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Sample records for canine vector borne

  1. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  2. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

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    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  3. Wildlife reservoirs for vector-borne canine, feline and zoonotic infections in Austria

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    Georg G. Duscher

    2015-04-01

    The role of wild ungulates, especially ruminants, as reservoirs for zoonotic disease on the other hand seems to be negligible, although the deer filaroid Onchocerca jakutensis has been described to infect humans. Deer may also harbour certain Anaplasma phagocytophilum strains with so far unclear potential to infect humans. The major role of deer as reservoirs is for ticks, mainly adults, thus maintaining the life cycle of these vectors and their distribution. Wild boar seem to be an exception among the ungulates as, in their interaction with the fox, they can introduce food-borne zoonotic agents such as Trichinella britovi and Alaria alata into the human food chain.

  4. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany

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    Lorentz Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%, followed by L. infantum (12.2% and E. canis (10.1%. Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR, 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German

  5. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  6. Vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467

  7. Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea

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    Ahn KyuSung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%. The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%, followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%, E. canis (6.1% and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%. In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%, and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

  8. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

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    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease

  9. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

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    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  10. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...... role in disease patterns, it is evident that transmission potential is governed by a complex of factors, including socio-economy, health-care capacity and ecology. In Denmark, malaria and leishmaniasis are unlikely to become public health problems, whereas the potential for tick-borne illnesses may...

  11. Prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti.

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    Starkey, Lindsay A; Newton, Kassie; Brunker, Jill; Crowdis, Kelly; Edourad, Emile Jean Pierre; Meneus, Pedro; Little, Susan E

    2016-07-15

    Canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some Caribbean islands, but survey data in Haiti are lacking. To determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. No other tick species were identified on these dogs. A commercially available ELISA identified antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to Anaplasma spp. in 37 (17.6%), and antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in 55 (26.2%); antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were not detected in any sample. Molecular assays of whole blood from 207 of the dogs confirmed infection with Ehrlichia canis (15; 7.2%), Anaplasma platys (13; 6.3%), D. immitis (46; 22.2%), Wolbachia spp. (45; 21.7%), Babesia vogeli (16; 7.7%), and Hepatozoon canis (40; 19.3%), but Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, Babesia rossi, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Hepatozoon americanum were not detected. Co-infection with two or more vector-borne pathogens was detected by serology in 42 (20.0%) dogs and by molecular assays in 22 (10.6%) dogs; one dog was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis as detected by PCR with D. immitis detected by serology (antigen). Overall, evidence of past or current infection with at least one vector-borne pathogen was identified in 142/210 (67.6%) dogs in this study, underscoring the common nature of these pathogens, some of which are zoonotic, in Haiti. PMID:27270383

  12. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...

  13. Exposure to vector-borne pathogens in candidate blood donor and free-roaming dogs of northeast Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vascellari, Marta; Ravagnan, Silvia; Carminato, Antonio; Cazzin, Stefania; Carli, Erika; Da Rold, Graziana; Lucchese, Laura; Natale, Alda; Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia

    2016-01-01

    Background Many vector-borne pathogens including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes occur in northeast Italy, representing a potential threat to animal and human populations. Little information is available on the circulation of the above vector-borne pathogens in dogs. This work aims to (i) assess exposure to and circulation of pathogens transmitted to dogs in northeast Italy by ticks, sandflies, and mosquitoes, and (ii) drive blood donor screening at the newly established canine bloo...

  14. Vector-borne diseases in Haiti: a review.

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    Ben-Chetrit, Eli; Schwartz, Eli

    2015-01-01

    Haiti lies on the western third of the island of Hispaniola in the Caribbean, and is one of the poorest nations in the Western hemisphere. Haiti attracts a lot of medical attention and support due to severe natural disasters followed by disastrous health consequences. Vector-borne infections are still prevalent there with some unique aspects comparing it to Latin American countries and other Caribbean islands. Although vector-borne viral diseases such as dengue and recently chikungunya can be found in many of the Caribbean islands, including Haiti, there is an apparent distinction of the vector-borne parasitic diseases. Contrary to neighboring Carribbean islands, Haiti is highly endemic for malaria, lymphatic filariasis and mansonellosis. Affected by repeat natural disasters, poverty and lack of adequate infrastructure, control of transmission within Haiti and prevention of dissemination of vector-borne pathogens to other regions is challenging. In this review we summarize some aspects concerning diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens in Haiti.

  15. Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases

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    Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck, Amber Read, Heidi Hillesland, Nichole Klein, Angray Kang, Ravi Durvasula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes.

  16. Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.

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    Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y

    2012-12-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance. PMID:22444826

  17. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  18. Vector independent transmission of the vector-borne bluetongue virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, van der M.T.W.; Smit, de A.J.; Moormann, R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Bluetongue is an economically important disease of ruminants. The causative agent, Bluetongue virus (BTV), is mainly transmitted by insect vectors. This review focuses on vector-free BTV transmission, and its epizootic and economic consequences. Vector-free transmission can either be vertical, from

  19. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit.

  20. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:27260548

  1. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    in Northern Europe. This model approach may be used as a basis for risk based surveillance. In risk based surveillance limited resources for surveillance are targeted at geographical areas most at risk and only when the risk is high. This makes risk based surveillance a cost effective alternative...... to the present surveillance strategies based on random samples. We still don’t understand the mechanisms underlying the recent outbreaks of bluetongue, Schmallenberg, Usutu virus, tick borne encephalitis or dirofilarial worms in the Baltic See Region. It is therefore not possible to use mathematical models...... sample to a diagnostic laboratory. Risk based surveillance models may reduce this delay. An important feature of risk based surveillance models is their ability to continuously communicate the level of risk to veterinarians and hence increase awareness when risk is high. This is essential for submission...

  2. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND VECTOR IDENTIFICATION STUDIES ON CANINE BABESIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Bashir, Z. I. Chaudhry, S. Ahmed and M. A. Saeed

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence and is now a major problem in dogs. During this study, a total of 6204 dogs were examined for babesiosis over a 12 month period from January to December, 2006 in Lahore and 2.62% were found positive. The dogs were grouped on the basis of their age, sex and breed and season of the year. The male dogs were more prone to disease than female dogs (3.39 vs. 1.32%, whereas the incidence of disease was higher in younger dogs (6.9% than older age groups. Crossbreds were more prone to the infection (10.9% than purebreds. However, none of them were completely resistant. Warm and humid season played a key role in the spread of disease. Predominant vector of the disease was found to be Rhipicephalus species.

  3. Review of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siu-keung Edmond; Wong, Wang Christine; Leung, Chi-wah Ryan; Lai, Sik-to Thomas; Lo, Yee-chi Janice; Wong, Kai-hay Howard; Chan, Man-chung; Que, Tak-lun; Chow, Ka-wai Mary; Yuen, Ming-chi; Lau, Tin-wai Winnie; Simon, John

    2011-05-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong has changed over the past decade but still poses a significant public health risk. We provided a comprehensive review of the epidemiological information and analysed the trends of major vector-borne diseases, including the vector situation in Hong Kong. The incidence of malaria has dropped dramatically in the past few decades and is now mainly an imported disease acquired from malaria endemic countries. Locally acquired dengue fever occurred in 2002 and 2003, and thereafter all cases were imported, mainly from Southeast Asia areas. Only a few local cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported in the past decade. In contrast, there is a notable increase in scrub typhus and spotted fever cases. The emergence of chikungunya fever in Asia and Indian Ocean countries also resulted in importation of human cases. Given the heavy traffic between this international city and other parts of the world, as well as the presence of vectors in this densely populated area, vigilance should be maintained against these infections. Comprehensive public health measures encompassing disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control measures with support from all sectors of the community are required to combat the old and newly emerging vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

  4. Review of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siu-keung Edmond; Wong, Wang Christine; Leung, Chi-wah Ryan; Lai, Sik-to Thomas; Lo, Yee-chi Janice; Wong, Kai-hay Howard; Chan, Man-chung; Que, Tak-lun; Chow, Ka-wai Mary; Yuen, Ming-chi; Lau, Tin-wai Winnie; Simon, John

    2011-05-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong has changed over the past decade but still poses a significant public health risk. We provided a comprehensive review of the epidemiological information and analysed the trends of major vector-borne diseases, including the vector situation in Hong Kong. The incidence of malaria has dropped dramatically in the past few decades and is now mainly an imported disease acquired from malaria endemic countries. Locally acquired dengue fever occurred in 2002 and 2003, and thereafter all cases were imported, mainly from Southeast Asia areas. Only a few local cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported in the past decade. In contrast, there is a notable increase in scrub typhus and spotted fever cases. The emergence of chikungunya fever in Asia and Indian Ocean countries also resulted in importation of human cases. Given the heavy traffic between this international city and other parts of the world, as well as the presence of vectors in this densely populated area, vigilance should be maintained against these infections. Comprehensive public health measures encompassing disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control measures with support from all sectors of the community are required to combat the old and newly emerging vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong. PMID:21679886

  5. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  6. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  7. Will integrated surveillance systems for vectors and vector-borne diseases be the future of controlling vector-borne diseases? A practical example from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Ling, F; Hou, J; Guo, S; Wang, J; Gong, Z

    2016-07-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the world's major public health threats and annually responsible for 30-50% of deaths reported to the national notifiable disease system in China. To control vector-borne diseases, a unified, effective and economic surveillance system is urgently needed; all of the current surveillance systems in China waste resources and/or information. Here, we review some current surveillance systems and present a concept for an integrated surveillance system combining existing vector and vector-borne disease monitoring systems. The integrated surveillance system has been tested in pilot programmes in China and led to a 21·6% cost saving in rodent-borne disease surveillance. We share some experiences gained from these programmes. PMID:26899818

  8. Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherst, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes ar...

  9. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Ural

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from İzmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%, followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%, A. phagocytophilum (7.49% and D. immitis (2.28%. Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p<0.01 among control group and other groups. Conclusions. Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi, is moderately to widely distributed in dogs residing in the Aegean region in Turkey.

  10. Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hildebrand, von A.; Ragunathan, V.; Das, P.K.

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. A

  11. Nordic climate change: data for modeling vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Birgit; Bødker, Rene

    spatial parameters relevant to the distribution of vectors were included in the database and used as input in various distribution models. All collected datasets were assembled in a gridded climate database and presented at the website, www.nordrisk.dk. The website was created with the purpose...... interpolated to daily climate surfaces, using a squared IDW method. In the absence of a more local lapse rate the generally accepted lapse rate of -0.006 C˚/m was used to account for the relationship between temperature and altitude. The interpolation was carried out on temperatures at sea...... derivatives were calculated in order to assess the geographical and seasonal variation in the area. In order to evaluate the response of vector borne diseases to possible future climate changes and the subsequent potential spread into new areas, daily temperature predictions (mean, min and max) for three 20...

  12. Emergence and prevalence of human vector-borne diseases in sink vector populations.

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    Guilhem Rascalou

    Full Text Available Vector-borne diseases represent a major public health concern in most tropical and subtropical areas, and an emerging threat for more developed countries. Our understanding of the ecology, evolution and control of these diseases relies predominantly on theory and data on pathogen transmission in large self-sustaining 'source' populations of vectors representative of highly endemic areas. However, there are numerous places where environmental conditions are less favourable to vector populations, but where immigration allows them to persist. We built an epidemiological model to investigate the dynamics of six major human vector borne-diseases in such non self-sustaining 'sink' vector populations. The model was parameterized through a review of the literature, and we performed extensive sensitivity analysis to look at the emergence and prevalence of the pathogen that could be encountered in these populations. Despite the low vector abundance in typical sink populations, all six human diseases were able to spread in 15-55% of cases after accidental introduction. The rate of spread was much more strongly influenced by vector longevity, immigration and feeding rates, than by transmission and virulence of the pathogen. Prevalence in humans remained lower than 5% for dengue, leishmaniasis and Japanese encephalitis, but substantially higher for diseases with longer duration of infection; malaria and the American and African trypanosomiasis. Vector-related parameters were again the key factors, although their influence was lower than on pathogen emergence. Our results emphasize the need for ecology and evolution to be thought in the context of metapopulations made of a mosaic of sink and source habitats, and to design vector control program not only targeting areas of high vector density, but working at a larger spatial scale.

  13. Integrating Transgenic Vector Manipulation with Clinical Interventions to Manage Vector-Borne Diseases.

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    Kenichi W Okamoto

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many vector-borne diseases lack effective vaccines and medications, and the limitations of traditional vector control have inspired novel approaches based on using genetic engineering to manipulate vector populations and thereby reduce transmission. Yet both the short- and long-term epidemiological effects of these transgenic strategies are highly uncertain. If neither vaccines, medications, nor transgenic strategies can by themselves suffice for managing vector-borne diseases, integrating these approaches becomes key. Here we develop a framework to evaluate how clinical interventions (i.e., vaccination and medication can be integrated with transgenic vector manipulation strategies to prevent disease invasion and reduce disease incidence. We show that the ability of clinical interventions to accelerate disease suppression can depend on the nature of the transgenic manipulation deployed (e.g., whether vector population reduction or replacement is attempted. We find that making a specific, individual strategy highly effective may not be necessary for attaining public-health objectives, provided suitable combinations can be adopted. However, we show how combining only partially effective antimicrobial drugs or vaccination with transgenic vector manipulations that merely temporarily lower vector competence can amplify disease resurgence following transient suppression. Thus, transgenic vector manipulation that cannot be sustained can have adverse consequences-consequences which ineffective clinical interventions can at best only mitigate, and at worst temporarily exacerbate. This result, which arises from differences between the time scale on which the interventions affect disease dynamics and the time scale of host population dynamics, highlights the importance of accounting for the potential delay in the effects of deploying public health strategies on long-term disease incidence. We find that for systems at the disease-endemic equilibrium, even

  14. Vector-borne diseases: the basic reproduction number R0 and risk maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the derivation of the basic reproduction number (R0) for vector-borne diseases, in the context of studying the effect of climate change on the risk of emergence diseases. Vector-borne diseases are transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by vectors, usuall

  15. Modelling transmission of vector-borne pathogens shows complex dynamics when vector feeding sites are limited.

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    Arik Kershenbaum

    Full Text Available The relationship between species richness and the prevalence of vector-borne disease has been widely studied with a range of outcomes. Increasing the number of host species for a pathogen may decrease infection prevalence (dilution effect, increase it (amplification, or have no effect. We derive a general model, and a specific implementation, which show that when the number of vector feeding sites on each host is limiting, the effects on pathogen dynamics of host population size are more complex than previously thought. The model examines vector-borne disease in the presence of different host species that are either competent or incompetent (i.e. that cannot transmit the pathogen to vectors as reservoirs for the pathogen. With a single host species present, the basic reproduction ratio R(0 is a non-monotonic function of the population size of host individuals (H, i.e. a value [Formula: see text] exists that maximises R(0. Surprisingly, if [Formula: see text] a reduction in host population size may actually increase R(0. Extending this model to a two-host species system, incompetent individuals from the second host species can alter the value of [Formula: see text] which may reverse the effect on pathogen prevalence of host population reduction. We argue that when vector-feeding sites on hosts are limiting, the net effect of increasing host diversity might not be correctly predicted using simple frequency-dependent epidemiological models.

  16. Canine adenovirus type 2 vector generation via I-Sce1-mediated intracellular genome release.

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    Sandy Ibanes

    Full Text Available When canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, or also commonly referred to as CAV-2 vectors are injected into the brain parenchyma they preferentially transduce neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent regions, and allow transgene expression for at last >1 yr. Yet, translating these data into a user-friendly vector platform has been limited because CAV-2 vector generation is challenging. Generation of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors often requires transfection of linear DNA fragments of >30 kb containing the vector genome into an E1-transcomplementing cell line. In contrast to human adenovirus type 5 vector generation, CAV-2 vector generation is less efficient due, in part, to a reduced ability to initiate replication and poor transfectibility of canine cells with large, linear DNA fragments. To improve CAV-2 vector generation, we generated an E1-transcomplementing cell line expressing the estrogen receptor (ER fused to I-SceI, a yeast meganuclease, and plasmids containing the I-SceI recognition sites flanking the CAV-2 vector genome. Using transfection of supercoiled plasmid and intracellular genome release via 4-OH-tamoxifen-induced nuclear translocation of I-SceI, we improved CAV-2 vector titers 1,000 fold, and in turn increased the efficacy of CAV-2 vector generation.

  17. Vector-Borne Bacterial Plant Pathogens: Interactions with Hemipteran Insects and Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perilla-Henao, Laura M; Casteel, Clare L

    2016-01-01

    Hemipteran insects are devastating pests of crops due to their wide host range, rapid reproduction, and ability to transmit numerous plant-infecting pathogens as vectors. While the field of plant-virus-vector interactions has flourished in recent years, plant-bacteria-vector interactions remain poorly understood. Leafhoppers and psyllids are by far the most important vectors of bacterial pathogens, yet there are still significant gaps in our understanding of their feeding behavior, salivary secretions, and plant responses as compared to important viral vectors, such as whiteflies and aphids. Even with an incomplete understanding of plant-bacteria-vector interactions, some common themes have emerged: (1) all known vector-borne bacteria share the ability to propagate in the plant and insect host; (2) particular hemipteran families appear to be incapable of transmitting vector-borne bacteria; (3) all known vector-borne bacteria have highly reduced genomes and coding capacity, resulting in host-dependence; and (4) vector-borne bacteria encode proteins that are essential for colonization of specific hosts, though only a few types of proteins have been investigated. Here, we review the current knowledge on important vector-borne bacterial pathogens, including Xylella fastidiosa, Spiroplasma spp., Liberibacter spp., and 'Candidatus Phytoplasma spp.'. We then highlight recent approaches used in the study of vector-borne bacteria. Finally, we discuss the application of this knowledge for control and future directions that will need to be addressed in the field of vector-plant-bacteria interactions. PMID:27555855

  18. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central ne...

  19. Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum

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    Baneth Gad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians

  20. Population structure of a vector-borne plant parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Kelsey M; Koop, Jennifer A H; Alexandre, Nicolas M; Johnston, Lauren R; Whiteman, Noah K

    2016-07-01

    Parasites are among the most diverse groups of life on Earth, yet complex natural histories often preclude studies of their speciation processes. The biology of parasitic plants facilitates in situ collection of data on both genetic structure and the mechanisms responsible for that structure. Here, we studied the role of mating, dispersal and establishment in host race formation of a parasitic plant. We investigated the population genetics of a vector-borne desert mistletoe (Phoradendron californicum) across two legume host tree species (Senegalia greggii and Prosopis velutina) in the Sonoran desert using microsatellites. Consistent with host race formation, we found strong host-associated genetic structure in sympatry, little genetic variation due to geographic site and weak isolation by distance. We hypothesize that genetic differentiation results from differences in the timing of mistletoe flowering by host species, as we found initial flowering date of individual mistletoes correlated with genetic ancestry. Hybrids with intermediate ancestry were detected genetically. Individuals likely resulting from recent, successful establishment events following dispersal between the host species were detected at frequencies similar to hybrids between host races. Therefore, barriers to gene flow between the host races may have been stronger at mating than at dispersal. We also found higher inbreeding and within-host individual relatedness values for mistletoes on the more rare and isolated host species (S. greggii). Our study spanned spatial scales to address how interactions with both vectors and hosts influence parasitic plant structure with implications for parasite virulence evolution and speciation.

  1. Serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwen Wang

    2012-02-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that IFA method was more sensitive than ELISA rapid diagnostic method. However, we need conduct further and intensive epidemiology survey on tick-born diseases pathogens including A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm, and B. burgdorferi which have public health significance.

  2. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee.

  3. Vector-borne disease problems in rapid urbanization: new approaches to vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, A B; Slooff, R

    1992-01-01

    Owing to population growth, poor levels of hygiene, and increasing urban poverty, the urban environment in many developing countries is rapidly deteriorating. Densely packed housing in shanty towns or slums and inadequate drinking-water supplies, garbage collection services, and surface-water drainage systems combine to create favourable habitats for the proliferation of vectors and reservoirs of communicable diseases. As a consequence, vector-borne diseases such as malaria, lymphatic filariasis and dengue are becoming major public health problems associated with rapid urbanization in many tropical countries. The problems in controlling these diseases and eliminating vectors and pests can be resolved by decision-makers and urban planners by moving away from the concept of "blanket" applications of pesticides towards integrated approaches. Sound environmental management practices and community education and participation form the mainstay of some of the most outstanding successes in this area. On the basis of these examples, it is argued that the municipal authorities need to apply a flexible methodology, which must be based on the possibilities of mobilizing community resources, with minimal reliance on routine pesticidal spraying. In this way, vector control becomes a by-product of human development in the city environment. This is now a true challenge.

  4. The Interaction between Vector Life History and Short Vector Life in Vector-Borne Disease Transmission and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Samuel P C; Rock, Kat S; Keeling, Matt J

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological modelling has a vital role to play in policy planning and prediction for the control of vectors, and hence the subsequent control of vector-borne diseases. To decide between competing policies requires models that can generate accurate predictions, which in turn requires accurate knowledge of vector natural histories. Here we highlight the importance of the distribution of times between life-history events, using short-lived midge species as an example. In particular we focus on the distribution of the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) which determines the time between infection and becoming infectious, and the distribution of the length of the gonotrophic cycle which determines the time between successful bites. We show how different assumptions for these periods can radically change the basic reproductive ratio (R0) of an infection and additionally the impact of vector control on the infection. These findings highlight the need for detailed entomological data, based on laboratory experiments and field data, to correctly construct the next-generation of policy-informing models. PMID:27128163

  5. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  6. Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and 'One health' in Europe: the veterinary medicinal view on CVBDs such as tick borreliosis, rickettsiosis and canine leishmaniosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mencke, Norbert

    2013-08-01

    The medical as well as the veterinary importance of parasitic arthropods or ectoparasites in general terms, is characterized by the primary or secondary impact on the health of humans and companion animals alike. The parasitic arthropods addressed here are those ectoparasites belong to the class of insects, such as fleas and sand flies, or the subclass of acarids, such as ticks. These parasitic arthropods interact intensively with their hosts by blood feeding. Fleas, sand flies and ticks hold the vector capacity to transmit pathogens such as virus, bacteria or protozoa to cats, dogs and humans. The diseases caused by these pathogens are summarized under the terms canine vector-borne diseases (CVBD), feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) or metazoonoses. In small animal practice, it is important to understand that the transmitted pathogen may either lead to a disease with clinical signs, or more often to asymptomatic, clinically healthy, or silent infections. Blocking of the vector-host interactions, the blood feeding and subsequently the transmission of pathogens during blood feeding is a key element of CVBD control. The focus of this review is on the current knowledge of the epidemiology of parasitic vectors and three important CVBDs they transmit; rickettsiosis, tick borreliosis and canine leishmaniosis from a European perspective, and how veterinary medicine may contribute to the challenges of CVBDs and their control. Prevention of CVBDs is fundamentally based on ectoparasite control. Ectoparasite management in cats and dogs is important not only for the health and well-being of the individual companion animal but for public health in general and is therefore a perfect example of the 'One health' approach.

  7. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central nervous system, or for inducing a wide range of protective immune responses, from humoral to cellular immunity. Nowadays, CAV2 represents one of the most appealing nonhuman adenovirus for use as a vaccine vector. This protocol describes a simple method to construct, produce and titer recombinant CAV2 vectors. After cloning the expression cassette of the gene of interest into a shuttle plasmid, the recombinant genomic plasmid is obtained by homologous recombination in the E. coli BJ5183 bacterial strain. The resulting genomic plasmid is then transfected into canine kidney cells expressing the complementing CAV2-E1 genes (DK-E1). A viral amplification enables the production of a large viral stock, which is purified by ultracentrifugation through cesium chloride gradients and desalted by dialysis. The resulting viral suspension routinely has a titer of over 10(10) infectious particles per ml and can be directly administrated in vivo. PMID:24326926

  8. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhuojie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements

  9. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly

  10. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Kalluri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  11. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Satya; Gilruth, Peter; Rogers, David; Szczur, Martha

    2007-10-26

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  12. Differentiated neuroprogenitor cells incubated with human or canine adenovirus, or lentiviral vectors have distinct transcriptome profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Piersanti

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the potential for vector-mediated gene transfer to the brain. Helper-dependent (HD human (HAd and canine (CAV-2 adenovirus, and VSV-G-pseudotyped self-inactivating HIV-1 vectors (LV effectively transduce human brain cells and their toxicity has been partly analysed. However, their effect on the brain homeostasis is far from fully defined, especially because of the complexity of the central nervous system (CNS. With the goal of dissecting the toxicogenomic signatures of the three vectors for human neurons, we transduced a bona fide human neuronal system with HD-HAd, HD-CAV-2 and LV. We analysed the transcriptional response of more than 47,000 transcripts using gene chips. Chip data showed that HD-CAV-2 and LV vectors activated the innate arm of the immune response, including Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan circuits. LV vector also induced an IFN response. Moreover, HD-CAV-2 and LV vectors affected DNA damage pathways--but in opposite directions--suggesting a differential response of the p53 and ATM pathways to the vector genomes. As a general response to the vectors, human neurons activated pro-survival genes and neuron morphogenesis, presumably with the goal of re-establishing homeostasis. These data are complementary to in vivo studies on brain vector toxicity and allow a better understanding of the impact of viral vectors on human neurons, and mechanistic approaches to improve the therapeutic impact of brain-directed gene transfer.

  13. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Kalluri; Peter Gilruth; David Rogers; Martha Szczur

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availabi...

  14. Effect of climate change on vector-borne disease risk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Leach, Steve A

    2015-06-01

    During the early part of the 21st century, an unprecedented change in the status of vector-borne disease in Europe has occurred. Invasive mosquitoes have become widely established across Europe, with subsequent transmission and outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus. Malaria has re-emerged in Greece, and West Nile virus has emerged throughout parts of eastern Europe. Tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, continue to increase, or, in the case of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, have changed their geographical distribution. From a veterinary perspective, the emergence of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses show that northern Europe is equally susceptible to transmission of vector-borne disease. These changes are in part due to increased globalisation, with intercontinental air travel and global shipping transport creating new opportunities for invasive vectors and pathogens. However, changes in vector distributions are being driven by climatic changes and changes in land use, infrastructure, and the environment. In this Review, we summarise the risks posed by vector-borne diseases in the present and the future from a UK perspective, and assess the likely effects of climate change and, where appropriate, climate-change adaptation strategies on vector-borne disease risk in the UK. Lessons from the outbreaks of West Nile virus in North America and chikungunya in the Caribbean emphasise the need to assess future vector-borne disease risks and prepare contingencies for future outbreaks. Ensuring that adaptation strategies for climate change do not inadvertently exacerbate risks should be a primary focus for decision makers. PMID:25808458

  15. Assessment of changes of vector borne diseases with wetland characteristics using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, A M; Sarun, S; Justus, J; Vineetha, P; Sheeja, R V

    2015-04-01

    Vector borne diseases are a threat to human health. Little attention has been paid to the prevention of these diseases. We attempted to identify the significant wetland characteristics associated with the spread of chikungunya, dengue fever and malaria in Kerala, a tropical region of South West India using multivariate analyses (hierarchical cluster analysis, factor analysis and multiple regression). High/medium turbid coastal lagoons and inland water-logged wetlands with aquatic vegetation have significant effect on the incidence of chikungunya while dengue influenced by high turbid coastal beaches and malaria by medium turbid coastal beaches. The high turbidity in water is due to the urban waste discharge namely sewage, sullage and garbage from the densely populated cities and towns. The large extent of wetland is low land area favours the occurrence of vector borne diseases. Hence the provision of pollution control measures at source including soil erosion control measures is vital. The identification of vulnerable zones favouring the vector borne diseases will help the authorities to control pollution especially from urban areas and prevent these vector borne diseases. Future research should cover land use cover changes, climatic factors, seasonal variations in weather and pollution factors favouring the occurrence of vector borne diseases. PMID:25412801

  16. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  17. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  18. Serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Jing He; Lijuan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), Ehrlichia canis (E. canis), Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis) (canine heartworm), Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) infections in countryside dogs from Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 26 dogs in Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. The samples were tested using a commercial ELISA rapid diagnostic assay kit (SNAP® 4Dx®; IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. U.S.A.). Meanwhile, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) recommended by WHO was conducted to detect IgG to A. phagocytophilum. Two methods were analyzed and compared. Results: The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was only 2 which was from Hainan province and none of the 26 dogs responded positive for E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi by ELISA rapid diagnostic method. The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was 13 (50%) by IFA method. Data of the two methods were analyzed by statistical software and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). Conclusions: It can be concluded that IFA method was more sensitive than ELISA rapid diagnostic method. However, we need conduct further and intensive epidemiology survey on tick-born diseases pathogens including A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi which have public health significance.

  19. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  20. Prospects for controlling trypanosomosis : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Vale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The best technical package for the future comprises trypanocidal drugs for temporary relief and the use of insecticide-treated cattle, artificial baits and aerial spraying to attack the vector, to so give more lasting security. Whether this can speed the previously slow progress will depend on overcoming past hindrances to tsetse control : sporadic support, disputes over its desirability, difficulties of sustaining international operations, and poor planning in some instances. The Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Campaign intends to speed the progress but will fail unless it improves its image by breaking its association with the sterile insect technique and quickly executing some cheap and effective operations in large areas. Even then, there could be severe brakes due to Africa's political and financial instability. Overall, the pace of control is likely to increase, but perhaps only a little.

  1. 'ANOTHER VECTOR BORNE CHALLENGE TO COMBAT- ZIKA VIRUS OUTBREAKS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Maria; Faraz, Ahmad; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. It is known to transmit to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito which is also known to carry dengue, chikungunya & yellow fever virus. Transmission is anthroponotic (human-to-vector-to-human) during outbreaks, Perinatally in utero, sexually and via infected blood transfusion. It is mild and self-limiting infection lasting for several days to a week. However, it is suspected as a cause of Guillain Barre Syndrome. There is a teratogenic association of Zika virus causing congenital birth defects like microcephaly and neurologic abnormalities. Treatment is generally supportive and for symptomatic relief. No specific antiviral treatment or vaccine is yet available for Zika virus disease. It highlights importance of preventive public health measures at the community level and avoids travelling to the endemic areas. PMID:27323600

  2. Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Aerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

  3. [Important vector-borne infectious diseases among humans in Germany. Epidemiological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, C; Faber, M; Hellenbrand, W; Wilking, H; Stark, K

    2014-05-01

    Vector-borne infections pathogenic to humans play an important role in Germany. The relevant zoonotic pathogens are either endemic throughout Germany (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) or only in specific regions, e.g. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and hantavirus. They cause a substantial burden of disease. Prevention and control largely rely on public advice and the application of personal protective measures (e.g. TBE virus vaccination and protection against vectors). High quality surveillance and targeted epidemiological studies are fundamental for the evaluation of temporal and spatial risks of infection and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Aside from endemic pathogens, vector-borne infections acquired abroad, mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, have to be systematically and intensively monitored as well, to assess the risk of infection for German residents traveling abroad and to adequately evaluate the risk of autochthonous transmission. Related issues, such as invasive species of mosquitoes in Germany and climate change, have to be taken into consideration. Such pathogens include West Nile, dengue and chikungunya viruses, as well as malaria parasites (Plasmodium species). The article presents an overview of the epidemiological situation of selected relevant vector-borne infections in Germany. PMID:24781913

  4. Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol

    2012-12-01

    The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:23202882

  5. A novel tool for classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Hari Rao Vadrevu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a novel tool that renders efficient classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases. This algorithm has been applied on the data of the Filariasis disease and the results are compared with the well-known k-nearest neighbor algorithm.

  6. Evaluation of helper-dependent canine adenovirus vectors in a 3D human CNS model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simão, D; Pinto, C; Fernandes, P; Peddie, C J; Piersanti, S; Collinson, L M; Salinas, S; Saggio, I; Schiavo, G; Kremer, E J; Brito, C; Alves, P M

    2016-01-01

    Gene therapy is a promising approach with enormous potential for treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Viral vectors derived from canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) present attractive features for gene delivery strategies in the human brain, by preferentially transducing neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent brain structures, have a 30-kb cloning capacity and have low innate and induced immunogenicity in preclinical tests. For clinical translation, in-depth preclinical evaluation of efficacy and safety in a human setting is primordial. Stem cell-derived human neural cells have a great potential as complementary tools by bridging the gap between animal models, which often diverge considerably from human phenotype, and clinical trials. Herein, we explore helper-dependent CAV-2 (hd-CAV-2) efficacy and safety for gene delivery in a human stem cell-derived 3D neural in vitro model. Assessment of hd-CAV-2 vector efficacy was performed at different multiplicities of infection, by evaluating transgene expression and impact on cell viability, ultrastructural cellular organization and neuronal gene expression. Under optimized conditions, hd-CAV-2 transduction led to stable long-term transgene expression with minimal toxicity. hd-CAV-2 preferentially transduced neurons, whereas human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV5) showed increased tropism toward glial cells. This work demonstrates, in a physiologically relevant 3D model, that hd-CAV-2 vectors are efficient tools for gene delivery to human neurons, with stable long-term transgene expression and minimal cytotoxicity.

  7. The role of remote sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniyandi, M

    2012-12-01

    There have been several attempts made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors, biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time. This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectors and vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined with geographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-borne diseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic and environmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the information derived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture, soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of other geoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classical studies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseases control. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation of the vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association with geoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonal variations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector -borne diseases can be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  8. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  9. A surface hydrology model for regional vector borne disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Asare, Ernest; Bomblies, Arne; Amekudzi, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    Small, sun-lit temporary pools that form during the rainy season are important breeding sites for many key mosquito vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and other diseases. The representation of this surface hydrology in mathematical disease models is challenging, due to their small-scale, dependence on the terrain and the difficulty of setting soil parameters. Here we introduce a model that represents the temporal evolution of the aggregate statistics of breeding sites in a single pond fractional coverage parameter. The model is based on a simple, geometrical assumption concerning the terrain, and accounts for the processes of surface runoff, pond overflow, infiltration and evaporation. Soil moisture, soil properties and large-scale terrain slope are accounted for using a calibration parameter that sets the equivalent catchment fraction. The model is calibrated and then evaluated using in situ pond measurements in Ghana and ultra-high (10m) resolution explicit simulations for a village in Niger. Despite the model's simplicity, it is shown to reproduce the variability and mean of the pond aggregate water coverage well for both locations and validation techniques. Example malaria simulations for Uganda will be shown using this new scheme with a generic calibration setting, evaluated using district malaria case data. Possible methods for implementing regional calibration will be briefly discussed.

  10. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  11. Recombinant antigens from Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva as markers of canine exposure to visceral leishmaniases vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drahota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus perniciosus is the main vector in the western Mediterranean area of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of canine and human visceral leishmaniases. Infected dogs serve as a reservoir of the disease, and therefore measuring the exposure of dogs to sand fly bites is important for estimating the risk of L. infantum transmission. In bitten hosts, sand fly saliva elicits a specific antibody response that reflects the intensity of sand fly exposure. As screening of specific anti-saliva antibodies is limited by the availability of salivary gland homogenates, utilization of recombinant salivary proteins is a promising alternative. In this manuscript we show for the first time the use of recombinant salivary proteins as a functional tool for detecting P. perniciosus bites in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The reactivity of six bacterially-expressed recombinant salivary proteins of P. perniciosus, yellow-related protein rSP03B, apyrases rSP01B and rSP01, antigen 5-related rSP07, ParSP25-like protein rSP08 and D7-related protein rSP04, were tested with sera of mice and dogs experimentally bitten by this sand fly using immunoblots and ELISA. In the immunoblots, both mice and canine sera gave positive reactions with yellow-related protein, both apyrases and ParSP25-like protein. A similar reaction for recombinant salivary proteins was observed by ELISA, with the reactivity of yellow-related protein and apyrases significantly correlated with the antibody response of mice and dogs against the whole salivary gland homogenate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Three recombinant salivary antigens of P. perniciosus, yellow-related protein rSP03B and the apyrases rSP01B and rSP01, were identified as the best candidates for evaluating the exposure of mice and dogs to P. perniciosus bites. Utilization of these proteins, or their combination, would be beneficial for screening canine sera in endemic areas of visceral

  12. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Rock

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into the role of vector biting and its interaction with vector mortality and spread of disease. Through the PDE model, the roles of the vector death and bite rates are examined in a way which is impossible under the traditional ODE formulation. It is demonstrated that incorporating more realistic functions for vector biting and mortality in a model may give rise to different dynamics than those seen under a more simple ODE formulation. The numerical results indicate that the efficacy of control methods that increase vector mortality may not be as great as predicted under a standard host–vector model, whereas other controls including treatment of humans may be more effective than previously thought.

  13. The role of human movement in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Stoddard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human movement is a key behavioral factor in many vector-borne disease systems because it influences exposure to vectors and thus the transmission of pathogens. Human movement transcends spatial and temporal scales with different influences on disease dynamics. Here we develop a conceptual model to evaluate the importance of variation in exposure due to individual human movements for pathogen transmission, focusing on mosquito-borne dengue virus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We develop a model showing that the relevance of human movement at a particular scale depends on vector behavior. Focusing on the day-biting Aedes aegypti, we illustrate how vector biting behavior combined with fine-scale movements of individual humans engaged in their regular daily routine can influence transmission. Using a simple example, we estimate a transmission rate (R(0 of 1.3 when exposure is assumed to occur only in the home versus 3.75 when exposure at multiple locations--e.g., market, friend's--due to movement is considered. Movement also influences for which sites and individuals risk is greatest. For the example considered, intriguingly, our model predicts little correspondence between vector abundance in a site and estimated R(0 for that site when movement is considered. This illustrates the importance of human movement for understanding and predicting the dynamics of a disease like dengue. To encourage investigation of human movement and disease, we review methods currently available to study human movement and, based on our experience studying dengue in Peru, discuss several important questions to address when designing a study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human movement is a critical, understudied behavioral component underlying the transmission dynamics of many vector-borne pathogens. Understanding movement will facilitate identification of key individuals and sites in the transmission of pathogens such as dengue, which then may provide

  14. Vertebrate reservoirs and secondary epidemiological cycles of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, R A

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases of importance to human and domestic animal health are listed and the increasing emergence of syndromes, new epidemiological cycles and distributions are highlighted. These diseases involve a multitude of vectors and hosts, frequently for the same pathogen, and involve natural enzootic cycles, wild reservoirs and secondary epidemiological cycles, sometimes affecting humans and domestic animals. On occasions the main reservoir is in the domestic environment. Drivers for secondary cycles are mainly related to human impacts and activities and therefore, for purposes of prevention and control, the focus needs to be on the socioecology of the diseases. Technical and therapeutical solutions exist, and for control there needs to be a clear understanding of the main vertebrate hosts or reservoirs and the main vectors. The targets of interventions are usually the vector and/or secondary epidemiological cycles and, in the case of humans and domestic animals, the spillover or incidental hosts are treated. More attention needs to be given to the importance of the political economy in relation to vector-borne diseases, as many key drivers arise from globalisation, climate change and changes in structural ecologies. Attention to reducing the risk of emergence of new infection cycles through better management of the human-animal-environment interface is urgently needed. PMID:26470455

  15. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Rock; Wood, D. A.; Keeling, M.J.

