully amplified from unfed adult D. gallinae, larvae, and eggs by using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The results have suggested the possible transovarial and transstadial transmission of pathogens by D. gallinae.

  17. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  18. Utility of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads in the control of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagnaname, N; Amalraj, D Dominic; Mariappan, T

    2005-10-01

    The use of chemicals or bio-larvicides for the control of Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi breeding in pit latrines and overhead tanks (OHT) respectively is discouraged owing to many undesirable impacts in the environment. Due to faecal contamination and poor survival, use of predatory fish in OHTs is not feasible. The use of expanded polystyrene (EPS) beads is a potential alternative in these habitats. EPS beads not only prevent oviposition but also kill the immature by forming a thick blanket on the water surface. A thick layer of 2 cm with beads of 2 mm is sufficient to suppress and prevent mosquito breeding. These are cheap, environmentally safe and do not need frequent application since they remain on the surface for quiet a long time. Successful trials against C. quinquefasciatus breeding in pit latrines, soakage pits, septic tanks, etc., have been carried out in Kenya, Zimbabwe and Tanzania. Certain trials with EPS indicated reduction in microfilaria (mf) rate besides decline in biting density. In India, EPS beads have also been used on small scale for the control of A. stephensi and A. culicifacies breeding in OHTs and unused wells respectively. The polystyrene beads have also been reported to be effective in the control of mosquito breeding in biogas plants and other industrial situations. The practical utility of EPS beads in the control of vector-borne diseases has been discussed in the present review.

  19. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Maya Negev; Shlomit Paz; Alexandra Clermont; Noemie Groag Pri-Or; Uri Shalom; Tamar Yeger; Green, Manfred S

    2015-01-01

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and prepar...

  20. Natural Mosquito-Pathogen Hybrid IgG4 Antibodies in Vector-Borne Diseases: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Troupin, Andrea; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. Recent studies have shown that up to a 30% of normal human IgG4 is bi-specific and is able to recognize two antigens of different nature. A requirement for this specificity is the presence of both eliciting antigens in the same time and at the same place where the immune response is induced. During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary allergens. However, there is very little ongoing research or information available regarding IgG4 bi-specificity with regard to infectious disease, particularly during immune responses to vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, filariasis, or dengue virus infection. Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only be a useful tool to measure exposure to infected mosquito bites, but that these bi-specific antibodies may also play an important role in modulation of the immune response against malaria and other vector-borne diseases in endemic settings. PMID:27746778

  1. Priorities and needs for research on urban interventions targeting vector-borne diseases: rapid review of scoping and systematic reviews

    OpenAIRE

    Bermudez-Tamayo, Clara; Mukamana, Olive; Carabali, Mabel; Osorio, Lyda; Fournet, Florence; Dabiré, Kounbobr Roch; Turchi Marteli, Celina; Contreras, Adolfo; Ridde, Valéry

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the critical importance of evidence on vector-borne diseases (VBD) prevention and control interventions in urban settings when assessing current and future needs, with a view to setting policy priorities that promote inclusive and equitable urban health services. Research should produce knowledge about policies and interventions that are intended to control and prevent VBDs at the population level and to reduce inequities. Such interventions include policy, program, and ...

  2. The ecological foundations of transmission potential and vector-borne disease in urban landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaDeau, Shannon L; Allan, Brian F; Leisnham, Paul T; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-07-01

    Urban transmission of arthropod-vectored disease has increased in recent decades. Understanding and managing transmission potential in urban landscapes requires integration of sociological and ecological processes that regulate vector population dynamics, feeding behavior, and vector-pathogen interactions in these unique ecosystems. Vectorial capacity is a key metric for generating predictive understanding about transmission potential in systems with obligate vector transmission. This review evaluates how urban conditions, specifically habitat suitability and local temperature regimes, and the heterogeneity of urban landscapes can influence the biologically-relevant parameters that define vectorial capacity: vector density, survivorship, biting rate, extrinsic incubation period, and vector competence.Urban landscapes represent unique mosaics of habitat. Incidence of vector-borne disease in urban host populations is rarely, if ever, evenly distributed across an urban area. The persistence and quality of vector habitat can vary significantly across socio-economic boundaries to influence vector species composition and abundance, often generating socio-economically distinct gradients of transmission potential across neighborhoods.Urban regions often experience unique temperature regimes, broadly termed urban heat islands (UHI). Arthropod vectors are ectothermic organisms and their growth, survival, and behavior are highly sensitive to environmental temperatures. Vector response to UHI conditions is dependent on regional temperature profiles relative to the vector's thermal performance range. In temperate climates UHI can facilitate increased vector development rates while having countervailing influence on survival and feeding behavior. Understanding how urban heat island (UHI) conditions alter thermal and moisture constraints across the vector life cycle to influence transmission processes is an important direction for both empirical and modeling research.There remain

  3. Serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Jing He; Lijuan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), Ehrlichia canis (E. canis), Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis) (canine heartworm), Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) infections in countryside dogs from Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 26 dogs in Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. The samples were tested using a commercial ELISA rapid diagnostic assay kit (SNAP® 4Dx®; IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. U.S.A.). Meanwhile, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) recommended by WHO was conducted to detect IgG to A. phagocytophilum. Two methods were analyzed and compared. Results: The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was only 2 which was from Hainan province and none of the 26 dogs responded positive for E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi by ELISA rapid diagnostic method. The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was 13 (50%) by IFA method. Data of the two methods were analyzed by statistical software and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). Conclusions: It can be concluded that IFA method was more sensitive than ELISA rapid diagnostic method. However, we need conduct further and intensive epidemiology survey on tick-born diseases pathogens including A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi which have public health significance.

  4. Using geographic information systems and decision support systems for the prediction, prevention, and control of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2011-01-01

    Emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases cause significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the developing world. We focus on how advances in mapping, Geographic Information System, and Decision Support System technologies, and progress in spatial and space-time modeling, can be harnessed to prevent and control these diseases. Major themes, which are addressed using examples from tick-borne Lyme borreliosis; flea-borne plague; and mosquito-borne dengue, malaria, and West Nile virus disease, include (a) selection of spatial and space-time modeling techniques, (b) importance of using high-quality and biologically or epidemiologically relevant data, (c) incorporation of new technologies into operational vector and disease control programs, (d) transfer of map-based information to stakeholders, and (e) adaptation of technology solutions for use in resource-poor environments. We see great potential for the use of new technologies and approaches to more effectively target limited surveillance, prevention, and control resources and to reduce vector-borne and other infectious diseases.

  5. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well.

  6. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei L. Clarke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  7. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: a critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Hendrikx, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden...... of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection...... of diseases during the early phase of introduction into a free country. However, its value diminished once the disease has been established in a territory. Detection of emerging diseases was found to be very context and area specific, and thus active surveillance designs need to take the available...

  8. Canine vector-borne co-infections: Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in the same host monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baneth, Gad; Harrus, Shimon; Gal, Arnon; Aroch, Itamar

    2015-02-28

    The protozoon Hepatozoon canis and the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis are tick-borne pathogens, transmitted by Rhipicephalus sanguineus, which cause canine hepatozoonosis and canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, respectively. Co-infection of the same host monocytes with H. canis and E. canis confirmed by molecular characterization of the infecting agents and quantitative assessment of co-infected cells is described for the first time in three naturally-infected dogs. Blood smear evaluation indicated that at least 50% of the leukocytes infected with H. canis gamonts contained E. canis morulae. Co-infection of the same host cell demonstrated in this report suggests that infection with one pathogen may permit or enhance invasion or prolonged cellular survival of the other.

  9. Predictiveness of disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting in Thailand using meteorological data and vector-borne disease incidences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninphanomchai, Suwannapa; Chansang, Chitti; Hii, Yien Ling; Rocklöv, Joacim; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn

    2014-10-16

    Dengue and malaria are vector-borne diseases and major public health problems worldwide. Changes in climatic factors influence incidences of these diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vector-borne disease incidences and meteorological data, and hence to predict disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting. The retrospective data of dengue and malaria incidences together with local meteorological factors (temperature, rainfall, humidity) registered from 2001 to 2011 on Koh Chang, Thailand were used in this study. Seasonal distribution of disease incidences and its correlation with local climatic factors were analyzed. Seasonal patterns in disease transmission differed between dengue and malaria. Monthly meteorological data and reported disease incidences showed good predictive ability of disease transmission patterns. These findings provide a rational basis for identifying the predictive ability of local meteorological factors on disease incidence that may be useful for the implementation of disease prevention and vector control programs on the tourism island, where climatic factors fluctuate.

  10. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, A.L.; Dhiman, R.C.; Kitron, U.; Scott, T.W.; Berg, van den H.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated curt

  11. Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of Chagas' disease.

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    Perrine Pelosse

    Full Text Available Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control.

  12. Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Gourbière, Sébastien; Menu, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time) and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control.

  13. [Sanitary situation of the Senegal River Basin in 2010. Part II: vector-borne diseases and zoonoses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, R; Sondaz, D; Philip, J M; Calvet, F; Daoud, W

    2011-06-01

    In recent decades, the Senegal River Basin has witnessed an increase in the prevalence of water-borne human and animal diseases. The "Organization for the Development of the Senegal River" (French acronym, OMVS) decided to establish a "Water Resource Development and Management Framework Project" (French acronym, SDAGE) for the Senegal River Basin. The purpose of SDAGE is to avoid overuse of natural resources while allowing development of human activities in the Senegal River Basin. This project document is intended to provide guidance for mobilizing resources and understanding impact on the environment and local population through to 2025. Within the framework of the first phase of the SDAGE, a survey to assess water-borne diseases in the Senegal River Basin was carried out in 2009. This assessment of the medical situation was based on documents obtained by bibliographic research. The purpose of this report is to summarize the main findings with regard firstly to vector-borne diseases along with corresponding national or regional control programs in the area and, secondly to zoonoses. Findings with regard to diseases directly related to water have been described in another report.

  14. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  15. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Negev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-15

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  17. How human practices have affected vector-borne diseases in the past: a study of malaria transmission in Alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemperière Guy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria was endemic in the Rhône-Alpes area of eastern France in the 19th century and life expectancy was particularly shortened in Alpine valleys. This study was designed to determine how the disease affected people in the area and to identify the factors influencing malaria transmission. Methods Demographic data of the 19th century were collected from death registers of eight villages of the flood-plain of the river Isère. Correlations were performed between these demographic data and reconstructed meteorological data. Archive documents from medical practitioners gave information on symptoms of ill people. Engineer reports provided information on the hydraulic project developments in the Isère valley. Results Description of fevers was highly suggestive of endemic malaria transmission in the parishes neighbouring the river Isère. The current status of anopheline mosquitoes in the area supports this hypothesis. Mean temperature and precipitation were poorly correlated with demographic data, whereas the chronology of hydrological events correlated with fluctuations in death rates in the parishes. Conclusion Nowadays, most of the river development projects involve the creation of wet areas, enabling controlled flooding events. Flood-flow risk and the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases would probably be influenced by the climate change. The message is not to forget that human disturbance of any functioning hydrosystem has often been linked to malaria transmission in the past.

  18. Mapping of courses on vector biology and vector-borne diseases systems: time for a worldwide effort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Casas

    Full Text Available Major emergency efforts are being mounted for each vector-borne disease epidemiological crisis anew, while knowledge about the biology of arthropods vectors is dwindling slowly but continuously, as is the number of field entomologists. The discrepancy between the rates of production of knowledge and its use and need for solving crises is widening, in particular due to the highly differing time spans of the two concurrent processes. A worldwide web based search using multiple key words and search engines of onsite and online courses in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian and German concerned with the biology of vectors identified over 140 courses. They are geographically and thematically scattered, the vast majority of them are on-site, with very few courses using the latest massive open online course (MOOC powerfulness. Over two third of them is given in English and Western Africa is particularity poorly represented. The taxonomic groups covered are highly unbalanced towards mosquitoes. A worldwide unique portal to guide students of all grades and levels of expertise, in particular those in remote locations, is badly needed. This is the objective a new activity supported by the Special Programme for Research and Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR.

  19. Climate and Health Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases ( malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities; ministries of health; the WMO Global Framework for Climate and Services; and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above with examples in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Malawi.

  20. High-throughput vector-borne disease environmental surveillance by polymerase chain reaction according to international accreditation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehnlen, Marty K; Crimmins, Stephen L; Clugston, Andrew S; Gruhn, Nina; Gomez, Carlos J; Cross, Michael E; Statham, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    Although vector-borne diseases are specific to the region of the host, there is a necessity for surveillance or reference laboratories to perform standardized, high-throughput testing capable of meeting the needs of a changing military environment and response efforts. The development of standardized, high-throughput, semiquantitative real-time and reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods allows for the timely dissemination of data to interested parties while providing a platform in which long-term sample storage is possible for the testing of new pathogens of interest using a historical perspective. PCR testing allows for the analysis of multiple pathogens from the same sample, thus reducing the workload of entomologists in the field and increasing the ability to determine if a pathogen has spread beyond traditionally defined locations. US Army Public Health Command Region-Europe (USAPHCR-Europe) Laboratory Sciences (LS) has standardized tests for 9 pathogens at multiple life stages. All tests are currently under international accreditation standards. Using these PCR methods and laboratory model, which have universal Department of Defense application, the USAPHCR-Europe LS will generate quality data that is scientifically sound and legally defensible to support force health protection for the US military in both deployed and garrison environments.

  1. A comparative analysis of three vector-borne diseases across Australia using seasonal and meteorological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Margaret D.; Ehrlich, Hanna Y.; Mor, Siobhan M.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV), Barmah Forest virus (BFV), and dengue are three common mosquito-borne diseases in Australia that display notable seasonal patterns. Although all three diseases have been modeled on localized scales, no previous study has used harmonic models to compare seasonality of mosquito-borne diseases on a continent-wide scale. We fit Poisson harmonic regression models to surveillance data on RRV, BFV, and dengue (from 1993, 1995 and 1991, respectively, through 2015) incorporating seasonal, trend, and climate (temperature and rainfall) parameters. The models captured an average of 50-65% variability of the data. Disease incidence for all three diseases generally peaked in January or February, but peak timing was most variable for dengue. The most significant predictor parameters were trend and inter-annual periodicity for BFV, intra-annual periodicity for RRV, and trend for dengue. We found that a Temperature Suitability Index (TSI), designed to reclassify climate data relative to optimal conditions for vector establishment, could be applied to this context. Finally, we extrapolated our models to estimate the impact of a false-positive BFV epidemic in 2013. Creating these models and comparing variations in periodicities may provide insight into historical outbreaks as well as future patterns of mosquito-borne diseases.

  2. A comparative analysis of three vector-borne diseases across Australia using seasonal and meteorological models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, Margaret D.; Ehrlich, Hanna Y.; Mor, Siobhan M.; Naumova, Elena N.

    2017-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV), Barmah Forest virus (BFV), and dengue are three common mosquito-borne diseases in Australia that display notable seasonal patterns. Although all three diseases have been modeled on localized scales, no previous study has used harmonic models to compare seasonality of mosquito-borne diseases on a continent-wide scale. We fit Poisson harmonic regression models to surveillance data on RRV, BFV, and dengue (from 1993, 1995 and 1991, respectively, through 2015) incorporating seasonal, trend, and climate (temperature and rainfall) parameters. The models captured an average of 50–65% variability of the data. Disease incidence for all three diseases generally peaked in January or February, but peak timing was most variable for dengue. The most significant predictor parameters were trend and inter-annual periodicity for BFV, intra-annual periodicity for RRV, and trend for dengue. We found that a Temperature Suitability Index (TSI), designed to reclassify climate data relative to optimal conditions for vector establishment, could be applied to this context. Finally, we extrapolated our models to estimate the impact of a false-positive BFV epidemic in 2013. Creating these models and comparing variations in periodicities may provide insight into historical outbreaks as well as future patterns of mosquito-borne diseases. PMID:28071683

  3. Climate Change and Spatiotemporal Distributions of Vector-Borne Diseases in Nepal--A Systematic Synthesis of Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    Full Text Available Despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this Himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, Nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (VBDs, namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. There is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on VBDs especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. Our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of VBDs in Nepal can be related to climate change.A systematic literature search was performed and summarized information on climate change and the spatiotemporal distribution of VBDs in Nepal from the published literature until December 2014 following providing items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA guidelines.We found 12 studies that analysed the trend of climatic data and are relevant for the study of VBDs, 38 studies that dealt with the spatial and temporal distribution of disease vectors and disease transmission. Among 38 studies, only eight studies assessed the association of VBDs with climatic variables. Our review highlights a pronounced warming in the mountains and an expansion of autochthonous cases of VBDs to non-endemic areas including mountain regions (i.e., at least 2,000 m above sea level. Furthermore, significant relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors are found in short-term studies.Taking into account the weak health care systems and difficult geographic terrain of Nepal, increasing trade and movements of people, a lack of vector control interventions, observed relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors and the establishment of relevant disease vectors already at least 2,000 m above sea level, we conclude that climate change can intensify the risk of VBD epidemics in the mountain regions of Nepal if other non-climatic drivers of VBDs remain constant.

  4. Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, B.L.; Atkinson, C.T.; Lapointe, D.A.; Hart, P.J.; Spiegel, C.S.; Tweed, E.J.; Henneman, C.; LeBrun, J.; Denette, T.; DeMots, R.; Kozar, K.L.; Triglia, D.; Lease, D.; Gregor, A.; Smith, T.; Duffy, D.

    2005-01-01

    The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. Contrary to predictions of prior work, we found that Hawaii amakihi (Hemignathus virens), a native species susceptible to malaria, comprised from 24.5% to 51.9% of the avian community at three low-elevation forests (55-270 m). Amakihi were more abundant at low elevations than at disease-free high elevations, and were resident and breeding there. Infection rates were 24-40% by microscopy and 55-83% by serology, with most infected individuals experiencing low-intensity, chronic infections. Mosquito trapping and diagnostics provided strong evidence for year-round local transmission. Moreover, we present evidence that Hawaii amakihi have increased in low elevation habitats on south-eastern Hawaii Island over the past decade. The recent emergent phenomenon of recovering amakihi populations at low elevations, despite extremely high prevalence of avian malaria, suggests that ecological or evolutionary processes acting on hosts or parasites have allowed this species to recolonize low-elevation habitats. A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations.

  5. Implementing Cargo Movement into Climate Based Risk Assessment of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Margarete Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. The further development and potential spread to other regions depends largely on their climatic suitability. Here, we have developed a tool for identifying and prioritizing European areas at risk for the establishment of Aedes albopictus by taking into account, for the first time, the freight imports from this mosquito’s endemic countries and the climate suitability at harbors and their surrounding regions. In a second step we consider the further transport of containers by train and inland waterways because these types of transport can be well controlled. We identify European regions at risk, where a huge amount of transported goods meet climatically suitable conditions for the disease vector. The current and future suitability of the climate for Aedes albopictus was modeled by a correlative niche model approach and the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. This risk assessment combines impacts of globalization and global warming to improve effective and proactive interventions in disease vector surveillance and control actions.

  6. Social exclusion modifies climate and deforestation impacts on a vector-borne disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Chaves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The emergence of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL has been associated with changes in the relationship between people and forests, leading to the view that forest ecosystems increase infection risk and subsequent proposal that deforestation could reduce re-emergence of this disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed county-level incidence rates of ACL in Costa Rica (1996-2000 as a function of social and environmental variables relevant to transmission ecology with statistical models that incorporate breakpoints. Once social marginality was taken into account, the effect of living close to a forest on infection risk was small, and diminished exponentially above a breakpoint. Forest cover was associated with the modulation of temporal effects of El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO at small spatial scales, revealing an additional complex interplay of environmental forces and disease patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Social factors, which previously have not been evaluated rigorously together with environmental and climatic factors, appear to play a critical role that may ultimately determine disease risk.

  7. Predicting and Mitigating Outbreaks of Vector-Borne Disease Utilizing Satellite Remote Sensing Technology and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Sue M.

    2009-01-01

    The Public Health application area focuses on Earth science applications to public health and safety, particularly regarding infectious disease, emergency preparedness and response, and environmental health issues. The application explores issues of toxic and pathogenic exposure, as well as natural and man-made hazards and their effects, for risk characterization/mitigation and improvements to health and safety. The program elements of the NASA Applied Sciences Program are: Agricultural Efficiency, Air Quality, Climate, Disaster Management, Ecological Forecasting, Water Resources, Weather, and Public Health.

  8. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hercules Sakkas; Vangelis Economou; Chrissanthy Papadopoulou

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymp...

  9. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Sakkas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus (′Dengue-like syndrome′. The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  10. Zika virus infection: Past and present of another emerging vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkas, Hercules; Economou, Vangelis; Papadopoulou, Chrissanthy

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is an emerging mosquito-borne disease, first identified in Uganda in 1947. It is caused by the Zika arbovirus, and transmitted by the bites of infected mosquitoes of the genus Aedes. For almost half a century, the Zika virus was reported as the causative agent of sporadic human infections. In 2007, the Zika virus emerged outside Asia and Africa causing an epidemic on the Island of Yap in Micronesia. The manifestation of the newly acquired human infection varies from asymptomatic to self-limiting acute febrile illness with symptoms and clinical features similar to those caused by the Dengue virus ('Dengue-like syndrome'). The real-time PCR and serological methods have been successfully applied for the diagnosis of the disease. The treatment is symptomatic, since there is no specific antiviral treatment or a vaccine. During the recent outbreaks in French Polynesia and Brazil, incidents of Guillain-Barrι syndrome and microcephaly were associated with Zika virus infection, giving rise to fears of further global spread of the virus. Prevention and vector control strategies have to be urgently implemented by national health authorities in order to contain future outbreaks in vulnerable populations. This review summarizes the existing information on Zika virus characteristics, pathogenesis and epidemiology, the available methods for the diagnosis of Zika virus infection and recent approaches for prevention and control.

  11. Predictiveness of Disease Risk in a Global Outreach Tourist Setting in Thailand Using Meteorological Data and Vector-Borne Disease Incidences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suwannapa Ninphanomchai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Dengue and malaria are vector-borne diseases and major public health problems worldwide. Changes in climatic factors influence incidences of these diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vector-borne disease incidences and meteorological data, and hence to predict disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting. The retrospective data of dengue and malaria incidences together with local meteorological factors (temperature, rainfall, humidity registered from 2001 to 2011 on Koh Chang, Thailand were used in this study. Seasonal distribution of disease incidences and its correlation with local climatic factors were analyzed. Seasonal patterns in disease transmission differed between dengue and malaria. Monthly meteorological data and reported disease incidences showed good predictive ability of disease transmission patterns. These findings provide a rational basis for identifying the predictive ability of local meteorological factors on disease incidence that may be useful for the implementation of disease prevention and vector control programs on the tourism island, where climatic factors fluctuate.

  12. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs.

  13. Vector-borne diseases of small companion animals in Namibia: Literature review, knowledge gaps and opportunity for a One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H. Noden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Namibia has a rich history in veterinary health but little is known about the vector-borne diseases that affect companion dogs and cats. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing published and available unpublished literature, put it into a wider geographical context, and explore some significant knowledge gaps. To date, only two filarial pathogens (Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and three tick-borne pathogens (Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis have been reported. Most studies have focused solely on dogs and cats in the urban Windhoek and surrounding areas, with almost nothing reported in rural farming areas, in either the populous northern regions or the low-income urban areas where animal owners have limited access to veterinary services. With the development of several biomedical training programmes in the country, there is now an excellent opportunity to address zoonotic vector-borne diseases through a One Health approach so as to assess the risks to small companion animals as well as diseases of public health importance.

  14. Evaluation of a continuous indicator for syndromic surveillance through simulation. application to vector borne disease emergence detection in cattle using milk yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Madouasse

    Full Text Available Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of

  15. Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surveillance through Simulation. Application to Vector Borne Disease Emergence Detection in Cattle Using Milk Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madouasse, Aurélien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehébel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of disease. PMID:24069227

  16. The prevention and control of HIV/AIDS, TB and Vector-borne diseases in informal settlements: challenges, opportunities and insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Annette M; Mercado, Susan P; Becker, Daniel; Edmundo, Katia; Mugisha, Frederick

    2007-05-01

    Today's urban settings are redefining the field of public health. The complex dynamics of cities, with their concentration of the poorest and most vulnerable (even within the developed world) pose an urgent challenge to the health community. While retaining fidelity to the core principles of disease prevention and control, major adjustments are needed in the systems and approaches to effectively reach those with the greatest health risks (and the least resilience) within today's urban environment. This is particularly relevant to infectious disease prevention and control. Controlling and preventing HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis and vector-borne diseases like malaria are among the key global health priorities, particularly in poor urban settings. The challenge in slums and informal settlements is not in identifying which interventions work, but rather in ensuring that informal settlers: (1) are captured in health statistics that define disease epidemiology and (2) are provided opportunities equal to the rest of the population to access proven interventions. Growing international attention to the plight of slum dwellers and informal settlers, embodied by Goal 7 Target 11 of the Millennium Development Goals, and the considerable resources being mobilized by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and malaria, among others, provide an unprecedented potential opportunity for countries to seriously address the structural and intermediate determinants of poor health in these settings. Viewed within the framework of the "social determinants of disease" model, preventing and controlling HIV/AIDS, TB and vector-borne diseases requires broad and integrated interventions that address the underlying causes of inequity that result in poorer health and worse health outcomes for the urban poor. We examine insights into effective approaches to disease control and prevention within poor urban settings under a comprehensive social development agenda.

  17. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Abd-Ella

    Full Text Available Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low

  18. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ella, Aly; Stankiewicz, Maria; Mikulska, Karolina; Nowak, Wieslaw; Pennetier, Cédric; Goulu, Mathilde; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Licznar, Patricia; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; List, Olivier; Corbel, Vincent; Servent, Denis; Lapied, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low doses of DEET and a

  19. 气候变暖对虫媒传染病影响的研究进展%Research progress on effect of climate warming on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔维琪; 曾强

    2012-01-01

    The effect of global warming on insect vector mainly includes changing the regional distribution of insect vectors, increasing the reproductive speed and invasiveness of insect vectors, and shortening the external incubation period of pathogens. Many studies show that the distribution of many tropical insects is expanding continually under the effect of global wanning, and the vector-borne infectious diseases which had only occurred in the tropical area in the past have frequently happened in the subtropical area. The incidence rate of vector-borne diseases increases in the global, outbreaks of some old vector-borne infectious diseases occurred again, and the epidemic range of new vector-borne infectious diseases is continuously expanding. The vector-borne infectious diseases that are influenced by climate change include malaria, schistosomiasis, plague, dengue fever and other new vector-borne infectious diseases. In face of global warming, it is important to slow down and control temperature rise, protect natural environment , improve the study of relationship between climate and vector-borne infectious diseases, and implement the prevention and control of vector-borne infectious diseases.%全球气候变暖对虫媒的影响主要表现在改变虫媒的地区分布,增加虫媒繁殖速度与侵袭力和缩短病原体的外潜伏期.大量资料显示,全球气候变暖的趋势使得许多热带生物不断扩大分布范围,过去仅在热带地区出现的虫媒传染病,也频频出现在亚热带地区.媒介生物性疾病近年在全球呈上升趋势,一些原有的虫媒传染病再度暴发,新的虫媒传染病流行范围不断扩大.受气候变化影响较大的虫媒传染病包括疟疾、血吸虫病、鼠疫、登革热和其他及新发虫媒传染病.提示要面对气候变暖的趋势,努力减缓和控制地球气温的上升,保护好自然环境,加强气候与虫媒传染病传播关系的研究,做好虫媒传染疾病的预防控制工作.

  20. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal...

  1. Vector-borne helminths of dogs and humans in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otranto Domenico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Presently, 45% of the total human population of Europe, as well as their domestic and companion animals, are exposed to the risk of vector-borne helminths (VBH causing diseases. A plethora of intrinsic biological and extrinsic factors affect the relationship among helminths, vectors and animal hosts, in a constantly changing environment. Although canine dirofilarioses by Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens are key examples of the success of VBH spreading into non-endemic areas, another example is represented by Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm, an emergent pathogen of dogs, cats and humans in several regions of Europe. The recent finding of Onchocerca lupi causing canine and human infestation in Europe and overseas renders the picture of VBH even more complicated. Similarly, tick-transmitted filarioids of the genus Cercopithifilaria infesting the skin of dogs were recently shown to be widespread in Europe. Although for most of the VBH above there is an increasing accumulation of research data on their distribution at national level, the overall impact of the diseases they cause in dogs and humans is not fully recognised in many aspects. This review investigates the reasons underlying the increasing trend in distribution of VBH in Europe and discusses the diagnostic and control strategies currently available. In addition, this article provides the authors’ opinion on some topics related to VBH that would deserve further scientific investigation.

  2. Emerging vector-borne diseases and environmental change : The rise of Lyme borreliosis in Western-Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, Tim

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY During the last decade several infectious diseases started to emerge in Western-Europe. At the same time numerous environmental factors were changing. One of the diseases that apparently emerged is Lyme borreliosis (LB). This thesis aims to incre

  3. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne L Wilson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated curtains (ITCs and insecticide-treated house screening (ITS against Chagas disease, cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, dengue, human African trypanosomiasis, Japanese encephalitis, lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis.MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS and Tropical Disease Bulletin databases were searched using intervention, vector- and disease-specific search terms. Cluster or individually randomised controlled trials, non-randomised trials with pre- and post-intervention data and rotational design studies were included. Analysis assessed the efficacy of ITNs, ITCs or ITS versus no intervention. Meta-analysis of clinical data was performed and percentage reduction in vector density calculated.Twenty-one studies were identified which met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis of clinical data could only be performed for four cutaneous leishmaniasis studies which together showed a protective efficacy of ITNs of 77% (95%CI: 39%-91%. Studies of ITC and ITS against cutaneous leishmaniasis also reported significant reductions in disease incidence. Single studies reported a high protective efficacy of ITS against dengue and ITNs against Japanese encephalitis. No studies of Chagas disease, human African trypanosomiasis or onchocerciasis were identified.There are likely to be considerable collateral benefits of ITN roll out on cutaneous leishmaniasis where this disease is co-endemic with malaria. Due to the low number of studies identified, issues with reporting of entomological outcomes, and few studies reporting clinical outcomes, it is difficult to make strong conclusions on the effect of ITNs, ITCs or ITS on other VBDs and therefore further studies be conducted. Nonetheless, it

  4. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  5. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  6. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A. R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R. J. M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expa...

  7. Global warming and the possible globalization of vector-borne diseases: a call for increased awareness and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Emmanuel O; Nok, Andrew J; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Human activities such as burning of fossil fuels play a role in upsetting a previously more balanced and harmonious ecosystem. Climate change-a significant variation in the usual pattern of Earth's average weather conditions is a product of this ecosystem imbalance, and the rise in the Earth's average temperature (global warming) is a prominent evidence. There is a correlation between global warming and the ease of transmission of infectious diseases. Therefore, with global health in focus, we herein opine a stepping-up of research activities regarding global warming and infectious diseases globally.

  8. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different do

  9. Virtual globes and geospatial health: the potential of new tools in the management and control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of three-dimensional software modeling of the Earth holds promise for applications in the geospatial health sciences. Easy-to-use, intuitive virtual globe technologies such as Google Earth™ enable scientists around the world to share their data and research results in a visually attractive and readily understandable fashion without the need for highly sophisticated geographical information systems (GIS or much technical assistance. This paper discusses the utility of the rapid and simultaneous visualization of how the agents of parasitic diseases are distributed, as well as that of their vectors and/or intermediate hosts together with other spatially-explicit information. The resulting better understanding of the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and the multidimensional environment in which they occur, are highlighted. In particular, the value of Google Earth™, and its web-based pendant Google Maps™, are reviewed from a public health view point, combining results from literature searches and experiences gained thus far from a multidisciplinary project aimed at optimizing schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the basic analytical capabilities of virtual globe applications are limited, we conclude that they have considerable potential in the support and promotion of the geospatial health sciences as a userfriendly, straightforward GIS tool for the improvement of data collation, visualization and exploration. The potential of these systems for data sharing and broad dissemination of scientific research and results is emphasized.

  10. Two step male release strategy using transgenic mosquito lines to control transmission of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Danilo Oliveira; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Capurro, Margareth Lara

    2014-04-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of pathogens that cause devastating human diseases such as malaria and dengue. The current increase in mean global temperature and changing sea level interfere with precipitation frequency and some other climatic conditions which, in general, influence the rate of development of insects and etiologic agents causing acceleration as the temperature rises. The most common strategy employed to combat target mosquito species is the Integrated Vector Management (IVM), which comprises the use of multiple activities and various approaches to preventing the spread of a vector in infested areas. IVM programmes are becoming ineffective; and the global scenario is threatening, requiring new interventions for vector control and surveillance. Not surprisingly, there is a growing need to find alternative methods to combat the mosquito vectors. The possibility of using transgenic mosquitoes to fight against those diseases has been discussed over the last two decades and this use of transgenic lines to suppress populations or to replace them is still under investigation through field and laboratory trials. As an alternative, the available transgenic strategies could be improved by coupling suppression and substitution strategies. The idea is to first release a suppression line to significantly reduce the wild population, and once the first objective is reached a second release using a substitution line could be then performed. Examples of targeting this approach against vectors of malaria and dengue are discussed.

  11. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Christopher Nieto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural

  12. Vector Borne Infections in Italy: Results of the Integrated Surveillance System for West Nile Disease in 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Napoli

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  13. Vector borne infections in Italy: results of the integrated surveillance system for West Nile disease in 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Christian; Iannetti, Simona; Rizzo, Caterina; Bella, Antonino; Di Sabatino, Daria; Bruno, Rossana; Sauro, Francesca; Martini, Vanessa; Santucci, Vincenzo Ugo; Declich, Silvia; Calistri, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of West Nile disease (WND) is influenced by multiple ecological factors and, therefore, integrated surveillance systems are needed for early detecting the infection and activating consequent control actions. As different animal species have different importance in the maintenance and in the spread of the infection, a multispecies surveillance approach is required. An integrated and comprehensive surveillance system is in place in Italy aiming at early detecting the virus introduction, monitoring the possible infection spread, and implementing preventive measures for human health. This paper describes the integrated surveillance system for WND in Italy, which incorporates data from veterinary and human side in order to evaluate the burden of infection in animals and humans and provide the public health authorities at regional and national levels with the information needed for a fine tune response.

  14. A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: insights from a stochastic, spatial model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    Full Text Available Two basic strategies have been proposed for using transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to decrease dengue virus transmission: population reduction and population replacement. Here we model releases of a strain of Ae. aegypti carrying both a gene causing conditional adult female mortality and a gene blocking virus transmission into a wild population to assess whether such releases could reduce the number of competent vectors. We find this "reduce and replace" strategy can decrease the frequency of competent vectors below 50% two years after releases end. Therefore, this combined approach appears preferable to releasing a strain carrying only a female-killing gene, which is likely to merely result in temporary population suppression. However, the fixation of anti-pathogen genes in the population is unlikely. Genetic drift at small population sizes and the spatially heterogeneous nature of the population recovery after releases end prevent complete replacement of the competent vector population. Furthermore, releasing more individuals can be counter-productive in the face of immigration by wild-type mosquitoes, as greater population reduction amplifies the impact wild-type migrants have on the long-term frequency of the anti-pathogen gene. We expect the results presented here to give pause to expectations for driving an anti-pathogen construct to fixation by relying on releasing individuals carrying this two-gene construct. Nevertheless, in some dengue-endemic environments, a spatially heterogeneous decrease in competent vectors may still facilitate decreasing disease incidence.

  15. Enhanced vector borne disease surveillance of California Culex mosquito populations reveals spatial and species-specific barriers of infection.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VanderNoot, Victoria A.; Curtis, Deanna Joy; Koh, Chung-Yan; Brodsky, Benjamin H; Lane, Todd

    2014-08-01

    Monitor i ng in f ectio n s in v ect o rs su c h as m osquit o es, s a nd fl i es, tsetse fl i es, a nd ticks to i denti f y hu m a n path o gens m a y s e r v e as a n ear l y w arn i ng det e ction system t o dir e ct loc a l g o v er n ment dise a se pr e v en t i v e m easu r e s . One major hurdle i n de t ection is the abi l i t y to scre e n l arge n u mbers of v e c t ors for h uman patho g ens w i thout t h e u s e of ge n o t y pe - s p ecific m o lecu l ar tec h nique s . N e x t genera t ion s equ e nc i ng (NG S ) pr o v i des a n unbi a sed p latfo r m capab l e of identi f y i ng k n o w n a n d unk n o w n p ath o ge n s circula t ing w i thin a v e ctor p opul a tion, but utili z ing t h is te c h nolo g y i s tim e - con s u ming a n d cos t l y for v ecto r -b o rne disease su r v e illan c e pr o gra m s. T o addr e s s this w e d e v e lop e d cos t -eff e ct i v e Ilumina(r) R NA- S eq l i bra r y p r epara t ion m e thodol o gies i n con j u n ction w i t h an automa t ed c ompu t at i onal a n a l y sis pipel i n e to ch a racter i ze t h e microbial popula t ions c ircula t i n g in Cu l e x m o squit o e s (Cul e x qui n quef a s c iatu s , C ul e x quinq u efasc i atus / pip i ens co m pl e x h y bri d s, and C u l e x ta r salis ) t hroug h out Californ i a. W e assembled 2 0 n o vel a n d w e l l -do c ume n ted a r b o v i ruses repres e nting mem b e rs of B u n y a v ir i da e , F l a v i virid a e, If a virida e , Meson i v i rida e , Nid o v iri d ae, O rtho m y x o virid a e, Pa r v o v iri d ae, Re o virid a e, R h a b d o v i rid a e, T y m o v iri d ae, a s w ell as s e v e r al u n assi g n e d v irus e s . In addit i o n, w e m app e d mRNA s pecies to d i vergent s peci e s of t r y panos o ma a nd pl a s modium eu k a r yotic parasit e s and cha r a c terized t he p r oka r yot i c microb i al c o mposit i on to i d enti f y bacteri a l tran s c r ipts der i v ed from wolba c hia, clo s tridi u m, m y c oplas m a, fusoba c

  16. 六种动物虫媒病病原检测方法研究进展%Advance in Detection Methods for Pathogens of Six Species of Animal Vector-borne Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晶; 王慧煜; 贾广乐; 胡永婷; 韩雪清

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are a class of infectious diseases ,spread by a bloodsucking arthropods . With the development of economic globalization and the rapid grow th of animals and animal products in in-ternational trades ,the risk of diseases is increasingly high with the entry of goods .There are a lot of mo-lecular detection methods for vector-borne disease detection .Microarray is a new detection technology for fast ,efficient assays of a variety of diseases or biological sample analyses .In order to comprehend the dis-ease ,provide a theoretical basis for the diagnosis ,prevention and control of vector-borne diseases ,patho-gens ,molecular diagnostic detection technology of African swine fever ,West Nile fever ,Vesicular stomati tis ,Blue tongue disease ,Lyme disease ,epizootic hemorrhagic disease of deer and gene chip technology were briefly reviewed in this paper ,which will provide a foundation for further research on rapidly high throughput detection for a variety of different pathogens of animal vector-borne diseases .%虫媒病是由嗜血节肢动物通过吸血传播的一类传染病,随着经济全球化的不断发展及动物和动物产品国际贸易量的迅猛增长,此类疫病随进境商品传入我国的风险越来越高。虫媒病分子检测方法有很多,其中基因芯片是可以一次对多种疾病或多生物样品进行检测分析的快速、高效的新型检测技术。论文从西尼罗热、水疱性口炎、非洲猪瘟、蓝舌病、莱姆病、鹿流行性出血热病等6种动物虫媒病的病原学、分子诊断以及基因芯片检测技术等方面的最新研究进展进行综述,为虫媒病诊断、预防和控制提供理论依据,并为不同虫媒携带多种病原的高通量生物芯片筛查方法的建立提供资料。

  17. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A

    2016-02-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal surveys, could form the backbone for epidemiological integration, enabling explicit assessment of the animal-human (and vector) interface, and subsequent implications for spill-over to human populations. Currently available data on the spatial distribution of human African trypanosomiasis allow an illustrative example.

  18. Emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases: present status and strategies%新发和重现虫媒病:流行现状及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海婴; 马红梅; 刘明斌; 蒋洪

    2011-01-01

    Following the warming of climate, globalization, urbanization, insect drug-resistant as well as other social and environmental changing factors, malaria, dengue fever, West Nile fever and other vectorborne diseases emerge and re-emerge continuously. The threats of vectors and vector-borne diseases are increasing. However, owing to the environmental protection policies, more and more pesticides are forbidden, control of vectors and vector-borne diseases are facing with severe challenges. The research development and epidemic status of several important vector-borne diseases were reviewed in this paper. The framework of vector management stratogy,intervention of governments and sustainable vector control technologies were also introduced in the paper.%气候变暖、全球化和城市化推进、媒介昆虫抗药性等因素导致疟疾、登革热、莱姆病、西尼罗热、基孔肯雅热、巴尔通体感染等新出现和再次肆虐的虫媒病流行,全球媒介生物和虫媒病的威胁持续上升.由于环保的要求,可以选择的卫生杀虫剂品种逐渐减少,媒介生物和虫媒病的控制面临严重的挑战.该文综述了近年来全球新发和重现的重要虫媒病的研究进展和流行现状,并阐述了媒介生物综合治理全球策略框架、政府干预措施及媒介生物可持续控制技术等应对策略.

  19. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  20. [The influence of weather conditions on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases by the example of West Nile fever in Russia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonov, A E

    2006-01-01

    Climate changes must influence the incidence of vector-borne infections, but their effects cannot be revealed due to lack of long-term observations. The impact of short-term weather changes may be used as a model. In Russia the biggest numbers of clinical cases of mosquito-borne West Nile infection were registered in 1999 in Volgograd and Astrakhan regions. The analysis of climatic dataset since 1900 shows that 1999 was the hottest year in Volgograd in the 20th century due to a very mild winter (December-March) and a rather hot summer (June-September). The author of the article puts forward a hypothesis that high winter temperatures favored the survival of over-wintering mosquito vectors, and high summer temperature facilitated the growth of the virus in the mosquitoes, as well as propagation of the mosquitoes themselves. The author assumes that conventional threshold temperatures for "beneficial for WNF conditions" in Russia are > or = 3 degrees C in winter, and > or = 22 degrees C in summer. These conditions coincided only in 1948 and 1999. In Astrakhan the "beneficial for WNF conditions" were registered in 30 out of 147 years of observation, and in 12 years between 1964 and 2003. This is not surprising that Astrakhan region is endemic for WNF in accordance with clinical and epidemiological data collected since the sixties. These findings give some hints on the WNF predisposing factors, as well as possibility of weather surveillance and prediction of WNF outbreaks in temperate climatic zones such as Southern Russia.

