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Sample records for canine vector borne

  1. Canine vector-borne diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dantas-Torres Filipe

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs are highly prevalent in Brazil and represent a challenge to veterinarians and public health workers, since some diseases are of great zoonotic potential. Dogs are affected by many protozoa (e.g., Babesia vogeli, Leishmania infantum, and Trypanosoma cruzi, bacteria (e.g., Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis, and helminths (e.g., Dirofilaria immitis and Dipylidium caninum that are transmitted by a diverse range of arthropod vectors, including ticks, fleas, lice, triatomines, mosquitoes, tabanids, and phlebotomine sand flies. This article focuses on several aspects (etiology, transmission, distribution, prevalence, risk factors, diagnosis, control, prevention, and public health significance of CVBDs in Brazil and discusses research gaps to be addressed in future studies.

  2. Molecular survey of canine vector-borne diseases in stray dogs in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingming; Ruttayaporn, Ngasaman; Saechan, Vannarat; Jirapattharasate, Charoonluk; Vudriko, Patrick; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Cao, Shinuo; Inpankaew, Tawin; Ybañez, Adrian P; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Xuan, Xuenan

    2016-08-01

    Despite the large population of stray dogs in Thailand, there is limited information on the prevalence of canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs). In this study, a molecular survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of Babesia spp., Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon spp., Anaplasma platys and Mycoplasma spp. in dogs in Thailand. Of the 181 dog blood samples tested by PCR, 78/181 (43.1%) were found to be infected with one or more pathogens. The overall prevalence rates of Mycoplasma spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp., A. platys and E. canis infections were 19.9%, 18.8%, 9.4%, 4.4% and 3.9%, respectively. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of Mycoplasma infection in Thailand in dogs. The current findings are important for future surveillance of CVBDs and designing appropriate approaches for diagnosis and control for the diseases in Thailand. PMID:27143604

  3. Canine vector-borne diseases in India: a review of the literature and identification of existing knowledge gaps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coleman Glen T

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the combination of favourable climate for parasites and vectors, and large populations of stray dogs, information concerning the epidemiology, diagnosis and management of canine vector-borne diseases in India is limited. However, with the country's expanding economy and adaptation to western culture, higher expectations and demands are being placed on veterinary surgeons for improved knowledge of diseases and control. This review aims to provide an overview of the current state of knowledge of these diseases in India and identify existing knowledge gaps in the literature which need to be addressed. The available literature on this subject, although limited, suggests that a number of canine vector-borne diseases such as filariasis, babesiosis and ehrlichiosis are endemic throughout India, as diagnosed mostly by morphological methods. Detailed investigations of the epidemiology and zoonotic potential of these pathogens has been neglected. Further study is essential to develop a better understanding of the diversity of canine vector-borne diseases in India, and their significance for veterinary and public health.

  4. Imported and travelling dogs as carriers of canine vector-borne pathogens in Germany

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    Lorentz Susanne

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the import of pets and pets taken abroad, arthropod-borne diseases have increased in frequency in German veterinary practices. This is reflected by 4,681 dogs that have been either travelled to or relocated from endemic areas to Germany. The case history of these dogs and the laboratory findings have been compared with samples collected from 331 dogs living in an endemic area in Portugal. The various pathogens and the seroprevalences were examined to determine the occurrence of, and thus infection risk, for vector-borne pathogens in popular travel destinations. Results 4,681 dogs were examined serological for Leishmania infantum, Babesia canis and Ehrlichia canis. Buffy coats were detected for Hepatozoon canis and blood samples were examined for microfilariae via the Knott's test. The samples were sent in from animal welfare organizations or private persons via veterinary clinics. Upon individual requests, dogs were additionally examined serological for Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Rickettsia conorii. Overall B. canis was the most prevalent pathogen detected by antibody titers (23.4%, followed by L. infantum (12.2% and E. canis (10.1%. Microfilariae were detected in 7.7% and H. canis in 2.7% of the examined dogs. In 332/1862 dogs A. phagocytophilum, in 64/212 B. burgdorferi and in 20/58 R. conorii was detected. Of the 4,681 dogs, in total 4,226 were imported to Germany from endemic areas. Eighty seven dogs joined their owners for a vacation abroad. In comparison to the laboratory data from Germany, we examined 331 dogs from Portugal. The prevalence of antibodies/pathogens we detected was: 62.8% to R. conorii, 58% to B. canis, 30.5% to A. phagocytophilum, 24.8% to E. canis, 21.1% to H. canis (via PCR, 9.1% to L. infantum and 5.3% to microfilariae. Conclusions The examination of 4,681 dogs living in Germany showed pathogens like L. infantum that are non-endemic in Germany. Furthermore, the German

  5. Vector-borne Infections

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenberg, Ronald; Ben Beard, C.

    2011-01-01

    Infections with vector-borne pathogens are a major source of emerging diseases. The ability of vectors to bridge spatial and ecologic gaps between animals and humans increases opportunities for emergence. Small adaptations of a pathogen to a vector can have profound effects on the rate of transmission to humans.

  6. Vector-borne Infections

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-04-18

    This podcast discusses emerging vector-borne pathogens, their role as prominent contributors to emerging infectious diseases, how they're spread, and the ineffectiveness of mosquito control methods.  Created: 4/18/2011 by National Center for Emerging Zoonotic and Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 4/27/2011.

  7. Vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubler, D J

    2009-08-01

    Vector-borne diseases have been the scourge of man and animals since the beginning of time. Historically, these are the diseases that caused the great plagues such as the 'Black Death' in Europe in the 14th Century and the epidemics of yellow fever that plagued the development of the New World. Others, such as Nagana, contributed to the lack of development in Africa for many years. At the turn of the 20th Century, vector-borne diseases were among the most serious public and animal health problems in the world. For the most part, these diseases were controlled by the middle of the 20th Century through the application of knowledge about their natural history along with the judicious use of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) and other residual insecticides to interrupt the transmission cycle between arthropod and vertebrate host. However, this success initiated a period of complacency in the 1960s and 1970s, which resulted in the redirection of resources away from prevention and control of vector-borne diseases. The 1970s was also a time in which there were major changes to public health policy. Global trends, combined with changes in animal husbandry, urbanisation, modern transportation and globalisation, have resulted in a global re-emergence of epidemic vector-borne diseases affecting both humans and animals over the past 30 years. PMID:20128467

  8. Comparison of selected canine vector-borne diseases between urban animal shelter and rural hunting dogs in Korea

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    Ahn KyuSung

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A serological survey for Dirofilaria immitis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Ehrlichia canis, and Borrelia burgdorferi infections in rural hunting and urban shelter dogs mainly from southwestern regions of the Republic of Korea (South Korea was conducted. From a total of 229 wild boar or pheasant hunting dogs, the number of serologically positive dogs for any of the four pathogens was 93 (40.6%. The highest prevalence observed was D. immitis (22.3%, followed by A. phagocytophilum (18.8%, E. canis (6.1% and the lowest prevalence was B. burgdorferi (2.2%. In contrast, stray dogs found within the city limits of Gwangju showed seropositivity only to D. immitis (14.6%, and none of the 692 dogs responded positive for A. phagocytophilum, E. canis or B. burgdorferi antibodies. This study indicates that the risk of exposure to vector-borne diseases in rural hunting dogs can be quite high in Korea, while the urban environment may not be suitable for tick infestation on dogs, as evidenced by the low infection status of tick-borne pathogens in stray dogs.

  9. Vector-borne disease surveillance in puerto rico: pathogen prevalence rates in canines ? Implications for public health and the u.s. Military ? Applying the one health concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael E; Opel, Taylor; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBDs) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Vectors such as ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes parasitize dogs, thus making canine populations adequate reservoirs for infectious disease and zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys its personnel and Military Working Dogs (MWDs) throughout the world with possible risk of exposure to VBDs. Canine VBDs continue to have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for deployed U.S. personnel and MWDs. Thus, ongoing and consistent disease surveillance is an essential component to preserve health. The purpose of this study was to survey dogs from multiple cities and varying regions throughout Puerto Rico to determine the prevalence of ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis), anaplasmosis (Anaplasma phagocytophilum), Lyme disease (Borrelia burgdorferi), and heartworm disease (Dirofilaria immitis) from May to July 2012. Canine blood samples (1?3 ml) from the cities of San Juan (n = 629), Guaynabo (n = 50), Ponce (n = 20) and Vieques Island (n = 53) were obtained and tested on-site using an IDEXX SNAP? 4Dx? (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) test kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each site. The overall period prevalence of VBD in Puerto Rico in the shelter population was 57.7% (71/123). In Guaynabo, the VBD prevalence was 30% (15/50); 2 (13%) of these positive dogs had VBD co-infection. In the coastal port city of Ponce, it was 60% (12/20); 6 (50%) dogs were infected by two or more VBDs. On Vieques Island, it was 83% (44/53); 27 (61%) dogs were coinfected. Conversely, samples collected at the Fort Buchanan Veterinary Clinic in the capitol city of San Juan resulted in a VBD prevalence of 8.9% (56/629). Lyme disease was not detected in any sample. This study showed the presence of D. immitis, E. canis, and A. phagocytophilum in all four sites of Puerto Rico, emphasizing the value of surveillance for VBDs to determine disease

  10. Emerging vector borne diseases – incidence through vectors

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    Sara eSavic

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowdays, in intercontinetal countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same place. Global climate change is predicted to lead to an increase in vector borne infectious diseases and disease outbreaks. It could affect the range and popultion of pathogens, host and vectors, transmission season, etc. Reliable surveilance for diseases that are most likely to emerge is required. Canine vector borne diseases represent a complex group of diseases including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, erlichiosis, leishmaniosis. Some of these diseases cause serious clinical symptoms in dogs and some of them have a zoonotic potential with an effect to public health. It is expected from veterinarians in coordination with medical doctors to play a fudamental role at primeraly prevention and then treatment of vector borne diseases in dogs. The One Health concept has to be integrated into the struggle against emerging diseases.During a four year period, from 2009-2013, a total number of 551 dog samples were analysed for vector borne diseases (borreliosis, babesiosis, erlichiosis, anaplasmosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis in routine laboratory work. The analysis were done by serological tests – ELISA for borreliosis, dirofilariosis and leishmaniasis, modified Knott test for dirofilariosis and blood smear for babesiosis, erlichiosis and anaplasmosis. This number of samples represented 75% of total number of samples that were sent for analysis for different diseases in dogs. Annually, on avarege more then half of the samples

  11. Emerging Vector-Borne Diseases – Incidence through Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Savić, Sara; Vidić, Branka; Grgić, Zivoslav; Potkonjak, Aleksandar; Spasojevic, Ljubica

    2014-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases use to be a major public health concern only in tropical and subtropical areas, but today they are an emerging threat for the continental and developed countries also. Nowadays, in intercontinental countries, there is a struggle with emerging diseases, which have found their way to appear through vectors. Vector-borne zoonotic diseases occur when vectors, animal hosts, climate conditions, pathogens, and susceptible human population exist at the same time, at the same pla...

  12. [Climate- and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I.C.; Schioler, K.L.; Konradsen, F.

    2009-01-01

    The predicted changes in climate have raised concerns that vector-borne diseases may emerge or expand in tempered regions. Malaria, leishmaniasis and tick-borne illnesses are discussed in terms of climate change and their endemic potential, especially in Denmark. While climate may play an important...

  13. Integrated epidemiology for vector-borne zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    Wardrop, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    The development and application of interventions for the control of vector-borne zoonoses requires broad understanding of epidemiological linkages between vector, animal infection and human infection. However, there are significant gaps in our understanding of these linkages and a lack of appropriate data poses a considerable barrier to addressing this issue. A move towards strengthened surveillance of vectors and disease in both animal and human hosts, in combination with linked human-animal...