    2015-01-01

    The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into t...

  16. Zoonoses and vector-borne diseases in Croatia - a multidisciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Margaletić, PhD

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases create constant and serious concerns for public health. The majority of emerging infectious diseases (EID are wildlife zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. Croatia has a long tradition in the control, management and research of EID zoonotic diseases and vector-borne diseases. There has also been a long and advantageous tradition in the collaboration of different experts and professionals in EID research in Croatia involving physician clinicians in infectious diseases, microbiologists, pathologists, veterinarians and animal scientists, ecologists, forestry experts, wildlife scientists, public health specialists and epidemiologists and laboratory scientists. The University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb established the Centre for Emerging and Re-emerging Infectious Diseases in liaison with national and international partners from Europe and the United States. This Centre is working in line with the ‘One Health initiative’ which recognises the inter-relationships between human, animal and environmental health.

  17. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Soo; Ejov Mikhail; Dash Aditya P; Ameneshewa Birkinesh; Mnzava Abraham; Soares Agnes; Hii Jeffrey; van den Berg Henk; Matthews Graham; Yadav Rajpal S; Zaim Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countri...

  18. Molecular study on selected vector-borne infections in urban stray colony cats in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Galluzzo, Paola; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Perego, Roberta; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2014-08-01

    Feline vector-borne diseases can be caused by a range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods. Many of these infections have zoonotic implications, and stray cats are potential sentinels for human and pet health. This study investigated the prevalence of selected vector-borne infections in stray colony cats in Milan. Blood samples from 260 stray cats were evaluated, using conventional polymerase chain reaction tests (cPCRs), for the presence of DNA associated with Rickettsia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia species. Positive cPCR results occurred in 127/260 subjects (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 40.7-58.1), with a prevalence of 31.9% (83/260, 95% CI = 25.4-39.6) for Rickettsia species, 17.7% (46/260, 95% CI= 13.0-23.6) for A phagocytophilum, and 5.4% (14/260, 95% CI = 2.9-9.0) for Ehrlichia species. There was no statistical association between a positive PCR test for vector-borne infections surveyed and colony location, age, gender, body condition score or complete blood count abnormalities, nor feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukaemia virus or Toxoplasma gondii status. The only variable linked to positive PCR results was detection of signs of ocular infection and PCR positivity for Rickettsia species (P = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.4, P = 0.02). There is a significant prevalence of vector-borne infections with zoonotic potential in urban stray cats in Milan. Thus, dogs and pet cats with outdoor access should be monitored and treated for ectoparasites on a regular basis to minimise risks of disease and the potential transmission of zoonotic agents to people. PMID:24319060

  19. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne

  20. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongoh, Valerie; Hoen, Anne Gatewood; Aenishaenslin, Cécile; Waaub, Jean-Philippe; Bélanger, Denise; Michel, Pascal

    2011-12-29

    The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne disease management in particular.

  1. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Virginia Ebani

    2015-02-01

    Conclusions:: The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic. A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C. burnetii, a severe zoonotic agent, in the 5.1% of tested dogs, which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites, but also directly with urine, feces and birth products.

  2. Public health and vector-borne diseases - a new concept for risk governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H

    2013-12-01

    Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented. PMID:23480672

  3. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

  4. A survey of basic reproductive ratios in vector-borne disease transmission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewono, E.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Vector-borne diseases are commonly known in tropical and subtropical countries. These diseases have contributed to more than 10% of world infectious disease cases. Among the vectors responsible for transmitting the diseases are mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, flies, bugs and worms. Several of the diseases are known to contribute to the increasing threat to human health such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, west nile fever, yellow fever, encephalistis, and anthrax. It is necessary to understand the real process of infection, factors which contribute to the complication of the transmission in order to come up with a good and sound mathematical model. Although it is not easy to simulate the real transmission process of the infection, we could say that almost all models have been developed from the already long known Host-Vector model. It constitutes the main transmission processes i.e. birth, death, infection and recovery. From this simple model, the basic concepts of Disease Free and Endemic Equilibria and Basic Reproductive Ratio can be well explained and understood. Theoretical, modeling, control and treatment aspects of disease transmission problems have then been developed for various related diseases. General construction as well as specific forms of basic reproductive ratios for vector-borne diseases are discusses here.

  5. Modeling the spread of vector-borne diseases on bipartite networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Bisanzio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases for which transmission occurs exclusively between vectors and hosts can be modeled as spreading on a bipartite network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In such models the spreading of the disease strongly depends on the degree distribution of the two classes of nodes. It is sufficient for one of the classes to have a scale-free degree distribution with a slow enough decay for the network to have asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. Data on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks on mice and lizards from two independent studies are well described by a scale-free distribution compatible with an asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. The commonly used negative binomial, instead, cannot describe the right tail of the empirical distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extreme aggregation of vectors on hosts, described by the power-law decay of the degree distribution, makes the epidemic threshold decrease with the size of the network and vanish asymptotically.

  6. Modeling vector-borne disease risk in migratory animals under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Brown, Leone M; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Recent theory suggests that animals that migrate to breed at higher latitudes may benefit from reduced pressure from natural enemies, including pathogens ("migratory escape"), and that migration itself weeds out infected individuals and lowers infection prevalence ("migratory culling"). The distribution and activity period of arthropod disease vectors in temperate regions is expected to respond rapidly to climate change, which could reduce the potential for migratory escape. However, climate change could have the opposite effect of reducing transmission if differential responses in the phenology and distribution of migrants and disease vectors reduce their overlap in space and time. Here we outline a simple modeling framework for exploring the influence of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics in a migratory host. We investigate two scenarios under which pathogen transmission dynamics might be mediated by climate change: (1) vectors respond more rapidly than migrants to advancing phenology at temperate breeding sites, causing peak susceptible host density and vector emergence to diverge ("migratory mismatch") and (2) reduced migratory propensity allows increased nonbreeding survival of infected hosts and larger breeding-site epidemics (loss of migratory culling, here referred to as "sedentary amplification"). Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of climate-induced changes to migratory behavior and vector activity to predict pathogen prevalence and its impacts on migratory animals. PMID:27252225

  7. Modeling vector-borne disease risk in migratory animals under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Brown, Leone M; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Recent theory suggests that animals that migrate to breed at higher latitudes may benefit from reduced pressure from natural enemies, including pathogens ("migratory escape"), and that migration itself weeds out infected individuals and lowers infection prevalence ("migratory culling"). The distribution and activity period of arthropod disease vectors in temperate regions is expected to respond rapidly to climate change, which could reduce the potential for migratory escape. However, climate change could have the opposite effect of reducing transmission if differential responses in the phenology and distribution of migrants and disease vectors reduce their overlap in space and time. Here we outline a simple modeling framework for exploring the influence of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics in a migratory host. We investigate two scenarios under which pathogen transmission dynamics might be mediated by climate change: (1) vectors respond more rapidly than migrants to advancing phenology at temperate breeding sites, causing peak susceptible host density and vector emergence to diverge ("migratory mismatch") and (2) reduced migratory propensity allows increased nonbreeding survival of infected hosts and larger breeding-site epidemics (loss of migratory culling, here referred to as "sedentary amplification"). Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of climate-induced changes to migratory behavior and vector activity to predict pathogen prevalence and its impacts on migratory animals.

  8. First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Bongiorno, Gioia; Maroli, Michele; Dereure, Jacques; Ready, Paul D

    2011-07-01

    Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe. The numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of CanL caused by Leishmania infantum. Serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 localities, 6 counties) that had never traveled to endemic countries, as well as from other potential reservoir hosts (185 red foxes and 13 golden jackals). All sera were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, but they were sero-negative using the OIE cut-off of 1:80 serum dilution except for those of two dogs resident since birth in southern Hungary. These had not received a blood transfusion, but the mode of transmission is unclear because no sandfly vectors were caught locally. From 2006 to 2009, phlebotomine sandflies were sampled in the summer months at 47 localities of 8 counties. They were trapped with castor-oil-impregnated sticky-paper, light, and CO(2)-baited traps. Small numbers of two vectors of Leishmania infantum were found. Phlebotomus neglectus occurred in three villages near to Croatia and one in north Hungary at latitude 47 °N, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi was trapped at two sites in a southeastern county close to the sites where it was first found in 1931-1932. Our report provides baseline data for future investigations into the northward spread of CanL into Hungary, which we conclude has yet to occur. PMID:21254904

  9. Blocking the Transmission of a Noncirculative Vector-Borne Plant Pathogenic Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labroussaa, Fabien; Zeilinger, Adam R; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2016-07-01

    The successful control of insect-borne plant pathogens is often difficult to achieve due to the ecologically complex interactions among pathogens, vectors, and host plants. Disease management often relies on pesticides and other approaches that have limited long-term sustainability. To add a new tool to control vector-borne diseases, we attempted to block the transmission of a bacterial insect-transmitted pathogen, the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa, by disrupting bacteria-insect vector interactions. X. fastidiosa is known to attach to and colonize the cuticular surface of the mouthparts of vectors; a set of recombinant peptides was generated and the chemical affinities of these peptides to chitin and related carbohydrates was assayed in vitro. Two candidates, the X. fastidiosa hypothetical protein PD1764 and an N-terminal region of the hemagglutinin-like protein B (HxfB) showed affinity for these substrates. These proteins were provided to vectors via an artificial diet system in which insects acquire X. fastidiosa, followed by an inoculation access period on plants under greenhouse conditions. Both PD1764 and HxfAD1-3 significantly blocked transmission. Furthermore, bacterial populations within insects over a 10-day period demonstrated that these peptides inhibited cell adhesion to vectors but not bacterial multiplication, indicating that the mode of action of these peptides is restricted to limiting cell adhesion to insects, likely via competition for adhesion sites. These results open a new venue in the search for sustainable disease-control strategies that are pathogen specific and may have limited nontarget effects. PMID:27049684

  10. Growth of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrolho, Joana; Simpson, Jennifer; Hawes, Philippa; Zweygarth, Erich; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2016-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by Ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. The disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family Canidae worldwide. E. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line DH82 and in non-vector Ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from its natural vector. Here we report infection and limited propagation of E. canis in the tick cell line RSE8 derived from the vector R. sanguineus s.l., and successful propagation through six passages in a cell line derived from the experimental vector Dermacentor variabilis. In addition, using bacteria semi-purified from I. scapularis cells we attempted to infect a panel of cell lines derived from non-vector species of the tick genera Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus with E. canis and, for comparison, the closely-related Ehrlichia ruminantium, causative agent of heartwater in ruminants. Amblyomma and non-vector Dermacentor spp. cell lines appeared refractory to infection with E. canis but supported growth of E. ruminantium, while some, but not all, cell lines derived from Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus spp. ticks supported growth of both pathogens. We also illustrated and compared the ultrastructural morphology of E. canis in DH82, RSE8 and I. scapularis IDE8 cells. This study confirms that E. canis, like E. ruminantium, is able to grow not only in cell lines derived from natural and experimental tick vectors but also in a wide range of other cell lines derived from tick species not known to transmit this pathogen. PMID:26837859

  11. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  12. An antivector vaccine protects against a lethal vector-borne pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Labuda

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. We tested the ability of an anti-tick vaccine derived from a tick cement protein (64TRP of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus to protect mice against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV transmitted by infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. The vaccine has a "dual action" in immunized animals: when infested with ticks, the inflammatory and immune responses first disrupt the skin feeding site, resulting in impaired blood feeding, and then specific anti-64TRP antibodies cross-react with midgut antigenic epitopes, causing rupture of the tick midgut and death of engorged ticks. Three parameters were measured: "transmission," number of uninfected nymphal ticks that became infected when cofeeding with an infected adult female tick; "support," number of mice supporting virus transmission from the infected tick to cofeeding uninfected nymphs; and "survival," number of mice that survived infection by tick bite and subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of TBEV. We show that one dose of the 64TRP vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge by infected ticks; control animals developed a fatal viral encephalitis. The protective effect of the 64TRP vaccine was comparable to that of a single dose of a commercial TBEV vaccine, while the transmission-blocking effect of 64TRP was better than that of the antiviral vaccine in reducing the number of animals supporting virus transmission. By contrast, the commercial antitick vaccine (TickGARD that targets only the tick's midgut showed transmission-blocking activity but was not protective. The 64TRP vaccine demonstrates the potential to control vector-borne disease by interfering with pathogen transmission, apparently by mediating a local cutaneous inflammatory immune response at the tick-feeding site.

  13. An Antivector Vaccine Protects against a Lethal Vector-Borne Pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Vaccines that target blood-feeding disease vectors, such as mosquitoes and ticks, have the potential to protect against the many diseases caused by vector-borne pathogens. We tested the ability of an anti-tick vaccine derived from a tick cement protein (64TRP of Rhipicephalus appendiculatus to protect mice against tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV transmitted by infected Ixodes ricinus ticks. The vaccine has a "dual action" in immunized animals: when infested with ticks, the inflammatory and immune responses first disrupt the skin feeding site, resulting in impaired blood feeding, and then specific anti-64TRP antibodies cross-react with midgut antigenic epitopes, causing rupture of the tick midgut and death of engorged ticks. Three parameters were measured: "transmission," number of uninfected nymphal ticks that became infected when cofeeding with an infected adult female tick; "support," number of mice supporting virus transmission from the infected tick to cofeeding uninfected nymphs; and "survival," number of mice that survived infection by tick bite and subsequent challenge by intraperitoneal inoculation of a lethal dose of TBEV. We show that one dose of the 64TRP vaccine protects mice against lethal challenge by infected ticks; control animals developed a fatal viral encephalitis. The protective effect of the 64TRP vaccine was comparable to that of a single dose of a commercial TBEV vaccine, while the transmission-blocking effect of 64TRP was better than that of the antiviral vaccine in reducing the number of animals supporting virus transmission. By contrast, the commercial antitick vaccine (TickGARD that targets only the tick's midgut showed transmission-blocking activity but was not protective. The 64TRP vaccine demonstrates the potential to control vector-borne disease by interfering with pathogen transmission, apparently by mediating a local cutaneous inflammatory immune response at the tick-feeding site.

  14. Global dynamics of a vector-borne disease model with latency and saturating incidence rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashrafur Rahman

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with a vector-borne disease model containing latency and nonlinear incidence rates. Global analysis is completely determined by suitable Lyapunov functionals. We explicitely determine the basic reproduction number and find that if this number is less than one then disease dies out, but if the number is larger than one, the disease causing strain become endemic. The study shows that the latency delay explicitely in°uence the disease persistence. Keywords: Latency, saturating incidence, basic reproduction number, global attractivity, Lyapunov functionals.

  15. Retrograde optogenetic characterization of the pontospinal module of the locus coeruleus with a canine adenoviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Hickey, Louise; Perrins, Ray; Werlen, Emilie; Patel, Amisha A; Hirschberg, Stefan; Jones, Matt W; Salinas, Sara; Kremer, Eric J; Pickering, Anthony E

    2016-06-15

    Noradrenergic neurons of the brainstem extend projections throughout the neuraxis to modulate a wide range of processes including attention, arousal, autonomic control and sensory processing. A spinal projection from the locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to regulate nociceptive processing. To characterize and selectively manipulate the pontospinal noradrenergic neurons in rats, we implemented a retrograde targeting strategy using a canine adenoviral vector to express channelrhodopsin2 (CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry). LC microinjection of CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry produced selective, stable, transduction of noradrenergic neurons allowing reliable opto-activation in vitro. The ChR2-transduced LC neurons were opto-identifiable in vivo and functional control was demonstrated for >6 months by evoked sleep-wake transitions. Spinal injection of CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry retrogradely transduced pontine noradrenergic neurons, predominantly in the LC but also in A5 and A7. A pontospinal LC (ps:LC) module was identifiable, with somata located more ventrally within the nucleus and with a discrete subset of projection targets. These ps:LC neurons had distinct electrophysiological properties with shorter action potentials and smaller afterhyperpolarizations compared to neurons located in the core of the LC. In vivo recordings of ps:LC neurons showed a lower spontaneous firing frequency than those in the core and they were all excited by noxious stimuli. Using this CAV2-based approach we have demonstrated the ability to retrogradely target, characterise and optogenetically manipulate a central noradrenergic circuit and show that the ps:LC module forms a discrete unit. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26903420

  16. New approaches and omics tools for mining of vaccine candidates against vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleš, Josipa; Horvatić, Anita; Guillemin, Nicolas; Galan, Asier; Mrljak, Vladimir; Bhide, Mangesh

    2016-08-16

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) present a major threat to human and animal health, as well as place a substantial burden on livestock production. As a way of sustainable VBD control, focus is set on vaccine development. Advances in genomics and other "omics" over the past two decades have given rise to a "third generation" of vaccines based on technologies such as reverse vaccinology, functional genomics, immunomics, structural vaccinology and the systems biology approach. The application of omics approaches is shortening the time required to develop the vaccines and increasing the probability of discovery of potential vaccine candidates. Herein, we review the development of new generation vaccines for VBDs, and discuss technological advancement and overall challenges in the vaccine development pipeline. Special emphasis is placed on the development of anti-tick vaccines that can quell both vectors and pathogens.

  17. The growing challenges of vector-borne diseases to regionally-aligned forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Leon L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    The long-term strategic focus of US foreign policy has pivoted to the Pacific, but tensions in the Middle East require constant attention in the present. As our current role in Afghanistan diminishes, we must seize the opportunity to refocus on the new priority of regionally-aligned forces. The short-term reality requires first reestablishing core warfighting competencies of a smaller Army and then building the capacity of forces focused on regional alignment. The continuing threat of vector-borne and other infectious diseases will present growing challenges to US forces focused on regional alignment and engagement. Greater understanding of these threats, host nation vulnerabilities and capabilities, and the regional presence of international and nongovernmental organizations will enable US forces to respond and engage more effectively and appropriately to accomplish assigned missions and future contingencies. Effective vector surveillance and control has a longstanding and proven record of preventing, reducing, and eliminating vector-borne diseases and must remain a focus of regionally-aligned forces. Operational readiness of armed forces continues to rely heavily on vector surveillance and control, and on personal protection strategies. Regionally-aligned forces must also work closely with the US Department of State and US Agency for International Development, international governments, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and private organizations operating in the region and know how to effectively interact with these diverse organizations. In addition, a working knowledge of a host country's public health policy, capabilities and economic realities will be essential. Teamwork with previously unfamiliar groups and organizations will be an essential component of working in regional environments and can present unfamiliar tasks for traditionally-trained military units. PMID:25074596

  18. The growing challenges of vector-borne diseases to regionally-aligned forces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Leon L; Debboun, Mustapha

    2014-01-01

    The long-term strategic focus of US foreign policy has pivoted to the Pacific, but tensions in the Middle East require constant attention in the present. As our current role in Afghanistan diminishes, we must seize the opportunity to refocus on the new priority of regionally-aligned forces. The short-term reality requires first reestablishing core warfighting competencies of a smaller Army and then building the capacity of forces focused on regional alignment. The continuing threat of vector-borne and other infectious diseases will present growing challenges to US forces focused on regional alignment and engagement. Greater understanding of these threats, host nation vulnerabilities and capabilities, and the regional presence of international and nongovernmental organizations will enable US forces to respond and engage more effectively and appropriately to accomplish assigned missions and future contingencies. Effective vector surveillance and control has a longstanding and proven record of preventing, reducing, and eliminating vector-borne diseases and must remain a focus of regionally-aligned forces. Operational readiness of armed forces continues to rely heavily on vector surveillance and control, and on personal protection strategies. Regionally-aligned forces must also work closely with the US Department of State and US Agency for International Development, international governments, governmental and nongovernmental organizations, and private organizations operating in the region and know how to effectively interact with these diverse organizations. In addition, a working knowledge of a host country's public health policy, capabilities and economic realities will be essential. Teamwork with previously unfamiliar groups and organizations will be an essential component of working in regional environments and can present unfamiliar tasks for traditionally-trained military units.

  19. Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...... for continuous risk assessment of the potential for local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. In this system R0-models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0...... partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. We have also used the R0 models to predict the potential impact of climate change on four selected vector borne disease: Bluetongue in cattle, African Horse Sickness in horses, Dirofilariasis in dogs and Vivax...

  20. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases. PMID:26375902

  1. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  2. Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of Chagas' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Pelosse

    Full Text Available Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control.

  3. Genetic resistance: tolerance to vector-borne diseases and the prospects and challenges of genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahbahani, H; Hanotte, O

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases in cattle and small ruminants (e.g. trypanosomosis, Rift Valley fever and East Coast fever) are associated with major economic losses in tropical countries, and particularly on the African continent. A variety of control strategies (e.g. management, vaccination and/or acaricide treatments) are used to minimise their negative impacts. These strategies are often associated with environmental, technical and/or economic drawbacks. However, several indigenous livestock populations have been reported to show a level of genetic tolerance or resistance to such disease challenges (e.g. trypanotolerant N'Dama cattle and Djallonké sheep). Use of these populations represents a sustainable alternative approach to minimising the negative impact of such infection/infestation on livestock production. This review summarises the current understanding of the genetic control of these adaptations, identifies knowledge gaps and critically examines the possible impacts of genomics approaches to the genetic improvement of tolerance and/or resistance to vector-borne diseases. PMID:26470457

  4. Socio-economic factors influencing control of vector-borne diseases in the pastoralist system of south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, Anthony; McLeod, Anni; Percy, Rachel; Kyewalabye, Elizabeth

    2008-05-01

    Research in control of tick-borne diseases and trypanosomosis, and their vectors, namely, ticks and tsetse flies respectively, has been on going for decades. However, very little attention has been paid to the socio-economic factors that are likely to influence the outcome of the interventions in the control of these diseases. Thus, this study was designed to investigate these factors, mainly the intra-household factors influencing decision-making in the control of Vector-borne diseases in the pastoralist areas of Uganda. These factors included: indigenous technical knowledge, household economic factors, and gender. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the collection and analysis of data. The tools used for data collection included among others, participatory learning and action (PLA), and Case studies. The findings included the following: In pastoralist households, a big proportion of the household budget was allocated to vector-borne diseases control. In the male-headed households, men dominated decision-making on vector-borne diseases control, although the goals and priorities of men and women in these households were not the same. Also, vector-borne disease control was predominantly by use of modern veterinary drugs, and pastoralists treated sick cattle by themselves even in situations where there were veterinary personnel. PMID:18557192

  5. Man bites mosquito: understanding the contribution of human movement to vector-borne disease dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Adams

    Full Text Available In metropolitan areas people travel frequently and extensively but often in highly structured commuting patterns. We investigate the role of this type of human movement in the epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens such as dengue. Analysis is based on a metapopulation model where mobile humans connect static mosquito subpopulations. We find that, due to frequency dependent biting, infection incidence in the human and mosquito populations is almost independent of the duration of contact. If the mosquito population is not uniformly distributed between patches the transmission potential of the pathogen at the metapopulation level, as summarized by the basic reproductive number, is determined by the size of the largest subpopulation and reduced by stronger connectivity. Global extinction of the pathogen is less likely when increased human movement enhances the rescue effect but, in contrast to classical theory, it is not minimized at an intermediate level of connectivity. We conclude that hubs and reservoirs of infection can be places people visit frequently but briefly and the relative importance of human and mosquito populations in maintaining the pathogen depends on the distribution of the mosquito population and the variability in human travel patterns. These results offer an insight in to the paradoxical observation of resurgent urban vector-borne disease despite increased investment in vector control and suggest that successful public health intervention may require a dual approach. Prospective studies can be used to identify areas with large mosquito populations that are also visited by a large fraction of the human population. Retrospective studies can be used to map recent movements of infected people, pinpointing the mosquito subpopulation from which they acquired the infection and others to which they may have transmitted it.

  6. A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS AND VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD-ȘANDRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Geospatial Analysis of the Relationship between Environmental Drivers and Vector-Borne Diseases. Human health is profoundly affected by weather and climate. Environmental health is becoming a major preoccupation on a world-wide scale; there is a close correlation between a population’s state of health and the quality of its environment, considering many infectious diseases are at least partly dependent on environmental factors. When we talk about the environment, we realize that it includes and affects fields of action from our daily life. Earth observation from space, with validation from in situ observations, provide a greater understanding of the environment and enable us to monitor and predict key environmental phenomena and events that can affect our livelihoods and health. Even thought, the use of Earth observation is growing in usefulness for a wide variety of uses, it is extremely unlikely that Earth Observation will be able to detect infectious diseases directly. Instead, Earth observation can be used to detect high NDVI index (and possibly attribute the high surface chlorophyll concentration to a particular disease, and help predict the movement of the agents carrying vector-borne disease. Many diseases need certain temperature and moisture conditions to breed. The primary objective of analyzing environmental health risk and vulnerabilities is to support the Development Regions to strengthen their capacity to assess, visualize and analyze health risks and incorporate the results of this analysis in a health risk map for disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and response plans. At the same time, such an analysis applied in health, allows starting the collection and homogenization of baseline data, information and maps to help health authorities and decision makers to take informed decisions in times of crises. Informational Health Platform would be used for the integration of data coming from different sources in order to

  7. Cloning and expression of canine clotting factor Ⅸ cDNA in vitro mediated by retroviral vector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高啸波; 邱信芳; 卢大儒; 薛京伦

    1999-01-01

    Oligonucleotide of cFIX eDNA (canine FIX, cFIX) was used to transcript mRNA of dog liver cell to cDNA by RT-PCR, and further construct it on the plasmid vector pGEM-T. The correct sequence of cFIX eDNA was obtained which covered the entire cFIX coding region. Furthermore, GlNaCcIX (driven by hCMV promoter) and GlNaMBcIX (driven by MCK enhancer and β-aetin promoter) were constructed using the retroviral vector backbone of GlNa. Canine skin fibroblast (CSF) was used as target cell, transduced with the above constructors respectively. The results showed that these modified CSF cells could express cFIX and that the expression levels were 173 ng/10~6 cell/24 h (GlNaCcIX) and 211 ng/10~6 cell/24 h (GlNaMBcIX) respectively. Those data offered a promising result for further animal study.

  8. Global warming and the potential spread of vector-borne diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patz, J. [Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    1996-12-31

    Climatic factors influence many vector-borne infectious diseases, in addition to demographic, biological, and ecological determinants. The United Nation`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates an unprecedented global rise of 2.0 C by the year 2100. Of major concern is that these changes can affect the spread of many serious infectious diseases, including malaria and dengue fever. Global warming would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the mosquito`s geographic range, increasing reproductive and biting rates, and shortening pathogen incubation period. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from the projected increase in climate variability and sea level rise could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. A review of this literature, as well as preliminary data from ongoing studies will be presented.

  9. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei L. Clarke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  10. Promoting Spatial Data Synthesis for Vector-Borne Disease Assessment in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD ŞANDRU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Given the continually human interaction with the environment, the present paper reveals the spatial data integration of environmental factors such as topography, vegetation and surface temperature with epidemiological statistical data for assessing vector-borne diseases in Romania, monitored between 2009 and 2011. This study is a small piece of a big puzzle, part of an extended research that evaluates the contribution of geospatial and ground observation data to public health assessment. It is intended to implement a useful and innovative system for Romania’s public health, which provides information on various aspects such as the prevalence of diseases, facilities that are available in order to take decisions on, either for creating infrastructure facilities or for taking immediate actions to handle situations.

  11. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Simona; Nardoni; Giulia; Fognani; Linda; Mugnaini; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Guido; Rocchigiani; Roberto; Amerigo; Papini; Francesco; Stefani; Francesca; Mancianti

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pi’evalence of vector-bome bacteria and protozoa in hunting dogs living in Central Italy.Methods:Molecular testing was executed on DNA which was extracted from blood specimens collected from 117 asymptomatic dogs to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum,Babesia canis(B.canis),Bartonella spp..Coxiella burnetii(C.burnetii).Ehrlichia canis.Hepatozoon canis.and Leislnnania infantum.Results:A total of 48 dogs(41.0%) were infested by Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.Tick-borne infections were observed in 64(54.7%) animals.More in detail.38 dogs(32.5%) screened positive for Hepatozoon canis,24(20.5%) for Bartonella rinsonii subsp.berkhoffii.20(17.1%) for Leishmania infantum,6(5.1%) for C.burnetii,5(4.3%) for B.canis(3 B.canis vogeli and 2 B.canis canis),3(2.5%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum,and 2(1.7%) for Ehrlichia canis.Mixed infection by 2 agents occurred in 17(14.5%) subjects,by 3 agents in 7(6.0%) dogs,and by 4 agents in 1(0.9%) animal.Conclusions:The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic.A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C.burnetii,a severe zoonotic agent,in the 5.1% of tested dogs,which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites,but also directly with urine,feces and birth products.

  12. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  13. Recent weather extremes and impacts on agricultural production and vector-borne disease outbreak patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Britch, Seth C; Tucker, Compton J; Pak, Edwin W; Reynolds, Curt A; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused ∼10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  14. Incidence of Vector-borne Disease and Climate Change: A Study in Semi-arid Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Bounoua, L.

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniases are among the most important emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases, second only to malaria in terms of the number of affected people. Leishmaniases are endemic in 88 countries worldwide and threaten about 350 million people (WHO, 2007). Since the first reported case of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Saida, Algeria in 1991, 1,275 cases have been recorded (Makhlouf & Houti, 2010) with the vast majority of study-area cases (99%) reported between the years of 2000 and 2009. An investigation of potential climatic indicators for the apparent shift in disease prevalence was conducted by comparing anomalies in the climate data specific to the local pathogen cycle. It was determined that long term climate trends have resulted in conditions that promote the prevalence of ZCL. Increased precipitation have resulted in greater vegetation and promoted host and vector population growth through a trophic cascade. Increased minimum temperatures have lengthened the annual duration of sandfly activity. Short term variations in maximum temperatures, however show a correlation with disease suppression in the subsequent years. These findings indicate a potential to forecast the risk of ZCL infection through models of the trophic cascade and sandfly population growth.

  15. Vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braks, Marieta; Medlock, Jolyon M; Hubalek, Zdenek; Hjertqvist, Marika; Perrin, Yvon; Lancelot, Renaud; Duchyene, Els; Hendrickx, Guy; Stroo, Arjan; Heyman, Paul; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the complex nature of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), whereby monitoring of human case patients does not suffice, public health authorities experience challenges in surveillance and control of VBDs. Knowledge on the presence and distribution of vectors and the pathogens that they transmit is vital to the risk assessment process to permit effective early warning, surveillance, and control of VBDs. Upon accepting this reality, public health authorities face an ever-increasing range of possible surveillance targets and an associated prioritization process. Here, we propose a comprehensive approach that integrates three surveillance strategies: population-based surveillance, disease-based surveillance, and context-based surveillance for EU member states to tailor the best surveillance strategy for control of VBDs in their geographic region. By classifying the surveillance structure into five different contexts, we hope to provide guidance in optimizing surveillance efforts. Contextual surveillance strategies for VBDs entail combining organization and data collection approaches that result in disease intelligence rather than a preset static structure. PMID:25566522

  16. Operational vector-borne disease surveillance and control: closing the capabilities gap through research at overseas military laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian P; Clark, Jeffrey W; Barbara, Kathryn A; Mundal, Kirk D; Furman, Barry D; McAvin, James C; Richardson, Jason H

    2009-01-01

    Malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, leishmaniasis, and a myriad of other vector-borne diseases pose significant threats to the warfighter and to the overall combat effectiveness of units. Military preventive medicine (PM) assets must accurately evaluate the vector-borne disease threat and then implement and/or advise the commander on countermeasures to reduce a particular threat. The success of these measures is contingent upon the biology of the disease vector and on the tools or methods used to conduct vector/pathogen surveillance and vector control. There is a significant gap between the tools available and those required for operational PM assets to provide real-time, effective surveillance and control. A network of US Army and US Navy overseas laboratories is focused on closing the current capabilities gap. Their mission is to develop and field test tools and methods to enhance the combatant commander's ability to identify and mitigate the threat posed by these vector-borne diseases. PMID:20084734

  17. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  18. Survey of canine tick-borne diseases in Lábrea, Brazilian Amazon: ‘accidental’ findings of Dirofilaria immitis infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbert Sousa Soares

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples were collected from 99 domestic dogs from the urban and rural areas of the Lábrea municipality, state of Amazonas, Brazil. Canine serum samples were tested by immunofluorescence assay against Rickettsia spp., which revealed that only 3.0% (1/33 and 7.6% (5/66 of the dogs from urban and rural areas, respectively, reacted positively to at least one Rickettsia species. DNA was extracted from canine blood and tested by a battery of PCR assays targeting protozoa of the genera Babesia and Hepatozoon, and bacteria of the genera Rickettsia and Ehrlichia and family Anaplasmataceae. All samples were negative in the PCR assays targeting the genera Babesia, Hepatozoon, Ehrlichia and Rickettsia. For Anaplasmataceae, 3% (1/33 and 39.4% (26/66 of the urban and rural dogs, respectively, yielded amplicons that generated DNA sequences 100% identical to the corresponding sequence of Wolbachia endosymbiont of Dirofilaria immitis. Because of these results, all canine DNA samples were further tested in a PCR assay targeting filarial nematodes, which was positive for 18.2% (6/33 and 57.6% (38/66 urban and rural dogs, respectively. Filarial-PCR products generated DNA sequences 100% identical to D. immitis. While tick-borne infections were rare in Lábrea, D. immitis infection rates were among the highest reported in South America.

  19. Mapping the basic reproduction number (Ro) for vector-borne diseases: A case study on bluetongue virus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.; Purse, B.V.; Meiswinkel, R.; Brown, H.E.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.; Boender, G.J.; Rogers, D.J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.

    2009-01-01

    Geographical maps indicating the value of the basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to identify areas of higher risk for an outbreak after an introduction. We develop a methodology to create R0 maps for vector-borne diseases, using bluetongue virus as a case study. This method provides a tool f

  20. Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the results presented by the participants of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods. The CRP lasted from 1987 until 1992. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  1. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions. PMID:19341603

  2. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions.

  3. Vaccines for canine leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarisa B. Palatnik-De-Sousa

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is the third most important vector-borne disease worldwide. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a severe and frequently lethal protozoan disease of increasing incidence and severity due to infected human and dog migration, new geographical distribution of the insect due to global-warming, co-infection with immunosuppressive diseases and poverty. The disease is an anthroponosis in India and Central Africa and a canid zoonosis (ZVL in the Americas, the Middle East, Central Asia, China and the Mediterranean. The ZVL epidemic has been controlled by one or more measures including the culling of infected dogs, treatment of human cases and insecticidal treatment of homes and dogs. However, the use of vaccines is considered the most cost-effective control tool for human and canine disease. Since the severity of the disease is related to the generation of T-cell immunosuppression, effective vaccines should be capable of sustaining or enhancing the T-cell immunity. In this review we summarize the clinical and parasitological characteristics of ZVL with special focus on the cellular and humoral canine immune response and review state-of-the-art vaccine development against human and canine visceral leishmaniasis. Experimental vaccination against leishmaniasis has evolved from the practice of leishmanization with living parasites to vaccination with crude lysates, native parasite extracts to recombinant and DNA vaccination. Although more than 30 defined vaccines have been studied in laboratory models no human formulation has been licensed so far; however three second-generation canine vaccines have already been registered. As expected for a zoonotic disease, the recent preventive vaccination of dogs in Brazil has led to a reduction in the incidence of canine and human disease. The recent identification of several Leishmania proteins with T-cell epitopes anticipates development of a multiprotein vaccine that will be capable of protecting both humans

  4. Recombinant Newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Gao, Yuwei; Wen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Guimei; Zhou, Weiwei; Zu, Shulong; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-05-15

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. The current CDV live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. Here, we generated recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (H) or fusion protein (F), named as rLa-CDVH and rLa-CDVF, respectively. The feasibility of these recombinant NDVs to serve as live virus-vectored CD vaccine was evaluated in minks. rLa-CDVH induced significant neutralization antibodies (NA) to CDV and provided solid protection against virulent CDV challenge. On the contrast, rLa-CDVF induced much lower NA to CDV and fail to protected mink from virulent CDV challenge. Results suggest that recombinant NDV expressing CDV H is safe and efficient candidate vaccine against CDV in mink, and maybe other host species. PMID:25865465

  5. Identification of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B

    2016-07-01

    Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil. PMID:27266811

  6. Multi-disease data management system platform for vector-borne diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Eisen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Emerging information technologies present new opportunities to reduce the burden of malaria, dengue and other infectious diseases. For example, use of a data management system software package can help disease control programs to better manage and analyze their data, and thus enhances their ability to carry out continuous surveillance, monitor interventions and evaluate control program performance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We describe a novel multi-disease data management system platform (hereinafter referred to as the system with current capacity for dengue and malaria that supports data entry, storage and query. It also allows for production of maps and both standardized and customized reports. The system is comprised exclusively of software components that can be distributed without the user incurring licensing costs. It was designed to maximize the ability of the user to adapt the system to local conditions without involvement of software developers. Key points of system adaptability include 1 customizable functionality content by disease, 2 configurable roles and permissions, 3 customizable user interfaces and display labels and 4 configurable information trees including a geographical entity tree and a term tree. The system includes significant portions of functionality that is entirely or in large part re-used across diseases, which provides an economy of scope as new diseases downstream are added to the system at decreased cost. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a system with great potential for aiding disease control programs in their task to reduce the burden of dengue and malaria, including the implementation of integrated vector management programs. Next steps include evaluations of operational implementations of the current system with capacity for dengue and malaria, and the inclusion in the system platform of other important vector-borne diseases.

  7. Evaluation of a vectored equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) vaccine expressing H3 haemagglutinin in the protection of dogs against canine influenza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Cristina; Van de Walle, Gerlinde R; Metzger, Stephan M; Hoelzer, Karin; Dubovi, Edward J; Kim, Sung G; Parrish, Colin R; Osterrieder, Nikolaus

    2008-05-01

    In 2004, canine influenza virus (CIV) was identified as a respiratory pathogen of dogs for the first time and found to be closely related to H3N8 equine influenza virus (EIV). We generated a recombinant vectored vaccine that expresses H3 of a recent isolate of EIV using equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) as the delivery vehicle. This EHV-1 vectored vaccine exhibited robust and stable EIV H3 expression and induced a strong influenza virus-specific response in both mice and dogs upon intranasal or subcutaneous administration. Furthermore, upon challenge with the recent CIV isolate A/canine/PA/10915-07, protection of vaccinated dogs could be demonstrated by a significant reduction in clinical sings, and, more importantly, by a significant reduction in virus shedding. We concluded that the EHV-1/H3 recombinant vector can be a valuable alternative for protection of dogs against clinical disease induced by CIV and can significantly reduce virus spread.