  1. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-08-24

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV.

  2. The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control Dimensões ecológicas do controle e gerenciamento de doenças transmitidas por vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecological dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations, and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases.A tendência alarmante em direção ao ressurgimento de doenças transmitidas por vetores continuará, a menos que ações eficazes sejam tomadas para controlar suas causas primárias. Fatores sociais, mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem e/ou mudanças ecológicas são, aparentemente, a base do problema. A dimensão ecológica da pesquisa e do gerenciamento dessas doenças é um elemento difuso e constante, já que consiste, essencialmente, em um problema de caráter ecológico com dimensões biofísica, social e econômica. No entanto, há pouca discussão sobre a dimensão ecológica, sobre o campo da ecologia (p.ex.: seu papel e suas limitações e sobre os conceitos relacionados à abordagem ecossistêmica na saúde. Uma perspectiva ecológica poderá permitir uma an

  3. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  4. Molecular evidence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats and their ectoparasites in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessas, Amina; Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Zaidi, Sara; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In Algeria, only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of emergent canine and feline vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present work was to detect by qPCR vector-associated bacteria in stray dogs and cats and their ectoparasites from Algiers. 18/117 (15.38%) dogs and 2/107 (1.87%) cats were positive for at least one vector-borne agent. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella henselae were identified in 1/117 (0.85%) dog individually. Ehrlichia canis DNA was detected in 17/117 (14.52%) dogs. 1/107 (0.93%) cat was positive to C. burnetii and another 1/107 (0.93%) to B. henselae. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia conorii and E. canis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Cat fleas were infected with Rickettsia felis, B. henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was identified in Xenopsylla cheopis collected from dogs. The findings of this study indicate that dogs and cats from Algeria are exposed to multiple tick and flea-borne pathogens.

  5. Ecology, evolution, and the long-term surveillance of vector-borne Chagas disease: a multi-scale appraisal of the tribe Rhodniini (Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad-Franch, Fernando; Monteiro, Fernando A; Jaramillo O, Nicolás; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Dias, Fernando Braga Stehling; Diotaiuti, Liléia

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease incidence has sharply declined over the last decade. Long-term disease control will, however, require extensive, longitudinal surveillance systems capable of detecting (and dealing with) reinvasion-reinfestation of insecticide-treated dwellings by non-domiciliated triatomines. Sound surveillance design calls for reliable data on vector ecology, and these data must cover different spatial scales. We conducted a multi-scale assessment of ecological and evolutionary trends in members of the tribe Rhodniini, including (i) a macroscale analysis of Rhodniini species richness and composition patterns across the Americas, and (ii) a detailed, mesoscale case-study of ecological and behavioural trends in Rhodnius neglectus and R. nasutus. Our macroscale overview provides some comprehensive insights about key mechanisms/processes probably underlying ecological and genetic diversification in the Rhodniini. These insights translate into a series of testable hypotheses about current species distributions and their likely causes. At the landscape scale, we used geometric morphometrics to identify dubious specimens as either R. neglectus or R. nasutus (two near-sibling species), and studied palm tree populations of these two vector taxa in five geographical areas. The data suggest that deforestation and the associated loss of habitat and host diversity might increase the frequency of vector-human contact (and perhaps Trypanosoma cruzi infection rates in vectors). Surveillance in central-northeastern Brazil should prioritise deforested landscapes where large palm trees (e.g., Attalea, Mauritia, Copernicia, Acrocomia or Syagrus) occur near houses. We anticipate that, by helping define the distribution patterns and ecological preferences of each species, multi-scale research will significantly strengthen vector surveillance systems across Latin America.

  6. A Multi-Host Agent-Based Model for a Zoonotic, Vector-Borne Disease. A Case Study on Trypanosomiasis in Eastern Province, Zambia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macleod, Ewan T.; Anderson, Neil E.; Schaten, Kathrin; Kuleszo, Joanna; Simuunza, Martin; Welburn, Susan C.; Atkinson, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Background This paper presents a new agent-based model (ABM) for investigating T. b. rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (rHAT) disease dynamics, produced to aid a greater understanding of disease transmission, and essential for development of appropriate mitigation strategies. Methods The ABM was developed to model rHAT incidence at a fine spatial scale along a 75 km transect in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. The method offers a complementary approach to traditional compartmentalised modelling techniques, permitting incorporation of fine scale demographic data such as ethnicity, age and gender into the simulation. Results Through identification of possible spatial, demographic and behavioural characteristics which may have differing implications for rHAT risk in the region, the ABM produced output that could not be readily generated by other techniques. On average there were 1.99 (S.E. 0.245) human infections and 1.83 (S.E. 0.183) cattle infections per 6 month period. The model output identified that the approximate incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) was lower amongst cattle owning households (0.079, S.E. 0.017), than those without cattle (0.134, S.E. 0.017). Immigrant tribes (e.g. Bemba I.R. = 0.353, S.E.0.155) and school-age children (e.g. 5–10 year old I.R. = 0.239, S.E. 0.041) were the most at-risk for acquiring infection. These findings have the potential to aid the targeting of future mitigation strategies. Conclusion ABMs provide an alternative way of thinking about HAT and NTDs more generally, offering a solution to the investigation of local-scale questions, and which generate results that can be easily disseminated to those affected. The ABM can be used as a tool for scenario testing at an appropriate spatial scale to allow the design of logistically feasible mitigation strategies suggested by model output. This is of particular importance where resources are limited and management strategies are often pushed to the local scale. PMID:28027323

  7. Vector-borne parasitic zoonoses: emerging scenarios and new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colwell, Douglas D; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Otranto, Domenico

    2011-11-24

    Changing climate is not the only driver for alterations in the dynamic interaction between arthropod vectors of zoonotic parasites and their hosts, including humans. A suite of other factors ranging from urbanization and deforestation to changing demographics in both developing and developed countries, the impact of the recent economic crisis, increased global movement of people and animals and follow-on effects of major catastrophes. This article reviews the most important vector-borne parasites of zoonotic concern that are changing/expanding their distribution patterns in both endemic and/or previously non-endemic areas. We include the discussion of the changing aspects of malaria, leishmaniasis, babesiosis, Chagas disease as well as of some spirurid and filarioid nematodes.

  8. Surveillance of zoonotic and infectious diseases in Ecuador: implications for special operations forces medical operations, personnel, and canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael; Monterroso, Victor H; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBD) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes are effective vectors parasitizing canines, making dogs adequate reservoirs for zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys personnel and government-owned animals around the world with possible risk of exposure to VBD. Canine VBD have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for the U.S. troops and its working animals deployed in the theater of operations. These factors make disease surveillance a great importance. The objective of this work was to survey canines from the cities of Manta and Guayaquil in Ecuador to determine prevalence of heartworm disease (D. immitis), ehrlichi os is (E. canis), Lyme disease (B. burgdorf eri), and anapl asmosis (A. phagocytophilum). Canine blood samples (1-3ml) collected from the cities of Manta (n=50) and Guayaquil (n=50) were tested on site using a SNAPR 4DxR Test Kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each city. In the city of Manta the overall prevalence of diseases was 78%; 52% for E. canis alone, and 26% for co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum. The overall prevalence for the city of Guayaquil was 88%; 40% for E. canis alone, 22% for A. phagocytophilum alone, and 26% for co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum. Neither heartworm disease nor Lyme disease was detected in any samp le. In conclusion, this study showed the extensive presence of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum in both cities in Ecuador, emphasizing the value of surveillance for zoonotic diseases to determine disease prevalence and risk assessments, as well as to implement control measures.

  9. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  10. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  11. The role of human movement in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Stoddard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human movement is a key behavioral factor in many vector-borne disease systems because it influences exposure to vectors and thus the transmission of pathogens. Human movement transcends spatial and temporal scales with different influences on disease dynamics. Here we develop a conceptual model to evaluate the importance of variation in exposure due to individual human movements for pathogen transmission, focusing on mosquito-borne dengue virus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We develop a model showing that the relevance of human movement at a particular scale depends on vector behavior. Focusing on the day-biting Aedes aegypti, we illustrate how vector biting behavior combined with fine-scale movements of individual humans engaged in their regular daily routine can influence transmission. Using a simple example, we estimate a transmission rate (R(0 of 1.3 when exposure is assumed to occur only in the home versus 3.75 when exposure at multiple locations--e.g., market, friend's--due to movement is considered. Movement also influences for which sites and individuals risk is greatest. For the example considered, intriguingly, our model predicts little correspondence between vector abundance in a site and estimated R(0 for that site when movement is considered. This illustrates the importance of human movement for understanding and predicting the dynamics of a disease like dengue. To encourage investigation of human movement and disease, we review methods currently available to study human movement and, based on our experience studying dengue in Peru, discuss several important questions to address when designing a study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human movement is a critical, understudied behavioral component underlying the transmission dynamics of many vector-borne pathogens. Understanding movement will facilitate identification of key individuals and sites in the transmission of pathogens such as dengue, which then may provide

  12. La reforma del sector salud, descentralización, prevención y control de enfermedades transmitidas por vectores Health system, decentralization, and the control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel A. Schmunis

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Con las nuevas macropolíticas mundiales, la salud en América Latina ha sufrido importante transición en direción a la decentralización, sin compatibilizar la salud pública con la lógica de las economías de mercado. Con esto, el control decentralizado de las enfermedades endémicas presenta dificultades políticas y operativas. Aunque la decentralización se justifica por los presupuestos teóricos, no hay tradición de este control en los niveles municipales, lo que dificulta la simple o burocrática transferencia de encargos para estos niveles. La falta de expertise, el turn-over político y la corrupción son dificultades adicionales, conllevando a una extinción de varias instituiciones y programas. La falta de efectividad en el enfrentamiento del dengue, de la malaria y de la enfermedad de Chagas son algunos ejemplos. Requierese una modernización con responsabilidad, con una transición compartida entre los niveles y garantizada por acciones continuadas. Sugierese mantener estructuras regionales para referencia, consolidación epidemiológica, normatización, capacitación y supervisión, incluso con reserva técnica para acciones finalísticas supletivas.Economic policies are changing Latin American health programs, particularly promoting decentralization. Numerous difficulties thus arise for the control of endemic diseases, since such activities traditionally depend on vertical, and centralized structures. Theoretical arguments in favor of decentralization notwithstanding, no such tradition exists at the county level. The lack of program expertise at peripheral levels, intensive staff turnover, and even corruption are additional difficulties. Hence, the simple bureaucratic transfer of activities from the Federal to county level is often irresponsible. The loss of priority for control of endemic diseases in Latin America may mean the inexorable extinction of traditional control services. Malaria, dengue fever, and Chagas disease

  13. Canine heartworm disease: a review and pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, K C

    1987-01-01

    Canine heartworm disease is a mosquito vectored illness resulting from parasitization by the filariid worm Dirofilaria immitis. While presenting some danger to humans, the filariid has its greatest impact on the canine population. In recent years the disease has become established throughout much of the United States, perhaps as the result of diffusion from a suspected hearth in the southeastern coastal plain. While its distribution is known in general terms, much research remains to be done to assess the pattern of distribution as well as the impact of D. immitis on canine populations and their human owners for many locales. The present study provides a review of the literature on the parasite; on its distribution, particularly in the United States; and on the ecology of canine heartworm disease. A pilot study is presented which emphasizes the problems encountered in establishing a data base for observations on the disease at the local level.

  14. An antivector vaccine protects against a lethal vector-borne pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Labuda

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. We tested the ability of an anti-tick vaccine derived from a tick cement protein (64TRP of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus to protect mice against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV transmitted by infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. The vaccine has a "dual action" in immunized animals: when infested with ticks, the inflammatory and immune responses first disrupt the skin feeding site, resulting in impaired blood feeding, and then specific anti-64TRP antibodies cross-react with midgut antigenic epitopes, causing rupture of the tick midgut and death of engorged ticks. Three parameters were measured: "transmission," number of uninfected nymphal ticks that became infected when cofeeding with an infected adult female tick; "support," number of mice supporting virus transmission from the infected tick to cofeeding uninfected nymphs; and "survival," number of mice that survived infection by tick bite and subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of TBEV. We show that one dose of the 64TRP vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge by infected ticks; control animals developed a fatal viral encephalitis. The protective effect of the 64TRP vaccine was comparable to that of a single dose of a commercial TBEV vaccine, while the transmission-blocking effect of 64TRP was better than that of the antiviral vaccine in reducing the number of animals supporting virus transmission. By contrast, the commercial antitick vaccine (TickGARD that targets only the tick's midgut showed transmission-blocking activity but was not protective. The 64TRP vaccine demonstrates the potential to control vector-borne disease by interfering with pathogen transmission, apparently by mediating a local cutaneous inflammatory immune response at the tick-feeding site.

  15. An Antivector Vaccine Protects against a Lethal Vector-Borne Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. We tested the ability of an anti-tick vaccine derived from a tick cement protein (64TRP of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus to protect mice against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV transmitted by infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. The vaccine has a "dual action" in immunized animals: when infested with ticks, the inflammatory and immune responses first disrupt the skin feeding site, resulting in impaired blood feeding, and then specific anti-64TRP antibodies cross-react with midgut antigenic epitopes, causing rupture of the tick midgut and death of engorged ticks. Three parameters were measured: "transmission," number of uninfected nymphal ticks that became infected when cofeeding with an infected adult female tick; "support," number of mice supporting virus transmission from the infected tick to cofeeding uninfected nymphs; and "survival," number of mice that survived infection by tick bite and subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of TBEV. We show that one dose of the 64TRP vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge by infected ticks; control animals developed a fatal viral encephalitis. The protective effect of the 64TRP vaccine was comparable to that of a single dose of a commercial TBEV vaccine, while the transmission-blocking effect of 64TRP was better than that of the antiviral vaccine in reducing the number of animals supporting virus transmission. By contrast, the commercial antitick vaccine (TickGARD that targets only the tick's midgut showed transmission-blocking activity but was not protective. The 64TRP vaccine demonstrates the potential to control vector-borne disease by interfering with pathogen transmission, apparently by mediating a local cutaneous inflammatory immune response at the tick-feeding site.

  16. Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to river blindness and elephantiasis. In an ironic twist, researchers are actually using Wolbachia to help fight ... National Institute of General Medical Sciences 45 Center Drive MSC 6200 Bethesda, MD 20892-6200 Tel: 301- ...

  17. Nordic climate change: data for modeling vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Birgit; Bødker, Rene

    of presenting the data to the public and making the data available to research projects in the Nordic countries. The website consists of an interactive web-application linked to a summarized climatic database. This allows for interactive selection of summary data for display. Detailed data files are available...

  18. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight...... of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two...... scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario...

  19. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model...... replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different...... grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better...

  20. Population structure of a vector-borne plant parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Kelsey M; Koop, Jennifer A H; Alexandre, Nicolas M; Johnston, Lauren R; Whiteman, Noah K

    2016-07-01

    Parasites are among the most diverse groups of life on Earth, yet complex natural histories often preclude studies of their speciation processes. The biology of parasitic plants facilitates in situ collection of data on both genetic structure and the mechanisms responsible for that structure. Here, we studied the role of mating, dispersal and establishment in host race formation of a parasitic plant. We investigated the population genetics of a vector-borne desert mistletoe (Phoradendron californicum) across two legume host tree species (Senegalia greggii and Prosopis velutina) in the Sonoran desert using microsatellites. Consistent with host race formation, we found strong host-associated genetic structure in sympatry, little genetic variation due to geographic site and weak isolation by distance. We hypothesize that genetic differentiation results from differences in the timing of mistletoe flowering by host species, as we found initial flowering date of individual mistletoes correlated with genetic ancestry. Hybrids with intermediate ancestry were detected genetically. Individuals likely resulting from recent, successful establishment events following dispersal between the host species were detected at frequencies similar to hybrids between host races. Therefore, barriers to gene flow between the host races may have been stronger at mating than at dispersal. We also found higher inbreeding and within-host individual relatedness values for mistletoes on the more rare and isolated host species (S. greggii). Our study spanned spatial scales to address how interactions with both vectors and hosts influence parasitic plant structure with implications for parasite virulence evolution and speciation.

  1. STUDY ON RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT FOR IMPORTED VECTOR-BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND VECTORS ON BORDER PORTS:RISK ANALYSIS%国境口岸输入性虫媒传染病及媒介生物风险分析和风险管理系统研究: 风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鑫; 方志强; 张晓龙; 马立新; 赵彤言

    2012-01-01

    为在口岸传染病防控方面探索新的思路和方法,建立科学的风险评估机制,采用澳大利亚和新西兰联合开发的风险管理标准,对境外的虫媒传染病及其媒介生物传入我国口岸的风险建立评估方法和体系.结果显示,通过对国际国内传染病疫情进行有效评估,分析传染病传播模式和趋势,确定输入输出风险等级和主要防控环节,及时发出预警信息,然后有针对性地在重点地区口岸和重点环节采取措施,能够有效控制媒介生物以及携带病原体的传播.引入风险分析理论,建立风险评估机制,对有效减少传染病疫情所带来的危害,保障我国口岸公共卫生安全十分必要.%To explore the new ideas and methods and establish the scientific risk assessment mechanism using in prevention and control of infectious diseases at the ports, the methods and systems basing on the risk management standards jointly developed by Australia and New Zealand and its application assessing the risk of imported vector-borne infectious diseases and vectors were used. The results showed that according to the effective evaluation of the international and domestic epidemic situation and the analysis of infectious diseases spreading tendency, we determine the input and output risk grade and prevention and control of main parts, publish warning information and take measures in the targeted areas, ports and parts in order to effectively control the vectors and pathogens spreading. It is necessary to introduce the risk analysis theory and build the risk assessment mechanism, which are beneficial in reducing the harm caused by infectious diseases and protecting port safety.

  2. Histamine concentration is involved in canine valvular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuhiro Isaka; Masahiko Befu; Nami Matsubara; Mayuko Ishikawa; Yurie Arase; Shinichi Namba

    2014-01-01

    It has been known since many years that there are histamine receptors (H) in the heart. Histamines display chronotropic and inotropic activity, cardiovascular diseases, and are thought to be a systemic inflammatory disease. During heart failure, the histamine concentration is elevated. In addition, H2 blockers prolonged the survival period for human patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether blood concentration of histamine is associated with canine valvular di...

  3. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  4. Blocking the Transmission of a Noncirculative Vector-Borne Plant Pathogenic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroussaa, Fabien; Zeilinger, Adam R; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2016-07-01

    The successful control of insect-borne plant pathogens is often difficult to achieve due to the ecologically complex interactions among pathogens, vectors, and host plants. Disease management often relies on pesticides and other approaches that have limited long-term sustainability. To add a new tool to control vector-borne diseases, we attempted to block the transmission of a bacterial insect-transmitted pathogen, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, by disrupting bacteria-insect vector interactions. X. fastidiosa is known to attach to and colonize the cuticular surface of the mouthparts of vectors; a set of recombinant peptides was generated and the chemical affinities of these peptides to chitin and related carbohydrates was assayed in vitro. Two candidates, the X. fastidiosa hypothetical protein PD1764 and an N-terminal region of the hemagglutinin-like protein B (HxfB) showed affinity for these substrates. These proteins were provided to vectors via an artificial diet system in which insects acquire X. fastidiosa, followed by an inoculation access period on plants under greenhouse conditions. Both PD1764 and HxfAD1-3 significantly blocked transmission. Furthermore, bacterial populations within insects over a 10-day period demonstrated that these peptides inhibited cell adhesion to vectors but not bacterial multiplication, indicating that the mode of action of these peptides is restricted to limiting cell adhesion to insects, likely via competition for adhesion sites. These results open a new venue in the search for sustainable disease-control strategies that are pathogen specific and may have limited nontarget effects.

  5. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis in the Muntenia Region, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Poliana; Bădicu, Adina; Mateescu, Romaniţa; Tudor, Niculae; Mateescu, Cosmin; Ionaşcu, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    Ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne disease that infects domestic and wild carnivores as well as humans. In this paper, we present two cases of ocular thelaziosis in dogs that had never traveled outside Romania. Both presented with moderate conjunctivitis and ocular discharge. In total, 41 adult nematodes were removed from the conjunctival sacs of both dogs; these were identified via morphology as T. callipaeda. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of canine ocular thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda from the Muntenia Region of Romania.

  6. Study on coinfecting vector-borne pathogens in dogs and ticks in Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ricardo Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Since dogs presenting several vector borne diseases can show none or nonspecific clinical signs depending on the phase of infection, the assessment of the particular agents involved is mandatory. The present study aimed to investigate the presence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. in blood samples and ticks, collected from two dogs from Rio Grande do Norte showing suggestive tick-borne disease by using molecular techniques. DNA of E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum were detected in blood samples and R. sanguineus ticks collected from dogs. Among all samples analyzed, two showed the presence of multiple infections with E. canis, H. canis and L. infantum chagasi. Here we highlighted the need for molecular differential diagnosis in dogs showing nonspecific clinical signs.

  7. What is the risk for exposure to vector-borne pathogens in United States national parks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; Shelus, Victoria; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2013-03-01

    United States national parks attract > 275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organismal databases. We conclude that, because of lack of systematic surveillance for vector-borne pathogens in national parks, the risk of pathogen exposure for staff and visitors is unclear. Existing data for vectors within national parks were not based on systematic collections and rarely include evaluation for pathogen infection. Extrapolation of human-based surveillance data from neighboring communities likely provides inaccurate estimates for national parks because landscape differences impact transmission of vector-borne pathogens and human-vector contact rates likely differ inside versus outside the parks because of differences in activities or behaviors. Vector-based pathogen surveillance holds promise to define when and where within national parks the risk of exposure to infected vectors is elevated. A pilot effort, including 5-10 strategic national parks, would greatly improve our understanding of the scope and magnitude of vector-borne pathogen transmission in these high-use public settings. Such efforts also will support messaging to promote personal protection measures and inform park visitors and staff of their responsibility for personal protection, which the National Park Service preservation mission dictates as the core strategy to reduce exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks.

  8. Glycogen Storage Disease Type Ia in Canines: A Model for Human Metabolic and Genetic Liver Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Specht

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A canine model of Glycogen storage disease type Ia (GSDIa is described. Affected dogs are homozygous for a previously described M121I mutation resulting in a deficiency of glucose-6-phosphatase-α. Metabolic, clinicopathologic, pathologic, and clinical manifestations of GSDIa observed in this model are described and compared to those observed in humans. The canine model shows more complete recapitulation of the clinical manifestations seen in humans including “lactic acidosis”, larger size, and longer lifespan compared to other animal models. Use of this model in preclinical trials of gene therapy is described and briefly compared to the murine model. Although the canine model offers a number of advantages for evaluating potential therapies for GSDIa, there are also some significant challenges involved in its use. Despite these challenges, the canine model of GSDIa should continue to provide valuable information about the potential for generating curative therapies for GSDIa as well as other genetic hepatic diseases.

  9. Study on clinical symptoms in canine cardiac diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Karlette Anne

    Full Text Available Cardiac diseases in canines are an extensively studied phenomenon all over the world but meagre information has been reported in India. Certain problems, including historical, physical, and laboratory abnormalities, are associated with cardiovascular or pulmonary disease. In India however, the recognition of canine cardiac diseases has been delayed, and ignored on account of lack of awareness and knowledge by the owner and inadequate diagnostic facility to a field veterinarian. Considering the above facts, the present study was undertaken in Gujarat to survey the prevalence of common cardiac diseases in hospital population of dogs along with the clinical symptoms which often goes undetected due to lack of proper diagnostic techniques to be implied and the most forms of heart disease may be present for many years before any evidence of failure develops. In the present study most of the clinical cases of cardiac diseases were presented with a history of nocturnal coughing (seven cases; 2.55%, exercise intolerance (five cases; 1.82%, partial or complete anorexia (five cases; 1.82%, swelling in abdominal area (four cases; 1.45%, dullness and depression (two cases; 0.72%, cachexia and hepatojugular pulsation (one case each; 0.36% each at times. [Vet World 2009; 2(8.000: 307-309

  10. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland. Part 2: Occurrence and control of babesiosis in a sled dog kennel during a 13-year-long period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2014-05-28

    The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anemia, affect joints or heart muscles or even cause death. Canine babesiosis is an emerging, quickly spreading tick-borne disease in Central Europe. Over a 13-year period (2000-2012) the occurrence of babesiosis cases was analyzed in one sled dog kennel situated in Kury, a village near Tłuszcz (N 52°24'56.78″, E 21°30'37.55″) in Central Poland. Twenty cases/episodes of babesiosis were noted among the 10-12 dogs living in the kennel. In 2000-2004, no cases of babesiosis were noted; the first two cases were noted in April 2005. Since that time, only one dog remained uninfected; 6 dogs were infected once, 3 dogs demonstrated symptoms of babesiosis twice, one dog was infected three times and one dog had it five times. Babesiosis appeared in Spring and Autumn, despite the application of anti-tick treatment. No fatal cases were recorded, but in one case a splenectomy was performed due to splenomegaly and spleen rupture. Additionally, the abundance of the main Babesia canis vector, the Dermacentor reticulatus tick, was estimated and monitored during a 4-year period (2008-2012) close to the dog kennel. The abundance of questing ticks was high in 2008 and 2009, but dropped by 10-fold between 2010 and 2012, when the abandoned meadow was cut and used as horse pasture by the local farmer. The regular occurrence, typical seasonal pattern and identification of B. canis DNA in questing tick from this locality confirmed the establishment of a new hyper enzootic region for canine babesiosis. The effectiveness and schedule of applied preventive measures were discussed.

  11. The canine and feline skin microbiome in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weese, J Scott

    2013-02-01

    The skin harbours a diverse and abundant, yet inadequately investigated, microbial population. The population is believed to play an important role in both the pathophysiology and the prevention of disease, through a variety of poorly explored mechanisms. Early studies of the skin microbiota in dogs and cats reported a minimally diverse microbial composition of low overall abundance, most probably as a reflection of the limitations of testing methodology. Despite these limitations, it was clear that the bacterial population of the skin plays an important role in disease and in changes in response to both infectious and noninfectious diseases. Recent advances in technology are challenging some previous assumptions about the canine and feline skin microbiota and, with preliminary application of next-generation sequenced-based methods, it is apparent that the diversity and complexity of the canine skin microbiome has been greatly underestimated. A better understanding of this complex microbial population is critical for elucidation of the pathophysiology of various dermatological (and perhaps systemic) diseases and to develop novel ways to manipulate this microbial population to prevent or treat disease.

  12. 'ANOTHER VECTOR BORNE CHALLENGE TO COMBAT- ZIKA VIRUS OUTBREAKS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Maria; Faraz, Ahmad; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. It is known to transmit to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito which is also known to carry dengue, chikungunya & yellow fever virus. Transmission is anthroponotic (human-to-vector-to-human) during outbreaks, Perinatally in utero, sexually and via infected blood transfusion. It is mild and self-limiting infection lasting for several days to a week. However, it is suspected as a cause of Guillain Barre Syndrome. There is a teratogenic association of Zika virus causing congenital birth defects like microcephaly and neurologic abnormalities. Treatment is generally supportive and for symptomatic relief. No specific antiviral treatment or vaccine is yet available for Zika virus disease. It highlights importance of preventive public health measures at the community level and avoids travelling to the endemic areas.

  13. A survey of canine tick-borne diseases in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few published reports on canine Babesia, Ehrlichia, Anaplasma, Hepatozoon and haemotropic Mycoplasma infections in India and most describe clinical disease in individual dogs, diagnosed by morphological observation of the microorganisms in stained blood smears. This study investigated the occurrence and distribution of canine tick-borne disease (TBD pathogens using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques in four cities in India. Results On microscopy examination, only Hepatozoon gamonts were observed in twelve out of 525 (2.3%; 95% CI: 1.2, 4 blood smears. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR, a total of 261 from 525 dogs (49.7%; 95% CI: 45.4, 54.1 in this study were infected with one or more canine tick-borne pathogen. Hepatozoon canis (30%; 95% CI: 26.0, 34.0 was the most common TBD pathogen found infecting dogs in India followed by Ehrlichia canis (20.6%; 95% CI: 17.2, 24.3, Mycoplasma haemocanis (12.2%; 95% CI: 9.5, 15.3, Anaplasma platys (6.5%; 95% CI: 4.5, 8.9, Babesia vogeli (5.5%, 95% CI: 3.7, 7.8 and Babesia gibsoni (0.2%, 95% CI: 0.01, 1.06. Concurrent infection with more than one TBD pathogen occurred in 39% of cases. Potential tick vectors, Rhipicephalus (most commonly and/or Haemaphysalis ticks were found on 278 (53% of dogs examined. Conclusions At least 6 species of canine tick-borne pathogens are present in India. Hepatozoon canis was the most common pathogen and ticks belonging to the genus Rhipicephalus were encountered most frequently. Polymerase chain reaction was more sensitive in detecting circulating pathogens compared with peripheral blood smear examination. As co-infections with canine TBD pathogens were common, Indian veterinary practitioners should be cognisant that the discovery of one such pathogen raises the potential for multiple infections which may warrant different clinical management strategies.

  14. Canine Degenerative Valve Disease: A Case Report

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    Carmenza Janneth Benavides Melo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Degenerative valvular disease or endocardiosis is the most common cardiovascular pathology in dogs. It is characterized by regurgitation of blood into the atria with decreased cardiac output, leading to volume overload with eccentric hypertrophy and congestive heart failure. This report describes the clinical and autopsy findings of a dog, suggestive of valvular endocardiosis. The patient was admitted to the outpatient Veterinary Clinic “Carlos Martínez Hoyos” at the University of Nariño (Pasto, Colombia. His owner said the dog was sick for two months, with signs of respiratory disease, weight loss, and decay. Clinical examination showed very pale mucous membranes, inspiratory dyspnea, rale, split S2, grade 4 mid-systolic murmur of regurgitation, and abdominal dilatation with sign of positive shock wave. Necropsy evidenced plenty of translucent watery material in the abdominal, chest and pericardium cavity, severely enlarged and rounded heart with thickened atrioventricular valves, moderate reduction in liver size and signs of lobulation, severely diminished and pale kidneys with irregular surface showing the presence of multiple cystic areas in corticomedullary region. Samples were taken from these tissues and fixed in 10% buffered formalin to be processed for histopathological analysis at the Laboratory of Pathology at the University of Nariño, using hematoxylin and eosin stain. This way, degenerative valvular disease was diagnosed.

  15. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions:: The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic. A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C. burnetii, a severe zoonotic agent, in the 5.1% of tested dogs, which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites, but also directly with urine, feces and birth products.

  16. What is the Risk for Exposure to Vector-Borne Pathogens in United States National Parks?

    OpenAIRE

    Eisen, Lars; Wong, David; SHELUS, VICTORIA; Eisen, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    United States national parks attract >275 million visitors annually and collectively present risk of exposure for staff and visitors to a wide range of arthropod vector species (most notably fleas, mosquitoes, and ticks) and their associated bacterial, protozoan, or viral pathogens. We assessed the current state of knowledge for risk of exposure to vector-borne pathogens in national parks through a review of relevant literature, including internal National Park Service documents and organisma...

  17. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  18. Histamine concentration is involved in canine valvular disease

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    Mitsuhiro Isaka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available It has been known since many years that there are histamine receptors (H in the heart. Histamines display chronotropic and inotropic activity, cardiovascular diseases, and are thought to be a systemic inflammatory disease. During heart failure, the histamine concentration is elevated. In addition, H2 blockers prolonged the survival period for human patients with heart failure. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether blood concentration of histamine is associated with canine valvular disease (CVD. The histamine concentrations of dogs with CVD are significantly higher than those of healthy dogs. The histamine concentration gradually increases during CVD and is highly correlated with the grade of heart murmur. In conclusion, the histamine concentration was higher in the population of dogs with CVD compared with the healthy controls. Although the etiopathogenesis of CVD is complex and incompletely understood, it likely involves histamine. Ultimately additional studies are required to determine whether histamine blockers might be useful for the management of dogs with cardiac valvular disease.

  19. Disease Modeling and Gene Therapy of Copper Storage Disease in Canine Hepatic Organoids

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    Sathidpak Nantasanti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The recent development of 3D-liver stem cell cultures (hepatic organoids opens up new avenues for gene and/or stem cell therapy to treat liver disease. To test safety and efficacy, a relevant large animal model is essential but not yet established. Because of its shared pathologies and disease pathways, the dog is considered the best model for human liver disease. Here we report the establishment of a long-term canine hepatic organoid culture allowing undifferentiated expansion of progenitor cells that can be differentiated toward functional hepatocytes. We show that cultures can be initiated from fresh and frozen liver tissues using Tru-Cut or fine-needle biopsies. The use of Wnt agonists proved important for canine organoid proliferation and inhibition of differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that successful gene supplementation in hepatic organoids of COMMD1-deficient dogs restores function and can be an effective means to cure copper storage disease.

  20. Epidemiological Survey on Canine Parvovirus Disease in Taizhou Region,Jiangsu Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan; Weifeng; Liu; Jing; Zhao; Xuegang; Lu; Jiang; Zheng; Xiaoliang; Zhu; Hongfei

    2014-01-01

    The canine parvovirus disease is an acute infectious disease caused by canine parvovirus(CPV). It is clinically characterized by severe vomiting,hemorrhagic enteritis,significant reduction in white blood cells and myocarditis. The disease with high incidence,highly infectious and high mortality has become one of the serious infectious diseases threatening dog raising industry in China. In this research,260 cases of canine parvovirus case from an Aite Pet Clinic in Taizhou City during January 2010 and March 2011 were analyzed. This study discloses the epidemiology of CPV in Taizhou region of Jiangsu Province,i. e.,the incidence of CPV and canine motility are closely correlated with age,breed,immune inoculation and season. This study provides useful guide for the clinical treatment of CPV in the future.

  1. Retrospective study of canine heartworm disease with caval syndrome in Grenada, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikweto, A; Bhaiyat, M I; Lanza-Perea, M; Veytsman, S; Tiwari, K; De Allie, C; Sharma, R N

    2014-10-15

    Canine heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis is an important disease of dogs. The aim of this retrospective study was to estimate the prevalence of canine heartworm disease and evaluate cases of caval syndrome in dogs submitted for necropsy in Grenada. Out of 1617 dogs necropsied over a period of 13 years (2001-2013), 249 were found to be infected with D. immitis; giving an overall prevalence of 15.4% (95% confidence interval, 13.6% to 17.1%). There was no significant difference between male and female dogs with respect to canine heartworm infection (p = 0.3). During this period, the annual prevalence of canine heartworm disease was 22% in 2001 before slightly declining to an average of 18% in 2002-2003 and peaking at 26.8% in 2004-2005. From 2006 onwards, annual prevalence rates have steadily been decreasing; reaching the lowest (9%) in 2013. Among the 249 positive cases, 33 (13.2%) of the dogs had caval syndrome. Caval syndrome cases presented with concurrent clinical signs and were associated with cardio-pulmonary and hepatic gross lesions at necropsy. Aberrant migration of D. immitis was also noted in 2 dogs with caval syndrome. This is the first report which presents the findings of canine heartworm disease with caval syndrome in Grenada.

  2. The prevention of canine leishmaniasis and its impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2013-07-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease of great veterinary and medical significance. Prevention of CanL requires a combined approach including measures focused on dogs and the environment where the vectors perpetuate. Over past decades, considerable effort has been put towards developing novel and cost-effective strategies against CanL. Vaccination is considered among the most promising tools for controlling CanL, and synthetic pyrethroids are useful and cost-effective in reducing risk of L. infantum infection in dogs. The effectiveness of the use of vaccines plus repellents in preventing L. infantum infection and subsequent disease development should be assessed by means of large-scale, randomized controlled field trials because this combined strategy may become the next frontier in the control of CanL.

  3. Zoonotic vector-borne bacterial pathogens in California mountain lions (Puma concolor), 1987-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Yvette A; Swift, Pamela; Chomel, Bruno B; Kasten, Rickie W; Fleer, Katryna; Foley, Janet E; Torres, Steven G; Johnson, Christine K

    2012-11-01

    Sera collected from 442 mountain lions in 48 California counties between the years of 1987 and 2010 were tested using immunofluorescence assays and agglutination tests for the presence of antibodies reactive to Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, Bartonella henselae, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum antigens. Data were analyzed for spatial and temporal trends in seropositivity. Seroprevalences for B. burgdorferi (19.9%) and B. henselae (37.1%) were relatively high, with the highest exposure in the Central Coast region for B. henselae. B. henselae DNA amplified in mountain lion samples was genetically similar to human-derived Houston-1 and domestic cat-derived U4 B. henselae strains at the gltA and ftsZ loci. The statewide seroprevalences of Y. pestis (1.4%), F. tularensis (1.4%), and A. phagocytophilum (5.9%), were comparatively low. Sera from Y. pestis- and F. tularensis-seropositive mountain lions were primarily collected in the Eastern and Western Sierra Nevada, and samples reactive to Y. pestis antigen were collected exclusively from adult females. Adult age (≥ 2 years) was a risk factor for B. burgdorferi exposure. Over 70% of tested animals were killed on depredation permits, and therefore were active near areas with livestock and human residential communities. Surveillance of mountain lions for these bacterial vector-borne and zoonotic agents may be informative to public health authorities, and the data are useful for detecting enzootic and peridomestic pathogen transmission patterns, particularly in combination with molecular characterization of the infecting organisms.

  4. A Canine Model of Chronic Graft-versus-Host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Scott S; Rezvani, Andrew; Sale, George; Stone, Diane; Parker, Maura; Rosinski, Steven; Spector, Michele; Swearingen, Bruce; Kean, Leslie; Storb, Rainer

    2017-03-01

    In long-term survivors of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is the major cause of morbidity and mortality and a major determinant of quality of life. Chronic GVHD responds poorly to current immunosuppressive drugs, and while T cell depletion may be preventive, this gain is offset by increased relapse rates. A significant impediment to progress in treating chronic GVHD has been the limitations of existing animal models. The goal of this study was to develop a reproducible comprehensive model of chronic GVHD in the dog. Ten recipient dogs received 920 cGy total body irradiation, infusion of marrow, and an infusion of buffy coat cells from a dog leukocyte antigen (DLA)-mismatched unrelated donor. Postgrafting immunosuppression consisted of methotrexate (days 1, 3, 6, 11) and cyclosporine. The duration of cyclosporine administration was limited to 80 days instead of the clinically used 180 days. This was done to contain costs, as chronic GVHD was expected to develop at earlier time points. All recipients were given ursodiol for liver protection. One dog had graft failure and 9 dogs showed stable engraftment. Eight of the 9 developed de novo chronic GVHD. Dogs progressed with clinical signs of chronic GVHD over a period of 43 to 164 (median, 88) days after discontinuation of cyclosporine. Target organs showed the spectrum of chronic GVHD manifestations that are typically seen clinically. These included lichenoid changes of the skin, fasciitis, ocular involvement (xerophthalmia), conjunctivitis, bronchiolitis obliterans, salivary gland involvement, gingivitis, esophageal involvement, and hepatic involvement. Peripheral blood lymphocyte surface antigen expression of CD28 and inducible costimulator was elevated in dogs with GHVD compared with those in normal dogs, but not significantly so. Serum levels of IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 in GVHD-affected dogs at time of euthanasia were elevated, whereas

  5. Canine heartworm disease in Porto Velho: first record, distribution map and occurrence of positive mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Guilherme Maerschner; da Cruz, Edson Neves; Cunha, Príscila Nayara Araújo; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to make the first report on canine heartworm disease in the state of Rondônia and confirm its transmission in this state. Blood samples were randomly collected from 727 dogs in the city of Porto Velho. The samples were analyzed to search for microfilariae and circulating antigens, using three different techniques: optical microscopy on thick blood smears stained with Giemsa; immunochromatography; and PCR. Mosquitoes were collected inside and outside the homes of all the cases of positive dogs and were tested using PCR to search for DNA of Dirofilaria immitis. Ninety-three blood samples out of 727 (12.8%) were positive according to the immunoassay technique and none according to the thick smear method. Among the 93 positive dogs, 89 (95.7%) were born in Porto Velho. No difference in the frequency of infection was observed between dogs raised indoors and in the yard. PCR on the mosquitoes resulted in only one positive pool. This result shows that the transmission of canine heartworm disease is occurring in the city of Porto Velho and that there is moderate prevalence among the dogs. The techniques of immunochromatography and PCR were more effective for detecting canine heartworm than thick blood smears. The confirmation of canine heartworm disease transmission in Porto Velho places this disease in the ranking for differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in humans in Rondônia.

  6. Canine heartworm disease in Porto Velho: first record, distribution map and occurrence of positive mosquitoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Maerschner Ogawa

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to make the first report on canine heartworm disease in the state of Rondônia and confirm its transmission in this state. Blood samples were randomly collected from 727 dogs in the city of Porto Velho. The samples were analyzed to search for microfilariae and circulating antigens, using three different techniques: optical microscopy on thick blood smears stained with Giemsa; immunochromatography; and PCR. Mosquitoes were collected inside and outside the homes of all the cases of positive dogs and were tested using PCR to search for DNA of Dirofilaria immitis. Ninety-three blood samples out of 727 (12.8% were positive according to the immunoassay technique and none according to the thick smear method. Among the 93 positive dogs, 89 (95.7% were born in Porto Velho. No difference in the frequency of infection was observed between dogs raised indoors and in the yard. PCR on the mosquitoes resulted in only one positive pool. This result shows that the transmission of canine heartworm disease is occurring in the city of Porto Velho and that there is moderate prevalence among the dogs. The techniques of immunochromatography and PCR were more effective for detecting canine heartworm than thick blood smears. The confirmation of canine heartworm disease transmission in Porto Velho places this disease in the ranking for differential diagnosis of pulmonary nodules in humans in Rondônia.

  7. Canine parvovirus in Australia: the role of socio-economic factors in disease clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, S; Norris, J M; Kelman, M; Ward, M P

    2012-08-01

    To identify clusters of canine parvoviral related disease occurring in Australia during 2010 and investigate the role of socio-economic factors contributing to these clusters, reported cases of canine parvovirus were extracted from an on-line disease surveillance system. Reported residential postcode was used to locate cases, and clusters were identified using a scan statistic. Cases included in clusters were compared to those not included in such clusters with respect to human socioeconomic factors (postcode area relative socioeconomic disadvantage, economic resources, education and occupation) and dog factors (neuter status, breed, age, gender, vaccination status). During 2010, there were 1187 cases of canine parvovirus reported. Nineteen significant (P0.05) was found between cases reported from cluster postcodes and those not within clusters for dog age, gender, breed or vaccination status (although the latter needs to be interpreted with caution, since vaccination was absent in most of the cases). Further research is required to investigate the apparent association between indicators of poor socioeconomic status and clusters of reported canine parvovirus diseases; however these initial findings may be useful for developing geographically- and temporally-targeted prevention and disease control programs.