  14. [Conflicts and vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, Ib Christian

    2010-01-01

    Based on literature and personal experiences, vector-borne diseases and conflicts are reviewed. Simple rapid diagnostic tests for three important parasitoses are available. Resort is often made to case definitions and to presumptive treatment. Resistance is an emerging problem. Vaccines are still...... not available for most diseases. Promising preventive methods, including long-lasting impregnated bed-nets and tents, are available. War has been an impetus for disclosing life-cycles of vector-borne diseases and for control methods; peace, reconciliation and poverty reduction are required to achieve...

  15. Prevalence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Lindsay A; Newton, Kassie; Brunker, Jill; Crowdis, Kelly; Edourad, Emile Jean Pierre; Meneus, Pedro; Little, Susan E

    2016-07-15

    Canine vector-borne pathogens are common on some Caribbean islands, but survey data in Haiti are lacking. To determine the prevalence of selected vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Haiti, we tested blood samples collected from 210 owned dogs, 28 (13.3%) of which were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks at the time of blood collection. No other tick species were identified on these dogs. A commercially available ELISA identified antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in 69 (32.9%), antibodies to Anaplasma spp. in 37 (17.6%), and antigen of Dirofilaria immitis in 55 (26.2%); antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi were not detected in any sample. Molecular assays of whole blood from 207 of the dogs confirmed infection with Ehrlichia canis (15; 7.2%), Anaplasma platys (13; 6.3%), D. immitis (46; 22.2%), Wolbachia spp. (45; 21.7%), Babesia vogeli (16; 7.7%), and Hepatozoon canis (40; 19.3%), but Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia canis, Babesia rossi, Babesia gibsoni, Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia ewingii, or Hepatozoon americanum were not detected. Co-infection with two or more vector-borne pathogens was detected by serology in 42 (20.0%) dogs and by molecular assays in 22 (10.6%) dogs; one dog was co-infected with B. vogeli and E. canis as detected by PCR with D. immitis detected by serology (antigen). Overall, evidence of past or current infection with at least one vector-borne pathogen was identified in 142/210 (67.6%) dogs in this study, underscoring the common nature of these pathogens, some of which are zoonotic, in Haiti. PMID:27270383

  16. Antigenic variation in vector-borne pathogens.

    OpenAIRE

    Barbour, A. G.; Restrepo, B I

    2000-01-01

    Several pathogens of humans and domestic animals depend on hematophagous arthropods to transmit them from one vertebrate reservoir host to another and maintain them in an environment. These pathogens use antigenic variation to prolong their circulation in the blood and thus increase the likelihood of transmission. By convergent evolution, bacterial and protozoal vector-borne pathogens have acquired similar genetic mechanisms for successful antigenic variation. Borrelia spp. and Anaplasma marg...

  17. Exposure to vector-borne pathogens in candidate blood donor and free-roaming dogs of northeast Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Vascellari, Marta; Ravagnan, Silvia; Carminato, Antonio; Cazzin, Stefania; Carli, Erika; Da Rold, Graziana; Lucchese, Laura; Natale, Alda; Otranto, Domenico; Capelli, Gioia

    2016-01-01

    Background Many vector-borne pathogens including viruses, bacteria, protozoa and nematodes occur in northeast Italy, representing a potential threat to animal and human populations. Little information is available on the circulation of the above vector-borne pathogens in dogs. This work aims to (i) assess exposure to and circulation of pathogens transmitted to dogs in northeast Italy by ticks, sandflies, and mosquitoes, and (ii) drive blood donor screening at the newly established canine bloo...

  18. Risk based surveillance for vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    and new exotic diseases like Usutu and West Nile Virus may lead to outbreaks in the region. In the worst case the combined effect of climate change and globalization may potentially lead to European outbreaks of important zoonotic mosquito borne infections like Rift Valley Fever in cattle and Japanese...... Encephalitis in swine. Being able to model the impact of climate and environmental change on the transmission intensity of vector borne diseases is potentially a powerful tool to both monitor and prevent outbreaks in a cost effective way. The recent unexpected outbreaks of bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus...... is the direct result of climate change. The potential for virus transmission by biting midges was here modeled monthly for the Baltic See Region and the rest of Europe. The results showed that Baltic See Region has a lower transmission potential than most other areas in Europe. And the model identified...

  19. Paratransgenic Control of Vector Borne Diseases

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    Ivy Hurwitz, Annabeth Fieck, Amber Read, Heidi Hillesland, Nichole Klein, Angray Kang, Ravi Durvasula

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional methodologies to control vector borne diseases with chemical pesticides are often associated with environmental toxicity, adverse effects on human health and the emergence of insect resistance. In the paratransgenic strategy, symbiotic or commensal microbes of host insects are transformed to express gene products that interfere with pathogen transmission. These genetically altered microbes are re-introduced back to the insect where expression of the engineered molecules decreases the host's ability to transmit the pathogen. We have successfully utilized this strategy to reduce carriage rates of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, in the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, and are currently developing this methodology to control the transmission of Leishmania donovani by the sand fly Phlebotomus argentipes. Several effector molecules, including antimicrobial peptides and highly specific single chain antibodies, are currently being explored for their anti-parasite activities in these two systems. In preparation for eventual field use, we are actively engaged in risk assessment studies addressing the issue of horizontal gene transfer from the modified bacteria to environmental microbes.

  20. Air travel and vector-borne disease movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatem, A J; Huang, Z; Das, A; Qi, Q; Roth, J; Qiu, Y

    2012-12-01

    Recent decades have seen substantial expansions in the global air travel network and rapid increases in traffic volumes. The effects of this are well studied in terms of the spread of directly transmitted infections, but the role of air travel in the movement of vector-borne diseases is less well understood. Increasingly however, wider reaching surveillance for vector-borne diseases and our improving abilities to map the distributions of vectors and the diseases they carry, are providing opportunities to better our understanding of the impact of increasing air travel. Here we examine global trends in the continued expansion of air transport and its impact upon epidemiology. Novel malaria and chikungunya examples are presented, detailing how geospatial data in combination with information on air traffic can be used to predict the risks of vector-borne disease importation and establishment. Finally, we describe the development of an online tool, the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk (VBD-Air) tool, which brings together spatial data on air traffic and vector-borne disease distributions to quantify the seasonally changing risks for importation to non-endemic regions. Such a framework provides the first steps towards an ultimate goal of adaptive management based on near real time flight data and vector-borne disease surveillance. PMID:22444826

  1. Genetic manipulation of endosymbionts to control vector and vector borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Prakash Gupta

    Full Text Available Vector borne diseases (VBD are on the rise because of failure of the existing methods of control of vector and vector borne diseases and the climate change. A steep rise of VBDs are due to several factors like selection of insecticide resistant vector population, drug resistant parasite population and lack of effective vaccines against the VBDs. Environmental pollution, public health hazard and insecticide resistant vector population indicate that the insecticides are no longer a sustainable control method of vector and vector-borne diseases. Amongst the various alternative control strategies, symbiont based approach utilizing endosymbionts of arthropod vectors could be explored to control the vector and vector borne diseases. The endosymbiont population of arthropod vectors could be exploited in different ways viz., as a chemotherapeutic target, vaccine target for the control of vectors. Expression of molecules with antiparasitic activity by genetically transformed symbiotic bacteria of disease-transmitting arthropods may serve as a powerful approach to control certain arthropod-borne diseases. Genetic transformation of symbiotic bacteria of the arthropod vector to alter the vector’s ability to transmit pathogen is an alternative means of blocking the transmission of VBDs. In Indian scenario, where dengue, chikungunya, malaria and filariosis are prevalent, paratransgenic based approach can be used effectively. [Vet World 2012; 5(9.000: 571-576

  2. An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors

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    Eric J. Kremer

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expression and is poorly circumvented by injections of larger doses and immuno-suppressing drugs. This review updates canine adenovirus serotype 2 (CAV-2, also known as CAdV-2 biology and gives an overview of the generation of early region 1 (E1-deleted to helper-dependent (HD CAV-2 vectors. We also summarize the essential characteristics concerning their interaction with the anti-HAd memory immune responses in humans, the preferential transduction of neurons, and its high level of retrograde axonal transport in the central and peripheral nervous system. CAV-2 vectors are particularly interesting tools to study the pathophysiology and potential treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as anti-tumoral and anti-viral vaccines, tracer of synaptic junctions, oncolytic virus and as a platform to generate chimeric vectors.

  3. Nordic climate change: data for modeling vector borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Birgit; Bødker, Rene

    derivatives were calculated in order to assess the geographical and seasonal variation in the area. In order to evaluate the response of vector borne diseases to possible future climate changes and the subsequent potential spread into new areas, daily temperature predictions (mean, min and max) for three 20......The distribution of vector species is generally restricted by a range of different climatic and geographical factors, while the development and spread of the vector-borne diseases (veterinary and zoonotic) is often primarily temperature driven. Thus temperature and its derivatives are key factors...... in the modelling of vector-borne diseases. This puts a high demand on the quality and accuracy of the temperature data to be used as input in such models. In order to best capture the local temporal and spatial variation in the temperature surfaces, accurate daily temperature data were used in the present project...

  4. Emerging Vector-borne Diseases in a Changing Environment

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZER, Nurdan

    2005-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, demographic and societal changes, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, genetic changes in pathogens in the last two decades of the twentieth century. Climate changes also can influence the emergence and reemergence of these diseases which are malaria, dengue, yellow fever, plague, filariasis, louse-borne typhus, lyme disease, trypanoso...

  5. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Githeko, A. K.; Lindsay, S. W.; U. E. Confalonieri; Patz, J A

    2000-01-01

    Current evidence suggests that inter-annual and inter-decadal climate variability have a direct influence on the epidemiology of vector-borne diseases. This evidence has been assessed at the continental level in order to determine the possible consequences of the expected future climate change. By 2100 it is estimated that average global temperatures will have risen by 1.0-3.5 degrees C, increasing the likelihood of many vector-borne diseases in new areas. The greatest effect of climate chang...

  6. Effects of Climate and Climate Change on Vectors and Vector-Borne Diseases: Ticks Are Different.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Nick H; Lindsay, L Robbin

    2016-08-01

    There has been considerable debate as to whether global risk from vector-borne diseases will be impacted by climate change. This has focussed on important mosquito-borne diseases that are transmitted by the vectors from infected to uninfected humans. However, this debate has mostly ignored the biological diversity of vectors and vector-borne diseases. Here, we review how climate and climate change may impact those most divergent of arthropod disease vector groups: multivoltine insects and hard-bodied (ixodid) ticks. We contrast features of the life cycles and behaviour of these arthropods, and how weather, climate, and climate change may have very different impacts on the spatiotemporal occurrence and abundance of vectors, and the pathogens they transmit. PMID:27260548

  7. Elimination of vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease

    OpenAIRE

    AC Silveira; MC Vinhaes

    1999-01-01

    The control of the vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease in Brazil was organized as a national program in 1975, when two large entomological and sero-epidemiological surveys were conducted in the country in order to identify areas at highest risk of transmission and to guide inerventions regarding the chemical treatment of domestic vectors of the disease. The authors present the baseline data gathered through these studies and compare them with more recent data. The evaluation performed...

  8. The epidemic threshold of vector-borne diseases with seasonality

    OpenAIRE

    Bacaër, Nicolas; Guernaoui, S.

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease transmitted to humans by sandflies. In this paper, we develop a mathematical model which takes into account the seasonality of the vector population and the distribution of the latent period from infection to symptoms in humans. Parameters are fitted to real data from the province of Chichaoua, Morocco. We also introduce a generalization of the definition of the basic reproduction number R-0 which is adapted to periodic environments. This R-0 ...

  9. Resurgent vector-borne diseases as a global health problem.

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, D. J.