  8. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  9. Disentangling Vector-Borne Transmission Networks: A Universal DNA Barcoding Method to Identify Vertebrate Hosts from Arthropod Bloodmeals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alcaide, Miguel; Rico, Ciro; Ruiz, Santiago;

    2009-01-01

    Emerging infectious diseases represent a challenge for global economies and public health. About one fourth of the last pandemics have been originated by the spread of vector-borne pathogens. In this sense, the advent of modern molecular techniques has enhanced our capabilities to understand vector......-host interactions and disease ecology. However, host identification protocols have poorly profited of international DNA barcoding initiatives and/or have focused exclusively on a limited array of vector species. Therefore, ascertaining the potential afforded by DNA barcoding tools in other vector-host systems...... of human and veterinary importance would represent a major advance in tracking pathogen life cycles and hosts. Here, we show the applicability of a novel and efficient molecular method for the identification of the vertebrate host’s DNA contained in the midgut of blood-feeding arthropods. To this end, we...

  10. The ecological foundations of transmission potential and vector-borne disease in urban landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon L LaDeau; Allan, Brian F.; Leisnham, Paul T.; Michael Z Levy

    2015-01-01

    Urban transmission of arthropod-vectored disease has increased in recent decades. Understanding and managing transmission potential in urban landscapes requires integration of sociological and ecological processes that regulate vector population dynamics, feeding behavior, and vector-pathogen interactions in these unique ecosystems. Vectorial capacity is a key metric for generating predictive understanding about transmission potential in systems with obligate vector transmission. This review ...

  11. Response to an emerging vector-borne disease: surveillance and preparedness for Schmallenberg virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, H C; Elbers, A R W; Conraths, F J; Holsteg, M; Hoereth-Boentgen, D; Gethmann, J; van Schaik, G

    2014-10-15

    Surveillance for new emerging animal diseases from a European perspective is complicated by the non-harmonised approach across Member States for data capture, recording livestock populations and case definitions. In the summer of 2011, a new vector-borne Orthobunyavirus emerged in Northern Europe and for the first time, a coordinated approach to horizon scanning, risk communication, data and diagnostic test sharing allowed EU Member States to develop early predictions of the disease, its impact and risk management options. There are many different systems in place across the EU for syndromic and scanning surveillance and the differences in these systems have presented epidemiologists and risk assessors with concerns about their combined use in early identification of an emerging disease. The emergence of a new disease always will raise challenging issues around lack of capability and lack of knowledge; however, Schmallenberg virus (SBV) gave veterinary authorities an additional complex problem: the infection caused few clinical signs in adult animals, with no indication of the possible source and little evidence about its spread or means of transmission. This paper documents the different systems in place in some of the countries (Germany and the Netherlands) which detected disease initially and predicted its spread (to the UK) and how information sharing helped to inform early warning and risk assessment for Member States. Microarray technology was used to identify SBV as a new pathogen and data from the automated cattle milking systems coupled with farmer-derived data on reporting non-specific clinical signs gave the first indications of a widespread issue while the UK used meteorological modelling to map disease incursion. The coordinating role of both EFSA and the European Commission were vital as are the opportunities presented by web-based publishing for disseminating information to industry and the public. The future of detecting emerging disease looks more

  12. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15°C to 25°C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially ~25–32°C; mortality from 20°C to 30°C; parasite development rate at ~15–16°C and again at ~33–35°C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  13. Natural Mosquito-Pathogen Hybrid IgG4 Antibodies in Vector-Borne Diseases: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Londono-Renteria, Berlin; Cardenas, Jenny C.; Troupin, Andrea; Colpitts, Tonya M.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic exposure to antigens may favor the production of IgG4 antibodies over other antibody types. Recent studies have shown that up to a 30% of normal human IgG4 is bi-specific and is able to recognize two antigens of different nature. A requirement for this specificity is the presence of both eliciting antigens in the same time and at the same place where the immune response is induced. During transmission of most vector-borne diseases, the pathogen is delivered to the vertebrate host along with the arthropod saliva during blood feeding and previous studies have shown the existence of IgG4 antibodies against mosquito salivary allergens. However, there is very little ongoing research or information available regarding IgG4 bi-specificity with regard to infectious disease, particularly during immune responses to vector-borne diseases, such as malaria, filariasis, or dengue virus infection. Here, we provide background information and present our hypothesis that IgG4 may not only be a useful tool to measure exposure to infected mosquito bites, but that these bi-specific antibodies may also play an important role in modulation of the immune response against malaria and other vector-borne diseases in endemic settings. PMID:27746778

  14. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Manuela; Cassini, Rudi; Drigo, Michele; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Pietrobelli, Mario; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environmental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM) and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30) and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt prediction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level) characterised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:25545936

  15. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Signorini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environ- mental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribu- tion of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30 and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt pre- diction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level charac- terised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveil- lance strategies.

  16. Plant-borne ovicides in the fight against mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-09-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a huge threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating parasites and pathogens. Culicidae control is of crucial importance. Mosquito eggs, larvae, and pupae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment, and induce resistance in a number of species. Eco-friendly tools have been recently implemented against mosquito vectors, including botanical insecticides. The majority of researches focused on larvicides (745 SCOPUS results, July 2015) and adult repellents (434 SCOPUS results), while limited efforts were conducted to identify effective ovicides of botanical origin (59 SCOPUS results). Here, I review current knowledge on the effectiveness of plant-borne ovicides against major mosquito vectors of medical and veterinary importance. The majority of researches focused on the toxicity of crude extracts, their fractions, or essential oils against three important mosquito vectors, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti, and Culex quinquefasciatus. As a general trend, C. quinquefasciatus eggs were the most resistant to botanical ovicides. Five studies proposed selected compounds from plant extracts and essential oils as ovicides effective at few parts per million. However, no efforts were conducted to shed light on possible mechanisms underlying the toxicity of plant-borne ovicides. In the final section, a number of hot issues needing further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and researchers working in natural product chemistry are outlined.

  17. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (pdescription of infections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. PMID:24315693

  18. Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare

    that describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters...

  19. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted...... at eliminating reservoirs. Insect borne Blue tongue, Black tongue, West Nile Virus, Usutu, avian malaria, Dirofilarial worms and Tick Borne Encephalitis are spreading and pose an increasing threat to people and animals in Northern Europe. Climate driven mathematical models may provide quantitative estimates...

  20. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen Jamie; Harrison Stanley; Birney Ian; Wilkerson Richard C; Foley Desmond H; Rueda Leopoldo M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Result...

  1. Climate Change and Spatiotemporal Distributions of Vector-Borne Diseases in Nepal--A Systematic Synthesis of Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    Full Text Available Despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this Himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, Nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (VBDs, namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. There is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on VBDs especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. Our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of VBDs in Nepal can be related to climate change.A systematic literature search was performed and summarized information on climate change and the spatiotemporal distribution of VBDs in Nepal from the published literature until December 2014 following providing items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA guidelines.We found 12 studies that analysed the trend of climatic data and are relevant for the study of VBDs, 38 studies that dealt with the spatial and temporal distribution of disease vectors and disease transmission. Among 38 studies, only eight studies assessed the association of VBDs with climatic variables. Our review highlights a pronounced warming in the mountains and an expansion of autochthonous cases of VBDs to non-endemic areas including mountain regions (i.e., at least 2,000 m above sea level. Furthermore, significant relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors are found in short-term studies.Taking into account the weak health care systems and difficult geographic terrain of Nepal, increasing trade and movements of people, a lack of vector control interventions, observed relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors and the establishment of relevant disease vectors already at least 2,000 m above sea level, we conclude that climate change can intensify the risk of VBD epidemics in the mountain regions of Nepal if other non-climatic drivers of VBDs remain constant.

  2. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: a critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Hendrikx, Pascal;

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden...... and United Kingdom, part of the CoVetLab network). A qualitative assessment was then performed focusing on surveillance directed particularly to BTV-8. Information regarding surveillance activities were reviewed for the years 2008 and 2012. The results were then complemented with a critical scoping review...... of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection...

  3. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well.

  4. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well. PMID:26751818

  5. Inter-model comparison of the landscape determinants of vector-borne disease: implications for epidemiological and entomological risk modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Alyson; Dhingra, Radhika; Chang, Howard H; Bisanzio, Donal; Liu, Yang; Remais, Justin V

    2014-01-01

    Extrapolating landscape regression models for use in assessing vector-borne disease risk and other applications requires thoughtful evaluation of fundamental model choice issues. To examine implications of such choices, an analysis was conducted to explore the extent to which disparate landscape models agree in their epidemiological and entomological risk predictions when extrapolated to new regions. Agreement between six literature-drawn landscape models was examined by comparing predicted county-level distributions of either Lyme disease or Ixodes scapularis vector using Spearman ranked correlation. AUC analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the ability of these extrapolated landscape models to predict observed national data. Three models based on measures of vegetation, habitat patch characteristics, and herbaceous landcover emerged as effective predictors of observed disease and vector distribution. An ensemble model containing these three models improved precision and predictive ability over individual models. A priori assessment of qualitative model characteristics effectively identified models that subsequently emerged as better predictors in quantitative analysis. Both a methodology for quantitative model comparison and a checklist for qualitative assessment of candidate models for extrapolation are provided; both tools aim to improve collaboration between those producing models and those interested in applying them to new areas and research questions. PMID:25072884

  6. Inter-model comparison of the landscape determinants of vector-borne disease: implications for epidemiological and entomological risk modeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyson Lorenz

    Full Text Available Extrapolating landscape regression models for use in assessing vector-borne disease risk and other applications requires thoughtful evaluation of fundamental model choice issues. To examine implications of such choices, an analysis was conducted to explore the extent to which disparate landscape models agree in their epidemiological and entomological risk predictions when extrapolated to new regions. Agreement between six literature-drawn landscape models was examined by comparing predicted county-level distributions of either Lyme disease or Ixodes scapularis vector using Spearman ranked correlation. AUC analyses and multinomial logistic regression were used to assess the ability of these extrapolated landscape models to predict observed national data. Three models based on measures of vegetation, habitat patch characteristics, and herbaceous landcover emerged as effective predictors of observed disease and vector distribution. An ensemble model containing these three models improved precision and predictive ability over individual models. A priori assessment of qualitative model characteristics effectively identified models that subsequently emerged as better predictors in quantitative analysis. Both a methodology for quantitative model comparison and a checklist for qualitative assessment of candidate models for extrapolation are provided; both tools aim to improve collaboration between those producing models and those interested in applying them to new areas and research questions.

  7. Global Trends in the Use of Insecticides to Control Vector-Borne Diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Zaim, M.; Yadav, R.S.; Soares, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Mnzava, A.; Hii, J.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Data on insecticide use for vector control are essential for guiding pesticide management systems on judicious and appropriate use, resistance management, and reduction of risks to human health and the environment. Objective: We studied the global use and trends of insecticide use for co

  8. A Comparison of Dynamics in Two Models for the Spread of a Vector-Borne Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Sumner, T.; Enøe, Claes;

    2016-01-01

    of between-herd spread, one using an explicit representation of vector dispersal, the other a transmission kernel. Here, we compare model predictions for the dynamics of bluetongue in the UK, based on the 2007 incursion and vaccination rollout in 2008. We demonstrate how an agent-based model shows greater...

  9. Torradoviruses are transmitted in a semi-persistent and stylet-borne manner by three whitefly vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Martin; van Bekkum, Petra J; Dullemans, Annette M; van der Vlugt, René A A

    2014-06-24

    Members of the genus Torradovirus (family Secoviridae, type species Tomato torrado virus, ToTV) are spherical plant viruses transmitted by the whitefly species Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci. Knowledge on the mode of vector transmission is lacking for torradoviruses. Here, the mode of transmission was determined for Tomato marchitez virus (ToMarV). A minimal acquisition access period (AAP) and inoculation access period (IAP) of approximately 2h each was required for its transmission by T. vaporariorum, while optimal transmission required an AAP and IAP of at least 16h and 8h, respectively. Whiteflies could retain the virus under non-feeding conditions for at least 8h without loss of transmission efficiency, but upon feeding on a non-host plant in between the AAP and IAP they retained the virus for no more than 8h. Similar conditions supported transmission of isolates of ToTV and Tomato chocolàte virus (ToChV) by T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci. Additionally, similar experiments revealed the banded-winged whitefly (Trialeurodes abutilonea) as a vector for all three virus species. The results are congruent with acquisition and retention periods for semi-persistent virus transmission. RT-PCR detection analysis of ToTV and ToMarV in the vector's body revealed their presence in the stylet, but not in the head where the pharynx of the foregut is located. The results altogether indicate a semi-persistent stylet-borne mode of vector transmission for torradoviruses. Additionally, this is the first group of spherical viruses transmitted by at least three different species of whiteflies.

  10. Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kovats, R. S.; Campbell-Lendrum, D H; McMichael, A. J.; Woodward, A; Cox, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The world's climate appears now to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Shifts in the distribution and behaviour of insect and bird species indicate that biological systems are already responding to this change. It is well established that climate is an important determinant of the spatial and temporal distribution of vectors and pathogens. In theory, a change in climate would be expected to cause changes in the geographical range, seasonality (intra-annual variability), and in the incidence...

  11. Modeling the impact of global warming on vector-borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massad, Eduardo; Coutinho, Francisco Antonio Bezerra; Lopez, Luis Fernandez; da Silva, Daniel Rodrigues

    2011-06-01

    Global warming will certainly affect the abundance and distribution of disease vectors. The effect of global warming, however, depends on the complex interaction between the human host population and the causative infectious agent. In this work we review some mathematical models that were proposed to study the impact of the increase in ambient temperature on the spread and gravity of some insect-transmitted diseases.

  12. Complex ecological dynamics and eradicability of the vector borne macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis.

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    Manoj Gambhir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current global efforts to control the morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases affecting developing countries--such as HIV/AIDS, polio, tuberculosis, malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs-have led to an increasing focus on the biological controllability or eradicability of disease transmission by management action. Here, we use an age-structured dynamical model of lymphatic filariasis transmission to show how a quantitative understanding of the dynamic processes underlying infection persistence and extinction is key to evaluating the eradicability of this macroparasitic disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the persistence and extinction dynamics of lymphatic filariasis by undertaking a numerical equilibrium analysis of a deterministic model of parasite transmission, based on varying values of the initial L3 larval density in the system. The results highlighted the likely occurrence of complex dynamics in parasite transmission with three major outcomes for the eradicability of filariasis. First, both vector biting and worm breakpoint thresholds are shown to be complex dynamic entities with values dependent on the nature and magnitude of vector-and host specific density-dependent processes and the degree of host infection aggregation prevailing in endemic communities. Second, these thresholds as well as the potential size of the attractor domains and hence system resilience are strongly dependent on peculiarities of infection dynamics in different vector species. Finally, the existence of multiple stable states indicates the presence of hysteresis nonlinearity in the filariasis system dynamics in which infection thresholds for infection invasion are lower but occur at higher biting rates than do the corresponding thresholds for parasite elimination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The variable dynamic nature of thresholds and parasite system resilience reflecting both initial conditions and

  13. Implementing Cargo Movement into Climate Based Risk Assessment of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Margarete Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. The further development and potential spread to other regions depends largely on their climatic suitability. Here, we have developed a tool for identifying and prioritizing European areas at risk for the establishment of Aedes albopictus by taking into account, for the first time, the freight imports from this mosquito’s endemic countries and the climate suitability at harbors and their surrounding regions. In a second step we consider the further transport of containers by train and inland waterways because these types of transport can be well controlled. We identify European regions at risk, where a huge amount of transported goods meet climatically suitable conditions for the disease vector. The current and future suitability of the climate for Aedes albopictus was modeled by a correlative niche model approach and the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. This risk assessment combines impacts of globalization and global warming to improve effective and proactive interventions in disease vector surveillance and control actions.

  14. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different do

  15. A geographical information system-based multicriteria evaluation to map areas at risk for Rift Valley fever vector-borne transmission in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, A; Ippoliti, C; Balenghien, T; Conte, A; Gely, M; Calistri, P; Goffredo, M; Baldet, T; Chevalier, V

    2013-11-01

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a severe mosquito-borne disease that is caused by a Phlebovirus (Bunyaviridae) and affects domestic ruminants and humans. Recently, its distribution widened, threatening Europe. The probability of the introduction and large-scale spread of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in Europe is low, but localized RVF outbreaks may occur in areas where populations of ruminants and potential vectors are present. In this study, we assumed the introduction of the virus into Italy and focused on the risk of vector-borne transmission of RVFV to three main European potential hosts (cattle, sheep and goats). Five main potential mosquito vectors belonging to the Culex and Aedes genera that are present in Italy were identified in a literature review. We first modelled the geographical distribution of these five species based on expert knowledge and using land cover as a proxy of mosquito presence. The mosquito distribution maps were compared with field mosquito collections from Italy to validate the model. Next, the risk of RVFV transmission was modelled using a multicriteria evaluation (MCE) approach, integrating expert knowledge and the results of a literature review on host sensitivity and vector competence, feeding behaviour and abundance. A sensitivity analysis was performed to assess the robustness of the results with respect to expert choices. The resulting maps include (i) five maps of the vector distribution, (ii) a map of suitable areas for vector-borne transmission of RVFV and (iii) a map of the risk of RVFV vector-borne transmission to sensitive hosts given a viral introduction. Good agreement was found between the modelled presence probability and the observed presence or absence of each vector species. The resulting RVF risk map highlighted strong spatial heterogeneity and could be used to target surveillance. In conclusion, the geographical information system (GIS)-based MCE served as a valuable framework and a flexible tool for mapping the

  16. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Negev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  17. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Paul E; Waldock, Joanna; Christophides, George K; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald E; Naumova, Elena N; Ostfeld, Richard S; Ready, Paul D; Thomas, Matthew B; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Michael, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10-15 years. In this review, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. PMID:25688012

  18. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin - Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negev, Maya; Paz, Shlomit; Clermont, Alexandra; Pri-Or, Noemie Groag; Shalom, Uri; Yeger, Tamar; Green, Manfred S

    2015-06-01

    The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD) in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus) the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue) the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders. PMID:26084000

  19. A Comparison of Dynamics in Two Models for the Spread of a Vector-Borne Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesbøll, K; Sumner, T; Enøe, C; Christiansen, L E; Gubbins, S

    2016-04-01

    In 2007, bluetongue virus (BTV) was introduced to both Denmark (DK) and the United Kingdom (UK). For this reason, simulation models were built to predict scenarios for future incursions. The DK and UK models have a common description of within-herd dynamics, but differ greatly in their descriptions of between-herd spread, one using an explicit representation of vector dispersal, the other a transmission kernel. Here, we compare model predictions for the dynamics of bluetongue in the UK, based on the 2007 incursion and vaccination rollout in 2008. We demonstrate how an agent-based model shows greater sensitivity to the level of vaccine uptake and has lower variability compared with a kernel-based model. However, a model using a transmission kernel requires less detailed data and is often faster. PMID:25056842

  20. Host group formation decreases exposure to vector-borne disease: a field experiment in a 'hotspot' of West Nile virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Bethany L; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L; Hamer, Gabriel L; Kitron, Uriel D; Newman, Christina M; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Walker, Edward D; Brawn, Jeffrey D

    2014-12-01

    Animals can decrease their individual risk of predation by forming groups. The encounter-dilution hypothesis extends the potential benefits of gregariousness to biting insects and vector-borne disease by predicting that the per capita number of insect bites should decrease within larger host groups. Although vector-borne diseases are common and can exert strong selective pressures on hosts, there have been few tests of the encounter-dilution effect in natural systems. We conducted an experimental test of the encounter-dilution hypothesis using the American robin (Turdus migratorius), a common host species for the West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne pathogen. By using sentinel hosts (house sparrows, Passer domesticus) caged in naturally occurring communal roosts in the suburbs of Chicago, we assessed sentinel host risk of WNV exposure inside and outside of roosts. We also estimated per capita host exposure to infected vectors inside roosts and outside of roosts. Sentinel birds caged inside roosts seroconverted to WNV more slowly than those outside of roosts, suggesting that social groups decrease per capita exposure to infected mosquitoes. These results therefore support the encounter-dilution hypothesis in a vector-borne disease system. Our results suggest that disease-related selective pressures on sociality may depend on the mode of disease transmission. PMID:25339722

  1. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, A.L.; Dhiman, R.C.; Kitron, U.; Scott, T.W.; Berg, van den H.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated curt

  2. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions. PMID:25325052

  3. Emerging Vector borne zoonoses: eco-­epidemiology and public health implications in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C Dhiman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from Western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non- endemic areas of JE like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs and human beings (like BSL4 which has been established in NIV, Pune, awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (Climatic, ecological and socioeconomic and mapping of disease specific vulnerable areas, mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario, are needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in south East Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  4. Temporal and spatial scaling of the genetic structure of a vector-borne plant pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Francisco, Carolina S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2014-02-01

    The ecology of plant pathogens of perennial crops is affected by the long-lived nature of their immobile hosts. In addition, changes to the genetic structure of pathogen populations may affect disease epidemiology and management practices; examples include local adaptation of more fit genotypes or introduction of novel genotypes from geographically distant areas via human movement of infected plant material or insect vectors. We studied the genetic structure of Xylella fastidiosa populations causing disease in sweet orange plants in Brazil at multiple scales using fast-evolving molecular markers (simple-sequence DNA repeats). Results show that populations of X. fastidiosa were regionally isolated, and that isolation was maintained for populations analyzed a decade apart from each other. However, despite such geographic isolation, local populations present in year 2000 were largely replaced by novel genotypes in 2009 but not as a result of migration. At a smaller spatial scale (individual trees), results suggest that isolates within plants originated from a shared common ancestor. In summary, new insights on the ecology of this economically important plant pathogen were obtained by sampling populations at different spatial scales and two different time points. PMID:24397266

  5. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A. R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R. J. M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expa...

  6. High-throughput vector-borne disease environmental surveillance by polymerase chain reaction according to international accreditation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soehnlen, Marty K; Crimmins, Stephen L; Clugston, Andrew S; Gruhn, Nina; Gomez, Carlos J; Cross, Michael E; Statham, Charles N

    2014-01-01

    Although vector-borne diseases are specific to the region of the host, there is a necessity for surveillance or reference laboratories to perform standardized, high-throughput testing capable of meeting the needs of a changing military environment and response efforts. The development of standardized, high-throughput, semiquantitative real-time and reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods allows for the timely dissemination of data to interested parties while providing a platform in which long-term sample storage is possible for the testing of new pathogens of interest using a historical perspective. PCR testing allows for the analysis of multiple pathogens from the same sample, thus reducing the workload of entomologists in the field and increasing the ability to determine if a pathogen has spread beyond traditionally defined locations. US Army Public Health Command Region-Europe (USAPHCR-Europe) Laboratory Sciences (LS) has standardized tests for 9 pathogens at multiple life stages. All tests are currently under international accreditation standards. Using these PCR methods and laboratory model, which have universal Department of Defense application, the USAPHCR-Europe LS will generate quality data that is scientifically sound and legally defensible to support force health protection for the US military in both deployed and garrison environments.

  7. Climate and Health Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases ( malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities; ministries of health; the WMO Global Framework for Climate and Services; and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above with examples in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Malawi.

  8. How human practices have affected vector-borne diseases in the past: a study of malaria transmission in Alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemperière Guy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria was endemic in the Rhône-Alpes area of eastern France in the 19th century and life expectancy was particularly shortened in Alpine valleys. This study was designed to determine how the disease affected people in the area and to identify the factors influencing malaria transmission. Methods Demographic data of the 19th century were collected from death registers of eight villages of the flood-plain of the river Isère. Correlations were performed between these demographic data and reconstructed meteorological data. Archive documents from medical practitioners gave information on symptoms of ill people. Engineer reports provided information on the hydraulic project developments in the Isère valley. Results Description of fevers was highly suggestive of endemic malaria transmission in the parishes neighbouring the river Isère. The current status of anopheline mosquitoes in the area supports this hypothesis. Mean temperature and precipitation were poorly correlated with demographic data, whereas the chronology of hydrological events correlated with fluctuations in death rates in the parishes. Conclusion Nowadays, most of the river development projects involve the creation of wet areas, enabling controlled flooding events. Flood-flow risk and the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases would probably be influenced by the climate change. The message is not to forget that human disturbance of any functioning hydrosystem has often been linked to malaria transmission in the past.

  9. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jamie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  10. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address this challenge, and outline related initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners. Much of the debate to date has centred on attribution of past changes in disease rates to climate change, and the use of scenario-based models to project future changes in risk for specific diseases. While these can give useful indications, the unavoidable uncertainty in such analyses, and contingency on other socioeconomic and public health determinants in the past or future, limit their utility as decision-support tools. For operational health agencies, the most pressing need is the strengthening of current disease control efforts to bring down current disease rates and manage short-term climate risks, which will, in turn, increase resilience to long-term climate change. The WHO and partner agencies are working through a range of programmes to (i) ensure political support and financial investment in preventive and curative interventions to bring down current disease burdens; (ii) promote a comprehensive approach to climate risk management; (iii) support applied research, through definition of global and regional research agendas, and targeted research initiatives on priority diseases and population groups. PMID:25688013

  11. Vector-Borne Diseases in Stray Dogs in Peninsular Malaysia and Molecular Detection of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia spp. from Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) Ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Fui Xian; Panchadcharam, Chandrawathani; Tay, Sun Tee

    2016-01-01

    Little data are available on the prevalence and transmission of vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Peninsular Malaysia. This study was designed to determine the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens in Malaysian stray dogs using serological and molecular approaches. In total, 48 dog blood samples were subjected to serological analysis using SNAP 4Dx kit (IDEXX Laboratories, Westbrook, ME). The presence of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma DNA in the dog blood samples and Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille) ticks was detected using nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Positive serological findings against Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophilum were obtained in 17 (39.5%) and four (9.3%) of 43 dog samples, respectively. None of the dog blood samples were positive for Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis. DNA of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum was detected in 12 (25.5%) and two (4.3%) of 47 dog blood samples, and 17 (51.5%) and one (3.0%) of 33 R. sanguineus ticks, respectively. Additionally, DNA of Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia chaffeensis was detected in two (6.1%) R. sanguineus ticks. This study highlights the prevalence of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in dogs in Malaysia. Due to the zoonotic potential of Ehrlichia and Anaplasma spp., appropriate measures should be instituted for prevention and control of vector-borne diseases in dogs.

  12. Canine Recombinant Adenovirus Vector Induces an Immunogenicity-Related Gene Expression Profile in Skin-Migrated CD11b+ -Type DCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Bouet-Cararo, Coraline; Bonneau, Michel; Zientara, Stephan; Klonjkowski, Bernard; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs) could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2) as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b+ -type and CD103+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23300693

  13. Canine recombinant adenovirus vector induces an immunogenicity-related gene expression profile in skin-migrated CD11b⁺ -type DCs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Contreras

    Full Text Available Gene expression profiling of the blood cell response induced early after vaccination has previously been demonstrated to predict the immunogenicity of vaccines. In this study, we evaluated whether the analysis of the gene expression profile of skin-migrated dendritic cells (DCs could be informative for the in vitro prediction of immunogenicity of vaccine, using canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV2 as vaccine vector. CAV2 has been shown to induce immunity to transgenes in several species including sheep and is an interesting alternative to human adenovirus-based vectors, based on the safety records of the parental strain in dogs and the lack of pre-existing immunity in non-host species. Skin-migrated DCs were collected from pseudo-afferent lymph in sheep. Both the CD11b(+ -type and CD103(+ -type skin-migrated DCs were transduced by CAV2. An analysis of the global gene response to CAV2 in the two skin DC subsets showed that the gene response in CD11b(+ -type DCs was far higher and broader than in the CD103(+ -type DCs. A newly released integrative analytic tool from Ingenuity systems revealed that the CAV2-modulated genes in the CD11b(+ -type DCs clustered in several activated immunogenicity-related functions, such as immune response, immune cell trafficking and inflammation. Thus gene profiling in skin-migrated DC in vitro indicates that the CD11b(+ DC type is more responsive to CAV2 than the CD103(+ DC type, and provides valuable information to help in evaluating and possibly improving viral vector vaccine effectiveness.

  14. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hii, J.; Soares, A.; Mnzava, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.; Tan, S.H.; Matthews, G.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods: A questionna

  15. Vector-borne diseases of small companion animals in Namibia: Literature review, knowledge gaps and opportunity for a One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H. Noden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Namibia has a rich history in veterinary health but little is known about the vector-borne diseases that affect companion dogs and cats. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing published and available unpublished literature, put it into a wider geographical context, and explore some significant knowledge gaps. To date, only two filarial pathogens (Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and three tick-borne pathogens (Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis have been reported. Most studies have focused solely on dogs and cats in the urban Windhoek and surrounding areas, with almost nothing reported in rural farming areas, in either the populous northern regions or the low-income urban areas where animal owners have limited access to veterinary services. With the development of several biomedical training programmes in the country, there is now an excellent opportunity to address zoonotic vector-borne diseases through a One Health approach so as to assess the risks to small companion animals as well as diseases of public health importance.

  16. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  17. An application of remotely derived climatological fields for risk assessment of vector-borne diseases : a spatial study of filariasis prevalence in the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombie, M. K.; Gillies, R. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brookmeyer, P.; Weil, G. J.; Sultan, M.; Harb, M.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Utah State Univ.; Egyptian Ministry of Health

    1999-12-01

    This paper applies a relatively straightforward remote sensing method that is commonly used to derive climatological variables. Measurements of surface reflectance and surface radiant temperature derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to create maps of fractional vegetation and surface soil moisture availability for the southern Nile delta in Egypt. These climatological variables were subsequently used to investigate the spatial distribution of the vector borne disease Bancroftian filariasis in the Nile delta where it is focally endemic and a growing problem. Averaged surface soil moisture values, computed for a 5-km border area around affected villages, were compared to filariasis prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were found to be negligible below a critical soil moisture value of 0.2, presumably because of a lack of appropriate breeding sites for the Culex Pipiens mosquito species. With appropriate modifications to account for local conditions and vector species, this approach should be useful as a means to map, predict, and control insect vector-borne diseases that critically depend on wet areas for propagation. This type of analysis may help governments and health agencies that are involved in filariasis control to better focus limited resources to identifiable high-risk areas.

  18. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, D J; Reiter, P.; Ebi, K L; Yap, W; Nasci, R; Patz, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Diseases such as plague, typhus, malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever, transmitted between humans by blood-feeding arthropods, were once common in the United States. Many of these diseases are no longer present, mainly because of changes in land use, agricultural methods, residential patterns, human behavior, and vector control. However, diseases that may be transmitted to humans from wild birds or mammals (zoonoses) continue to circulate in nature in many parts of the country. Most vector...

  19. Arthropod-borne infections in travelled dogs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pet animal movement is ever increasing within the European Union and in that context canine vectorborne infections gained a considerable importance. Information on these infections in travelled dogs is nevertheless limited. A first prospective study on vector-borne infections was conducted in 106 dogs travelling from Germany to countries in South and South-East Europe. The dogs were screened prior to and consecutively up to three times after travel by haematological (Giemsa-stained buffy coat smears, Knott’s-Test, molecular biological (PCR as well as serological (IFAT, DiroChek®-ELISA methods for arthropod-borne infections. Seven animals were seropositive for antibodies against Babesia canis sspp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis prior to travel to Italy, Spain, France, Croatia, Greece, or Hungary. In the consecutive screening after return there was no increase in the number of seropositive dogs. None was positive in direct methods. The mean duration of the stay was 17 days and 51% of the dogs were prophylactically treated with ectoparasiticidal formulations. Preliminary data from this study on canine vector-borne infections indicate a low risk for infection during a limited single stay in endemic countries.

  20. 气候变暖对虫媒传染病影响的研究进展%Research progress on effect of climate warming on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔维琪; 曾强

    2012-01-01

    The effect of global warming on insect vector mainly includes changing the regional distribution of insect vectors, increasing the reproductive speed and invasiveness of insect vectors, and shortening the external incubation period of pathogens. Many studies show that the distribution of many tropical insects is expanding continually under the effect of global wanning, and the vector-borne infectious diseases which had only occurred in the tropical area in the past have frequently happened in the subtropical area. The incidence rate of vector-borne diseases increases in the global, outbreaks of some old vector-borne infectious diseases occurred again, and the epidemic range of new vector-borne infectious diseases is continuously expanding. The vector-borne infectious diseases that are influenced by climate change include malaria, schistosomiasis, plague, dengue fever and other new vector-borne infectious diseases. In face of global warming, it is important to slow down and control temperature rise, protect natural environment , improve the study of relationship between climate and vector-borne infectious diseases, and implement the prevention and control of vector-borne infectious diseases.%全球气候变暖对虫媒的影响主要表现在改变虫媒的地区分布,增加虫媒繁殖速度与侵袭力和缩短病原体的外潜伏期.大量资料显示,全球气候变暖的趋势使得许多热带生物不断扩大分布范围,过去仅在热带地区出现的虫媒传染病,也频频出现在亚热带地区.媒介生物性疾病近年在全球呈上升趋势,一些原有的虫媒传染病再度暴发,新的虫媒传染病流行范围不断扩大.受气候变化影响较大的虫媒传染病包括疟疾、血吸虫病、鼠疫、登革热和其他及新发虫媒传染病.提示要面对气候变暖的趋势,努力减缓和控制地球气温的上升,保护好自然环境,加强气候与虫媒传染病传播关系的研究,做好虫媒传染疾病的预防控制工作.

  1. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Qurollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph, Anaplasma platys (Apl, Ehrlichia canis (Ec, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech, Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew, and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb antibodies in canine serum. Methods: Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582 collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results: Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans.

  2. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: A critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Elbers, Armin R W; Hendrikx, Pascal; Enoe, Claes; Kirkeby, Carsten; Hoinville, Linda; Lindberg, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom, part of the CoVetLab network). A qualitative assessment was then performed focusing on surveillance directed particularly to BTV-8. Information regarding surveillance activities were reviewed for the years 2008 and 2012. The results were then complemented with a critical scoping review of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection of diseases during the early phase of introduction into a free country. However, its value diminished once the disease has been established in a territory. Detection of emerging diseases was found to be very context and area specific, and thus active surveillance designs need to take the available epidemiological, ecological and entomological information into account. This was demonstrated by the effectiveness of the bulk milk surveillance in detecting the first case in Sweden, highlighting the need for output based standards to allow the most effective, context dependent, surveillance strategies to be used. Preparedness was of fundamental importance in determining the timeliness of detection and control in each country and that this in turn was heavily influenced by knowledge of emerging diseases in neighboring countries. Therefore it is crucial to share information on outbreaks between researchers and decision-makers and across borders continuously in order to react timely in case of an outbreak. Furthermore, timely reaction to an outbreak was heavily influenced by

  3. Two step male release strategy using transgenic mosquito lines to control transmission of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Danilo Oliveira; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Capurro, Margareth Lara

    2014-04-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of pathogens that cause devastating human diseases such as malaria and dengue. The current increase in mean global temperature and changing sea level interfere with precipitation frequency and some other climatic conditions which, in general, influence the rate of development of insects and etiologic agents causing acceleration as the temperature rises. The most common strategy employed to combat target mosquito species is the Integrated Vector Management (IVM), which comprises the use of multiple activities and various approaches to preventing the spread of a vector in infested areas. IVM programmes are becoming ineffective; and the global scenario is threatening, requiring new interventions for vector control and surveillance. Not surprisingly, there is a growing need to find alternative methods to combat the mosquito vectors. The possibility of using transgenic mosquitoes to fight against those diseases has been discussed over the last two decades and this use of transgenic lines to suppress populations or to replace them is still under investigation through field and laboratory trials. As an alternative, the available transgenic strategies could be improved by coupling suppression and substitution strategies. The idea is to first release a suppression line to significantly reduce the wild population, and once the first objective is reached a second release using a substitution line could be then performed. Examples of targeting this approach against vectors of malaria and dengue are discussed. PMID:24513036

  4. Evaluation of a Continuous Indicator for Syndromic Surveillance through Simulation. Application to Vector Borne Disease Emergence Detection in Cattle Using Milk Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madouasse, Aurélien; Marceau, Alexis; Lehébel, Anne; Brouwer-Middelesch, Henriëtte; van Schaik, Gerdien; Van der Stede, Yves; Fourichon, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Two vector borne diseases, caused by the Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses respectively, have emerged in the European ruminant populations since 2006. Several diseases are transmitted by the same vectors and could emerge in the future. Syndromic surveillance, which consists in the routine monitoring of indicators for the detection of adverse health events, may allow an early detection. Milk yield is routinely measured in a large proportion of dairy herds and could be incorporated as an indicator in a surveillance system. However, few studies have evaluated continuous indicators for syndromic surveillance. The aim of this study was to develop a framework for the quantification of both disease characteristics and model predictive abilities that are important for a continuous indicator to be sensitive, timely and specific for the detection of a vector-borne disease emergence. Emergences with a range of spread characteristics and effects on milk production were simulated. Milk yields collected monthly in 48 713 French dairy herds were used to simulate 576 disease emergence scenarios. First, the effect of disease characteristics on the sensitivity and timeliness of detection were assessed: Spatio-temporal clusters of low milk production were detected with a scan statistic using the difference between observed and simulated milk yields as input. In a second step, the system specificity was evaluated by running the scan statistic on the difference between observed and predicted milk yields, in the absence of simulated emergence. The timeliness of detection depended mostly on how easily the disease spread between and within herds. The time and location of the emergence or adding random noise to the simulated effects had a limited impact on the timeliness of detection. The main limitation of the system was the low specificity i.e. the high number of clusters detected from the difference between observed and predicted productions, in the absence of disease. PMID:24069227

  5. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission. PMID:27220254

  6. A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: insights from a stochastic, spatial model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    Full Text Available Two basic strategies have been proposed for using transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to decrease dengue virus transmission: population reduction and population replacement. Here we model releases of a strain of Ae. aegypti carrying both a gene causing conditional adult female mortality and a gene blocking virus transmission into a wild population to assess whether such releases could reduce the number of competent vectors. We find this "reduce and replace" strategy can decrease the frequency of competent vectors below 50% two years after releases end. Therefore, this combined approach appears preferable to releasing a strain carrying only a female-killing gene, which is likely to merely result in temporary population suppression. However, the fixation of anti-pathogen genes in the population is unlikely. Genetic drift at small population sizes and the spatially heterogeneous nature of the population recovery after releases end prevent complete replacement of the competent vector population. Furthermore, releasing more individuals can be counter-productive in the face of immigration by wild-type mosquitoes, as greater population reduction amplifies the impact wild-type migrants have on the long-term frequency of the anti-pathogen gene. We expect the results presented here to give pause to expectations for driving an anti-pathogen construct to fixation by relying on releasing individuals carrying this two-gene construct. Nevertheless, in some dengue-endemic environments, a spatially heterogeneous decrease in competent vectors may still facilitate decreasing disease incidence.