  8. Dirofilaria immitis and Wolbachia pipientis: a thorough investigation of the symbiosis responsible for canine heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHaffie, Jake

    2012-02-01

    Canine heartworm disease wreaks havoc inside canines all throughout the modern world, including the USA. Any region where mosquitoes thrive will provide efficient dog-to-dog transportation for the microfilaria of the infectious nematode Dirofilaria immitis. Veterinary scientists have recently discovered both phylogenetic and biochemical evidence for the obligate symbiosis of D. immitis and the bacteria Wolbachia pipientis. As a result, veterinarians have initiated testing of antibiotic therapies either instead of, or together with, the currently utilized antiparasitic treatments for canine heartworm. The toxicity of melarsomine adulticidal therapies has prompted an abundance of new research involving doxycycline and other antibiotics, which will be addressed in this review. As our knowledge of the Wolbachia endosymbiont expands, so will our abilities to minimize toxicity and maximize efficiency of heartworm treatments.

  9. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  10. Triatomine infestation and vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in northwest and central Paraná, Brazil Infestação triatomínica e transmissão vetorial da doença de Chagas no noroeste e centro do Paraná, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lucia Falavigna-Guilherme

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Triatomine infestation, prevalence of T. cruzi antibodies in humans and domestic animals, and variables potentially associated with the presence of triatomines in a rural domiciliary unit (DU were investigated in nine municipalities and one district of Paraná, Brazil, from June 1996 to February 2000. DUs were defined as all houses and annexes on a given piece of property. Blood samples from human volunteers, dogs, and cats were submitted to indirect immunofluorescence. An epidemiological form was completed for each DU. A logistic model was adopted in order to identify associations. Seven out of nine municipalities were positive for triatomines. T. infestans was not captured, but T. sordida, P. megistus, and R. neglectus were. Different variables were considered decisive for the presence of triatomines across the municipalities: proximity to residual wooded areas, i.e. either scrub forest (capoeira or islands of residual forest (slightly dense vegetation, longer time of residence, existence of inhabited houses, and past DU infestation. In order to ensure proper continuation of the recommended Chagas disease control program, entomo-epidemiological surveillance measures need to be maintained.Avaliou-se a infestação por triatomíneos, a prevalência sorológica para T. cruzi em humanos e em animais domésticos, e a pesquisa de variáveis que poderiam estar associadas à presença de triatomíneos na unidade domiciliar (UD em área rural de nove municípios e um distrito do Paraná, Brasil, junho/1996 a fevereiro/2000. Uma UD foi definida como todas as casas e anexos existentes na propriedade. Amostras de sangue de voluntários humanos, cachorros e gatos foram submetidos à imunoflorescência indireta. Uma ficha epidemiológica foi preenchida para cada UD pesquisada. Foi adotado um modelo logístico para identificar associações. Sete dos nove municípios foram positivos para triatomíneos. T. infestans não foi capturado. T. sordida, P

  11. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Simona; Nardoni; Giulia; Fognani; Linda; Mugnaini; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Guido; Rocchigiani; Roberto; Amerigo; Papini; Francesco; Stefani; Francesca; Mancianti

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pi’evalence of vector-bome bacteria and protozoa in hunting dogs living in Central Italy.Methods:Molecular testing was executed on DNA which was extracted from blood specimens collected from 117 asymptomatic dogs to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum,Babesia canis(B.canis),Bartonella spp..Coxiella burnetii(C.burnetii).Ehrlichia canis.Hepatozoon canis.and Leislnnania infantum.Results:A total of 48 dogs(41.0%) were infested by Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.Tick-borne infections were observed in 64(54.7%) animals.More in detail.38 dogs(32.5%) screened positive for Hepatozoon canis,24(20.5%) for Bartonella rinsonii subsp.berkhoffii.20(17.1%) for Leishmania infantum,6(5.1%) for C.burnetii,5(4.3%) for B.canis(3 B.canis vogeli and 2 B.canis canis),3(2.5%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum,and 2(1.7%) for Ehrlichia canis.Mixed infection by 2 agents occurred in 17(14.5%) subjects,by 3 agents in 7(6.0%) dogs,and by 4 agents in 1(0.9%) animal.Conclusions:The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic.A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C.burnetii,a severe zoonotic agent,in the 5.1% of tested dogs,which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites,but also directly with urine,feces and birth products.

  12. Omics of vector mosquitoes:a big data platform for vector biology and vector-borne diseases%蚊虫的组学研究:媒介生物学和传播疾病的大数据分析平台

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴恙; 谢李华; 刘培文; 李小聪; 闫桂云; 陈晓光

    2015-01-01

    近年来随着二代测序等生物技术的的快速发展,蚊虫基因组学、转录组学、小RNA组学等领域的研究也得到了迅速提升。迄今为止,已有多种重要蚊媒包括冈比亚按蚊、致倦库蚊、埃及伊蚊等的基因组获得解析;不同蚊种的基因组大小差异很大,且与基因组中的重复序列的多少呈正相关;基因组序列为嗅觉相关基因、性别决定基因等蚊虫基因的克隆鉴定提供了便利。转录组研究则给蚊虫基因的功能分析带来了有效手段,吸血蚊虫的分子基础、唾液腺蛋白的分类构成以及滞育的发生机制等都借此取得了突破性发展。小RNA组研究则揭示miRNA和piRNA对蚊虫的卵巢发育和吸血消化具有调节作用,而且在蚊媒抗病毒免疫中起重要作用。总之,蚊虫的组学研究为其媒介生物学和传播疾病的防治,提供了广阔的、实用的大数据分析平台。%Recently the studies on mosquito genomics, transcriptomics and small RNAomics developed rapidly with the novel biotechnologies of the next generation sequencing techniques. The genome sequences of several important vector mosquitoes including Anopheles gambiae, Culex quinquefasciatus, and Aedes aegypti have been published. The genome sizes vary among the different species of mosquitoes and are consistent with the number of the repeat regions. The released genome sequences facilitate gene cloning and identification as for OBP, OR and dsx genes. Transcriptomics provides a useful tool for functional analyses of the mosquito genes, and using this technique, the molecular basis of mosquito blooding, gland proteins and diapauses have been explored. Studies on small RNAomics suggest important roles of miRNAs and piRNAs in ovary development, blood digestion, and immunity against virus infection. The studies on mosquito omics have generated a big data platform for investigation of vector biology and vector-transmitted disease

  13. Global Trends in the Use of Insecticides to Control Vector-Borne Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Zaim, M.; Yadav, R.S.; Soares, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Mnzava, A.; Hii, J.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data on insecticide use for vector control are essential for guiding pesticide management systems on judicious and appropriate use, resistance management, and reduction of risks to human health and the environment. Objective: We studied the global use and trends of insecticide use for co

  14. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-21

    Africa, known as ‘‘The Maize Triangle’’ received heavy rainfall during the 2010– 2011 La Niña [48], with December 2010-February 2011 total rainfall...conditions throughout the country and resulted in the fifth successive year of 25% above-average maize production (Figure 3E). Cool, wet weather led...Figure 3B). In contrast, Figure 4C shows seasonal LSTs for December 2010-February 2011 over South Africa’s Maize Triangle. Compared to Texas and Volga

  15. Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare

    . Furthermore this PhD has provided a new method of estimating the effect of light traps, which can estimate the additive effect of closely placed traps, and determine trap range of individual traps based on emitted light intensity. Moreover there has been devised a method to sample in time which maximizes...

  16. Use of remote sensing for analysis and estimation of vector-borne disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Atiqur

    An epidemiological data of malaria cases were correlated with satellite-based vegetation health (VH) indices to investigate if they can be used as a proxy for monitoring the number of malaria cases. Mosquitoes, which spread malaria in Bangladesh, are very sensitive to environmental conditions, especially to changes in weather. Therefore, VH indices, which characterize weather conditions, were tested as indicators of mosquitoes' activities in the spread of malaria. Satellite data were presented by the following VH indices: Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI), and Vegetation Health Index (VHI). They were derived from radiances and measured by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on NOAA afternoon polar orbiting satellites. Assessment of sensitivity of the VH was performed using correlation and regression analysis. Estimation models were validated using of Jackknife Cross-Validation procedure. Results show that the VH indices can be used for detection, and numerical estimate of the number of malaria cases. During the cooler months (January--April) when mosquitoes are less active, the correlation is low and increases considerably during the warm and wet season (April--November), for TCI in early October and for VCI in mid September. All analysis and estimation model developed here are based on data obtained for Bangladesh.

  17. Public health applications of remote sensing of vector borne and parasitic diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Results of an investigation of the potential application of remote sensing to various fields of public health are presented. Specific topics discussed include: detection of snail habitats in connection with the epidemiology of schistosomiasis; the detection of certain Anopheles breeding sites, and location of transient human populations, both in connection with malaria eradication programs; and detection of overwintering population sites for the primary screwworm (Cochliomyia americana). Emphasis was placed on the determination of ground truth data on the biological, chemical, and physical characteristics of ground waters which would or would not support the growth of significant populations of mosquitoes.

  18. Serological surveillance of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases among hunters in eastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Many etiological agents of zoonoses are considered as significant biological hazard to people visiting forested areas frequently, for instance, hunters. They may be exposed to ticks, rodents, and birds as well as excreta/secretions of wild animals or contaminated water and soil. Hence, this population is at risk of contracting infection with pathogens such as Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia spp., tick-borne encephalitis virus, Bartonella spp., Francisella tularensis, Echinococcus spp., or hantaviruses. The aim of the study was to assess the seroprevalence of zoonotic agents, viz. A. phagocytophilum, hantaviruses, and Echinococcus spp., with special regard to B. burgdorferi s.l., among hunters in Lubelskie Voivodeship (eastern Poland. Methods: Serum samples collected from 134 hunters from Lubelskie Voivodeship were analyzed with the use of immunological techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, line immunoblot test, and indirect fluorescence assay for the presence of antibodies against the agents. Results: Specific antibodies were detected in 66% of the tested individuals. Antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. (39%, A. phagocytophilum (30%, hantaviruses (9%, and Echinococcus spp. (8% were detected individually or as mixed results. Interpretation & conclusion: The results confirm that there is a risk of exposure to different pathogens in the forested areas in eastern Poland and that hunters are highly vulnerable to infection with the examined zoonotic agents. A significant proportion of co-occurring antibodies against different pathogens was noticed. Thus, hunters have to take special care of their health status evaluation and mitigate the exposure risk by using adequate prophylaxis measures.

  19. A Comparison of Dynamics in Two Models for the Spread of a Vector-Borne Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Sumner, T.; Enøe, Claes;

    2016-01-01

    of between-herd spread, one using an explicit representation of vector dispersal, the other a transmission kernel. Here, we compare model predictions for the dynamics of bluetongue in the UK, based on the 2007 incursion and vaccination rollout in 2008. We demonstrate how an agent-based model shows greater...

  20. Public health issues concerning the widespread distribution of canine heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alice C Y; Montgomery, Susan P; Theis, Jerold H; Blagburn, Byron L; Eberhard, Mark L

    2010-04-01

    Heartworms can cause serious cardiopulmonary disease in their canid hosts. Canine heartworm has become widespread in many parts of the world, and its range continues to expand. Wildlife reservoirs play a role in perpetuation and transmission of this parasite to dogs. Human heartworm infection is incidental and is typically not associated with severe clinical disease; however, because no serological test is readily available, patients must undergo invasive procedures to differentiate heartworm from other more serious diseases. Human cases have been reported mainly in areas of high canine prevalence, highlighting the importance of heartworm testing and chemoprophylaxis in all dogs to reduce transmission. Future efforts should focus on the development of a non-invasive diagnostic test for people, and on epidemiological surveys for both animals and people.

  1. Controversial results of therapy with mesenchymal stem cells in the acute phase of canine distemper disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, A O; Cardoso, M T; Vidane, A S; Casals, J B; Passarelli, D; Alencar, A L F; Sousa, R L M; Fantinato-Neto, P; Oliveira, V C; Lara, V M; Ambrósio, C E

    2016-05-23

    Distemper disease is an infectious disease reported in several species of domestic and wild carnivores. The high mortality rate of animals infected with canine distemper virus (CDV) treated with currently available therapies has driven the study of new efficacious treatments. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising therapeutic option for many degenerative, hereditary, and inflammatory diseases. Therefore, the aim of this study was to characterize stem cells derived from the canine fetal olfactory epithelium and to assess the systemic response of animals infected with CDV to symptomatic therapy and treatment with MSCs. Eight domestic mongrel dogs (N = 8) were divided into two groups: support group (SG) (N = 5) and support group + cell therapy (SGCT) (N = 3), which were monitored over 15 days. Blood samples were collected on days 0, 6, 9, 12, and 15 to assess blood count and serum biochemistry (urea, creatinine, alanine transferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyl transferase, total protein, albumin, and globulin), and urine samples were obtained on days 0 and 15 for urinary evaluation (urine I). The results showed a high mortality rate (SG = 4 and SGCT = 2), providing inadequate data on the clinical course of CDV infection. MSC therapy resulted in no significant improvement when administered during the acute phase of canine distemper disease, and a prevalence of animals with high mortality rate was found in both groups due to the severity of symptoms.

  2. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Codeço de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area.

  3. Regenerative and fibrotic pathways in canine liver disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spee, Bart

    2006-01-01

    Liver diseases occur quite frequently in dogs; the overall incidence in dogs has been estimated around 1-2% of the clinical cases. Most liver diseases are, like in humans, chronic and occur through chronic inflammation due to different causes. In all cases the on-going liver cell damage leads to a r

  4. Critical analysis of vector-borne infections in dogs: Babesia vogeli, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis in Punjab, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singla, Lachhman Das; Sumbria, Deepak; Mandhotra, Ajay; Bal, M S; Kaur, Paramjit

    2016-12-01

    There are few published studies on various vector borne diseases of dogs in India and most depict clinical infection in dogs, diagnosed by observation of the haemopathogens in stained blood smears. This study provides the first report regarding molecular confirmation and ancestral relationship analysis of blood smears positive cases of assorted haemopathogens in Punjab province of India. On blood smear examination, haemopathogens were observed in 124 out of 778 (15.95%, 95% CI: 13.53- 18.68) blood smears. Further polymerase chain reactions (PCR) was used on bloods smear positive cases to validate the results. Out of 778 blood samples, Babesia gibsoni was most common parasite infecting dogs (15.04%, 95% CI: 12.7-17.72), followed by Ehrlichia canis (0.39%, 95% CI: 0.0-1.13), infection of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis was same (0.26%, 95% CI: 0.0-0.9). Among various risk factors studied (age, sex, season), prevalence of infection was non-significantly higher in 1-2 year of age group (19.88%, 95% CI: 14.45-26.71), regarding sex same prevalence was recorded (15.94%), and chances of infection was highest in pre-monsoon i.e. summer (18.26%, 95% CI: 14.49-22.76). Phylogenetic analysis revealed ancestral background of Ludhiana isolates of B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, H. canis, and E. canis with the isolates of Philippines, Mongolia and Tunisia.

  5. Elemental Content of Calcium Oxalate Stones from a Canine Model of Urinary Stone Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W Killilea

    Full Text Available One of the most common types of urinary stones formed in humans and some other mammals is composed of calcium oxalate in ordered hydrated crystals. Many studies have reported a range of metals other than calcium in human stones, but few have looked at stones from animal models such as the dog. Therefore, we determined the elemental profile of canine calcium oxalate urinary stones and compared it to reported values from human stones. The content of 19 elements spanning 7-orders of magnitude was quantified in calcium oxalate stones from 53 dogs. The elemental profile of the canine stones was highly overlapping with human stones, indicating similar inorganic composition. Correlation and cluster analysis was then performed on the elemental profile from canine stones to evaluate associations between the elements and test for potential subgrouping based on elemental content. No correlations were observed with the most abundant metal calcium. However, magnesium and sulfur content correlated with the mineral hydration form, while phosphorous and zinc content correlated with the neuter status of the dog. Inter-elemental correlation analysis indicated strong associations between barium, phosphorous, and zinc content. Additionally, cluster analysis revealed subgroups within the stones that were also based primarily on barium, phosphorous, and zinc. These data support the use of the dog as a model to study the effects of trace metal homeostasis in urinary stone disease.

  6. Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and 'One health' in Europe: the veterinary medicinal view on CVBDs such as tick borreliosis, rickettsiosis and canine leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencke, Norbert

    2013-08-01

    The medical as well as the veterinary importance of parasitic arthropods or ectoparasites in general terms, is characterized by the primary or secondary impact on the health of humans and companion animals alike. The parasitic arthropods addressed here are those ectoparasites belong to the class of insects, such as fleas and sand flies, or the subclass of acarids, such as ticks. These parasitic arthropods interact intensively with their hosts by blood feeding. Fleas, sand flies and ticks hold the vector capacity to transmit pathogens such as virus, bacteria or protozoa to cats, dogs and humans. The diseases caused by these pathogens are summarized under the terms canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD), feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) or metazoonoses. In small animal practice, it is important to understand that the transmitted pathogen may either lead to a disease with clinical signs, or more often to asymptomatic, clinically healthy, or silent infections. Blocking of the vector-host interactions, the blood feeding and subsequently the transmission of pathogens during blood feeding is a key element of CVBD control. The focus of this review is on the current knowledge of the epidemiology of parasitic vectors and three important CVBDs they transmit; rickettsiosis, tick borreliosis and canine leishmaniosis from a European perspective, and how veterinary medicine may contribute to the challenges of CVBDs and their control. Prevention of CVBDs is fundamentally based on ectoparasite control. Ectoparasite management in cats and dogs is important not only for the health and well-being of the individual companion animal but for public health in general and is therefore a perfect example of the 'One health' approach.

  7. Canine Heartworm in Southeastern of Iran with Review of disease distribution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Khedri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis is mosquito-borne filarial nematode capable of causing serious cardiopulmonary disease in canines and felines, and pulmonary dirofilariasis in man. This research was conducted with the objectives of determining the incidence and assessing possible risk factors of canine heartworm in the southeast of Iran.From October 2012 to September 2013, blood samples from 87 dogs from Zabol area in Sistan and Baluchestan and 33 dogs from Bam area in Kerman Province were examined for detection of Dirofilaria immitis using modified knott test and serology.Out of 120 dogs, 29 (24.2%; 95%CI: 16.6-31.8% were positive, serologically. The overall seroprevalence of D. immitis in dog in Zabol and Bam was 27.5% (95% CI: 24.7-32.5% and 15.15% (95% CI: 12.3-20.7%, respectively. 28.8% of stray dogs and 20.6% of housed dogs in the study areas were seropositive. Seroprevalence of D. immitis was not significantly different between stray and housed dogs (P = 0.295. Investigation of seasonal dynamic of infection with D. immitis in stray and housed dog showed that the proportion of infected dog in spring and summer was greater than colder season (autumn and winter which was not significant. The prevalence of infection with D. immitis in >5 years old stray dogs (53.8% was greater than other age categories while in housed dogs infection rate was greater in 3-5 years old (27.3%.It is important to point out the increased incidence of canine heatrworm in Iran. In order to stop the spread of canine heartworm, preventive measures must be taken now.

  8. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato

    2016-01-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian...

  9. 78 FR 732 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ..., Surveillance, and Control of Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, Funding Opportunity... Control of Vector- Borne and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases in Uganda, FOA CK13-001.'' Contact Person for... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention...

  10. Canine stage 1 periodontal disease: a latent pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, A; Bonastre, C; Monteagudo, L V; Les, F; Obon, J; Whyte, J; Tejedor, M T

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the potential health issues associated with periodontal disease (PD) in dogs, 1004 teeth from 25 dogs were examined. The dogs were randomly selected, aged 2-14 years, and had at least 95% of their teeth at the first PD stage. Significant positive correlations between plaque grade (PG) and gum inflammation, gingival regression, periodontal pocket, age and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity were identified. In contrast, PG was negatively correlated to total platelet count. Altogether, these findings suggest that prevention and therapy at the first PD stages can have an important impact on the general health condition of dogs.

  11. Canine distemper virus epithelial cell infection is required for clinical disease but not for immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatsky, Bevan; Wong, Xiao-Xiang; Hinkelmann, Sarah; Cattaneo, Roberto; von Messling, Veronika

    2012-04-01

    To characterize the importance of infection of epithelial cells for morbillivirus pathogenesis, we took advantage of the severe disease caused by canine distemper virus (CDV) in ferrets. To obtain a CDV that was unable to enter epithelial cells but retained the ability to enter immune cells, we transferred to its attachment (H) protein two mutations shown to interfere with the interaction of measles virus H with its epithelial receptor, human nectin-4. As expected for an epithelial receptor (EpR)-blind CDV, this virus infected dog and ferret epithelial cells inefficiently and did not cause cell fusion or syncytium formation. On the other hand, the EpR-blind CDV replicated in cells expressing canine signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM), the morbillivirus immune cell receptor, with similar kinetics to those of wild-type CDV. While ferrets infected with wild-type CDV died within 12 days after infection, after developing severe rash and fever, animals infected with the EpR-blind virus showed no clinical signs of disease. Nevertheless, both viruses spread rapidly and efficiently in immune cells, causing similar levels of leukopenia and inhibition of lymphocyte proliferation activity, two indicators of morbillivirus immunosuppression. Infection was documented for airway epithelia of ferrets infected with wild-type CDV but not for those of animals infected with the EpR-blind virus, and only animals infected with wild-type CDV shed virus. Thus, epithelial cell infection is necessary for clinical disease and efficient virus shedding but not for immunosuppression.

  12. Development and resolution of radiographic lesions in canine heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, C A; Losonsky, J M; Lewis, R E; McCall, J W

    1981-06-01

    Thoracic radiography of 7 Beagles was performed before heartworm infection, during a 1-year heartworm infection, and for 1 year following appropriate treatment. Cardiac and vascular lesions on thoracic radiographs were compared with angiographic changes. Within 3 months of obstructed blood flow in the caudal lobar arteries, associated increased focal parenchymal densities were detected. These lesions were regarded as characteristic of heartworm disease. Although the most severe arteriographic changes were in the caudal lobar arteries, lobar arterial changes on a lateral view were best detected in the right cranial lobar artery. These arteries increased in size during infection and decreased in size after treatment. It was concluded that the dorsoventral view is best for evaluation of the caudal lobar arteries. The most marked parenchymal lesions were detected during the first 6 months following adulticide treatment. These lesions and the other radiographic alterations then decreased in severity. Persistence of the parenchymal lesions were related to persistence of heartworm infection.

  13. 犬细小病毒病的诊治%Diagnosis and Treatment of Canine Parvovirus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔继东; 王权

    2012-01-01

    Infection sources, pathogen characteristics and epidemic situation of canine parvovirus disease were introduced, the diagnosis method was proposed, and then the prevention and treatment measures were put forward, so as to provide references for the control of canine parvovirus disease.%介绍了犬细小病毒病的传染源、病原特点及流行情况,提出其诊断方法,并总结了预防与治疗措施,以期为犬细小病毒病的防治提供参考。

  14. Modeling the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Eduardo; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; da Silva, Daniel Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. The effect of global warming, however, depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. In this work we review some mathematical models that were proposed to study the impact of the increase in ambient temperature on the spread and gravity of some insect-transmitted diseases.

  15. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  16. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission.

  17. Polymerase chain reaction based epidemiological investigation of canine parvoviral disease in dogs at Bareilly region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jobin Thomas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to screen the suspected samples by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and epidemiological analysis of positive cases of canine parvovirus type2. Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from dogs suspected for canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2 and viral DNA was extracted. Primers were designed, and PCR was done with all extracted DNA samples. Age, sex and breed wise distribution of positive cases were analyzed. Results: Out of a total 44 collected fecal samples, 23 were found to be positive for CPV-2 by developed PCR. The disease was found to be more common in Labrador male pups of 3-6 months of age. The percentage of positive cases in vaccinated dogs was found to be around 17.4%. Conclusion: Almost half (52.3% of total collected samples were found to be positive by PCR. However, number of field samples are needed to further validate this test and additionally sequence analysis needs to be done to ensure the prevalent field strain of CPV-2.

  18. Quantitative factors proposed to influence the prevalence of canine tick-borne disease agents in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Stich, Roger W.; Blagburn, Byron L; Bowman, Dwight D.; Carpenter, Christopher; Cortinas, M. Roberto; Ewing, Sidney A; Foley, Desmond; Foley, Janet E.; Gaff, Holly; Hickling, Graham J.; Lash, R. Ryan; Little, Susan E; Lund, Catherine; Lund, Robert; Mather, Thomas N.

    2014-01-01

    The Companion Animal Parasite Council hosted a meeting to identify quantifiable factors that can influence the prevalence of tick-borne disease agents among dogs in North America. This report summarizes the approach used and the factors identified for further analysis with mathematical models of canine exposure to tick-borne pathogens.

  19. Canine olfaction as an alternative to analytical instruments for disease diagnosis: understanding 'dog personality' to achieve reproducible results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent literature has touted the use of canine olfaction as a diagnostic tool for identifying pre-clinical disease status, especially cancer and infection from biological media samples. Studies have shown a wide range of outcomes, ranging from almost perfect discrimination, all t...

  20. 犬细小病毒病诊断及防治%Diagnosis, Prevention and Treament of Canine Parvovirus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彦锋; 崔战领

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence characteristics and clinical symptoms of canine parvovirus were analyzed. The pathologic characteristics of canine parvovirus and its diagnosis and treatment methods were discussed. And some concrete measures were proposed for preventing and curing this disease.%通过分析犬细小病毒病的流行特点和临床症状,探讨了犬细小病毒病的病理特征、诊断和治疗方法,并提出了预防和对症治疗的具体措施,以供参考。

  1. Factors associated with development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joffe, Daniel J; Lelewski, Roxana; Weese, J Scott; Mcgill-Worsley, Jamie; Shankel, Catharine; Mendonca, Sonia; Sager, Tara; Smith, Michael; Poljak, Zvonimir

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the association between presence of respiratory pathogens and development of Canine Infectious Respiratory Disease Complex (CIRDC) in dogs in 5 Canadian small animal clinics. In total, 86 dogs were tested using a commercial PCR respiratory panel; 64 dogs were considered as cases and 22 were control dogs matched by veterinary clinic. No control animals (0/22) were positive for canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV), whereas 27/64 (42%) CIRDC cases were positive. Furthermore, 81% of case dogs tested positive for Mycoplasma cynos, compared with 73% of control dogs. Canine respiratory corona virus (CRCoV) was detected in no control dogs compared with 9.4% of clinical dogs. No animals were positive for any influenza virus type A present in the diagnostic panel. Presence of CPIV was associated (P < 0.01) with the occurrence of CIRDC after adjustment for demographic factors and presence of CRCoV (P = 0.09).

  2. An updating of the occurrence of canine heartworm disease in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poglayen, G; Martini, M; Bomben, L; Roda, R

    1996-01-01

    A survey was carried out in northern Italy (Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia Regions) to assess the extension of canine heartworm disease close to the classic hyperendemic areas of the Po Valley. A filtration test on 275 privately owned dogs showed a mean prevalence of 44%, with a peak of 55% in the Venice province. A high prevalence (17%) of occult filariosis was discovered using a serological test. These values fall within the medium-high range previously reported from other Italian areas. The provinces of Pordenone, Udine, Trieste, Treviso and Belluno, where no cases had been previously reported, were found to be infected. The distribution of the infection did not differ significantly with the dogs' origin or sex. The prevalence seemed to be influenced significantly (p < 0.01) by the hosts' age, function and degree of outdoor activity, reflecting the different exposure risks.

  3. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  4. Expression Profiling of Circulating MicroRNAs in Canine Myxomatous Mitral Valve Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinghong Li

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that have shown promise as noninvasive biomarkers in cardiac disease. This study was undertaken to investigate the miRNA expression profile in dogs with myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD. 277 miRNAs were quantified using RT-qPCR from six normal dogs (American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine Stage A, six dogs with MMVD mild to moderate cardiac enlargement (ACVIM Stage B1/B2 and six dogs with MMVD and congestive heart failure (ACVIM Stage C/D. Eleven miRNAs were differentially expressed (False Discovery Rate < 0.05. Dogs in Stage B1/B2 or C/D had four upregulated miRNAs, including three cfa-let-7/cfa-miR-98 family members, while seven others were downregulated, compared to Stage A. Expression of six of the 11 miRNAs also were significantly different between dogs in Stage C/D and those in Stage B1/B2. The expression changes were greater as disease severity increased. These miRNAs may be candidates for novel biomarkers and may provide insights into genetic regulatory pathways in canine MMVD.

  5. Epidemiological survey of canine heartworm disease on the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands - Spain) between 2000 and 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya-Alonso, J A; Carretón, E; Juste, M C; Mellado, I; Morchón, R; Simón, F

    2010-10-11

    Canine cardiopulmonary dirofilariosis caused by Dirofilaria immitis is endemic on the island of Gran Canaria. Epidemiological surveys have shown differences in the prevalence of heartworm disease in the canine population of the island between 1989 and 1998. The aim of the present study was to follow-up the prevalence of D. immitis in both the canine population as a whole and the Canarian Warren Hound population on Gran Canaria between 2000 and 2008. Prevalences observed were always significantly higher in the Canarian Warren Hound population than in the entire canine population. A significant decrease in the prevalence (from 30.19% to 19.36%) in the whole population was observed. In the Canarian Warren Hound the prevalence decreased slightly between 2000 and 2007 (40.42-34.65%), rising in 2008 to values higher than those observed at the beginning of follow-up study (41.6%). These changes are mainly attributed to lack of preventive chemotherapy and the prolonged exposure of the Canarian Warren Hound to mosquito bites. As this breed can act as a natural reservoir in Gran Canaria, regular surveillance is needed to detect changes in the epidemiological picture on this island.

  6. Galanin - Immunoreactive Nerve Fibers in the Mucosal Layer of the Canine Gastrointestinal Tract During Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychlik Andrzej

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD on the density of galanin - immunoreactive (GAL-IR nerve fibers was determined in the mucosa of canine duodenum, jejunum, and descending colon. Fiber density was evaluated by a single immunofluorescence method in biopsy specimens obtained from healthy dogs and patients with variable severity of the disease. The density of GAL-IR nerve fibers was determined by the semi-quantitative method by counting fibers in the field of view (0.l mm2. Fiber density was higher in dogs with moderate and severe IBD than in healthy animals. The results of the study suggest that GAL present in intestinal nerve fibers could play a role in the pathogenesis and development of canine IBD.

  7. A frameshift mutation in the canine HEXB gene in toy poodles with GM2 gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mohammad M; Chang, Hye-Sook; Mizukami, Keijiro; Hossain, Mohammad A; Yabuki, Akira; Tamura, Shinji; Kitagawa, Masato; Mitani, Sawane; Higo, Takashi; Uddin, Mohammad M; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Yamato, Osamu

    2012-12-01

    GM2 gangliosidosis variant 0 (Sandhoff disease, SD) is a fatal, progressive neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by mutations in the HEXB gene. Toy poodles recently were reported as the second breed of dog with SD. The present paper describes the molecular defect of this canine SD as the first identification of a pathogenic mutation in the canine HEXB gene. Genomic and complementary DNA sequences covering exonic regions of the canine HEXB gene, except exon 1, were analysed using DNA and RNA in an affected dog. A homozygous single base pair deletion of guanine in exon 3 was identified at nucleotide position 283 of the putative open reading frame (c.283delG). This mutation has the potential to cause a frameshift resulting in the alteration of valine at amino acid position 59 to a stop codon (p.V59fsX). Genotyping using the mutagenically separated PCR method demonstrated a correlation between phenotype and genotype in dogs with a pedigree related to the disease and that the mutation was rare in a randomly-selected population of toy poodles. These results strongly suggest that the deletion is pathogenic.

  8. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  9. Integrated control of ticks and fleas on dogs with particular reference to the prevention of vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fourie, J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Because dogs are such loved companion animals, their health and wellbeing is of great importance to their human companions. Moreover, controlling ticks and fleas on dogs is also important in respect of the zoonotic risk that some of these parasites pose to their human companions. Numerous products a

  10. knowledge, attitudes and practices study in relation to entomophobia and its application in vector-borne-diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Faranak Firoozfar; Nahid norjah; Mojgan Baniardalani; Seyed Hassan Moosa-Kazemi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The study was carried out to determine the knowledge, believe and practice of students about insects for forthcoming research due to tropical medicine. Its application to tropical medicine is acceptable. Methods: The study was conducted among 300 students by pre-trained interviewers using a pre-test questionnaire in secondary, high school, and university in the Tehran city from June 2008 to May 2009. All statistics analysis was carried out the spss ver 11.5 EPI6, stata 80, chi-square and fisher exact test. Results: Significantly, 82.3% of the interviewers had problem when expose to insects (P<0.05). Domestic animals and unhygienic human habitant most importantly incriminate to present of insects. Out of 73.8% of the respondents believed the association between entomophobia and human habitat. Entomophobia was significantly associated with density and size of insects (P<0.05). Out of 37% of the respondents agree with killing of insects pest (P<0.05). Significantly steers was the common sign of entomophobia among the respondents (P<0.05). Out of %49.7 of audiences belived to association between entomophobia and age.Conclusion: In conclusion important the education and communication messages against entomophobia take in to consideration the local practice.

  11. Parasites and vector-borne diseases in client-owned dogs in Albania. Intestinal and pulmonary endoparasite infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukullari, Enstela; Hamel, Dietmar; Rapti, Dhimitër; Pfister, Kurt; Visser, Martin; Winter, Renate; Rehbein, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    From March 2010 to April 2011 inclusive, feces from 602 client-owned dogs visiting four small animal clinics in Tirana, Albania, were examined using standard coproscopical techniques including Giardia coproantigen ELISA and immunofluorescent staining of Giardia cysts. Overall, samples of 245 dogs (40.7 %, 95 % CI 36.6-45.6) tested positive for at least one type of fecal endoparasite (protozoan and/or helminth and/or pentastomid) stage, of which 180 (29.9 %, 95 % CI 26.3-33.7) and 129 (21.9 %, 95 % CI 18.2-24.9) tested positive for protozoan or nematode endoparasites, respectively. Fecal forms of at least 14 endoparasites were identified. The most frequently identified stages were those of Giardia (26.4 %), Trichuris (9.5 %), Toxocara (8.0 %), hookworms (7.1 %), Cystoisospora ohioensis (4.3 %), and Cystoisospora canis (3 %). For the first time for dogs in Albania, fecal examination indicated the occurrence of Hammondia/Neospora-like (0.2 %), Angiostrongylus lungworm (0.3 %), capillariid (2.8 %), and Linguatula (0.2 %) infections. Single and multiple infections with up to seven parasites concurrently were found in 152 (25.2 %, 95 % CI 21.8-28.9) and 93 dogs (15.4 %, 95 % CI 12.7-18.6), respectively. On univariate analysis, the dog's age, the dog's purpose (pet, hunting dog, working dog), the dog's habitat (city, suburban, rural), and environment (mainly indoors, indoors with regular outside walking, yard, kennel/run), presence/absence of other dogs and/or cats, history of anthelmintic use, and season of examination were identified as significant (p 1 year of age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.64), dogs dewormed at least once per year (OR = 0.35), and dogs tested during spring, summer, and autumn (OR = 0.51, 0.15, and 0.20, respectively) had a significantly lower risk compared with ≤1 year old dogs, dogs not dewormed, or dogs tested during winter. The odds of a dog to be diagnosed positive for endoparasites was 1.56 times higher for dogs living together with other pets than that for a dog without other dogs or cats.

  12. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    2011-01-01

    the surveillance on periods and areas with high R0 estimates even if the actual value of these estimates are difficult to interpret. Furthermore running R0 models on historic outbreaks in Europe may be used to fit estimates for R0 for these data. When comparing the model R0 to the observed value of R0 a correction...

  13. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit; Græsbøll, Kaare;

    with high R0 estimates even if the actual value of these estimates are difficult to interpret. Furthermore running R0 models on historic outbreaks in Europe may be used to fit estimates for R0 for these data. When comparing the model R0 to the observed value of R0 a correction factor is obtained that may...

  14. Ehrlichiosis: A Vector-Borne Disease of Animals and Humans. Current Topics in Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, Volume 54

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    the etiologic agent of equine ehrlichiosis, whereas E. phagocytophila causes tick-borne fever affecting sheep , cattle, and bison [30, 341. The above two...equine rhinopneumonitis virus and various leptospira species, but strongly positive against E. risticii at a titer of 1:320. At the time of abortion, the...broad experimental host range, which includes the horse, pony, burro, goat, sheep , dog, cat, and non-huamn primates 113,231. Both rhesus macaques and

  15. Prevention and Treatment of Canine Leptospirosis Disease%犬钩端螺旋体病的防治措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王飞; 刘士国

    2015-01-01

    The pathogen,epidemiolo-gy,clinical symptoms,necropsy lesions and diagnosis methods of canine lep-tospirosis disease were elaborated,and some prevention measures were proposed to provide a reference for the prevention and treatment of this disease.%阐述了犬钩端螺旋体病的病原、流行病学、临床症状、病理变化、诊断方法,并提出了相应的防治措施,旨在为该病的防治提供参考。

  16. Parasites and vector-borne pathogens in client-owned dogs in Albania. Blood pathogens and seroprevalences of parasitic and other infectious agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Shukullari, Enstela; Rapti, Dhimitër; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pfister, Kurt; Rehbein, Steffen

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge on the epidemiology of parasitic and vector-borne infections is still very limited for Albania, a country located in the Balkan Peninsula in southeast Europe. Recent publications indicated prevalence rates of up to 52% for vector-borne infections in less-cared dogs in Albania. To provide data on the epidemiological situation in dogs under veterinary care, a total of 602 client-owned dogs presented to four small animal clinics between March 2010 and April 2011 in Tirana, Albania, were screened by examination of Giemsa-stained blood smears, PCR, and serological methods for the presence of arthropod-borne infections, as well as Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii. Eight different pathogens, namely Babesia vogeli, Hepatozoon canis, Leishmania infantum, Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma platys, Ehrlichia canis, and Mycoplasma haemocanis, were detected by direct methods with prevalence rates ranging from 1 to 9%. Seroprevalence for Babesia spp., L. infantum, Anaplasma spp., and E. canis were 6.6, 5.1, 24.1, and 20.8%, respectively. Dogs >1 year of age were positive for vector-borne infections significantly more often than younger dogs (p = 0.003). More than half (51.7%) of the dogs were seroreactive to T. gondii and 18.3% to N. caninum. This is the first report on the detection of A. phagocytophilum, A. platys, E. canis, and M. haemocanis by PCR as well as the serological confirmation of exposure of dogs to N. caninum and T. gondii in Albania. The spectrum of pathogens and the seroprevalences for N. caninum and T. gondii in client-owned dogs from Tirana, Albania, are comparable to that reported in other countries in the Mediterranean Basin. The prevalence rates of vector-borne pathogens are at the lower range of that reported in studies from this geographical region. This is probably due to increased awareness of the owners of pet dogs, including better husbandry conditions and ectoparasiticidal treatment, thus limiting exposure

  17. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  18. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Diana; Pelayo, Rosana; Medina, Luis Alberto; Vadillo, Eduardo; Sánchez, Rogelio; Núñez, Luis; Cesarman-Maus, Gabriela; Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena

    2015-12-23

    Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic strain, on a human large B-cell lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-4), as well as on primary canine-derived B-cell lymphoma cells, and compared them to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both humans and dogs. NDV-MLS reduced cell survival in both human (42% ± 5%) and dog (34% ± 12%) lymphoma cells as compared to untreated controls. No significant effect on PBMC was seen. Cell death involved apoptosis as documented by flow-cytometry. NDV-MLS infections of malignant lymphoma tumors in vivo in dogs were confirmed by electron microscopy. Early (24 h) biodistribution of intravenous injection of 1 × 10(12) TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose) in a dog with T-cell lymphoma showed viral localization only in the kidney, the salivary gland, the lung and the stomach by immunohistochemistry and/or endpoint PCR. We conclude that NDV-MLS may be a promising agent for the treatment of lymphomas. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal therapeutic regimen and establish appropriate biosafety measures.

  19. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Sánchez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic strain, on a human large B-cell lymphoma cell line (SU-DHL-4, as well as on primary canine-derived B-cell lymphoma cells, and compared them to healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC from both humans and dogs. NDV-MLS reduced cell survival in both human (42% ± 5% and dog (34% ± 12% lymphoma cells as compared to untreated controls. No significant effect on PBMC was seen. Cell death involved apoptosis as documented by flow-cytometry. NDV-MLS infections of malignant lymphoma tumors in vivo in dogs were confirmed by electron microscopy. Early (24 h biodistribution of intravenous injection of 1 × 1012 TCID50 (tissue culture infective dose in a dog with T-cell lymphoma showed viral localization only in the kidney, the salivary gland, the lung and the stomach by immunohistochemistry and/or endpoint PCR. We conclude that NDV-MLS may be a promising agent for the treatment of lymphomas. Future research is needed to elucidate the optimal therapeutic regimen and establish appropriate biosafety measures.