    1998-01-01

    Vector-borne infectious diseases are emerging or resurging as a result of changes in public health policy, insecticide and drug resistance, shift in emphasis from prevention to emergency response, demographic and societal changes, and genetic changes in pathogens. Effective prevention strategies can reverse this trend. Research on vaccines, environmentally safe insecticides, alternative approaches to vector control, and training programs for health-care workers are needed.

  10. Review of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siu-keung Edmond; Wong, Wang Christine; Leung, Chi-wah Ryan; Lai, Sik-to Thomas; Lo, Yee-chi Janice; Wong, Kai-hay Howard; Chan, Man-chung; Que, Tak-lun; Chow, Ka-wai Mary; Yuen, Ming-chi; Lau, Tin-wai Winnie; Simon, John

    2011-05-01

    The epidemiology of vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong has changed over the past decade but still poses a significant public health risk. We provided a comprehensive review of the epidemiological information and analysed the trends of major vector-borne diseases, including the vector situation in Hong Kong. The incidence of malaria has dropped dramatically in the past few decades and is now mainly an imported disease acquired from malaria endemic countries. Locally acquired dengue fever occurred in 2002 and 2003, and thereafter all cases were imported, mainly from Southeast Asia areas. Only a few local cases of Japanese encephalitis were reported in the past decade. In contrast, there is a notable increase in scrub typhus and spotted fever cases. The emergence of chikungunya fever in Asia and Indian Ocean countries also resulted in importation of human cases. Given the heavy traffic between this international city and other parts of the world, as well as the presence of vectors in this densely populated area, vigilance should be maintained against these infections. Comprehensive public health measures encompassing disease surveillance, vector surveillance and control measures with support from all sectors of the community are required to combat the old and newly emerging vector-borne diseases in Hong Kong. PMID:21679886

  11. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  12. Reducing vector-borne disease by empowering farmers in integrated vector management

    OpenAIRE

    Henk van den Berg; Alexander von Hildebrand; Vaithilingam Ragunathan; Das, Pradeep K

    2007-01-01

    PROBLEM: Irrigated agriculture exposes rural people to health risks associated with vector-borne diseases and pesticides used in agriculture and for public health protection. Most developing countries lack collaboration between the agricultural and health sectors to jointly address these problems. APPROACH: We present an evaluation of a project that uses the "farmer field school" method to teach farmers how to manage vector-borne diseases and how to improve rice yields. Teaching farmers about...

  13. Impact of climate variability on vector-borne disease transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    We will discuss the impact of climate variability on vector borne diseases and demonstrate that global climate teleconnections can be used to anticipate and forecast, in the case of Rift Valley fever, epidemics and epizootics. In this context we will examine significant worldwide weather anomalies t...

  14. COMMUNITY LEVEL ANALYSIS OF VECTOR-BORNE DISEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecological community structure is particularly important in vector-borne zoonotic diseases with complex life cycles. Single population models, such as the so-called Ross-Macdonald model (Baily, 1982), have been important in developing and characterizing our current understanding...

  15. Urbanization, land tenure security and vector-borne Chagas disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Michael Z.; Barbu, Corentin M.; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Quispe-Machaca, Victor R.; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Escalante-Mejia, Patricia; Borrini-Mayori, Katty; Niemierko, Malwina; Mabud, Tarub S.; Behrman, Jere R.; Naquira-Velarde, Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Modern cities represent one of the fastest growing ecosystems on the planet. Urbanization occurs in stages; each stage characterized by a distinct habitat that may be more or less susceptible to the establishment of disease vector populations and the transmission of vector-borne pathogens. We performed longitudinal entomological and epidemiological surveys in households along a 1900 × 125 m transect of Arequipa, Peru, a major city of nearly one million inhabitants, in which the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi, the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, by the insect vector Triatoma infestans, is an ongoing problem. The transect spans a cline of urban development from established communities to land invasions. We find that the vector is tracking the development of the city, and the parasite, in turn, is tracking the dispersal of the vector. New urbanizations are free of vector infestation for decades. T. cruzi transmission is very recent and concentrated in more established communities. The increase in land tenure security during the course of urbanization, if not accompanied by reasonable and enforceable zoning codes, initiates an influx of construction materials, people and animals that creates fertile conditions for epidemics of some vector-borne diseases. PMID:24990681

  16. EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND VECTOR IDENTIFICATION STUDIES ON CANINE BABESIOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. N. Bashir, Z. I. Chaudhry, S. Ahmed and M. A. Saeed

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is increasing in incidence and prevalence and is now a major problem in dogs. During this study, a total of 6204 dogs were examined for babesiosis over a 12 month period from January to December, 2006 in Lahore and 2.62% were found positive. The dogs were grouped on the basis of their age, sex and breed and season of the year. The male dogs were more prone to disease than female dogs (3.39 vs. 1.32%, whereas the incidence of disease was higher in younger dogs (6.9% than older age groups. Crossbreds were more prone to the infection (10.9% than purebreds. However, none of them were completely resistant. Warm and humid season played a key role in the spread of disease. Predominant vector of the disease was found to be Rhipicephalus species.

  17. Will integrated surveillance systems for vectors and vector-borne diseases be the future of controlling vector-borne diseases? A practical example from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y; Ling, F; Hou, J; Guo, S; Wang, J; Gong, Z

    2016-07-01

    Vector-borne diseases are one of the world's major public health threats and annually responsible for 30-50% of deaths reported to the national notifiable disease system in China. To control vector-borne diseases, a unified, effective and economic surveillance system is urgently needed; all of the current surveillance systems in China waste resources and/or information. Here, we review some current surveillance systems and present a concept for an integrated surveillance system combining existing vector and vector-borne disease monitoring systems. The integrated surveillance system has been tested in pilot programmes in China and led to a 21·6% cost saving in rodent-borne disease surveillance. We share some experiences gained from these programmes. PMID:26899818

  18. Integrated vector management: a critical strategy for combating vector-borne diseases in South Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Chanda, Emmanuel; Govere, John M; Macdonald, Michael B.; Lako, Richard L; Haque, Ubydul; Baba, Samson P; Mnzava, Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Background Integrated vector management (IVM) based vector control is encouraged by the World Health Organization (WHO). However, operational experience with the IVM strategy has mostly come from countries with relatively well-established health systems and with malaria control focused programmes. Little is known about deployment of IVM for combating multiple vector-borne diseases in post-emergency settings, where delivery structures are less developed or absent. This manuscript reports on th...

  19. Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherst, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes ar...

  20. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerem Ural

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from İzmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa cities involved was evaluated using a canine point-of-care ELISA kit. Results. Out of 307 dogs tested the overall seroprevalence was highest for E. canis (24.42%, followed by E. canis + A. phagocytophilum co-infection (10.42%, A. phagocytophilum (7.49% and D. immitis (2.28%. Only 2 cases were seropositive to B. burgdorferi albeit 10 dogs were co-infected with more than 2 agents. For both dogs infected with E. canis and co-infected with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum, anemia, thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis, were more commonly detected, whereas thrombocytopenia and leukocytosis were significant finding in dogs infected with A. phagocytophilum or D. immitis, respectively. Variance analysis showed significant differences for mean RBC, Hb, PCV and PLT values (p<0.01 among control group and other groups. Conclusions. Seropositivity for vector-borne pathogens other than B. burgdorferi, is moderately to widely distributed in dogs residing in the Aegean region in Turkey.

  1. Vector-borne diseases: the basic reproduction number R0 and risk maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with the derivation of the basic reproduction number (R0) for vector-borne diseases, in the context of studying the effect of climate change on the risk of emergence diseases. Vector-borne diseases are transmitted from an infected individual to another individual by vectors, usuall

  2. The Effects of Human Movement on the Persistence of Vector-Borne Diseases*

    OpenAIRE

    C. Cosner; Beier, J. C.; Cantrell, R. S.; Impoinvil, D.; Kapitanski, L.; Potts, M. D.; Troyo, A.; S. Ruan

    2009-01-01

    With the recent resurgence of vector-borne diseases due to urbanization and development there is an urgent need to understand the dynamics of vector-borne diseases in rapidly changing urban environments. For example, many empirical studies have produced the disturbing finding that diseases continue to persist in modern city centers with zero or low rates of transmission. We develop spatial models of vector-borne disease dynamics on a network of patches to examine how the movement of humans in...

  3. Molecular evidence of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats and their ectoparasites in Algiers, Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessas, Amina; Leulmi, Hamza; Bitam, Idir; Zaidi, Sara; Ait-Oudhia, Khatima; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    In Algeria, only limited information is currently available on the prevalence of emergent canine and feline vector-borne diseases. The aim of the present work was to detect by qPCR vector-associated bacteria in stray dogs and cats and their ectoparasites from Algiers. 18/117 (15.38%) dogs and 2/107 (1.87%) cats were positive for at least one vector-borne agent. Coxiella burnetii and Bartonella henselae were identified in 1/117 (0.85%) dog individually. Ehrlichia canis DNA was detected in 17/117 (14.52%) dogs. 1/107 (0.93%) cat was positive to C. burnetii and another 1/107 (0.93%) to B. henselae. DNA of Rickettsia massiliae, Rickettsia conorii and E. canis was detected in Rhipicephalus sanguineus. Cat fleas were infected with Rickettsia felis, B. henselae and Bartonella clarridgeiae. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii was identified in Xenopsylla cheopis collected from dogs. The findings of this study indicate that dogs and cats from Algeria are exposed to multiple tick and flea-borne pathogens. PMID:27012917

  4. Canine adenovirus type 2 vector generation via I-Sce1-mediated intracellular genome release.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandy Ibanes

    Full Text Available When canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, or also commonly referred to as CAV-2 vectors are injected into the brain parenchyma they preferentially transduce neurons, are capable of efficient axonal transport to afferent regions, and allow transgene expression for at last >1 yr. Yet, translating these data into a user-friendly vector platform has been limited because CAV-2 vector generation is challenging. Generation of E1-deleted adenovirus vectors often requires transfection of linear DNA fragments of >30 kb containing the vector genome into an E1-transcomplementing cell line. In contrast to human adenovirus type 5 vector generation, CAV-2 vector generation is less efficient due, in part, to a reduced ability to initiate replication and poor transfectibility of canine cells with large, linear DNA fragments. To improve CAV-2 vector generation, we generated an E1-transcomplementing cell line expressing the estrogen receptor (ER fused to I-SceI, a yeast meganuclease, and plasmids containing the I-SceI recognition sites flanking the CAV-2 vector genome. Using transfection of supercoiled plasmid and intracellular genome release via 4-OH-tamoxifen-induced nuclear translocation of I-SceI, we improved CAV-2 vector titers 1,000 fold, and in turn increased the efficacy of CAV-2 vector generation.

  5. Vector-Borne Diseases - constant challenge for practicing veterinarians: recommendations from the CVBD World Forum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baneth Gad

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The human-animal bond has been a fundamental feature of mankind's history for millennia. The first, and strongest of these, man's relationship with the dog, is believed to pre-date even agriculture, going back as far as 30,000 years. It remains at least as powerful today. Fed by the changing nature of the interactions between people and their dogs worldwide and the increasing tendency towards close domesticity, the health of dogs has never played a more important role in family life. Thanks to developments in scientific understanding and diagnostic techniques, as well as changing priorities of pet owners, veterinarians are now able, and indeed expected, to play a fundamental role in the prevention and treatment of canine disease, including canine vector-borne diseases (CVBDs. The CVBDs represent a varied and complex group of diseases, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, bartonellosis, borreliosis, dirofilariosis, ehrlichiosis, leishmaniosis, rickettsiosis and thelaziosis, with new syndromes being uncovered every year. Many of these diseases can cause serious, even life-threatening clinical conditions in dogs, with a number having zoonotic potential, affecting the human population. Today, CVBDs pose a growing global threat as they continue their spread far from their traditional geographical and temporal restraints as a result of changes in both climatic conditions and pet dog travel patterns, exposing new populations to previously unknown infectious agents and posing unprecedented challenges to veterinarians. In response to this growing threat, the CVBD World Forum, a multidisciplinary group of experts in CVBDs from around the world which meets on an annual basis, gathered in Nice (France in 2011 to share the latest research on CVBDs and discuss the best approaches to managing these diseases around the world. As a result of these discussions, we, the members of the CVBD Forum have developed the following recommendations to veterinarians

  6. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central ne...