  7. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper...

  8. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd-Ella, Aly; Stankiewicz, Maria; Mikulska, Karolina; Nowak, Wieslaw; Pennetier, Cédric; Goulu, Mathilde; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Licznar, Patricia; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; List, Olivier; Corbel, Vincent; Servent, Denis; Lapied, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low doses of DEET and a

  9. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Abd-Ella

    Full Text Available Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low

  10. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Christopher Nieto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural

  11. Progress in research on tick-borne diseases and vector ticks%蜱传疾病及其媒介蜱类研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志军; 刘敬泽

    2015-01-01

    As obligate blood-sucking ecto-parasites, ticks transmit a great variety of pathogens that have a significant adverse effect on the health of humans, livestock and wild animals. Many ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed in China’s ecologically diverse range of habitats. Human contact with ticks, and the incidence of tick-borne diseases, are increasing with economic development and the increased exploitation of forestry and livestock production. Some new tick-borne diseases are emerging, and the threat posed by ticks to public health is becoming increasingly recognized. This paper describes the occurrence and distribution of the vectors of important tick-borne diseases found in China, which will provide a basis for subsequent systematic research and the integrated control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.%蜱为专性吸血的外寄生动物,传播多种病原体而导致疾病,给人类健康、畜牧业生产及野生动物带来极大危害。我国生态环境多样,蜱及蜱媒疾病种类繁多、自然疫源地分布广泛。随着社会经济发展及林牧业资源的综合开发,人群与媒介蜱的接触机会逐渐增多,蜱传疾病的发病率上升,且不断有新发的蜱传疾病出现,其公共卫生学意义也日益受到重视。本文对我国重要的蜱传疾病、媒介蜱类、分布与特性等进行系统介绍,以期为我国蜱及蜱传疾病的系统研究和综合防控提供理论基础。

  12. Equine travellers to the Olympic Games in Hong Kong 2008: a review of worldwide challenges to equine health, with particular reference to vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herholz, C; Füssel, A-E; Timoney, P; Schwermer, H; Bruckner, L; Leadon, D

    2008-01-01

    The past 10-20 years have seen exponential growth in the volume of trade in horses and equine germplasm; and the extent of global horse movements has increased significantly in the last 4 years. In preparing for the transport of elite Olympic horses to Hong Kong in 2008, it will be very important to be as fully informed as possible of the disease situation in both the exporting and importing country, import and re-entry requirements, as well as having a vaccination strategy to protect against particular diseases. In this context the review describes the equine vector-borne disease situation in Europe, Asia, Africa and South America and provides estimates of the number of horse movements between these countries, as well as information on import requirements and vaccination strategies. PMID:18083666

  13. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the khyber pakhtunkhwa province, and the federally administered tribal areas of pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B

    2012-01-01

    Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations

  14. Geographic and ecologic heterogeneity in elimination thresholds for the major vector-borne helminthic disease, lymphatic filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remais Justin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for these programmes? Recent theoretical work has highlighted how the ecological complexity and heterogeneity inherent in the transmission dynamics of macroparasites can result in elimination thresholds that vary between local communities. Here, we examine the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and its implications for the global elimination of the major macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis, by applying a novel Bayesian computer simulation procedure to fit a dynamic model of the transmission of this parasitic disease to field data from nine villages with different ecological and geographical characteristics. Baseline lymphatic filariasis microfilarial age-prevalence data from three geographically distinct endemic regions, across which the major vector populations implicated in parasite transmission also differed, were used to fit and calibrate the relevant vector-specific filariasis transmission models. Ensembles of parasite elimination thresholds, generated using the Bayesian fitting procedure, were then examined in order to evaluate site-specific heterogeneity in the values of these thresholds and investigate the ecological factors that may underlie such variability Results We show that parameters of density-dependent functions relating to immunity, parasite establishment, as well as parasite aggregation, varied significantly between the nine different settings, contributing to locally varying filarial elimination thresholds. Parasite elimination thresholds predicted for the settings in which the mosquito vector is anopheline were, however, found to be higher than those in which the mosquito is culicine, substantiating our previous theoretical findings. The results also indicate that the probability that the

  15. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants.

  16. Virtual globes and geospatial health: the potential of new tools in the management and control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of three-dimensional software modeling of the Earth holds promise for applications in the geospatial health sciences. Easy-to-use, intuitive virtual globe technologies such as Google Earth™ enable scientists around the world to share their data and research results in a visually attractive and readily understandable fashion without the need for highly sophisticated geographical information systems (GIS or much technical assistance. This paper discusses the utility of the rapid and simultaneous visualization of how the agents of parasitic diseases are distributed, as well as that of their vectors and/or intermediate hosts together with other spatially-explicit information. The resulting better understanding of the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and the multidimensional environment in which they occur, are highlighted. In particular, the value of Google Earth™, and its web-based pendant Google Maps™, are reviewed from a public health view point, combining results from literature searches and experiences gained thus far from a multidisciplinary project aimed at optimizing schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the basic analytical capabilities of virtual globe applications are limited, we conclude that they have considerable potential in the support and promotion of the geospatial health sciences as a userfriendly, straightforward GIS tool for the improvement of data collation, visualization and exploration. The potential of these systems for data sharing and broad dissemination of scientific research and results is emphasized.

  17. First report of canine ocular thelaziosis in the Muntenia Region, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, Poliana; Bădicu, Adina; Mateescu, Romaniţa; Tudor, Niculae; Mateescu, Cosmin; Ionaşcu, Iuliana

    2016-04-01

    Ocular thelaziosis by Thelazia callipaeda is a vector-borne disease that infects domestic and wild carnivores as well as humans. In this paper, we present two cases of ocular thelaziosis in dogs that had never traveled outside Romania. Both presented with moderate conjunctivitis and ocular discharge. In total, 41 adult nematodes were removed from the conjunctival sacs of both dogs; these were identified via morphology as T. callipaeda. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of canine ocular thelaziosis caused by T. callipaeda from the Muntenia Region of Romania. PMID:26898833

  18. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  19. Emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases: present status and strategies%新发和重现虫媒病:流行现状及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海婴; 马红梅; 刘明斌; 蒋洪

    2011-01-01

    Following the warming of climate, globalization, urbanization, insect drug-resistant as well as other social and environmental changing factors, malaria, dengue fever, West Nile fever and other vectorborne diseases emerge and re-emerge continuously. The threats of vectors and vector-borne diseases are increasing. However, owing to the environmental protection policies, more and more pesticides are forbidden, control of vectors and vector-borne diseases are facing with severe challenges. The research development and epidemic status of several important vector-borne diseases were reviewed in this paper. The framework of vector management stratogy,intervention of governments and sustainable vector control technologies were also introduced in the paper.%气候变暖、全球化和城市化推进、媒介昆虫抗药性等因素导致疟疾、登革热、莱姆病、西尼罗热、基孔肯雅热、巴尔通体感染等新出现和再次肆虐的虫媒病流行,全球媒介生物和虫媒病的威胁持续上升.由于环保的要求,可以选择的卫生杀虫剂品种逐渐减少,媒介生物和虫媒病的控制面临严重的挑战.该文综述了近年来全球新发和重现的重要虫媒病的研究进展和流行现状,并阐述了媒介生物综合治理全球策略框架、政府干预措施及媒介生物可持续控制技术等应对策略.

  20. A probabilistic model in cross-sectional studies for identifying interactions between two persistent vector-borne pathogens in reservoir populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Vaumourin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In natural populations, individuals are infected more often by several pathogens than by just one. In such a context, pathogens can interact. This interaction could modify the probability of infection by subsequent pathogens. Identifying when pathogen associations correspond to biological interactions is a challenge in cross-sectional studies where the sequence of infection cannot be demonstrated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we modelled the probability of an individual being infected by one and then another pathogen, using a probabilistic model and maximum likelihood statistics. Our model was developed to apply to cross-sectional data, vector-borne and persistent pathogens, and to take into account confounding factors. Our modelling approach was more powerful than the commonly used Chi-square test of independence. Our model was applied to detect potential interaction between Borrelia afzelii and Bartonella spp. that infected a bank vole population at 11% and 57% respectively. No interaction was identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The modelling approach we proposed is powerful and can identify the direction of potential interaction. Such an approach can be adapted to other types of pathogens, such as non-persistents. The model can be used to identify when co-occurrence patterns correspond to pathogen interactions, which will contribute to understanding how organism communities are assembled and structured. In the long term, the model's capacity to better identify pathogen interactions will improve understanding of infectious risk.

  1. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  2. The potential of canine sentinels for reemerging Trypanosoma cruzi transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Chu, Lily Chou; Quispe-Machaca, Victor; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Malaga Chavez, Fernando S.; Mazuelos, Milagros Bastos; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Gilman, Robert H.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, a vector-borne disease transmitted by triatomine bugs and caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people in the Americas. In Arequipa, Peru, indoor residual insecticide spraying campaigns are routinely conducted to eliminate Triatoma infestans, the only vector in this area. Following insecticide spraying, there is risk of vector return and reinitiation of parasite transmission. Dogs are important reservoirs of T. cruzi and may play a role in reinitiating transmission in previously sprayed areas. Dogs may also serve as indicators of reemerging transmission. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional serological screening to detect T. cruzi antibodies in dogs, in conjunction with an entomological vector collection survey at the household level, in a disease endemic area that had been treated with insecticide 13 years prior. Spatial clustering of infected animals and vectors was assessed using Ripley’s K statistic, and the odds of being seropositive for dogs proximate to infected colonies was estimated with multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 106 triatomine-infested houses (41.1%), and 45 houses infested with T. cruzi-infected triatomine insects (17.4%). Canine seroprevalence in the area was 12.3% (n=154); all seropositive dogs were 9 months old or older. We observed clustering of vectors carrying the parasite, but no clustering of seropositive dogs. The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio between seropositivity to T. cruzi and proximity to an infected triatomine (≤50m) was 5.67 (95% CI: 1.12 – 28.74; p=0.036). Conclusions Targeted control of reemerging transmission can be achieved by improved understanding of T. cruzi in canine populations. Our results suggest that dogs may be useful sentinels to detect re-initiation of transmission following insecticide treatment. Integration of canine T. cruzi blood sampling into existing interventions for zoonotic disease control (e.g. rabies vaccination programs

  3. Importance of vector-borne infections in different production systems: bovine trypanosomosis and the innovation dynamics of livestock producers in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, F; Bouyer, J; Seck, M T; Sall, B; Dicko, A H; Lancelot, R; Chia, E

    2015-04-01

    In Senegal, a project has been undertaken to eradicate a population of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis) from a prime area for intensifying livestock production--the coastal region of Niayes. The project is intended to remove the constraint of trypanosomosis and allow the ecological intensification of cattle production. A cross-sectional analysis of ten case studies was the inductive phase of an assessment to gauge the impact of removing trypanosomosis on livestock production strategies. The methodology used was comprehensive analysis, with participatory epidemiology tools to understand farmers' rationales. The authors analysed the strategies of three main types of livestock producer (agro-pastoralists, mixed crop/livestock farmers and intensive dairy farmers). The strategies were in line with the farmers' goals and their ability to mobilise the socio-technical network. The risk management of trypanosomosis has been incorporated into livestock management practices through the use of trypanotolerant breeds, medical prophylaxis or placing livestock in low-risk areas. Removing the risk of disease would therefore have a major impact on decisions about the composition and strategic direction of herds. This change in the animal health environment would steer livestock production along different routes of intensification in a highly competitive environment. The indicators of innovation capacity revealed by this study will be used to quantitatively monitor various change scenarios, taking livestock producers' reasoning into account, in order to assess the socio-economic impact of eradicating the tsetse fly population in this area. The methodology presented in the study can be used to understand the impact of controlling other vector-borne infections on the innovation dynamics of livestock producers. PMID:26470458

  4. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  5. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in wild and domestic carnivores and their ticks at the human-wildlife interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Proboste, Tatiana; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Chirife, Andrea D; de la Fuente, José; Altet, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas. A total of 309 ticks (chiefly Rhipicephalus turanicus) were collected on these animals. The samples were analyzed with a battery of PCR assays targeting the DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., and Piroplasmida, and the amplicons were sequenced. The fox showed the highest prevalence (58%) and diversity of VBP (four pathogens), whereas none of the dogs were infected. Bartonella spp. (including B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae, and B. rochalimae) was the most prevalent pathogen. Infection of wild carnivores with Ehrlichia canis, C. burnetii, Theileria annae and Babesia vogeli was also confirmed, with some cases of coinfection observed. The presence of DNA of T. annae and B. vogeli was also confirmed in tick pools from four species of wild carnivores, supporting their role in piroplasmid life-cycle. By the sequencing of several target genes, DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was confirmed in 17 pools of Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineous, and Rh. pusillus from five different species, and Rickettsia conorii in one pool of Rh. sanguineous from a dog. None of the hosts from which these ticks were collected was infected by Rickettsia. Although

  6. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  7. Stable Marking and Transgene Expression Without Progression to Monoclonality in Canine Long-Term Hematopoietic Repopulating Cells Transduced with Lentiviral Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Enssle, Joerg; Trobridge, Grant D.; Keyser, Kirsten A.; Ironside, Christina; Beard, Brian C; Kiem, Hans-Peter

    2010-01-01

    Lentiviral gene transfer vectors have a number of potential advantages over gammaretroviral vectors including more efficient transduction of nondividing cells, a more favorable integration site profile, and the ability to accommodate large transgenes. Here, we present long-term follow-up data of animals that received lentivirus-transduced CD34-enriched cells. Six long-term surviving dogs were available for analysis. Transgene expression was analyzed from at least 12 months to more than 5 year...

  8. The prevention of canine leishmaniasis and its impact on public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otranto, Domenico; Dantas-Torres, Filipe

    2013-07-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) caused by Leishmania infantum is a vector-borne disease of great veterinary and medical significance. Prevention of CanL requires a combined approach including measures focused on dogs and the environment where the vectors perpetuate. Over past decades, considerable effort has been put towards developing novel and cost-effective strategies against CanL. Vaccination is considered among the most promising tools for controlling CanL, and synthetic pyrethroids are useful and cost-effective in reducing risk of L. infantum infection in dogs. The effectiveness of the use of vaccines plus repellents in preventing L. infantum infection and subsequent disease development should be assessed by means of large-scale, randomized controlled field trials because this combined strategy may become the next frontier in the control of CanL.

  9. Ectoparasite Infestations and Canine Infection by Rickettsiae and Ehrlichiae in a Semi-Arid Region of Northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araes-Santos, Ana Isabel; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Peixoto, Renata M; Spolidorio, Mariana G; Azevedo, Sérgio S; Costa, Mateus M; Labruna, Marcelo B; Horta, Mauricio C

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the prevalence of Rickettsia spp. and Ehrlichia canis infection in dogs and their ectoparasites from rural and urban areas of two municipalities, Petrolina and Juazeiro, within a semiarid region (Caatinga biome) of northeastern Brazil, by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 12.1% (61/504) and 23.0% (116/504) of canine plasma samples had antibodies reactive to Rickettsia spp. and E. canis. E. canis DNA was detected by PCR in 8.3% (42/504) of canine blood samples, whereas no blood sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. The infection by E. canis was determined by PCR in 4.9% (14/285) Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (s.l.) ticks and by Rickettsia felis in 1.1% (3/285) and 40.6% (74/182) ticks and fleas, respectively. Multivariate regression analyses revealed that canine seropositivity to Rickettsia spp. was associated statistically with the variables "to reside in Petrolina" and "presence of ectoparasites." Our results indicate that canine infection by E. canis might be endemic in the Caatinga biome as it is in other Brazilian biomes. Although no previous serosurvey for Rickettsia spp. has been conducted on dogs from the Caatinga biome, our values are much lower than the ones reported for rural dogs from other Brazilian biomes. These differences are likely related to the semiarid climate of the aatinga biome, which minimizes the exposure of rural dogs to Amblyomma spp. ticks, the most common vectors of Rickettsia spp. in Brazil. Considering that dogs are excellent sentinels for human exposure to Rickettsia spp., we can infer that the risks of human acquiring tick-borne rickettsiosis in the Caatinga region of the present study are low. The rickettsial infection rates in fleas and ticks were not related to canine seropositivity; i.e., areas with higher Rickettsia infection rates in fleas had the lowest canine seroreactivity to Rickettsia spp.

  10. Spatial analysis of visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rondonópolis, in the Brazilian State of Mato Grosso, from 2003 to 2012: human, canine and vector distribution in areas of disease transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gonçalves Ferreira Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a zoonosis of great importance to public health and is considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organization. The disease has expanded and become more prevalent in urban areas in Brazil. METHODS: Geospatial analyses were performed and thematic maps of the triad of the disease were produced for the study period (2003-2012 in the urban area of the municipality of Rondonópolis in the midwestern State of Mato Grosso (MT, Brazil, TerraView 4.2.2 software was used for the analyses. RESULTS: A total of 87.9% of the 186 confirmed human cases of VL were cured. Children between the ages of 1 and 4 were the most affected. Registered deaths were predominant among adults aged 60 years or older. The urban area of the municipality consists of eight strata and 12 census districts include 237 neighborhoods. All sectors had confirmed cases of VL. During the study period, human cases of the disease were recorded in 90 neighborhoods. The 23 deaths from the disease were distributed in 21 neighborhoods. Sandflies carrying the parasite were captured in 192 out of 200 neighborhoods evaluated for the presence of the VL vector. The presence of dogs carrying the parasite was confirmed in, 140 out of 154 surveyed neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrated the endemic nature of VL, with a high percentage of infected children, a high distribution of canine infection, and a wide adaptation and dispersal of the vectors in the urban environment. These results, illustrate the process of urbanization of VL in the municipality of Rondonópolis, MT, Brazil.

  11. CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS CASE INVESTIGATION IN THE JACARE REGION OF NITEROI, RIO DE JANEIRO, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Amanda Codeço de; Figueiredo, Fabiano Borges; Silva, Valmir Laurentino; Santos, Fernanda Nunes; Souza, Marcos Barbosa de; Madeira, Maria de Fátima; Abrantes, Tuanne Rotti; Périssé, André Reynaldo Santos

    2015-01-01

    American visceral leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonosis in expansion in Brazil. Dogs are the main urban reservoir. Departing from a case of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in Jacaré, Niterói, Rio de Janeiro State, an epidemiological canine and entomological study was performed to assess the extension of the disease at the location. Sample was collected around the case and the dogs identified by serological tests (rapid double platform immunochromatographic exams, immunoenzymatic assay/ELISA, indirect immunofluorescence/IFAT). The parasitological diagnosis was performed in animals positive in at least one of these tests. The entomological study was carried out by using light traps and manual collection. The associations between canine variables and outcome (ELISA and IFAT reagents) were assessed by the chi-square test and adjusted by multivariate logistic regression for those associations with p < 0.1 in the bivariate analysis. Seventeen cases of CVL were detected among 110 evaluated dogs (prevalence of 15.5%). Presence of ectoparasites (OR 6.5; 95% CI 1.1-37.4), animals with clinical signs (OR 9.5; 95% CI 1.2-76.6), and previous cases of CVL in the same house (OR 17.9; 95% CI 2.2-147.1) were associated with the outcome. Lutzomyia longipalpis was not detected. Our results are indicative of an ongoing transmission in the area.

  12. A new method for rapid Canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Khavari A

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis method (Do in bone lengthening and rapid midpalatal expansion have shown the great ability of osteognic tissues for rapid bone formation under distraction force and special protocol with optimum rate of one millimeter per day. Periodontal membrane of teeth (PDM is the extension of periostium in the alveolar socked. Orthodontic force distracts PDM fibers in the tension side and then bone formation will begin.Objects: Rapid retraction of canine tooth into extraction space of first premolar by DO protocol in order to show the ability of the PDM in rapid bone formation. The other objective was reducing total orthodontic treatment time of extraction cases.Patients and Methods: Tweleve maxillary canines in six patients were retracted rapidly in three weeks by a custom-made tooth-born appliance. Radiographic records were taken to evaluate the effects of heavy applied force on canine and anchorage teeth.Results: Average retraction was 7.05 mm in three weeks (2.35 mm/week. Canines rotated distal- in by mean 3.5 degrees.Anchorage loss was from 0 to 0.8 mm with average of 0.3 mm.Root resorption of canines was negligible, and was not significant clinically. Periodontium was normal after rapid retraction. No hazard for pulp vitality was observed.Discussion: PDM responded well to heavy distraction force by Do protocol. Rapid canine retraction seems to be a safe method and can considerabely reduce orthodontic time.

  13. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan

    2016-06-01

    Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  14. 云南省蚊媒传播性疾病的控制问题%VECTOR OF MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROBLEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红宁; 董学书; Chris Curtis

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mosquito-borne diseases in Yunnan, mainly consist of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falcipurium) [1,2] and Japanese encephalitis (JE).No clinic dengue fever and filariasis patients were reported in Yunnan.But in neighboring region Guangxi, these two diseases occur [3,4].In Yunnan, some Aedes mosquitoes such as Aedes albopitus have been detected carrying dengue virus[5].

  15. Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryxell Rebecca T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n = 2123, canines (n = 173, and white-tailed deer (n = 228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B

  16. The ecological dimensions of vector-borne disease research and control Dimensões ecológicas do controle e gerenciamento de doenças transmitidas por vetores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett R. Ellis

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Alarming trends in the resurgence of vector-borne diseases are anticipated to continue unless more effective action is taken to address the variety of underlying causes. Social factors, anthropogenic environmental modifications and/or ecological changes appear to be the primary drivers. The ecological dimension of vector-borne disease research and management is a pervasive element because this issue is essentially an ecological problem with biophysical, social, and economic dimensions. However there is often a lack of clarity about the ecological dimension, the field of ecology (e.g. role, limitations, and related concepts pertinent to ecosystem approaches to health. An ecological perspective can provide foresight into the appropriateness of interventions, provide answers to unexpected vector control responses, and contribute to effective management solutions in an ever-changing environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the ecological dimension of vector-borne diseases and to provide further clarity about the role of "ecological thinking" in the development and implementation of vector control activities (i.e. ecosystem approaches to vector-borne diseases.A tendência alarmante em direção ao ressurgimento de doenças transmitidas por vetores continuará, a menos que ações eficazes sejam tomadas para controlar suas causas primárias. Fatores sociais, mudanças ambientais causadas pelo homem e/ou mudanças ecológicas são, aparentemente, a base do problema. A dimensão ecológica da pesquisa e do gerenciamento dessas doenças é um elemento difuso e constante, já que consiste, essencialmente, em um problema de caráter ecológico com dimensões biofísica, social e econômica. No entanto, há pouca discussão sobre a dimensão ecológica, sobre o campo da ecologia (p.ex.: seu papel e suas limitações e sobre os conceitos relacionados à abordagem ecossistêmica na saúde. Uma perspectiva ecológica poderá permitir uma an

  17. Development of a Canine Adenovirus Type 1 Vaccine Strain E3-deleted Based Expression Vector%犬腺病毒1型疫苗株E3缺失表达载体的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎皓; 唐七义; 张云; 王树蕙; 郭彩云

    2001-01-01

    Objective To evaluate canine adenovirus type 1 vaccine strain (Cannaught Laboratory Limited,CLL) as recombinant vaccine and gene transfer vector. Methods Recombinant virus CLLEGFP which contains enhanced green fluorescent protein(EGFP) reporter gene was constructed. CLLEGFP was used to infect various human derived cell lines (293, Hela, CO, SW, Hep-2 and CAM) by inoculating intraperitoneally(IP), intravenously(IV)and intramuscularly (IM)to Kunming mice other than oral administration. Various tissue samples of the mice were collected at multitime point for observing EGFP green fluorescence. Anti-EGFP antibodies were detected by Western blot analysis in the sera after 4 weeks. Results CLLEGFP can infect various human derived cell lines and express EGFP. EGFP green fluorescence were observed in liver tissue cells after IP transducing 3 days. All immune inoculation ways above could induce Kunming mice producing anti-EGFP antibodies which were identified by Western blot analysis. Conclusions These resluts indicate that CLL possess powerful potential as recombinant vaccine and gene transfer vector.%探索以犬腺病毒1型疫苗株(Cannaught Laboratory Limited.CLL)作为病毒重组疫苗和基因转移载体的可行性。方法构建带增强型绿色荧光蛋白(enhanced green fluorescent protein,EGFP)报告基因的E3缺失重组病毒CLLEGFP。将CLLEGFP感染各种人源细胞,并以灌胃、腹腔注射、尾静脉注射和肌肉注射等不同途径接种昆明小鼠。多时间点取小鼠组织标本,冷冻干燥切片,观察EGFP的表达。4周后采集小鼠血清,以Western blot分析抗EGFP 抗体的产生。结果 CLLEGFP能够感染各种人源细胞并表达EGFP。在腹腔接种CLLEGFP 3 d的小鼠肝组织细胞中可见转导的EGFP。Western blot分析显示,以各种途径免疫接种重组病毒4周后的小鼠血清中均存在抗EGFP特异抗体。结论 CLL具有开发成为病毒重组疫苗和基因转移载体的潜力。

  18. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-09-20

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation.

  19. Cats are not small dogs: is there an immunological explanation for why cats are less affected by arthropod-borne disease than dogs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that cats appear to be less frequently affected by arthropod-borne infectious diseases than dogs and share fewer zoonotic pathogens with man. This impression is supported by the relative lack of scientific publications related to feline vector-borne infections. This review explores the possible reasons for the difference between the two most common small companion animal species, including the hypothesis that cats might have a genetically-determined immunological resistance to arthropod vectors or the microparasites they transmit. A number of simple possibilities might account for the lower prevalence of these diseases in cats, including factors related to the lifestyle and behaviour of the cat, lesser spend on preventative healthcare for cats and reduced opportunities for research funding for these animals. The dog and cat have substantially similar immune system components, but differences in immune function might in part account for the markedly distinct prevalence and clinicopathological appearance of autoimmune, allergic, idiopathic inflammatory, immunodeficiency, neoplastic and infectious diseases in the two species. Cats have greater genetic diversity than dogs with much lower linkage disequilibrium in feline compared with canine breed groups. Immune function is intrinsically related to the nature of the intestinal microbiome and subtle differences between the canine and feline microbial populations might also impact on immune function and disease resistance. The reasons for the apparent lesser susceptibility of cats to arthropod-borne infectious diseases are likely to be complex, but warrant further investigation. PMID:27646278

  20. Surveillance of zoonotic and infectious diseases in Ecuador: implications for special operations forces medical operations, personnel, and canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael; Monterroso, Victor H; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBD) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes are effective vectors parasitizing canines, making dogs adequate reservoirs for zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys personnel and government-owned animals around the world with possible risk of exposure to VBD. Canine VBD have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for the U.S. troops and its working animals deployed in the theater of operations. These factors make disease surveillance a great importance. The objective of this work was to survey canines from the cities of Manta and Guayaquil in Ecuador to determine prevalence of heartworm disease (D. immitis), ehrlichi os is (E. canis), Lyme disease (B. burgdorf eri), and anapl asmosis (A. phagocytophilum). Canine blood samples (1-3ml) collected from the cities of Manta (n=50) and Guayaquil (n=50) were tested on site using a SNAPR 4DxR Test Kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each city. In the city of Manta the overall prevalence of diseases was 78%; 52% for E. canis alone, and 26% for co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum. The overall prevalence for the city of Guayaquil was 88%; 40% for E. canis alone, 22% for A. phagocytophilum alone, and 26% for co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum. Neither heartworm disease nor Lyme disease was detected in any samp le. In conclusion, this study showed the extensive presence of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum in both cities in Ecuador, emphasizing the value of surveillance for zoonotic diseases to determine disease prevalence and risk assessments, as well as to implement control measures. PMID:22173599

  1. Strengthening public health pesticide management in countries endemic with malaria or other major vector-borne diseases: an evaluation of three strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health pesticides has been the mainstay control of vectors of malaria and other diseases, and public health pests, but there is increasing concern over how these pesticides are being managed. Poor pesticide management could lead to risks to human health and the environment, or dimi

  2. Scientific Opinion on Geographic Distribution of Tick-borne Infections and their Vectors in Europe and the other Regions of the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This report is the second of a series of two technical assessments of the role of ticks in transmission of animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. A previous published scientific opinion (EFSA Journal 2010; (88, 1703 focused on two diseases- Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and African swine fever in Eurasia. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the geographic distribution of tick species which have proven involvement in the transmission of pathogens causing animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. The report provides maps of the region that display the occurrences of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Systematic literature review of available publications for the last 10 years and other available literature from the experts were used in the retrieval of the geographical reported cases for the presence of ticks and tick borne pathogens. The report includes a description of the factors that influence the dynamics of the relevant tick species and identify possible high-risk areas in the EU for introduction, considering the biological and ecological characteristics of the ticks and their ability to adapt to new areas. Findings from this review have provided evidence of the extent of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs in geographical ranges and the existing risk areas that should be considered as baseline information to assess potential risk of these diseases. The report indicates the validity of using available literature to support the presence of ticks and TBDs without further predication using weather and other environmental factors associated with the ticks‟ survival. The report concluded that animal and human movement play more impact on the spread of the ticks and TBDs. Climate changes and flight pattern of migratory birds can influence the presence and spread of the ticks and TBDs, but have not been determined to be responsible for the widespread distribution of ticks.

  3. Strengthening public health pesticide management in countries endemic with malaria or other major vector-borne diseases: an evaluation of three strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, van den, W.; Yadav, R. S.; M.Zaim

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health pesticides has been the mainstay control of vectors of malaria and other diseases, and public health pests, but there is increasing concern over how these pesticides are being managed. Poor pesticide management could lead to risks to human health and the environment, or diminish the effectiveness of interventions. Strategies for strengthening the management of public health pesticides, from manufacture to disposal, should be evaluated to propose future directions. Met...

  4. Neem by-products in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases:Biotoxicity of neem cake fractions towards the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (Diptera:Culicidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Balamurugan Chandramohan; Marcello Nicoletti; Angelo Canale; Giovanni Benelli; Kadarkarai Murugan; Pari Madhiyazhagan; Kalimuthu Kovendan; Palanisamy Mahesh Kumar; Chellasamy Panneerselvam; Devakumar Dinesh; Jayapal Subramaniam; Rajapandian Rajaganesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ovicidal, larvicidal and adulticidal potential of neem cake fractions of different polarity against the rural malaria vector Anopheles culicifacies (An. culicifacies). Methods: Neem cake fractions' total methanol extract (NTMeOH), total ethyl acetate extract (NTAcOEt), ethyl acetate fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRAcOEt), butanol fraction after repartition with NTMeOH (NRBuOH), and aqueous fraction after repartition of NTMeOH (NRH2O) were tested against An. culicifacies eggs, fourth instar larvae and adults. Results: In larvicidal experiments, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 1.32, 1.50, 1.81, 1.95 and 2.54 mg/L, respectively. All fractions tested at 150 mg/L were able to reduce egg hatchability of more than 50%, with the exception of NTAcOEt and NRAcOEt. In adulticidal assays, NTMeOH, NTAcOEt, NRAcOEt, NRBuOH and NRH2O achieved LC50 values of 3.01, 2.95, 3.23, 3.63 and 3.00 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: Overall, this study suggests that the methanolic fractions of neem cake may be considered as a new and cheap source of highly effective compounds against the rural malaria vector An. culicifacies.

  5. Optimization of canine interleukin-12 production using a baculovirus insect cell expression system

    OpenAIRE

    de Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini Melo; Pedrosa, Mayara de Oliveira; Teixeira, Naiara Carvalho; Ano Bom, Ana Paula Dinis; van Oers, Monique M.; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-12 is an important cytokine in mediating cellular immune responses. Results Recombinant single-chain canine IL-12 was produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system with the aim of conducting further studies on modulation of immune responses in dogs. To optimize the production of recombinant canine IL-12, a classical baculovirus and a modified vector (chitinase A and v-cathepsin knockout) were used containing a native or an optimized insert of canine IL-12. The optimized ...

  6. Canine retraction with J hook headgear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala Perez, C; de Alba, J A; Caputo, A A; Chaconas, S J

    1980-11-01

    Several methods have been described for accomplishing distal movement of canines without losing posterior anchorage. An accepted method in canine retraction is the use of headgear with J hooks. Since it incorporates extraoral anchorage, it is most effective in maximum-anchorage cases. It was the purpose of this study to analyze the distribution of force transmitted to the alveolus and surrounding structures by means of photoelastic visualization, utilizing J hook headgear for maxillary canine retraction. A three-dimensional model representing a human skull was used. This model was constructed with different birefringent materials to simulate bone, teeth, and periodontal membranes. Three different vectors of force were applied representing high-, medium-, and low-pull headgear, which were placed at angles of 40, 20, and 0 degrees to the occlusal plane. The photoelastic analysis was made by means of a circular-transmission polariscope arrangement, and the photoelastic data were recorded photographically. The stress areas created by the three different vectors of force were associated with various degrees of canine tipping. This effect was greater with the low-pull force component than with the medium-pull traction. The high-pull headgear produced the least tipping tendency, being closer to a bodily movemment effect. Further, stresses were transmitted to deeper structures of the simulated facial bones; these regions were the frontozygomatic, zygomaticomaxillary, and zygomaticotemporal sutures.

  7. Dynamic properties of the Sulfolobus CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems when challenged with vector-borne viral and plasmid genes and protospacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Deng, Ling; Chen, Zhengjun;

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching...... individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were introduced. Constructs were cloned into vectors carrying pyrE/pyrF genes and transformed into uracil auxotrophic hosts derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 or Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Most constructs, including those carrying different...... protospacer mismatches, yielded few viable transformants. These were shown to carry either partial deletions of CRISPR loci, covering a broad spectrum of sizes and including the matching spacer, or deletions of whole CRISPR/Cas modules. The deletions occurred independently of whether genes or protospacers...

  8. Periodontal ligament distraction: A simplified approach for rapid canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K C Prabhat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Distraction osteogenesis is a method of inducing new bone formation by applying mechanical strains on preexisting bone. The process of osteogenesis in the periodontal ligament during orthodontic tooth movement is similar to the osteogenesis in the midpalatal suture during rapid palatal expansion. A new concept of "distracting the periodontal ligament" is proposed to elicit rapid canine retraction in two weeks. At the time of first premolar extraction, the interseptal bone distal to the canine was undermined with a bone bur, grooving vertically inside the extraction socket along the buccal and lingual sides and extending obliquely toward the socket base. Then, a tooth-borne, custom-made, intraoral distraction device was placed to distract the canine distally into the extraction space. It was activated 0.5 mm/day, immediately after the extraction. Canine was distracted 6.5 mm into the extraction space within two weeks.

  9. Dermacentor reticulatus: a vector on the rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földvári, Gábor; Široký, Pavel; Szekeres, Sándor; Majoros, Gábor; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus is a hard tick species with extraordinary biological features. It has a high reproduction rate, a rapid developmental cycle, and is also able to overcome years of unfavourable conditions. Dermacentor reticulatus can survive under water for several months and is cold-hardy even compared to other tick species. It has a wide host range: over 60 different wild and domesticated hosts are known for the three active developmental stages. Its high adaptiveness gives an edge to this tick species as shown by new data on the emergence and establishment of D. reticulatus populations throughout Europe. The tick has been the research focus of a growing number of scientists, physicians and veterinarians. Within the Web of Science database, more than a fifth of the over 700 items published on this species between 1897 and 2015 appeared in the last three years (2013-2015). Here we attempt to synthesize current knowledge on the systematics, ecology, geographical distribution and recent spread of the species and to highlight the great spectrum of possible veterinary and public health threats it poses. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is a severe leading canine vector-borne disease in many endemic areas. Although less frequently than Ixodes ricinus, D. reticulatus adults bite humans and transmit several Rickettsia spp., Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus or Tick-borne encephalitis virus. We have not solely collected and reviewed the latest and fundamental scientific papers available in primary databases but also widened our scope to books, theses, conference papers and specialists colleagues' experience where needed. Besides the dominant literature available in English, we also tried to access scientific literature in German, Russian and eastern European languages as well. We hope to inspire future research projects that are necessary to understand the basic life-cycle and ecology of this vector in order to understand and prevent disease threats. We

  10. Finite element analysis of rapid canine retraction through reducing resistance and distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie XUE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aims of this study were to compare different surgical approaches to rapid canine retraction by designing and selecting the most effective method of reducing resistance by a three-dimensional finite element analysis. Material and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of different approaches to rapid canine retraction by reducing resistance and distraction were established, including maxillary teeth, periodontal ligament, and alveolar. The models were designed to dissect the periodontal ligament, root, and alveolar separately. A 1.5 N force vector was loaded bilaterally to the center of the crown between first molar and canine, to retract the canine distally. The value of total deformation was used to assess the initial displacement of the canine and molar at the beginning of force loading. Stress intensity and force distribution were analyzed and evaluated by Ansys 13.0 through comparison of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress. Results: The maximum value of total deformation with the three kinds of models occurred in the distal part of the canine crown and gradually reduced from the crown to the apex of the canine; compared with the canines in model 3 and model 1, the canine in model 2 had the maximum value of displacement, up to 1.9812 mm. The lowest equivalent (von Mises stress and the lowest maximum shear stress were concentrated mainly on the distal side of the canine root in model 2. The distribution of equivalent (von Mises stress and maximum shear stress on the PDL of the canine in the three models was highly concentrated on the distal edge of the canine cervix. . Conclusions: Removal of the bone in the pathway of canine retraction results in low stress intensity for canine movement. Periodontal distraction aided by surgical undermining of the interseptal bone would reduce resistance and effectively accelerate the speed of canine retraction.