  20. A Combination Cocktail Improves Spatial Attention in a Canine Model of Human Aging and Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head, Elizabeth; Murphey, Heather L.; Dowling, Amy L.S.; McCarty, Katie L.; Bethel, Samuel R.; Nitz, Jonathan A.; Pleiss, Melanie; Vanrooyen, Jenna; Grossheim, Mike; Smiley, Jeffery R.; Murphy, M. Paul; Beckett, Tina L.; Pagani, Dieter; Bresch, Frederick; Hendrix, Curt

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves multiple pathological processes in the brain, including increased inflammation and oxidative damage, as well as the accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques. We hypothesized that a combinatorial therapeutic approach to target these multiple pathways may provide cognitive and neuropathological benefits for AD patients. To test this hypothesis, we used a canine model of human aging and AD. Aged dogs naturally develop learning and memory impairments, human-type Aβ deposits and oxidative damage in the brain. Thus, 9 aged beagles (98-115 months) were treated with a medical food cocktail containing (1) an extract of turmeric containing 95% curcuminoids; (2) an extract of green tea containing 50% epigallocatechingallate; (3) N-acetyl cysteine; (4) R-alpha lipoic acid; and (5) an extract of black pepper containing 95% piperine. Nine similarly aged dogs served as placebo-treated controls. After 3 months of treatment, 13 dogs completed a variable distance landmark task used as a measure of spatial attention. As compared to placebo-treated animals, dogs receiving the medical food cocktail had significantly lower error scores (t(11)=4.3, p=0.001) and were more accurate across all distances (F(1,9)=20.7, p=0.001), suggesting an overall improvement in spatial attention. Measures of visual discrimination learning, executive function and spatial memory, and levels of brain and CSF Aβ were unaffected by the cocktail. Our results indicate that this medical food cocktail may be beneficial for improving spatial attention and motivation deficits associated with impaired cognition in aging and AD. PMID:22886019

  1. Distinguishing Intestinal Lymphoma From Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Canine Duodenal Endoscopic Biopsy Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, V; Rodríguez-Bertos, A; Rodríguez-Franco, F; Wise, A G; Maes, R; Mullaney, T; Kiupel, M

    2015-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and intestinal lymphoma are intestinal disorders in dogs, both causing similar chronic digestive signs, although with a different prognosis and different treatment requirements. Differentiation between these 2 conditions is based on histopathologic evaluation of intestinal biopsies. However, an accurate diagnosis is often difficult based on histology alone, especially when only endoscopic biopsies are available to differentiate IBD from enteropathy-associated T-cell lymphoma (EATL) type 2, a small cell lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of histopathology; immunohistochemistry (IHC) for CD3, CD20, and Ki-67; and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for antigen receptor rearrangement (T-cell clonality) in the differential diagnosis of severe IBD vs intestinal lymphoma. Endoscopic biopsies from 32 dogs with severe IBD or intestinal lymphoma were evaluated. The original diagnosis was based on microscopic examination of hematoxylin and eosin (HE)-stained sections alone followed by a second evaluation using morphology in association with IHC for CD3 and CD20 and a third evaluation using PCR for clonality. Our results show that, in contrast to feline intestinal lymphomas, 6 of 8 canine small intestinal lymphomas were EATL type 1 (large cell) lymphomas. EATL type 2 was uncommon. Regardless, in dogs, intraepithelial lymphocytes were not an important diagnostic feature to differentiate IBD from EATL as confirmed by PCR. EATL type 1 had a significantly higher Ki-67 index than did EATL type 2 or IBD cases. Based on the results of this study, a stepwise diagnostic approach using histology as the first step, followed by immunophenotyping and determining the Ki67 index and finally PCR for clonality, improves the accuracy of distinguishing intestinal lymphoma from IBD in dogs.

  2. Exploration of Therapy for Coinfection of Canine Distemper and Canine Parvovirus Disease%犬瘟热与犬细小病毒病混合感染的治疗探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓莹

    2014-01-01

    犬瘟热(CD)与犬细小病毒病(CP)单独发生率较高,治疗效果也很好。但是目前细小病毒病与犬瘟热混合感染的疾病发生率呈上升趋势,且死亡率很高,给宠物犬造成严重的威胁。笔者针对一例犬的混合感染病例,提出了相应的治疗方案和预防措施。%The breaking out of either canine distemper or canine parvovirus disease solely is a common phenomenon and the therapeutic effect of the sole case is obvious. However, the case of coinfection of canine distemper and canine parvovirus disease is seldom, which caused a huge threat to pet dogs and high mortality. Aiming at a case of mixed infections, the corresponding treatment and preventive measures are put forward.

  3. Serial MRI Features of Canine GM1 Gangliosidosis: A Possible Imaging Biomarker for Diagnosis and Progression of the Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Hasegawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available GM1 gangliosidosis is a fatal neurodegenerative lysosomal storage disease caused by an autosomal recessively inherited deficiency of β-galactosidase activity. Effective therapies need to be developed to treat the disease. In Shiba Inu dogs, one of the canine GM1 gangliosidosis models, neurological signs of the disease, including ataxia, start at approximately 5 months of age and progress until the terminal stage at 12 to 15 months of age. In the present study, serial MR images were taken of an affected dog from a model colony of GM1 gangliosidosis and 4 sporadic clinical cases demonstrating the same mutation in order to characterize the MRI features of this canine GM1 gangliosidosis. By 2 months of age at the latest and persisting until the terminal stage of the disease, the MR findings consistently displayed diffuse hyperintensity in the white matter of the entire cerebrum on T2-weighted images. In addition, brain atrophy manifested at 9 months of age and progressed thereafter. Although a definitive diagnosis depends on biochemical and genetic analyses, these MR characteristics could serve as a diagnostic marker in suspect animals with or without neurological signs. Furthermore, serial changes in MR images could be used as a biomarker to noninvasively monitor the efficacy of newly developed therapeutic strategies.

  4. Advances in the treatment of diseased equine incisor and canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlinson, Jennifer T; Earley, Edward

    2013-08-01

    Dental therapies for equid incisor and canine teeth have modernized significantly over the last 2 decades. Basic principles in incisor reduction have become more conservative, and extraction procedures more exacting. Periodontal and endodontic treatments are described to save teeth that would have succumbed to extraction in the past. Pathologic impacts on treatment decisions for equine odontoclastic tooth resorption and hypercementosis are significant, and veterinarians and owners need to be aware of treatment options and outcomes. Easy access to equid incisor and canine teeth offers a variety of therapeutic options, and this article reviews some of the practical procedures available.

  5. Molecular Characterization of Three Canine Models of Human Rare Bone Diseases: Caffey, van den Ende-Gupta, and Raine Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hytönen, Marjo K; Arumilli, Meharji; Lappalainen, Anu K; Owczarek-Lipska, Marta; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Hundi, Sruthi; Salmela, Elina; Venta, Patrick; Sarkiala, Eva; Jokinen, Tarja; Gorgas, Daniela; Kere, Juha; Nieminen, Pekka; Drögemüller, Cord; Lohi, Hannes

    2016-05-01

    One to two percent of all children are born with a developmental disorder requiring pediatric hospital admissions. For many such syndromes, the molecular pathogenesis remains poorly characterized. Parallel developmental disorders in other species could provide complementary models for human rare diseases by uncovering new candidate genes, improving the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and opening possibilities for therapeutic trials. We performed various experiments, e.g. combined genome-wide association and next generation sequencing, to investigate the clinico-pathological features and genetic causes of three developmental syndromes in dogs, including craniomandibular osteopathy (CMO), a previously undescribed skeletal syndrome, and dental hypomineralization, for which we identified pathogenic variants in the canine SLC37A2 (truncating splicing enhancer variant), SCARF2 (truncating 2-bp deletion) and FAM20C (missense variant) genes, respectively. CMO is a clinical equivalent to an infantile cortical hyperostosis (Caffey disease), for which SLC37A2 is a new candidate gene. SLC37A2 is a poorly characterized member of a glucose-phosphate transporter family without previous disease associations. It is expressed in many tissues, including cells of the macrophage lineage, e.g. osteoclasts, and suggests a disease mechanism, in which an impaired glucose homeostasis in osteoclasts compromises their function in the developing bone, leading to hyperostosis. Mutations in SCARF2 and FAM20C have been associated with the human van den Ende-Gupta and Raine syndromes that include numerous features similar to the affected dogs. Given the growing interest in the molecular characterization and treatment of human rare diseases, our study presents three novel physiologically relevant models for further research and therapy approaches, while providing the molecular identity for the canine conditions.

  6. A survey of canine filarial diseases of veterinary and public health significance in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McInnes Linda M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dirofilaria spp., Acanthocheilonema spp. and Brugia spp. have all been reported in Indian dogs. In previous studies, diagnosis was made by morphological identification only. This is the first geographically stratified cross-sectional study in India to determine the prevalence and geographical distribution of canine filarial species of veterinary and public health importance, using a combination of conventional and molecular diagnostic techniques. Results A total of 139 from 525 dogs (26.5%; 95% CI 22.7, 30.3 were positive for microfilariae. The most common species of canine filaria identified in this study was A. reconditum (9.3% followed by D. repens (6.7% and D. immitis (1.5%. Three out of 525 dogs were found to have mixed infections on PCR. The morphological and molecular evidence on the sequence of the 18S gene and phylogenetic analysis of the ITS-2 region provided strong evidence that the canine microfilariae discovered in the Himalayan city of Ladakh belong to a novel species of Acanthocheilonema. Two dogs in Ladakh were also found to have mixed infections of the novel species described above and a unique microfilaria which morphologically resembled Microfilaria auquieri Foley, 1921. Conclusions At least six species of filarial nematode are now known to infect dogs in India, two of which were reported for the first time in this study. The study also confirms and extends the geographical distribution of canine heartworm (D. immitis which overlaps with D. repens, emphasising the importance for veterinary clinicians and diagnostic laboratories to utilise immunodiagnostic tests that will not cross-react between those two filarial species. From a public health viewpoint, the distribution and prevalences of these nematodes warrant an appropriate prophylaxis to be administered to dogs.

  7. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Song, Hui-Qun; Wang, Chun-Ren; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-07-28

    Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  8. Canine Parvovirus Disease Pathology and Clinical Observation%犬细小病毒病的病理观察及临床治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守山

    2011-01-01

    犬细小病毒病是由犬细小病毒(Canine parvovirus,CPV)引起的一种高度接触性传染病,临床上以剧烈呕吐、排血样粪便或心肌炎为特征.病犬和带毒犬是该病的主要传染源,临床症状表现为两种类型:心肌炎型和肠炎型,造成胃肠、心脏严重的组织病变.其中,肠炎型较为常见.犬细小病毒病在感染的初期,如果能够准确诊断,及早治疗,采取综合性治疗措施,限制病毒血症的程度和持续时间,可取得理想的治疗效果.%Canine parvovirus disease is caused by canine parvovirus(Canine parvovirus,CPV) causes a highly contagious disease,the clinical to severe vomiting,stool or blood discharge is characterized by myocarditis.Infected dogs,and dogs are the main source of infection,disease,clinical symptoms of two types: type myocarditis and enteritis-type,resulting in gastrointestinal,heart,severe tissue lesions.Among them,the more common type of colitis.Canine parvovirus disease in the early stages of infection,if an accurate diagnosis,early treatment,comprehensive treatment measures taken to limit the degree of viremia and duration,can achieve the desired therapeutic effect.

  9. Comparative aspects of the proliferation marker thymidine kinase 1 in human and canine tumour diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Euler, H; Eriksson, S

    2011-03-01

    As cell proliferation is one of the hallmarks of cancer, various types of proliferation markers are used as important tools in diagnosis, prognosis, treatment decision-making and follow-up in clinical oncology. The S phase-specific protein thymidine kinase 1 (TK1) can be used in immunohistochemistry for RNA/protein expression in tissue specimens and for activity or protein/peptide levels in serum from patients. TK1 has been used mainly in haematologic malignancies in humans, but also found beneficial in canine malignancies. As the protein sequence homology is high between humans and dogs, findings in canine models will have a high comparative value in further human research as well. In the present review, we will focus on the recent results concerning TK1's S phase-correlated expression, increased serum levels of TK1 in patients with malignancies and the relevance for veterinary and comparative oncology. Finally, the benefit of recently developed specific anti-TK1 antibodies suitable for immunologic assay is discussed.

  10. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren

    2009-01-01

    Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis is an emerging snail-borne disease causing verminous pnemonia and coagulopathy in dogs. The parasite is fund in Europe, North and South America and Africa, covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Its distribution has been characterised by isolated ...

  11. A probabilistic model in cross-sectional studies for identifying interactions between two persistent vector-borne pathogens in reservoir populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Vaumourin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In natural populations, individuals are infected more often by several pathogens than by just one. In such a context, pathogens can interact. This interaction could modify the probability of infection by subsequent pathogens. Identifying when pathogen associations correspond to biological interactions is a challenge in cross-sectional studies where the sequence of infection cannot be demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we modelled the probability of an individual being infected by one and then another pathogen, using a probabilistic model and maximum likelihood statistics. Our model was developed to apply to cross-sectional data, vector-borne and persistent pathogens, and to take into account confounding factors. Our modelling approach was more powerful than the commonly used Chi-square test of independence. Our model was applied to detect potential interaction between Borrelia afzelii and Bartonella spp. that infected a bank vole population at 11% and 57% respectively. No interaction was identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The modelling approach we proposed is powerful and can identify the direction of potential interaction. Such an approach can be adapted to other types of pathogens, such as non-persistents. The model can be used to identify when co-occurrence patterns correspond to pathogen interactions, which will contribute to understanding how organism communities are assembled and structured. In the long term, the model's capacity to better identify pathogen interactions will improve understanding of infectious risk.

  12. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in...

  13. Prevalence of vector-borne bacterial pathogens in riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius) and their ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Kelly M; Foley, Janet E; Kasten, Rickie W; Chomel, Bruno B; Larsen, R Scott

    2014-04-01

    From June to October 2010, 48 endangered riparian brush rabbits (Sylvilagus bachmani riparius) were trapped at a captive propagation site in central California with the intention of release into re-established habitats. During prerelease examinations, ticks and blood samples were collected for surveillance for Rickettsia spp., Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi, and Bartonella spp. Ticks were identified, and DNA was extracted for PCR analysis. Serology was performed to detect exposure to Rickettsia spp., B. burgdorferi, and A. phagocytophilum. DNA was extracted from blood samples and analyzed for A. phagocytophilum using PCR assays. Rabbit blood samples were also cultured for Bartonella spp. Haemaphysalis leporispalustris ticks were detected on all rabbits except one. A total of 375 ticks were collected, with 48% of the rabbits (23 rabbits) having a burden ranging from 0 to 5 ticks, 15% (seven rabbits) from 6 to 10 ticks, 25% (12 rabbits) from 11 to 15 ticks, and 12% (six rabbits) with >15 ticks. There was no evidence of B. burgdorferi or R. rickettsii in tick or rabbit samples. There was also no evidence of Bartonella spp. in the rabbit samples. Four tick samples and 14 rabbits were weakly PCR positive for A. phagocytophilum, and six rabbits were antibody positive for A. phagocytophilum. These results suggest that there may be little risk of these tick-borne diseases in riparian brush rabbits or to the people in contact with them.

  14. Natural canine infection by Leishmania infantum and Leishmania amazonensis and their implications for disease control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia da Cruz Sanches

    Full Text Available Abstract Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. Because Leishmania can adapt to new hosts or vectors, knowledge concerning the current etiological agent in dogs is important in endemic areas. This study aimed to identify the Leishmania species detected in 103 samples of peripheral blood from dogs that were naturally infected with these protozoa. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was determined through parasitological examination, the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA and the polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The Leishmania species were identified by means of PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP. The samples were subjected to PCR using oligonucleotide primers that amplify the intergenic region ITS1 of the rRNA gene in order to identify the species. The amplified DNA was digested using the restriction enzyme HaeIII. A restriction profile identical to L. amazonensis was shown in 77/103 samples and the profile was similar to L. infantum in 17/103. However, a mixed profile was shown in 9/103 samples, which impeded species identification. In conclusion, the infection in these dogs was predominantly due to L. amazonensis, thus indicating that diagnosing of cases of canine leishmaniasis needs to be reexamined, since the causative agent identified is not restricted to L. infantum.

  15. 犬贫血性疾病输血疗法的疗效观察%The Blood Transfusion Treatment of Canine Anemia Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭延敏; 任艳艳

    2012-01-01

    输血疗法是救治动物的一项重要措施.为了验证输血疗法的作用,对数十例贫血病病犬进行输血疗法治疗,通过血常规检查、血液生化学检查等发现患犬均患有不同程度的贫血,红细胞数、血红蛋白含量、红细胞压积均明显低于正常值,在治疗原发病的同时配合了输血疗法.经过一段时间的治疗,发现应用输血疗法治疗的患犬痊愈快,患犬的红细胞数、血红蛋白含量、红细胞压积均逐渐升高接近正常值.由此可见,输血疗法对犬贫血病的治疗效果较好.%Blood transfusion is an important method for remedying animals. In order to verify the effect of blood transfusion therapy, the experiment used symptomatic treatment combing blood transfusion therapy to cure the troubled canines. Blood routine examination, blood biochemical analysis and other examination were done and found that those canines were troubled with different degrees of anemia, with lower red cells, heamoglobin and volume packed red cells. The diseased canines were treated with blood transfusion. Some time later after the therapy,the sick canines were healed quicker. At the same time,the blood routine examination and biochemical analysis were done to the cured canines,the results showed that the red cells,heamoglobin and volume packed red cells were heighten obviously to the range of normal values. Therefore, the blood transfusion therapy got better effect than traditional therapy.

  16. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-09-20

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation.

  17. Canine gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Craig; Twedt, David C

    2003-09-01

    Gastritis--inflammation of the stomach--is a frequently cited differential yet rarely characterized diagnosis in cases of canine anorexia and vomiting. Although the list of rule-outs for acute or chronic gastritis is extensive, a review of the veterinary literature reveals fewer than 15 articles that have focused on clinical cases of canine gastritis over the last 25 years. The dog frequently appears in the human literature as an experimentally manipulated model for the study of endoscopic techniques or the effect of medications on gastric mucosa. In the veterinary patient, cases of acute gastritis are rarely pursued with the complete diagnostic armamentarium, and cases of chronic gastritis are rarely found to occur as an entity isolated from the rest of the gastrointestinal tract. This article focuses on those findings most clinically relevant to cases of canine gastritis in veterinary medicine.

  18. Characteristics, immunological events, and diagnostics of Babesia spp. infection, with emphasis on Babesia canis

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and ...

  19. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rRNA and ITS1 region of small form of canine Babesia spp. from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, M; Banerjee, P S; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Saroj; Kumar, G V P P S Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Canine babesiosis is a vector borne disease caused by intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan parasites Babesia canis (large form) and Babesia gibsoni (small form), throughout the globe. Apart from few sporadic reports on the occurrence of B. gibsoni infection in dogs, no attempt has been made to characterize Babesia spp. of dogs in India. Fifteen canine blood samples, positive for small form of Babesia, collected from northern to eastern parts of India, were used for amplification of 18S rRNA gene (∼1665bp) of Babesia sp. and partial ITS1 region (∼254bp) of B. gibsoni Asian genotype. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified products of each sample was performed separately. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and ITS1 sequences, 13 were considered to be B. gibsoni. These thirteen isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni Asian genotype. The other two isolates could not be assigned to any particular species because of the difference(s) in 18S rRNA sequence with B. gibsoni and closer identity with Babesiaoccultans and Babesiaorientalis. In the phylogenetic tree, all the isolates of B. gibsoni Asian genotype formed a separate major clade named as Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with high bootstrap support. The two unnamed Babesia sp. (Malbazar and Ludhiana isolates) clustered close together with B. orientalis, Babesia sp. (Kashi 1 isolate) and B. occultans of bovines. It can be inferred from this study that 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region are highly conserved among 13 B. gibsoni isolates from India. It is the maiden attempt of genetic characterization by sequencing of 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region of B. gibsoni from India and is also the first record on the occurrence of an unknown Babesia sp. of dogs from south and south-east Asia.

  20. Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

    2014-11-15

    Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human

  1. Chagas Disease: No Longer Exotic

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-03

    This podcast is designed to inform health care providers about Chagas disease, diagnosis, and treatment and to assist in identifying infected patients.  Created: 4/3/2008 by National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-Borne, and Enteric Diseases (NCZVED).   Date Released: 4/8/2008.

  2. [Canine histoplasmosis in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Ayako; Miyaji, Makoto

    2003-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and is distributed a worldwide. Although the disease has been treated as an imported mycosis, some autochthonous human, 1 equine and 4 canine cases suggested that the disease is endemic. Histoplasmosis is classified depending on the variety of causative agent. Histoplasmosis farciminosi known as pseudofarcy, is manifested only in Perissodactyla where it invades lymph nodes and lymph ducts, and is recognized by isolation from horses. Historically, Japan was one of the endemic areas of pseudofarcy before World War II, and more than 20,000 cases were recorded in horses used by the military. Interestingly, Japanese canine histoplasmosis uniformly showed skin ulcers and granulomatous lesions on the skin without pulmonary or gastrointestinal involvement, both of which were very similar to pseudofarcy. It was diagnosed as histoplasmosis by the detection of internal transcribed spacer legions of rRNA gene of H. capsulatum from paraffin embedded tissue samples. Furthermore, the fungal isolate from the human case with no history of going abroad or immigrating was identified as H. capsulatum var. farciminosum by a gene sequence. These facts indicated that pseudofarcy is not only an infectious disease in horses, but also a zoonotic fungal infection. Japanese autochthonous canine histoplasmosis might be a heteroecism of pseudofarcy because of its likeness to the human case, the similarity of clinical manifestations and the historical background at this stage.

  3. Investigation of Epidemiology,Prevention and Treatment on Canine Parvovirus Disease in Changji of Xinjiang%新疆昌吉市犬细小病毒病流行病学与防治调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙梅; 吴建华

    2014-01-01

    通过对昌吉市犬细小病毒病的流行病学和防治的调查,得出犬细小病毒病的发生与犬的品种、年龄、季节具有明显关系,即纯种犬比杂种犬的发病率高,6月龄以内的犬发病率高,每年4月、9月为高发月份。犬细小病毒病的发病率与疫苗免疫密切相关,因此接种疫苗预防仍然是控制该病流行的最主要途径。%Through the investigation of epidemiology and prevention of canine parvovirus disease in Changji City,the canine parvovirus disease has obvious characteristics in canine breed,age and season.The canine parvovirus disease affects pure bred dogs more than other dogs,The high incidence occurred in less than 6 month dogs,and in April and September.Canine parvovirus disease is closely related with vaccine.So vac-cination prevention is still the most important way to control the disease epidemic.

  4. Tick-Associated Diseases: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Alice; Chaney, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), there are eleven tick-associated diseases prevalent in the United States. Most commonly diagnosed are Lyme disease, anaplasmosis (ehrlichiosis) and babeisois, with Lyme disease being the most common vector-borne disease in the country. In southeastern states, studies have shown the…

  5. Use of serologic tests to predict resistance to Canine distemper virus-induced disease in vaccinated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Wayne A; Totten, Janet S; Lappin, Michael R; Schultz, Ronald D

    2015-09-01

    The objective of the current study was to determine whether detection of Canine distemper virus (CDV)-specific serum antibodies correlates with resistance to challenge with virulent virus. Virus neutralization (VN) assay results were compared with resistance to viral challenge in 2 unvaccinated Beagle puppies, 9 unvaccinated Beagle dogs (4.4-7.2 years of age), and 9 vaccinated Beagle dogs (3.7-4.7 years of age). Eight of 9 (89%) unvaccinated adult dogs exhibited clinical signs after virus challenge, and 1 (13%) dog died. As compared to adult dogs, the 2 unvaccinated puppies developed more severe clinical signs and either died or were euthanized after challenge. In contrast, no clinical signs were detected after challenge of the 9 adult vaccinated dogs with post-vaccination intervals of up to 4.4 years. In vaccinated dogs, the positive and negative predictive values of VN assay results for resistance to challenge were 100% and 0%, respectively. Results indicate that dogs vaccinated with modified live CDV can be protected from challenge for ≤4.4 years postvaccination and that detection of virus-specific antibodies is predictive of whether dogs are resistant to challenge with virulent virus. Results also indicate that CDV infection in unvaccinated dogs results in age-dependent morbidity and mortality. Knowledge of age-dependent morbidity and mortality, duration of vaccine-induced immunity, and the positive and negative predictive values of detection of virus-specific serum antibodies are useful in development of rational booster vaccination intervals for the prevention of CDV-mediated disease in adult dogs.

  6. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonographic characteristics of the diseased canine prostate gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troisi, Alessandro; Orlandi, Riccardo; Bargellini, Paolo; Menchetti, Laura; Borges, Paulo; Zelli, Riccardo; Polisca, Angela

    2015-11-01

    The work was carried out on a total of 26 male dogs that on the basis of clinical examination, prostate ultrasound and prostate biopsy, were divided prospectively into four groups: (1) normal dogs (control group; n = 8); (2) dogs with benign prostatic hyperplasia (group BPH; n = 8); (3) dogs suffering from prostatitis (group prostatitis; n = 4); (4) dogs with prostatic tumors (group tumors; n = 6). The examination of the prostate by means of contrast medium and dedicated ultrasound system allowed a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of prostatic vessels in normal and diseased conditions, enabling the detection and characterization of different disease states, and quantification of parameters such as peak intensity of perfusion (%), arrival time of the contrast medium to its maximum value of video intensity (time to peak [TTP; seconds]), regional blood volume, regional blood flow, and mean transit time (MTT [seconds]). The hemodynamic indices TTP (P architecture between BPH, prostatitis, adenocarcinoma, and lymphoma. This study shows how contrast-enhanced ultrasound represents a valid and noninvasive method for highlighting and characterizing prostatic vasculature. Furthermore, it allows the operator to obtain qualitative and quantitative data that are useful for the diagnosis of selected prostatic diseases. In conclusion, contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be a valuable noninvasive diagnostic tool to improve the diagnostic accuracy of prostate diseases in the dog.

  7. An investigation of the role of immunologic factors in anemia associated with canine heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L L; Halliwell, R E; Jackson, R F; Needham, T C; Limpach, M

    1984-10-01

    Direct Coombs' antiglobulin tests were performed on 80 dogs with patent Dirofilaria immitis infection and 170 dogs negative for microfilaria of D. immitis. Presence or absence of anemia was determined by hematocrit in 55 of the heartworm negative dogs and 68 of the dogs with heartworm disease. Heartworm infected dogs showed a higher incidence (37%) of anemia than noninfected dogs (14.5%). Anemia was most prevalent in two groups of dogs with heartworm infection, one group showing vena caval syndrome (91%) and the other occult dirofilariasis (62.5%). These latter two groups of dogs also showed a significantly higher number of positive Coombs' reactions at 37 degrees C than other dogs with heartworm disease and the noninfected dogs. The number of positive Coombs' reactions at 4 degrees C among the total of 80 dogs with heartworm infection was significantly higher than that for dogs without heartworm disease. However, there was no positive correlation between anemia and the outcome of the Coombs' test at either temperature. These findings do not suggest that immunologic factors play a major role in the pathogenesis of anemia in dogs with heartworm disease.

  8. 犬细小病毒病的临床诊疗效果研究%Experience of Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment on Canine Parvovirus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓树义; 田风林

    2012-01-01

    犬细小病毒病是由犬细小病毒(cpv)引起的一种急性传染病,发病率和死亡率比较高,达10%~50%,自愈率〈5%.笔者在近一年中的犬病治疗过程中用犬细小病毒快速诊断试纸条确诊为犬细小病毒病的有16例。经过临床治疗得出,除了采用高免血清和对症治疗外,治愈率的高低在很大程度上取决于输液,此外对病犬的护理正确精细与否也有一定的关系。本文重点介绍了犬细小病毒病的临床症状、剖检变化、鉴别诊断、治疗情况及治疗体会。%Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is a kind of acute infectious disease caused by canine parvovirus. Rate of incidence and mortality is high, up to 10~50%, self healing rate is lower than 5%. Sixteen cases were diagnosed during about one year's therapy process using fast dignosis test strip. Cure rate relied heavily on the infusion, besides high titer serum and symptomatic treatment as well as right and careful care. In this article, clinical symptom, necropsy, differential diagnosis, cure condition and experience of canine parvovirus disease were introduced.

  9. Newcastle Disease Virus: Potential Therapeutic Application for Human and Canine Lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Sánchez; Rosana Pelayo; Luis Alberto Medina; Eduardo Vadillo; Rogelio Sánchez; Luis Núñez; Gabriela Cesarman-Maus; Rosa Elena Sarmiento-Silva

    2015-01-01

    Research on oncolytic viruses has mostly been directed towards the treatment of solid tumors, which has yielded limited information regarding their activity in hematological cancer. It has also been directed towards the treatment of humans, yet veterinary medicine may also benefit. Several strains of the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) have been used as oncolytics in vitro and in a number of in vivo experiments. We studied the cytolytic effect of NDV-MLS, a low virulence attenuated lentogenic s...

  10. Characterization of a canine model of glycogen storage disease type IIIa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiqing Yi

    2012-11-01

    Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSD IIIa is an autosomal recessive disease caused by deficiency of glycogen debranching enzyme (GDE in liver and muscle. The disorder is clinically heterogeneous and progressive, and there is no effective treatment. Previously, a naturally occurring dog model for this condition was identified in curly-coated retrievers (CCR. The affected dogs carry a frame-shift mutation in the GDE gene and have no detectable GDE activity in liver and muscle. We characterized in detail the disease expression and progression in eight dogs from age 2 to 16 months. Monthly blood biochemistry revealed elevated and gradually increasing serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities; serum creatine phosphokinase (CPK activity exceeded normal range after 12 months. Analysis of tissue biopsy specimens at 4, 12 and 16 months revealed abnormally high glycogen contents in liver and muscle of all dogs. Fasting liver glycogen content increased from 4 months to 12 months, but dropped at 16 months possibly caused by extended fibrosis; muscle glycogen content continually increased with age. Light microscopy revealed significant glycogen accumulation in hepatocytes at all ages. Liver histology showed progressive, age-related fibrosis. In muscle, scattered cytoplasmic glycogen deposits were present in most cells at 4 months, but large, lake-like accumulation developed by 12 and 16 months. Disruption of the contractile apparatus and fraying of myofibrils was observed in muscle at 12 and 16 months by electron microscopy. In conclusion, the CCR dogs are an accurate model of GSD IIIa that will improve our understanding of the disease progression and allow opportunities to investigate treatment interventions.

  11. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) disease in dogs of central Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Ana Luísa; Vieira, Maria João; Oliveira, João Manuel; Simões, Ana Rita; Diez-Baños, Pablo; Gestal, Juan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test - IDEXX Snapp®). In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304) was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83) were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83). By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area.

  12. Prevalence of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis disease in dogs of central Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vieira Ana Luísa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors concerning Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs from Figueira da Foz, located in the central region of Portugal. In the period between November 2009 and January 2011, 304 blood samples were obtained from dogs over 1 year of age, with no previous history of heartworm prevention or diagnosis. Every blood sample was analyzed using varied laboratory techniques (direct microscopic evaluation of a fresh blood sample, the modified Knott technique, and the ELISA antigen detection test – IDEXX Snapp®. In the samples in which microfilaremia was detected, a histochemical technique using acid phosphatase staining was applied to identify the species of microfilariae. A total prevalence of 27.3% (83 out of 304 was found. We also found that 73.5% of all positive cases (61 out of 83 were microfilaremic, and 26.5% were occult infections (22 out of 83. By means of a histochemical technique Dirofilaria immitis was identified in 96.7% of microfilaremic samples. A multivariate model allowed us to identify the following risk factors for the presence of heartworm disease: age between 4 and 9 years, dogs living in a rural environment, large breed dogs, and living outdoors. This study shows for the first time the high prevalence of heartworm disease in a central area of Portugal and emphasizes the importance of systematic screening for this disease, as well as the need to prevent it in dogs in this area.

  13. Pulmonary vascular response during phases of canine heartworm disease: scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaub, R G; Rawlings, C A

    1980-07-01

    Pulmonary arteries and veins of 14 dogs in phases of heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis infection) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Two dogs were infected with D immitis microfilaria only, whereas 12 dogs were infected with adult D immitis. Seven of the dogs infected with adult worms were untreated. Two of these 7 dogs had natural infections of unknown duration introduced by mosquito bite, whereas 5 were experimentally infected for 30 days. The remaining five dogs were experimentally infected for 1 year and had worms removed by drug therapy. These five dogs were maintained 12 months after treatment. Arteries and veins from dogs infected with microfilaria had a continuous sheet of endothelial cells. Arterial endothelium from the seven nontreated dogs infected with adult heartworms exhibited swirling patterns, pore formation, and separation of intercellular junctions. Arteries from all dogs had numerous endothelialized villus protrusions; veins had similar, less extensive changes. Arteries and veins from experimentally infected dogs were similar to naturally infected dogs, indicating the infection procedure produced lesions similar to that normally seen in heartworm disease. The extent of vascular lesions was reduced in four of the five treated dogs that had been infected with adult worms. Adult worms, not microfilaria, may produce the vascular lesions seen in heartworm disease. Lesions will regress if worms are removed from the circulation. Lesions may be caused by generation of humoral factors initiated by the presence of adult worms.

  14. IL-2R{gamma} gene microdeletion demonstrates that canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency is a homologue of the human disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henthorn, P.S.; Fimiani, V.M.; Patterson, D.F. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by profound defects in cellular and humoral immunity and, in humans, is associated with mutations in the gene for the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor (IL-2R{gamma}). We have examined this gene in a colony of dogs established from a single X-linked SCID carrier female. Affected dogs have a 4-bp deletion in the first exon of the IL-2R{gamma} gene, which precludes the production of a functional protein, demonstrating that the canine disease is a true homologue of human X-linked SCID. 37 refs., 3 figs.

  15. Postadulticide pulmonary hypertension of canine heartworm disease: successful treatment with oxygen and failure of antihistamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlings, C A; Tackett, R L

    1990-10-01

    Postadulticide pulmonary hypertension mechanisms and treatment with antihistamines and supplemental oxygen were studied in eight dogs with heartworm disease. To ensure severe postadulticide thromboembolism, additional heartworms (either 20 or 40 into 4 dogs each) were transplanted into naturally infected dogs before thiacetarsamide treatment. During pentobarbital anesthesia, 2 pulmonary hemodynamic studies were conducted on each dog with a sequence of baseline, hypoxia with FlO2 = 10%, hyperoxia with FlO2 = 100%, a second baseline, treatment with either diphenhydramine (D) or cimetidine (C), and another hypoxia. All dogs were pulmonary hypertensive, with each dog having a mean pulmonary arterial pressure (PPA) greater than 20 mm of Hg. Mean PPA increased from baseline conditions (25.0 +/- 4.5 SD for D and 24.3 +/- 4.4 for C) to hypoxia (28.5 +/- 4.7 for D and 28.4 +/- 3.7 for C), and decreased during hyperoxia (16.9 +/- 3.0 for D and 17.4 +/- 3.0 for C), respectively. Neither antihistamine reduced PPA at normoxia. The degree of pulmonary hypertension when breathing room air increased even more during hypoxia, and this increase was not attenuated by either antihistamine. Histamine did not appear to mediate pulmonary hypertension during postadulticide thromboembolism, nor to modify the hypoxia-mediated pulmonary hypertension at this disease stage. Because baseline PO2 was low (66.6 +/- 11.7 mm of Hg for D and 69.4 +/- 14.2 for C) and because PPA decreased during administration of oxygen, the pulmonary hypertension was mostly hypoxia-induced. In addition to the arterial lesions, much of the pulmonary hypertensive mechanism was an active and reversible vasoconstriction in response to hypoxia caused by the secondary lung disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Mapping of the disease locus and identification of ADAMTS10 as a candidate gene in a canine model of primary open angle glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kuchtey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, with elevated intraocular pressure as an important risk factor. Increased resistance to outflow of aqueous humor through the trabecular meshwork causes elevated intraocular pressure, but the specific mechanisms are unknown. In this study, we used genome-wide SNP arrays to map the disease gene in a colony of Beagle dogs with inherited POAG to within a single 4 Mb locus on canine chromosome 20. The Beagle POAG locus is syntenic to a previously mapped human quantitative trait locus for intraocular pressure on human chromosome 19. Sequence capture and next-generation sequencing of the entire canine POAG locus revealed a total of 2,692 SNPs segregating with disease. Of the disease-segregating SNPs, 54 were within exons, 8 of which result in amino acid substitutions. The strongest candidate variant causes a glycine to arginine substitution in a highly conserved region of the metalloproteinase ADAMTS10. Western blotting revealed ADAMTS10 protein is preferentially expressed in the trabecular meshwork, supporting an effect of the variant specific to aqueous humor outflow. The Gly661Arg variant in ADAMTS10 found in the POAG Beagles suggests that altered processing of extracellular matrix and/or defects in microfibril structure or function may be involved in raising intraocular pressure, offering specific biochemical targets for future research and treatment strategies.

  17. What Teachers Need to Know about Lyme Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Lysandra

    2009-01-01

    Although widely misunderstood, Lyme disease is the most prevalent vector borne disease in the United States. Children are the most at-risk group for Lyme disease, which can impact every system in the body. It can produce the musculo-skeletal, neurologic, psychiatric, opthalmologic, and cardiac symptoms. The symptoms of Lyme disease can have a…

  18. Distal polyneuropathy after canine heartworm disease therapy complicated by disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, A R; Braund, K G

    1982-08-01

    A 3-year-old male Setter-type dog had a progressive distal sensorimotor polyneuropathy characterized by weakness, bilateral atrophy of distal appendicular musculature, and reduced response to tactile stimuli. The diagnosis of a distal axonopathy was supported by electromyographic findings of fibrillation potentials, positive sharp waves in distal limb muscles, and absence of evoked action potentials, myopathic changes of atrophic angular fibers, and myelinated nerve fiber depletion in distal parts of peripheral nerves. The neuropathy appeared 5 weeks after 38 days of heparin therapy for disseminated intravascular coagulation. The disseminated intravascular coagulation, a complication of thiacetarsamide therapy for heartworm disease, had resolved 40 days after the end of heparin therapy. The cause of the neuropathy was not determined.

  19. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  20. A clinical study on velocity patterns of pulmonary venous flow in canine heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, T; Wakao, Y; Takahashi, M

    2000-02-01

    In this study, we evaluated methods of determining the velocity patterns of pulmonary venous flow (PVF) in dogs and then investigated the relationship of the patterns to cardiac functions in heartworm disease (HD) by transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). The results revealed that there was a good correlation between PVF patterns determined by transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and TTE in animals lying on their left sides. The measurement of S and D wave velocities (PVS and PVD) by TTE was shown to allow clinical determination of the velocity patterns of PVF in dogs. The HD groups showed significant increases in PVS and PVD, and S and D wave time-velocity integrals (S-TVI and D-TVI) of the right cranial lobe PVF, when compared with the normal group, as determined by TTE (P<0.05). In contrast, the HD groups produced significant decreases in PVD and D-TVI of the right caudal lobe PVF compared with the normal group (P<0.05), and a significant increase in the ratio of S-TVI to (S-TVI + D-TVI) (P<0.05). It is, therefore, suggested that measurement of the velocity patterns of the right cranial and caudal lobe PVF could be one method of assessing the stages of obstructive lesions in the pulmonary artery.

  1. Spatial Analysis of West Nile Virus: Predictive Risk Modeling of a Vector-borne Infectious Disease in Illinois by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.

  2. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hii, J.; Soares, A.; Mnzava, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.; Tan, S.H.; Matthews, G.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods: A questionna

  3. Heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis and their vectors in Europe. New distribution trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eMorchón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is a cosmopolitan disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, which affects mainly canids and felids. Moreover, it causes zoonotic infections, producing pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans. Heartworm disease is a vector-borne transmitted disease, thus transmission depends on the presence of competent mosquito species, which is directly related to favorable climate conditions for its development and survival. Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is mainly located in countries with temperate and tropical climates. Europe is one of the continents where animal dirofilariasis has been studied more extensively. In this article we review the current prevalence of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the European continent, the transmission vectors, the current changes in the distribution and the possible causes, though the analysis of the epidemiological studies carried out until 2001 and between 2002-2011. The highest prevalences have been observed in the southern European countries, which are considered historically endemic/hyperendemic countries. Studies carried out in the last 10 years suggest an expansion of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs towards central and northern Europe. Several factors can exert an influence on the spreading of the disease, such as movement of infected animals, the introduction of new species of mosquitoes able to act as vectors, the climate change caused by the global warming, and development of human activity in new areas. Veterinary controls to prevent the spreading of this disease, programs of control of vectors, and adequate protocols of prevention of dirofilariasis in the susceptible species should be carried out.

  4. Heartworm Disease (Dirofilaria immitis) and Their Vectors in Europe - New Distribution Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morchón, Rodrigo; Carretón, E; González-Miguel, J; Mellado-Hernández, I

    2012-01-01

    Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is a cosmopolitan disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, which affects mainly canids and felids. Moreover, it causes zoonotic infections, producing pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans. Heartworm disease is a vector-borne transmitted disease, thus transmission depends on the presence of competent mosquito species, which is directly related to favorable climate conditions for its development and survival. Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is mainly located in countries with temperate and tropical climates. Europe is one of the continents where animal dirofilariasis has been studied more extensively. In this article we review the current prevalence of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the European continent, the transmission vectors, the current changes in the distribution and the possible causes, though the analysis of the epidemiological studies carried out until 2001 and between 2002 and 2011. The highest prevalences have been observed in the southern European countries, which are considered historically endemic/hyperendemic countries. Studies carried out in the last 10 years suggest an expansion of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs toward central and northern Europe. Several factors can exert an influence on the spreading of the disease, such as movement of infected animals, the introduction of new species of mosquitoes able to act as vectors, the climate change caused by the global warming, and development of human activity in new areas. Veterinary controls to prevent the spreading of this disease, programs of control of vectors, and adequate protocols of prevention of dirofilariasis in the susceptible species should be carried out.

  5. 19例犬细小病毒病的诊疗报告%The Diagnosis and Treatment of Nineteen Cases of Canine Parvovirus Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李博岩; 陆曼

    2015-01-01

    Nineteen cases of enteritis type canine parvovirus disease in an animal hospital were diagnosed based on the analysis of the treatment protocol and experience. Among the cases, two of them were mixed infection with parasite, four of them were mixed infection with coronavirus, and other 13 cases were simple infection of parvovirus. The sufficient and prompt employment of antiviral drugs combining with anti-inflammation, fluid infusion and correcting the unbalance between acid and alkali were effective treatment measures for canine parvovirus disease.%对某动物医院确诊的19例犬细小病毒病患犬的治疗方法和经验进行汇总、归纳和分析,发现19例均为肠炎型。其中,与寄生虫混合感染的有2例,与冠状病毒感染的有4例,其余13例为单纯犬细小病毒感染。对于细小病毒病患犬要尽早、足量使用抗病毒药物治疗,并配合采取消炎、补液、纠正酸碱失衡等措施是保证疗效的关键。

  6. Intestinal protease-activated receptor-2 and fecal serine protease activity are increased in canine inflammatory bowel disease and may contribute to intestinal cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Shingo; Ohno, Koichi; Uchida, Kazuyuki; Igarashi, Hirotaka; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Fujino, Yasuhito; Tsujimoto, Hajime

    2014-08-01

    Serine proteases elicit cellular responses via protease-activated receptor-2 (PAR-2) which is known to regulate inflammation and the immune response. Although the gastrointestinal tract is exposed to large amounts of proteolytic enzymes, the role of PAR-2 in canine inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PAR-2 activation on inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in canine intestine and the expression of intestinal PAR-2 and fecal serine protease activity in dogs with IBD. Duodenal biopsies from healthy dogs were cultured and treated ex vivo with trypsin or PAR-2 agonist peptide, and inflammatory cytokine/chemokine gene expression in the tissues was then quantified by real-time PCR. PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels in the duodenal mucosa were examined by real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Fecal serine protease activity was determined by azocasein assay. In ex vivo-cultured duodenum, trypsin and PAR-2 agonist peptide induced significant up-regulation of mRNA expression levels of interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-8, mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine (MEC) and fractalkine, and this up-regulation was inhibited by a serine protease inhibitor. Duodenal PAR-2 mRNA and protein expression levels were higher in dogs with IBD than in healthy control dogs. Fecal serine protease activity was significantly elevated in dogs with IBD, and the level of activity correlated positively with the clinical severity score. These results suggest that PAR-2 may contribute to the pathogenesis of canine IBD by inducing expression of inflammatory mediators in response to luminal serine proteases.