  7. Serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwen Wang

    2012-02-01

    Conclusions: It can be concluded that IFA method was more sensitive than ELISA rapid diagnostic method. However, we need conduct further and intensive epidemiology survey on tick-born diseases pathogens including A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm, and B. burgdorferi which have public health significance.

  8. Treatment of canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency by foamy virus vectors expressing CD18 from a PGK promoter

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Thomas R; Olson, Erik M.; Huo, Yunwen; Tuschong, Laura M; Allen, James M; Li, Yi; Burkholder, Tanya H; Russell, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Proto-oncogene activation caused by retroviral vector integration can cause malignancies in gene therapy trials. This has led investigators to search for less genotoxic vectors with minimal enhancer activity and a decreased risk of influencing neighboring chromosomal gene expression after integration. We previously showed that foamy virus vectors expressing the canine CD18 gene from an internal murine stem cell virus promoter could cure canine leukocyte adhesion deficiency. Here we have repea...

  9. An Update on Canine Adenovirus Type 2 and Its Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Kremer, Eric J.; Sara Salinas; Thierry Bru

    2010-01-01

    Adenovirus vectors have significant potential for long- or short-term gene transfer. Preclinical and clinical studies using human derived adenoviruses (HAd) have demonstrated the feasibility of flexible hybrid vector designs, robust expression and induction of protective immunity. However, clinical use of HAd vectors can, under some conditions, be limited by pre-existing vector immunity. Pre-existing humoral and cellular anti-capsid immunity limits the efficacy and duration of transgene expre...

  10. One health: the importance of companion animal vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Day Michael J

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The international prominence accorded the 'One Health' concept of co-ordinated activity of those involved in human and animal health is a modern incarnation of a long tradition of comparative medicine, with roots in the ancient civilizations and a golden era during the 19th century explosion of knowledge in the field of infectious disease research. Modern One Health tends to focus on zoonotic pathogens emerging from wildlife and production animal species, but one of the most significant One Health challenges is rabies for which there is a canine reservoir. This review considers the role of small companion animals in One Health and specifically addresses the major vector-borne infectious diseases that are shared by man, dogs and cats. The most significant of these are leishmaniosis, borreliosis, bartonellosis, ehrlichiosis, rickettsiosis and anaplasmosis. The challenges that lie ahead in this field of One Health are discussed, together with the role of the newly formed World Small Animal Veterinary Association One Health Committee.

  11. Broad patterns in domestic vector-borne Trypanosoma cruzi transmission dynamics: synanthropic animals and vector control

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Jennifer K.; Bartsch, Sarah M.; Lee, Bruce Y.; Dobson, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) is the most important neglected tropical disease (NTD) in Latin America, infecting an estimated 5.7 million people in the 21 countries where it is endemic. It is one of the NTDs targeted for control and elimination by the 2020 London Declaration goals, with the first goal being to interrupt intra-domiciliary vector-borne T. cruzi transmission. A key question in domestic T. cruzi transmission is the role that synanthropic animals play in ...

  12. Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Marie Aerts; Jamshid Farifteh; Piet Maes; Verstraeten, Willem W.; José Miguel Barrios; Pol Coppin

    2012-01-01

    The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, n...

  13. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR) tool

    OpenAIRE

    Huang Zhuojie; Das Anirrudha; Qiu Youliang; Tatem Andrew J

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion event...

  14. The role of Remote Sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    M. Palaniyandi

    2012-01-01

    There have been several attemps made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors,biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time.This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications forspatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectorsand vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disea...

  15. Predators indirectly control vector-borne disease: linking predator–prey and host–pathogen models

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Sean M.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Hosseini, Parviez R.

    2009-01-01

    Pathogens transmitted by arthropod vectors are common in human populations, agricultural systems and natural communities. Transmission of these vector-borne pathogens depends on the population dynamics of the vector species as well as its interactions with other species within the community. In particular, predation may be sufficient to control pathogen prevalence indirectly via the vector. To examine the indirect effect of predators on vectored-pathogen dynamics, we developed a theoretical m...

  16. The Interaction between Vector Life History and Short Vector Life in Vector-Borne Disease Transmission and Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Samuel P C; Rock, Kat S; Keeling, Matt J

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological modelling has a vital role to play in policy planning and prediction for the control of vectors, and hence the subsequent control of vector-borne diseases. To decide between competing policies requires models that can generate accurate predictions, which in turn requires accurate knowledge of vector natural histories. Here we highlight the importance of the distribution of times between life-history events, using short-lived midge species as an example. In particular we focus on the distribution of the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) which determines the time between infection and becoming infectious, and the distribution of the length of the gonotrophic cycle which determines the time between successful bites. We show how different assumptions for these periods can radically change the basic reproductive ratio (R0) of an infection and additionally the impact of vector control on the infection. These findings highlight the need for detailed entomological data, based on laboratory experiments and field data, to correctly construct the next-generation of policy-informing models. PMID:27128163

  17. The Interaction between Vector Life History and Short Vector Life in Vector-Borne Disease Transmission and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Samuel P. C.; Keeling, Matt J.

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological modelling has a vital role to play in policy planning and prediction for the control of vectors, and hence the subsequent control of vector-borne diseases. To decide between competing policies requires models that can generate accurate predictions, which in turn requires accurate knowledge of vector natural histories. Here we highlight the importance of the distribution of times between life-history events, using short-lived midge species as an example. In particular we focus on the distribution of the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) which determines the time between infection and becoming infectious, and the distribution of the length of the gonotrophic cycle which determines the time between successful bites. We show how different assumptions for these periods can radically change the basic reproductive ratio (R0) of an infection and additionally the impact of vector control on the infection. These findings highlight the need for detailed entomological data, based on laboratory experiments and field data, to correctly construct the next-generation of policy-informing models. PMID:27128163

  18. Bayesian data assimilation provides rapid decision support for vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Jewell, Chris; Brown, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the spread of vector-borne diseases in response to incursions requires knowledge of both host and vector demographics in advance of an outbreak. Whereas host population data is typically available, for novel disease introductions there is a high chance of the pathogen utilising a vector for which data is unavailable. This presents a barrier to estimating the parameters of dynamical models representing host-vector-pathogen interaction, and hence limits their ability to provide quant...

  19. Vector-borne disease intelligence: strategies to deal with disease burden and threats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Braks, M.; Medlock, J. M.; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Hjertqvist, M.; Perrin, Y.; Lancelot, R.; Duchyene, E.; Hendrickx, G.; Stroo, A.; Heyman, P.; Sprong, H.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 280 (2014), s. 280. ISSN 2296-2565 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : disease burden * emerging diseases * one health * surveillance * threat * vector-borne diseases Subject RIV: FN - Epidemiology, Contagious Diseases ; Clinical Immunology

  20. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Hongoh Valerie; Hoen Anne; Aenishaenslin Cécile; Waaub Jean-Philippe; Bélanger Denise; Michel Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. How...

  1. Drivers, dynamics, and control of emerging vector-borne zoonotic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Kilpatrick, A. Marm; Randolph, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Emerging vector-borne diseases represent an important issue for global health. Many vector-borne pathogens have appeared in new regions in the past two decades, and many endemic diseases have increased in incidence. Although introductions and local emergence are frequently considered distinct processes, many emerging endemic pathogens are in fact invading at a local scale coincident with habitat change. We highlight key differences in the dynamics and disease burden that result from increased...

  2. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Surendran Sinnathamby N; Ramasamy Ranjan

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to clim...

  3. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  4. Web-based GIS: the vector-borne disease airline importation risk (VBD-AIR tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Zhuojie

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the past century, the size and complexity of the air travel network has increased dramatically. Nowadays, there are 29.6 million scheduled flights per year and around 2.7 billion passengers are transported annually. The rapid expansion of the network increasingly connects regions of endemic vector-borne disease with the rest of the world, resulting in challenges to health systems worldwide in terms of vector-borne pathogen importation and disease vector invasion events. Here we describe the development of a user-friendly Web-based GIS tool: the Vector-Borne Disease Airline Importation Risk Tool (VBD-AIR, to help better define the roles of airports and airlines in the transmission and spread of vector-borne diseases. Methods Spatial datasets on modeled global disease and vector distributions, as well as climatic and air network traffic data were assembled. These were combined to derive relative risk metrics via air travel for imported infections, imported vectors and onward transmission, and incorporated into a three-tier server architecture in a Model-View-Controller framework with distributed GIS components. A user-friendly web-portal was built that enables dynamic querying of the spatial databases to provide relevant information. Results The VBD-AIR tool constructed enables the user to explore the interrelationships among modeled global distributions of vector-borne infectious diseases (malaria. dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya and international air service routes to quantify seasonally changing risks of vector and vector-borne disease importation and spread by air travel, forming an evidence base to help plan mitigation strategies. The VBD-AIR tool is available at http://www.vbd-air.com. Conclusions VBD-AIR supports a data flow that generates analytical results from disparate but complementary datasets into an organized cartographical presentation on a web map for the assessment of vector-borne disease movements

  5. Possible impact of rising sea levels on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surendran Sinnathamby N

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vector-borne infectious diseases are a significant cause of human and animal mortality and morbidity. Modeling studies predict that changes in climate that accompany global warming will alter the transmission risk of many vector-borne infectious diseases in different parts of the world. Global warming will also raise sea levels, which will lead to an increase in saline and brackish water bodies in coastal areas. The potential impact of rising sea levels, as opposed to climate change, on the prevalence of vector-borne infectious diseases has hitherto been unrecognised. Presentation of the hypothesis Mosquito species possessing salinity-tolerant larvae and pupae, and capable of transmitting arboviruses and parasites are found in many parts of the world. An expansion of brackish and saline water bodies in coastal areas, associated with rising sea levels, can increase densities of salinity-tolerant vector mosquitoes and lead to the adaptation of freshwater vectors to breed in brackish and saline waters. The breeding of non-mosquito vectors may also be influenced by salinity changes in coastal habitats. Higher vector densities can increase transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases in coastal localities, which can then spread to other areas. Testing the hypothesis The demonstration of increases in vector populations and disease prevalence that is related to an expansion of brackish/saline water bodies in coastal areas will provide the necessary supportive evidence. However the implementation of specific vector and disease control measures to counter the threat will confound the expected findings. Implications of the hypothesis Rising sea levels can act synergistically with climate change and then interact in a complex manner with other environmental and socio-economic factors to generate a greater potential for the transmission of vector-borne infectious diseases. The resulting health impacts are likely to be particularly

  6. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satya Kalluri

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availability of sophisticated, statistical geographic information system and image processing algorithms in a desktop environment creates a fertile research environment. The use of remote sensing techniques to map vector-borne diseases has evolved significantly over the past 25 years. In this paper, we review the status of remote sensing studies of arthropod vector-borne diseases due to mosquitoes, ticks, blackflies, tsetse flies, and sandflies, which are responsible for the majority of vector-borne diseases in the world. Examples of simple image classification techniques that associate land use and land cover types with vector habitats, as well as complex statistical models that link satellite-derived multi-temporal meteorological observations with vector biology and abundance, are discussed here. Future improvements in remote sensing applications in epidemiology are also discussed.

  7. Global Climate Teleconnections to Forecast Increased Risk of Vector-Borne Animal and Human Disease Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    We willexamine how climate teleconnect ions and variability impact vector biology and vector borne disease ecology, and demonstrate that global climate monitoring can be used to anticipate and forecast epidemics and epizootics. In this context we willexamine significant worldwide weather anomalies t...