  11. Preliminary investigation on vectors of mosquito-borne diseases in Yiwu, Zhejiang%义乌地区蚊媒传染病主要传播媒介分布区初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 吴因平; 朱桂仁; 冯霞燕; 杨天赐

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握义乌地区在登革热暴发流行后存在哪些蚊媒传染病主要传播媒介及其地理分布,为科学防控蚊媒传染病主要病媒生物提供理论依据.方法 随机抽样调查,蚊幼主要采用勺捕法( Dipper),成蚊使用诱蚊灯法.结果 本次蚊虫孳生地调查与成蚊监测,共发现2亚科4属8种.根据光诱捕器监测结果,淡色库蚊是该地区主要优势种,覆盖13个镇(街)234个村.而蚊幼孳生地调查结果显示,白纹伊蚊是该地区唯一的登革热主要传播媒介,主要分布于10个镇(街)18个村,是本次义乌地区登革热大面积暴发流行的助燃剂,占蚊幼采集量的51.7%;其次是三带喙库蚊,而新发现的小拟态库蚊等捕获量有限.结论 一些蚊媒传染病主要传播媒介在义乌地区广为分布,部分区域种群密度较高,今后应加强该地区蚊虫孳生地清理工作,从源头上有效切断蚊媒传染病主要传播途径,从而为当地蚊媒传染病传播媒介预防控制工作奠定坚实的理论基础.%Objective To identify the major vectors of mosquito-borne diseases and their geographic distribution after the outbreak of dengue fever (DF) in Yiwu, providing basis for further prevention and control. Methods Light traps and dippers were used to collect mosquito adults and larvae, respectively, based on random sampling. Results At least 8 species in 4 genera belonging to 2 subfamilies were found in the region. Culex pipiens pollens coquillett was the dominant species found in 234 villages and 13 towns. Although there were few Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and other species collected from the traps, it was the only vector of DF in Yiwu that distributed in 10 towns and 18 villages, a result of the breeding place survey on mosquito larvae. Ae. Albopictus larvae accounted for the highest proportion (51.7%) of the mosquito population, followed by Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus, while other species including Cx. Mimulus were limited. Conclusion In

  12. STUDY ON RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT FOR IMPORTED VECTOR-BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND VECTORS ON BORDER PORTS:RISK ANALYSIS%国境口岸输入性虫媒传染病及媒介生物风险分析和风险管理系统研究: 风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鑫; 方志强; 张晓龙; 马立新; 赵彤言

    2012-01-01

    为在口岸传染病防控方面探索新的思路和方法,建立科学的风险评估机制,采用澳大利亚和新西兰联合开发的风险管理标准,对境外的虫媒传染病及其媒介生物传入我国口岸的风险建立评估方法和体系.结果显示,通过对国际国内传染病疫情进行有效评估,分析传染病传播模式和趋势,确定输入输出风险等级和主要防控环节,及时发出预警信息,然后有针对性地在重点地区口岸和重点环节采取措施,能够有效控制媒介生物以及携带病原体的传播.引入风险分析理论,建立风险评估机制,对有效减少传染病疫情所带来的危害,保障我国口岸公共卫生安全十分必要.%To explore the new ideas and methods and establish the scientific risk assessment mechanism using in prevention and control of infectious diseases at the ports, the methods and systems basing on the risk management standards jointly developed by Australia and New Zealand and its application assessing the risk of imported vector-borne infectious diseases and vectors were used. The results showed that according to the effective evaluation of the international and domestic epidemic situation and the analysis of infectious diseases spreading tendency, we determine the input and output risk grade and prevention and control of main parts, publish warning information and take measures in the targeted areas, ports and parts in order to effectively control the vectors and pathogens spreading. It is necessary to introduce the risk analysis theory and build the risk assessment mechanism, which are beneficial in reducing the harm caused by infectious diseases and protecting port safety.

  13. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  14. The biological control of disease vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Kenichi W; Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2012-09-21

    Vector-borne diseases are common in nature and can have a large impact on humans, livestock and crops. Biological control of vectors using natural enemies or competitors can reduce vector density and hence disease transmission. However, the indirect interactions inherent in host-vector disease systems make it difficult to use traditional pest control theory to guide biological control of disease vectors. This necessitates a conceptual framework that explicitly considers a range of indirect interactions between the host-vector disease system and the vector's biological control agent. Here we conduct a comparative analysis of the efficacy of different types of biological control agents in controlling vector-borne diseases. We report three key findings. First, highly efficient predators and parasitoids of the vector prove to be effective biological control agents, but highly virulent pathogens of the vector also require a high transmission rate to be effective. Second, biocontrol agents can successfully reduce long-term host disease incidence even though they may fail to reduce long-term vector densities. Third, inundating a host-vector disease system with a natural enemy of the vector has little or no effect on reducing disease incidence, but inundating the system with a competitor of the vector has a large effect on reducing disease incidence. The comparative framework yields predictions that are useful in developing biological control strategies for vector-borne diseases. We discuss how these predictions can inform ongoing biological control efforts for host-vector disease systems.

  15. Environmental statistical modelling of mosquito vectors at different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, midges and flies. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasingly wider threat to global public health, both in terms of people affected and their geographical spread. Mosquitoes

  16. Heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis and their vectors in Europe. New distribution trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo eMorchón

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is a cosmopolitan disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis, which affects mainly canids and felids. Moreover, it causes zoonotic infections, producing pulmonary dirofilariasis in humans. Heartworm disease is a vector-borne transmitted disease, thus transmission depends on the presence of competent mosquito species, which is directly related to favorable climate conditions for its development and survival. Cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis is mainly located in countries with temperate and tropical climates. Europe is one of the continents where animal dirofilariasis has been studied more extensively. In this article we review the current prevalence of canine and feline cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in the European continent, the transmission vectors, the current changes in the distribution and the possible causes, though the analysis of the epidemiological studies carried out until 2001 and between 2002-2011. The highest prevalences have been observed in the southern European countries, which are considered historically endemic/hyperendemic countries. Studies carried out in the last 10 years suggest an expansion of cardiopulmonary dirofilariasis in dogs towards central and northern Europe. Several factors can exert an influence on the spreading of the disease, such as movement of infected animals, the introduction of new species of mosquitoes able to act as vectors, the climate change caused by the global warming, and development of human activity in new areas. Veterinary controls to prevent the spreading of this disease, programs of control of vectors, and adequate protocols of prevention of dirofilariasis in the susceptible species should be carried out.

  17. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D. R.; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'no...

  18. Prevalence and seasonal variations of canine dirofilariosis in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alho, Ana Margarida; Landum, Miguel; Ferreira, Cátia; Meireles, José; Gonçalves, Luzia; de Carvalho, Luís Madeira; Belo, Silvana

    2014-11-15

    Dirofilariosis is a severe vector-borne emergent disease that is spreading worldwide and becoming a serious threat to human and veterinary public health. Portugal, a Mediterranean country, has favorable climate conditions for mosquito development and survival. At present, accurate data on the prevalence and epidemiological pattern of dirofilariosis in Portugal is scarce and outdated. To study these trends, a project was developed to assess the current prevalence of Dirofilaria immitis infection in shelter dogs as well as the prevalence of Dirofilaria species present in three coastal regions in central Portugal: Coimbra, Santarém, and Setúbal. Blood samples were collected from 696 shelter dogs during three consecutive years: 2011, 2012, and 2013. A rapid immunomigration technique was performed to detect female D. immitis antigens. Concurrently, to detect and identify circulating microfilariae, a modified Knott's technique and acid phosphatase histochemical staining were also performed. Of the 696 dogs sampled, 105 were positive for D. immitis, with an overall prevalence of 15.1%. Forty of the 105 dogs were antigen negative but were positive for D. immitis microfilariae. Three animals were co-infected with D. immitis and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides, and there was also one dog infected only with A. dracunculoides, all confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. The highest prevalence of canine heartworm during the 3-y period was in Setúbal (24.8%), followed by Coimbra (13.8%), and Santarém (13.2%), with significant inter-district differences. Our results demonstrate a higher prevalence of dirofilariosis compared with findings of previous studies and show an increasing rate of infection in the southern areas of Portugal attributed, at least in part, to bioclimatic and ecological factors. The present study updates the epidemiological situation and correlates the risk of dirofilariosis transmission within each region. These findings are highly relevant to both human

  19. Dirac-Born-Infeld-Einstein theory with Weyl invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Maki, Takuya; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Weyl invariant gravity has been investigated as the fundamental theory of the vector inflation. Accordingly, we consider a Weyl invariant extension of Dirac-Born-Infeld type gravity. We find that an appropriate choice of the metric removes the scalar degree of freedom which is at the first sight required by the local scale invariance of the action, and then a vector field acquires mass. Then nonminimal couplings of the vector field and curvatures are induced. We find that the Dirac-Born-Infeld type gravity is a suitable theory to the vector inflation scenario.

  20. Mosquito Frequency and Feeding Habits in an Enzootic Canine Dirofilariasis Area in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labarthe Norma

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Heartworm, a chronic fatal mosquito-borne canine disease, is frequently diagnosed in dogs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, where its prevalence is 29.7% in the city of Niterói. Nevertheless it is rarely detected in cats (0.8% from the same state. Dogs are the primary source of infection to mosquitoes, because cats either do not demonstrate microfilaremia or it is too low and transient for transmission. A mosquito survey was conducted in Itacoatiara, Niterói, from March 1995 to February 1996, using canine, feline and human baits. A total of 21 mosquito species (3,888 females was collected and biting frequency was highest at dusk. The four species collected most frequently (88.9% were: Aedes taeniorhynchus (30% of the total catch; with the peak in May/June; Culex quinquefasciatus (22.5%; August/October; Aedes scapularis (19.4%; August, October/November and January and Culex declarator (17%; November/January. Human baits were attractive to these species and dogs were significantly more attractive to them than cats. Ae. taeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. declarator and Cx. nigripalpus are the most likely mosquito species to transmit Dirofilaria immitis parasites to dogs and may transmit the parasite to humans. It is also suggested that the vector to cats belongs to the genus Culex

  1. Clinical history and hematological findings among canines with monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moonarmart, Walasinee; Sungpradit, Sivapong; Rawangchue, Thanakorn; Suphaphiphat, Karuna; Suksusieng, Sineenart; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk

    2014-01-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is a tick borne disease caused by Ehrlichia canis, an obligate intracellular rickettsial organism belonging to the family Anaplasmataceae. Canine ehrlichiosis causes hemaotological changes among infected animals which could be used as a potential predictor for diagnosing canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). Ninety-four blood samples were obtained from canines that either presented for a routine health check-up or for clinical illness. A history, physical and laboratory test were conducted on each animal. All samples were examined for E. canis using a 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification to confirm CME infection. Thirty-six of the samples were positive for E. canis using PCR and the rest were negative. The Mann-Whitney and chi-square test were used to compare the differences between the PCR-positive and negative animals. PCR-positive animals had a higher mean body temperature than PCR-negative animals. The following were significantly lower in PCR-positive animals: white blood cell count, eosinophil count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet count, and the random distribution of width (RDW) of the red blood cells. We evaluated complete blood cell count findings to determine factors associated with CME using multivariable logistic regression analysis and found thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with CME (OR = 0.085; 95% CI: 0.78-0.92, p < 0.001). For every decrease in the platelet count of 10,000 there was a 15% increase in the likelihood of having CME.

  2. GEOGRAPHICAL EXPANSION OF CANINE VISCERAL LEISHMANIASIS IN RIO DE JANEIRO STATE, BRAZIL

    Science.gov (United States)

    da SILVA, Denise Amaro; MADEIRA, Maria de Fátima; FIGUEIREDO, Fabiano Borges

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Visceral Leishmaniasis (VL) is a vector-borne disease that affects humans, and domestic and wild animals. It is caused by the protozoan Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum (syn = Leishmania chagasi). The domestic dog (Canis familiaris) is considered the main reservoir of the etiologic agent of VL in domestic and peridomestic environments. In the past three years, although control actions involving domestic dogs are routinely performed in endemic areas of the Rio de Janeiro State, new cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) have been reported in several municipalities. The objective of this short communication was to describe the geographical expansion of CVL in the Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, through its reports in the scientific literature and studies performed by our group. From 2010 to 2013, autochthonous and allochthonous cases of CVL were reported in the municipalities of Mangaratiba, Marica, Niteroi, Barra Mansa, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Volta Redonda, Resende and Rio de Janeiro. These reports demonstrate that CVL is in intense geographical expansion around the state; therefore, a joint effort by public agencies, veterinarians and researchers is needed in order to minimize and/or even prevent the dispersion of this disease. PMID:26603233

  3. Control of aphid-vectored and thrips-borne virus spread in lily, tulip, iris and dahlia by sprays of mineral oil, polydimethylsiloxane and pyrethroid insecticide in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asjes, J.; Blom-Barnhoorn, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study control of spread by insect vectors of non-persistent Lily symptomless virus and Lily mottle virus in lily, Tulip breaking virus in tulip, Iris mild mosaic virus, Narcissus latent virus and Iris severe mosaic virus in bulbous iris, and semi-persistent Dahlia mosaic virus and persistent

  4. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

    2000-01-01

    The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected

  5. Remote sensing, land cover changes, and vector-borne diseases: use of high spatial resolution satellite imagery to map the risk of occurrence of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Ghardaïa, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garni, Rafik; Tran, Annelise; Guis, Hélène; Baldet, Thierry; Benallal, Kamel; Boubidi, Said; Harrat, Zoubir

    2014-12-01

    Ghardaïa, central Algeria, experienced a major outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in 2005. Two Leishmania species occur in this region: Leishmania major (MON-25) and Leishmania killicki (MON-301). The two species are transmitted respectively by the sandflies Phlebotomus papatasi and Phlebotomus sergenti and probably involve rodent reservoirs with different ecologies, suggesting distinct epidemiological patterns and distribution areas. The aims of this study were to establish risk maps for each Leishmania species in Ghardaïa, taking into account the specificities of their vectors and reservoirs biotopes, using land cover and topographical characteristics derived from remote sensing imagery. Using expert and bibliographic knowledge, habitats of vectors and reservoirs were mapped. Hazard maps, defined as areas of presence of both vectors and reservoirs, were then combined with vulnerability maps, defined as areas with human presence, to map the risk of CL occurrence due to each species. The vector habitat maps and risk maps were validated using available entomological data and epidemiological data. The results showed that remote sensing analysis can be used to map and differentiate risk areas for the two species causing CL and identify palm groves and areas bordering the river crossing the city as areas at risk of CL due to L. major, whereas more limited rocky hills on the outskirts of the city are identified as areas at risk of CL due to L. killicki. In the current context of urban development in Ghardaïa, this study provides useful information for the local authorities on the respective risk areas for CL caused by both parasites, in order to take prevention and control measures to prevent future CL outbreaks.

  6. Weyl invariant Dirac-Born-Infeld-Einstein theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We consider a Weyl invariant extension of Dirac-Born-Infeld type gravity. An appropriate choice of the metric hides the scalar degree of freedom which is required by the local scale invariance of the action at the first sight, and then a vector field acquires mass. Moreover, nonminimal couplings of the vector field and curvatures are induced, which may be suitable to the vector inflation scenario.

  7. Canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus bites negatively correlates with the risk of Leishmania infantum transmission.

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Vlkova; Iva Rohousova; Jan Drahota; Dorothee Stanneck; Eva Maria Kruedewagen; Norbert Mencke; Domenico Otranto; Petr Volf

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, an...

  8. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell... hepatitis, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (B) If at least 19 of the 20 vaccinates do...

  9. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  10. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  11. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase for somatic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W; Muck-Hausl, M.; Wang, J.; C. Sun; Gebbing, M.; Miskey, C.; Ivics, Z.; Izsvak, Z; Ehrhardt, A.

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We foun...

  12. Integration Profile and Safety of an Adenovirus Hybrid-Vector Utilizing Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase for Somatic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenli; Muck-Hausl, Martin; Wang, Jichang; Sun, Chuanbo; Gebbing, Maren; Miskey, Csaba; Ivics, Zoltan; Izsvak, Zsuzsanna; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We foun...

  13. Food-borne protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, G L

    2000-01-01

    Pathogenic protozoa are commonly transmitted to food in developing countries, but food-borne outbreaks of infection are relatively rare in developed countries. The main protozoa of concern in developed countries are Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and these can be a problem in immunocompromised people. Other protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Sarcocystis can be a food-borne problem in non-industrialised countries. C. cayetanensis has emerged as a food-borne pathogen in foods imported into North America from South America. Microsporidia may be food-borne, although evidence for this is not yet available. The measures needed to prevent food-borne protozoa causing disease require clear assessments of the risks of contamination and the effectiveness of processes to inactivate them. The globalisation of food production can allow new routes of transmission, and advances in diagnostic detection methods and surveillance systems have extended the range of protozoa that may be linked to food. PMID:10885117

  14. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  15. Transmission mechanisms of an emerging insect-borne rickettsial pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lisa D.; Kaikhushroo H Banajee; Lane D Foil; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vector-borne pathogens must overcome arthropod infection and escape barriers (e.g. midgut and salivary glands) during the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) before subsequent transmission to another host. This particular timespan is undetermined for the etiological agent of flea-borne spotted fever (Rickettsia felis). Artificial acquisition of R. felis by blood-feeding cat fleas revealed dissemination to the salivary glands after seven days; however, this length of time is inconsist...

  16. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  17. Current developments in canine genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschall, Yvonne; Distl, Ottmar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, canine genetics had made huge progress. In 1999 the first complete karyotype and ideogram of the dog was published. Several linkage and RH maps followed. Using these maps, sets of microsatellite markers for whole genome scans were compiled. In 2003 the sequencing of the DNA of a female Boxer began. Now the second version of the dog genome assembly has been put online, and recently, a microchip SNP array became available. Parallel to these developments, some causal mutations for different traits have been identified. Most of the identified mutations were responsible for monogenic canine hereditary diseases. With the tools available now, it is possible to use the advantages of the population structure of the various dog breeds to unravel complex genetic traits. Furthermore, the dog is a suitable model for the research of a large number of human hereditary diseases and particularly for cancer genetics, heart and neurodegenerative diseases. There are some examples where it was possible to benefit from the knowledge of canine genetics for human research. The search for quantitative trait loci (QTL), the testing of candidate genes and genome-wide association studies can now be performed in dogs. QTL for skeletal size variations and for canine hip dysplasia have been already identified and for these complex traits the responsible genes and their possible interactions can now be identified. PMID:20690545

  18. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; Muller, E.E.; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  19. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  20. 南瓜蚜传黄化病毒P0蛋白基因ihpRNA载体构建及烟草转化%Construction of ihpRNA expression vector of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus p0 protein gene and genetic transformation in tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐洪华; 李捷; 马萱; 徐践

    2012-01-01

    CABYV infects a wide range of hosts,including plants of families of Cucurbitaceae,causes significant losses of horticultural produce.There is no effective chemical controlling measures.Transgenic technology could expand ways for prevention and controlling of plant viral disease.P0 is a gene silencing suppressor encoded by Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus (CABYV).The specific primers were designed based on the cloned P0 protein gene of Cucurbit aphid-borne yelloxns virus (CABYV)to amplify positive-sense and antisense strands of P0 protein gene,respectively.The obtained positive sense and an-tisense strands were inserted separately into the middle vector pBSint which contains an intron.The obtained recombinant middle vector pBSint-P0-F-R was digested with Sal I and Sac I,and the restriction products were cloned into the expression vector pCambia1300 to construct the ihpRNA vector pCambia-P0-F-R.The pCambia-P0-F-R was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.PCR testing showed that four transgenic plants were obtained- This provided experimental materials for designing a more extensive,specific and effective strategies to control virus and studying the function of protein and infection mechanism of virus.%P0蛋白是南瓜蚜传黄化病毒基因组编码的基因沉默抑制子.根据已克隆的CABYV P0蛋白基因序列,设计带酶切位点的特异性引物,PCR扩增用于构建RNAi表达载体的P0蛋白基因正反义片段.将正反义片段分别插入到含有内含子的中间载体pBSint上,得到重组的中间载体pBSint-P0-F-R.用Sal I和Sac I双酶切pBSintP0-F-R,将切下的包括内含子和正反义P0蛋白基因在内的片段定向克隆到植物表达载体pCambia1300上,得到含有发卡结构的RNAi表达载体pCambia-P0-F-R.通过农杆菌介导的方法将该表达载体转化本生烟,经PCR检测,得到4株阳性转基因植株.为设计出更广谱、特异有效的抗病毒策略及研究病毒蛋

  1. Genetic characterization and phylogenetic relationships based on 18S rRNA and ITS1 region of small form of canine Babesia spp. from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, M; Banerjee, P S; Garg, Rajat; Ram, Hira; Kundu, K; Kumar, Saroj; Kumar, G V P P S Ravi

    2014-10-01

    Canine babesiosis is a vector borne disease caused by intra-erythrocytic apicomplexan parasites Babesia canis (large form) and Babesia gibsoni (small form), throughout the globe. Apart from few sporadic reports on the occurrence of B. gibsoni infection in dogs, no attempt has been made to characterize Babesia spp. of dogs in India. Fifteen canine blood samples, positive for small form of Babesia, collected from northern to eastern parts of India, were used for amplification of 18S rRNA gene (∼1665bp) of Babesia sp. and partial ITS1 region (∼254bp) of B. gibsoni Asian genotype. Cloning and sequencing of the amplified products of each sample was performed separately. Based on sequences and phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and ITS1 sequences, 13 were considered to be B. gibsoni. These thirteen isolates shared high sequence identity with each other and with B. gibsoni Asian genotype. The other two isolates could not be assigned to any particular species because of the difference(s) in 18S rRNA sequence with B. gibsoni and closer identity with Babesiaoccultans and Babesiaorientalis. In the phylogenetic tree, all the isolates of B. gibsoni Asian genotype formed a separate major clade named as Babesia spp. sensu stricto clade with high bootstrap support. The two unnamed Babesia sp. (Malbazar and Ludhiana isolates) clustered close together with B. orientalis, Babesia sp. (Kashi 1 isolate) and B. occultans of bovines. It can be inferred from this study that 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region are highly conserved among 13 B. gibsoni isolates from India. It is the maiden attempt of genetic characterization by sequencing of 18S rRNA gene and ITS1 region of B. gibsoni from India and is also the first record on the occurrence of an unknown Babesia sp. of dogs from south and south-east Asia.

  2. Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Gene therapy has significantly improved the outcome of dystrophin-deficient mice. Yet, clinical translation has not resulted in the expected benefits in human patients. This translational gap is largely because of the insufficient modeling of DMD in mice. Specifically, mice lacking dystrophin show minimum dystrophic symptoms, and they do not respond to the gene therapy vector in the same way as human patients do. Further, the size of a mouse is hundredfolds smaller than a boy, making it impossible to scale-up gene therapy in a mouse model. None of these limitations exist in the canine DMD (cDMD) model. For this reason, cDMD dogs have been considered a highly valuable platform to test experimental DMD gene therapy. Over the last three decades, a variety of gene therapy approaches have been evaluated in cDMD dogs using a number of nonviral and viral vectors. These studies have provided critical insight for the development of an effective gene therapy protocol in human patients. This review discusses the history, current status, and future directions of the DMD gene therapy in the canine model. PMID:25710459

  3. Uncoordinated phylogeography of Borrelia burgdorferi and its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, Parris T; Caporale, Diane A.; Brisson, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    Vector-borne microbes necessarily co-occur with their hosts and vectors, but the degree to which they share common evolutionary or biogeographic histories remains unexplored. We examine the congruity of the evolutionary and biogeographic histories of the Lyme disease system, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America. In the Eastern and Midwestern US, Ixodes scapularis ticks are the primary vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Our phylogeograp...

  4. On Multifield Born and Born-Infeld Theories and their non-Abelian Generalizations

    CERN Document Server

    Cerchiai, B L

    2016-01-01

    Starting from a recently proposed linear formulation in terms of auxiliary fields, we study $n$-field generalizations of Born and Born-Infeld theories. In this description the Lagrangian is quadratic in the vector field strengths and the symmetry properties (including the characteristic self-duality) of the corresponding non-linear theory are manifest as on-shell duality symmetries and depend on the choice of the (homogeneous) manifold spanned by the auxiliary scalar fields and the symplectic frame. By suitably choosing these defining properties of the quadratic Lagrangian, we are able to reproduce some known multi-field Born-Infeld theories and to derive new non-linear models, such as the $n$-field Born theory. We also discuss non-Abelian generalizations of these theories obtained by choosing the vector fields in the adjoint representation of an off-shell compact global symmetry group $K$ and replacing them by non-Abelian, $K$-covariant field strengths, thus promoting $K$ to a gauge group.

  5. Potential Vectors of Dirofilaria immitis (Leidy, 1856 in Itacoatiara, Oceanic Region of Niterói Municipality, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labarthe Norma

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria immitis is a widespread mosquito-borne parasite that causes dirofilariasis, a commonly diagnosed disease of dogs that is rarely reported in cats and humans. A mosquito survey was conducted in Itacoatiara in the State of Rio de Janeiro, from March 1995 to February 1996, using canine, feline and human baits. A total of 3,667 mosquitoes were dissected for D. immitis larvae, representing 19 species and 10 genera. From those, Ae. scapularis, Ae taeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Cx. declarator, Cx. saltanensis and Wy. bourrouli were found infected with D. immitis parasites, and among those, only the first three harbored infective larvae. The majority of larvae were found in the Malpighian tubules (889/936, and larval melanization was observed in the two Aedes species. In descending order, the best vectors were Ae. scapularis, Ae. taeniorhynchus, and Cx. quinquefasciatus which alternate seasonally in importance. Cx. quinquefasciatus is suggested to be a vector to cats. The potential transmission of D. immitis parasites by these three vectors to man is discussed.

  6. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M Stone; Lindsay, Steve W; Nakul Chitnis

    2014-01-01

    Background: The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between th...

  7. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  8. Masculinization of the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular canines in opposite sex twin girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Tuomo; Harila, Virpi; Tapanainen, Juha S; Alvesalo, Lassi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of prenatal androgenization on the clinical eruption of permanent teeth expressing dimorphism and bimaturism. The eruption curves of permanent teeth (except third molars), including those that make up the canine complex (permanent canines, lower first premolars), are compared among opposite sex twins (OS twins) relative to single-born boys and girls. The comparisons are made with regard to three phases of eruption (pierced mucosa, half- erupted, and completely erupted) from a cross-sectional sample of dental casts, using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyzes. The casts were collected from 2159 school children from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project, including 39 pairs of OS-twins, of which 12 pairs (30.8%) were Euro-Americans and 27 pairs (69.2%) were of African-American ancestry. The eruption patterns of the incisors, upper first molars, and lower canines were found to be significantly masculinized (delayed) among OS twin girls. The differences in most other teeth were either not significant, or the number of observations of active eruption phases were too few, such as in the upper first molars and incisors, to yield strong evidence and meaningful results. The masculinization of the tooth eruption pattern in OS twin girls is intriguing because of the lower canine responses during puberty, as well as canine primordial formation during early fetal androgenization of their co-twin during the 8th to 14th gestational weeks. The present results offer a challenge for future research exploring tooth eruption mechanisms, and may also highlight some cases of delayed or ectopic canines, which are biased toward females. PMID:23754587

  9. CAV-2--why a canine virus is a neurobiologist's best friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyent, Felix; Kremer, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vectors are powerful tools for fundamental and applied neurobiology due to their negligible immunogenicity, preferential transduction of neurons, widespread distribution via axonal transport, and duration of expression in the mammalian brain. CAV-2 vectors are internalized in neurons by the selective use of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), which is located at the presynapse in neurons. Neuronal internalization and axonal transport is mediated by CAR, which potentiates vector biodistribution. The above characteristics, together with the ∼30kb cloning capacity of helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors, optimized CAV-2 vector creation, production and purification, is expanding the therapeutic and fundamental options for CNS gene transfer. PMID:26298516

  10. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  11. Equivalent Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  12. Genome Sequence of Canine Herpesvirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos V Papageorgiou

    Full Text Available Canine herpesvirus is a widespread alphaherpesvirus that causes a fatal haemorrhagic disease of neonatal puppies. We have used high-throughput methods to determine the genome sequences of three viral strains (0194, V777 and V1154 isolated in the United Kingdom between 1985 and 2000. The sequences are very closely related to each other. The canine herpesvirus genome is estimated to be 125 kbp in size and consists of a unique long sequence (97.5 kbp and a unique short sequence (7.7 kbp that are each flanked by terminal and internal inverted repeats (38 bp and 10.0 kbp, respectively. The overall nucleotide composition is 31.6% G+C, which is the lowest among the completely sequenced alphaherpesviruses. The genome contains 76 open reading frames predicted to encode functional proteins, all of which have counterparts in other alphaherpesviruses. The availability of the sequences will facilitate future research on the diagnosis and treatment of canine herpesvirus-associated disease.

  13. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Fábio da Silva Batista; Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da Matta; Thaise Yumie Tomokane; Acácio Duarte Pacheco; Fernando Tobias Silveira; Claudio Nazaretian Rossi; Mary Marcondes; Márcia Dalastra Laurenti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. METHODS Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis ...

  14. Antibody study in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein gene-immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B; Li, X Y; Zhu, T; Yuan, L; Hu, J P; Chen, J; Gao, W; Ren, W Z

    2015-01-01

    The gene for the nucleocapsid (N) protein of canine distemper virus was cloned into the pMD-18T vector, and positive recombinant plasmids were obtained by enzyme digestion and sequencing. After digestion by both EcoRI and KpnI, the plasmid was directionally cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA; the positive clone pcDNA-N was screened by electrophoresis and then transfected into COS-7 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis results showed that the canine distemper virus N protein was expressed in the cytoplasm of transfected COS-7 cells. After emulsification in Freund's adjuvant, the recombinant plasmid pcDNA-N was injected into the abdominal cavity of 8-week-old BABL/c mice, with the pcDNA original vector used as a negative control. Mice were immunized 3 times every 2 weeks. The blood of immunized mice was drawn 2 weeks after completing the immunizations to measure titer levels. The antibody titer in the pcDNA-N test was 10(1.62 ± 0.164), while in the control group this value was 10(0.52 ± 0.56), indicating that specific humoral immunity was induced in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein-immunized mice. PMID:25966074

  15. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of...

  16. Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Jia

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine and feline parasitic zoonoses have not been given high priority in China, although the role of companion animals as reservoirs for zoonotic parasitic diseases has been recognized worldwide. With an increasing number of dogs and cats under unregulated conditions in China, the canine and feline parasitic zoonoses are showing a trend towards being gradually uncontrolled. Currently, canine and feline parasitic zoonoses threaten human health, and cause death and serious diseases in China. This article comprehensively reviews the current status of major canine and feline parasitic zoonoses in mainland China, discusses the risks dogs and cats pose with regard to zoonotic transmission of canine and feline parasites, and proposes control strategies and measures.

  17. Large Animal Models for Foamy Virus Vector Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Horn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foamy virus (FV vectors have shown great promise for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy. Their ability to efficiently deliver transgenes to multi-lineage long-term repopulating cells in large animal models suggests they will be effective for several human hematopoietic diseases. Here, we review FV vector studies in large animal models, including the use of FV vectors with the mutant O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, MGMTP140K to increase the number of genetically modified cells after transplantation. In these studies, FV vectors have mediated efficient gene transfer to polyclonal repopulating cells using short ex vivo transduction protocols designed to minimize the negative effects of ex vivo culture on stem cell engraftment. In this regard, FV vectors appear superior to gammaretroviral vectors, which require longer ex vivo culture to effect efficient transduction. FV vectors have also compared favorably with lentiviral vectors when directly compared in the dog model. FV vectors have corrected leukocyte adhesion deficiency and pyruvate kinase deficiency in the dog large animal model. FV vectors also appear safer than gammaretroviral vectors based on a reduced frequency of integrants near promoters and also near proto-oncogenes in canine repopulating cells. Together, these studies suggest that FV vectors should be highly effective for several human hematopoietic diseases, including those that will require relatively high percentages of gene-modified cells to achieve clinical benefit.

  18. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  19. Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than a million species, including insects, shrimp, spiders, mite and tiny worms. It lives and reproduces ... dengue virus. Releasing more Wolbachia into the mosquito population or finding and introducing the Wolbachia genes that ...

  20. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight...... of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two...... scenarios based on the size of holdings, mosaic vaccination of nearest neighbor farms, vaccination of hosts on pasture, regional vaccination, and trench vaccination from the border to Germany. These eight scenarios were investigated under normal grazing conditions and under a forced housing scenario...

  1. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model...... replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different...... grazing conditions. Furthermore, scenarios were tested with three different index locations stratified for cattle density. The cheapest way to vaccinate cattle with a medium risk profile (less than 1000 total affected cattle) was to vaccinate cattle on pasture. Regional vaccination displayed better...

  2. The genetics of African trypanosomes : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tait

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of genetic exchange is not only a fundamental property of an organism but its occurrence provides us with methods of analysis that can be used to dissect the basis of important traits. This paper will review the current evidence for a sexual cycle in Trypanosoma brucei and illustrate how genetic analysis can be used as a tool to identify genes of relevance to the disease, its treatment and transmission. The role of this process in the generation of diversity in the field will be illustrated by considering populations of the three sub-species of T. brucei and how the availability of genome sequence data has been exploited to study whether genetic exchange occurs in the trypanosomes infecting livestock. Finally, the use of population genetics as a methodology to identify genes under selection will be discussed and this will be illustrated as an approach to validating markers for drug resistance with examples from other parasitic protozoa.

  3. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  4. Infection Prevalences of Common Tick-borne Pathogens in Adult Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

    2011-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Ri...

  5. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  6. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  7. Ecology of parasite-vector interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takken, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to be one of the most important determinants affecting human and animal health. Large numbers of people suffer from diseases like malaria, dengue, filariasis and leishmaniasis, especially in the tropics. Whereas these diseases were eradicated from the temperate climate

  8. 速度向量成像技术评价犬心肌缺血与梗死状态下左心室节段性旋转特征%Assessment of regional rotation by velocity vector imaging in canine with myocardial ischemia and acute myocardial infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓娟; 智光

    2011-01-01

    Objective To assess the regional rotation in canine with myocardial ischemia and acute myocardial infarction by velocity vector imaging( VVI ).Methods Myocardial ischemia and infarction model were successfully made by partly and fully ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery ( LAD ) in twelve mongrel dogs. The ventricle rotation and strain were measured by VVI. Results The results revealed: The LAD part ligation: rotation decreased in ventricular septal before LAD ligation status in LAD part ligation status( P <0. 05 ). The strain and strain rate has no significant difference. The LAD ful ligation: the rotation rate, rotation, circumferential strain and strain rate of the anterior septal, anterior wall and ventricular septal were significantly decreased in myocardial infarction status compared with those in the normal status, and were also significantly decreased compared with those in the myocardial ischemia status( P <0. 05 ). The strain and strain rate in the anterior septal,anterior wall and ventricular septal were significantly decreased in myocardial infarction status compared with those in the normal status( P <0. 05 ), but not significantly decreased compared with those in partly ligation status. Conclusion VVI can non-invasively and sensitively assess the left ventricular rotation and the results indicated the ventricular rotation is more sensitive than the strain and strain rate in evaluation of the ventricular systolic function.%目的 应用速度向量成像(VVI)技术评价心肌缺血及心肌梗死状态下犬心肌旋转运动特征.方法 选用杂种犬12只,在超声实时引导下结扎前降支定量制备前降支轻度狭窄(狭窄率:50%~75%)与完全闭塞模型,应用VVI技术分析前降支结扎前、轻度狭窄与完全闭塞状态下左心室旋转特征的改变.结果 12只杂种犬成功制备前降支轻度狭窄与完全闭塞模型,应用VVI技术对缺血与梗死状态下心肌旋

  9. Transmission dynamics and prospects for the elimination of canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology, which explains important epidemiological features, including the level of variation in epidemic trajectories. We found that the basic reproductive number for rabies, R0, is very low in our study area in rural Africa (approximately 1.2 and throughout its historic global range (<2. This finding provides strong support for the feasibility of controlling endemic canine rabies by vaccination, even near wildlife areas with large wild carnivore populations. However, we show that rapid turnover of domestic dog populations has been a major obstacle to successful control in developing countries, thus regular pulse vaccinations will be required to maintain population-level immunity between campaigns. Nonetheless our analyses suggest that with sustained, international commitment, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal.

  10. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  11. Tick vaccines and the control of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merino, Octavio; Alberdi, Pilar; Pérez de la Lastra, José M; de la Fuente, José

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites that transmit a wide variety of pathogens to humans and animals. The incidence of tick-borne diseases has increased worldwide in both humans and domestic animals over the past years resulting in greater interest in the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions. Advances in vector and pathogen genomics and proteomics have moved forward our knowledge of the vector-pathogen interactions that take place during the colonization and transmission of arthropod-borne microbes. Tick-borne pathogens adapt from the vector to the mammalian host by differential gene expression thus modulating host processes. In recent years, studies have shown that targeting tick proteins by vaccination can not only reduce tick feeding and reproduction, but also the infection and transmission of pathogens from the tick to the vertebrate host. In this article, we review the tick-protective antigens that have been identified for the formulation of tick vaccines and the effect of these vaccines on the control of tick-borne pathogens.

  12. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  13. Born-Infeld Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, R; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Breton, Nora

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for an inhomogeneous and anisotropic early universe filled with a nonlinear electromagnetic field of Born-Infeld (BI) type. The effects of the BI field are compared with the linear case (Maxwell). Since the curvature invaria nts are well behaved then we conjecture that our model does not present an initial big bang singularity. The existence of the BI field modifies the curvature invariants at t=0 as well as sets bounds on the amplitude of the conformal metric function

  14. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    for generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator...

  15. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  16. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  17. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  18. Systemic inflammarory response in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Boel

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts have focused mainly on the hormonal aspects of canine pyometra for more than 6 decades. However, this disease is often manifested as systemic illness in response to the bacterial uterine infection. Studies I-II were undertaken to clarify bacteriological aspects of canine pyometra; i.e. the origin of the infecting bacteria, the infecting bacteria’s impact on severity of the systemic illness and the presence of bacterial endotoxin in the systemic circulation. Study I, a bacteri...

  19. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment.

  20. Treatment modalities of palatal impacted canines

    OpenAIRE

    Dimova, Cena; Papakoca, Kiro; Ristoska, Sonja; Kovacevska, Ivona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The orthodontic treatment of impacted maxillary canine remains a challenge to today’s clinicians. The treatment of this clinical entity usually involves surgical exposure of the impacted tooth, followed by orthodontic traction to guide and align it into the dental arch. The impacted palatal canine requires a combination of both treatment modalities: orthodontic management and oral surgical treatment. Two types of approach are commonly used: simple exposure, or exposure with brac...