  7. [Focus of canine heartworm disease in Marajó Island, North of Brazil: A risk factor for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcez, Lourdes Maria; de Souza, Nazaré Fonseca; Mota, Eduardo Ferreira; Dickson, Luís Antonio Jerônimo; Abreu, Wandercleyson Uchoa; Cavalcanti, Vânia de Fátima do Nascimento; Gomes, Patrick Abdala Fonseca

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of human pulmonary dirofilariasis maintains a relation with the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in the canine population. Several mosquito species are vectors of this nematode. Canine blood samples collected in Pingo d'Agua and União villages, Salvaterra municipality (Marajó Island, Pará), in June, 2004 (n = 34) and April, 2005 (N = 90) were analyzed. Parasitological and immunological (ELISA--kit SNAP(R) 3DX Biobrasil) diagnoses were compared following the examination of 34 samples. The prevalence in the population (N = 90) was evaluated by means of ELISA. ELISA revealed more positive samples (25/34; 73.5%) than thick smears (23/34, 67.6%) or Knott (21/34, 61.8%), but the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). The frequency of D. immitis infection was 58% in dogs ranging from 0-2 years old, whereas in older dogs it was 100%. The prevalence of canine dirofilariasis was high in Pingo d'Agua and Vila União (53.5%), indicating the risk of parasite transmission to the people in this area.

  8. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; Giordano,L.G.P.; Flaiban,K.K.M.C.; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  9. Current developments in canine genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified.

  10. Métodos de diagnóstico para detecção de prostatopatias caninas Canine prostatic disease: diagnosis methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceres Mussel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As doenças prostáticas são comuns em cães, desenvolvendo-se após a maturidade sexual. Entre as afecções que acometem a próstata desses animais, a mais frequente é a hiperplasia prostática benigna (HPB. As neoplasias prostáticas, apesar de menos frequentes, são altamente malignas e um diagnóstico tardio está associado a um prognóstico ruim. Os principais métodos de diagnóstico das enfermidades prostáticas em cães incluem um exame clínico detalhado, ultrassonografia, punção aspirativa e biópsia. A utilização de biomarcadores séricos vem sendo estudada como uma maneira de se detectar a doença precocemente, evitando possíveis complicações no quadro clínico dos pacientes. Assim, estudos visando ao diagnóstico precoce de prostatopatias caninas, especialmente o câncer prostático, são cruciais para um tratamento eficaz e melhora da qualidade de vida do animal acometido.Prostatic diseases are common in older dogs, developing after sexual maturity. The most common affecting canine prostate is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH. Although less frequent, prostatic neoplasias are highly malignant, and a late diagnosis is closely associated with a poor prognosis. The main methods of diagnosis of the canine prostatic disease include a detailed clinical exam, ultrasound, prostatic fine-needle aspirate and biopsy. Studies towards early diagnosis of this condition are crucial for effective treatment and improvement of quality of life of affected animals. The use of biomarkers has been studied for early detection of the disease, avoiding possible complications in clinical patients.

  11. 中西结合治疗216例犬细小病毒病疗效观察%Clinical Observation of 216 Cases of Canine Parvovirus Disease by Treatment of Combining TCM and WM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洋铭; 叶得河

    2012-01-01

    通过临床症状、流行病学特点和犬细小病毒抗原试剂盒对疑似细小病毒感染的216例病犬进行确诊,并对确诊为细小病毒感染的部分病例进行抗体水平检测,以判断其预后,采用中西结合的综合措施治疗发病犬,治愈率达到70%,提出了有效的预防措施.%Author confirmed 216 cases of suspected canine parvovirus disease through the clinical signs, epidemiological characteristics and antigen rapid canine parvovirus test kit, to determine its prognosis, author detected antibody level of some cases of confirmed canine parvovirus disease, in addition, author achieved cure rate of 70% by comprehensive measures of treatment of combining TCM and WM, at last author propose effective prevention measures for canine parvovirus disease.

  12. Clinical investigation on canine parvovirus diseases%犬细小病毒病的临床调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢子茂; 陈广宏

    2007-01-01

    犬细小病毒病是由犬细小病毒(Canine parvovirus,CPV)引起的一种急性接触性传染病,临床上以发生出血性肠炎的病例多见。广州市怡友动物医院自2005年1月至2006年12月两年间接诊CPV感染犬317例,笔者对此进行了临床调查和分析。

  13. The risk of vector-borne infections in sled dogs associated with existing and new endemic areas in Poland: Part 1: A population study on sled dogs during the racing season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Anna; Mierzejewska, Ewa J; Rodo, Anna; Bednarska, Malgorzata; Kowalec, Maciej; Welc-Falęciak, Renata

    2014-05-28

    The achievements of sled dogs in competitions depend both on their training and on their health. Vector-borne infections may lead to anaemia, affect joints or heart muscle or even cause death. Between December 2009 and October 2010, one hundred and twenty six individual blood samples were collected from 26 sled dog kennels situated in different regions of Poland. The majority of samples were taken during the racing season (winter 2009/10). The prevalences of 3 vector-borne infections- including 2 'old pathogens' Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Babesia canis, and 'new pathogen' Hepatozoon canis-were estimated in sled dogs using PCR and nested PCR. Additionally, 25 serum samples originating from a subset of 3 kennels situated in a tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic area (Mazowiecki region), were tested for antibodies against the tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). Because of the recently reported occurrence of Dirofilaria repens in Central Poland and that of fatal cases of unknown aetiology in two of the kennels, blood samples collected from dogs at these kennels in 2010 and in February-May 2013 and from two unaffected kennels were checked for evidence of presence of this parasite. Babesia canis DNA was detected in 11 sled dogs (4 with clinical babesiosis, 7 asymptomatic; 8.7%) inhabiting mainly endemic regions of Poland (9/11 cases). Three serum samples originating from one location tested positive for TBEV antibodies (total seroprevalence: 3/25=12%, local seroprevalence: 3/12=25%). The risk of TBEV infection was associated with previous B. canis infections. Dirofilaria repens DNA was detected in 15 dogs (44%). Prevalence was especially high in two sled dog kennels situated near Grodzisk Mazowiecki (50-57%). No blood samples tested positive for A. phagocytophilum or H. canis DNA. The present study has established that the prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in working sled dogs is significant in the endemic regions and has justified the important role of

  14. Tickborne Rickettsial Diseases: Epidemiological studies in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.C. Cao (Wu Chun)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractRickettsial diseases are vector-borne zoonoses caused by obligate intracellular bacteria within the order Rickettsiales, which was previously described as short, Gram-negative rod bacteria that retained basic fuchsin when stained by the method of Gimenez. As development in molecular tech

  15. Declining Prevalence of Disease Vectors Under Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobar, Luis E.; Romero-Alvarez, Daniel; Leon, Renato; Lepe-Lopez, Manuel A.; Craft, Meggan E.; Borbor-Cordova, Mercy J.; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    2016-12-01

    More than half of the world population is at risk of vector-borne diseases including dengue fever, chikungunya, zika, yellow fever, leishmaniasis, chagas disease, and malaria, with highest incidences in tropical regions. In Ecuador, vector-borne diseases are present from coastal and Amazonian regions to the Andes Mountains; however, a detailed characterization of the distribution of their vectors has never been carried out. We estimate the distribution of 14 vectors of the above vector-borne diseases under present-day and future climates. Our results consistently suggest that climate warming is likely threatening some vector species with extinction, locally or completely. These results suggest that climate change could reduce the burden of specific vector species. Other vector species are likely to shift and constrain their geographic range to the highlands in Ecuador potentially affecting novel areas and populations. These forecasts show the need for development of early prevention strategies for vector species currently absent in areas projected as suitable under future climate conditions. Informed interventions could reduce the risk of human exposure to vector species with distributional shifts, in response to current and future climate changes. Based on the mixed effects of future climate on human exposure to disease vectors, we argue that research on vector-borne diseases should be cross-scale and include climatic, demographic, and landscape factors, as well as forces facilitating disease transmission at fine scales.

  16. Emerging Arboviral Disease%新出现的虫媒病毒病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John S Mackenzie

    2002-01-01

    @@ Emerging Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Viruses Laboratory, School of Molecular and Microbial Sciences, The University of Queens land, Brisbane, Qld 4072, Australia Emerging diseases are usually defined as either new, previously unrecognized diseases that have appeared for the first time, or diseases known to exist but which are increasing in geographic range and/or incidence.

  17. 77 FR 20822 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-002... both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances and...

  18. 77 FR 12844 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Emerging Vector- Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) CK12-002..., for both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Agency for Toxic Substances...

  19. 77 FR 5257 - Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and Control Special Emphasis Panel (SEP): Initial Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Disease, Disability, and Injury Prevention and... Emerging Vector Borne Zoonotic Pathogens in Indonesia, Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA), CK12-002...), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) announces the aforementioned meeting: Time...

  20. Protein replacement therapy and gene transfer in canine models of hemophilia A, hemophilia B, von willebrand disease, and factor VII deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Timothy C; Dillow, Aaron M; Franck, Helen W G; Merricks, Elizabeth P; Raymer, Robin A; Bellinger, Dwight A; Arruda, Valder R; High, Katherine A

    2009-01-01

    Dogs with hemophilia A, hemophilia B, von Willebrand disease (VWD), and factor VII deficiency faithfully recapitulate the severe bleeding phenotype that occurs in humans with these disorders. The first rational approach to diagnosing these bleeding disorders became possible with the development of reliable assays in the 1940s through research that used these dogs. For the next 60 years, treatment consisted of replacement of the associated missing or dysfunctional protein, first with plasma-derived products and subsequently with recombinant products. Research has consistently shown that replacement products that are safe and efficacious in these dogs prove to be safe and efficacious in humans. But these highly effective products require repeated administration and are limited in supply and expensive; in addition, plasma-derived products have transmitted bloodborne pathogens. Recombinant proteins have all but eliminated inadvertent transmission of bloodborne pathogens, but the other limitations persist. Thus, gene therapy is an attractive alternative strategy in these monogenic disorders and has been actively pursued since the early 1990s. To date, several modalities of gene transfer in canine hemophilia have proven to be safe, produced easily detectable levels of transgene products in plasma that have persisted for years in association with reduced bleeding, and correctly predicted the vector dose required in a human hemophilia B liver-based trial. Very recently, however, researchers have identified an immune response to adeno-associated viral gene transfer vector capsid proteins in a human liver-based trial that was not present in preclinical testing in rodents, dogs, or nonhuman primates. This article provides a review of the strengths and limitations of canine hemophilia, VWD, and factor VII deficiency models and of their historical and current role in the development of improved therapy for humans with these inherited bleeding disorders.

  1. Characterization of thoracic motor and sensory neurons and spinal nerve roots in canine degenerative myelopathy, a potential disease model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Brandie R; Coates, Joan R; Johnson, Gayle C; Shelton, G Diane; Katz, Martin L

    2014-04-01

    Canine degenerative myelopathy (DM) is a progressive, adult-onset, multisystem degenerative disease with many features in common with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). As with some forms of ALS, DM is associated with mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Clinical signs include general proprioceptive ataxia and spastic upper motor neuron paresis in pelvic limbs, which progress to flaccid tetraplegia and dysphagia. The purpose of this study was to characterize DM as a potential disease model for ALS. We previously reported that intercostal muscle atrophy develops in dogs with advanced-stage DM. To determine whether other components of the thoracic motor unit (MU) also demonstrated morphological changes consistent with dysfunction, histopathologic and morphometric analyses were conducted on thoracic spinal motor neurons (MNs) and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and in motor and sensory nerve root axons from DM-affected boxers and Pembroke Welsh corgis (PWCs). No alterations in MNs or motor root axons were observed in either breed. However, advanced-stage PWCs exhibited significant losses of sensory root axons, and numerous DRG sensory neurons displayed evidence of degeneration. These results indicate that intercostal muscle atrophy in DM is not preceded by physical loss of the motor neurons innervating these muscles, nor of their axons. Axonal loss in thoracic sensory roots and sensory neuron death suggest that sensory involvement may play an important role in DM disease progression. Further analysis of the mechanisms responsible for these morphological findings would aid in the development of therapeutic intervention for DM and some forms of ALS.

  2. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRee, Anna; Wilkes, Rebecca P; Dawson, Jessica; Parry, Roger; Foggin, Chris; Adams, Hayley; Odoi, Agricola; Kennedy, Melissa A

    2014-09-05

    Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV) and canine distemper virus (CDV), which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV). These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34%) had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84%) had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13%) dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  3. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  4. Application of Human Amniotic Membrane in Canine Penile Tunica Albuginea Defect: First Step toward an Innovating New Method for Treatment of Peyronie?s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salehipour

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Purposes To evaluate the efficacy of human amniotic membrane (AM grafting in the canine penile tunica albuginea defect; we developed an animal model as the first step toward an innovating new method for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease, penile cancers, and congenital deformities of the penis. Material and Methods From August to September 2011, ten healthy male dogs were selected. A rhomboid incision about 3x2cm over the tunica albuginea and its overlying squamous epithelium was made and then excised. The amniotic membrane was folded twice on itself and grafted on the defect. After 8 weeks, artificial erection was made for 5 dogs and for the other 5 dogs after 12 weeks. After artificial erection, partial penectomy was done and histopathological evaluation was performed on the grafts. Results Artificial erection performed successfully in all of the dogs. No infection or any other complication was seen. Histopathological examination showed complete re-epithelialization with squamous epithelium and collagen fiber deposition. Also, no dysplasia was seen. Conclusions The amniotic membrane can be used as a suitable substitution for tunica albuginea. It is safe, inexpensive, biodegradable, and available and may be used for the treatment of Peyronie’s disease, penile cancers, congenital penile deformities, and penile reconstructive surgery.

  5. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold;

    2014-01-01

    with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was ..., there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is a reliable and rapid......BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE...

  6. Beneficial Effect of a Cellulose-Containing Chew Treat on Canine Periodontal Disease in a Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Beynen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There are indications that appropriate chew treats can contribute to the control of canine periodontal disease. It was reasoned that the incorporation of a cellulose fiber network into the treat may improve the efficacy, but for proof experimental data were required. Approach: A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with privately owned dogs was carried out to assess the efficacy of a cellulose preparation (Arbocel BWW40® in the treatment of periodontal disease. With the use of a questionnaire, the clinical signs were evaluated by the owners. There were 10 clinical signs: extent and severity of dental plaque and calculus, extent of gingivitis, redness, swelling, bleeding and firmness of gingivae and halitosis. For a period of 8 weeks, the test dogs daily received a chew treat to which 4% of the cellulose preparation was added. The control dogs were given a chew treat with identical formula, but without added cellulose. During the trial, all dogs were fed the same, complete dry food. There were 16 test dogs and 15 control dogs. Results: When compared with the baseline values, the administration of the test chew significantly improved 8 out of the 10 clinical signs. In the placebo group there was a significant improvement for 6 clinical signs. When the improvements over time for the two groups were compared, there were no statistically significant differences. When the score changes for all 10 clinical signs were added up as an overall index of improvement of periodontal disease, the test group showed a 17% greater amelioration than did the control group. Conclusion: The addition of the cellulose preparation had further enhanced the efficacy of the treat, possibly through an increase in mechanical cleansing and chewing time. This study indicates that a cellulose-containing treat is beneficial for dogs with periodontal disease and it is suggested that it may also impair its development.

  7. Molecular entomology: analyzing tiny molecules to answer big questions about disease vectors and their biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomologists at the Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit at USDA-Agricultural Research Service are tasked with protecting the nation’s livestock from domestic, foreign and emerging vector-borne diseases. To accomplish this task, a vast array of molecular techniques are being used in pr...

  8. Climate change and infectious diseases in Australia: future prospects, adaptation options, and research priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harley, David; Bi, Peng; Hall, Gillian; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Tong, Shilu; Williams, Craig

    2011-03-01

    Climate change will have significant and diverse impacts on human health. These impacts will include changes in infectious disease incidence. In this article, the authors review the current situation and potential future climate change impacts for respiratory, diarrheal, and vector-borne diseases in Australia. Based on this review, the authors suggest adaptive strategies within the health sector and also recommend future research priorities.

  9. Historical Compilation and Georeferencing of Dengue and Chikungunya outbreak data for Disease Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    The risk of vector-borne disease spread is increasing due to significant changes and variability in the global climate and increasing global travel and trade. Understanding the relationships between climate variability and disease outbreak patterns are critical to the design and construction of pred...

  10. The biological control of disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems.

  11. Canine cytogenetics--from band to basepair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, M

    2008-01-01

    Humans and dogs have coexisted for thousands of years, during which time we have developed a unique bond, centered on companionship. Along the way, we have developed purebred dog breeds in a manner that has resulted unfortunately in many of them being affected by serious genetic disorders, including cancers. With serendipity and irony the unique genetic architecture of the 21st century genome of Man's best friend may ultimately provide many of the keys to unlock some of nature's most intriguing biological puzzles. Canine cytogenetics has advanced significantly over the past 10 years, spurred on largely by the surge of interest in the dog as a biomedical model for genetic disease and the availability of advanced genomics resources. As such the role of canine cytogenetics has moved rapidly from one that served initially to define the gross genomic organization of the canine genome and provide a reliable means to determine the chromosomal location of individual genes, to one that enabled the assembled sequence of the canine genome to be anchored to the karyotype. Canine cytogenetics now presents the biomedical research community with a means to assist in our search for a greater understanding of how genome architectures altered during speciation and in our search for genes associated with cancers that affect both dogs and humans. The cytogenetics 'toolbox' for the dog is now loaded. This review aims to provide a summary of some of the recent advancements in canine cytogenetics.

  12. Immune-mediated canine and feline keratitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, Stacy E

    2008-03-01

    Although the normal cornea is devoid of vasculature and lymphatics, there are still several immune-mediated corneal conditions that can occur in dogs and cats. An overview of corneal immunology is presented. Diseases of dogs, including chronic superficial keratitis, superficial punctate keratitis, and canine adenovirus endotheliitis, as well as feline diseases, including eosinophilic keratitis and herpesvirus-related conditions, are discussed.

  13. Canine notoedric mange: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Federico

    2007-04-01

    Notoedric mange is a cutaneous ectoparasitic disease of cats caused by Notoedres cati, a mite belonging to the Sarcoptidae family. The disease occurs in felids, occasionally in other mammals and in humans. The canine form, even if cited by some authors, has never been documented. This report describes for the first time a case of notoedric mange in a dog.

  14. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Papageorgiou

    Full Text Available Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154 isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease.

  15. Harvested white-tailed deer as sentinel hosts for early establishing Ixodes scapularis populations and risk from vector-borne zoonoses in southeastern Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, C; Leighton, P A; Beauchamp, G; Nguon, S; Trudel, L; Milord, F; Lindsay, L R; Bélanger, D; Ogden, N H

    2013-03-01

    Due to recent establishment of the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis Say, in southeastern Canada, tick-borne zoonoses (Lyme disease, human granulocytotropic anaplasmosis, and babesiosis) are of growing concern for public health. Using white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) culled in southwestern Quebec during 2007-2008, we investigated whether hunter-killed deer could act as sentinels for early establishing tick populations and for tick-borne pathogens. Accounting for environmental characteristics of culling sites, and age and sex of deer, we investigated whether their tick infestation levels could identify locations of known tick populations detected in active surveillance, presumed tick populations detected by passive surveillance, or both. We also used spatial cluster analyses to identify spatial patterns of tick infestation and occurrence of tick-borne zoonoses infection in ticks collected from the deer. Adult ticks were found on 15% of the 583 deer examined. Adult male deer had the greatest number (approximately 90%) of adult ticks. Overall, 3, 15, and 0% of the ticks collected were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-positive for Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, and Babesia microti, respectively. Our statistical analyses suggest that sex and age of deer, temperature, precipitation, and an index of tick dispersion by migratory birds were significantly associated with tick infestation levels. Cluster analysis identified significant clusters of deer carrying ticks PCR-positive for A. phagocytophilum, and for deer carrying two or more I. scapularis. Our study suggests that hunter-killed deer may be effective as sentinels for emerging areas of tick-borne anaplasmosis. They may have limited use as sentinels for early emerging I. scapularis tick populations and emerging Lyme disease risk.

  16. Cross-sectional study of the burden of vector-borne and soil-transmitted polyparasitism in rural communities of Coast Province, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Bisanzio

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In coastal Kenya, infection of human populations by a variety of parasites often results in co-infection or poly-parasitism. These parasitic infections, separately and in conjunction, are a major cause of chronic clinical and sub-clinical human disease and exert a long-term toll on economic welfare of affected populations. Risk factors for these infections are often shared and overlap in space, resulting in interrelated patterns of transmission that need to be considered at different spatial scales. Integration of novel quantitative tools and qualitative approaches is needed to analyze transmission dynamics and design effective interventions.Our study was focused on detecting spatial and demographic patterns of single- and co-infection in six villages in coastal Kenya. Individual and household level data were acquired using cross-sectional, socio-economic, and entomological surveys. Generalized additive models (GAMs and GAMMs were applied to determine risk factors for infection and co-infections. Spatial analysis techniques were used to detect local clusters of single and multiple infections.Of the 5,713 tested individuals, more than 50% were infected with at least one parasite and nearly 20% showed co-infections. Infections with Schistosoma haematobium (26.0% and hookworm (21.4% were most common, as was co-infection by both (6.3%. Single and co-infections shared similar environmental and socio-demographic risk factors. The prevalence of single and multiple infections was heterogeneous among and within communities. Clusters of single and co-infections were detected in each village, often spatially overlapped, and were associated with lower SES and household crowding.Parasitic infections and co-infections are widespread in coastal Kenya, and their distributions are heterogeneous across landscapes, but inter-related. We highlighted how shared risk factors are associated with high prevalence of single infections and can result in spatial clustering

  17. Global epidemiology of canine rabies: past, present, and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor LH

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Louise H Taylor,1 Louis H Nel1,21Global Alliance for Rabies Control, Manhattan, KS, USA; 2Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural Sciences, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa Abstract: The rabies virus, a public health scourge from ancient times, is currently responsible for an estimated 59,000 human deaths a year, almost all transmitted via dog bites. It causes considerable economic impacts on developing countries, primarily in Africa and Asia, which can least afford these losses. However, despite its almost 100% case fatality rate, canine rabies is a completely preventable disease, and historic examples of canine rabies elimination in the developed world attest to this. Over the last decade, programs based on eliminating the source of the disease from dogs have shown success in reducing the public health burden of canine rabies in developing countries, notably across Latin America, and this has contributed to the growing evidence base necessary to change attitudes toward the feasibility of global canine rabies elimination. More recently, assessments of the current economic burden of canine rabies and the potential cost savings achievable through mass dog vaccinations have been added to this evidence base. Tools and support are available from the international community to help countries move progressively toward canine rabies elimination, and there is optimism that global freedom from canine rabies can be achieved within the next few decades. Keywords: canine rabies, epidemiology, elimination, zoonosis, rabies virus

  18. Enamel Hypoplasia of Deciduous Canine

    OpenAIRE

    加納, 隆; 平出, 百合子; 舟津, 聡; 峯村, 隆一; 恩田, 千爾; 正木, 岳馬

    1993-01-01

    From observation of frequency and measurement of the lengths and widths of enamel hypoplasia on the maxillary and mandibular deciduous canines, extracted from 50 Indians' skulls, the following results were obtained. 1) Enamel hypoplasia occurred in 15% of the maxillary deciduous canines and 44% of the mandibular deciduous canines. 2) Symmetrical cases of enamel hypoplasia occurred in 8.0% of the maxillary deciduous canins and in 34% of the mandibular deciduous canines. The enamel hypoplasia o...

  19. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S G A M; Martens, Ellen C C P; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H J H; Watson, Adrian L; Aulchenko, Yurii S; Hodgkinson, Victoria L; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J; Polishchuk, Roman S; Leegwater, Peter A J; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to Wilson disease, which is characterized by a predominantly hepatic copper accumulation. The low incidence and the phenotypic variability of human copper toxicosis hamper identification of causal genes or modifier genes involved in the disease pathogenesis. The Labrador retriever was recently characterized as a new canine model for copper toxicosis. Purebred dogs have reduced genetic variability, which facilitates identification of genes involved in complex heritable traits that might influence phenotype in both humans and dogs. We performed a genome-wide association study in 235 Labrador retrievers and identified two chromosome regions containing ATP7A and ATP7B that were associated with variation in hepatic copper levels. DNA sequence analysis identified missense mutations in each gene. The amino acid substitution ATP7B:p.Arg1453Gln was associated with copper accumulation, whereas the amino acid substitution ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile partly protected against copper accumulation. Confocal microscopy indicated that aberrant copper metabolism upon expression of the ATP7B variant occurred because of mis-localization of the protein in the endoplasmic reticulum. Dermal fibroblasts derived from ATP7A:p.Thr327Ile dogs showed copper accumulation and delayed excretion. We identified the Labrador retriever as the first natural, non-rodent model for ATP7B-associated copper toxicosis. Attenuation of copper accumulation by the ATP7A mutation sheds an interesting light on the interplay of copper transporters in body copper homeostasis and warrants a thorough investigation of ATP7A as a modifier gene in copper-metabolism disorders. The identification of two new functional variants in ATP7A and

  20. Agent-Based Simulation of Disease Spread Aboard Ship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-03-01

    humans are not contained in close quarters. Most forms of disease transmission are simulated, but not all. There are diseases spread via parasites and...agents (vector-borne), by animals ( zoonoses ), through soil, blood, or sexually transmitted diseases are not modeled here. The main modes of transmission...disease are broken down via genetic characteristics. The main groups, viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites , are listed below. A virus is the

  1. Canine DLA-79 gene: an improved typing method, identification of new alleles and its role in graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, G M; Geraghty, D; Fox, J; Graves, S S; Zellmer, E; Storer, B E; Torok-Storb, B J; Storb, R

    2013-04-01

    Developing a preclinical canine model that predicts outcomes for hematopoietic cell transplantation in humans requires a model that mimics the degree of matching between human donor and recipient major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes. The polymorphic class I and class II genes in mammals are typically located in a single chromosome as part of the MHC complex. However, a divergent class I gene in dogs, designated dog leukocyte antigen-79 (DLA-79), is located on chromosome 18 while other MHC genes are on chromosome 12. This gene is not taken into account while DLA matching for transplantation. Though divergent, this gene shares significant similarity in sequence and exon-intron architecture with other class I genes, and is transcribed. Little is known about the polymorphisms of DLA-79 and their potential role in transplantation. This study was aimed at exploring the reason for high rate of rejection seen in DLA-matched dogs given reduced intensity conditioning, in particular, the possibility that DLA-79 allele mismatches may be the cause. We found that about 82% of 407 dogs typed were homozygous for a single, reference allele. Owing to the high prevalence of a single allele, 87 of the 108 dogs (∼80%) transplanted were matched for DLA-79 with their donor. In conclusion, we have developed an efficient method to type alleles of a divergent MHC gene in dogs and identified two new alleles. We did not find any statistical correlation between DLA-79 allele disparity and graft rejection or graft-versus-host disease, among our transplant dogs.

  2. Canine distemper outbreak in rhesus monkeys, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-08-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People's Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%-60% disease incidence); 5%-30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  3. Medical Treatment of Primary Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alario, Anthony F; Strong, Travis D; Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a painful and often blinding group of ocular diseases for which there is no cure. Although the definition of glaucoma is rapidly evolving, elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) remains the most consistent risk factor of glaucoma in the canine patient. Therapy should be aimed at neuroprotection. The mainstay of therapy focuses on reducing IOP and maintaining a visual and comfortable eye. This article discusses the most current ocular hypotensive agents, focusing on their basic pharmacology, efficacy at lowering IOP, and recommended use in the treatment of idiopathic canine glaucoma.

  4. A Compendium of Canine Normal Tissue Gene Expression

    OpenAIRE

    Joseph Briggs; Melissa Paoloni; Qing-Rong Chen; Xinyu Wen; Javed Khan; Chand Khanna

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platf...

  5. Proteins of the canine seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annice Aquino-Cortez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Studies have been performed to identify the proteins present in canine seminal plasma (SP and relate them to sperm quality as well as to discover molecular markers of reproductive tract diseases. There is evidence that heparin-binding proteins, zinc-binding proteins, and lactoferrin as well as the matrix metalloproteinase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes are associated with canine sperm quality. Other studies indicate that prolactin and enzymes like arginine esterase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase could be successfully used as biomarkers of reproductive disorders. Thus, the present literature review aims to address aspects related to proteins of the canine SP, their influence on fertility, and their importance as biomarkers of reproductive disorders.

  6. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  7. Despre babesioza canină

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Nanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographic essay, addressed both to veterinary clinicians and researchers, is to bring to mind the disease in terms of etiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic and prophylactic management, as well as to remind the issues arising from recent researches. Depending on the virulence of the parasite species, body's immune response and therapeutic management approached, the plateau of disease evolution can be quite wide - from a favorable prognosis to a lethal outcome of the animal. The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism in babesiosis is due to soluble parasite antigens (SPA which, according to recent studies, have been obtained in vitro and then used as immunological product in disease prevention. Producing a vaccine against canine babesiosis with parasite antigens of local strains could play an important role to prevent the clinical expression of this disease in Romania.

  8. A novel bocavirus in canine liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Linlin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bocaviruses are classified as a genus within the Parvoviridae family of single-stranded DNA viruses and are pathogenic in some mammalian species. Two species have been previously reported in dogs, minute virus of canines (MVC, associated with neonatal diseases and fertility disorders; and Canine bocavirus (CBoV, associated with respiratory disease. Findings In this study using deep sequencing of enriched viral particles from the liver of a dog with severe hemorrhagic gastroenteritis, necrotizing vasculitis, granulomatous lymphadenitis and anuric renal failure, we identified and characterized a novel bocavirus we named Canine bocavirus 3 (CnBoV3. The three major ORFs of CnBoV3 (NS1, NP1 and VP1 shared less than 60% aa identity with those of other bocaviruses qualifying it as a novel species based on ICTV criteria. Inverse PCR showed the presence of concatemerized or circular forms of the genome in liver. Conclusions We genetically characterized a bocavirus in a dog liver that is highly distinct from prior canine bocaviruses found in respiratory and fecal samples. Its role in this animal’s complex disease remains to be determined.

  9. Antifungal effect of Australian tea tree oil on Malassezia pachydermatis isolated from canines suffering from cutaneous skin disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weseler, A; Geiss, H K; Saller, R; Reichling, J

    2002-05-01

    The lipophilic yeast Malassezia pachydermatis is part of the normal skin flora of most warm-blooded organisms. In a number of surveys it could be demonstrated that this yeast species might be involved in different skin diseases like seborrhoeic dermatitis, especially in dogs and cats. In order to look for an alternative therapeutic agent to the commonly used antimycotic and antiseptic synthetic substances the in vitro activity of Australian tea tree oil, the essential oil of Melaleuca alternifolia, against several strains of Malassezia pachydermatis was examined. All tested strains showed remarkably high susceptibility to tea tree oil. With these results the excellent antibacterial activity of tea tree oil is extended to a new group of fungal pathogens colonizing mainly mammals' skin. During the last ten years there was an increasing popularity of tea tree oil containing human health care products. The presented data open up new horizons for this essential oil as a promising alternative agent for topical use in veterinary medicine as well.

  10. Molecular-level evaluation of selected periodontal pathogens from subgingival regions in canines and humans with periodontal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polkowska, Izabela; Bartoszcze-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata; Sobczyńska-Rak, Aleksandra; Matuszewski, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    Dogs commonly serve as a model for various human conditions, including periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to identify the anaerobic bacteria that colonize the subgingival areas in dogs and humans by using rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based tests and to compare the results obtained in each species. Bacterial microflora evaluations, both quantitative and qualitative, were performed by applying ready-made tests on twelve dogs and twelve humans. Five samples were collected from each subject's deepest gingival pockets and joined to form a collective sample. The results of the study revealed interspecies similarities in the prevalences of Porphyromonas (P.) gingivalis, Treponema denticola, Tannerella forsythia, and Fusobacterium nucleatum. Red complex bacteria comprised the largest portion of the studied bacterial complexes in all study groups, with P. gingivalis being the most commonly isolated bacterium. The results show similarities in the prevalence of bacterial microflora in dogs and humans. Microbiological analysis of gingival pockets by using rapid real-time PCR-based tests in clinical practice, both veterinary and human, can facilitate the choice of appropriate pharmacological treatment and can provide a basis for subsequent verification of the treatment's effectiveness. PMID:27297417

  11. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

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    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  12. Canine disorder mirrors human disease: exonic deletion in HES7 causes autosomal recessive spondylocostal dysostosis in miniature Schnauzer dogs.

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    Cali E Willet

    Full Text Available Spondylocostal dysostosis is a congenital disorder of the axial skeleton documented in human families from diverse racial backgrounds. The condition is characterised by truncal shortening, extensive hemivertebrae and rib anomalies including malalignment, fusion and reduction in number. Mutations in the Notch signalling pathway genes DLL3, MESP2, LFNG, HES7 and TBX6 have been associated with this defect. In this study, spondylocostal dysostosis in an outbred family of miniature schnauzer dogs is described. Computed tomography demonstrated that the condition mirrors the skeletal defects observed in human cases, but unlike most human cases, the affected dogs were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Through gene mapping and whole genome sequencing, we identified a single-base deletion in the coding region of HES7. The frameshift mutation causes loss of functional domains essential for the oscillatory transcriptional autorepression of HES7 during somitogenesis. A restriction fragment length polymorphism test was applied within the immediate family and supported a highly penetrant autosomal recessive mode of inheritance. The mutation was not observed in wider testing of 117 randomly sampled adult miniature schnauzer and six adult standard schnauzer dogs; providing a significance of association of Praw = 4.759e-36 (genome-wide significant. Despite this apparently low frequency in the Australian population, the allele may be globally distributed based on its presence in two unrelated sires from geographically distant locations. While isolated hemivertebrae have been observed in a small number of other dog breeds, this is the first clinical and genetic diagnosis of spontaneously occurring spondylocostal dysostosis in a non-human mammal and offers an excellent model in which to study this devastating human disorder. The genetic test can be utilized by dog breeders to select away from the disease and avoid unnecessary neonatal losses.

  13. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

    OpenAIRE

    Pankaj Kumar; Rashmi Rekha Kumari; Manish Kumar; Sanjiv Kumar; Asit Chakrabarti

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in c...

  14. Canine autoimmune hemolytic anemia: management challenges

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    Swann JW

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available James W Swann,1 Barbara J Skelly2 1Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, The Royal Veterinary College, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, 2Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract: Immune-mediated hemolytic anemia is one of the most common manifestations of canine immune-mediated disease, yet treatment regimens remain nonstandardized and, in some cases, controversial. The main reason for this, as for most diseases in veterinary medicine, is the lack of large-scale placebo-controlled trials so that the efficacy of one treatment over another can be established. Most of the evidence used for treatment comes from retrospective studies and from personal preference and experience, and because of this, treatment regimens tend to vary among institutions and individual clinicians. Management of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia includes immunosuppression, thromboprophylaxis, and supportive care measures to help prevent and treat concurrent conditions. Keywords: IMHA, canine immune-mediated disease, management regimens

  15. [The agent Latrodectus and canine paecilomycotic eclampsia as a laboratory model in the survey of treatment for mycoses and parasitic diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparian, E R; Streliaeva, A V; Chebyshev, N V; Sagieva, A T; Polzikov, V V; Lazareva, N B; Kurilov, D V; Zuev, S S; Shcheglova, T A; Sadykov, V M

    2012-01-01

    The extragent used to prepare a Latrodectus mactans hydrocarbon extract is a multicomponent system composed of alkanes, alkenes, and arenes. More than 100 compounds were identified in the hydrocarbon extract (petroleum). The petroleum matrix of Latrodectus mactans was first obtained to manufacture homeopathic remedies. The authors could prepare the first Russian homeopathic medicine from Latrodectus mactans, which proved to be effective in treating canine eclampsia. Canine experiments provide a rationale for the authors' choice as the only homeopathic remedy among thousand known drugs to treat female eclampsia. It is Latrodectus mactans that is in the list of homeopathic medicines permitted for use in accordance with Order No. 335 (Supplement 2) of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Russia, issued on November 29, 1995. It is manufactured from Latrodectus mactans living in the USA.

  16. Survey of canine tick-borne diseases in Lábrea, Brazilian Amazon: ‘accidental’ findings of Dirofilaria immitis infection

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    Herbert Sousa Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 99 domestic dogs from the urban and rural areas of the Lábrea municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Canine serum samples were tested by immunofluorescence assay against Rickettsia spp., which revealed that only 3.0% (1/33 and 7.6% (5/66 of the dogs from urban and rural areas, respectively, reacted positively to at least one Rickettsia species. DNA was extracted from canine blood and tested by a battery of PCR assays targeting protozoa of the genera Babesia and Hepatozoon, and bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Ehrlichia and family Anaplasmataceae. All samples were negative in the PCR assays targeting the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. For Anaplasmataceae, 3% (1/33 and 39.4% (26/66 of the urban and rural dogs, respectively, yielded amplicons that generated DNA sequences 100% identical to the corresponding sequence of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Dirofilaria immitis. Because of these results, all canine DNA samples were further tested in a PCR assay targeting filarial nematodes, which was positive for 18.2% (6/33 and 57.6% (38/66 urban and rural dogs, respectively. Filarial-PCR products generated DNA sequences 100% identical to D. immitis. While tick-borne infections were rare in Lábrea, D. immitis infection rates were among the highest reported in South America.

  17. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

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    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  18. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

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    Otávio Valério Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV, which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availability of effective vaccines, and no specific treatment. CDV infection in dogs is characterized by the presentation of systemic and/or neurological courses, and viral persistence in some organs, including the central nervous system (CNS and lymphoid tissues. An elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms involved in canine distemper disease will lead to a better understanding of the injuries and clinical manifestations caused by CDV. Ultimately, further insight about this disease will enable the improvement of diagnostic methods as well as therapeutic studies.

  19. Cardiac involvement in canine babesiosis : review article

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    R.G. Lobetti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac dysfunction in canine babesiosis has traditionally been regarded as a rare complication, with the majority of lesions reported as incidental findings at post-mortem examination. Recent studies have, however, demonstrated cardiac lesions in canine babesiosis. Cardiac troponins, especially troponin I, are sensitive markers of myocardial injury in canine babesiosis, and the magnitude of elevation of plasma troponin I concentrations appears to be proportional to the severity of the disease. ECG changes in babesiosis are similar to the pattern described for myocarditis and myocardial ischaemia and together with histopathological findings indicate that the heart suffers from the same pathological processes described in other organs in canine babesiosis, namely inflammation and hypoxia. The clinical application of the ECG appears to be limited and thus cardiovascular assessment should be based on functional monitoring rather than an ECG tracing. On cardiac histopathology from dogs that succumbed to babesiosis, haemorrhage, necrosis, inflammation and fibrin microthrombi in the myocardium were documented, all of which would have resulted in ECG changes and elevations in cardiac troponin. Myocardial damage causes left ventricular failure, which will result in hypotension and an expansion of the plasma volume due to homeostatic mechanisms.

  20. Removal of retained upper canine in the middle. Case report

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    Bienvenido Mesa Reinaldo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of upper canine is one of the most common retentions that occur in permanent teething, this event may be related to that, this is the last tooth to erupt in the lower, also is associated with involution of the jaws, because eruption path is long and complex, often facing unfavorable. A case of a female patient, aged 25, of rural origin, which does not suffer from any disease, which was seen because of discomfort in area 23, ie in the left upper permanent canine. It was noted in the oral examination persistent left superior temporal canine, 63, and periapical and panoramic X-rays showed the presence of 23 included in an intermediate position. It was decided to make a modification of surgical technique with a conservative view of the palatal cortical bone. Was performed successfully including resection of the canine.

  1. The Comparative Diagnostic Features of Canine and Human Lymphoma

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    Davis M. Seelig

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs are a heterogeneous family of lymphoid malignancies that are among the most common neoplasms of both dogs and humans. Owing to shared molecular, signaling, incidence, and pathologic features, there is a strong framework supporting the utilization of canine lymphoma as a comparative, large animal model of human NHL. In alignment with the biologic similarities, the current approach towards the diagnosis and classification of canine lymphoma is based upon the human World Health Organization guidelines. While this approach has contributed to an increasing appreciation of the potential biological scope of canine lymphoma, it has also become apparent that the most appropriate diagnostic philosophy must be multimodal, namely by requiring knowledge of microscopic, immunophenotypic, and clinical features before establishing a final disease diagnosis. This review seeks to illustrate the comparative similarities and differences in the diagnosis of canine lymphoma through the presentation of the microscopic and immunophenotypic features of its most common forms.

  2. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique

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    Julieta Zacarias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.Keywords: Canine distemper; dogs; outbreak; animal welfare; Mozambique

  3. Evolutionary and dispersal history of Triatoma infestans, main vector of Chagas disease, by chromosomal markers

    OpenAIRE

    Panzera, F.; Ferreiro, M. J.; Pita, S.; Calleros, L.; Perez, R.; Basmadjian, Y.; Guevara, Y.; Brenière, Simone Frédérique; Panzera, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, one of the most important vector-borne diseases in the Americas, is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted to humans by insects of the subfamily Triatominae. An effective control of this disease depends on elimination of vectors through spraying with insecticides. Genetic research can help insect control programs by identifying and characterizing vector populations. In southern Latin America, Triatoma infestans is the main vector and presents two distinct lineages, known ...

  4. Launching the first postgraduate diploma in medical entomology and disease vector control in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, H R; Mnzava, A; Bile, K M; Hafeez, A; Zaman, S

    2010-01-01

    The Health Services Academy has launched a 12-month postgraduate diploma course in medical entomology and disease vector control. The objective is to create a core of experts trained to prevent and control vector-borne diseases. The course is a response to the serious health and socioeconomic burden caused by a number of vector-borne diseases in Pakistan. The persistence, emergence and re-emergence of these diseases is mainly attributed to the scarcity of trained vector-control experts. The training course attempts to fill the gap in trained manpower and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality due to these diseases, resulting in incremental gains to public health. This paper aims to outline the steps taken to establish the course and the perceived challenges to be addressed in order to sustain its future implementation.