  8. Production and purification of non replicative canine adenovirus type 2 derived vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelechowski, Marion; Bergeron, Corinne; Gonzalez-Dunia, Daniel; Klonjkowski, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Adenovirus (Ad) derived vectors have been widely used for short or long-term gene transfer, both for gene therapy and vaccine applications. Because of the frequent pre-existing immunity against the classically used human adenovirus type 5, canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2) has been proposed as an alternative vector for human gene transfer. The well-characterized biology of CAV2, together with its ease of genetic manipulation, offer major advantages, notably for gene transfer into the central nervous system, or for inducing a wide range of protective immune responses, from humoral to cellular immunity. Nowadays, CAV2 represents one of the most appealing nonhuman adenovirus for use as a vaccine vector. This protocol describes a simple method to construct, produce and titer recombinant CAV2 vectors. After cloning the expression cassette of the gene of interest into a shuttle plasmid, the recombinant genomic plasmid is obtained by homologous recombination in the E. coli BJ5183 bacterial strain. The resulting genomic plasmid is then transfected into canine kidney cells expressing the complementing CAV2-E1 genes (DK-E1). A viral amplification enables the production of a large viral stock, which is purified by ultracentrifugation through cesium chloride gradients and desalted by dialysis. The resulting viral suspension routinely has a titer of over 10(10) infectious particles per ml and can be directly administrated in vivo. PMID:24326926

  9. Surveillance of arthropod vector-borne infectious diseases using remote sensing techniques: a review.

    OpenAIRE

    Satya Kalluri; Peter Gilruth; David Rogers; Martha Szczur

    2007-01-01

    Epidemiologists are adopting new remote sensing techniques to study a variety of vector-borne diseases. Associations between satellite-derived environmental variables such as temperature, humidity, and land cover type and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. The convergence of factors such as the availability of multi-temporal satellite data and georeferenced epidemiological data, collaboration between remote sensing scientists and biologists, and the availabi...

  10. Towards an integrated approach in surveillance of vector-borne diseases in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Reusken Chantal; Scholte Ernst-Jan; van Pelt Wifrid; Kretzschmar Mirjam; van der Giessen Joke; Braks Marieta; Zeller Hervé; Van Bortel Wim; Sprong Hein

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Vector borne disease (VBD) emergence is a complex and dynamic process. Interactions between multiple disciplines and responsible health and environmental authorities are often needed for an effective early warning, surveillance and control of vectors and the diseases they transmit. To fully appreciate this complexity, integrated knowledge about the human and the vector population is desirable. In the current paper, important parameters and terms of both public health and medical ento...

  11. Vector-borne diseases and the basic reproduction number: a case study of African horse sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Lord, C.C.; Woolhouse, M. E. J.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Mellor, P.S.

    1996-01-01

    The basic reproduction number, R0, can be used to determine factors important in the ability of a disease to invade or persist. We show how this number can be derived or estimated for vector-borne diseases with different complicating factors. African horse sickness is a viral disease transmitted mainly by the midge Culicoides imicola. We use this as an example of such a vector-transmitted disease where latent periods, seasonality in vector populations, and multiple host types may be important...

  12. Effect of climate change on vector-borne disease risk in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medlock, Jolyon M; Leach, Steve A

    2015-06-01

    During the early part of the 21st century, an unprecedented change in the status of vector-borne disease in Europe has occurred. Invasive mosquitoes have become widely established across Europe, with subsequent transmission and outbreaks of dengue and chikungunya virus. Malaria has re-emerged in Greece, and West Nile virus has emerged throughout parts of eastern Europe. Tick-borne diseases, such as Lyme disease, continue to increase, or, in the case of tick-borne encephalitis and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever viruses, have changed their geographical distribution. From a veterinary perspective, the emergence of Bluetongue and Schmallenberg viruses show that northern Europe is equally susceptible to transmission of vector-borne disease. These changes are in part due to increased globalisation, with intercontinental air travel and global shipping transport creating new opportunities for invasive vectors and pathogens. However, changes in vector distributions are being driven by climatic changes and changes in land use, infrastructure, and the environment. In this Review, we summarise the risks posed by vector-borne diseases in the present and the future from a UK perspective, and assess the likely effects of climate change and, where appropriate, climate-change adaptation strategies on vector-borne disease risk in the UK. Lessons from the outbreaks of West Nile virus in North America and chikungunya in the Caribbean emphasise the need to assess future vector-borne disease risks and prepare contingencies for future outbreaks. Ensuring that adaptation strategies for climate change do not inadvertently exacerbate risks should be a primary focus for decision makers. PMID:25808458

  13. Assessment of changes of vector borne diseases with wetland characteristics using multivariate analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheela, A M; Sarun, S; Justus, J; Vineetha, P; Sheeja, R V

    2015-04-01

    Vector borne diseases are a threat to human health. Little attention has been paid to the prevention of these diseases. We attempted to identify the significant wetland characteristics associated with the spread of chikungunya, dengue fever and malaria in Kerala, a tropical region of South West India using multivariate analyses (hierarchical cluster analysis, factor analysis and multiple regression). High/medium turbid coastal lagoons and inland water-logged wetlands with aquatic vegetation have significant effect on the incidence of chikungunya while dengue influenced by high turbid coastal beaches and malaria by medium turbid coastal beaches. The high turbidity in water is due to the urban waste discharge namely sewage, sullage and garbage from the densely populated cities and towns. The large extent of wetland is low land area favours the occurrence of vector borne diseases. Hence the provision of pollution control measures at source including soil erosion control measures is vital. The identification of vulnerable zones favouring the vector borne diseases will help the authorities to control pollution especially from urban areas and prevent these vector borne diseases. Future research should cover land use cover changes, climatic factors, seasonal variations in weather and pollution factors favouring the occurrence of vector borne diseases. PMID:25412801

  14. Differentiated neuroprogenitor cells incubated with human or canine adenovirus, or lentiviral vectors have distinct transcriptome profiles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Piersanti

    Full Text Available Several studies have demonstrated the potential for vector-mediated gene transfer to the brain. Helper-dependent (HD human (HAd and canine (CAV-2 adenovirus, and VSV-G-pseudotyped self-inactivating HIV-1 vectors (LV effectively transduce human brain cells and their toxicity has been partly analysed. However, their effect on the brain homeostasis is far from fully defined, especially because of the complexity of the central nervous system (CNS. With the goal of dissecting the toxicogenomic signatures of the three vectors for human neurons, we transduced a bona fide human neuronal system with HD-HAd, HD-CAV-2 and LV. We analysed the transcriptional response of more than 47,000 transcripts using gene chips. Chip data showed that HD-CAV-2 and LV vectors activated the innate arm of the immune response, including Toll-like receptors and hyaluronan circuits. LV vector also induced an IFN response. Moreover, HD-CAV-2 and LV vectors affected DNA damage pathways--but in opposite directions--suggesting a differential response of the p53 and ATM pathways to the vector genomes. As a general response to the vectors, human neurons activated pro-survival genes and neuron morphogenesis, presumably with the goal of re-establishing homeostasis. These data are complementary to in vivo studies on brain vector toxicity and allow a better understanding of the impact of viral vectors on human neurons, and mechanistic approaches to improve the therapeutic impact of brain-directed gene transfer.

  15. Global climate change and vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2002-01-01

    Global warming will have different effects on different diseases because of the complex and idiosynchratic interactions between vectors, hosts, and pathogens that influence transmission dynamics of each pathogen. Human activities, including urbanization, rapid global travel, and vector management, have profound effects on disease transmission that can operate on more rapid time scales than does global climate change. The general concern about global warming encouraging the spread of tropical diseases is legitimate, but the effects vary among diseases, and the ecological implications are difficult to predict.

  16. Autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in Romania: neglected or (re)emerging?

    OpenAIRE

    Mircean, Viorica; Dumitrache, Mirabela Oana; MIRCEAN, MIRCEA; Bolfa, Pompei; Györke, Adriana; Mihalca, Andrei Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Canine leishmaniasis is a vector-borne zoonotic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. In Romania between 1955 and 2013, no cases of human autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis were reported. Data regarding canine leishmaniasis is similarly scarce. Since the first report of clinical autochthonous canine leishmaniasis in 1935, there were only three sporadic reports of positive dogs all without any clinical signs. Our study reports the first clinical case of autochthonous ...

  17. Modeling and Optimal Control applied to a vector borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Helena Sofia; Monteiro, M. Teresa T.; Torres, Delfim F. M.

    2012-01-01

    A model with six mutually-exclusive compartments related to Dengue disease is presented. In this model there are three vector control tools: insecticides (larvicide and adulticide) and mechanical control. The problem is studied using an Optimal Control (OC) approach. The human data for the model is based on the Cape Verde Dengue outbreak. Some control measures are simulated and their consequences analyzed.

  18. Wildlife as reservoirs for vector borne diseases in a warmer Scandinavian climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit

    can be attributed global warming. Some of these new infections have important reservoirs in wild animals and this may affect prevention and control of outbreaks in humans and domestic animals. This may also put wild animals at risk of not just infections but also of control efforts targeted at......The distribution of vector borne diseases is highly determined by environmental and climatic parameters. As the climate becomes warmer the potential for spread of exotic vector borne diseases may therefore increase in the Nordic countries. But this does not mean that all new outbreaks of diseases...... eliminating reservoirs. Insect borne Blue tongue, Black tongue, West Nile Virus, Usutu, avian malaria, Dirofilarial worms and Tick Borne Encephalitis are spreading and pose an increasing threat to people and animals in Northern Europe. Climate driven mathematical models may provide quantitative estimates of...

  19. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs and red foxes from the federal state of Brandenburg, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesner, Jana M; Krücken, Jürgen; Schaper, Roland; Pachnicke, Stefan; Kohn, Barbara; Müller, Elisabeth; Schulze, Christoph; von Samson-Himmelstjerna, Georg

    2016-07-15

    Dirofilaria repens is endemic in eastern and southern European regions but was recently found in Germany in dogs, mosquitoes and one human patient. Since some of the positive dog and mosquito samples were collected in Brandenburg, it was aimed to systematically assess the prevalence of D. repens and other canine vector-borne pathogens in Brandenburg. Dog owners also received a questionnaire and were asked to provide more information about the dogs including travel history. In total, 1023 dog blood samples as well as 195 fox spleen and 179 fox blood samples were collected. DNA was analysed by PCR for the presence of filariae, piroplasms, anaplasmataceae and Rickettsia spp. Filariae were detected in six dogs (0.6%), two were positive for DNA from D. repens, two from Dirofilaria immitis and two from Acanthocheilonema reconditum. One of the D. repens positive dogs originated from an animal shelter in Brandenburg, but the origin of the other one remained unknown. Interestingly, both D. repens ITS-1 sequences showed 100% identity to a D. repens sample obtained from a Japanese woman that travelled in Europe and were 97% identical to a newly proposed species Dirofilaria sp. 'hongkongensis' described from Hong Kong. However, identity to other D. repens sequences from Thailand was considerably lower (81%). Identity of 12S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I to D. repens samples from southern Europe was 99%. Due to the low number of Dirofilaria spp. positive dogs and since the origin of these was unknown, endemic occurrence of Dirofilaria in Brandenburg could not be confirmed. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was found in 15 dogs (1.5%), Candidatus Neoehrlichia mikurensis in three dogs (0.3%) and E. canis in one dog (0.1%), which was co-infected with D. repens. Rickettsia spp. were detected in 8 dogs (0.8%), seven were Rickettsia raoultii and one was Rickettsia felis. To the author's knowledge, R. raoultii DNA was detected for the first time in dogs in Germany in this study and Candidatus

  20. Remote Sensing Proxies for Vector-borne Disease Risk Assessment (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, A.