  1. Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, D J

    1997-06-01

    Proliferative histiocytic disorders of canine skin present a clinical spectrum from the innocuous self-limiting solitary dermal lesion of cutaneous histiocytoma, through the recurrent deep dermal nodules of cutaneous histiocytosis to the generally fatal condition of Bernese Mountain Dogs termed systemic histiocytosis, in which visceral involvement is commonly encountered. Immunocytochemical characterization of the constituent histiocytic cells and accompanying lymphoid infiltrate using canine species specific reagents has elucidated considerably the mechanism by which these conditions exhibit their various biologic behaviours.

  2. Born In Bradford Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stella; Walda, Martin; Vasiliki, Delimpasi

    2015-01-01

    The Born In Bradford mobile application is an Android mobile application and a working prototype that enables interaction with a sample cohort of the Born in Bradford study. It provides an interface and visualization for several surveys participated in by mothers and their children. This data is stored in the Born In Bradford database. A subset of this data is provided for mothers and children. The mobile application provides a way to engage the mothers and promote their consistency in partic...

  3. Despre babesioza canină

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Nanu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this bibliographic essay, addressed both to veterinary clinicians and researchers, is to bring to mind the disease in terms of etiology, clinical manifestations and therapeutic and prophylactic management, as well as to remind the issues arising from recent researches. Depending on the virulence of the parasite species, body's immune response and therapeutic management approached, the plateau of disease evolution can be quite wide - from a favorable prognosis to a lethal outcome of the animal. The complexity of the pathogenic mechanism in babesiosis is due to soluble parasite antigens (SPA which, according to recent studies, have been obtained in vitro and then used as immunological product in disease prevention. Producing a vaccine against canine babesiosis with parasite antigens of local strains could play an important role to prevent the clinical expression of this disease in Romania.

  4. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  5. Biomarkers in canine parvovirus enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeman, J P; Goddard, A; Leisewitz, A L

    2013-07-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) enteritis has, since its emergence in 1978, remained a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality in young dogs. The continued incidence of parvoviral enteritis is partly due to the virus' capability to evolve into more virulent and resistant variants with significant local gastrointestinal and systemic inflammatory sequelae. This paper reviews current knowledge on historical-, signalment-, and clinical factors as well as several haematological-, biochemical- and endocrine parameters that can be used as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in CPV enteritis. These factors include season of presentation, purebred nature, bodyweight, vomiting, leukopaenia, lymphopaenia, thrombocytopaenia, hypercoagulability, hypercortisolaemia, hypothyroxinaemia, hypoalbuminaemia, elevated C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor, hypocholesterolaemia and hypocitrullinaemia. Factors contributing to the manifestations of CPV infection are multiple with elements of host, pathogen, secondary infections, underlying stressors and environment affecting severity and outcome. The availability of several prognosticators has made identification of patients at high risk of death and their subsequent targeted management more rewarding.

  6. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  7. Three-dimensional canine loop for management of buccally erupted canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Mehrotra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Maxillary canines are known as the cornerstones of mouth. They are considered to be important for esthetics and for functional occlusion. Any disturbance in the eruption process leading to an aberrant position will hamper esthetics as well as function. Orthodontic tooth movement of total buccally blocked-out canine is usually difficult as it is related with the problems of severe crowding, midline deviation, involvement of long root movement and risk of gingival recession. Such conditions can be treated orthodontically in various ways, but this clinical innovation helps to correct the buccally placed canines into the arch with a precise control of the canine in all the Three-dimensions (3D of space as well as providing maximum comfort to the patient by placing the canine loop on the palatal surface of the tooth, reducing soreness on the labial mucosa. It can be easily fabricated and activated at chairside for either simultaneous or sequential control in 3D.

  8. Immunoglobulin G concentration in canine colostrum: Evaluation and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila, Hanna; Feugier, Alexandre; Grellet, Aurélien; Anne, Jennifer; Gonnier, Milène; Martin, Maelys; Rossig, Lisa; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    Canine neonates are born hypogammaglobulinemic, and colostrum is their main source of immunoglobulins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immune quality of canine colostrum and its variability both among bitches and among mammary glands. The immune quality was estimated from immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration (ELISA test). The correlation of IgG concentration with refractometry was evaluated. From a total of 44 bitches from 13 different breeds from a single breeding kennel, samples of colostrum and blood were collected one day after the parturition onset. Colostrum was collected separately from each pair of mammary glands (180 pairs). The mean colostrum IgG concentration in our population was 20.8 ± 8.1g/L (ranging from 8.0 to 41.7 g/L) with no influence of breed size, litter size, age of dam or serum IgG concentration. Colostrum IgG concentration varied widely among pairs of mammary glands within one bitch (variation coefficient: 42 ± 32.1%). Nevertheless, no single pair of mammary glands was found to produce regularly a secretion of higher quality. No difference in IgG concentration was recorded between anterior and posterior pairs either. The BRIX index and the refractive index were significantly, but moderately correlated with colostrum IgG concentration (r=0.53 and 0.42, respectively). This study demonstrates a great variability in immune quality of colostrum among bitches and among mammary glands within one bitch. Further studies on the suckling behavior of puppies and on determination of the minimal immune quality of colostrum are required to evaluate their impact of this high variability on neonatal mortality in dogs. PMID:26186389

  9. Epidemiology of tick-borne borreliosis in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Diatta, Georges; Souidi, Yassine; Granjon, Laurent; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mané, Youssouph; Sarih, M'Hammed; BELGHYTI, Driss; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background: The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings: Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF ...

  10. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Domingos; Sandra Antunes; Lara Borges; Virgilio Estolio do Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a co...

  11. Vector nematicons

    CERN Document Server

    Horikis, Theodoros P

    2016-01-01

    Families of soliton pairs, namely vector solitons, are found within the context of a coupled nonlocal nonlinear Schrodinger system of equations, as appropriate for modeling beam propagation in nematic liquid crystals. In the focusing case, bright soliton pairs have been found to exist provided their amplitudes satisfy a specific condition. In our analytical approach, focused on the defocusing regime, we rely on a multiscale expansion methods, which reveals the existence of dark-dark and antidark-antidark solitons, obeying an effective Korteweg-de Vries equation, as well as dark-bright solitons, obeying an effective Mel'nikov system. These pairs are discriminated by the sign of a constant that links all physical parameters of the system to the amplitude of the stable continuous wave solutions, and, much like the focusing case, the solitons' amplitudes are linked leading to mutual guiding.

  12. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Del Puerto, Helen L; Vasconcelos, Anilton C.; Luciana Moro; Fabiana Alves; Braz, Gissandra F; Almir S. Martins

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus...

  13. Parasitic food-borne and water-borne zoonoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, C N; Gottstein, B; Geerts, S

    2000-04-01

    Estimates suggest that almost half of the population of the world is affected by water-borne and food-borne infections. Parasitic food-borne and water-borne zoonoses contribute to this statistic by inflicting a heavy toll on human health and causing serious direct and indirect losses to the agricultural industry. The inability of non-industrialised countries to keep pace with population growth, migration from rural to urban areas and the demand for clean, safe drinking water and proper sanitation means that water-borne zoonoses will continue to exact an increasing burden of ill health in these countries. The consumption of raw or undercooked meat, crustaceans, and fresh-water fish and vegetables facilitates transmission of large numbers of zoonotic infections. The burgeoning tourist industry, emigration and the importation of food from endemic regions has resulted in increasing diagnosis of these infections in non-endemic countries. The authors examine the epidemiology, medical and veterinary public health importance and recent developments in diagnosis, treatment and control of the most important parasitic food-borne and water-borne infections.

  14. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high interobserver

  15. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  16. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  17. Composite mandibular allografts in canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transplanting composite mandibular allografts to repair large mandibular defects. Methods: Three composite mandibular transplantation models were established. The first model consisted of hemimandible with the attached teeth, muscle and skin, and oral mucosa. The second model was transplanted in the same way with the first one excluding oral mucosa and some teeth, and third one excluding the oral mucosa and all dental crowns. Fourteen transplanting operations were performed in canines. Cyclosporine A and methylprednisone were given for immunosuppression. Results: The composite mandibular organs had an effective and closed return circuit. Transplantation of vascularized allograft of mandibular compound organs was feasible. Two longest time survivors of 67 d and 76 d were in the third model group. Cyclosporine A was successful in suppressing rejection of transplanted composite allograft and prolonging survival time of transplantation models. Conclusions: The composite mandibular allografts were available with large block of living composite tissue,and helpful in restoration of appearance and function for severe mandibular defects.

  18. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  19. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (eg. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterised by their actions and via two separate constants, $\\kappa$ and $\\alpha_T^2$ respectively. With a particular choice of the form of $\\dot{\\phi}$ (time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For $\\kappa>0$, our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when $\\kappa0$ solution, are as good as in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. However, the $\\kappa<0$ solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  20. Canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus bites negatively correlates with the risk of Leishmania infantum transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Vlkova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, and characterized salivary antigens of this sand fly species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sera of dogs bitten by P. perniciosus under experimental conditions and dogs naturally exposed to sand flies in a L. infantum focus were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-P. perniciosus antibodies. Antibody levels positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. perniciosus females. In naturally exposed dogs the increase of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 was observed during sand fly season. Importantly, Leishmania-positive dogs revealed significantly lower anti-P. perniciosus IgG2 compared to Leishmania-negative ones. Major P. perniciosus antigens were identified by western blot and mass spectrometry as yellow proteins, apyrases and antigen 5-related proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that monitoring canine antibody response to sand fly saliva in endemic foci could estimate the risk of L. infantum transmission. It may also help to control canine leishmaniasis by evaluating the effectiveness of anti-vector campaigns. Data from the field study where dogs from the Italian focus of L. infantum were naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites indicates that the levels of anti-P. perniciosus saliva IgG2 negatively correlate with the risk of Leishmania transmission. Thus, specific IgG2 response is suggested as a risk marker of L. infantum transmission for dogs.

  1. Survey for Hantaviruses, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, and Rickettsia spp. in Small Rodents in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; MARGALETIĆ, JOSIP; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunoflourescence ass...

  2. Born Rule and Noncontextual Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The probabilistic rule that links the formalism of Quantum Mechanics (QM) to the real world was stated by Born in 1926. Since then, there were many attempts to derive the Born postulate as a theorem, Gleason's one being the most prominent. The Gleason derivation, however, is generally considered as rather intricate and its physical meaning, in particular in relation with the noncontextuality of probability (NP), is not quite evident. More recently, we are witnessing a revival of interest on possible demonstrations of the Born rule, like Zurek's and Deutsch's based on the decoherence and on the theory of decisions, respectively. Despite an ongoing debate about the presence of hidden assumptions and circular reasonings, these have the merit of prompting more physically oriented approaches to the problem. Here we suggest a new proof of the Born rule based on the noncontextuality of probability. Within the theorem we also demonstrate the continuity of probability with respect to the amplitudes, which has been sug...

  3. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  4. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  5. A Study of Transmigrated Canine in an Indian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of transmigrated canines in a north Indian population and association with gender, side, associated pathologies, and dental anomalies. Subjects and methods. The prospective study consisted of panoramic radiographs of 3000 patients from two dental colleges in north India. The panoramic radiographs were screened for radiographically identified position of the transmigrated tooth, retained canine, and other coexisting dental anomalies. Results. The overall prevalence of transmigrated canines (15 mandibular and 5 maxillary) was 0.66%. The prevalence of mandibular transmigrated canine was 0.5% and maxillary transmigrated canine was 0.16%. All the transmigrated canines were unilateral. The age range was 15–53 years (average age 24.1 years) and there were 12 males (60%) and 8 females (40%). Type 1 mandibular canine transmigration was the commonest type found in our study (10 cases), followed by types 2 and 4 (2 cases each) and 1 case of type 5 transmigration. Conclusion. The prevalence of transmigrated canines in the north Indian population was 0.66% and no gender predilection was evident. The transmigrated canines have a low complication rate (10.0%) and no correlation with other dental anomalies was found. Type 3 canine is the rarest form of mandibular canine transmigration. PMID:27433532

  6. Why is Southern African canine babesiosis so virulent? An evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzhorn Barend L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a common, highly virulent disease in Southern Africa with even pups and juveniles being severely affected. This contrasts with bovine babesiosis, for example, where host, parasite and vector co-evolved and young animals develop immunity after infection without showing clinical signs. Babesia rossi, the main causative organism of canine babesiosis in sub-Saharan Africa, was first described from a side-striped jackal (Canis adustus in Kenya. Although data are meagre, there is evidence that indigenous African canids, such as jackals and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus, can harbour the parasite without showing untoward effects. Dogs are not indigenous to Africa. The vast majority of dogs presented at veterinary facilities in South Africa represent recently introduced European, Asian or American breeds. The contention is that B. rossi is a new challenge to which these dogs have not adapted. With intensive treatment of clinical cases, natural selection is effectively negated and the status quo will probably be maintained indefinitely. It is postulated that Babesia vogeli, which frequently results in unapparent infections or mild manifestations in dogs, represents or is closely related to the ancestral form of the canine parasite, possibly originating from wolves (Canis lupus.

  7. Can Horton Hear the Whos? The Importance of Scale in Mosquito-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    LORD, C. C.; ALTO, B. W.; ANDERSON, S. L.; CONNELLY, C. R.; DAY, J. F.; RICHARDS, S. L.; SMARTT, C. T.; TABACHNICK, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne pathogens is determined by mechanisms and interactions at different scales of biological organization, from individual-level cellular processes to community interactions between species and with the environment. Most research, however, focuses on one scale or level with little integration between scales or levels within scales. Understanding the interactions between levels and how they influence our perception of vector-borne pathogens is critical. Here two examples of biological scales (pathogen transmission and mosquito mortality) are presented to illustrate some of the issues of scale and to explore how processes on different levels may interact to influence mosquito-borne pathogen transmission cycles. Individual variation in survival, vector competence, and other traits affect population abundance, transmission potential, and community structure. Community structure affects interactions between individuals such as competition and predation, and thus influences the individual-level dynamics and transmission potential. Modeling is a valuable tool to assess interactions between scales and how processes at different levels can affect transmission dynamics. We expand an existing model to illustrate the types of studies needed, showing that individual-level variation in viral dose acquired or needed for infection can influence the number of infectious vectors. It is critical that interactions within and among biological scales and levels of biological organization are understood for greater understanding of pathogen transmission with the ultimate goal of improving control of vector-borne pathogens. PMID:24724278

  8. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  9. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; TAKAHASHI, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains.

  10. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  11. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  12. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F;

    2011-01-01

    is associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests...

  13. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael;

    2011-01-01

    available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...

  14. Canine notoedric mange: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Federico

    2007-04-01

    Notoedric mange is a cutaneous ectoparasitic disease of cats caused by Notoedres cati, a mite belonging to the Sarcoptidae family. The disease occurs in felids, occasionally in other mammals and in humans. The canine form, even if cited by some authors, has never been documented. This report describes for the first time a case of notoedric mange in a dog.

  15. Progress on Canine Distemper Vaccines%犬瘟热疫苗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛向红; 胡博; 赵建军; 刘昊; 徐淑娟; 闫喜军

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper caused by an agent of canine distemper virus in dogs and other carnivorous spe-cies,is a highly mortal and contagious disease.In recent years,many cases of naturally infection with canine distemper virus outbroke in wild animals.Currently,there is no effective drugs against canine distemper, whose prevention mainly rely on vaccination.The modified live vaccine has been widely used,but it also re-mains some problems.In order to provide a reference for the development of a safe and effective CD vac-cine,this paper mainly reviewed the recent progresses on the promising vaccine candidates including tradi-tional modified live vaccines,DNA vaccines,viral vector vaccines.%犬瘟热(CD)是由犬瘟热病毒(CDV)感染犬和其他食肉动物引起的一种病死率高的接触性传染病。近年来暴发了多起犬和野生动物自然感染犬瘟热病毒的案例。目前尚无治疗犬瘟热的有效药物或生物制剂。犬瘟热的预防主要依靠接种疫苗,应用最为广泛的是弱毒活疫苗,但也存在一些问题。论文主要概述了犬瘟热弱毒活疫苗、基因疫苗、病毒载体疫苗的研究进展,以期为研制安全、高效的犬瘟热新疫苗提供参考。

  16. Some Models for Epidemics of Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Fred; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Mubayi, Anuj; Towers, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito) vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birt...

  17. The Insect Microbiome Modulates Vector Competence for Arboviruses

    OpenAIRE

    Natapong Jupatanakul; Shuzhen Sim; George Dimopoulos

    2014-01-01

    Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction...

  18. The Extinction of Dengue through Natural Vulnerability of Its Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Craig R; Bader, Christie A.; Kearney, Michael R.; Ritchie, Scott A.; Russell, Richard C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dengue is the world's most important mosquito-borne viral illness. Successful future management of this disease requires an understanding of the population dynamics of the vector, especially in the context of changing climates. Our capacity to predict future dynamics is reflected in our ability to explain the significant historical changes in the distribution and abundance of the disease and its vector. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we combine daily weather records with sim...

  19. N=4, d=3 Born-Infeld theory in component approach

    CERN Document Server

    Kozyrev, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    Using the formalism of nonlinear realizations we construct the component on-shell action of the N=4,d=3 Born-Infeld theory, which is the action of N=2, d=3 vector supermultiplet, fixed by invariance with respect to the additional spontaneously broken N=2, d=3 supersymmetry. Our construction shows that dealing with the systems with partial breaking of supersymmetry with vector fields in the multiplet, it is preferrable to use their formulation in terms of fermionic superfields only.

  20. Molecular entomology: analyzing tiny molecules to answer big questions about disease vectors and their biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomologists at the Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit at USDA-Agricultural Research Service are tasked with protecting the nation’s livestock from domestic, foreign and emerging vector-borne diseases. To accomplish this task, a vast array of molecular techniques are being used in pr...

  1. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  2. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fábio da Silva Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. METHODS Immunoglobulin G (IgG anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva was mostly observed in higher titers in asymptomatic dogs, indicating vector preference for feeding on asymptomatic dogs. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest a pivotal role of asymptomatic dogs in L. infantum transmission in endemic areas.

  3. Variations in seroprevalences of canine leishmaniasis: Could it be a consequence of the population structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Ana; Peris, Ana; Castillo, Juan Antonio; de Blas, Ignacio

    2016-08-15

    Canine leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum and is transmitted by Phlebotominae vectors. Despite numerous publications on the subject, some essential aspects of the epidemiology are not yet sufficiently clear. We proposed a stochastic model with the aim of identifying some important gaps in the current knowledge of leishmaniasis, such as the frequency of vector infection or a dog's life expectancy depending on their purpose and their health status. We only found that the purpose was a significant factor. Furthermore, we detected relationships among age, gender and habitat with the dogs' purposes that can affect the calculation of the overall seroprevalence of the analysed sample. The development of this model will allow us to discard potential confounding factors as gender, age, purpose or habitat. PMID:27514874

  4. Effects of canine serum collected from dogs at different estrous cycle stages on in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Hossein, M Shamim; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-01

    Canine oocytes are ovulated at prophase of the first meiotic division and undergo maturation in the distal part of the oviduct for at least 48-72 h. Because of these differences from other domestic mammals, the efficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocyte is very low. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canine serum on IVM of canine oocytes recovered from ovaries in various reproductive states (follicular, luteal or anestrous stages). Oocytes were recovered by mincing ovaries from bitches presented for ovariohysterectomy at various stages of the estrous cycle. Heat-inactivated canine serum was prepared with blood taken from dogs at the anestrous, estrous or diestrous stage of the estrous cycle as determined by progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology. Oocytes were cultured for 72 h in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% canine anestrous, estrous or diestrous serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) (experiment 1), or supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 10% or 20% canine estrous serum (experiment 2). In experiment 1, IVM of oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle to metaphase II (MII) stage was higher (p < 0.05) with canine estrous serum (14.2%) than with canine anestrous (5.2%) or diestrous serum (6.3%), FBS (2.2%) or in the control (2.2%). In experiment 2, oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle cultured in TCM-199 with 10% canine estrous serum showed a higher maturation rate to MII stage (13.5%, p < 0.05) compared with those cultured with 5% (1.3% MII) or 20% canine estrous serum (5.1% MII) or the control (2.7% MII). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that supplementing culture medium with 10% canine estrous serum improves IVM of canine follicular stage oocytes. PMID:16261767

  5. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  6. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Soumya; Kar, Sayan

    2016-09-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (e.g. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterized by their actions and via two separate constants, κ and αT2 , respectively. With a particular choice of the form of ϕ ˙ (the time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For κ >0 , our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when κ data—a fact we demonstrate explicitly. The estimated properties of the Universe obtained from the fitting of the κ >0 solution are as good as in Λ CDM cosmology. However, the κ <0 solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  7. Tick vaccines and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Blouin, E F

    2007-08-01

    Ticks transmit pathogens that cause diseases which greatly impact both human and animal health. Vaccines developed against Boophilus spp. using Bm86 and Bm95 tick gut antigens demonstrated the feasibility of using vaccines for control of tick infestations. These vaccines also reduced transmission of tick-borne pathogens by decreasing exposure of susceptible hosts to ticks. The recently discovered tick antigens, 64P putative cement protein and subolesin involved in the regulation of tick feeding and reproduction, were also shown to reduce tick infestations. These antigens, together with the TROSPA receptor for Burrelia burgdorferi OspA were effective against tick-borne pathogens by reducing the infection levels in ticks and/or the transmission of the pathogen. Development of a vaccine targeted at both the tick vector and pathogen would contribute greatly to the control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases. These results have demonstrated that tick vaccines can be developed for control tick infestations and show promise for the prevention of the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:17682852

  8. Risk assessment for canine leishmaniasis spreading in the north of Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Morosetti

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis has not only been recognized but is, in fact, increasing in territories of northern continental Italy previously regarded as non-endemic. Recent findings of sporadic autochthonous canine infections and the presence of phlebotomine vectors in some provinces of north-eastern Italy have stimulated risk assessment for the spreading of leishmaniasis in the autonomous province of Bolzano-South Tyrol, the northernmost territory of the Italian eastern Alps. In July 2008, 61 phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae were caught and identified as Phlebotomus perniciosus and Sergentomyia minuta. This is the first record in South Tyrol of P. perniciosus, the most competent vector of Leishmania infantum in Mediterranean countries. Leishmania serology on local dogs kept in kennels gave negative results, while only imported canine leishmaniasis cases were reported by local veterinarians through a questionnaire survey. Bio-geographic aspects and epidemiological consequences are analyzed in relation with the risk of leishmaniasis introduction into the area.

  9. Combined orthodontic-surgical management of a transmigrated mandibular canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoti, Serena; Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Abdolreza, Jamilian; Femiano, Felice; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-07-01

    The presence of an impacted mandibular canine is one of the most difficult challenges that an orthodontist will meet. Orthodontic treatment is planned on an individual basis after thoroughly considering the patient's overall facial and dentoskeletal characteristics; the duration, risks, and costs of treatment; patient preferences; and the orthodontist's experience. This article reports an orthodontic treatment of a boy, age 12.9 years, with an impacted mandibular canine in the permanent dentition that was successfully managed. Radiographic analysis indicated a transmigration of the mandibular right canine. The orthodontic treatment plan included extraction of the deciduous right canine followed by surgical exposure and ligation of the permanent canine. Eruption was properly guided, and the correct position of the tooth was achieved. This challenging treatment approach is described in detail, including the mechanics used to align the impacted canine. PMID:26502299

  10. Canine granulocytic anaplasmosis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrade, D D; Foley, J E; Borjesson, D L; Sykes, J E

    2009-01-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging pathogen of humans, horses, and dogs worldwide that is transmitted by Ixodid ticks and maintained in a variety of small wild mammal species. Recent studies suggest that multiple strains of A. phagocytophilum may be circulating in wild and domestic animal populations, and these strains may have differential host tropisms and pathogenicity. The organism infects and survives within neutrophils by disabling key neutrophil functions, including neutrophil motility, phagocytosis, the oxidative burst mechanism, and neutrophil-endothelial cell interactions, as well as interfering with neutrophil apoptosis. Coinfections with other tick-borne pathogens may occur, especially Borrelia burgdorferi. A. phagocytophilum causes an acute febrile illness in dogs with lethargy and inappetence. Less frequent signs include lameness, coughing, polydipsia, intermittent vomiting, and hemorrhages. Diagnosis is based on finding morulae within granulocytes in the peripheral blood, the combination of acute and convalescent serology using immunofluorescent antibody techniques, and detection of the DNA of A. phagocytophilum using specific polymerase chain reaction assays. Whether persistent infection or reinfection with A. phagocytophilum occurs after natural infection requires additional study, with most reports suggesting that anaplasmosis is a self-limiting disease in dogs that responds well to a 2-week course of doxycycline therapy.

  11. Canine oral biofilms: Cultural, molecular, and in vitro studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The canine oral microbiota is poorly understood compared to that of humans. The aim of this work was to improve understanding of the canine oral microbiota. This was achieved by surveying the canine oral microbiota, determining coaggregation interactions between its members, and developing a laboratory microcosm. Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaque and saliva of dogs, and isolates were identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From 339 isolates, 84 phylotypes belonging to ...

  12. Portrait of a Canine Probiotic – from Gut to Gut

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, D.; Murphy, K. Barry; MacSharry, J.; Boileau, T.; Sunvold, G.; Reinhart, G.; Kiely, B.; Shanahan, F; O'Mahony, L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The gastrointestinal environment is a complex interactive system involving the host, ingested dietary components, and numerous microbial species. We hypothesised that isolation and screening of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria adherent to healthy canine gastrointestinal tissue would yield strains with commensal activity in canines. The aims of this study were 1) to isolate a bank of commensal organisms from the canine gastrointestinal tract; 2) to screen these novel microbi...

  13. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Gray

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of  I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios.

  14. Validation of commercially available automated canine-specific immunoturbidimetric method for measuring canine C-reactive protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hillström, Anna; Hagman, Ragnvi; Tvedten, Harold;

    2014-01-01

    with a human CRP assay previously validated for canine CRP determination. Samples from 40 healthy dogs were analyzed to establish a reference interval. RESULTS: Total imprecision was ..., there was good agreement between the validated human CRP assay and the new canine-specific assay. Healthy dogs had CRP concentrations that were less than the limit of quantification of the Gentian cCRP method (6.8 mg/L). CONCLUSIONS: The new canine-specific immunoturbidimetric CRP assay is a reliable and rapid......BACKGROUND: Measurement of C-reactive protein (CRP) is used for diagnosing and monitoring systemic inflammatory disease in canine patients. An automated human immunoturbidimetric assay has been validated for measuring canine CRP, but cross-reactivity with canine CRP is unpredictable. OBJECTIVE...

  15. The insect microbiome modulates vector competence for arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupatanakul, Natapong; Sim, Shuzhen; Dimopoulos, George

    2014-11-11

    Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control.

  16. Concise vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil

  17. Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Bødker, Rene; Enøe, Claes;

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue is a disease of ruminants which reached Denmark in 2007. We present a process-based stochastic simulation model of vector-borne diseases, where host animals are not confined to a central geographic farm coordinate, but can be distributed onto pasture areas. Furthermore vectors fly freely...

  18. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009.......Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...

  19. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  20. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  1. [Climate change influences the incidence of arthropod-borne diseases in the Netherlands].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamat-Langendoen, J C; van Vliet, J A; Reusken, C B E M

    2008-04-12

    Climate change is associated with changes in the occurrence of arthropod-borne diseases. It is difficult to foresee which arthropod-borne diseases will appear in the Netherlands due to climate change. Climate change influences the prevalence of ticks and may lead to a further increase in Lyme disease and an increased risk of the introduction of rickettsioses. With further warming of the climate there is a real possibility of settlement of the mosquito Aedes albopictus and introduction of the sandfly in the Netherlands. Whether this will lead to circulation of micro-organisms transmitted by these vectors (e.g. West Nile virus, Dengue virus, Leishmania) is not clear. Continued vigilance is necessary, even for vector-borne diseases that appear to be less relevant for the Netherlands.

  2. Spatial model for transmission of mosquito-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Cynthia Mui Lian; Labadin, Jane

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a generic model which takes into account spatial heterogeneity for the dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases is proposed. The dissemination of the disease is described by a system of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Host human and vector mosquito populations are divided into susceptible and infectious classes. Diffusion is considered to occur in all classes of both populations. Susceptible humans are infected when bitten by infectious mosquitoes. Susceptible mosquitoes bite infectious humans and become infected. The biting rate of mosquitoes is considered to be density dependent on the total human population in different locations. The system is solved numerically and results are shown.

  3. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and physical quality of the product. Effects of extrusion on the feed quality for other animals than pets have been well recognized. Our studies investigated to what extent extrusion and/or drying of a c...

  4. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman Ragnvi; Lagerstedt Anne-Sofie; Fransson Boel A; Bergström Annika; Häggström Jens

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameter...

  5. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study...

  6. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  7. Treatment of canine scabies with milbemycin oxime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W H; de Jaham, C; Scott, D W; Cayatte, S M; Bagladi, M S; Buerger, R G

    1996-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy of orally administered milbemycin oxime in the treatment of canine scabies. Forty dogs were treated. Mean drug dosage for all dogs was approximately 2 mg/kg body weight. Twenty-seven dogs received 3 doses separated by 7 d, and 13 dogs received 2 doses separated by 14 d. All dogs were clinically normal following treatment and no adverse reactions were detected.

  8. Microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Padhy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To analyse the microbial profile of canine persistent wound infections. Materials and Methods: The total wound samples (n=172 taken from both traumatic (140 and post-surgical (32 persistent wounds in canines were processed for routine microbial isolation and identification during a period of 15 months. Results: Staphylococcus intermedius was found to be the predominant isolate from all types of wounds under study. It was followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, E. coli, Pasteurella spp., Corynaebacterium spp. and Bacillus spp. From different traumatic wounds of dogs, S. intermedius (92/140=65.7% and from surgical wounds, P. aeruginosa (24/32=75% were found to be the predominant isolates recovered whereas the most commonly isolated bacterial genus in both traumatic and surgical wounds of dogs was Staphylococcus spp. Conclusion: Canine wounds are polymicrobial in nature. Hence proper microbial laboratory diagnosis and presence of multiple organisms in a wound are to be taken into consideration for effective treatment of persistent wound infections in dogs.

  9. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  10. Cytodiagnostics of canine lymphomas - possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapierzyński, R; Kliczkowska-Klarowicz, K; Jankowska, U; Jagielski, D

    2016-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas are one of the most common malignant tumours occurring in dogs. The basic method of lymphoma diagnosis in human, as well as in canine oncology is histopathology supported by immunohistochemistry. It was suggested that in veterinary medicine excisional biopsy of lymph node and histopathology should be considered only where the cytologic diagnosis is equivocal or needs to be confirmed. There are at least three basic reasons for which cytological examination ought to be accepted as a sufficient and reliable diagnostic method for lymphoma in dogs. Firstly, most dog owners consider the fine-needle biopsy as an acceptable non-harmful method of sample collection. Secondly, an increasing number of studies recommend cytology as an accurate test for diagnosing and subtyping canine lymphoma. Finally, the vast majority of canine lymphoma subtypes belong to 4-5 categories characterized by a typical cytological picture. Immunocytochemical staining of cytological smears gives new diagnostic possibilities, such as detection of markers better characterizing given growth or a potential goal for target therapy in individual cases (for example inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor). PMID:27487521

  11. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  12. Opportunities for Improved Chagas Disease Vector Control Based on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Rosecrans; Gabriela Cruz-Martin; Ashley King; Eric Dumonteil

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a vector-borne parasitic disease of major public health importance. Current prevention efforts are based on triatomine vector control to reduce transmission to humans. Success of vector control interventions depends on their acceptability and value to affected communities. We aimed to identify opportunities for and barriers to improved vector control strategies in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed a sequence of qualitative...

  13. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. Transmission. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. Clinical picture. In most cases (70−98% infection goes asymptomatically. In about one-third of meningitis cases, meningoencephalitis or meningomyelitis is developed. Postencephalytic syndrome may be the complication of the infection, presenting with neurological symptoms. Diagnosis. Etiologic diagnosis of tick-borne meningoencephalitis is only made on basis of laboratory analyses. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is used for determining the presence of virus in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid can be detected by serological tests. Prevention. The most efficient way to control this potentially severe disease with possible serious long-term consequences is vaccination. It should be recommended to persons who live or travel to endemic areas. Conclusion. In Serbia, tick-borne encephalitis virus infection belongs to the list of reportable diseases; however, there are no reported cases because the diagnostics is not performed routinely. We believe that the significance of this zoonosis must be examined in our country and some of its parts because of preliminary positive serological findings found out in Vojvodina as well as because of reported cases in neighboring countries such as Hungary and Croatia and its worldwide distribution.

  14. Successful Regional Delivery and Long-term Expression of a Dystrophin Gene in Canine Muscular Dystrophy: A Preclinical Model for Human Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zejing; Storb, Rainer; Halbert, Christine L.; Banks, Glen B.; Butts, Tiffany M.; Finn, Eric E.; Allen, James M.; Miller, A. Dusty; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain; Tapscott, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene replacement strategies hold promise as a treatment. Studies in animal models and human trials suggested that immune responses to AAV capsid proteins and transgene products prevented efficient gene therapy. In this study, we used widespread intramuscular (i.m.) injection to deliver AAV6-canine micro-dystrophin (c-µdys) throughout a ...

  15. Intersectoral approaches to dengue vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, B H

    1994-12-01

    Medical entomology in the context of urban vector control, especially for dengue, can be likened to the tail of a dog. Vertically structured Aedes aegypti campaigns such as run by Gorgas and Soper earlier this century relied on sufficient legislative backing for vector control to ensure that the tail was capable of wagging the dog. Under these conditions, especially where individual rights do not intrude, vertical programs will be successful. The global expansion of dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever and its vectors, plus growing trends towards urban/periurban living indicate a more serious scenario than at present. In 1987, the Brundtland Report: "Our Common Future" decried sectoralism in problem solving. Following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992, the resulting Commission on Sustainable Development has promoted the intersectoral message of health, environment and development. The WHO/FAO/UNEP/UNCHS Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control has promoted this for some time and is attempting to build multidisciplinary projects against urban vector borne disease. Adequate solid waste management and recycling will reduce numbers of water bearing containers infested with Aedes aegypti and provision of reliable piped water supplies will impact heavily on infested water storage containers. Both should be encouraged as viable control options. For much of the world, vertical programs have been reported as prohibitively expensive, and unacceptable intrusion on human rights and thus unsustainable in the modern economic context. However there are successful modern examples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7844851

  16. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  17. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  18. Born Reciprocity and Cosmic Accelerations

    CERN Document Server

    Bolognesi, S

    2015-01-01

    The trans-Planckian theory is a model that realizes concretely the Born reciprocity idea, which is the postulate of absolute equivalence between coordinate $x$ and momenta $p$. This model is intrinsically global, and thus it is naturally implemented in a cosmological setting. Cosmology and Born reciprocity are made for each other. Inflation provides the essential mechanism to suppress the terms coming from the dual part of the action. The trans-Planckian theory, on the other hand, provides an explanation for the accelerated periods of the universe scale factor, both the inflationary period and the present period dominated by dark energy. All of this is possible just considering a simple model that contains gravity, one gauge field plus one matter field (to be identified with dark matter) together with the reciprocity principle.

  19. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    Protozoa of several species play a key role in water borne outbreaks of diarrhea worldwide. Identification of such protozoa depends mainly on parasite detection. However, water contains several hundreds of thousands of microorganisms belonging to different taxa. The exact identification...... of pathogenic protozoa relies on selective isolation and detection that is conducted by experienced technicians. Advanced techniques such as immuno-fluorescent dyes, polymerase chain reaction, and many other techniques, may be used for species-specific identification of pathogenic protozoa. Each diagnostic...

  20. Brand Building of Born Globals

    OpenAIRE

    Cederäng, Jesper; Norberg, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this thesis was to increase the understanding of two early internationalizing firms (Born Globals) brand building efforts. By performing case studies on these companies we wished to discover similarities and differences in their marketing efforts. The companies that we studied were CTEK Sweden AB, a battery charger manufacturer and POC Sweden AB, who designs advanced protective gear for the alpine ski market. The theoretical framework was divided according to the four ...

  1. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... parvovirus susceptible dogs (20 vaccinates and 5 controls) shall be used as test animals. Blood samples...

  2. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofib

  3. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  4. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Randau

    Full Text Available The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae, representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  5. Covariantised Vector Galileons

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Matthew; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2015-01-01

    Vector galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an ADM approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a `beyond Horndeski' theory involving vector degrees of freedom, that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyse a Higgs mechanism for generating vector galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantisation.

  6. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis. PMID:24286914

  7. Morphology and immunoreactivity of canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiewicz, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I; Paździor-Czapula, K; Gesek, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of morphology and immunophenotype of canine (19 cases) and feline (7 cases) extramedullary plasmacytomas. Tumours, located in skin, oral cavity and spleen were surgically excised, fixed and processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (CD79α, CD18, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein). Histologically, tumours were classified into mature, cleaved, asynchronous, polymorphous blastic, hyalin, or monomorphous blastic type. All evaluated tumours showed cytoplasmic expression of CD79α antigen. The expression of CD18 was observed in canine cutaneous and splenic tumours. In canine tumours expression of metallothionein was low to moderate, while in feline plasmacytomas - absent or low. In canine tumours, the mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index were positively correlated with the expression of metallothionein. In feline tumours no correlation between mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and metallothionein was found. This is the first study describing expression of metallothionein in canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytoma. PMID:27487508

  8. Of ticks, mice and men - shaping the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Baden-Württemberg

    OpenAIRE

    Littwin, Nina-Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Ticks cause more vector-borne diseases than any other blood-feeding arthropod in Europe; and their abundance is increasing. Influential US studies show that small mammals are key hosts regulating ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBP), serving as blood meal hosts and TBP reservoirs. The relevance of these studies to Europe is, however, unknown. Therefore, my aim was the determination of the relative influence of small mammal hosts and environmental factors on the dynamics of ticks and TBPs in BW.

  9. Future challenges for parasitology: vector control and one health in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E

    2013-08-01

    "One Health" is a term that encapsulates and underscores the inherent interrelatedness of the health of people, animals, and the environment. Vector-borne infections are central in one health. Many arthropod vectors readily feed on humans and other animals, serving as an ideal conduit to move pathogens between a wide spectrum of potential hosts. As ecological niches flux, opportunities arise for vectors to interact with novel species, allowing infectious agents to broaden both geographic and host ranges. Habitat change has been linked to the emergence of novel human and veterinary disease agents, and can dramatically facilitate expansion opportunities by allowing existing vector populations to flourish and by supporting the establishment of new pathogen maintenance systems. At the same time, control efforts can be hindered by the development of parasiticide and pesticide resistance, foiling efforts to meet these challenges. Using examples drawn from representative diseases important in one health in the Americas, including rickettsial infections, Lyme borreliosis, Chagas disease, and West Nile virus, this paper reviews key aspects of vector-borne disease maintenance cycles that present challenges for one health in the Americas, including emergence of vector-borne disease agents, the impact of habitat change on vector-borne disease transmission, and the complexities faced in developing effective control programs. Novel strategies will be required to effectively combat these infections in the future if we are to succeed in the goal of fostering an environment which supports healthy animals and healthy people.