  5. Sequencing and G-Quadruplex Folding of the Canine Proto-Oncogene KIT Promoter Region: Might Dog Be Used as a Model for Human Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Ros, Silvia; Zorzan, Eleonora; Giantin, Mery; Zorro Shahidian, Lara; Palumbo, Manlio; Dacasto, Mauro; Sissi, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Downregulation of gene expression by induction of non-canonical DNA structures at promotorial level is a novel attractive anticancer strategy. In human, two guanine-rich sequences (h_kit1 and h_kit2) were identified in the promotorial region of oncogene KIT. Their stabilization into G-quadruplex structures can find applications in the treatment of leukemias, mastocytosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lung carcinomas which are often associated to c-kit mis-regulation. Also the most common skin cancer in domestic dog, mast cell tumor, is linked to a mutation and/or to an over-expression of c-kit, thus supporting dog as an excellent animal model. In order to assess if the G-quadruplex mediated mechanism of regulation of c-kit expression is conserved among the two species, herein we cloned and sequenced the canine KIT promoter region and we compared it with the human one in terms of sequence and conformational equilibria in physiologically relevant conditions. Our results evidenced a general conserved promotorial sequence between the two species. As experimentally confirmed, this grants that the conformational features of the canine kit1 sequence are substantially shared with the human one. Conversely, two isoforms of the kit2 sequences were identified in the analyzed dog population. In comparison with the human counterpart, both of them showed an altered distribution among several folded conformations. PMID:25084283

  6. Sequencing and G-quadruplex folding of the canine proto-oncogene KIT promoter region: might dog be used as a model for human disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Da Ros

    Full Text Available Downregulation of gene expression by induction of non-canonical DNA structures at promotorial level is a novel attractive anticancer strategy. In human, two guanine-rich sequences (h_kit1 and h_kit2 were identified in the promotorial region of oncogene KIT. Their stabilization into G-quadruplex structures can find applications in the treatment of leukemias, mastocytosis, gastrointestinal stromal tumor, and lung carcinomas which are often associated to c-kit mis-regulation. Also the most common skin cancer in domestic dog, mast cell tumor, is linked to a mutation and/or to an over-expression of c-kit, thus supporting dog as an excellent animal model. In order to assess if the G-quadruplex mediated mechanism of regulation of c-kit expression is conserved among the two species, herein we cloned and sequenced the canine KIT promoter region and we compared it with the human one in terms of sequence and conformational equilibria in physiologically relevant conditions. Our results evidenced a general conserved promotorial sequence between the two species. As experimentally confirmed, this grants that the conformational features of the canine kit1 sequence are substantially shared with the human one. Conversely, two isoforms of the kit2 sequences were identified in the analyzed dog population. In comparison with the human counterpart, both of them showed an altered distribution among several folded conformations.

  7. Yellow fever in China is still an imported disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Lu, Hongzhou

    2016-05-23

    Yellow fever is a vector-borne disease endemic to tropical regions of Africa and South America. A recent outbreak in Angola caused hundreds of deaths. Six cases of yellow fever imported from Angola were reported recently in China. This raised the question of whether it will spread in China and how it can be prevented. This article discusses the possibility of yellow fever transmission in China and the strategies to counter it.

  8. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

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    Pankaj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in case fatality rate over time. Increase in cases of canine diabetes worldwide is attributed to awareness amongst pet owners, better veterinary health facilities, breed preferences by dog owners, increase dependence on commercial feeds, obesity, etc. Diabetes in most dogs is immune mediated and insulin dependent. Breed predisposition in canine is attributed to dog leukocyte antigen gene pool encoding form major histocompatibility complex-II molecules, however research is still underway. Diagnosis of diabetes still relies on blood sugar evaluation for screening of canine population, though many other diagnostic methods have shown promising benefits including measurement of fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin. Management of diabetes in dog is based on insulin therapy, diet modification and exercise. Use of oral anti-diabetics drugs in canine is limited though experimental studies have shown promising results. Alternative therapies have been explored, but only a few approaches have shown promise for clinical application.

  9. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

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    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  10. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

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    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  11. Remote sensing, land cover changes, and vector-borne diseases: use of high spatial resolution satellite imagery to map the risk of occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghardaïa, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garni, Rafik; Tran, Annelise; Guis, Hélène; Baldet, Thierry; Benallal, Kamel; Boubidi, Said; Harrat, Zoubir

    2014-12-01

    Ghardaïa, central Algeria, experienced a major outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in 2005. Two Leishmania species occur in this region: Leishmania major (MON-25) and Leishmania killicki (MON-301). The two species are transmitted respectively by the sandflies Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti and probably involve rodent reservoirs with different ecologies, suggesting distinct epidemiological patterns and distribution areas. The aims of this study were to establish risk maps for each Leishmania species in Ghardaïa, taking into account the specificities of their vectors and reservoirs biotopes, using land cover and topographical characteristics derived from remote sensing imagery. Using expert and bibliographic knowledge, habitats of vectors and reservoirs were mapped. Hazard maps, defined as areas of presence of both vectors and reservoirs, were then combined with vulnerability maps, defined as areas with human presence, to map the risk of CL occurrence due to each species. The vector habitat maps and risk maps were validated using available entomological data and epidemiological data. The results showed that remote sensing analysis can be used to map and differentiate risk areas for the two species causing CL and identify palm groves and areas bordering the river crossing the city as areas at risk of CL due to L. major, whereas more limited rocky hills on the outskirts of the city are identified as areas at risk of CL due to L. killicki. In the current context of urban development in Ghardaïa, this study provides useful information for the local authorities on the respective risk areas for CL caused by both parasites, in order to take prevention and control measures to prevent future CL outbreaks.

  12. Diagnosis of canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis): an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrus, Shimon; Waner, Trevor

    2011-03-01

    Canine monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (CME), caused by the rickettsia Ehrlichia canis, an important canine disease with a worldwide distribution. Diagnosis of the disease can be challenging due to its different phases and multiple clinical manifestations. CME should be suspected when a compatible history (living in or traveling to an endemic region, previous tick exposure), typical clinical signs and characteristic hematological and biochemical abnormalities are present. Traditional diagnostic techniques including hematology, cytology, serology and isolation are valuable diagnostic tools for CME, however a definitive diagnosis of E. canis infection requires molecular techniques. This article reviews the current literature covering the diagnosis of infection caused by E. canis.

  13. Climate change & infectious diseases in India: implications for health care providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhara, V Ramana; Schramm, Paul J; Luber, George

    2013-12-01

    Climate change has the potential to influence the earth's biological systems, however, its effects on human health are not well defined. Developing nations with limited resources are expected to face a host of health effects due to climate change, including vector-borne and water-borne diseases such as malaria, cholera, and dengue. This article reviews common and prevalent infectious diseases in India, their links to climate change, and how health care providers might discuss preventive health care strategies with their patients.

  14. Recombinant canine distemper virus serves as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xijun; Feng, Na; Ge, Jinying; Shuai, Lei; Peng, Liyan; Gao, Yuwei; Yang, Songtao; Xia, Xianzhu; Bu, Zhigao

    2012-07-20

    Effective, safe, and affordable rabies vaccines are still being sought. Attenuated live vaccine has been widely used to protect carnivores from canine distemper. In this study, we generated a recombinant canine distemper virus (CDV) vaccine strain, rCDV-RVG, expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (RVG) by using reverse genetics. The recombinant virus rCDV-RVG retained growth properties similar to those of vector CDV in Vero cell culture. Animal studies demonstrated that rCDV-RVG was safe in mice and dogs. Mice inoculated intracerebrally or intramuscularly with rCDV-RVG showed no apparent signs of disease and developed a strong rabies virus (RABV) neutralizing antibody response, which completely protected mice from challenge with a lethal dose of street virus. Canine studies showed that vaccination with rCDV-RVG induced strong and long-lasting virus neutralizing antibody responses to RABV and CDV. This is the first study demonstrating that recombinant CDV has the potential to serve as bivalent live vaccine against rabies and canine distemper in animals.

  15. Canine Models for Copper Homeostasis Disorders

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    Xiaoyan Wu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Copper is an essential trace nutrient metal involved in a multitude of cellular processes. Hereditary defects in copper metabolism result in disorders with a severe clinical course such as Wilson disease and Menkes disease. In Wilson disease, copper accumulation leads to liver cirrhosis and neurological impairments. A lack in genotype-phenotype correlation in Wilson disease points toward the influence of environmental factors or modifying genes. In a number of Non-Wilsonian forms of copper metabolism, the underlying genetic defects remain elusive. Several pure bred dog populations are affected with copper-associated hepatitis showing similarities to human copper metabolism disorders. Gene-mapping studies in these populations offer the opportunity to discover new genes involved in copper metabolism. Furthermore, due to the relatively large body size and long life-span of dogs they are excellent models for development of new treatment strategies. One example is the recent use of canine organoids for disease modeling and gene therapy of copper storage disease. This review addresses the opportunities offered by canine genetics for discovery of genes involved in copper metabolism disorders. Further, possibilities for the use of dogs in development of new treatment modalities for copper storage disorders, including gene repair in patient-derived hepatic organoids, are highlighted.

  16. Restoration of missing or misplaced canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bower, C F; Reinhardt, R A

    1985-06-01

    Restorative treatments for canines were discussed to correct three clinical abnormalities: (1) fully erupted permanent canine in the lateral incisor position, (2) missing permanent canines, and (3) partially exposed canines in normal arch position. The primary concerns are the development of esthetics, anterior guidance, and adequate support for fixed restorations.

  17. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

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    Sophie Le Poder

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious peritonitis (FIP and pantropic canine coronavirus infection in cats and dogs, respectively. In this paper, different aspects of the genetics, host cell tropism, and pathogenesis of the feline and canine coronaviruses (FCoV and CCoV will be discussed, with a view to illustrating how study of FCoVs and CCoVs can improve our general understanding of the pathobiology of coronaviruses.

  18. Comparative mapping of canine and human proximal Xq and genetic analysis of canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, S.M.; Puck, J.M.; Dutra, A.S. [Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine and Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Parallel genetic analysis of animal and human genetic diseases can facilitate the identification and characterization of the causative gene defects. For example, canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is characterized by clinical, pathological, and immunological manifestations similar to the most common form of human SCID. To derive a canine syntenic map including genes that in humans are located in proximal Xq, near human X-linked SCID, poly (TG) polymorphisms were identified at the canine phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) and choroideremia (CHM) loci. These plus a polymorphic poly (CAG) sequence in exon 1 of the canine androgen receptor gene (AR) were used to genotype members of the colony informative for X-linked SCID. No recombinations among SCIDX1, AR, PGK, or CHM were observed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization localized PGK and CHM to proximal Xq in the dog, in the same chromosomal location occupied by the human genes. Somatic cell hybrid analysis and methylation differences at AR demonstrated that female dogs carrying X-linked SCID have the same lymphocyte-limited skewed X-chromosome inactivation patterns as human carriers. These genetic and phenotypic findings provide evidence that mutations in the same gene, now identified as the {gamma} chain of the IL-2 receptor, cause canine and human X-linked SCID. This approach is an efficient method for comparative gene mapping and disease identification. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Canine pyometra: What is new?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R

    2016-11-03

    Pyometra is a common disease in countries where elective spaying is not routinely performed. Hormonal and bacterial factors are fundamental in the pathogenesis of the disease, which manifests itself as a potentially life-threatening bacterial infection of the uterus. Surgical ovariohysterectomy is the safest and most effective treatment for pyometra, and it has recently been shown that laparoscopically assisted methods for surgical treatment are feasible to use in selected cases. New protocols for improved medical treatment alternatives have also been tested with promising results. To be able to predict outcome and presence of complications early would be valuable in clinical practice for optimizing therapy and increasing survival. Results of commonly investigated clinical and laboratory investigations have been shown to be useful as predictive markers, with leucopenia being associated with increased risk of peritonitis as well as prolonged post-operative hospitalization after surgical treatment. A cage-side rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would be highly valuable in clinical practice, and detection of pyometra-specific upregulated genes in the uterus and the corresponding products is a potential start in identifying novel markers suitable for such as test. The focus of the present review is to highlight recent findings on pathogenesis, prediction of outcome, diagnosis and treatment. Additionally, central research questions and suggestions for future investigations about several aspects of canine pyometra will be addressed.

  20. 103例犬细小病毒病临床特征和诊疗%Clinical features and diagnosis on 103 cases canine parvovirus disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈文正; 张君慧; 张晶; 吴礼平

    2009-01-01

    经临床和血液学检查,结合免疫学诊断,从某宠物医院2008年上半年门诊632例病犬确诊病毒感染犬147例.其中,103例为犬细小病毒(Canine parvovirus, CPV)抗原阳性,且主要表现为肠炎型.CPV感染病例占门诊病例的16.3%(103/632),占病毒性病例的70.1%(103/147),成为门诊最常见的犬传染病.这些肠炎型病例中,6月龄以下病例占92.2%(95/103),2~6月龄病例占90.3%(93/103).特异性疗法,配合对症疗法和支持疗法,使早期、中期和晚期肠炎型CPVD治愈率分别达到92.8%(64/69),83.9%(26/31)和33.3%(1/3),总治愈率达88.3%(91/103).

  1. Canine mammary gland tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenmo, Karin

    2003-05-01

    The National Consensus Group recommends that all women with tumors larger than 1 cm be offered chemotherapy regardless of tumor histology of lymph node status. This recommendation is to ensure that everyone at risk for failing, even though the risk may be low in women with relatively small tumors and favorable histology, has a choice and receives the benefit of adjuvant chemotherapy. This type of treatment recommendation may also be made in dogs based on recognized, well-accepted prognostic factors such as tumor size, stage, type, and histologic differentiation. Based on the limited clinical information available in veterinary medicine, the drugs that are effective in human breast cancer, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-fluorouracil, and doxorubicin, may also have a role in the treatment of malignant mammary gland tumors in dogs. Randomized prospective studies are needed, however, to evaluate the efficacy of chemotherapy in dogs with high-risk mammary gland tumors and to determine which drugs and protocols are the most efficacious. Until such studies are performed, the treatment of canine mammary gland tumors will be based on the individual oncologist's understanding of tumor biology, experience, interpretation of the available studies, and a little bit of gut-feeling. Table 2 is a proposal for treatment guidelines for malignant canine mammary gland tumors according to established prognostic factors, results from published veterinary studies, and current recommendations for breast cancer treatment in women.

  2. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  3. Canine distemper virus - a morbillivirus in search of new hosts?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.C. Harder (Timm); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1997-01-01

    textabstractCanine distemper morbillivirus (CDV) induces a multisystemic, often fatal disease in a wide and seemingly expanding host range among the Carnivora. Several genotypes of an otherwise monotypic virus species co-circulate in a geographically restricted pattern. Interspecies transmissions fr

  4. Canine distemper spillover in domestic dogs from urban wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Sanjay; Yeary, Teresa J

    2011-11-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes a major disease of domestic dogs that develops as a serious systemic infection in unvaccinated or improperly vaccinated dogs. Domesticated dogs are the main reservoir of CDV, a multihost pathogen. This virus of the genus Morbillivirus in the family Paramyxoviridae occurs in other carnivorous species including all members of the Canidae and Mustelidae families and in some members of the Procyonidae, Hyaenidae, Ursidae, and Viverridae families. Canine distemper also has been reported in the Felidae family and marine mammals. The spread and incidences of CDV epidemics in dogs and wildlife here and worldwide are increasing.

  5. Minute virus of canines (MVC, canine parvovirus type-1): pathogenicity for pups and seroprevalence estimate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, L E; Schlafer, D H; Hashimoto, A

    1994-04-01

    Minute virus of canines (MVC, canine parvovirus type-1) caused inapparent to severe illness in neonatal specific-pathogen-free pups exposed by the oronasal route. The experimental disease was generally mild. Four of 21 infected pups had clinical signs of respiratory illness, but only 2 pups, not euthanized during the early postinoculation period, developed severe illness or died. Principal pathologic changes included bronchitis and interstitial pneumonia with various degrees of lymphadenitis. In contrast to the reported field cases, enteric signs were absent in the experimentally infected animals. Histopathologic changes in the small intestine were mild or absent. Bronchial, bronchiolar, and alveolar epithelial cells appeared to be the sites of initial and most extensive viral growth, reflecting the pattern of histopathologic changes. The disease caused by MVC was mild in comparison to that caused by canine parvovirus-type 2. MVC now appears to be established as a cause of illness in young pups and of transplacental infections with embryo resorption. The prevalence of MVC hemagglutination-inhibiting antibodies was high (approximately 50%) in adult dog sera from widely separated geographic areas of the United States.

  6. Glucosamine and chondroitin use in canines for osteoarthritis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhathal, Angel; Spryszak, Meredith; Louizos, Christopher; Frankel, Grace

    2017-01-01

    Osteoarthritis is a slowly progressive and debilitating disease that affects canines of all breeds. Pain and decreased mobility resulting from osteoarthritis often have a negative impact on the affected canine's quality of life, level of comfort, daily functioning, activity, behaviour, and client-pet companionship. Despite limited and conflicting evidence, the natural products glucosamine hydrochloride (HCl) and chondroitin sulfate are commonly recommended by veterinarians for treating osteoarthritis in dogs. There is a paucity of well-designed clinical veterinary studies investigating the true treatment effect of glucosamine and chondroitin. The purposes of this review article are to provide a brief background on glucosamine and chondroitin use in canine osteoarthritis and to critically review the available literature on the role of these products for improving clinical outcomes. Based on critical review, recommendations for practice are suggested and a future study design is proposed.

  7. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarias, Julieta; Dimande, Alberto; Achá, Sara; Dias, Paula T; Leonel, Elisa M; Messa, Aurora; Macucule, Baltazar; Júnior, José L; Bila, Custódio G

    2016-07-15

    Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD) outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV) in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.

  8. Canine parvovirus in asymptomatic feline carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, S R; Coyne, K P; Dawson, S; Spibey, N; Gaskell, R M; Radford, A D

    2012-05-25

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopaenia virus (FPLV) are two closely related viruses, which are known to cause severe disease in younger unvaccinated animals. As well as causing disease in their respective hosts, CPV has recently acquired the feline host range, allowing it to infect both cats and dogs. As well as causing disease in dogs, there is evidence that under some circumstances CPV may also cause disease in cats. This study has investigated the prevalence of parvoviruses in the faeces of clinically healthy cats and dogs in two rescue shelters. Canine parvovirus was demonstrated in 32.5% (13/50) of faecal samples in a cross sectional study of 50 cats from a feline only shelter, and 33.9% (61/180) of faecal samples in a longitudinal study of 74 cats at a mixed canine and feline shelter. Virus was isolated in cell cultures of both canine and feline origin from all PCR-positive samples suggesting they contained viable, infectious virus. In contrast to the high CPV prevalence in cats, no FPLV was found, and none of 122 faecal samples from dogs, or 160 samples collected from the kennel environment, tested positive for parvovirus by PCR. Sequence analysis of major capsid VP2 gene from all positive samples, as well as the non-structural gene from 18 randomly selected positive samples, showed that all positive cats were shedding CPV2a or 2b, rather than FPLV. Longitudinally sampling in one shelter showed that all cats appeared to shed the same virus sequence type at each date they were positive (up to six weeks), despite a lack of clinical signs. Fifty percent of the sequences obtained here were shown to be similar to those recently obtained in a study of sick dogs in the UK (Clegg et al., 2011). These results suggest that in some circumstances, clinically normal cats may be able to shed CPV for prolonged periods of time, and raises the possibility that such cats may be important reservoirs for the maintenance of infection in both the cat and the dog

  9. Transplacental transmission of Leishmania infantum as a means for continued disease incidence in North America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mercedes Boggiatto

    areas are largely focused on vector-borne transmission between canines and people. Determining frequency of vertical transmission and incorporating canine sterilization with vector control may have a more significant impact on ZVL transmission to people in endemic areas than current control efforts.

  10. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Type 2 Vaccine. 113.305 Section 113.305 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing...

  11. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, Anne-Marie; Renkema, Alianne; Bronkhorst, Ewald; Katsaros, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the m

  12. Long-term effectiveness of canine-to-canine bonded flexible spiral wire lingual retainers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Renkema, A.M.; Bronkhorst, E.M.; Katsaros, C.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The flexible spiral wire (FSW) canine-to-canine lingual retainer bonded to all 6 anterior teeth is a frequently used type of mandibular fixed retainer. This study aimed to assess the long-term effectiveness of FSW canine-to-canine lingual retainers in maintaining the alignment of the m

  13. Novel canine bocavirus strain associated with severe enteritis in a dog litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewes, Rogier; Lapp, Stefanie; Hahn, Kerstin; Habierski, André; Förster, Christine; König, Matthias; Wohlsein, Peter; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2014-11-07

    Bocaviruses are small non-enveloped viruses with a linear ssDNA genome, that belong to the genus Bocaparvovirus of the subfamiliy Parvovirinae. Bocavirus infections are associated with a wide spectrum of disease in humans and various mammalian species. Here we describe a fatal enteritis associated with infection with a novel strain of canine bocavirus 2 (CaBoV-2), that occurred in a litter of German wirehaired pointers. Necropsy performed on three puppies revealed an enteritis reminiscent of canine parvovirus associated enteritis, accompanied with signs of lymphocytolytic disease in bone marrow, spleen, lymph nodes and thymus. While other major causes of enteritis of young dogs, including canine parvovirus, were excluded, by random PCR in combination with next-generation sequencing, a novel CaBoV-2 strain was detected. Phylogenetic analysis of the genome of this novel canine bocavirus strain indicated that this virus was indeed most closely related to group 2 canine bocaviruses. Infection with canine bocavirus was confirmed by in situ hybridization, which revealed the presence of CaBoV-2 nucleic acid in the intestinal tract and lymphoid tissues of the dogs. In a small-scale retrospective analysis concerning the role of CaBoV-2 no additional cases were identified. The findings of this study provide novel insights into the pathogenicity of canine bocaviruses.

  14. Characteristics, immunological events, and diagnostics of Babesia spp. infection, with emphasis on Babesia canis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostro Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector-borne infection constitutes a significant health issue in dogs worldwide. Recent reports point to an increasing number of canine vector-borne disease cases in European countries, including Poland. Canine babesiosis caused by various Babesia species is a protozoal tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and significant veterinary importance. The development and application of molecular methods have increased our knowledge about canine babesiosis, its prevalence, and clinical and pathological aspects of the infection. Parasitologists and veterinary surgeons need an accurate description of the species responsible for canine babesiosis to improve diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as predictions for the course of the disease. Therefore, we decided to summarise recent knowledge concerning Babesia species and B. canis.

  15. Ectoparasite fauna of rodents collected from two wildlife research centres in Saudi Arabia with discussion on the implications for disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, A; Robb, G N; Alagaili, A N; Hastriter, M W; Apanaskevich, D A; Ueckermann, E A; Bennett, N C

    2015-07-01

    The majority of human pathogens are zoonotic and rodents play an important role as reservoirs of many of these infectious agents. In the case of vector-borne pathogens, rodent reservoirs not only act as a source of infection for vectors but also serve as hosts for the vectors themselves, supporting their populations. Current data on rodent-ectoparasite relationships is limited in Saudi Arabia, however, this is needed to assess disease risk and the relative importance of different hosts for the maintenance of vector-borne pathogen cycles. In order to provide baseline data for the region that could be used to assess zoonotic disease risk, we collected and identified 771 ectoparasite specimens (ticks, fleas and mites) from 161 rodents at two wildlife research centres in Saudi Arabia and discuss our results in the context of possible zoonotic disease risk based on the hosts and vectors present.

  16. Assessment of Periodontal Status of Surgically Exposed and Orthodontically Aligned Impacted Maxillary Canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Coșarcă

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the periodontal status of impacted canines after 5 years following completion of the combined surgical and orthodontic treatment. Materials and methods: We examined 20 labially impacted canines and 20 palatally impacted canines at 5 years after the end of treatment. We assessed the periodontal status of these teeth. Results: Different outcomes were found regarding the probing depth and the amount of keratinized gingiva in the two mentioned groups of teeth. Conclusions: The assessed periodontal indices may signal the appearance of a periodontal disease around the teeth that were surgically and orthodontically treated

  17. A new understanding of oral and dental disorders of the equine incisor and canine teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Edward; Rawlinson, Jennifer T

    2013-08-01

    This article discusses the classification systems for dental fractures and how the assessment affects treatment options. Diagonal incisor malocclusion is discussed in relation to skull asymmetry and how this commonly relates to premolar and molar occlusion. Oral and radiographic assessment of incisive bone fracture and incisor avulsion is reviewed for determining treatment options. A summary of incisor and canine resorption and hypercementosis is presented. Clinical presentations, staging, and classifications of tooth resorption as well as canine odontoplasty are discussed. Excessive plaque and calculus formation on lower canines leading to periodontal disease and abscess is examined.

  18. Feline and Canine Coronaviruses: Common Genetic and Pathobiological Features

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Le Poder

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious ...

  19. Electronic nose versus canine nose : clash of the titans

    OpenAIRE

    Ramesh P. Arasaradnam; Nwokolo, Chuka U.; Bardhan, Karna Dev; Covington, James A.

    2011-01-01

    We read with great interest the article by Sonoda et al published on line (Gut doi:10.1136/gut.2010.218305) of canine scent detection in those with colorectal cancer. The concept of using a dog to detect diseases is not new; there are many reported incidents of dogs barking at their owners (or even trying to bite the leg off of an owner with melanoma!) who are later shown to have the disease.

  20. Feline and canine coronaviruses : common genetic and pathobiological features

    OpenAIRE

    Sophie Le Poder

    2011-01-01

    A new human coronavirus responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was identified in 2003, which raised concern about coronaviruses as agents of serious infectious disease. Nevertheless, coronaviruses have been known for about 50 years to be major agents of respiratory, enteric, or systemic infections of domestic and companion animals. Feline and canine coronaviruses are widespread among dog and cat populations, sometimes leading to the fatal diseases known as feline infectious ...

  1. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers : a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; Sluis, van de Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  2. The Menkes and Wilson disease genes counteract in copper toxicosis in Labrador retrievers: a new canine model for copper-metabolism disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fieten, Hille; Gill, Yadvinder; Martin, Alan J.; Concilli, Mafalda; Dirksen, Karen; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Spee, Bart; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Martens, Ellen C. C. P.; Festa, Paola; Chesi, Giancarlo; van de Sluis, Bart; Houwen, Roderick H. J. H.; Watson, Adrian L.; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Hodgkinson, Victoria L.; Zhu, Sha; Petris, Michael J.; Polishchuk, Roman S.; Leegwater, Peter A. J.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The deleterious effects of a disrupted copper metabolism are illustrated by hereditary diseases caused by mutations in the genes coding for the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B. Menkes disease, involving ATP7A, is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder of copper deficiency. Mutations in ATP7B lead to

  3. Generation of functional platelets from canine induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Toshiya; Hatoya, Shingo; Kanegi, Ryoji; Sugiura, Kikuya; Wijewardana, Viskam; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Tanaka, Miyuu; Yamate, Jyoji; Izawa, Takeshi; Takahashi, Masahiro; Kawate, Noritoshi; Tamada, Hiromichi; Imai, Hiroshi; Inaba, Toshio

    2013-07-15

    Thrombocytopenia (TTP) is a blood disease common to canines and human beings. Currently, there is no valid therapy for this disease except blood transfusion. In this study, we report the generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells (ciPSCs) from canine embryonic fibroblasts, and a novel protocol for creating mature megakaryocytes (MKs) and functional platelets from ciPSCs. The ciPSCs were generated using lentiviral vectors, and differentiated into MKs and platelets on OP9 stromal cells supplemented with growth factors. Our ciPSCs presented in a tightly domed shape and showed expression of a critical pluripotency marker, REX1, and normal karyotype. Additionally, ciPSCs differentiated into cells derived from three germ layers via the formation of an embryoid body. The MKs derived from ciPSCs had hyperploidy and transformed into proplatelets. The proplatelets released platelets early on that expressed specific MK and platelet marker CD41/61. Interestingly, these platelets, when activated with adenosine diphosphate or thrombin, bind to fibrinogen. Moreover, electron microscopy showed that the platelets had the same ultrastructure as peripheral platelets. Thus, we have demonstrated for the first time the generation of ciPSCs that are capable of differentiating into MKs and release functional platelets in vitro. Our system for differentiating ciPSCs into MKs and platelets promises a critical therapy for canine TTP and appears to be extensible in principle to resolve human TTP.

  4. Canine Leishmaniosis: tools for diagnosis in veterinary practice in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Acero P

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this article is to perform a critical analysis and guide veterinarians in the management of canine Leishmaniosis. A systematic literature review was performed between 2005 and 2014 including scientific papers which take into account experiences and reports of: pathogenesis, diagnosis, clinical presentation, treatment, vaccination, prevention and control strategies. We discuss the different aspects of VL management and aspects that should be taken into account depending on the country, after a patient is suspected or confirmed as positive, including the possibility of euthanasia. We describe the different clinical manifestations of the disease, diagnosis, signs and treatment of canine leishmaniosis. Canine leishmaniosis is present in different parts of the country, therefore it must be considered as a possible differential diagnosis in the veterinary clinic, in patients with dermatological and systemic signs that are compatible with various diseases. In Colombia, the patients diagnosed with cutaneous leishmaniasis could be treated and have a favorable prognosis, whereas in canines with diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis euthanasia should be considered because of the public health implications.

  5. Cellular and Phenotypic Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Legare, Jamie Bush, Amanda K. Ashley, Taka Kato, William H. Hanneman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine and human osteosarcoma (OSA have many similarities, with the majority of reported cases occurring in the appendicular skeleton, gender predominance noted, high rate of metastasis at the time of presentation, and a lack of known etiology for this devastating disease. Due to poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying OSA, we have characterized seven different OSA canine cell lines: Abrams, D17, Grey, Hughes, Ingles, Jarques, and Marisco and compared them to U2, a human OSA cell line, for the following parameters: morphology, growth, contact inhibition, migrational tendencies, alkaline phosphatase staining, heterologous tumor growth, double-strand DNA breaks, and oxidative damage. All results demonstrated the positive characteristics of the Abrams cell line for use in future studies of OSA. Of particular interest, the robust growth of a subcutaneous tumor and rapid pulmonary metastasis of the Abrams cell line in an immunocompromised mouse shows incredible potential for the future use of Abrams as a canine OSA model. Further investigations utilizing a canine cell model of OSA, such as Abrams, will be invaluable to understanding the molecular events underlying OSA, pharmaceutical inhibition of metastasis, and eventual prevention of this devastating disease.

  6. Current state of knowledge: the canine gastrointestinal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooda, Seema; Minamoto, Yasushi; Suchodolski, Jan S; Swanson, Kelly S

    2012-06-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) microbes have important roles in the nutritional, immunological, and physiologic processes of the host. Traditional cultivation techniques have revealed bacterial density ranges from 10(4) to 10(5) colony forming units (CFU)/g in the stomach, from 10(5) to 10(7) CFU/g in the small intestine, and from 10(9) to 10(11) CFU/g in the colon of healthy dogs. As a small number of bacterial species can be grown and studied in culture, however, progress was limited until the recent emergence of DNA-based techniques. In recent years, DNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics have allowed for better phylogenetic and functional/metabolic characterization of the canine gut microbiome. Predominant phyla include Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. Studies using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene pyrosequencing have demonstrated spatial differences along the GI tract and among microbes adhered to the GI mucosa compared to those in intestinal contents or feces. Similar to humans, GI microbiome dysbiosis is common in canine GI diseases such as chronic diarrhea and inflammatory bowel diseases. DNA-based assays have also identified key pathogens contributing to such conditions, including various Clostridium, Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia spp. Moreover, nutritionists have applied DNA-based techniques to study the effects of dietary interventions such as dietary fiber, prebiotics, and probiotics on the canine GI microbiome and associated health indices. Despite recent advances in the field, the canine GI microbiome is far from being fully characterized and a deeper characterization of the phylogenetic and functional/metabolic capacity of the GI microbiome in health and disease is needed. This paper provides an overview of recent studies performed to characterize the canine GI microbiome.

  7. Emerging perspectives on hereditary glomerulopathies in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman MP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Meryl P LittmanDepartment of Clinical Studies – Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Familial glomerulopathies have been described in more than two dozen dog breeds. These canine spontaneous cases of glomerular disease are good models for their human counterparts. The dogs present clinically with protein-losing nephropathy and variable signs of hypertension, thromboembolic events, edema/effusions/nephrotic syndrome, or eventually with signs of renal disease such as anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, and/or polyuria/polydipsia. Laboratory changes include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and eventually azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, anemia, and isosthenuria. Renal biopsies examined with transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and thin section light microscopy may show ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane abnormalities, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, non-amyloid fibrillary deposition, or breed-associated predispositions for immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Genome-wide association studies and fine sequencing of candidate genes have led to the discovery of variant alleles associated with disease in some breeds; eg, 1 glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural abnormalities due to defective collagen type IV, caused by different premature stop codons in each of four breeds; ie, in COL4A5 in Samoyeds and Navasota mix breed dogs (X-linked, and in COL4A4 in English Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels (autosomal recessive; and 2 glomerulosclerosis-related podocytopathy with slit diaphragm protein anomalies of both nephrin and Neph3/filtrin due to non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in conserved regions of their encoding genes, NPHS1 and KIRREL2, in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers and Airedale Terriers, with a complex mode of inheritance. Age at onset and progression to end-stage renal disease vary depending on the model. Genetic

  8. Heterogeneity within the hemagglutinin genes of canine distemper virus (CDV) strains detected in Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martella, V.; Cirone, F.; Elia, G.

    2006-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) is a highly contagious viral pathogen causing lethal disease in dogs and other mammalians. A high degree of genetic variation is found between recent CDV strains and the old CDV isolates used in the vaccines and such genetic variation is regarded as a possible cause o....... These results suggest that at least three different CDV lineages are present in Italy. Keywords: Canine distemper virus; Dogs; Lineages; H gene...

  9. Canine trypanosomiasis: etiology of infection and implications for public health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ Eloy

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine trypanosomiasis, caused by protozoans of the genus Trypanosoma, is divided into two primary types: the American form (Chagas disease, due to Trypanosoma cruzi infection, and the African form (sleeping sickness or surra, provoked by Trypanosomaevansi. This disease was originally enzootic and affected only wild animals, including mammals and birds, which served as reservoirs. Later, it spread to domestic animals such as horses, cattle and dogs. The disease became a zoonosis when contact between rural inhabitants and natural Trypanosoma foci occurred, due to ecological imbalances and increasing migration. Dogs are significantly involved in this context, because they are the main domestic animals and participate in the transmission and maintenance cycles of these parasites. This article reports etiological, epidemiological and public health aspects of canine trypanosomiasis, and the most important peculiarities of this zoonosis in dogs.

  10. An Update on Therapeutic Management of Canine Demodicosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Singh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Canine demodicosis is a common noncontagious parasitic dermatosis caused by different spp of Demodex mites including Demodex canis, Demodex injai and D. cornei. Generalized demodicosis can be one of the most frustrating skin diseases, one will ever treat. Conventional and newer miticidal therapies are available to veterinarian to treat this frustrating skin disease. All recognized Demodex mites in dogs appear to respond similarly to mite targeted therapy. Treatment for canine demodicosis includes amitraz, ivermectin, milbemicin oxime, moxidectin, and doramectin. The use of any glucocorticoid-containing products is contraindicated and could favour disease generalization. Conventional treatments will often appear to work however, but it relies heavily on a highly toxic method of treatment. Using natural remedies for mange, on the other hand, can enhance the dog’s immune system, so that the body can fight off the mange mite infection by itself. [Veterinary World 2011; 4(1.000: 41-44

  11. Podoplanin Expression in Canine Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, Satoshi; Honma, Ryusuke; Kaneko, Mika K; Fujii, Yuki; Kagawa, Yumiko; Konnai, Satoru; Kato, Yukinari

    2016-12-01

    A type I transmembrane protein, podoplanin (PDPN), is expressed in several normal cells such as lymphatic endothelial cells or pulmonary type I alveolar cells. We recently demonstrated that anticanine PDPN monoclonal antibody (mAb), PMab-38, recognizes canine PDPN of squamous cell carcinomas, but does not react with lymphatic endothelial cells. Herein, we investigated whether PMab-38 reacts with canine melanoma. PMab-38 reacted with 90% of melanoma cells (9/10 cases) using immunohistochemistry. Of interest, PMab-38 stained the lymphatic endothelial cells and cancer-associated fibroblasts in melanoma tissues, although it did not stain any lymphatic endothelial cells in normal tissues. PMab-38 could be useful for uncovering the function of PDPN in canine melanomas.

  12. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  13. MicroRNA expression in canine mammary cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boggs, R Michelle; Wright, Zachary M; Stickney, Mark J; Porter, Weston W; Murphy, Keith E

    2008-08-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 18-22-nt noncoding RNAs that are involved in post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Oncomirs, a subclass of miRNAs, include genes whose expression, or lack thereof, are associated with cancers. Until the last decade, the domestic dog was an underused model for the study of various human diseases that have genetic components. The dog exhibits marked genetic and physiologic similarity to the human, thereby making it an excellent model for study and treatment of various hereditary diseases. Furthermore, because the dog presents with distinct, spontaneously occurring mammary tumors, it may serve as a model for genetic analysis and treatments of humans with malignant breast tumors. Because miRNAs have been found to act as both tumor suppressors and oncogenes in several different cancers, expression patterns of ten miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-21, miR-29b, miR-125b, miR-145, miR-155, miR-181b, let-7f) known to be associated with human breast cancers were compared to malignant canine mammary tumors (n = 6) and normal canine mammary tissue (n = 10). Resulting data revealed miR-29b and miR-21 to have a statistically significant (p pattern of expression as in the human, except for miR-145 which does not show a difference in expression between the normal and cancerous canine samples. In addition, when analyzed according to specific cancer phenotypes, miR-15a and miR-16 show a significant downregulation in canine ductal carcinomas while miRsR-181b, -21, -29b, and let-7f show a significant upregulation in canine tubular papillary carcinomas.

  14. Analyses of critical target cell responses during preclinical phases of evolving chronic radiation-induced myeloproliferative disease-exploitation of a unique canine model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seed, T.M.; Kaspar, L.V.; Tolle, D.V.; Fritz, T.E.; Frazier, M.E.

    1988-01-01

    This document briefly summarizes and highlights ongoing studies on the cellular and molecular processes involved in the induction and progression of myeloid leukemia in dogs chronically exposed to low daily doses of wholebody gamma irradiation. Under such conditions, select groups of dogs exhibit extremely high frequencies of myeloproliferative disease (MPD) (i.e., /congruent/50%) of which myeloid leukemia is most prominent. 2 figs.

  15. Several early interventions for ectopic maxillary canines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Astorga

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canine impactation is often encountered in orthodontic clinical practice and the aetiology is associated to genetic factors as well as local space factors. If preventive treatment is not started in ectopic maxillary canines, some possible consequences may occur, such as resorption of the roots of the neighboring permanent teeth, cysts, ankylosis and expensive surgical and orthodontic treatment. The aim of this review was to preset several early treatment modalities for ectopic maxillary canines based on recent scientific evidence. Four are the most important: Only extractions intervention, extraction of deciduous canines with cervical pull headgear, active intervention in late mixed dentition and active intervention in early mixed dentition. These different modalities showed a greater increasing the rate of normal eruption of ectopic canines ( 80-97%. The extraction of primary canine alone is still an effective method to prevent canine impactation, whose success rate would be increased if some other method interceptive is added.

  16. Clinical history and hematological findings among canines with monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Rawangchue, Thanakorn; Suphaphiphat, Karuna; Suksusieng, Sineenart; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk

    2014-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a tick borne disease caused by Ehrlichia canis, an obligate intracellular rickettsial organism belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae. Canine ehrlichiosis causes hemaotological changes among infected animals which could be used as a potential predictor for diagnosing canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ninety-four blood samples were obtained from canines that either presented for a routine health check-up or for clinical illness. A history, physical and laboratory test were conducted on each animal. All samples were examined for E. canis using a 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to confirm CME infection. Thirty-six of the samples were positive for E. canis using PCR and the rest were negative. The Mann-Whitney and chi-square test were used to compare the differences between the PCR-positive and negative animals. PCR-positive animals had a higher mean body temperature than PCR-negative animals. The following were significantly lower in PCR-positive animals: white blood cell count, eosinophil count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, and the random distribution of width (RDW) of the red blood cells. We evaluated complete blood cell count findings to determine factors associated with CME using multivariable logistic regression analysis and found thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with CME (OR = 0.085; 95% CI: 0.78-0.92, p < 0.001). For every decrease in the platelet count of 10,000 there was a 15% increase in the likelihood of having CME.

  17. 检测动物产品中水貂阿留申病毒和犬细小病毒复合PCR方法的建立和应用%Establishment and Application of Multi-PCR Detective Methods for the Detection of Aleutian Mink Disease Virus and Canine Parvovirus in Animal Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜雄伟; 李叶; 胡传伟

    2012-01-01

      水貂阿留申病(AD)和犬细小病毒病(CP)是危害经济动物健康的重要疫病,可造成巨大的经济损失。本研究建立了水貂阿留申病毒(ADV)、犬细小病毒(CPV)复合PCR检测方法,并对临床样品进行了大量检测,结果表明本方法特异、敏感、简便、快速,非常适宜临床样品的大量筛选检测,对经济动物疫情的快速诊断与控制、加强经济动物及其产品进出境的检验检疫工作,御疫情于国门之外有重要的意义。%  Aleutian mink disease and canine parvovirus disease are two important diseases causing great economic loss to fur animal industry. In the study,a multi-PCR assay was developed for detection of Aleutian mink disease and canine parvovirus and the assay was applied in testing a lot of clinical samples. The results showed that the assay was specific,sensitive and rapid,and suitable for screening test.

  18. Evaluation of the kinase domain of c-KIT in canine cutaneous mast cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiupel Matti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the c-KIT proto-oncogene have been implicated in the progression of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and cutaneous mast cell tumors (MCTs in canines. Mutations in human mastocytosis patients primarily occur in c-KIT exon 17, which encodes a portion of its kinase domain. In contrast, deletions and internal tandem duplication (ITD mutations are found in the juxtamembrane domain of c-KIT in approximately 15% of canine MCTs. In addition, ITD c-KIT mutations are significantly associated with aberrant KIT protein localization in canine MCTs. However, some canine MCTs have aberrant KIT localization but lack ITD c-KIT mutations, suggesting that other mutations or other factors may be responsible for aberrant KIT localization in these tumors. Methods In order to characterize the prevalence of mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain in canine MCTs exons 16–20 of 33 canine MCTs from 33 dogs were amplified and sequenced. Additionally, in order to determine if mutations in c-KIT exon 17 are responsible for aberrant KIT localization in MCTs that lack juxtamembrane domain c-KIT mutations, c-KIT exon 17 was amplified and sequenced from 18 canine MCTs that showed an aberrant KIT localization pattern but did not have ITD c-KIT mutations. Results No mutations or polymorphisms were identified in exons 16–20 of any of the MCTs examined. Conclusion In conclusion, mutations in the phospho-transferase portion of c-KIT's kinase domain do not play an important role in the progression of canine cutaneous MCTs, or in the aberrant localization of KIT in canine MCTs.