    2010-12-01

    The spread of re-emerging vector-borne diseases such Rift Valley fever (RVF) and Chikungunya (CHIK) is a major issue of global public health concern. This combined with a variable climate regime has opened an avenue for satellite remote sensing to contribute towards a comprehensive understanding of some of the drivers influencing such vector-borne disease outbreaks. Satellite derived measurements such as vegetation indices, rainfall estimates, and land-surface temperature; can be used to infer the complex mosaic of factors that influence ecology and habitat suitability, emergence and population dynamics of disease vectors. However, there are still some gaps in application including appropriate temporal resolution of remote sensing measurements, the complexity of the virus-vector-disease-ecology system and human components that contribute to disease risk that need to be addressed. Geographic Distribution of Recent Rift Valley fever oubreaks

  1. Bifurcation Analysis in Models for Vector-Borne Diseases with Logistic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Guihua Li; Zhen Jin

    2014-01-01

    We establish and study vector-borne models with logistic and exponential growth of vector and host populations, respectively. We discuss and analyses the existence and stability of equilibria. The model has backward bifurcation and may have no, one, or two positive equilibria when the basic reproduction number R 0 is less than one and one, two, or three endemic equilibria when R 0 is greater than one under different conditions. Furthermore, we prove that the disease-free equilibrium is stable...

  2. Ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    Medlock, Jolyon; Jameson, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    Pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. They are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. Human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. From a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation st...

  3. Ecological approaches to informing public health policy and risk assessments on emerging vector-borne zoonoses

    OpenAIRE

    Medlock, JM; Jameson, LJ

    2010-01-01

    Pathogens associated with vector-borne zoonoses occur in enzootic cycles within nature. They are driven by a combination of vertebrate host and invertebrate vector population dynamics, which in turn respond to changes in environmental stimuli. Human involvement in these cycles, and hence the occurrence of human disease, is often to act as incidental host. From a public health perspective our ability to better predict human outbreaks of these diseases and prepare intervention and mitigation st...

  4. Vector-Borne Disease Intelligence: Strategies to Deal with Disease Burden and Threats

    OpenAIRE

    Braks, Marieta; Medlock, Jolyon M; Hubalek, Zdenek; Hjertqvist, Marika; Perrin, Yvon; Lancelot, Renaud; Duchyene, Els; Hendrickx, Guy; Stroo, Arjan; Heyman, Paul; Sprong, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the complex nature of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), whereby monitoring of human case patients does not suffice, public health authorities experience challenges in surveillance and control of VBDs. Knowledge on the presence and distribution of vectors and the pathogens that they transmit is vital to the risk assessment process to permit effective early warning, surveillance, and control of VBDs. Upon accepting this reality, public health authorities face an ever-increasing range of po...

  5. Some vector borne diseases with structured host populations: extinction and spatial spread

    OpenAIRE

    Gourley, Stephen A.; Liu, Rongsong; Wu, Jianhong

    2007-01-01

    We derive from a structured population model a system of delay differential equations describing the interaction of five subpopulations, namely susceptible and infected adult and juvenile reservoirs and infected adult vectors, for a vector borne disease with particular reference to West Nile virus, and we also incorporate spatial movements by considering the analogue reaction diffusion systems with nonlocal delayed terms. Specific conditions for the disease eradication and sharp conditions fo...

  6. Towards a resource-based habitat approach for spatial modelling of vector-borne disease risks

    OpenAIRE

    Hartemink, Nienke; Vanwambeke, Sophie O; Purse, Bethan V.; Gilbert, Marius; Van Dyck, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Given the veterinary and public health impact of vector-borne diseases, there is a clear need to assess the suitability of landscapes for the emergence and spread of these diseases. Current approaches for predicting disease risks neglect key features of the landscape as components of the functional habitat of vectors or hosts, and hence of the pathogen. Empirical-statistical methods do not explicitly incorporate biological mechanisms, whereas current mechanistic models are rarely spatially ex...

  7. Modelling spread of Bluetongue and other vector borne diseases in Denmark and evaluation of intervention strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare

    The main outcome of this PhD project is a generic model for non-contagious infectious vector-borne disease spread by one vector species between up to two species of hosts distributed on farms and pasture. The model features a within-herd model of disease, combined with a triple movement kernel that...... describes spread of disease using vectors or hosts as agents of the spread. The model is run with bluetongue as the primary case study, and it is demonstrated how an epidemic outbreak of bluetongue 8 in Denmark is sensitive to the use of pasture, climate, vaccination, vector abundance, and flying parameters....... In constructing a more process oriented agent-based approach to spread modeling new parameters describing vector behavior were introduced. When these vector flying parameters have been quantified by experiments, this model can be implemented on areas naïve to the modeled disease with a high...

  8. Serological investigation of vector-borne disease in dogs from rural areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Jing He; Lijuan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the Anaplasma phagocytophilum (A. phagocytophilum), Ehrlichia canis (E. canis), Dirofilaria immitis (D. immitis) (canine heartworm), Borrelia burgdorferi (B. burgdorferi) infections in countryside dogs from Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. Methods: Serum samples were collected from 26 dogs in Yunnan, Hainan and Anhui provinces. The samples were tested using a commercial ELISA rapid diagnostic assay kit (SNAP® 4Dx®; IDEXX Laboratories, Inc. U.S.A.). Meanwhile, indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) recommended by WHO was conducted to detect IgG to A. phagocytophilum. Two methods were analyzed and compared. Results: The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was only 2 which was from Hainan province and none of the 26 dogs responded positive for E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi by ELISA rapid diagnostic method. The number of serologically positive dogs for IgG to A. phagocytophilum was 13 (50%) by IFA method. Data of the two methods were analyzed by statistical software and the difference was statistically significant (P=0.002). Conclusions: It can be concluded that IFA method was more sensitive than ELISA rapid diagnostic method. However, we need conduct further and intensive epidemiology survey on tick-born diseases pathogens including A. phagocytophilum, E. canis, D. immitis (canine heartworm), and B. burgdorferi which have public health significance.

  9. Remote Sensing, GIS, and Vector-Borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Louisa R.

    2001-01-01

    The concept of global climate change encompasses more than merely an alteration in temperature; it also includes spatial and temporal covariations in precipitation and humidity, and more frequent occurrence of extreme weather events. The impact of these variations, which can occur at a variety of temporal and spatial scales, could have a direct impact on disease transmission through their environmental consequences for pathogen, vector, and host survival, as well as indirectly through human demographic and behavioral responses. New and future sensor systems will allow scientists to investigate the relationships between climate change and environmental risk factors at multiple spatial, temporal and spectral scales. Higher spatial resolution will provide better opportunities for mapping urban features previously only possible with high resolution aerial photography. These opportunities include housing quality (e.g., Chagas'disease, leishmaniasis) and urban mosquito habitats (e.g., dengue fever, filariasis, LaCrosse encephalitis). There are or will be many new sensors that have higher spectral resolution, enabling scientists to acquire more information about parameters such as soil moisture, soil type, better vegetation discrimination, and ocean color, to name a few. Although soil moisture content is now detectable using Landsat, the new thermal, shortwave infrared, and radar sensors will be able to provide this information at a variety of scales not achievable using Landsat. Soil moisture could become a key component in transmission risk models for Lyme disease (tick survival), helminthiases (worm habitat), malaria (vector-breeding habitat), and schistosomiasis (snail habitat).

  10. Prospects for controlling trypanosomosis : vector-borne diseases : trypanosomosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A. Vale

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The best technical package for the future comprises trypanocidal drugs for temporary relief and the use of insecticide-treated cattle, artificial baits and aerial spraying to attack the vector, to so give more lasting security. Whether this can speed the previously slow progress will depend on overcoming past hindrances to tsetse control : sporadic support, disputes over its desirability, difficulties of sustaining international operations, and poor planning in some instances. The Pan-African Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Campaign intends to speed the progress but will fail unless it improves its image by breaking its association with the sterile insect technique and quickly executing some cheap and effective operations in large areas. Even then, there could be severe brakes due to Africa's political and financial instability. Overall, the pace of control is likely to increase, but perhaps only a little.

  11. 'ANOTHER VECTOR BORNE CHALLENGE TO COMBAT- ZIKA VIRUS OUTBREAKS'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Maria; Faraz, Ahmad; Ahmed, Syed Ahsanuddin

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus is a single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family. It is known to transmit to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito which is also known to carry dengue, chikungunya & yellow fever virus. Transmission is anthroponotic (human-to-vector-to-human) during outbreaks, Perinatally in utero, sexually and via infected blood transfusion. It is mild and self-limiting infection lasting for several days to a week. However, it is suspected as a cause of Guillain Barre Syndrome. There is a teratogenic association of Zika virus causing congenital birth defects like microcephaly and neurologic abnormalities. Treatment is generally supportive and for symptomatic relief. No specific antiviral treatment or vaccine is yet available for Zika virus disease. It highlights importance of preventive public health measures at the community level and avoids travelling to the endemic areas. PMID:27323600

  12. Optimal vaccination scenarios against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus in Denmark. We evaluated the efficiency and minimum vaccination cover for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model replicates both passive and active flight....... Results in this presentation were obtained building upon the model presented in: Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture. Kaare Græsbøll et al. Scientific Reports. 2:863 (2012)....... of Culicoides between hosts on pasture and stables in Denmark. Seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence on biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination scenarios comprised of: All holdings vaccinated to a given percentage, random holdings selected for vaccination, two...

  13. Legal aspects of public health: difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Marcílio S; de Moraes, Josué

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, vector-borne and zoonotic diseases have become a major challenge for public health. Dengue fever and leptospirosis are the most important communicable diseases in Brazil based on their prevalence and the healthy life years lost from disability. The primary strategy for preventing human exposure to these diseases is effective insect and rodent control in and around the home. However, health authorities have difficulties in controlling vector-borne and zoonotic diseases because residents often refuse access to their homes. This study discusses aspects related to the activities performed by Brazilian health authorities to combat vector-borne and zoonotic diseases, particularly difficulties in relation to the legal aspect, which often impede the quick and effective actions of these professionals. How might it be possible to reconcile the need to preserve public health and the rule on the inviolability of the home, especially in the case of abandoned properties or illegal residents and the refusal of residents to allow the health authority access? Do residents have the right to hinder the performance of health workers even in the face of a significant and visible focus of disease transmission? This paper argues that a comprehensive legal plan aimed at the control of invasive vector-borne and zoonotic diseases including synanthropic animals of public health importance should be considered. In addition, this paper aims to bridge the gap between lawyers and public health professionals and to facilitate communication between them. PMID:25051187

  14. Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, José Miguel; Verstraeten, Willem W; Maes, Piet; Aerts, Jean-Marie; Farifteh, Jamshid; Coppin, Pol

    2012-12-01

    The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:23202882

  15. Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marie Aerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.

  16. A novel tool for classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sree Hari Rao Vadrevu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article we present a novel tool that renders efficient classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases. This algorithm has been applied on the data of the Filariasis disease and the results are compared with the well-known k-nearest neighbor algorithm.

  17. [Important vector-borne infectious diseases among humans in Germany. Epidemiological aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, C; Faber, M; Hellenbrand, W; Wilking, H; Stark, K

    2014-05-01

    Vector-borne infections pathogenic to humans play an important role in Germany. The relevant zoonotic pathogens are either endemic throughout Germany (e.g. Borrelia burgdorferi sensu latu) or only in specific regions, e.g. tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) virus and hantavirus. They cause a substantial burden of disease. Prevention and control largely rely on public advice and the application of personal protective measures (e.g. TBE virus vaccination and protection against vectors). High quality surveillance and targeted epidemiological studies are fundamental for the evaluation of temporal and spatial risks of infection and the effectiveness of preventive measures. Aside from endemic pathogens, vector-borne infections acquired abroad, mostly transmitted by mosquitoes, have to be systematically and intensively monitored as well, to assess the risk of infection for German residents traveling abroad and to adequately evaluate the risk of autochthonous transmission. Related issues, such as invasive species of mosquitoes in Germany and climate change, have to be taken into consideration. Such pathogens include West Nile, dengue and chikungunya viruses, as well as malaria parasites (Plasmodium species). The article presents an overview of the epidemiological situation of selected relevant vector-borne infections in Germany. PMID:24781913

  18. A Novel Tool for Classification of Epidemiological Data of Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Sree Hari Rao Vadrevu; Suryanarayana U Murty

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a novel tool that renders efficient classification of epidemiological data of vector-borne diseases. This algorithm has been applied on the data of the Filariasis disease and the results are compared with the well-known k-nearest neighbor algorithm.