  10. Index Sets and Vectorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  11. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism.

  12. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay for detecting of antibody to canine distemper virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2006-01-01

    Serum neutralisation test (SNT) has been established for evaluating canine distemper vaccination, but until now SNT was rarely used due to the need for continuous tissue culture facilities and requires 3 days to perform. For detecting antibody to canine distemper virus, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is relatively simple and rapid seroassay. ELISA for canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV) was developed by using Onderstepoort strain of canine dis...

  13. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O' Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  14. Lactoferrin in canine sera: a pyometra study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoskova, A; Adlerova, L; Kudlackova, H; Leva, L; Vitasek, R; Faldyna, M

    2009-07-01

    The concentration of lactoferrin was measured in canine sera from groups of healthy male dogs as well as pregnant and non-pregnant female dogs and was compared with that of bitches with pyometra. Lactoferrin concentrations were higher in bitches with pyometra. The role of elevated lactoferrin concentrations in the suppression of lymphocyte activity was examined in sera from bitches with pyometra in a series of investigations. Although the sera from bitches with pyometra were capable of suppressing lymphocyte activity, lactoferrin was not found to be involved in this action. PMID:19754566

  15. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. PMID:26456751

  16. Guardians of New-Borns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    WITH 38 years of history, the Beijing Maternity Hospital gained fame as the birthplace of one-fifth of all Beijingers in the 1960s. Today, some 5,000 babies are born here each year. As Beijing’s oldest hospital specializing in gynaecology and obstetrics treatment and research, the Beijing Maternity Hospital ranks top among all maternity hospitals in China. Chen Wenshan. 52. oversees 272 nurses working at BMH. A vigorous and extremely strict woman. Chen is both respected and feared by the nurses on her staff. As the director of the Nursing

  17. An attempt of rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister ®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Oczko-Grzesik

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ticks are reservoir and transmission vectors of many bacteria, viruses and parasites, which are pathogenic for humans. Early and correct tick removal is crucial as prevention of tick-borne diseases. The aim of the study is an attempt at rationalization of tick-borne disease prevention using a multifunctional container for Tick Twister®. In practice, it should enable people to use Tick Twister® in all circumstances contributing to the improvement of efficiency in tick-borne diseases prevention, and as a result, to a decrease in their frequency and after effects.

  18. Vectorization of a Treecode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makino, Junichiro

    1990-03-01

    Vectorized algorithms for the force calculation and tree construction in the Barnes-Hut tree algorithm are described. The basic idea for the vectorization of the force calculation is to vectorize the tree traversal across particles, so that all particles in the system traverse the tree simultaneously. The tree construction algorithm also makes use of the fact that particles can be treated in parallel. Thus these algorithms take advantage of the internal parallelism in the N-body system and the tree algorithm most effectively. As a natural result, these algorithms can be used on a wide range of vector/parallel architectures, including current supercomputers and highly parallel architectures such as the Connection Machine. The vectorized code runs about five times faster than the non-vector code on a Cyber 205 for an N-body system with N = 8192.

  19. p-wave Holographic Superconductors from Born-Infeld Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    We obtain (2+1) dimensional p-wave holographic superconductors from charged Born-Infeld black holes in the presence of massive charged vector fields in a bulk $AdS_4$ Einstein-Born-Infeld theory through the $AdS_4$-$CFT_3$ correspondence. Below a certain critical transition temperature the charged black hole develops vector hair that corresponds to charged vector condensate in the strongly coupled (2+1) dimensional boundary field theory that breaks both the $U(1)$ symmetry as well as the rotational invariance. The holographic free energy is computed for the boundary field theory which shows that the vector order parameter exhibits a rich phase structure involving zeroth order, first order, second order and retrograde phase transitions for different values of the backreaction and the Born-Infeld parameters. We numerically compute the ac conductivity for the p-wave superconducting phase of the strongly coupled (2+1) dimensional boundary field theory which also depends on the relative values of the parameters in...

  20. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  1. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  2. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan;

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...... and interactions with the standard model fields lead to distinct signatures at the LHC in the diboson, dilepton and associated Higgs channels....

  3. A recombinant canine distemper virus expressing a modified rabies virus glycoprotein induces immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhili; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Jiazeng; Yi, Bao; Hou, Qiang; Mao, Yaping; Liu, Weiquan

    2015-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RV) are two important pathogens of the dog. CDV, a member of the morbillivirus genus, has shown promise as an expression vector. The glycoprotein from RV is a main contributor to protective immunity and capable of eliciting the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we recovered an attenuated strain of canine distemper virus and constructed a recombinant virus, rCDV-RV-G, expressing a modified (R333Q) rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G) of RV Flury strain LEP. RV-G expression by the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Furthermore, G was proved to be incorporated into the surface of CDV particles. While replication of the recombinant virus was slightly reduced compared with the parental CDV, it stably expressed the RV-G over ten serial passages. Inoculation of mice induced specific neutralizing antibodies against both RV-G and CDV. Therefore, the rCDV-RV-G has the potential as a vaccine that may be used to control rabies virus infection in dogs and other animals. PMID:25764477

  4. Ecology of phlebotomine sand flies in the rural community of Mont Rolland (Thies region, Senegal: area of transmission of canine leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massila W Senghor

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Different epidemiological studies previously indicated that canine leishmaniasis is present in the region of Thiès (Senegal. However, the risks to human health, the transmission cycle and particularly the implicated vectors are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To improve our knowledge on the population of phlebotomine sand flies and the potential vectors of canine leishmaniasis, sand flies were collected using sticky traps, light traps and indoor spraying method using pyrethroid insecticides in 16 villages of the rural community of Mont Rolland (Thiès region between March and July 2005. The 3788 phlebotomine sand flies we collected (2044 males, 1744 females were distributed among 9 species of which 2 belonged to the genus Phlebotomus: P. duboscqi (vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Senegal and P. rodhaini. The other species belonged to the genus Sergentomyia: S. adleri, S. clydei, S. antennata, S. buxtoni, S. dubia, S. schwetzi and S. magna. The number of individuals and the species composition differed according to the type of trap, suggesting variable, species-related degrees of endophily or exophily. The two species of the genus Phlebotomus were markedly under-represented in comparison to the species of the genus Sergentomyia. This study also shows a heterogeneous spatial distribution within the rural community that could be explained by the different ecosystems and particularly the soil characteristics of this community. Finally, the presence of the S. dubia species appeared to be significantly associated with canine leishmaniasis seroprevalence in dogs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data allow us to hypothesize that the species of the genus Sergentomyia and particularly the species S. dubia and S. schwetzi might be capable of transmitting canine leishmaniasis. These results challenge the dogma that leishmaniasis is exclusively transmitted by species of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World. This hypothesis should be

  5. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota [Dept. of Endodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Paulista State University, Aracatuba(Brazil); Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Oral Public Health, and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Neves, Frederico Sampaio [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  6. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  7. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  8. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  9. Human Flt3L generates dendritic cells from canine peripheral blood precursors: implications for a dog glioma clinical trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Xiong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary brain tumor in adults and carries a dismal prognosis. We have developed a conditional cytotoxic/immunotherapeutic approach using adenoviral vectors (Ads encoding the immunostimulatory cytokine, human soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (hsFlt3L and the conditional cytotoxic molecule, i.e., Herpes Simplex Type 1- thymide kinase (TK. This therapy triggers an anti-tumor immune response that leads to tumor regression and anti-tumor immunological memory in intracranial rodent cancer models. We aim to test the efficacy of this immunotherapy in dogs bearing spontaneous GBM. In view of the controversy regarding the effect of human cytokines on dog immune cells, and considering that the efficacy of this treatment depends on hsFlt3L-stimulated dendritic cells (DCs, in the present work we tested the ability of Ad-encoded hsFlt3L to generate DCs from dog peripheral blood and compared its effects with canine IL-4 and GM-CSF. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our results demonstrate that hsFlT3L expressed form an Ad vector, generated DCs from peripheral blood cultures with very similar morphological and phenotypic characteristics to canine IL-4 and GM-CSF-cultured DCs. These include phagocytic activity and expression of CD11c, MHCII, CD80 and CD14. Maturation of DCs cultured under both conditions resulted in increased secretion of IL-6, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma. Importantly, hsFlt3L-derived antigen presenting cells showed allostimulatory potential highlighting their ability to present antigen to T cells and elicit their proliferation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate that hsFlt3L induces the proliferation of canine DCs and support its use in upcoming clinical trials for canine GBM. Our data further support the translation of hsFlt3L to be used for dendritic cells' vaccination and gene therapeutic approaches from rodent models to canine patients and its future

  10. Establishment of a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Sen; XIA Sui-sheng; TANG Li-gong; CHENG Jun; CHEN Zhi-shui; ZHENG Shan-gen

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To establish a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation. Methods:12 male dogs were averagely grouped as donors and recipients. A small number of donor canine lymphocytes was infused into different anatomic locations of a paired canine recipient for each time and which was repeated weekly. Specific immune sensitization was monitored by means of Complement Dependent Cytotoxicity (CDC) and Mixed Lymphocyte Culture (MLC) test. When CDC test conversed to be positive and MLC test showed a significant proliferation of reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients, the right kidneys of the paired dogs were excised and transplanted to each other concurrently. Injury of renal allograft function was scheduled determined by ECT dynamic kidney photography and pathologic investigation. Results :CDC test usually conversed to be positive and reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients were also observed to be proliferated significantly in MLC test after 3 to 4 times of canine donor lymphocyte infusions. Renal allograft function deterioration occurred 4 d post-operatively in 4 of 6 canine recipients, in contrast to none in control dogs. Pathologic changes suggested antibody-mediated rejection (delayed) or acute rejection in 3 excised renal allograft of sensitized dogs. Seven days after operation, all sensitized dogs had lost graft function, pathologic changes of which showed that the renal allografts were seriously rejected. 2 of 3 dogs in control group were also acutely rejected. Conclusion:A convenient method by means of repeated stimulation of canine lymphocyte may induce specific immune sensitization in canine recipients. Renal allografts in sensitized dogs will be earlier rejected and result in a more deteriorated graft function.

  11. Detection of canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DeS; PanD; BeraAK; SreevatsavaV; DasSK; DasS; RanaT; BandyopadhyayS; BhattacharyaD

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the canine echinococcosis by coproantigen ELISA method. Methods:During the present investigation experimental infection was established using evaginated worms of Echinococcus granulosus (E. granulosus). To check cross reactivity two pups were infected with Taenia hydatigena(T. hydatigena). In order to detect the presence of antigen, hyperimmune sera were raised against excretory-secretory products of adult worms E. chinococcus granulosus. Faecal sample collected either from experimentally infected pups or from other sources were heated at 70℃to detect heat stable soluble antigen. Results:Pups harbouring less than 104 worms showed negative results. Samples collected from 14 days onwards from experimentally infected animals harbouring more than 104 worms showed positive value. The maximum positive samples were detected in samples collected from in and around slaughter house and the least number of samples were detected positive maintained by dog squad. Conclusions:The affinity purified IgG exhibited promising results for detection of canine echinococcosis by indirect ELISA.

  12. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  13. A custom made jig for individual canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipul Kumar Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We face difficulty in individual canine retraction in the bracket system lacking power arms on the canines. When orthodontic force is applied through the center of resistance (CR, then, tooth translation ensues. Forces applied at a distance from the CR create a moment that tends to rotate and tip the tooth. The tendency of tipping is increased in the bracket system lacking power arm, since, force is applied more occlusally. Hence, we have designed a chair side custom made jig to retract the canines individually.

  14. Canine pluripotent stem cells: Are they ready for clinical applications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Harvey Betts

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of canine embryonic stem cells and generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells are significant achievements that have unlocked the potential for developing novel cell-based disease models, drug discovery platforms and transplantation therapies in the dog. A progression from concept to cure in this clinically relevant companion animal will not only help our canine patients but also help advance human regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved before pluripotent cells can be used clinically in a safe and reproducible manner.

  15. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conboy Gary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila. The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed.

  16. Herpesvirus-Mediated Delivery of a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Ca2+ Sensor to Canine Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Prorok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the development and application of a pseudorabies virus-based system for delivery of troponeon, a fluorescent Ca2+ sensor to adult canine cardiomyocytes. The efficacy of transduction was assessed by calculating the ratio of fluorescently labelled and nonlabelled cells in cell culture. Interaction of the virus vector with electrophysiological properties of cardiomyocytes was evaluated by the analysis of transient outward current (Ito, kinetics of the intracellular Ca2+ transients, and cell shortening. Functionality of transferred troponeon was verified by FRET analysis. We demonstrated that the transfer efficiency of troponeon to cultured adult cardiac myocytes was virtually 100%. We showed that even after four days neither the amplitude nor the kinetics of the Ito current was significantly changed and no major shifts occurred in parameters of [Ca2+]i transients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that infection of cardiomyocytes with the virus did not affect the morphology, viability, and physiological attributes of cells.

  17. Host stress hormones alter vector feeding preferences, success, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Stephanie S; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Burgan, Sarah C; Schrey, Aaron W; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Martin, Lynn B

    2016-08-17

    Stress hormones might represent a key link between individual-level infection outcome, population-level parasite transmission, and zoonotic disease risk. Although the effects of stress on immunity are well known, stress hormones could also affect host-vector interactions via modification of host behaviours or vector-feeding patterns and subsequent reproductive success. Here, we experimentally manipulated songbird stress hormones and examined subsequent feeding preferences, feeding success, and productivity of mosquito vectors in addition to defensive behaviours of hosts. Despite being more defensive, birds with elevated stress hormone concentrations were approximately twice as likely to be fed on by mosquitoes compared to control birds. Moreover, stress hormones altered the relationship between the timing of laying and clutch size in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our results suggest that host stress could affect the transmission dynamics of vector-borne parasites via multiple pathways. PMID:27512147

  18. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Van Heerden

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8 were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8 (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8 over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use in domestic dogs, were used. None of the vaccinated dogs showed any untoward clinical signs. The inactivated canine distemper vaccine did not result in seroconversion whereas the attenuated live vaccine resulted in seroconversion in all wild dogs. Presumably protective concentrations of antibodies to canine distemper virus were present in all wild dogs for at least 451 days. Canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres were present in all wild dogs prior to the administration of vaccine and protective concentrations persisted for at least 451 days. Vaccination against parvovirus infection resulted in a temporary increase in canine parvovirus haemagglutination inhibition titres in most dogs. Administration of both inactivated parenteral and live oral rabies vaccine initially resulted in seroconversion in 7 of 8 dogs. These titres, however, dropped to very low concentrations within 100 days. Booster administrations resulted in increased antibody concentrations in all dogs. It was concluded that the vaccines were safe to use in healthy subadult wild dogs and that a vaccination protocol in free-ranging wild dogs should at least incorporate booster vaccinations against rabies 3-6 months after the first inoculation.

  19. Cryptic vector divergence masks vector-specific patterns of infection: an example from the marine cycle of Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Doherty, Paul F; Duneau, David; McCoy, Karen D

    2010-07-01

    Vector organisms are implicated in the transmission of close to a third of all infectious diseases. In many cases, multiple vectors (species or populations) can participate in transmission but may contribute differently to disease ecology and evolution. The presence of cryptic vector populations can be particularly problematic as differences in infection can be difficult to evaluate and may lead to erroneous evolutionary and epidemiological inferences. Here, we combine site-occupancy modeling and molecular assays to evaluate patterns of infection in the marine cycle of Lyme borreliosis, involving colonial seabirds, the tick Ixodes uriae, and bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. complex. In this cycle, the tick vector consists of multiple, cryptic (phenotypically undistinguishable but genetically distinct) host races that are frequently found in sympatry. Our results show that bacterial detection varies strongly among tick races leading to vector-specific biases if raw counts are used to calculate Borrelia prevalence. These differences are largely explained by differences in infection intensity among tick races. After accounting for detection probabilities, we found that overall prevalence in this system is higher than previously suspected and that certain vector-host combinations likely contribute more than others to the local dynamics and large-scale dispersal of Borrelia spirochetes. These results highlight the importance of evaluating vector population structure and accounting for detection probability when trying to understand the evolutionary ecology of vector-borne diseases. PMID:25567933

  20. Cosmology with vector distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran

    2016-01-01

    We consider an extension of Weyl geometry with the most general connection linearly determined by a vector field. We discuss some of the geometrical properties within this framework and then we construct gravitational theories leading to an interesting class of vector-tensor theories with cosmological applications.

  1. Switched Multistage Vector Quantizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Satya Sai Ram

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of a new hybrid vector quantizer called Switched Multi stage vector quantization (SWMSVQ technique using hard and soft decision schemes, for coding of narrow band speech signals. This technique is a hybrid of Switch vector quantization technique and Multi stage vector quantization technique. SWMSVQ quantizes the linear predictive coefficients (LPC in terms of the line spectral frequencies (LSF. The spectral distortion performance, computational complexity and memory requirements of SWMSVQ using hard and soft decision schemes are compared with Split vector quantization (SVQ technique, Multi stage vector quantization (MSVQ technique, Switched Split vector quantization (SSVQ technique using hard decision scheme, and Multi Switched Split Vector quantization (MSSVQ technique using hard decision scheme. From results it is proved that SWMSVQ using soft decision scheme is having less spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to SVQ, MSVQ, SSVQ and SWMSVQ using hard decision scheme, but high when compared to MSSVQ using hard decision scheme. So from results it is proved that SWMSVQ using soft decision scheme is better when compared to SVQ, MSVQ, SSVQ and SWMSVQ using hard decision schemes in terms of spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements but is having greater spectral distortion, computational complexity and memory requirements when compared to MSSVQ using hard decision.

  2. Case Report: Canine Fossa Abscess; A Rare Etiological Factor: The Lower Canine Tooth

    OpenAIRE

    Agacayak, K. Serkan; Atılgan, S. Serhat; GORGUN, Belgin; Yaman, Ferhan; Ucan, M. Can; Atalay, Yusuf

    2013-01-01

    Odontogenic infection may be dangerous; especially when life-threatening complications occur. Infection spreads through the bone and periosteum toward nearby or more distant structures and spaces. Canine fossa abscess is an odontogenic infection that can lead to life-threatening complications. Successful treatment requires early recognition, determination of etiological factors, and proper medical and surgical management. The aim of this paper is to emphasize different and rare etiological fa...

  3. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... or meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  4. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  5. Pulsars are Born as Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the idea that all neutron stars experienced at birth an ultrafast decay of their magnetic fields from their initial values to their current surface values. If the electromagnetic energy radiated during this field decay is converted into kinetic energy of the neutron star via the radiation reaction mechanism then the decay time is of the order of 10^(-4)s provided that the initial magnetic fields lie in the range of 10^(14)-10^(16)G. This means that all neutron stars are born with magnetic fields typical of magnetars. According to this model the neutron stars acquire their observed high space velocities during the birth ultrafast decay of their magnetic fields. The origin of this field decay points to magnetic instabilities occurring at the end of the birth process.

  6. [Arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially Leishmania, in the Kosovo and Albania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazri, Tune; Duscher, Georg; Edelhofer, Renate; Bytyci, Burim; Gjino, Paskal; Joachim, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in Albania and the Kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (Kosovo: Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Pec, Malisevo; Albania: Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlore). In order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from Albania - Tirana, Kamza and Durres; 121 from the Kosovo - Gjakovo, Ferizaj and Prishtina) were obtained. Corresponding blood samples were available from 36 Albanian stray dogs. Antibody titres were determined by Indirect Immunofluorescence Test against L. infantum and Babesia canis. Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were determined using the DiroCheck-Test. Blood samples were tested for L. infantum, B. canis, Hepatozoon canis, D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific antibodies against Babesia were found in 7.3% of the animals, against Leishmania in 3.3% and 7.0% were positive for D. immitis antigen. DNA of Babesia, Leishmania or D. repens was detected in 11.1%, respectively. H. canis was found in 52.8% of the blood samples. D. immitis DNA was not detected. Since the Babesia- and Leishmania-PCR-positive animals were all serologically negative it can be assumed that infections were acquired only recently. All Leishmania-positive animals were stray dogs. These animals contribute to the maintenance of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas, and a control of the canine stray population should be considered. PMID:19066774

  7. Line Integral of a Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balabanian, Norman

    This programed booklet is designed for the engineering student who understands and can use vector and unit vector notation, components of a vector, parallel law of vector addition, and the dot product of two vectors. Content begins with work done by a force in moving a body a certain distance along some path. For each of the examples and problem…

  8. Emerging perspectives on hereditary glomerulopathies in canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Littman MP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Meryl P LittmanDepartment of Clinical Studies – Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USAAbstract: Familial glomerulopathies have been described in more than two dozen dog breeds. These canine spontaneous cases of glomerular disease are good models for their human counterparts. The dogs present clinically with protein-losing nephropathy and variable signs of hypertension, thromboembolic events, edema/effusions/nephrotic syndrome, or eventually with signs of renal disease such as anorexia, vomiting, weight loss, and/or polyuria/polydipsia. Laboratory changes include proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and eventually azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, anemia, and isosthenuria. Renal biopsies examined with transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and thin section light microscopy may show ultrastructural glomerular basement membrane abnormalities, glomerulosclerosis, amyloidosis, non-amyloid fibrillary deposition, or breed-associated predispositions for immune-complex glomerulonephritis. Genome-wide association studies and fine sequencing of candidate genes have led to the discovery of variant alleles associated with disease in some breeds; eg, 1 glomerular basement membrane ultrastructural abnormalities due to defective collagen type IV, caused by different premature stop codons in each of four breeds; ie, in COL4A5 in Samoyeds and Navasota mix breed dogs (X-linked, and in COL4A4 in English Cocker Spaniels and English Springer Spaniels (autosomal recessive; and 2 glomerulosclerosis-related podocytopathy with slit diaphragm protein anomalies of both nephrin and Neph3/filtrin due to non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms in conserved regions of their encoding genes, NPHS1 and KIRREL2, in Soft Coated Wheaten Terriers and Airedale Terriers, with a complex mode of inheritance. Age at onset and progression to end-stage renal disease vary depending on the model. Genetic

  9. Death of a wild wolf from canine parvovirus enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Kurtz, H.J.; Goyal, S.

    1997-01-01

    A 9-mo-old female wolf (Canis lupus) in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota (USA) died from a canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. This is the first direct evidence that this infection effects free-ranging wild wolves.

  10. Canine index – A tool for sex determination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar M. Bakkannavar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Teeth are most useful tools in victim identification in the living as well as the dead in the field of forensic investigations. Their ability to survive in situations like mass disasters makes them constructive devices. Many authors have measured crowns of teeth in both males and females and found certain variations. Canines, reported to survive in air crash and hurricane disasters, are perhaps the most stable teeth in the oral cavity because of the labiolingual thickness of the crown and the root anchorage in the alveolar process of jaws. Measurement of mesiodistal width of the mandibular canines and inter-canine distance of the mandible provides good evidence of sex identification due to dimorphism. This study was undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of canine index (CI in the determination of sex.

  11. Severe canine distemper outbreak in unvaccinated dogs in Mozambique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julieta Zacarias

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although significant animal suffering caused by preventable diseases is frequently seen in developing countries, reports of this are scarce. This report describes avoidable animal suffering owing to a suspected canine distemper (CD outbreak in unvaccinated dogs owned by low-income families in Mozambique that killed approximately 200 animals. Affected dogs exhibited clinical signs, and gross and microscopic lesions compatible with CD. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed the presence of canine distemper virus (CDV in the kidney of one dog from the cohort. This brief communication again illustrates that large outbreaks of CDV in unvaccinated dogs occur and that large-scale avoidable suffering and threats to the health of dogs and wild canines continue. Mass vaccination supported by government and non-government organisations is recommended.Keywords: Canine distemper; dogs; outbreak; animal welfare; Mozambique

  12. Canine distemper virus in Lake Baikal seals (Phoca sibirica).

    OpenAIRE

    Mamaev, L.V.; Visser, Ilona; Belikov, S.I.; Denikina, N.N.; Harder, Timm; Goatley, L.; Rima, B.; Edginton, B.; Osterhaus, Albert; Barrett, Thomas,

    1996-01-01

    textabstractThe virus epizootic which resulted in significant mortality in Siberian seals (Phoca sibirica) in Lake Baikal during 1987/88 was caused by canine distemper virus. Sequence analysis of the virus glycoprotein genes revealed that it was most closely related to recent European field isolates of canine distemper virus. This paper presents evidence that the same virus continued to circulate in seals in Lake Baikal after the initial epizootic. Three out of 45 brain tissue samples collect...

  13. Immunopathogenic and Neurological Mechanisms of Canine Distemper Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Valério Carvalho; Clarisse Vieira Botelho; Caroline Gracielle Torres Ferreira; Paulo Oldemar Scherer; Jamária Adriana Pinheiro Soares-Martins; Márcia Rogéria de Almeida; Abelardo Silva Júnior

    2012-01-01

    Canine distemper is a highly contagious viral disease caused by the canine distemper virus (CDV), which is a member of the Morbillivirus genus, Paramyxoviridae family. Animals that most commonly suffer from this disease belong to the Canidae family; however, the spectrum of natural hosts for CDV also includes several other families of the order Carnivora. The infectious disease presents worldwide distribution and maintains a high incidence and high levels of lethality, despite the availabilit...

  14. Characterization of a Canine Homolog of Human Aichivirus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kapoor, A; Simmonds, P.; Dubovi, E J; Qaisar, N.; Henriquez, J. A.; J. Medina; S Shields; Lipkin, W. I.

    2011-01-01

    Many of our fatal "civilization" infectious diseases have arisen from domesticated animals. Although picornaviruses infect most mammals, infection of a companion animal is not known. Here we describe the identification and genomic characterization of the first canine picornavirus. Canine kobuvirus (CKoV), identified in stool samples from dogs with diarrhea, has a genomic organization typical of a picornavirus and encodes a 2,469-amino-acid polyprotein flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions...

  15. Permanent Maxillary Canine Agenesis: A Rare Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Halaswamy V Kambalimath; Jain, Somya; Patil, Raju Umaji; Asokan, Alexander; Kambalimath, Deepashri

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Congenitally missing teeth (CMT) are among one of the commonly known dental anomalies. The most frequently missing teeth in the permanent dentition, excluding the third molars, are mandibular second premolars and maxillary lateral incisors. Exclusive agenesis of both maxillary canines is an extremely rare occurrence and only a few cases have been reported. Previous studies showed that the prevalence of maxillary canine agenesis varies between 0.07 and 0.13%. In recent studies on Indi...

  16. Genomic instability and telomere fusion of canine osteosarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Maeda

    Full Text Available Canine osteosarcoma (OSA is known to present with highly variable and chaotic karyotypes, including hypodiploidy, hyperdiploidy, and increased numbers of metacentric chromosomes. The spectrum of genomic instabilities in canine OSA has significantly augmented the difficulty in clearly defining the biological and clinical significance of the observed cytogenetic abnormalities. In this study, eight canine OSA cell lines were used to investigate telomere fusions by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH using a peptide nucleotide acid probe. We characterized each cell line by classical cytogenetic studies and cellular phenotypes including telomere associated factors and then evaluated correlations from this data. All eight canine OSA cell lines displayed increased abnormal metacentric chromosomes and exhibited numerous telomere fusions and interstitial telomeric signals. Also, as evidence of unstable telomeres, colocalization of γ-H2AX and telomere signals in interphase cells was observed. Each cell line was characterized by a combination of data representing cellular doubling time, DNA content, chromosome number, metacentric chromosome frequency, telomere signal level, cellular radiosensitivity, and DNA-PKcs protein expression level. We have also studied primary cultures from 10 spontaneous canine OSAs. Based on the observation of telomere aberrations in those primary cell cultures, we are reasonably certain that our observations in cell lines are not an artifact of prolonged culture. A correlation between telomere fusions and the other characteristics analyzed in our study could not be identified. However, it is important to note that all of the canine OSA samples exhibiting telomere fusion utilized in our study were telomerase positive. Pending further research regarding telomerase negative canine OSA cell lines, our findings may suggest telomere fusions can potentially serve as a novel marker for canine OSA.

  17. Canine Evolution in Sabretoothed Carnivores: Natural Selection or Sexual Selection?

    OpenAIRE

    Marcela Randau; Chris Carbone; Turvey, Samuel T.

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids...

  18. Recent epidemiological status of canine viral enteric infections and Giardia infection in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, M; Hashimoto, M; Ishida, T

    2001-05-01

    Epidemiology of canine enteric infections was studied. Rectal swabs collected from 95 dogs presented at animal hospitals during a period from January to June of 2000 were examined for enteric pathogens, including viruses and Giardia lamblia (G. lamblia). Most frequently detected in both diarrheal and normal feces were canine coronavirus (55.4%) and G. lamblia (48.2%). Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) was specifically associated with diarrheal cases and CPV-2b was the predominant antigenic type. Although canine rotavirus, canine adenovirus, and canine distemper virus were also detected in a small number of diarrheal cases, no evidence for calicivirus infection was obtained. PMID:11411507

  19. Transmigration of mandibular canine: report of four cases and review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Gaurav; Nagpal, Archna

    2011-01-01

    Transmigration of canine is a rare phenomenon. The prevalence of transmigration of mandibular canine has been found to be only 0.14%-0.31%. The treatment of impacted transmigrated canine is very complicated if it is diagnosed at a later stage. We report 4 cases of transmigration of mandibular canine and review the literature regarding the etiology and treatment. Panoramic radiograph should be taken during the mixed dentition period if the mandibular canine has not erupted from more than one year from its normal chronological age of eruption as intraoral periapical radiograph examination will not always detect an impacted or transmigrated canine. PMID:22570797

  20. Transmigration of Mandibular Canine: Report of Four Cases and Review of Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Sharma

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmigration of canine is a rare phenomenon. The prevalence of transmigration of mandibular canine has been found to be only 0.14%–0.31%. The treatment of impacted transmigrated canine is very complicated if it is diagnosed at a later stage. We report 4 cases of transmigration of mandibular canine and review the literature regarding the etiology and treatment. Panoramic radiograph should be taken during the mixed dentition period if the mandibular canine has not erupted from more than one year from its normal chronological age of eruption as intraoral periapical radiograph examination will not always detect an impacted or transmigrated canine.

  1. Shedding light on canine pituitary dwarfism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorbij, A.M.W.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary dwarfism, associated with growth hormone deficiency, is an autosomal, recessively inherited disorder in shepherd dogs. Due to the serious nature of pituitary dwarfism and lack of efficient treatment, it is preferable to prevent dwarfs from being born by applying a correct breeding policy.

  2. Canine distemper in endangered Ethiopian wolves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Christopher H; Banyard, Ashley C; Hussein, Alo; Laurenson, M Karen; Malcolm, James R; Marino, Jorgelina; Regassa, Fekede; Stewart, Anne-Marie E; Fooks, Anthony R; Sillero-Zubiri, Claudio

    2015-05-01

    The Ethiopian wolf (Canis simensis) is the world's rarest canid; ≈500 wolves remain. The largest population is found within the Bale Mountains National Park (BMNP) in southeastern Ethiopia, where conservation efforts have demonstrated the negative effect of rabies virus on wolf populations. We describe previously unreported infections with canine distemper virus (CDV) among these wolves during 2005-2006 and 2010. Death rates ranged from 43% to 68% in affected subpopulations and were higher for subadult than adult wolves (83%-87% vs. 34%-39%). The 2010 CDV outbreak started 20 months after a rabies outbreak, before the population had fully recovered, and led to the eradication of several focal packs in BMNP's Web Valley. The combined effect of rabies and CDV increases the chance of pack extinction, exacerbating the typically slow recovery of wolf populations, and represents a key extinction threat to populations of this highly endangered carnivore. PMID:25898177

  3. European surveillance for pantropic canine coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decaro, Nicola; Cordonnier, Nathalie; Demeter, Zoltan; Egberink, Herman; Elia, Gabriella; Grellet, Aurélien; Le Poder, Sophie; Mari, Viviana; Martella, Vito; Ntafis, Vasileios; von Reitzenstein, Marcela; Rottier, Peter J; Rusvai, Miklos; Shields, Shelly; Xylouri, Eftychia; Xu, Zach; Buonavoglia, Canio

    2013-01-01

    Highly virulent pantropic canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains belonging to subtype IIa were recently identified in dogs. To assess the distribution of such strains in Europe, tissue samples were collected from 354 dogs that had died after displaying systemic disease in France (n = 92), Hungary (n = 75), Italy (n = 69), Greece (n = 87), The Netherlands (n = 27), Belgium (n = 4), and Bulgaria (n = 1). A total of 124 animals tested positive for CCoV, with 33 of them displaying the virus in extraintestinal tissues. Twenty-four CCoV strains (19.35% of the CCoV-positive dogs) detected in internal organs were characterized as subtype IIa and consequently assumed to be pantropic CCoVs. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the 5' end of the spike protein gene showed that pantropic CCoV strains are closely related to each other, with the exception of two divergent French viruses that clustered with enteric strains. PMID:23100349

  4. A canine model of multiple portosystemic shunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, L M; Boothe, H W; Miller, M W; Boothe, D M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop and describe an experimental canine model of multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (PSS) similar in nature to spontaneously occurring PSS. Sixteen dogs were used and were divided into a control (n = 6) and a diseased group (n = 10). Dogs of the diseased group were administered dimethylnitrosamine (2 mg/kg of body weight, po) twice weekly, and clinicopathologic, ultrasonographic, and hepatic scintigraphic findings were recorded during the development of hepatic disease and PSS. Surgery was then performed to permit visual verification of multiple shunts, catheter placement for portography examination, and biopsy of the liver. All diseased dogs developed severe hepatic disease and multiple PSS as documented visually at surgery and on portography. Based on this study, dimethylnitrosamine-induced portosystemic shunting appears to be an appropriate model for spontaneously occurring multiple PSS secondary to portal hypertension. PMID:10741951

  5. Why segment the maxilla between laterals and canines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Senhorinho Esteves

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Maxillary surgery on a bone segment enables movement in the sagittal and vertical planes. When performed on multiple segments, it further provides movement in the transverse plane. Typical sites for interdental osteotomies are between laterals and canines, premolars and canines, or between incisors. Additionally, osteotomies can be bilateral, unilateral or asymmetric. The ability to control intercanine width, buccolingual angulation of incisors, and correct Bolton discrepancy are some of the advantages of maxillary segmentation between laterals and canines. Objective: This article describes important features to be considered in making a clinical decision to segment the maxilla between laterals and canines when treating a dentoskeletal deformity. It further discusses the history of this surgical approach, the indications for its clinical use, the technique used to implement it, as well as its advantages, disadvantages, complications and stability. It is therefore hoped that this paper will contribute to disseminate information on this topic, which will inform the decision-making process of those professionals who wish to make use of this procedure in their clinical practice. Conclusions: Segmental maxillary osteotomy between laterals and canines is a versatile technique with several indications. Furthermore, it offers a host of advantages compared with single-piece osteotomy, or between canines and premolars.

  6. Consequences of crown shortening canine teeth in Greenland sled dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kortegaard, H E; Anthony Knudsen, T; Dahl, S;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the consequences of crown shortening, focusing on the prevalence of pulp exposure and periapical pathology in Greenland sled dogs that had had their canine crowns shortened at an early age. METHODS: Five cadaver heads and 54 sled dogs underwent an oral examination for dental...... fractures and pulp exposure of canines. All canines were radiographed and evaluated for periapical pathology. RESULTS: The prevalence of canine pulp exposure in 12 (5 heads and 7 dogs) crown shortened dogs was 91 · 7%, and 21 · 3% in 47 not-crown shortened dogs. A significant (P ... exposure of the canines in the crown shortened group compared to the not-crown shortened group was seen with a relative risk of 4 · 3 on a dog basis and a relative risk of 12 · 2 on a tooth basis. In dogs with pulp exposure of canines (n = 51) the prevalence of periapical pathology was 82 · 4%, but only 0...

  7. Chlamydia in canine or feline coronary arteriosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabarevic Zeljko

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are numerous reports linking Chlamydia infection to human coronary atherosclerosis. However, there is a lack of data regarding this correlation in dogs and cats, and there are no reports investigating coronary arteriosclerosis and Chlamydia in these species. The aim of the present study was to examine whether there is a correlation between canine and feline spontaneous atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. Archived histopathological samples of dogs (n = 16 and cats (n = 13 with findings of atherosclerosis or arteriosclerosis in heart tissue were examined for the presence of Chlamydiaceae using real-time PCR, ArrayTube Microarray and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, arteriosclerotic lesions of all cases were histologically classified and graded. Results Both canine atherosclerotic cases, and all 14 canine arteriosclerotic cases were negative for Chlamydia. Only one of the 13 arteriosclerotic feline cases was positive for Chlamydia by real-time PCR, revealing C. abortus by ArrayTube Microarray. To our knowledge, this is the first description of C. abortus in a cat. Overall, the type and grade of canine and feline arteriosclerotic lesions revealed similarities, and were predominantly moderate and hyperplastic. Conclusions These findings suggest that there is no obvious correlation between canine and feline coronary arteriosclerosis and the presence of Chlamydia. In order to draw final conclusions about the correlation between Chlamydia and canine atherosclerosis, examination of more samples is required.