  19. Soluble Form of Canine Transferrin Receptor Inhibits Canine Parvovirus Infection In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiexia Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus (CPV disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  20. Soluble form of canine transferrin receptor inhibits canine parvovirus infection in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jiexia; Pan, Sumin; Liang, Shuang; Zhong, Zhenyu; He, Ying; Lin, Hongyu; Li, Wenyan; Wang, Liyue; Li, Xiujin; Zhong, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.

  1. Guidelines for the diagnosis and antimicrobial therapy of canine superficial bacterial folliculitis (Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillier, Andrew; Lloyd, David H.; Weese, J. Scott

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Superficial bacterial folliculitis (SBF) is usually caused by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius and routinely treated with systemic antimicrobial agents. Infection is a consequence of reduced immunity associated with alterations of the skin barrier and underlying diseases that may be di...... will improve antimicrobial use and reduce selection of MRSP and other multidrug-resistant bacteria affecting animal and human health....... of an internationally available resource guiding practitioners in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of SBF. DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUIDELINES: The guidelines were developed by the Antimicrobial Guidelines Working Group of the International Society for Companion Animal Infectious Diseases, with consultation and advice...... on infection control. Guidance is given for topical and systemic modalities, including approaches suitable for MRSP. Systemic drugs are classified in three tiers. Tier one drugs are used when diagnosis is clear cut and risk factors for antimicrobial drug resistance are not present. Otherwise, tier two drugs...

  2. The effect of global warming on infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurane, Ichiro

    2010-12-01

    Global warming has various effects on human health. The main indirect effects are on infectious diseases. Although the effects on infectious diseases will be detected worldwide, the degree and types of the effect are different, depending on the location of the respective countries and socioeconomical situations. Among infectious diseases, water- and foodborne infectious diseases and vector-borne infectious diseases are two main categories that are forecasted to be most affected. The effect on vector-borne infectious diseases such as malaria and dengue fever is mainly because of the expansion of the infested areas of vector mosquitoes and increase in the number and feeding activity of infected mosquitoes. There will be increase in the number of cases with water- and foodborne diarrhoeal diseases. Even with the strongest mitigation procedures, global warming cannot be avoided for decades. Therefore, implementation of adaptation measures to the effect of global warming is the most practical action we can take. It is generally accepted that the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases have not been apparent at this point yet in East Asia. However, these impacts will appear in one form or another if global warming continues to progress in future. Further research on the impacts of global warming on infectious diseases and on future prospects should be conducted.

  3. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  4. Survey of Canine Dirofilaria immitis Infection in New Caledonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Watier-Grillot

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine dirofilariosis is a frequent parasitic disease in New-Caledonia. A survey of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection among dogs from the cities of Tontouta, Nandaï and Nouméa, was performed in March 2009 using two antigen test kits; the microwell ELISA test: DiroCHE (Synbiotics Europe and the Rapid Immuno Migration (RIM test: WITNESS DIROFILARIA (Synbiotics Europe. Blood samples were collected from 64 dogs: 49 strays and 15 military working dogs. The military dogs received a permanent chemoprophylaxis (moxidectin. In 11 stray dogs, both tests were positive (22.4%. All the military dogs were negative, showing efficiency of chemoprophaxis. Results were discrepant in 6 dogs, negative with one test and doubtful with the other. Antigen heartworm test kits are available and reliable diagnostic tools. They are useful to evaluate the efficiency of chemoprophylaxis and to detect infected animals in order to treat them and to prevent the spreading of the disease.

  5. Neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westervelt, Holly James; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2002-09-01

    Lyme disease is currently the most common vector-borne illness in the United States. The disease is multisystemic, and chronic disease, in particular, may be associated with neuropsychological deficits. However, to date, only a few empirical studies exist, which examine the neuropsychological sequelae associated with chronic Lyme disease. A review of the literature shows that the deficits observed in adults with chronic Lyme disease are generally consistent with the deficits that can be seen in processes with primarily frontal systems involvement. These observations are generally consistent with neuroradiologic findings. The clinical presentation in chronic Lyme disease and the nature of the neuropsychological deficits are discussed, as are several central issues in understanding neuropsychological functioning in chronic Lyme disease, such as the impact of chronic illness, response to treatment, and the relationship between neuropsychological performance and depression, fatigue, and neurological indicators of disease.

  6. Canine parvovirus effect on wolf population change and pup survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1993-01-01

    Canine parvovirus infected wild canids more than a decade ago, but no population effect has been documented. In wild Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus) over a 12-yr period, the annual percent population increase and proportion of pups each were inversely related to the percentage of wolves serologically positive to the disease. Although these effects did not seem to retard this large extant population, similar relationships in more isolated wolf populations might hinder recovery of this endangered and threatened species.

  7. Canine Mammary Tumours Are Affected by Frequent Copy Number Aberrations, including Amplification of MYC and Loss of PTEN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja S Borge

    Full Text Available Copy number aberrations frequently occur during the development of many cancers. Such events affect dosage of involved genes and may cause further genomic instability and progression of cancer. In this survey, canine SNP microarrays were used to study 117 canine mammary tumours from 69 dogs.We found a high occurrence of copy number aberrations in canine mammary tumours, losses being more frequent than gains. Increased frequency of aberrations and loss of heterozygosity were positively correlated with increased malignancy in terms of histopathological diagnosis. One of the most highly recurrently amplified regions harbored the MYC gene. PTEN was located to a frequently lost region and also homozygously deleted in five tumours. Thus, deregulation of these genes due to copy number aberrations appears to be an important event in canine mammary tumour development. Other potential contributors to canine mammary tumour pathogenesis are COL9A3, INPP5A, CYP2E1 and RB1. The present study also shows that a more detailed analysis of chromosomal aberrations associated with histopathological parameters may aid in identifying specific genes associated with canine mammary tumour progression.The high frequency of copy number aberrations is a prominent feature of canine mammary tumours as seen in other canine and human cancers. Our findings share several features with corresponding studies in human breast tumours and strengthen the dog as a suitable model organism for this disease.

  8. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen L. Del Puerto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein coding region fragment amplification (84 bp. Canine b-actin (93 bp was utilized as the endogenous control for normalization. Quantitative results of real time PCR generated by ABI Prism 7000 SDS Software showed that 54.5% of dogs with asymptomatic canine distemper were positive for canine distemper virus. Dissociation curves confirmed the specificity of the real time PCR fragments. This technique could detect even a few copies of viral RNA and identificate subclinically infected dogs providing accurate diagnosis of this disease at an early stage.A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR em tempo real revelou a presença do vírus da cinomose canina em amostra de sangue de cães assintomáticos e não vacinados. Amostra de onze cães domésticos sem nenhum sinal clínico de cinomose e que não foram vacinados no mês da coleta de sangue foram utilizados para análise. Amostra vacinal do vírus da cinomose canina em células VERO foi utilizada como controle positivo. O RNA total foi isolado utilizando-se Trizol®, e tratadas com o Kit TURBO DNA-free. Os iniciadores foram desenhados para amplificar a região do nucleocapsídeo viral com 319pb e 84pb para a PCR convencional e PCR em tempo real, respectivamente. O fragmento alvo da b-actina canina com 93pb foi utilizado como controle endógeno e normalizador. Resultados quantitativos da PCR em tempo real gerados pelo programa ABI Prism 7000 SDS demonstraram que 54,5% dos cães assintom

  9. The relationship between the Southern Oscillation Index, rainfall and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rika-Heke, Tamara; Kelman, Mark; Ward, Michael P

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the association between climate, weather and the occurrence of canine tick paralysis, feline tick paralysis and canine parvovirus in Australia. The Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and monthly average rainfall (mm) data were used as indices for climate and weather, respectively. Case data were extracted from a voluntary national companion animal disease surveillance resource. Climate and weather data were obtained from the Australian Government Bureau of Meteorology. During the 4-year study period (January 2010-December 2013), a total of 4742 canine parvovirus cases and 8417 tick paralysis cases were reported. No significant (P ≥ 0.05) correlations were found between the SOI and parvovirus, canine tick paralysis or feline tick paralysis. A significant (P parvovirus occurrence and rainfall in the same month (0.28), and significant negative cross-correlations (-0.26 to -0.36) between parvovirus occurrence and rainfall 4-6 months previously. Significant (P canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 1-3 months previously, and significant positive cross-correlations (0.29-0.47) between canine tick paralysis occurrence and rainfall 7-10 months previously. Significant positive cross-correlations (0.37-0.68) were found between cases of feline tick paralysis and rainfall 6-10 months previously. These findings may offer a useful tool for the management and prevention of tick paralysis and canine parvovirus, by providing an evidence base supporting the recommendations of veterinarians to clients thus reducing the impact of these diseases.

  10. Calcareous degeneration of the canine cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansom, Jane; Blunden, Tony

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe a specific presentation of canine corneal calcification. Fourteen cases are described. In seven cases the corneal lesions were bilaterally symmetrical. In five cases the corneal lesion was unilateral. Two dogs were uniocular, the contralateral eye had been enucleated between 1 and 3 months previously by the referring veterinary surgeon following corneal ulceration and perforation. Of a total of 21 eyes with corneal calcification, 16 eyes had associated ulceration. The ulceration presented as follows: two eyes had descemetocoeles, four eyes had corneal perforations, eight eyes had stromal ulceration, and two eyes had superficial punctate ulceration. The cause of the corneal mineralization remains undetermined but underlying systemic disease, particularly hyperadrenocorticism (Cushing's Syndrome), is suspected as a possible contributing factor in some of these cases. Histopathology was carried out on three cases following a keratectomy and placement of a conjunctival pedicle flap into the ulcerated lesion.

  11. Maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yng-Tzer J

    2013-01-01

    Dental transposition is the positional interchange of two adjacent teeth. Canine transpositions are usually accompanied by other dental anomalies, such as: impaction of the incisors; missing teeth; peg-shaped lateral incisors; severe rotation or malposition of adjacent teeth; dilacerations; and malformations. Local pathologic processes, such as tumors, cysts, retained primary canines, and supernumerary teeth, might be responsible for canine transposition. The purpose of this paper was to present a rare case of maxillary canine-to-maxillary incisor transposition in an 8-year-old girl. The patient presented with noneruption of the permanent maxillary left central incisor, and a radiographic examination revealed an impacted dilacerated incisor. The central incisor was extracted because the root was severely dilacerated. At the 3-year follow-up, an oral examination revealed that the canine had transposed to the extraction site. Through orthodontic traction, combined with reshaping of the tooth, the transposed canine was successfully positioned into the incisor position.

  12. 犬瘟热的诊治%Diagnosis and Treatment of Canine Distemper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗厚强; 段龙川; 王清艳; 涂宜强; 涂国众

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is an acute infectious disease caused by the canine distemper virus in Canidae. Many symptoms were characterized by infected dogs, such as biphasic fever, rhinitis, severe inflammation of the digestive tract and respiratory inflammation. The pathogen, epidemiology, clinical symptoms and pathological changes of canine distemper were introduced in the paper. Though a typical case of canine distemper, a series of effective measures to treat canine distemper were introduced in order to provide reference for the control of canine distemper.%犬瘟热是一种由犬瘟热病毒引起的犬科动物急性传染病,病犬以双相热、鼻炎、严重的消化障碍和呼吸道炎症为特征。主要对该病的病原、流行病学、临床症状及病理变化等作一阐述,并以一例犬瘟热典型病例的诊治为例,介绍了治疗该病的有效措施,以期为有效防治犬瘟热提供参考。

  13. Lack of Ubiquitin Specific Protease 8 (USP8) Mutations in Canine Corticotroph Pituitary Adenomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sbiera, Silviu; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Weigand, Isabel; Grinwis, Guy C M; Broeckx, Bart; Herterich, Sabine; Allolio, Bruno; Deutschbein, Timo; Fassnacht, Martin; Meij, Björn P

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cushing's disease (CD), also known as pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism, is caused by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-secreting pituitary tumours. Affected humans and dogs have similar clinical manifestations, however, the incidence of the canine disease is thousand-fold higher. T

  14. Phylogenetic analysis of Austrian canine distemper virus strains from clinical samples from dogs and wild carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetka, V; Leschnik, M; Affenzeller, N; Möstl, K

    2011-04-01

    Austrian field cases of canine distemper (14 dogs, one badger [Meles meles] and one stone marten [Martes foina]) from 2002 to 2007 were investigated and the case histories were summarised briefly. Phylogenetic analysis of fusion (F) and haemagglutinin (H) gene sequences revealed different canine distemper virus (CDV) lineages circulating in Austria. The majority of CDV strains detected from 2002 to 2004 were well embedded in the European lineage. One Austrian canine sample detected in 2003, with a high similarity to Hungarian sequences from 2005 to 2006, could be assigned to the Arctic group (phocine distemper virus type 2-like). The two canine sequences from 2007 formed a clearly distinct group flanked by sequences detected previously in China and the USA on an intermediate position between the European wildlife and the Asia-1 cluster. The Austrian wildlife strains (2006 and 2007) could be assigned to the European wildlife group and were most closely related to, yet clearly different from, the 2007 canine samples. To elucidate the epidemiological role of Austrian wildlife in the transmission of the disease to dogs and vice versa, H protein residues related to receptor and host specificity (residues 530 and 549) were analysed. All samples showed the amino acids expected for their host of origin, with the exception of a canine sequence from 2007, which had an intermediate position between wildlife and canine viral strains. In the period investigated, canine strains circulating in Austria could be assigned to four different lineages reflecting both a high diversity and probably different origins of virus introduction to Austria in different years.

  15. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy as an effective adjunctive treatment for chronic Lyme disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Yu; Chen, Yen-Wen; Kao, Tseng-Hui; Kao, Hsin-Kuo; Lee, Yu-Chin; Cheng, Jui-Chun; Wang, Jia-Horng

    2014-05-01

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vector-borne illness in the United States, but it is relatively rare in Taiwan. Lyme disease can be treated with antibiotic agents, but approximately 20% of these patients experience persistent or intermittent subjective symptoms, so-called chronic Lyme disease (CLD). The mechanisms of CLD remain unclear and the symptoms related to CLD are difficult to manage. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) was applied in CLD therapy in the 1990s. However, reported information regarding the effectiveness of HBOT for CLD is still limited. Here, we present a patient with CLD who was successfully treated with HBOT.

  16. Parasite control practices and public perception of parasitic diseases: A survey of dog and cat owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Mariana; Alho, Ana Margarida; Owen, Sinclair Patrick; Nunes, Telmo; Madeira de Carvalho, Luís

    2015-11-01

    Drugs used in the control of internal and external parasites in companion animals play a crucial role in Animal and Public Health. To ensure continuing protection, these drugs should be administered regularly and in intervals, as suggested by the manufacturers. To assess parasite control practices and other related factors, including the degree of public awareness on the topic, 312 dog and cat owners were surveyed while attending the Small Animal Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Lisbon University. Results showed that 89.7% of the dogs were currently being treated with endoparasitic drugs. Of these, 74.3% were dewormed every four months or longer and merely 11.8% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). In cats, 63.6% were being treated with endoparasitic drugs and 85.7% of these were irregularly dewormed every four months or longer and merely 5.5% with the recommended treatment regimen (minimum quarterly). Combinations of praziquantel, pyrantel embonate and febantel were the most commonly used drugs in dogs, whereas macrocyclic lactones were more frequently used in cats. Regarding external parasitic control, 92.2% of the dogs were being treated, 50.5% of these at monthly intervals (all-year round or seasonally). The most common ectoparasitic drug formulation used on dogs was the spot-on imidacloprid+permethrin (89%). Only 28.4% of the dogs were uninterruptedly protected throughout the year from the main canine vector borne diseases transmitted by fleas, ticks, sandflies and mosquitoes. Merely 63.6% of the cats were being controlled with ectoparasitic drugs, most at infrequent drug intervals and imidacloprid was the most frequently used drug on cats (44.4%). Additionally, 85% of the respondents had never heard of the word "zoonosis" and 37% of them did not collect their dog's faeces in all public places. Scabies, toxoplasmosis and leishmaniasis were the most frequent parasitic diseases identified by the public in this survey. Although the

  17. Canine hepatozoonosis in Brazil: description of eight naturally occurring cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gondim, L F; Kohayagawa, A; Alencar, N X; Biondo, A W; Takahira, R K; Franco, S R

    1998-01-31

    Eight cases of canine hepatozoonosis were diagnosed at the Veterinary Hospital (Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Botucatu), between October 1993 and April 1994. Clinical signs included anorexia, pale mucous membranes, weight loss, pain, diarrhoea, vomit, gait abnormalities, fever, polyuria and polydipsia. Haematologic findings revealed anaemia in seven cases, leucocytosis with neutrophilia in three cases, lymphopenia in three cases and monocytosis in four cases. Serum biochemistries included alterations in many parameters. The micrometry of Hepatozoon canis gametocytes ranged from 6.8 x 4.0 microns to 7.5 x 4.5 microns. Parasitaemia ranged from less than 0.5% to 2%. In all the cases reported other concurrent diseases were present. Diagnosis of canine hepatozoonosis was made by identifying H. canis gametocytes within leucocytes in stained blood smears.

  18. Evaluation of a sponge-on therapy for canine scabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folz, S D; Kratzer, D D; Kakuk, T J; Rector, D L

    1984-03-01

    Forty dogs (20 treated, 20 controls) were utilized to evaluate a new treatment for naturally acquired canine scabies. A liquid concentrate formulation of amitraz was diluted and applied as a sponge-on therapy. Ninety-four percent of the dogs treated with the scabicide were cleared of mites and returned to clinical normality with a single topical treatment; one dog was retreated, cleared of mites and was also returned to normality. All dogs treated with the miticide responded clinically, therefore the treatment also may be useful when trial therapy is necessary to differentially diagnose the disease. The miticide was well tolerated by all dogs, and there was no evidence of dermal or ocular irritation. Topical treatment with the liquid concentrate was efficacious and safe as a therapy for naturally acquired canine scabies. Placebo controls did not improve clinically and these animals retained their mite populations.

  19. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage.

  20. Rapid Identification of Vector-Borne Flaviviruses by Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    from a known titer and tested in replicates of 10. All six mosquito-borne primer sets (VIR2215, VIR2217, VIR2211, VIR2216, VIR1026, VIR1028) had 100...Flavivirus RT-PCR primer pairs. From a known West Nile virus (WNV) titer, the RNA was serially diluted ten-fold. Ten replicates were performed to...219e228 225 Author’s personal copy alphaviruses (assuming that 30 genome equivalents is approxi- mately equal to 3 PFU) [10]. One benefit of the pan

  1. Rabies, canine distemper, and canine parvovirus exposure in large carnivore communities from two Zambian ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berentsen, Are R; Dunbar, Mike R; Becker, Matthew S; M'soka, Jassiel; Droge, Egil; Sakuya, Nicholas M; Matandiko, Wigganson; McRobb, Rachel; Hanlon, Cathleen A

    2013-09-01

    Disease transmission within and among wild and domestic carnivores can have significant impacts on populations, particularly for threatened and endangered species. We used serology to evaluate potential exposure to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), and canine parvovirus (CPV) for populations of African lions (Panthera leo), African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus), and spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) in Zambia's South Luangwa National Park (SLNP) and Liuwa Plain National Park (LPNP) as well as community lands bordering these areas. In addition, domestic dogs in the study region were evaluated for exposure to CDV and rabies. We provide the first comprehensive disease exposure data for these species in these ecosystems. Twenty-one lions, 20 hyenas, 13 wild dogs, and 38 domestic dogs were sampled across both regions from 2009 to 2011. Laboratory results show 10.5% of domestic dogs, 5.0% of hyenas, and 7.7% of wild dogs sampled were positive for CDV exposure. All lions were negative. Exposure to CPV was 10.0% and 4.8% for hyenas and lions, respectively. All wild dogs were negative, and domestic dogs were not tested due to insufficient serum samples. All species sampled were negative for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies except lions. Forty percent of lions tested positive for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies. Because these lions appeared clinically healthy, this finding is consistent with seroconversion following exposure to rabies antigen. To our knowledge, this finding represents the first ever documentation of rabies virus neutralizing antibodies consistent with rabies exposure that did not lead to clinical disease in free-ranging African lions from this region. With ever-increasing human pressure on these ecosystems, understanding disease transmission dynamics is essential for proper management and conservation of these carnivore species.

  2. The Role of c-KIT in Tumorigenesis: Evaluation in Canine Cutaneous Mast Cell Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua D. Webster

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available The c-KIT proto-oncogene has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several neoplastic diseases, including gastrointestinal stromal tumors and mastocytosis in humans, and mast cell tumors (MCTs in canines. Cutaneous MCTs are common neoplasms in dogs and have a variable biologic behavior. The goal of this study was to define the prognostic significance of c-KIT mutations identified in canine MCTs and the associations between c-KIT mutations, KIT localization, and KIT expression levels. Microdissection and polymerase chain reaction were performed on 60 MCTs to identify c-KIT mutations. Anti-KIT antibodies were used for immunohistochemical evaluation of KIT localization. Forty-two MCTs were included in a tissue microarray, and KIT expression was quantified using immunofluorescence. Canine MCTs with c-KIT mutations were significantly associated with an increased incidence of recurrent disease and death. c-KIT mutations were also significantly associated with aberrant protein localization; however, the level of KIT expression did not correlate with either c-KIT mutations or changes in protein localization. Considering the high prevalence of canine MCTs and the central role of c-KIT in the tumorigenesis of certain tumors, canine MCTs are an excellent model for characterizing the role of c-KIT in neoplastic diseases and is a potential target for novel therapeutic agents in clinical trials.

  3. Stimulation with Concanavalin-A Induces IL-17 Production by Canine Peripheral T Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle G. Ritt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of canine IL-17-producing cells are incompletely understood. Expression of mRNA encoding orthologs of IL-17 and the IL-17 receptor has been documented in tissues from dogs with arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and lymphoma; however, no associations have been found between IL-17 gene expression and disease phenotype in these conditions. Robust assessment of the role of IL-17-producing cells in dogs will require measuring the frequency of these cells in health and disease in balance with other lymphocyte subsets. The aim of this study was to confirm that the T-cell IL-17 response in dogs is evolutionarily conserved. Canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells were stimulated with Concanavalin A with or without polarizing cytokines. We used a canine specific IL-17 ELISA and flow cytometry to identify IL-17-producing T cells. Accumulation of intracellular IL-17 was observed in stimulated CD4 and CD8 T cells. The addition of pro-inflammatory cytokines appeared to enhance polarization of canine CD4 T cells to the Th17 phenotype. Conversely, the addition of IL-2 in the presence of TGF-β resulted in expansion of Treg cells. We conclude that canine IL-17-producing cells behave similarly to those from humans and mice when stimulated with mitogens and polarized with pro-inflammatory or immune regulatory cytokines.

  4. Serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity in experimentally induced and naturally occurring canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylonakis, Mathios E; Xenoulis, Panagiotis G; Theodorou, Konstantina; Siarkou, Victoria I; Steiner, Jörg M; Harrus, Shimon; Leontides, Leonidas; Rallis, Timoleon; Suchodolski, Jan S; Koutinas, Christos K; Koutinas, Alexander F

    2014-03-14

    Ehrlichia canis infection causes multisystemic disease in dogs (canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, CME) which is associated with variable morbidity and mortality. Atypical clinical manifestations, including gastrointestinal signs, may occasionally occur in CME and approximately 10-15% of dogs are presented with historical or clinical evidence of vomiting, diarrhea, and/or abdominal discomfort. The objective of this study was to investigate if there are any alterations in serum canine pancreatic lipase immunoreactivity (cPLI) in dogs with experimentally induced or naturally occurring monocytic ehrlichiosis. Serum samples from 10 Beagle dogs experimentally infected with E. canis and two healthy uninfected Beagles were serially examined; samples from 20 naturally infected dogs (10 with non-myelosuppressive [NME] and 10 with myelosuppressive [ME] ehrlichiosis) were also examined at a given point in time (cross-sectional sampling). None of the experimentally infected Beagles showed gastrointestinal signs or increased cPLI concentrations prior to or following the artificial infection. Three naturally infected dogs with NME and one with ME demonstrated serum cPLI concentrations in the diagnostic range for pancreatitis (>400 μg/L) without showing gastrointestinal signs. The results of the present study indicated that 4/20 (20%) of dogs naturally infected with E. canis demonstrated increased serum cPLI concentrations consistent with mild and clinically inapparent pancreatitis.

  5. Disease Limits Populations: Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Cully, Jack F.; Johnson, Tammi L.; Collinge, Sharon K.; Ray, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Plague is an exotic vector-borne disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that causes mortality rates approaching 100% in black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus). We mapped the perimeter of the active portions of black-tailed prairie dog colonies annually between 1999 and 2005 at four prairie dog colony complexes in areas with a history of plague, as well as at two complexes that were located outside the distribution of plague at the time of mapping and had therefore never bee...

  6. Global biogeography of human infectious diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Kris A; Preston, Nicholas; Allen, Toph; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos; Hosseini, Parviez R; Daszak, Peter

    2015-10-13

    The distributions of most infectious agents causing disease in humans are poorly resolved or unknown. However, poorly known and unknown agents contribute to the global burden of disease and will underlie many future disease risks. Existing patterns of infectious disease co-occurrence could thus play a critical role in resolving or anticipating current and future disease threats. We analyzed the global occurrence patterns of 187 human infectious diseases across 225 countries and seven epidemiological classes (human-specific, zoonotic, vector-borne, non-vector-borne, bacterial, viral, and parasitic) to show that human infectious diseases exhibit distinct spatial grouping patterns at a global scale. We demonstrate, using outbreaks of Ebola virus as a test case, that this spatial structuring provides an untapped source of prior information that could be used to tighten the focus of a range of health-related research and management activities at early stages or in data-poor settings, including disease surveillance, outbreak responses, or optimizing pathogen discovery. In examining the correlates of these spatial patterns, among a range of geographic, epidemiological, environmental, and social factors, mammalian biodiversity was the strongest predictor of infectious disease co-occurrence overall and for six of the seven disease classes examined, giving rise to a striking congruence between global pathogeographic and "Wallacean" zoogeographic patterns. This clear biogeographic signal suggests that infectious disease assemblages remain fundamentally constrained in their distributions by ecological barriers to dispersal or establishment, despite the homogenizing forces of globalization. Pathogeography thus provides an overarching context in which other factors promoting infectious disease emergence and spread are set.

  7. Toward immunotherapy with redirected T cells in a large animal model: ex vivo activation, expansion, and genetic modification of canine T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Melinda; Vera, Juan F; Gerken, Claudia; Rooney, Cliona M; Miller, Tasha; Pfent, Catherine; Wang, Lisa L; Wilson-Robles, Heather M; Gottschalk, Stephen

    2014-10-01

    Adoptive transfer of T cells expressing chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) has shown promising antitumor activity in early phase clinical studies, especially for hematological malignancies. However, most preclinical models do not reliably mimic human disease. We reasoned that developing an adoptive T-cell therapy approach for spontaneous osteosarcoma (OS) occurring in dogs would more closely reproduce the condition in human cancer. To generate CAR-expressing canine T cells, we developed expansion and transduction protocols that allow for the generation of sufficient numbers of CAR-expressing canine T cells for future clinical studies in dogs within 2 weeks of ex vivo culture. To evaluate the functionality of CAR-expressing canine T cells, we targeted HER2(+) OS. We demonstrate that canine OS is positive for HER2, and that canine T cells expressing a HER2-specific CAR with human-derived transmembrane and CD28.ζ signaling domains recognize and kill HER2(+) canine OS cell lines in an antigen-dependent manner. To reduce the potential immunogenicity of the CAR, we evaluated a CAR with canine-derived transmembrane and signaling domains, and found no functional difference between human and canine CARs. Hence, we have successfully developed a strategy to generate CAR-expressing canine T cells for future preclinical studies in dogs. Testing T-cell therapies in an immunocompetent, outbred animal model may improve our ability to predict their safety and efficacy before conducting studies in humans.

  8. Oxidative Stress and Protein Quality Control Systems in the Aged Canine Brain as a Model for Human Neurodegenerative Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariarita Romanucci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged dogs are considered the most suitable spontaneous animal model for studying normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Elderly canines naturally develop cognitive dysfunction and neuropathological hallmarks similar to those seen in humans, especially Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology. Pet dogs also share similar living conditions and diets to humans. Oxidative damage accumulates in the canine brain during aging, making dogs a valid model for translational antioxidant treatment/prevention studies. Evidence suggests the presence of detective protein quality control systems, involving ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS and Heat Shock Proteins (HSPs, in the aged canine brain. Further studies on the canine model are needed to clarify the role of age-related changes in UPS activity and HSP expression in neurodegeneration in order to design novel treatment strategies, such as HSP-based therapies, aimed at improving chaperone defences against proteotoxic stress affecting brain during aging.

  9. The effects of city streets on an urban disease vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbu, Corentin M; Hong, Andrew; Manne, Jennifer M; Small, Dylan S; Quintanilla Calderón, Javier E; Sethuraman, Karthik; Quispe-Machaca, Víctor; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G; Málaga Chavez, Fernando S; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2013-01-01

    With increasing urbanization vector-borne diseases are quickly developing in cities, and urban control strategies are needed. If streets are shown to be barriers to disease vectors, city blocks could be used as a convenient and relevant spatial unit of study and control. Unfortunately, existing spatial analysis tools do not allow for assessment of the impact of an urban grid on the presence of disease agents. Here, we first propose a method to test for the significance of the impact of streets on vector infestation based on a decomposition of Moran's spatial autocorrelation index; and second, develop a Gaussian Field Latent Class model to finely describe the effect of streets while controlling for cofactors and imperfect detection of vectors. We apply these methods to cross-sectional data of infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in the city of Arequipa, Peru. Our Moran's decomposition test reveals that the distribution of T. infestans in this urban environment is significantly constrained by streets (p<0.05). With the Gaussian Field Latent Class model we confirm that streets provide a barrier against infestation and further show that greater than 90% of the spatial component of the probability of vector presence is explained by the correlation among houses within city blocks. The city block is thus likely to be an appropriate spatial unit to describe and control T. infestans in an urban context. Characteristics of the urban grid can influence the spatial dynamics of vector borne disease and should be considered when designing public health policies.

  10. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  11. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Carl S; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H; Hudak, Andrew T; Noh, Susan M; Futse, James E

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  12. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl S Beckley

    Full Text Available Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B

  13. Disaggregating Tropical Disease Prevalence by Climatic and Vegetative Zones within Tropical West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckley, Carl S.; Shaban, Salisu; Palmer, Guy H.; Hudak, Andrew T.; Noh, Susan M.; Futse, James E.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical infectious disease prevalence is dependent on many socio-cultural determinants. However, rainfall and temperature frequently underlie overall prevalence, particularly for vector-borne diseases. As a result these diseases have increased prevalence in tropical as compared to temperate regions. Specific to tropical Africa, the tendency to incorrectly infer that tropical diseases are uniformly prevalent has been partially overcome with solid epidemiologic data. This finer resolution data is important in multiple contexts, including understanding risk, predictive value in disease diagnosis, and population immunity. We hypothesized that within the context of a tropical climate, vector-borne pathogen prevalence would significantly differ according to zonal differences in rainfall, temperature, relative humidity and vegetation condition. We then determined if these environmental data were predictive of pathogen prevalence. First we determined the prevalence of three major pathogens of cattle, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bigemina and Theileria spp, in the three vegetation zones where cattle are predominantly raised in Ghana: Guinea savannah, semi-deciduous forest, and coastal savannah. The prevalence of A. marginale was 63%, 26% for Theileria spp and 2% for B. bigemina. A. marginale and Theileria spp. were significantly more prevalent in the coastal savannah as compared to either the Guinea savanna or the semi-deciduous forest, supporting acceptance of the first hypothesis. To test the predictive power of environmental variables, the data over a three year period were considered in best subsets multiple linear regression models predicting prevalence of each pathogen. Corrected Akaike Information Criteria (AICc) were assigned to the alternative models to compare their utility. Competitive models for each response were averaged using AICc weights. Rainfall was most predictive of pathogen prevalence, and EVI also contributed to A. marginale and B. bigemina prevalence

  14. Adaptation and Evaluation of a Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis Model for Lyme Disease Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Gern, Lise; Michel, Pascal; Ravel, André; Hongoh, Valérie; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Milord, François; Bélanger, Denise

    2015-01-01

    Designing preventive programs relevant to vector-borne diseases such as Lyme disease (LD) can be complex given the need to include multiple issues and perspectives into prioritizing public health actions. A multi-criteria decision aid (MCDA) model was previously used to rank interventions for LD prevention in Quebec, Canada, where the disease is emerging. The aim of the current study was to adapt and evaluate the decision model constructed in Quebec under a different epidemiological context, in Switzerland, where LD has been endemic for the last thirty years. The model adaptation was undertaken with a group of Swiss stakeholders using a participatory approach. The PROMETHEE method was used for multi-criteria analysis. Key elements and results of the MCDA model are described and contrasted with the Quebec model. All criteria and most interventions of the MCDA model developed for LD prevention in Quebec were directly transferable to the Swiss context. Four new decision criteria were added, and the list of proposed interventions was modified. Based on the overall group ranking, interventions targeting human populations were prioritized in the Swiss model, with the top ranked action being the implementation of a large communication campaign. The addition of criteria did not significantly alter the intervention rankings, but increased the capacity of the model to discriminate between highest and lowest ranked interventions. The current study suggests that beyond the specificity of the MCDA models developed for Quebec and Switzerland, their general structure captures the fundamental and common issues that characterize the complexity of vector-borne disease prevention. These results should encourage public health organizations to adapt, use and share MCDA models as an effective and functional approach to enable the integration of multiple perspectives and considerations in the prevention and control of complex public health issues such as Lyme disease or other vector-borne

  15. Improvement of disease prediction and modeling through the use of meteorological ensembles: human plague in Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean M Moore

    Full Text Available Climate and weather influence the occurrence, distribution, and incidence of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by vector-borne or zoonotic pathogens. Thus, models based on meteorological data have helped predict when and where human cases are most likely to occur. Such knowledge aids in targeting limited prevention and control resources and may ultimately reduce the burden of diseases. Paradoxically, localities where such models could yield the greatest benefits, such as tropical regions where morbidity and mortality caused by vector-borne diseases is greatest, often lack high-quality in situ local meteorological data. Satellite- and model-based gridded climate datasets can be used to approximate local meteorological conditions in data-sparse regions, however their accuracy varies. Here we investigate how the selection of a particular dataset can influence the outcomes of disease forecasting models. Our model system focuses on plague (Yersinia pestis infection in the West Nile region of Uganda. The majority of recent human cases have been reported from East Africa and Madagascar, where meteorological observations are sparse and topography yields complex weather patterns. Using an ensemble of meteorological datasets and model-averaging techniques we find that the number of suspected cases in the West Nile region was negatively associated with dry season rainfall (December-February and positively with rainfall prior to the plague season. We demonstrate that ensembles of available meteorological datasets can be used to quantify climatic uncertainty and minimize its impacts on infectious disease models. These methods are particularly valuable in regions with sparse observational networks and high morbidity and mortality from vector-borne diseases.

  16. Improvement of disease prediction and modeling through the use of meteorological ensembles: human plague in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean M; Monaghan, Andrew; Griffith, Kevin S; Apangu, Titus; Mead, Paul S; Eisen, Rebecca J

    2012-01-01

    Climate and weather influence the occurrence, distribution, and incidence of infectious diseases, particularly those caused by vector-borne or zoonotic pathogens. Thus, models based on meteorological data have helped predict when and where human cases are most likely to occur. Such knowledge aids in targeting limited prevention and control resources and may ultimately reduce the burden of diseases. Paradoxically, localities where such models could yield the greatest benefits, such as tropical regions where morbidity and mortality caused by vector-borne diseases is greatest, often lack high-quality in situ local meteorological data. Satellite- and model-based gridded climate datasets can be used to approximate local meteorological conditions in data-sparse regions, however their accuracy varies. Here we investigate how the selection of a particular dataset can influence the outcomes of disease forecasting models. Our model system focuses on plague (Yersinia pestis infection) in the West Nile region of Uganda. The majority of recent human cases have been reported from East Africa and Madagascar, where meteorological observations are sparse and topography yields complex weather patterns. Using an ensemble of meteorological datasets and model-averaging techniques we find that the number of suspected cases in the West Nile region was negatively associated with dry season rainfall (December-February) and positively with rainfall prior to the plague season. We demonstrate that ensembles of available meteorological datasets can be used to quantify climatic uncertainty and minimize its impacts on infectious disease models. These methods are particularly valuable in regions with sparse observational networks and high morbidity and mortality from vector-borne diseases.

  17. Genetic Control of Canine Leishmaniasis: Genome-Wide Association Study and Genomic Selection Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Quilez; Verónica Martínez; Woolliams, John A; Armand Sanchez; Ricardo Pong-Wong; Kennedy, Lorna J.; Quinnell, Rupert J.; Ollier, William E R; Xavier Roura; Lluís Ferrer; Laura Altet; Olga Francino

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous studies suggest a role for host genetics. Our hypothesis was that canine leishmaniasis is a complex disease with multiple loci responsible for...

  18. Genetic control of canine leishmaniasis: genome-wide association study and genomic selection analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Quilez; Verónica Martínez; Woolliams, John A.; Armand Sanchez; Ricardo Pong-Wong; Kennedy, Lorna J; Rupert J Quinnell; William E. R. Ollier; Xavier Roura; Lluís Ferrer; Laura Altet; Olga Francino

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection. The factors that determine whether individuals progress to clinical disease following Leishmania infection are unclear, although previous studies suggest a role for host genetics. Our hypothesis was that canine leishmaniasis is a complex disease with multiple loci responsible for...

  19. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of...

  20. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus... REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper Vaccine... canine distemper susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals....

  1. The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya Bulut

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs, Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1, the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2, which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random sampling, regardless of the clinical findings. Dogs showed a systemic disease, characterized by fever, diarrhea, vomiting, oculonasal discharge, conjunctivitis, severe moist cough, signs of pulmonary disease and dehydration. Two dogs had corneal opacity and photophobia. In serological studies, 188 serum samples were investigated on the presence of CAV antibodies by ELISA. Total 103 (103/188–54.7% blood samples were detected to be positive for CAV antibodies by ELISA. However, 85 (85/188–45.2% blood samples were negative. Blood leukocyte samples from dogs were processed and inoculated onto confluent monolayers of MDCK cells using standard virological techniques. After third passage, cells were examined by direct immunoflourescence test for virus isolation. But positive result was not detected. In conclusion, this study clearly demonstrates the high prevalence of CAV infection in dogs.

  2. Penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Meret E Ricklin; Reist, Martin; Persohn, Elke; Peel, John E; Roosje, Petra J

    2006-01-01

    ASM 981 has been developed for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. It specifically inhibits the production and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We measured the skin penetration of ASM 981 in canine skin and compared penetration in living and frozen skin. To make penetration of ASM 981 visible in dog skin, tritium labelled ASM 981 was applied to a living dog and to defrosted skin of the same dog. Using qualitative autoradiography the radioactive molecules were detected in the lumen of the hair follicles until the infundibulum, around the superficial parts of the hair follicles and into a depth of the dermis of 200 to 500 microm. Activity could not be found in deeper parts of the hair follicles, the dermis or in the sebaceous glands. Penetration of ASM 981 is low in canine skin and is only equally spread in the upper third of the dermis 24 hours after application. Penetration in frozen skin takes even longer than in living canine skin but shows the same distribution.

  3. Pharmacologic inhibition of MEK signaling prevents growth of canine hemangiosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Nicholas J.; Nickoloff, Brian J.; Dykema, Karl J.; Boguslawski, Elissa A.; Krivochenitser, Roman I.; Froman, Roe E.; Dawes, Michelle J.; Baker, Laurence H.; Thomas, Dafydd G.; Kamstock, Debra A.; Kitchell, Barbara E.; Furge, Kyle A.; Duesbery, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Angiosarcoma (AS) is a rare neoplasm of endothelial origin that has limited treatment options and poor five-year survival. As a model for human AS, we studied primary cells and tumorgrafts derived from canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA), which is also an endothelial malignancy with similar presentation and histology. Primary cells isolated from HSA showed constitutive ERK activation. The MEK inhibitor CI-1040 reduced ERK activation and the viability of primary cells derived from visceral, cutaneous, and cardiac HSA in vitro. HSA-derived primary cells were also sensitive to sorafenib, an inhibitor of B-Raf and multi-receptor tyrosine kinases. In vivo, CI-1040 or PD0325901 decreased the growth of cutaneous cell-derived xenografts and cardiac-derived tumorgrafts. Sorafenib decreased tumor size in both in vivo models, although cardiac tumorgrafts were more sensitive. In human AS, we noted that 50% of tumors stained positively for phosphorylated ERK1/2 and that the expression of several MEK-responsive transcription factors was up-regulated. Our data showed that MEK signaling is essential for the growth of HSA in vitro and in vivo and provided evidence that the same pathways are activated in human AS. This indicates that MEK inhibitors may form part of an effective therapeutic strategy for the treatment of canine HSA or human AS, and it highlights the utility of spontaneous canine cancers as a model of human disease. PMID:23804705

  4. Nodular Epiescleritis Granulomatous Canine. Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Guarín Patarroyo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Granulomatous epiescleritis nodular disease in canines is a very unusual presentation that affects or external fibrous tunic of the eyeball and conjunctiva, which was an increase similar to a unilateral or bilateral tumor. Suspected immune-mediated disease due to lack of identification of an etiologic agent and the response to treatment with immunosuppressive drugs (Couto, 1992. The ideal therapy is the application of steroids via intralesional, topical or systemic, or other immunosuppressants such as cyclosporine and azathioprine; it is still advisable to apply antibiotic is the ideal combination of tetracycline and neomycin (Gilger & Whitley, 1999. The diagnostic method of episcleritis is made by histopathology, which is evident in changes similar to chronic granulomatous inflammation. Are claiming a racial bias in Alsatian, Shepherd Collie Shetland Shepherd, Coker Spaniel, Rottweiler and Labrador Retriever (Gough & Thomas, 2004. The following case is a report of a nodular epiescleritis affecting the cornea, sclera, and the corneoscleral limbus, which describes the diagnosis, signology and treatment.