  19. Stability and Hopf Bifurcation Analysis of a Vector-Borne Disease with Time Delay

    OpenAIRE

    Yuanyuan Chen; Ya-Qing Bi

    2014-01-01

    A delay-differential modelling of vector-borne is investigated. Its dynamics are studied in terms of local analysis and Hopf bifurcation theory, and its linear stability and Hopf bifurcation are demonstrated by studying the characteristic equation. The stability and direction of Hopf bifurcation are determined by applying the normal form theory and the center manifold argument.

  20. Potential for a Second Generation of Emerging Vector Borne Diseases in North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    North America has been dealing with the consequences of the introduction of West Nile virus since it was first discovered in New York City in 1999. Currently there are numerous other vector-borne pathogens that occur in various parts of the world that could be introduced into North America and becom...

  1. Canine babesiosis: from molecular taxonomy to control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwin Peter J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a clinically significant emerging vector-borne disease caused by protozoan haemoparasites. This review article considers recent literature pertaining to the taxonomic classification of Babesia and Theileria species affecting dogs and the geographical distribution of these parasites. The diagnosis of canine babesiosis by traditional, molecular and serological methods is reviewed, together with recent advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of piroplasmosis, and of the treatment and prevention of this disease.

  2. Integrated pest management and allocation of control efforts for vector-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2001-01-01

    Applications of various control methods were evaluated to determine how to integrate methods so as to minimize the number of human cases of vector-borne diseases. These diseases can be controlled by lowering the number of vector-human contacts (e.g., by pesticide applications or use of repellents), or by lowering the proportion of vectors infected with pathogens (e.g., by lowering or vaccinating reservoir host populations). Control methods should be combined in such a way as to most efficiently lower the probability of human encounter with an infected vector. Simulations using a simple probabilistic model of pathogen transmission suggest that the most efficient way to integrate different control methods is to combine methods that have the same effect (e.g., combine treatments that lower the vector population; or combine treatments that lower pathogen prevalence in vectors). Combining techniques that have different effects (e.g., a technique that lowers vector populations with a technique that lowers pathogen prevalence in vectors) will be less efficient than combining two techniques that both lower vector populations or combining two techniques that both lower pathogen prevalence, costs being the same. Costs of alternative control methods generally differ, so the efficiency of various combinations at lowering human contact with infected vectors should be estimated at available funding levels. Data should be collected from initial trials to improve the effects of subsequent interventions on the number of human cases.

  3. A surface hydrology model for regional vector borne disease models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkins, Adrian; Asare, Ernest; Bomblies, Arne; Amekudzi, Leonard

    2016-04-01

    Small, sun-lit temporary pools that form during the rainy season are important breeding sites for many key mosquito vectors responsible for the transmission of malaria and other diseases. The representation of this surface hydrology in mathematical disease models is challenging, due to their small-scale, dependence on the terrain and the difficulty of setting soil parameters. Here we introduce a model that represents the temporal evolution of the aggregate statistics of breeding sites in a single pond fractional coverage parameter. The model is based on a simple, geometrical assumption concerning the terrain, and accounts for the processes of surface runoff, pond overflow, infiltration and evaporation. Soil moisture, soil properties and large-scale terrain slope are accounted for using a calibration parameter that sets the equivalent catchment fraction. The model is calibrated and then evaluated using in situ pond measurements in Ghana and ultra-high (10m) resolution explicit simulations for a village in Niger. Despite the model's simplicity, it is shown to reproduce the variability and mean of the pond aggregate water coverage well for both locations and validation techniques. Example malaria simulations for Uganda will be shown using this new scheme with a generic calibration setting, evaluated using district malaria case data. Possible methods for implementing regional calibration will be briefly discussed.

  4. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission – whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. However, there remain a number of challenges that are specific and unique to modelling vector-borne diseases and macroparasites. Moreover, many of the neglected tropical diseases which are currently targeted for control and elimination are vector-borne, macroparasitic, or both, and so this article includes challenges which will assist in accelerating the control of these high-burden diseases. Here, we discuss the challenges of indirect measures of infection in humans, whether through vectors or transmission life stages and in estimating the contribution of different host groups to transmission. We also discuss the issues of “evolution-proof” interventions against vector-borne disease.

  5. A virus vector based on Canine Herpesvirus for vaccine applications in canids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strive, T; Hardy, C M; Wright, J; Reubel, G H

    2007-01-31

    Canine Herpesvirus (CHV) is being developed as a virus vector for the vaccination of European red foxes. However, initial studies using recombinant CHV vaccines in foxes revealed viral attenuation and lack of antibody response to inserted foreign antigens. These findings were attributed both to inactivation of the thymidine kinase (TK) gene and excess foreign genetic material in the recombinant viral genome. In this study, we report an improved CHV-bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) vector system designed to overcome attenuation in foxes. A non-essential region was identified in the CHV genome as an alternative insertion site for foreign genes. Replacement of a guanine/cytosine (GC)-rich intergenic region between UL21 and UL22 of CHV with a marker gene did not change growth behaviour in vitro, showing that this region is not essential for virus growth in cell culture. We subsequently produced a CHV-BAC vector with an intact TK gene in which the bacterial genes and the antigen expression cassette were inserted into this GC-rich locus. Unlike earlier constructs, the new CHV-BAC allowed self-excision of the bacterial genes via homologous recombination after transfection of BACs into cell culture. The BAC-CHV system was used to produce a recombinant virus that constitutively expressed porcine zona pellucida subunit C protein between the UL21 and UL22 genes of CHV. Complete self-excision of the bacterial genes from CHV was achieved within one round of replication whilst retaining antigen gene expression. PMID:17079096

  6. Recombinant antigens from Phlebotomus perniciosus saliva as markers of canine exposure to visceral leishmaniases vector.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Drahota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus perniciosus is the main vector in the western Mediterranean area of the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum, the causative agent of canine and human visceral leishmaniases. Infected dogs serve as a reservoir of the disease, and therefore measuring the exposure of dogs to sand fly bites is important for estimating the risk of L. infantum transmission. In bitten hosts, sand fly saliva elicits a specific antibody response that reflects the intensity of sand fly exposure. As screening of specific anti-saliva antibodies is limited by the availability of salivary gland homogenates, utilization of recombinant salivary proteins is a promising alternative. In this manuscript we show for the first time the use of recombinant salivary proteins as a functional tool for detecting P. perniciosus bites in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The reactivity of six bacterially-expressed recombinant salivary proteins of P. perniciosus, yellow-related protein rSP03B, apyrases rSP01B and rSP01, antigen 5-related rSP07, ParSP25-like protein rSP08 and D7-related protein rSP04, were tested with sera of mice and dogs experimentally bitten by this sand fly using immunoblots and ELISA. In the immunoblots, both mice and canine sera gave positive reactions with yellow-related protein, both apyrases and ParSP25-like protein. A similar reaction for recombinant salivary proteins was observed by ELISA, with the reactivity of yellow-related protein and apyrases significantly correlated with the antibody response of mice and dogs against the whole salivary gland homogenate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Three recombinant salivary antigens of P. perniciosus, yellow-related protein rSP03B and the apyrases rSP01B and rSP01, were identified as the best candidates for evaluating the exposure of mice and dogs to P. perniciosus bites. Utilization of these proteins, or their combination, would be beneficial for screening canine sera in endemic areas of visceral

  7. The role of Remote Sensing and GIS for spatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Palaniyandi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available There have been several attemps made to the appreciation of remote sensing and GIS for the study of vectors,biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases with respect to space and time.This study was made for reviewing and appraising the potential use of remote sensing and GIS applications forspatial prediction of vector-borne diseases transmission. The nature of the presence and the abundance of vectorsand vector-borne diseases, disease infection and the disease transmission are not ubiquitous and are confined withgeographical, environmental and climatic factors, and are localized. The presence of vectors and vector-bornediseases is most complex in nature, however, it is confined and fueled by the geographical, climatic andenvironmental factors including man-made factors. The usefulness of the present day availability of the informationderived from the satellite data including vegetation indices of canopy cover and its density, soil types, soil moisture,soil texture, soil depth, etc. is integrating the information in the expert GIS engine for the spatial analysis of othergeoclimatic and geoenvironmental variables. The present study gives the detailed information on the classicalstudies of the past and present, and the future role of remote sensing and GIS for the vector-borne diseasescontrol. The ecological modeling directly gives us the relevant information to understand the spatial variation ofthe vector biodiversity, vector presence, vector abundance and the vector-borne diseases in association withgeoclimatic and the environmental variables. The probability map of the geographical distribution and seasonalvariations of horizontal and vertical distribution of vector abundance and its association with vector-borne diseasescan be obtained with low cost remote sensing and GIS tool with reliable data and speed.

  8. The role of human movement in the transmission of vector-borne pathogens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven T Stoddard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Human movement is a key behavioral factor in many vector-borne disease systems because it influences exposure to vectors and thus the transmission of pathogens. Human movement transcends spatial and temporal scales with different influences on disease dynamics. Here we develop a conceptual model to evaluate the importance of variation in exposure due to individual human movements for pathogen transmission, focusing on mosquito-borne dengue virus. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We develop a model showing that the relevance of human movement at a particular scale depends on vector behavior. Focusing on the day-biting Aedes aegypti, we illustrate how vector biting behavior combined with fine-scale movements of individual humans engaged in their regular daily routine can influence transmission. Using a simple example, we estimate a transmission rate (R(0 of 1.3 when exposure is assumed to occur only in the home versus 3.75 when exposure at multiple locations--e.g., market, friend's--due to movement is considered. Movement also influences for which sites and individuals risk is greatest. For the example considered, intriguingly, our model predicts little correspondence between vector abundance in a site and estimated R(0 for that site when movement is considered. This illustrates the importance of human movement for understanding and predicting the dynamics of a disease like dengue. To encourage investigation of human movement and disease, we review methods currently available to study human movement and, based on our experience studying dengue in Peru, discuss several important questions to address when designing a study. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Human movement is a critical, understudied behavioral component underlying the transmission dynamics of many vector-borne pathogens. Understanding movement will facilitate identification of key individuals and sites in the transmission of pathogens such as dengue, which then may provide

  9. Vertebrate reservoirs and secondary epidemiological cycles of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kock, R A

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases of importance to human and domestic animal health are listed and the increasing emergence of syndromes, new epidemiological cycles and distributions are highlighted. These diseases involve a multitude of vectors and hosts, frequently for the same pathogen, and involve natural enzootic cycles, wild reservoirs and secondary epidemiological cycles, sometimes affecting humans and domestic animals. On occasions the main reservoir is in the domestic environment. Drivers for secondary cycles are mainly related to human impacts and activities and therefore, for purposes of prevention and control, the focus needs to be on the socioecology of the diseases. Technical and therapeutical solutions exist, and for control there needs to be a clear understanding of the main vertebrate hosts or reservoirs and the main vectors. The targets of interventions are usually the vector and/or secondary epidemiological cycles and, in the case of humans and domestic animals, the spillover or incidental hosts are treated. More attention needs to be given to the importance of the political economy in relation to vector-borne diseases, as many key drivers arise from globalisation, climate change and changes in structural ecologies. Attention to reducing the risk of emergence of new infection cycles through better management of the human-animal-environment interface is urgently needed. PMID:26470455

  10. Application of three controls optimally in a vector-borne disease - a mathematical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, T. K.; Jana, Soovoojeet

    2013-10-01

    We have proposed and analyzed a vector-borne disease model with three types of controls for the eradication of the disease. Four different classes for the human population namely susceptible, infected, recovered and vaccinated and two different classes for the vector populations namely susceptible and infected are considered. In the first part of our analysis the disease dynamics are described for fixed controls and some inferences have been drawn regarding the spread of the disease. Next the optimal control problem is formulated and solved considering control parameters as time dependent. Different possible combination of controls are used and their effectiveness are compared by numerical simulation.