  8. Integrated vector management for malaria control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Impoinvil Daniel E

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Integrated vector management (IVM is defined as "a rational decision-making process for the optimal use of resources for vector control" and includes five key elements: 1 evidence-based decision-making, 2 integrated approaches 3, collaboration within the health sector and with other sectors, 4 advocacy, social mobilization, and legislation, and 5 capacity-building. In 2004, the WHO adopted IVM globally for the control of all vector-borne diseases. Important recent progress has been made in developing and promoting IVM for national malaria control programmes in Africa at a time when successful malaria control programmes are scaling-up with insecticide-treated nets (ITN and/or indoor residual spraying (IRS coverage. While interventions using only ITNs and/or IRS successfully reduce transmission intensity and the burden of malaria in many situations, it is not clear if these interventions alone will achieve those critical low levels that result in malaria elimination. Despite the successful employment of comprehensive integrated malaria control programmes, further strengthening of vector control components through IVM is relevant, especially during the "end-game" where control is successful and further efforts are required to go from low transmission situations to sustained local and country-wide malaria elimination. To meet this need and to ensure sustainability of control efforts, malaria control programmes should strengthen their capacity to use data for decision-making with respect to evaluation of current vector control programmes, employment of additional vector control tools in conjunction with ITN/IRS tactics, case-detection and treatment strategies, and determine how much and what types of vector control and interdisciplinary input are required to achieve malaria elimination. Similarly, on a global scale, there is a need for continued research to identify and evaluate new tools for vector control that can be integrated with

  9. Tick-borne Relapsing Fever and Borrelia hermsii, Los Angeles County, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffel, Sandra J.; Schrumpf, Merry E.; Webster, Larry S.; Marques, Adriana R.; Spano, Robyn; Rood, Michael; Burns, Joe; Hu, Renjie

    2009-01-01

    The primary cause of tick-borne relapsing fever in western North America is Borrelia hermsii, a rodent-associated spirochete transmitted by the fast-feeding soft tick Ornithodoros hermsi. We describe a patient who had an illness consistent with relapsing fever after exposure in the mountains near Los Angeles, California, USA. The patient’s convalescent-phase serum was seropositive for B. hermsii but negative for several other vector-borne bacterial pathogens. Investigations at the exposure site showed the presence of O. hermsi ticks infected with B. hermsii and the presence of rodents that were seropositive for the spirochete. We determined that this tick-borne disease is endemic to the San Gabriel Mountains near the greater Los Angeles metropolitan area. PMID:19624916

  10. ON VECTOR NETWORK EQUILIBRIUM PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangya CHEN

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we define a concept of weak equilibrium for vector network equilibrium problems.We obtain sufficient conditions of weak equilibrium points and establish relation with vector network equilibrium problems and vector variational inequalities.

  11. Conceptualizing Innovation in Born Global Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insights from recent literature on innovativeness in the environment of born globals. This article will be relevant to researchers interested in born globals and their business environments and, more specifically, the role that innovation plays in their foundation and devel...

  12. Literacy Skills of Children Born Preterm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Alison; Crosbie, Sharon

    2010-01-01

    Most children born preterm are considered neurologically normal and free of disability. However in follow-up studies at school age, preterm children, born without major impairment, have been shown to have lower cognitive abilities and associated academic, social and behavioural difficulties. This study investigated the literacy, phonological…

  13. PEOPLE BORN IN AUTUMN LIVE LONGER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    People born in the autumn live longer an those born in the spring and are less likely to fall chronically ill when they are older,according to an Austrian scientist.Using census data for more than one million people in Austria,Denmark and Australia,scien-

  14. Rescuing the Born Rule for Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Cooperman, Joshua H

    2010-01-01

    Page has recently argued that the Born rule does not suffice for computing all probabilities in quantum cosmology. He further asserts that the Born rule's failure gives rise to the cosmological measure problem. Here I contend that Page's result stems from his use of an overly restrictive definition of the Born rule. In particular, I demonstrate that all of the probabilities he wishes to compute follow from the Born rule when generalized measurements are permitted. I also register two comments on Page's theoretical setting, relating respectively to Hilbert space dimensionality and permutation symmetry. These considerations lead me to conclude that the claimed insufficiency of the Born rule is by no means specific to the cosmological context.

  15. c-Map for Born-Infeld theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrianopoli, L.; D'Auria, R.; Ferrara, S.; Trigiante, M.

    2016-07-01

    The c-map of four dimensional non-linear theories of electromagnetism is considered both in the rigid case and in its coupling to gravity. In this way theories with antisymmetric tensors and scalars are obtained, and the three non-linear representations of N = 2 supersymmetry partially broken to N = 1 related. The manifest Sp (2 n) and U (n) covariance of these theories in their multifield extensions is also exhibited. This construction extends to H-invariant non-linear theories of Born-Infeld type with non-dynamical scalars spanning a symmetric coset manifold G/H and the vector field strengths and their duals in a symplectic representation of G as is the case for extended supergravity.

  16. GAP Land Cover - Vector

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This vector dataset is a detailed (1-acre minimum), hierarchically organized vegetation cover map produced by computer classification of combined two-season pairs...

  17. Noncausal Bayesian Vector Autoregression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanne, Markku; Luoto, Jani

    We propose a Bayesian inferential procedure for the noncausal vector autoregressive (VAR) model that is capable of capturing nonlinearities and incorporating effects of missing variables. In particular, we devise a fast and reliable posterior simulator that yields the predictive distribution...

  18. Understanding Vector Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curjel, C. R.

    1990-01-01

    Presented are activities that help students understand the idea of a vector field. Included are definitions, flow lines, tangential and normal components along curves, flux and work, field conservation, and differential equations. (KR)

  19. Tagged Vector Contour (TVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Tagged Vector Contour (TVC) dataset consists of digitized contours from the 7.5 minute topographic quadrangle maps. Coverage for the state is incomplete....

  20. The effects of city streets on an urban disease vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corentin M Barbu

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization vector-borne diseases are quickly developing in cities, and urban control strategies are needed. If streets are shown to be barriers to disease vectors, city blocks could be used as a convenient and relevant spatial unit of study and control. Unfortunately, existing spatial analysis tools do not allow for assessment of the impact of an urban grid on the presence of disease agents. Here, we first propose a method to test for the significance of the impact of streets on vector infestation based on a decomposition of Moran's spatial autocorrelation index; and second, develop a Gaussian Field Latent Class model to finely describe the effect of streets while controlling for cofactors and imperfect detection of vectors. We apply these methods to cross-sectional data of infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in the city of Arequipa, Peru. Our Moran's decomposition test reveals that the distribution of T. infestans in this urban environment is significantly constrained by streets (p<0.05. With the Gaussian Field Latent Class model we confirm that streets provide a barrier against infestation and further show that greater than 90% of the spatial component of the probability of vector presence is explained by the correlation among houses within city blocks. The city block is thus likely to be an appropriate spatial unit to describe and control T. infestans in an urban context. Characteristics of the urban grid can influence the spatial dynamics of vector borne disease and should be considered when designing public health policies.

  1. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-François Degbomont; Julien Brusten; Bernard Boigelot

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the ...

  2. Vector Lattice Vortex Solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-Dong; YE Fang-Wei; DONG Liang-Wei; LI Yong-Ping

    2005-01-01

    @@ Two-dimensional vector vortex solitons in harmonic optical lattices are investigated. The stability properties of such solitons are closely connected to the lattice depth Vo. For small Vo, vector vortex solitons with the total zero-angular momentum are more stable than those with the total nonzero-angular momentum, while for large Vo, this case is inversed. If Vo is large enough, both the types of such solitons are stable.

  3. Support vector machines applications

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Guodong

    2014-01-01

    Support vector machines (SVM) have both a solid mathematical background and good performance in practical applications. This book focuses on the recent advances and applications of the SVM in different areas, such as image processing, medical practice, computer vision, pattern recognition, machine learning, applied statistics, business intelligence, and artificial intelligence. The aim of this book is to create a comprehensive source on support vector machine applications, especially some recent advances.

  4. Predators indirectly reduce the prevalence of an insect-vectored plant pathogen independent of predator diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Elizabeth Y; Finke, Deborah L

    2015-04-01

    A widely cited benefit of predator diversity is greater suppression of insect herbivores, with corresponding increases in plant biomass. In the context of a vector-borne pathogen system, predator species richness may also influence plant disease risk via the direct effects of predators on the abundance and behavior of herbivores that also act as pathogen vectors. Using an assemblage of generalist insect predators, we examined the relationship between predator species richness and the prevalence of the aphid-vectored cereal yellow dwarf virus in wheat. We found that increasing predator richness enhanced suppression of the vector population and that pathogen prevalence was reduced when predators were present, but the reduction in prevalence was independent of predator species richness. To determine the mechanism(s) by which predator species richness contributes to vector suppression, but not pathogen prevalence, we evaluated vector movement and host plant occupancy in response to predator treatments. We found that pathogen prevalence was unrelated to vector suppression because host plant occupancy by vectors did not vary as a function of vector abundance. However, the presence of predators reduced pathogen prevalence because predators stimulated greater plant-to-plant movement by vectors, which likely diminished vector feeding time and reduced the transmission efficiency of this persistent pathogen. We conclude that community structure (i.e., the presence of predators), but not predator diversity, is a potential factor influencing local plant infection by this insect-vectored pathogen. PMID:25561170

  5. Arthropod-Borne Diseases: The Camper's Uninvited Guests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juckett, Gregory

    2015-08-01

    Arthropod-borne diseases are a major problem whenever outdoor activities bring arthropods and people into contact. The arthropods discussed here include arachnids (ticks) and insects. Most arthropod bites and stings are minor, with the notable exception being bee-sting anaphylaxis. Ticks cause the most disease transmission. Key hard tick vectors include black-legged (Ixodes), dog (Dermacentor), and lone star (Amblyomma) ticks, which transmit Lyme and various rickettsial diseases. Insect repellents, permethrin sprays, and proper tick inspection reduce this risk significantly. Lyme disease and the milder southern-tick-associated rash illness (STARI) are characterized by the erythema migrans rash followed, in the case of Lyme disease, by early, disseminated, and late systemic symptoms. Treatment is with doxycycline or ceftriaxone. Indefinite treatment of "chronic Lyme disease" based on subjective symptoms is not beneficial. Rickettsial diseases include ehrlichiosis, anaplasmosis, and Rocky Mountain spotted fever, which are characterized by fever, headache, and possible rash and should be empirically treated with doxycycline while awaiting laboratory confirmation. Tularemia is a bacterial disease (Francisella) spread by ticks and rabbits and characterized by fever and adenopathy. Treatment is with gentamicin or streptomycin. Babesiosis is a protozoal disease, mimicking malaria, that causes a self-limited flu-like disease in healthy hosts but can be life threatening with immune compromise. Treatment is with atovaquone and azithromycin. Other tick-related conditions include viral diseases (Powassan, Colorado tick fever, heartland virus), tick-borne relapsing fever (Borrelia), and tick paralysis (toxin). Mosquitoes, lice, fleas, and mites are notable for their annoying bites but are increasingly significant disease vectors even in the United States.

  6. Epidemiology and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. López-Antuñano

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and other arthropod born diseases remain a serious public health problem affecting the lives and health of certain social groups when the two basic strategies to control fail due to : (1 the lack of effective chemoprophylaxis/chemotherapy or the rapid development of drug resistance of the infectious agents and (2 the ineffectiveness of pesticides or the arthropod vectors develop resistance to them. These situations enhances the need for the design and implementation of other alternatives for sustainable health programmes. The application of the epidemiological methods is essential not only for analyzing the relevant data for the understanding of the biological characteristics of the infectious agents, their reservoirs and vectors and the methods for their control, but also for the assessment of the human behaviour, the environmental, social and economic factors involved in disease transmission and the capacity of the health systems to implement interventions for both changes in human behaviour and environmental management to purpose guaranteed prevention and control of malaria and other arthropod born diseases with efficiency, efficacy and equity. This paper discuss the evolution of the malaria arthropod diseases programmes in the American Region and the perspectives for their integration into health promotion programs and emphasis is made in the need to establish solid basis in the decision-making process for the selection of intervention strategies to remove the risk factors determining the probability to get sick or die from ABDs. The implications of the general planning and the polices to be adopted in an area should be analyzed in the light of programme feasibility at the local level, in the multisectoral context specific social groups and taking in consideration the principles of stratification and equity

  7. Vector financial rogue waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Zhenya, E-mail: zyyan@mmrc.iss.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Mathematics Mechanization, Institute of Systems Science, AMSS, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2011-11-21

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.

  8. Vector financial rogue waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black–Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields. -- Highlights: ► We investigate the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model. ► We analytically present vector financial rogue waves. ► The vector financial rogue waves may be used to describe the extreme events in financial markets. ► This results may excite the relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves.

  9. The Vector Curvaton

    CERN Document Server

    Navarro, Andres A

    2013-01-01

    We analyze a massive vector field with a non-canonical kinetic term in the action, minimally coupled to gravity, where the mass and kinetic function of the vector field vary as functions of time during inflation. The vector field is introduced following the same idea of a scalar curvaton, which must not affect the inflationary dynamics since its energy density during inflation is negligible compared to the total energy density in the Universe. Using this hypothesis, the vector curvaton will be solely responsible for generating the primordial curvature perturbation \\zeta. We have found that the spectra of the vector field perturbations are scale-invariant in superhorizon scales due to the suitable choice of the time dependence of the kinetic function and the effective mass during inflation. The preferred direction, generated by the vector field, makes the spectrum of \\zeta depend on the wavevector, i.e. there exists statistical anisotropy in \\zeta. This is discussed principally in the case where the mass of th...

  10. Launching the first postgraduate diploma in medical entomology and disease vector control in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathor, H R; Mnzava, A; Bile, K M; Hafeez, A; Zaman, S

    2010-01-01

    The Health Services Academy has launched a 12-month postgraduate diploma course in medical entomology and disease vector control. The objective is to create a core of experts trained to prevent and control vector-borne diseases. The course is a response to the serious health and socioeconomic burden caused by a number of vector-borne diseases in Pakistan. The persistence, emergence and re-emergence of these diseases is mainly attributed to the scarcity of trained vector-control experts. The training course attempts to fill the gap in trained manpower and thus reduce the morbidity and mortality due to these diseases, resulting in incremental gains to public health. This paper aims to outline the steps taken to establish the course and the perceived challenges to be addressed in order to sustain its future implementation.

  11. How much can diptera-borne viruses persist over unfavourable seasons?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maud V P Charron

    Full Text Available Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally.

  12. How Much Can Diptera-Borne Viruses Persist over Unfavourable Seasons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charron, Maud V. P.; Balenghien, Thomas; Seegers, Henri; Langlais, Michel; Ezanno, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Diptera are vectors of major human and animal pathogens worldwide, such as dengue, West-Nile or bluetongue viruses. In seasonal environments, vector-borne disease occurrence varies with the seasonal variations of vector abundance. We aimed at understanding how diptera-borne viruses can persist for years under seasonal climates while vectors overwinter, which should stop pathogen transmission during winter. Modeling is a relevant integrative approach for investigating the large panel of persistence mechanisms evidenced through experimental and observational studies on specific biological systems. Inter-seasonal persistence of virus may occur in hosts due to viremia duration, chronic infection, or vertical transmission, in vector resistance stages, and due to a low continuous transmission in winter. Using a generic stochastic modeling framework, we determine the parameter ranges under which virus persistence could occur via these different mechanisms. The parameter ranges vary according to the host demographic regime: for a high host population turnover, persistence increases with the mechanism parameter, whereas for a low turnover, persistence is maximal for an optimal range of parameter. Persistence in hosts due to long viremia duration in a few hosts or due to vertical transmission is an effective strategy for the virus to overwinter. Unexpectedly, a low continuous transmission during winter does not give rise to certain persistence, persistence barely occurring for a low turnover of the susceptible population. We propose a generic framework adaptable to most diptera-borne diseases. This framework allows ones to assess the plausibility of each persistence mechanism in real epidemiological situations and to compare the range of parameter values theoretically allowing persistence with the range of values determined experimentally. PMID:24023929

  13. A compendium of canine normal tissue gene expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Briggs

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our understanding of disease is increasingly informed by changes in gene expression between normal and abnormal tissues. The release of the canine genome sequence in 2005 provided an opportunity to better understand human health and disease using the dog as clinically relevant model. Accordingly, we now present the first genome-wide, canine normal tissue gene expression compendium with corresponding human cross-species analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The Affymetrix platform was utilized to catalogue gene expression signatures of 10 normal canine tissues including: liver, kidney, heart, lung, cerebrum, lymph node, spleen, jejunum, pancreas and skeletal muscle. The quality of the database was assessed in several ways. Organ defining gene sets were identified for each tissue and functional enrichment analysis revealed themes consistent with known physio-anatomic functions for each organ. In addition, a comparison of orthologous gene expression between matched canine and human normal tissues uncovered remarkable similarity. To demonstrate the utility of this dataset, novel canine gene annotations were established based on comparative analysis of dog and human tissue selective gene expression and manual curation of canine probeset mapping. Public access, using infrastructure identical to that currently in use for human normal tissues, has been established and allows for additional comparisons across species. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data advance our understanding of the canine genome through a comprehensive analysis of gene expression in a diverse set of tissues, contributing to improved functional annotation that has been lacking. Importantly, it will be used to inform future studies of disease in the dog as a model for human translational research and provides a novel resource to the community at large.

  14. Canine detection of free-ranging brown treesnakes on Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidge, J.A.; Stanford, J.W.; Reed, R.N.; Haddock, G.R.; Adams, A.A.Y.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated canine teams (dogs and their handlers) on Guam as a potential tool for finding invasive brown treesnakes (Boiga irregularis) in the wild. Canine teams searched a 40 ?? 40 m forested area for a snake that had consumed a dead mouse containing a radio-transmitter. To avoid tainting the target or target area with human scent, no snake was handled or closely approached prior to searches. Trials were conducted during the morning when these nocturnal snakes were usually hidden in refugia. A radiotracker knew the snake's location, but dog handlers and search navigators did not. Of 85 trials conducted over four months, the two canine teams had an average success rate of 35% of correctly defining an area ??? 5 ?? 5 m that contained the transmittered snake; the team with more experience prior to the trials had a success rate of 44% compared with 26% for the less experienced team. Canine teams also found 11 shed skins from wild snakes. Although dogs alerted outside the vicinity of transmittered snakes, only one wild, non-transmittered snake was found during the trials, possibly reflecting the difficulty humans have in locating non-transmittered brown treesnakes in refugia. We evaluated success at finding snakes as a function of canine team, number of prior trials (i.e. experience gained during the trials), recent canine success at finding a target snake, various environmental conditions, snake perch height, and snake characteristics (snout-vent length and sex). Success rate increased over the course of the trials. Canine team success also increased with increasing average humidity and decreased with increasing average wind speed. Our results suggest dogs could be useful at detecting brown treesnakes in refugia, particularly when compared to daytime visual searches by humans, but techniques are needed to help humans find and extract snakes once a dog has alerted. ?? New Zealand Ecological Society.

  15. The anti-canine distemper virus activities of ex vivo-expanded canine natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Yun; Shin, Dong-Jun; Lee, Soo-Hyeon; Lee, Je-Jung; Suh, Guk-Hyun; Cho, Duck; Kim, Sang-Ki

    2015-04-17

    Natural killer (NK) cells play critical roles in induction of antiviral effects against various viruses of humans and animals. However, few data on NK cell activities during canine distemper virus (CDV) infections are available. Recently, we established a culture system allowing activation and expansion of canine non-B, non-T, large granular NK lymphocytes from PBMCs of normal dogs. In the present study, we explored the ability of such expanded NK cells to inhibit CDV infection in vitro. Cultured CD3-CD5-CD21- NK cells produced large amounts of IFN-γ, exhibited highly upregulated expression of mRNAs encoding NK-cell-associated receptors, and demonstrated strong natural killing activity against canine tumor cells. Although the expanded NK cells were dose-dependently cytotoxic to both normal and CDV-infected Vero cells, CDV infection rendered Vero cells more susceptible to NK cells. Pretreatment with anti-CDV serum from hyperimmunized dogs enhanced the antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) of NK cells against CDV-infected Vero cells. The culture supernatants of NK cells, added before or after infection, dose-dependently inhibited both CDV replication and development of CDV-induced cytopathic effects (CPEs) in Vero cells. Anti-IFN-γ antibody neutralized the inhibitory effects of NK cell culture supernatants on CDV replication and CPE induction in Vero cells. Such results emphasize the potential significance of NK cells in controlling CDV infection, and indicate that NK cells may play roles both during CDV infection and in combating such infections, under certain conditions. PMID:25680810

  16. A retrospective investigation of canine adenovirus (CAV) infection in adult dogs in Turkey : article

    OpenAIRE

    Gur, S; A. Acar

    2009-01-01

    Canine adenovirus (CAV) type 1 and 2, respectively, cause infectious canine hepatitis and infectious canine laryngotracheitis in members of the families Canidae and Ursidae worldwide. Both of these infections are acute diseases, especially in young dogs. The aim of this study was to conduct a serological investigation of canine adenovirus infection. For this purpose, serumsamples were collected from native pure-bred Kangal (n = 11), and Akbash dogs (n = 17) and Turkish Greyhounds (n=15) in Es...

  17. Multi-insecticide susceptibility evaluation of dengue vectors Stegomyia albopicta and St. aegypti in Assam, India

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Kavita; Rabha, Bipul; Dhiman, Sunil; Veer, Vijay

    2015-01-01

    Background Dengue is rapidly expanding mosquito-borne viral infection globally facing operational challenges due to insecticide resistance in dengue vectors. We have studied the susceptibility status of potential dengue vectors St. albopicta and St. aegypti to the commonly used insecticides. Methods Stegomyia larval bioassays were carried out to determine LC10, LC50 and LC99 values and resistance ratios (RR50 and RR99) for temephos. Adult susceptibility bioassay to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin,...

  18. Potato soil-borne diseases. A review

    OpenAIRE

    Fiers, Marie; Edel-Hermann, Veronique; Chatot, Catherine; Le Hingrat, Yves; ALABOUVETTE, Claude; Steinberg, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Potato crop is the fourth main food crop in the world and it will certainly feed a big part of the global population in the next years. The economical outlets for this crop are great; however, numerous diseases either soil- or air-borne can cause huge losses in the production. Worldwide, about 40 soil-borne diseases affect potato and cause severe damages especially on tubers, the economically most important part of the plant. The occurrence and development of soil-borne diseases depend on ver...

  19. Using a geographical-information-system-based decision support to enhance malaria vector control in zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Mukonka, Victor Munyongwe; Mthembu, David; Kamuliwo, Mulakwa; Coetzer, Sarel; Shinondo, Cecilia Jill

    2012-01-01

    Geographic information systems (GISs) with emerging technologies are being harnessed for studying spatial patterns in vector-borne diseases to reduce transmission. To implement effective vector control, increased knowledge on interactions of epidemiological and entomological malaria transmission determinants in the assessment of impact of interventions is critical. This requires availability of relevant spatial and attribute data to support malaria surveillance, monitoring, and evaluation. Monitoring the impact of vector control through a GIS-based decision support (DSS) has revealed spatial relative change in prevalence of infection and vector susceptibility to insecticides and has enabled measurement of spatial heterogeneity of trend or impact. The revealed trends and interrelationships have allowed the identification of areas with reduced parasitaemia and increased insecticide resistance thus demonstrating the impact of resistance on vector control. The GIS-based DSS provides opportunity for rational policy formulation and cost-effective utilization of limited resources for enhanced malaria vector control.

  20. Extended Mixed Vector Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijanur Rahaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We study extended mixed vector equilibrium problems, namely, extended weak mixed vector equilibrium problem and extended strong mixed vector equilibrium problem in Hausdorff topological vector spaces. Using generalized KKM-Fan theorem (Ben-El-Mechaiekh et al.; 2005, some existence results for both problems are proved in noncompact domain.

  1. Evaluation of AAV-mediated Gene Therapy for Central Nervous System Disease in Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurda, Brittney L; De Guilhem De Lataillade, Adrien; Bell, Peter; Zhu, Yanqing; Yu, Hongwei; Wang, Ping; Bagel, Jessica; Vite, Charles H; Sikora, Tracey; Hinderer, Christian; Calcedo, Roberto; Yox, Alexander D; Steet, Richard A; Ruane, Therese; O'Donnell, Patricia; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M; Casal, Margret; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease arising from mutations in β-d-glucuronidase (GUSB), which results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation and a variety of clinical manifestations including neurological disease. Herein, MPS VII dogs were injected intravenously (i.v.) and/or intrathecally (i.t.) via the cisterna magna with AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors carrying the canine GUSB cDNA. Although i.v. injection alone at 3 days of age resulted in normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GUSB activity, brain tissue homogenates had only ~1 to 6% normal GUSB activity and continued to have elevated GAG storage. In contrast, i.t. injection at 3 weeks of age resulted in CSF GUSB activity 44-fold normal while brain tissue homogenates had >100% normal GUSB activity and reduced GAGs compared with untreated dogs. Markers for secondary storage and inflammation were eliminated in i.t.-treated dogs and reduced in i.v.-treated dogs compared with untreated dogs. Given that i.t.-treated dogs expressed higher levels of GUSB in the CNS tissues compared to those treated i.v., we conclude that i.t. injection of AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors is more effective than i.v. injection alone in the large animal model of MPS VII. PMID:26447927

  2. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  3. The Insect Microbiome Modulates Vector Competence for Arboviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natapong Jupatanakul

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diseases caused by arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses, such as Dengue, West Nile, and Chikungunya, constitute a major global health burden and are increasing in incidence and geographic range. The natural microbiota of insect vectors influences various aspects of host biology, such as nutrition, reproduction, metabolism, and immunity, and recent studies have highlighted the ability of insect-associated bacteria to reduce vector competence for arboviruses and other pathogens. This reduction can occur through mechanisms, such as immune response activation, resource competition, or the production of anti-viral molecules. Studying the interactions between insect vectors and their microbiota is an important step toward developing alternative strategies for arbovirus transmission control.

  4. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  5. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification applied to filarial parasites detection in the mosquito vectors: Dirofilaria immitis as a study model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Bryce

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite recent advances in our understanding of the basic biology behind transmission of zoonotic infectious diseases harbored by arthropod vectors these diseases remain threatening public health concerns. For effective control of vector and treatment, precise sampling indicating the prevalence of such diseases is essential. With an aim to develop a quick and simple method to survey zoonotic pathogen-transmitting vectors, LAMP (loop-mediated isothermal amplification was applied to the detection of filarial parasites using a filarial parasite-transmitting experimental model that included one of the mosquito vectors, Aedes aegypti, and the canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis. Results LAMP reactions amplifying the cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene demonstrated high sensitivity when a single purified D. immitis microfilaria was detected. Importantly, the robustness of the LAMP reaction was revealed upon identification of an infected mosquito carrying just a single parasite, a level easily overlooked using conventional microscopic analysis. Furthermore, successful detection of D. immitis in wild-caught mosquitoes demonstrated its applicability to field surveys. Conclusion Due to its simplicity, sensitivity, and reliability, LAMP is suggested as an appropriate diagnostic method for routine diagnosis of mosquito vectors carrying filarial parasites. This method can be applied to the survey of not only canine filariasis but also lymphatic filariasis, another major public health problem. Therefore, this method offers great promise as a useful diagnostic method for filarial parasite detection in endemic filariasis regions.

  6. Structure-borne noise at hotels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, George Paul; Jue, Deborah A.

    2002-11-01

    Hotels present a challenging environment for building designers to provide suitable noise and vibration isolation between very incompatible uses. While many are familiar with ways to reduce traditional sources of airborne noise and vibration, structure-borne noise and vibration are often overlooked, often with costly repercussions. Structure-borne noise can be very difficult to pinpoint, and troubleshooting the sources of the vibration can be a tedious process. Therefore, the best approach is to avoid the problem altogether during design, with attention to the building construction, potential vibration sources, building uses and equipment locations. In this paper, the relationship between structure-borne vibration and noise are reviewed, typical vibration sources discussed (e.g., aerobic rooms, laundry rooms, mechanical equipment/building services, and subway rail transit), and key details and design guidance to minimize structure-borne noise provided.

  7. Tick-Borne Diseases: The Big Two

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ticks and Diseases Tick-borne Diseases: The Big Two Past Issues / Spring - Summer 2010 Table of Contents ... muscle pain. The red-spotted rash usually happens 2 to 5 days after the fever begins. Antibiotics ...

  8. Photonic processes in Born-Infeld theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, José Manuel; Schubert, Christian; Trejo, María Anabel

    2014-12-01

    We study the processes of photon-photon scattering and photon splitting in a magnetic field in Born-Infeld theory. In both cases we combine the terms from the tree-level Born-Infeld Lagrangian with the usual one-loop QED contributions, where those are approximated by the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian, including also the interference terms. For photon-photon scattering we obtain the total cross-section in the low-energy approximation. For photon splitting we compute the total absorption coefficient in the hexagon (weak field) approximation, and also show that, due to the non-birefringence property of Born-Infeld theory, the selection rules found by Adler for the QED case continue to hold in this more general setting. We discuss the bounds on the free parameter of Born-Infeld theory that may be obtained from this type of processes.

  9. Photonic processes in Born-Infeld theory

    CERN Document Server

    Davila, Jose Manuel; Trejo, Maria Anabel

    2013-01-01

    We study the processes of photon-photon scattering and photon splitting in a magnetic field in Born-Infeld theory. In both cases we combine the terms from the tree-level Born-Infeld Lagrangian with the usual one-loop QED contributions, where those are approximated by the Euler-Heisenberg Lagrangian, including also the interference terms. For photon-photon scattering we obtain the total cross section in the low-energy approximation. For photon splitting we compute the total absorption coefficient in the hexagon (weak field) approximation, and also show that, due to the non-birefringence property of Born-Infeld theory, the selection rules found by Adler for the QED case continue to hold in this more general setting. We discuss the bounds on the free parameter of Born-Infeld theory that may be obtained from this type of processes.

  10. Born-Infeld action and Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, G A

    2000-01-01

    In the thesis we analize different problems related to the supersymmetric extension of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action. In chapter 2 we introduce the DBI action and show how it appears in string theory, we discuss also it's connection with Dp-branes. Chapter 3 is a self contained introduction to supersymmetry, with emphasis on BPS states. In chapter 4 we construct the N=2 supersymmetric extension of the Born-Infeld-Higgs in three space-time dimensions and discuss it's BPS states and Bogomol'nyi bounds. In chapter 5 we construct the N=1 supersymmetric extension of the non-abelian Born-Infeld theory in four space-time dimensions. Chapter 6 deals with the analisis of BPS and non-BPS solutions of the Dirac-Born-Infeld action and their interpretation in superstring theory. Chapter 7 is devoted to the conclusions. Three appendix complete the work.

  11. Vector WIMP Miracle

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, Tomohiro; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the higgs mass is often predicted to be 120--125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.

  12. Vector financial rogue waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhenya

    2011-11-01

    The coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model presented recently by Ivancevic is investigated, which generates a leverage effect, i.e., stock volatility is (negatively) correlated to stock returns, and can be regarded as a coupled nonlinear wave alternative of the Black-Scholes option pricing model. In this Letter, we analytically propose vector financial rogue waves of the coupled nonlinear volatility and option pricing model without an embedded w-learning. Moreover, we exhibit their dynamical behaviors for chosen different parameters. The vector financial rogue wave (rogon) solutions may be used to describe the possible physical mechanisms for the rogue wave phenomena and to further excite the possibility of relative researches and potential applications of vector rogue waves in the financial markets and other related fields.

  13. Vector WIMP miracle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Tomohiro; Kakizaki, Mitsuru; Matsumoto, Shigeki; Seto, Osamu

    2012-07-01

    Weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) is well known to be a good candidate for dark matter, and it is also predicted by many new physics models beyond the standard model at the TeV scale. We found that, if the WIMP is a vector particle (spin-one particle) which is associated with some gauge symmetry broken at the TeV scale, the Higgs mass is often predicted to be 120-125 GeV, which is very consistent with the result of Higgs searches recently reported by ATLAS and CMS Collaborations at the Large Hadron Collider experiment. In this Letter, we consider the vector WIMP using a non-linear sigma model in order to confirm this result as general as possible in a bottom-up approach. Near-future prospects to detect the vector WIMP at both direct and indirect detection experiments of dark matter are also discussed.

  14. Boosting Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elkin Eduardo García Díaz

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo, se presenta un algoritmo de clasificación binaria basado en Support Vector Machines (Máquinas de Vectores de Soporte que combinado apropiadamente con técnicas de Boosting consigue un mejor desempeño en cuanto a tiempo de entrenamiento y conserva características similares de generalización con un modelo de igual complejidad pero de representación más compacta./ In this paper we present an algorithm of binary classification based on Support Vector Machines. It is combined with a modified Boosting algorithm. It run faster than the original SVM algorithm with a similar generalization error and equal complexity model but it has more compact representation.

  15. Canine Antibodies against Salivary Recombinant Proteins of Phlebotomus perniciosus: A Longitudinal Study in an Endemic Focus of Canine Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Kostalova

    Full Text Available Phlebotomine sand flies are vectors of Leishmania parasites. During blood feeding, sand flies deposit into the host skin immunogenic salivary proteins which elicit specific antibody responses. These anti-saliva antibodies enable an estimate of the host exposure to sand flies and, in leishmaniasis endemic areas, also the risk for Leishmania infections. However, the use of whole salivary gland homogenates as antigen has several limitations, and therefore, recombinant salivary proteins have been tested to replace them in antibody detection assays. In this study, we have used for the first time sand fly salivary recombinant proteins in a longitudinal field study on dogs.Sera from dogs naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites over two consecutive transmission seasons in a site endemic for canine leishmaniasis (CanL were tested at different time points by ELISA for the antibodies recognizing whole saliva, single salivary 43 kDa yellow-related recombinant protein (rSP03B, and a combination of two salivary recombinant proteins, 43 kDa yellow-related protein and 35.5 kDa apyrase (rSP01. Dogs were also tested for Leishmania infantum positivity by serology, culture, and PCR and the infection status was evaluated prospectively. We found a significant association between active CanL infection and the amount of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies. Importantly, we detected a high correlation between IgG antibodies recognizing rSP03B protein and the whole salivary antigen. The kinetics of antibody response showed for both a whole saliva and rSP03B a similar pattern that was clearly related to the seasonal abundance of P. perniciosus.These results suggest that P. perniciosus rSP03B protein is a valid alternative to whole saliva and could be used in large-scale serological studies. This novel method could be a practical and economically-sound tool to detect the host exposure to sand fly bites in CanL endemic areas.

  16. [Vector transmitted diseases and climate changes in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossati, Antonella; Bargiacchi, Olivia; Kroumova, Vesselina; Garavelli, Pietro Luigi

    2014-09-01

    The increase in temperatures recorded since the mid-nineteenth century is unprecedented in the history of mankind. The consequences of climate changes are numerous and can affect human health through direct (extreme events, natural disasters) or indirect (alteration of the ecosystem) mechanisms. Climate changes have repercussions on ecosystems, agriculture, social conditions, migration, conflicts and the transmission mode of infectious diseases. Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropods such as mosquitoes, ticks, triatomines, sand flies and flies. Epidemiological cornerstones of vector-borne diseases are: the ecology and behaviour of the host, the ecology and behaviour of the vector, and the population's degree of immunity. Mosquito vectors related to human diseases mainly belong to the genus Culex, Aedes and Mansonia. Climate changes in Europe have increased the spread of new vectors, such as Aedes albopictus, and in some situations have made it possible to sustain the autochthonous transmission of some diseases (outbreak of Chukungunya virus in northern Italy in 2007, cases of dengue in the South of France and in Croatia). Despite the eradication of malaria from Europe, anopheline carriers are still present, and they may allow the transmission of the disease if the climatic conditions favour the development of the vectors and their contacts with plasmodium carriers. The tick Ixodes ricinus is a vector whose expansion has been documented both in latitude and in altitude in relation to the temperature increase; at the same time the related main viral and bacterial infections have increased. In northern Italy and Germany, the appearance of Leishmaniasis has been associated to climatic conditions that favour the development of the vector Phlebotomus papatasi and the maturation of the parasite within the vector, although the increase of cases of visceral leishmaniasis is also related to host immune factors, particularly

  17. Effect of simulated stages of the canine oestrous cycle on Escherichia coli binding to canine endometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, N; Lodge, K M; Anderson, G A; Browning, G F; Charles, J A; Wright, P J

    2012-12-01

    Pyometra, a prevalent infectious uterine disease that affects intact middle-aged bitches, is typically associated with Escherichia coli. Our hypotheses were (i) that bacterial adhesion to canine endometrium differs between different stages of the oestrous cycle and (ii) that the adhesin FimH facilitates this adhesion. Twelve post-pubertal, ovariectomized greyhound bitches were treated with exogenous hormones to simulate different stages of the oestrous cycle. Tissue samples from each uterus were incubated with a pathogenic E. coli strain carrying the fimH gene, but no other adhesin genes (P4-wt)--or an E. coli strain in which fimH was insertionally inactivated (P4-∆fimH::kan)--or with phosphate-buffered saline as a negative control. After washing, tissue samples were homogenized for quantification of adherent bacteria. The differences in binding to canine endometrium at different stages of the oestrous cycle were not significant. However, the mean difference in binding of the P4-wt and the P4-∆fimH::kan across all stages of the simulated oestrous cycle was significant (p dogs might suggest genetic variations or epigenetic differences in FimH receptor expression by the endometrium, unrelated to the stage of the oestrous cycle. PMID:23279531

  18. Effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine in moderate to severe cases of canine crotalid envenomation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonard MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available McGee J Leonard,1 Catherine Bresee,2 Andrew Cruikshank1 1Animal Specialty and Emergency Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA; 2The Biostatistics and Bioinformatics Research Center, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA Abstract: This is a retrospective multicenter study (2006–2012 examining a population of dogs with moderate to severe crotalid envenomation for protective effects of the canine rattlesnake vaccine. Five nonacademic emergency and referral veterinary hospitals in Southern California were involved in the study and contributed records regarding a total of 82 client-owned dogs that were treated for naturally occurring rattlesnake envenomation. All dogs received antivenin (Crotalidae polyvalent, with dosages ranging from one to three vials (mean: 1.3±0.6. Fourteen dogs (17% had a history of prior vaccination against crotalid venom. In univariate logistic regression modeling, cases with lower body weight (P=0.0001 or higher snakebite severity scores (P<0.0001 were associated with greater morbidity. No statistically significant difference in morbidity or mortality between vaccinated and unvaccinated dogs was found. The findings of this study did not identify a significantly protective effect of previous vaccination in the cases of moderate to severe rattlesnake envenomation that require treatment with antivenin. Keywords: rattlesnake envenomation, vaccine, antivenin, canine

  19. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  20. Canine Oral Eosinophilic Granuloma Treated with Electrochemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Nicolás Tellado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of a canine oral eosinophilic granuloma in a 14-year-old female crossbred is described. The dog was presented with a history of ptyalism, halitosis, local pain, decreased appetite, and blood staining noted on food and water bowls. Clinical, hematologic, and biochemical examinations, abdominal ultrasonography, and 3-view chest radiographs were performed, and no metastases were found. Histopathologic examination of two 6 mm punch biopsies from the oral lesion revealed the presence of eosinophilic granulomatous lesions in the submucosa. After treatment with corticosteroids and wide spectrum antibiotics no significant changes in clinical signs and lesion size were observed. Electrochemotherapy (ECT, a novel tumor treatment routinely used for cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors in human patients in the European Union since 2006, was used to treat the eosinophilic granuloma. The procedure was performed under general anesthesia, followed by intravenous administration of bleomycin. Six weeks after treatment a complete response with disappearance of the mass and improvement of clinical signs were observed.