  5. Epidemiological investigation of canine parvovirus disease in small animal hospital in Wenzhou area%温州地区犬细小病毒病门诊的流行病学调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗厚强; 宋显章; 王清艳; 段龙川; 涂宜强; 付华

    2014-01-01

    为掌握温州地区犬细小病毒病的流行病学情况,对2011年10月至2012年9月在温州科技职业学院附属宠物医院就诊的578份病例进行流行病学调查。结果表明:检测出温州地区犬细小病毒感染阳性病例113份,感染率为19.6%;感染犬以3~12月龄犬为主;未免疫犬感染率最高,达到84.8%;纯种犬的感染率也是最高,达到84.1%;温州地区犬细小病毒感染一年四季均可发生,但多发于春秋两季;通常采用早期血清、单抗治疗和疫苗接种为主的综合治疗方法,才能提高治疗效果,降低死亡率。%In order to provide scientific basis for control of canine parvovirus infection , an epidemiological investigation on the infected dogs was carried out from October 2011 to September 2012 in Wenzhou Small Animal Hospital, Wenzhou Vocational College of Science & Technology .The results showed that 113 canine parvovirus positive cases were found and the total infection rate was 19.6%.The majority of infection cases were dogs at the age of 3 months to 12 months.The infection rate among the dogs with no immunization were was higher , accounting for 84.8%.And the infection rate of purebred dogs was higher , accounting for 84.1%.Canine parvovirus infection could happen all the year round in Wenzhou area , especially in spring and autumn .The comprehensive treatment including injection of CPV serum and CPV monoclonal antibody and active immunization were adopted to improve cure rate and reduce mortality of canine parvovirus infection .

  6. A mutation in the canine BHD gene is associated with hereditary multifocal renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis in the German Shepherd dog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lingaas, F; Comstock, KE; Kirkness, EF; Sorensen, A; Aarskaug, T; Hitte, C; Nickerson, ML; Moe, L; Schmidt, LS; Thomas, R; Breen, M; Galibert, F; Zbar, B; Ostrander, EA

    2003-01-01

    Hereditary multifocal renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis (RCND) is a naturally occurring canine kidney cancer syndrome that was originally described in German Shepherd dogs. The disease is characterized by bilateral, multifocal tumors in the kidneys, uterine leiomyomas and nodules

  7. Clinical comparison of human and canine atopic dermatitis using human diagnostic criteria (Japanese Dermatological Association, 2009): proposal of provisional diagnostic criteria for canine atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yuri; Nagata, Masahiko; Murayama, Nobuo; Nanko, Hiroko; Furue, Masutaka

    2011-08-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease encountered in both humans and dogs. Canine AD can be used in the analysis of naturally occurring AD; however, details of clinical comparison have been lacking. The purpose of this study is to compare those clinical features using the human diagnostic criteria (Japanese Dermatological Association, 2009). Fifty-one dogs with canine AD were evaluated by the human criteria. Prior to this study, canine AD was basically diagnosed by the fulfillment of two authentic canine AD criteria and a positive reaction against Dermatophagoides farinae in serum immunoglobulin E levels and/or in intradermal tests. Among the human AD criteria items, behavior corresponding to pruritus was observed in all 51 dogs. Skin lesions corresponding to eczematous dermatitis were seen in 50 dogs, and symmetrical distribution of skin lesions was noted in all 51 dogs. A chronic or chronically relapsing course was observed in 50 dogs. Based on these results, the concordance rate for the criteria was 96% (49/51). Differential diagnoses of AD were also investigated in the same manner. The concordance rate for the criteria was 0% (0/69) in scabies, 2% (1/50) in pyoderma, 0% (0/50) in demodicosis, 0% (0/9) in cutaneous lymphoma, 0% (0/2) in ichthyosis, 25% (2/7) in flea allergy, 48% (24/50) in seborrheic dermatitis and 75% (3/4) in food allergy. Canine AD is thus indicated as a valuable counterpart to human AD in clinical aspects. In addition, the human AD criteria could be applicable, with some modification, as provisional diagnostic criteria for canine AD.

  8. Infectious diseases and their outbreaks in Asia-Pacific: biodiversity and its regulation loss matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morand, Serge; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Suputtamongkol, Yupin; Abdullah, Mohd Tajuddin; Huan, Tan Boon

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing control measures, numerous parasitic and infectious diseases are emerging, re-emerging or causing recurrent outbreaks particularly in Asia and the Pacific region, a hot spot of both infectious disease emergence and biodiversity at risk. We investigate how biodiversity affects the distribution of infectious diseases and their outbreaks in this region, taking into account socio-economics (population size, GDP, public health expenditure), geography (latitude and nation size), climate (precipitation, temperature) and biodiversity (bird and mammal species richness, forest cover, mammal and bird species at threat). We show, among countries, that the overall richness of infectious diseases is positively correlated with the richness of birds and mammals, but the number of zoonotic disease outbreaks is positively correlated with the number of threatened mammal and bird species and the number of vector-borne disease outbreaks is negatively correlated with forest cover. These results suggest that, among countries, biodiversity is a source of pathogens, but also that the loss of biodiversity or its regulation, as measured by forest cover or threatened species, seems to be associated with an increase in zoonotic and vector-borne disease outbreaks.

  9. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma' arof, S. H. Mohd Imam [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Mathematics, Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris, 35900 Tanjung Malim, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-12-04

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  10. Disease mapping based on stochastic SIR-SI model for Dengue and Chikungunya in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samat, N. A.; Ma'arof, S. H. Mohd Imam

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for relative risk estimation which is based on the stochastic SIR-SI vector-borne infectious disease transmission model specifically for Dengue and Chikungunya diseases in Malaysia. Firstly, the common compartmental model for vector-borne infectious disease transmission called the SIR-SI model (susceptible-infective-recovered for human populations; susceptible-infective for vector populations) is presented. This is followed by the explanations on the stochastic SIR-SI model which involve the Bayesian description. This stochastic model then is used in the relative risk formulation in order to obtain the posterior relative risk estimation. Then, this relative estimation model is demonstrated using Dengue and Chikungunya data of Malaysia. The viruses of these diseases are transmitted by the same type of female vector mosquito named Aedes Aegypti and Aedes Albopictus. Finally, the findings of the analysis of relative risk estimation for both Dengue and Chikungunya diseases are presented, compared and displayed in graphs and maps. The distribution from risk maps show the high and low risk area of Dengue and Chikungunya diseases occurrence. This map can be used as a tool for the prevention and control strategies for both diseases.

  11. Isolation, genetic manipulation, and transplantation of canine spermatogonial stem cells: progress toward transgenesis through the male germ-line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harkey, Michael A; Asano, Atsushi; Zoulas, Mary Ellen; Torok-Storb, Beverly; Nagashima, Jennifer; Travis, Alexander

    2013-07-01

    The dog is recognized as a highly predictive model for preclinical research. Its size, life span, physiology, and genetics more closely match human parameters than do those of the mouse model. Investigations of the genetic basis of disease and of new regenerative treatments have frequently taken advantage of canine models. However, full utility of this model has not been realized because of the lack of easy transgenesis. Blastocyst-mediated transgenic technology developed in mice has been very slow to translate to larger animals, and somatic cell nuclear transfer remains technically challenging, expensive, and low yield. Spermatogonial stem cell (SSC) transplantation, which does not involve manipulation of ova or blastocysts, has proven to be an effective alternative approach for generating transgenic offspring in rodents and in some large animals. Our recent demonstration that canine testis cells can engraft in a host testis, and generate donor-derived sperm, suggests that SSC transplantation may offer a similar avenue to transgenesis in the canine model. Here, we explore the potential of SSC transplantation in dogs as a means of generating canine transgenic models for preclinical models of genetic diseases. Specifically, we i) established markers for identification and tracking canine spermatogonial cells; ii) established methods for enrichment and genetic manipulation of these cells; iii) described their behavior in culture; and iv) demonstrated engraftment of genetically manipulated SSC and production of transgenic sperm. These findings help to set the stage for generation of transgenic canine models via SSC transplantation.

  12. The role of osteonecrosis in canine coronoid dysplasia: Arthroscopic and histopathological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariee, I.C.; Gröne, A.; Theyse, L.F.H.

    2014-01-01

    Coronoid dysplasia (CD) or medial coronoid disease is part of canine elbowdysplasia and eventually results in osteoarthrosis. Although CDwas originally attributed to disturbed endochondral ossification,more recent data point to the subchondral bone. The objective of this study was to assess dysplast

  13. Canine hepacivirus and idiopathic hepatitis in dogs from a Dutch cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, L J W; de Ruiter, P E; van Gils, I M; Fieten, H; Spee, B; Pan, Q; Rothuizen, J; Penning, L C

    2014-01-01

    Liver diseases are highly prevalent in the general dog population, though the etiology is often unknown. Recently a homolog of human hepatitis C virus was discovered in dogs with respiratory infections. Although this canine hepacivirus (CHV) was detectable in some liver samples, a clear link with li

  14. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 i

  15. Canine distemper virus infection in a lesser grison (Galictis cuja: first report and virus phylogeny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Megid

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Infectious diseases in wild animals have been increasing as a result of their habitat alterations and closer contact with domestic animals. Canine distemper virus (CDV has been reported in several species of wild carnivores, presenting a threat to wildlife conservation. We described the first case of canine distemper virus infection in lesser grison (Galictis cuja. A free-ranging individual, with no visible clinical sigs, presented sudden death after one day in captivity. Molecular diagnosis for CDV infection was performed using whole blood collected by postmortem intracardiac puncture, which resulted positive. The virus phylogeny indicated that domestic dogs were the probable source of infection.

  16. Doxorubicin and deracoxib adjuvant therapy for canine splenic hemangiosarcoma: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, S Anthony; Mullin, Christine M; de Lorimier, Louis-Philippe; Burgess, Kristine E; Risbon, Rebecca E; Fred, Rogers M; Drobatz, Kenneth; Clifford, Craig A

    2013-03-01

    Canine hemangiosarcoma (HSA) is a highly malignant tumor for which standard chemotherapy has done little to substantially improve survival. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) plays a role in the formation, growth, and metastasis of tumors and inhibitors have demonstrated therapeutic benefit with certain canine cancers. In this prospective study, 21 dogs received adjuvant therapy combining the selective Cox-2 inhibitor deracoxib with doxorubicin, following splenectomy for HSA. The combination was well-tolerated with only low-grade gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities noted. An overall median survival of 150 days (range; 21 to 1506 days) was noted. Although there was no significant difference in survival based upon stage of disease, dogs with stage III HSA (n = 11) had a median survival of 149 days, which appears to be longer than previously reported. Further studies are warranted to evaluate the potential benefit of Cox-2 inhibitors in the treatment of canine HSA.

  17. Identification and characterization of cancer stem cells in canine mammary tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybicka, Agata; Król, Magdalena

    2016-12-19

    Cancer stem cells (CSC) represent a small subpopulation of cells in malignant tumors that possess the unique ability to self-renew, differentiate and resist chemo- and radiotherapy. These cells have been postulated to be the basis for some of the difficulties in treating cancer, and therefore, numerous approaches have been developed to specifically target and eliminate CSC in diverse types of cancer, including breast cancer. Spontaneously occurring mammary tumors in canines share clinical and molecular similarities with the human counterpart, making the dog a potentially powerful model for the study of human breast cancer and clinical trials. Studies focused on canine mammary CSC might therefore enhance our understanding of the biology and possible treatment of the disease in both dogs and humans. In this review, we discuss various approaches currently in use to isolate and characterize canine mammary CSC.

  18. Effect of tin etiopurpurin and light on the canine prostate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selman, Steven H.; Keck, Rick W.; Doiron, Daniel R.

    1995-03-01

    A series of experiments was undertaken to determine the effects of the combination of light and the tissue photosensitizer, tin etiopurpurin, on the canine prostate. Mongrel dogs were injected intravenously with 1.0 mg/kg of photosensitizer twenty-four hours prior to light delivery. Laser light, 660 nm, was administered either transurethrally or interstitially and tissue effects were assessed by histopathologic examination. Both techniques of light delivery resulted in hemorrhagic necrosis of the surrounding tissue. Photodynamic therapy may offer a novel approach to the treatment of both benign and malignant diseases of the prostate.

  19. A serological and bacteriological survey of canine brucellosis in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Castro, R; Segura, R

    1976-07-01

    Using agglutination procedures, 203 human and 500 dog sera collected in Mexico City were tested for canine brucellosis. Blood samples from the 500 dogs also were cultured for Brucella canis (B. canis). Positive agglutination titers (1:100 or greater) were found in 27 (13.3%) of the human and 140 (28.0%) of the dog sera tested. B. canis was isolated from the blood of eight dogs. The disease was experimentally produced in susceptible dogs by inoculation with one of the isolated strains.

  20. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND VECTOR IDENTIFICATION STUDIES ON CANINE BABESIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Bashir, Z. I. Chaudhry, S. Ahmed and M. A. Saeed

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence and is now a major problem in dogs. During this study, a total of 6204 dogs were examined for babesiosis over a 12 month period from January to December, 2006 in Lahore and 2.62% were found positive. The dogs were grouped on the basis of their age, sex and breed and season of the year. The male dogs were more prone to disease than female dogs (3.39 vs. 1.32%, whereas the incidence of disease was higher in younger dogs (6.9% than older age groups. Crossbreds were more prone to the infection (10.9% than purebreds. However, none of them were completely resistant. Warm and humid season played a key role in the spread of disease. Predominant vector of the disease was found to be Rhipicephalus species.

  1. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  2. Expression of prolactin receptors in normal canine mammary tissue, canine mammary adenomas and mammary adenocarcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Erika

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mammary tumors represent the most common neoplastic disease in female dogs. Recently, the promoting role of prolactin (PRL in the development of human breast carcinoma has been shown. Possible proliferative, anti-apoptotic, migratory and angiogenic effects of PRL on human mammary cancer cells in vitro and in vivo were suggested. The effects of PRL are mediated by its receptor, and alterations in receptor expression are likely to play a role in tumor development. Currently, not much data is available about prolactin receptor (PRLR expression in canine mammary tumors. To set the basis for investigations on the role of PRL in mammary tumorigenesis in this species, prolactin receptor expression was evaluated by semi-quantitative real time PCR and immunohistochemistry on 10 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples each of canine non-neoplastic mammary tissue, mammary adenomas and adenocarcinomas. Results The highest PRLR expression levels were found in normal mammary tissue, while adenomas, and to an even higher degree adenocarcinomas, showed a significant decrease in prolactin receptor expression. Compared to normal tissue, PRLR mRNA was reduced 2.4 fold (p = 0.0261 in adenomas and 4.8 fold (p = 0.008 in adenocarcinomas. PRLR mRNA expression was significantly lower in malignant than in benign lesions (p = 0.0165. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated PRLR expression in all three tissue types with signals mostly limited to epithelial cells. Conclusions Malignant transformation of mammary tissue was associated with a decline in prolactin receptor expression. Further studies are warranted to address the functional significance of this finding.

  3. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  4. Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J

    1997-06-01

    Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin present a clinical spectrum from the innocuous self-limiting solitary dermal lesion of cutaneous histiocytoma, through the recurrent deep dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis to the generally fatal condition of Bernese Mountain Dogs termed systemic histiocytosis, in which visceral involvement is commonly encountered. Immunocytochemical characterization of the constituent histiocytic cells and accompanying lymphoid infiltrate using canine species specific reagents has elucidated considerably the mechanism by which these conditions exhibit their various biologic behaviours.

  5. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  6. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  7. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  8. Identification of a new genotype of canine distemper virus circulating in America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gámiz, César; Martella, Vito; Ulloa, Raúl; Fajardo, Raúl; Quijano-Hernandéz, Israel; Martínez, Simón

    2011-08-01

    Canine Distemper is a highly contagious viral systemic disease that affects a wide variety of terrestrial carnivores. Canine Distemper virus (CDV) appears genetically heterogeneous, markedly in the hemagglutinin protein (H), showing geographic patterns of diversification that are useful to monitor CDV molecular epidemiology. In Mexico the activity of canine distemper remains high in dogs, likely because vaccine prophylaxis coverage in canine population is under the levels required to control effectively the disease. By phylogenetic analysis based on the nucleoprotein (N) and on the H genes, Mexican CDV strains collected between 2007 and 2010 were distinguished into several genovariants, all which constituted a unique group, clearly distinct from field and vaccine strains circulating worldwide, but resembling a CDV strain, 19876, identified in Missouri, USA, 2004, that was genetically unrelated to other North-American CDV strains. Gathering information on the genetic heterogeneity of CDV on a global scale appears pivotal in order to investigate the origin and modalities of introduction of unusual/novel CDV strains, as well as to understand if vaccine breakthroughs or disease epidemics may be somewhat related to genetic/antigenic or biological differences between field and vaccine strains.

  9. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture fluids. Only Master Seed Virus which has been... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. 113.202 Section 113.202 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND...

  10. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  11. Comparative studies of canine colipase and lipases from bovine, porcine, canine, human and rat pancreases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P C

    1978-01-01

    1. Colipase was purified from canine pancreatic juice and found to have certain specificity in its reaction with various pancreatic lipases. 2. This colipase will stimulate the lipolytic activities of lipases isolated from canine, bovine and porcine pancreas but not lipases from a fungus, or from human and rat pancreases. 3. Characterization of these lipases showed (a) the molecular dimension of rat lipase is very different from the other lipases; (b) the pIs of canine, porcine and bovine lipases are almost identical but different from the pIs of rat, human and Candida (a fungus) lipases; and (c) the antiserum prepared against canine lipase will also react with lipases from human, hog and cow pancreases but not with rat and Candida lipases. 4. These physical differences can explain partly the difference in reaction between the various lipases and the canine colipase.

  12. Complications of misdiagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garib, Daniela Gamba; Janson, Guilherme; Baldo, Taiana de Oliveira; dos Santos, Patrícia Bittencourt Dutra

    2012-08-01

    Ectopic eruption of maxillary canines can be associated with root resorption of adjacent teeth. This case report describes and discusses an interesting case of a 15-year-old girl with a Class III malocclusion and an impacted maxillary canine. Because of the unfavorable position of the ectopic canine and the severe root resorption of the maxillary left central and lateral incisors, the treatment options included extraction of the maxillary permanent canines. The mandibular first premolars were extracted to compensate for the Class III malocclusion. A panoramic radiograph taken earlier in the mixed dentition already indicated a possible eruption disturbance of the maxillary left permanent canine. The importance of early diagnosis of maxillary canine ectopic eruption is highlighted in this case report. The early identification of radiographic signs of an ectopic pathway of eruption should be followed by deciduous canine extraction to prevent canine retention and maxillary incisor root resorption.

  13. Sexual Dimorphism in Human Mandibular Canine Teeth: A Radiomorphometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K S Nagesh

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: The present study establishes a statistically significant sexual dimorphism in mandibular canines- It can be concluded that the standard mandibular canine index is a quick and easy method for sex determination.

  14. Humoral and Cellular Immune Response in Canine Hypothyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, J; Popiel, J; Chełmońska-Soyta, A

    2015-07-01

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrine diseases in dogs and is generally considered to be autoimmune in nature. In human hypothyroidism, the thyroid gland is destroyed by both cellular (i.e. autoreactive helper and cytotoxic T lymphocytes) and humoral (i.e. autoantibodies specific for thyroglobulin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine) effector mechanisms. Other suggested factors include impaired peripheral immune suppression (i.e. the malfunction of regulatory T cells) or an additional pro-inflammatory effect of T helper 17 lymphocytes. The aim of this study was to evaluate immunological changes in canine hypothyroidism. Twenty-eight clinically healthy dogs, 25 hypothyroid dogs without thyroglobulin antibodies and eight hypothyroid dogs with these autoantibodies were enrolled into the study. There were alterations in serum proteins in hypothyroid dogs compared with healthy controls (i.e. raised concentrations of α-globulins, β2- and γ-globulins) as well as higher concentration of acute phase proteins and circulating immune complexes. Hypothyroid animals had a lower CD4:CD8 ratio in peripheral blood compared with control dogs and diseased dogs also had higher expression of interferon γ (gene and protein expression) and CD28 (gene expression). Similar findings were found in both groups of hypothyroid dogs. Canine hypothyroidism is therefore characterized by systemic inflammation with dominance of a cellular immune response.

  15. Peripheral canine CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive T cells - unique amongst others.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Buttlar, Heiner; Bismarck, Doris; Alber, Gottfried

    2015-12-15

    T lymphocytes co-expressing CD4 and CD8 ("double-positive T cells") are commonly associated with a thymic developmental stage of T cells. Their first description in humans and pigs as extrathymic T cells with a memory phenotype almost 30 years ago came as a surprise. Meanwhile peripheral double-positive T cells have been described in a growing number of different species. In this review we highlight novel data from our very recent studies on canine peripheral double-positive T cells which point to unique features of double-positive T cells in the dog. In contrast to porcine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells forming a homogenous cellular population based on their expression of CD4 and CD8α, canine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells can be divided into three different cellular subsets with distinct expression levels of CD4 and CD8α. Double-positive T cells expressing CD8β are present in humans and dogs but absent in swine. Moreover, canine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells can not only develop from CD4(+) single-positive T cells but also from CD8(+) single-positive T cells. Together, this places canine CD4(+)CD8(+) T cells closer to their human than porcine counterparts since human double-positive T cells also appear to be heterogeneous in their CD4 and CD8α expression and have both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as progenitor cells. However, CD4(+) single-positive T cells are the more potent progenitors for canine double-positive T cells, whereas CD8(+) single-positive T cells are more potent progenitors for human double-positive T cells. Canine double-positive T cells have an activated phenotype and may have as yet unrecognized roles in vivo in immunity to infection or in inflammatory diseases such as chronic infection, autoimmunity, allergy, or cancer.

  16. FREQUENCY OF PATHOGENS ISOLATED IN CLINICAL CASES OF CANINE PIODERMA AND ITS ANTIMICROBIAL SUSCEPTIBILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Antúnez A., Oscar; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Calle E., Sonia; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Morales C., Siever; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima; Falcón P., Néstor; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima Perú.; Pinto J., Chris; Laboratorio de Medicina Veterinaria Preventiva, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima

    2012-01-01

    The canine bacterial dermatitis, commonly known as pyoderma is one of the main skin diseases in the veterinary practice. The present retrospective study had the objective to determine the frequency of the bacteriological agents involved with the disease and the antibiotics that show better antimicrobiobial susceptibility. Laboratory records of bacterial isolation and antibiogram of the Laboratory of Bacteriology of the Veterinary Medicine Faculty, San Marcos University, Lima, were analyzed. S...

  17. Serum protein response and renal failure in canine Babesia annae infection

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho, Angel; Guitian, Francisco; Pallas, Estrella; Gestal, Juan; Olmeda, Sonia; Goethert, Heidi; III, Sam; Spielman, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Babesia annae piroplasms have recently been recognised as a cause of infection and disease among dogs in Europe. The pathogenesis and clinical implications of this emerging disease remain poorly understood. We conducted this study to describe the electrophoretic profiles associated with the infection and to determine if B. annae associated azotaemia is caused by renal failure. We examined by microscopy 2 979 canine blood samples submitted to a diagnostic laboratory in ...

  18. Canine and feline obesity: a review of pathophysiology, epidemiology, and clinical management

    OpenAIRE

    Loftus JP; Wakshlag JJ

    2014-01-01

    John P Loftus, Joseph J Wakshlag Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine, Veterinary Medical Center, Ithaca, NY, USAAbstract: Canine and feline obesity rates have reached pandemic proportions and are similar to those in humans, with approximately 30%–40% of dogs and cats being overweight to obese. Obesity has been associated with other health problems, including osteoarthritis, renal disease, skin disease, insulin resistance, and neoplasia in dogs, while in cats obesity is...

  19. Corrective surgery for canine patellar luxation in 75 cases (107 limbs): landmark for block recession

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuhiro Isaka; Masahiko Befu; Nami Matsubara; Mayuko Ishikawa; Yurie Arase; Toshiyuki Tsuyama; Akiko Doi; Shinichi Namba

    2014-01-01

    Canine medial patellar luxation (MPL) is a very common orthopedic disease in small animals. Because the pathophysiology of this disease involves various pathways, the surgical techniques and results vary according to the veterinarian. Further, the landmark for block recession is not completely clear. We retrospectively evaluated 75 dogs (107 limbs) with MPL in whom our landmark for block recession was used from July 2008 to May 2013. Information regarding the breed, age, sex, body weight, bod...

  20. 犬瘟热的诊断%Diagnosis of Canine Distemper Virus from Dog

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅胜尧; 孙宝海

    2012-01-01

    犬瘟热是危害犬、狐、貂最严重的烈性传染病之一.作者对某试验动物犬饲养厂的病死犬进行临床症状观察,病理剖检及实验室诊断,通过病毒的分离培养及间接免疫荧光鉴定,确诊为犬瘟热病毒感染.鉴于该病的危害程度,建议加强对犬瘟热病的诊断及监控.%Canine distemper is one of the most serious deadly infectious diseases to dog. fox and mink. The paper introduced a dog farm. The clinical symptoms and pathological lesions and laboratory diagnosis were observed, and canine distemper was detected by virus isolation culture and indirect immunofluorescence. the final diagnosis result was canine distemper. Because the existence of the disease and the harm fulness to the experimental animals industry, the diagnosis and monitoring of canine distemper should be strengthening.

  1. 9 CFR 113.316 - Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. 113.316... Virus Vaccines § 113.316 Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine. Canine Parainfluenza Vaccine shall be prepared... immunogenic shall be used for preparing seeds for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be...

  2. Electrical heterogeneity of canine right ventricular transient outward potassium currents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨新春; 周鹏; 李翠兰

    2004-01-01

    Background Some studies have confirmed that the right ventricular walls of most rodents, such as canines and humans, have evident transient outward potassium current (lto1) heterogeneity, and this heterogeneity is closely related to J point elevation, J wave formation, and some ventricular tachycardias such as ventricular fibrillations caused by Brugada syndrome. This study is designed to investigate transmural electrical heterogeneity of the canine right ventricle during repolarization (phase 1) from the viewpoint of 4-aminopyridine sensitive and calcium-independent lto1.Methods Adult canine single right ventricular epicardial (Epi) cells, mid-myocardial (M) cells, and endocardial (Endo) cells were enzymatically dissociated. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings were made to compare the lto1 values of the three cell types.Results At 37℃ and using 0.2 Hz and + 70 mV depolarizing test potentials, the average peak lto1 values of Epi cells and M cells averaged (4070±1720) pA and (3540±1840) pA, respectively. The activated and inactivated Epi and M cells kinetic processes were in accordance with the Boltzmann distribution. Compared with lto1 in Epi cells and M cells, the average peak lto1 in Endo cells was very low, averaged (470±130) pA.Conclusions These results suggest that there are evident differences and potent gradients in lto1 between the three cardiac cell types, especially between Epi and Endo cells. These differences are among the prominent manifestations of right ventricular electrical heterogeneity, and may form an important ionic basis and prerequisite for some malignant arrhythmias in the right ventricle, including those arising from Brugada syndrome and other diseases.

  3. Changes of Haematobiochemical Parameters during Canine Parvoviral Enteritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BLERINA DOKU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is a highly contagious virus that can affect all dogs, but unvaccinated dogs and puppies younger than four months old are the most at risk. The pathology caused by CPV-2 is very common in Albania despite the existence of an effective vaccine.Changes in haematobiochemical parameters during canine parvoviral enteritiswould be very important for determining the prognosis of the disease. This hypothesis prompted the start of the study. From fecal samples taken from puppies 65 individuals resulted positive. Of all individuals 14 of them (21.5% failed to survive. All puppies presented leukopenia. In individuals that survived the WBC count began to grow in the first 24- 48 hours (p <0.05. In non-survivors the WBC was never higher than 2.1x109 / l at the time of admission in the clinic and in the first 24-48 hours began to decline further (p <0.05. There weren’t significant change in RBC count (p <0.05. In the first 12-24 hours 54% of individuals who did not survive had a PLT count less than 362.28x109 / l compared to only 8% of individuals who survived. Urea and creatinine were higher in survivors compared to nonsurvivors (p <0.05.These parameters reached normal levels after the start of the treatment in individuals that survived. Urea and creatinine levels in non-survivors continued to decrease until they died. The changes observed in leukocyte, platelet, urea and serum creatinine levels duringfirst stages of canine parvoviral enteritiscan be used to determine prognosis.

  4. Booster effect of canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and infectious canine hepatitis combination vaccine in domesticated adult dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Tsuchiya, Ryo; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2012-08-01

    Domesticated adult dogs with antibody titer classified as below 'high' to one or more of canine distemper virus (CDV), canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAdV-1) were then given an additional inoculation, and the effectiveness of this booster evaluated 2 months later. Consequently, CDV and CAdV-1 antibody titer experienced a significant increase, but the same effect was not observed in the antibody titer of CPV-2. These findings suggest that with additional inoculation, a booster effect may be expected in increasing antibody titers for CDV and CAdV-1, but it is unlikely to give an increase in CPV-2 antibody titer.

  5. Antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2, canine distemper virus, and canine adenovirus type-1 in adult household dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, Masayuki; Namikawa, Kazuhiko; Maruo, Takuya; Orito, Kensuke; Lynch, Jonathan; Sahara, Hiroeki

    2011-09-01

    Serum antibody titers for canine parvovirus type-2 (CPV-2), canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1) were investigated in 1031 healthy adult household dogs (2 to 18 years old) given an annual inoculation in the previous 11 to 13 months. The number of dogs retaining significant titers of antibodies against CPV-2, CDV, and CAV-1 were 888 (86%), 744 (72%), and 732 (71%), respectively. There were no differences between males and females in antibody titers against the 3 viruses. Antibody titer for CPV-2 was significantly higher in younger dogs than in older dogs, CDV antibody was significantly higher in older dogs than in younger dogs, and CAV titer was not associated with age.

  6. Focos de dirofilariose canina na Ilha do Marajó: um fator de risco para a saúde humana Focus of canine heartworm disease in Marajó Island, North of Brazil: a risk factor for human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Maria Garcez

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de dirofilariose pulmonar humana relaciona-se com a prevalência de infecção por Dirofilaria immitis na população canina. Várias espécies de mosquitos são vetores desse nematóide. Analisaram-se amostras de sangue canino coletados nas vilas Pingo d'Água e União, município de Salvaterra (Ilha do Marajó, PA, em junho, 2004 (n=34 e abril, 2005 (N=90. Os diagnósticos parasitológico e imunológico (ELISA - kit SNAP® 3DX™, Biobrasil foram comparados (chi2, alfa=0,05 no exame de 34 amostras. A prevalência na população (N=90 foi avaliada pelo ELISA. O ELISA revelou mais positivos (25/34; 73,5% que a gota espessa (23/34, 67,6% e o Knott (21/34, 61,8%, mas a diferença não foi significativa (p>0,05. A freqüência de infecção por D. immitis na faixa de 0 a 2 anos foi 58%, enquanto em cães mais velhos foi 100%. A prevalência da dirofilariose canina em Pingo d'Água e Vila União foi alta (53,5%, indicando risco de transmissão do parasito às pessoas nessa área.The occurrence of human pulmonary dirofilariasis maintains a relation with the prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in the canine population. Several mosquito species are vectors of this nematode. Canine blood samples collected in Pingo d'Água and União villages, Salvaterra municipality (Marajó Island, Pará, in June, 2004 (n=34 and April, 2005 (N=90 were analyzed. Parasitological and immunological (ELISA - kit SNAP® 3DX™, Biobrasil diagnoses were compared following the examination of 34 samples. The prevalence in the population (N=90 was evaluated by means of ELISA. ELISA revealed more positive samples (25/34; 73.5% than thick smears (23/34, 67.6% or Knott (21/34, 61.8%, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05. The frequency of D. immitis infection was 58% in dogs ranging from 0-2 years old, whereas in older dogs it was 100%. The prevalence of canine dirofilariasis was high in Pingo d'Água and Vila União (53.5%, indicating the risk of

  7. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?; Die canine Hypothyreose. Eine diagnostische Herausforderung?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boretti, Felicitos; Reusch, C.E. [Klinik fuer Kleintiermedizin, Vetsuisse Fakultaet Zuerich, Univ. Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2010-03-15

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen {sup registered}) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high

  8. Production of transgenic canine embryos using interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, So Gun; Oh, Hyun Ju; Park, Jung Eun; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Geon A; Koo, Ok Jae; Jang, Goo; Lee, Byeong Chun

    2012-02-01

    , following successful isolation of canine transgenic cells, iSCNT embryos developed to early pre-implantation stages in vitro, showing stable GFP expression. These canine-bovine iSCNT embryos can be used for further in vitro analysis of canine transgenic cells and will contribute to the production of various transgenic dogs for use as specific human disease models.

  9. Composite mandibular allografts in canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transplanting composite mandibular allografts to repair large mandibular defects. Methods: Three composite mandibular transplantation models were established. The first model consisted of hemimandible with the attached teeth, muscle and skin, and oral mucosa. The second model was transplanted in the same way with the first one excluding oral mucosa and some teeth, and third one excluding the oral mucosa and all dental crowns. Fourteen transplanting operations were performed in canines. Cyclosporine A and methylprednisone were given for immunosuppression. Results: The composite mandibular organs had an effective and closed return circuit. Transplantation of vascularized allograft of mandibular compound organs was feasible. Two longest time survivors of 67 d and 76 d were in the third model group. Cyclosporine A was successful in suppressing rejection of transplanted composite allograft and prolonging survival time of transplantation models. Conclusions: The composite mandibular allografts were available with large block of living composite tissue,and helpful in restoration of appearance and function for severe mandibular defects.

  10. Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples. Aged female patients (12 – 13 years are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumourshave never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumoursis elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

  11. Force of infection and evolution of lesions of canine tegumentary leishmaniasis in Northwestern Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Diego Marco

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available A clinical-serological follow-up was carried out in a canine population in endemic foci of Leishmania braziliensis spread in northwestern Argentina. Each dog was studied in at least two visits, 309±15 days (X±SE apart. Some initially healthy dogs (n=52 developed seroconversion or lesions. The clinical evolution of the disease in dogs resembles in many aspects the human disease. Similarities include the long duration of most ulcers with occasional healing or appearance of new ones and the late appearance of erosive snout lesions in some animals. Yearly incidence rates of 22.7% for seroconversion and of 13.5% for disease were calculated as indicators of the force of infection by this parasite upon the canine population.

  12. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study also consisted of the counting of microorganisms colonies forming units in samples of intrauterine content, tests of antimicrobial susceptibility of the E. coli isolates and the histological examination of the uterus. E. coli was the most prevalent microorganism isolated (76.6%) and 120 strains (79.5%) were positive for sfa, 86 (56.9%) were positive for cnf, 87 (57.6%) were positive for pap, 52 (34.4%) were positive for hly, 51 (33.8%) were positive for iuc and 5 (3.3%) were positive for afa genes. One observed more sensitivity of E. coli to norfloxacin, polimixin B, sulphazotrin, chloranfenicol and enrofloxacin. In 42% of the samples of uterine walls where microorganisms were isolated, the sizes of the areas of the inflammatory responses corresponded to 39–56%. Virulence factors were identified in 98.0% of the strains evaluated, demonstrating a high frequency of potentially pathogenic E. coli. It must be considered that dogs are animals that are living in close proximity to man for thousands of years and have an important role in the transmission of E. coli to other animals and to man. PMID:24031249

  13. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F

    2011-01-01

    Canine prostatic tumours exhibit similarities to those of man and may represent a useful model system to explore the mechanisms of cancer progression. Tumour progression to malignancy requires a change from an epithelial phenotype to a fibroblastic or mesenchymal phenotype. Vimentin expression...... is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...... that the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  14. Review paper: Cancer chemopreventive compounds and canine cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, S J; McEntee, M F; Legendre, A M

    2009-07-01

    Canine cancer has become more prevalent in recent years because of increased life expectancy and greater attention to the health of pets. The range of cancers seen in dogs is as diverse as that in human patients, and despite more intensive therapeutic interventions, fatality rates remain unacceptably high in both species. Chemoprevention is therefore an important means of confronting this disease. Because domestic pets share our environment, greater cross-application and study of the protumorigenic and antitumorigenic factors in our shared environment will benefit all species, leading to the development of new families of less toxic antitumorigenic compounds based on novel and established molecular targets. Currently, the most interesting cancer preventive agents are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands, and dietary compounds. This article provides an overview of what is known about how these agents affect molecular signaling in neoplastic disease, with reference to reported application and/or study in dogs where available.

  15. [The canine neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis: a review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karli, P; Karol, A; Oevermann, A; Drögemüller, C; Gorgas, D; Henke, D

    2014-09-01

    The present article gives a survey over the current scientific knowledge of the canine neuronal ceroid-lipofuscinosis (NCL). NCL is a heterogenous group of lysosomal storage diseases in humans and animals. In consequence of a gene mutation, there is an accumulation of ceroid-lipofuscin in neurons, cells of the retina and the skin and other cells. The stored ceroid-lipofuscin in neurons leads to an impaired cell function and subsequently to cell death. Recently, the underlying genetic defect was discovered in several dog breeds. Genetic testing permits an ante mortem diagnosis of the disease, which up to now was only possible with a positive biopsy result. Another advantage is the identification of carrier animals to eliminate the deleterious alleles.

  16. Early and unusual incisor resorption due to impacted maxillary canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto, Ronald L

    2003-10-01

    A very early and severe case of maxillary incisor resorption caused by impacted canines is reported. An estimated 50,000 cases of ectopic eruption and impaction of maxillary canines occur each year in the United States. Although incisor resorption due to ectopically positioned permanent maxillary canines can be swift, silent, and devastating, an effective protocol has been developed for early detection and management of this condition. Palpation and, if indicated, radiographic evaluation are combined with primary canine removal in selected cases. These strategies--particularly when used early--can prevent the vast majority of palatally impacted maxillary canines and the potentially devastating resorption of adjacent incisors.

  17. Evaluation of a commercial kit of chromatographic immunoassay for detection of canine distemper antigen in dogs with systemic or neurologic signs of the diseaseAvaliação de um kit de imunoensaio cromatográfico para detecção do antígeno do vírus da cinomose em cães com sinais sistêmicos ou neurológicos da doença

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    Murilo Cézar Curti

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The canine distemper is a multisystemic disease highly contagious which can lead to serious consequences and even to death. Different types of tests can be used for the ante mortem diagnosis of canine distemper, however, due to unpredictable course of the disease, the final diagnosis remains uncertain in some cases. We evaluated in 33 dogs with suspected canine distemper, the effectiveness of a commercial test for detection of antigen (Ag of canine distemper, still comparing the frequency of clinical and neurological signs among positive and negative dogs. In 27/33 dogs the material was collected from the ocular mucosa, in 5/33 dogs the test was performed with CSF and in one animal material was collected from the ocular mucosa and CSF. In 14 dogs was performed also the RT-PCR technique. The Ag test was positive in 7/13 confirmed cases of canine distemper, all of them with systemic signs, but in dogs that had only neurologic signs, the antigen test was negative. In six dogs the antigen test was negative, however the RT-PCR was positive. The results of this study showed that the antigen test did not help for the canine distemper diagnosis in many cases with systemic and neurologic signs, still allowing that several cases had false-negative results. A cinomose é uma doença multisistêmica altamente contagiosa, que pode levar a graves sequelas e até ao óbito. Diferentes tipos de exames podem ser usados para o diagnóstico ante mortem da cinomose, entretanto, devido ao curso imprevisível da doença, o diagnóstico final permanece incerto em alguns casos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a eficácia do teste comercial de imunoensaio cromatográfico para detecção de antígeno (Ag da cinomose em 33 cães com suspeita de cinomose canina, comparandose ainda a frequência dos sinais clínicos e neurológicos entre cães positivos e negativos. Em 27/33 o material foi coletado da mucosa ocular, em 5/33 foi coletado do LCR e em um animal o

  18. CANINE IMPACTIONS: AN ORTHODONTIST’S PERSPECTIVE

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    Harikrishna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : Impacted teeth are those which are not predictable and do not erupt absolutely based on clinical and radiographic assessment. Certain impactions can be complicated and the outcome unpredictable if the tooth is positioned unfavourably either horizontally or vertically in the alveolar bone. Presence of canines buccally, palatally or lingually can be seen using various diagnostic methods. Factors that interfere with its development and eruption have influence on aesthetics’, function and stability. A detailed understanding of the management of impacted teeth is essential for a stable and aesthetic result. So, we put forth the most common procedures which can be carried out by general dentists in managing impacted maxillary canines.

  19. Treatment of canine Old World visceral leishmaniasis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noli, Chiara; Auxilia, Silvia T

    2005-08-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is a systemic disease caused by Leishmania infantum. The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate the evidence of efficacy of interventions for treatment or prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis, and to propose recommendations for or against their use. Forty-seven articles describing clinical trials published between 1980 and 2004 fulfilled selection criteria. The evaluation of clinical trials provided good evidence for recommending the use of meglumine antimoniate at a minimum dosage of 100 mg kg(-1) daily for at least 3-4 weeks, combined with allopurinol in order to obtain a good clinical efficacy and a reduced relapse rate. The evaluation of the articles also provided fair evidence for recommending the use of pentamidine (4 mg kg(-1) twice weekly) and aminosidine (5 mg kg(-1) twice daily) for 3-4 weeks. There was insufficient evidence for recommending the use of allopurinol alone, amphotericin B, buparvaquone, ketoconazole, enrofloxacin, and the combinations of metronidazole with spiramicyn or metronidazole with enrofloxacin. Fair evidence against the use of aminosidine at high dosages (20-80 mg kg(-1) per day) was proposed due to its side effects. Evaluation of articles on repellent measures against sand fly vectors of leishmaniasis provided good evidence for recommending deltamethrin collars and fair evidence for recommending spot-on permethrin.

  20. Epidemiological Investigation of Canine Leishmaniasis in Southern Morocco

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    Samia Boussaa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dogs are the major reservoir of Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of human and canine visceral leishmaniasis in the Mediterranean basin. In Morocco, canine leishmaniasis (CanL is usually believed to be widespread mainly, if not only, in the northern regions and few data are available about the situation in southern parts of the country. Here, we report the results of a preliminary, clinical, and serological study carried out in 2004–2007, in four provinces of southern Morocco. Serological analyses were processed using two different Elisa techniques, a homemade Elisa test and IDVET commercial kit, and confirmed by two different western blot (WB tests, homemade and LDBIO commercial kits. We highlighted the presence of CanL infection in southern regions, known until then as free of the disease: 19.8% (48/243 of examined dogs displayed clinical signs compatible with CanL and the seroprevalence was particularly high, respectively, 81.8% and 87.8% by Elisa and western blot tests. Our current developed and validated homemade (Elisa and WB tools will be cost-effective and useful for next large-scale epidemiological studies on Moroccan leishmaniasis animal reservoir.