  11. Age- and bite-structured models for vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    K.S. Rock; Wood, D A; Keeling, M J

    2015-01-01

    The biology and behaviour of biting insects is a vitally important aspect in the spread of vector-borne diseases. This paper aims to determine, through the use of mathematical models, what effect incorporating vector senescence and realistic feeding patterns has on disease. A novel model is developed to enable the effects of age- and bite-structure to be examined in detail. This original PDE framework extends previous age-structured models into a further dimension to give a new insight into t...

  12. On the dynamics of a class of multi-group models for vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Iggidr, Abderrahman; Sallet, Gauthier; Souza, Max O.

    2016-01-01

    The resurgence of vector-borne diseases is an increasing public health concern, and there is a need for a better understanding of their dynamics. For a number of diseases, e.g. dengue and chikungunya, this resurgence occurs mostly in urban environments, which are naturally very heterogeneous, particularly due to population circulation. In this scenario, there is an increasing interest in both multi-patch and multi-group models for such diseases. In this work, we study the dynamics of a vector...

  13. An Environmental Data Set for Vector-Borne Disease Modeling and Epidemiology

    OpenAIRE

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on...

  14. Global dynamics of a vector-borne disease model with latency and saturating incidence rate

    OpenAIRE

    Ashrafur Rahman

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with a vector-borne disease model containing latency and nonlinear incidence rates. Global analysis is completely determined by suitable Lyapunov functionals. We explicitely determine the basic reproduction number and find that if this number is less than one then disease dies out, but if the number is larger than one, the disease causing strain become endemic. The study shows that the latency delay explicitely in°uence the disease persistence. Keywords: Latency, saturating i...

  15. Analysis of a mosquito-borne epidemic model with vector stages and saturating forces of infection

    OpenAIRE

    Avila-Vales, E.; Buonomo, B.; Chan-Chi, N.

    2014-01-01

    We study a mosquito-borne epidemic model where the vector population is distinct in aquatic and adult stages and a saturating effect of disease transmission is assumed to ocurr when the number of infectious (humans and mosquitoes) becomes large enough. Several techniques, including center manifold analysis and sensitivity analysis, have been used to reveal relevant features of the model dynamics. We determine the existence of stability-instability thresholds and the individual role played in ...

  16. Stability Analysis of a Vector-Borne Disease with Variable Human Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ozair, Muhammad; Lashari, Abid Ali; Jung, Il Hyo; Seo, Young Il; Kim, Byul Nim

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model of a vector-borne disease involving variable human population is analyzed. The varying population size includes a term for disease-related deaths. Equilibria and stability are determined for the system of ordinary differential equations. If ${R}_{0}\\le 1$ , the disease-“free” equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the disease always dies out. If ${R}_{0}>1$ , a unique “endemic” equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable in the interior of feas...

  17. Spatial distribution of vector borne disease agents in dogs in Aegean region, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Kerem Ural; Mehmet Gultekin; Abidin Atasoy; Bulent Ulutas

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Assess the spatial distribution of seroprevalence of infection with or exposure to 4 vector-borne pathogens Ehrlichia canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Borrelia burgdorferi and Dirofilaria immitis, across the coastal states of the Aegean region with special reference to clinical signs and haematological variances related to disease condition. Materials and methods. A convenience sample, targeting blood from at least 10 pet dogs from İzmir, Aydin, Denizli, Mugla and Manisa c...

  18. Molecular study on selected vector-borne infections in urban stray colony cats in northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Eva; Proverbio, Daniela; Galluzzo, Paola; Della Pepa, Alessandra; Perego, Roberta; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, Giada; Ferro, Elisabetta

    2014-08-01

    Feline vector-borne diseases can be caused by a range of pathogens transmitted by arthropods. Many of these infections have zoonotic implications, and stray cats are potential sentinels for human and pet health. This study investigated the prevalence of selected vector-borne infections in stray colony cats in Milan. Blood samples from 260 stray cats were evaluated, using conventional polymerase chain reaction tests (cPCRs), for the presence of DNA associated with Rickettsia species, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia species. Positive cPCR results occurred in 127/260 subjects (48.9%; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 40.7-58.1), with a prevalence of 31.9% (83/260, 95% CI = 25.4-39.6) for Rickettsia species, 17.7% (46/260, 95% CI= 13.0-23.6) for A phagocytophilum, and 5.4% (14/260, 95% CI = 2.9-9.0) for Ehrlichia species. There was no statistical association between a positive PCR test for vector-borne infections surveyed and colony location, age, gender, body condition score or complete blood count abnormalities, nor feline immunodeficiency virus, feline leukaemia virus or Toxoplasma gondii status. The only variable linked to positive PCR results was detection of signs of ocular infection and PCR positivity for Rickettsia species (P = 0.04, odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1-4.4, P = 0.02). There is a significant prevalence of vector-borne infections with zoonotic potential in urban stray cats in Milan. Thus, dogs and pet cats with outdoor access should be monitored and treated for ectoparasites on a regular basis to minimise risks of disease and the potential transmission of zoonotic agents to people. PMID:24319060

  19. Spatially explicit multi-criteria decision analysis for managing vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongoh Valerie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The complex epidemiology of vector-borne diseases creates significant challenges in the design and delivery of prevention and control strategies, especially in light of rapid social and environmental changes. Spatial models for predicting disease risk based on environmental factors such as climate and landscape have been developed for a number of important vector-borne diseases. The resulting risk maps have proven value for highlighting areas for targeting public health programs. However, these methods generally only offer technical information on the spatial distribution of disease risk itself, which may be incomplete for making decisions in a complex situation. In prioritizing surveillance and intervention strategies, decision-makers often also need to consider spatially explicit information on other important dimensions, such as the regional specificity of public acceptance, population vulnerability, resource availability, intervention effectiveness, and land use. There is a need for a unified strategy for supporting public health decision making that integrates available data for assessing spatially explicit disease risk, with other criteria, to implement effective prevention and control strategies. Multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA is a decision support tool that allows for the consideration of diverse quantitative and qualitative criteria using both data-driven and qualitative indicators for evaluating alternative strategies with transparency and stakeholder participation. Here we propose a MCDA-based approach to the development of geospatial models and spatially explicit decision support tools for the management of vector-borne diseases. We describe the conceptual framework that MCDA offers as well as technical considerations, approaches to implementation and expected outcomes. We conclude that MCDA is a powerful tool that offers tremendous potential for use in public health decision-making in general and vector-borne

  20. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Soo; Ejov Mikhail; Dash Aditya P; Ameneshewa Birkinesh; Mnzava Abraham; Soares Agnes; Hii Jeffrey; van den Berg Henk; Matthews Graham; Yadav Rajpal S; Zaim Morteza

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countri...

  1. Dynamical behavior of an epidemic model for a vector-borne disease with direct transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An epidemic model of a vector-borne disease with direct transmission is investigated. The reproduction number (R0) of the model is obtained. Rigorous qualitative analysis of the model reveals the presence of the phenomenon of backward bifurcation (where the stable disease-free equilibrium (DFE) coexists with a stable endemic equilibrium when the reproduction number of the disease is less than unity) in the standard incidence model. The phenomenon shows that the classical epidemiological requirement of having the reproduction number less than unity is no longer sufficient, although necessary, for effectively controlling the spread of some vector-borne diseases in a community. The backward bifurcation phenomenon can be removed by substituting the standard incidence with a bilinear mass action incidence. By using Lyapunov function theory and LaSalle invariance principle, it is shown that the unique endemic equilibrium for the model with a mass action incidence is globally stable if the reproduction number Rmass is greater than one in feasible region. This suggests that the use of standard incidence in modelling some vector-borne diseases with direct transmission results in the presence of backward bifurcation. Numerical simulations analyze the effect of the direct transmission and the disease-induced death rate on dynamics of the disease transmission, and also verify our analyzed results.

  2. Public health and vector-borne diseases - a new concept for risk governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K; Dressel, K M; Niedrig, M; Mertens, M; Schüle, S A; Groschup, M H

    2013-12-01

    Public Health is defined as an interdisciplinary multilevel approach that deals with questions of preventing diseases at the population level. In this context, this paper focuses on vector-borne diseases as an important threat with an increasing impact on human and animal health. Emphasis is laid on an integrated health approach ('One-Health' initiative) as it recognizes the interrelated nature of both human and animal health. The importance of vector-borne diseases to new and emerging diseases in Europe was demonstrated, for example, by the recent outbreak of West Nile virus infections in Greece, Northern Italy and Hungary; the spread of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus across Turkey, south-western countries of the former USSR and the Balkans; the dramatic increase in hantavirus infections in Germany in 2012; and the dengue virus outbreak in Portugal in the same year. This paper provides a systematic approach for the analysis, assessment and governance of emerging health risks attributed to vector-borne diseases by using a holistic approach developed by the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC), called the 'IRGC Risk Governance Framework'. It can be used by decision-makers and general Public Health authorities in order to evaluate the situation regarding any specific pathogen or Public Health risk and to decide if additional measures should be implemented. PMID:23480672

  3. Climate Change and Vector Borne Diseases on NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Stuart K.; DeYoung, Russell J.; Shepanek, Marc A.; Kamel, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Increasing global temperature, weather patterns with above average storm intensities, and higher sea levels have been identified as phenomena associated with global climate change. As a causal system, climate change could contribute to vector borne diseases in humans. Vectors of concern originate from the vicinity of Langley Research Center include mosquitos and ticks that transmit disease that originate regionally, nationwide, or from outside the US. Recognizing changing conditions, vector borne diseases propagate under climate change conditions, and understanding the conditions in which they may exist or propagate, presents opportunities for monitoring their progress and mitigating their potential impacts through communication, continued monitoring, and adaptation. Personnel comprise a direct and fundamental support to NASA mission success, continuous and improved understanding of climatic conditions, and the resulting consequence of disease from these conditions, helps to reduce risk in terrestrial space technologies, ground operations, and space research. This research addresses conditions which are attributed to climatic conditions which promote environmental conditions conducive to the increase of disease vectors. This investigation includes evaluation of local mosquito population count and rainfall data for statistical correlation and identification of planning recommendations unique to LaRC, other NASA Centers to assess adaptation approaches, Center-level planning strategies.

  4. A survey of basic reproductive ratios in vector-borne disease transmission modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soewono, E.; Aldila, D.

    2015-03-01

    Vector-borne diseases are commonly known in tropical and subtropical countries. These diseases have contributed to more than 10% of world infectious disease cases. Among the vectors responsible for transmitting the diseases are mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, flies, bugs and worms. Several of the diseases are known to contribute to the increasing threat to human health such as malaria, dengue, filariasis, chikungunya, west nile fever, yellow fever, encephalistis, and anthrax. It is necessary to understand the real process of infection, factors which contribute to the complication of the transmission in order to come up with a good and sound mathematical model. Although it is not easy to simulate the real transmission process of the infection, we could say that almost all models have been developed from the already long known Host-Vector model. It constitutes the main transmission processes i.e. birth, death, infection and recovery. From this simple model, the basic concepts of Disease Free and Endemic Equilibria and Basic Reproductive Ratio can be well explained and understood. Theoretical, modeling, control and treatment aspects of disease transmission problems have then been developed for various related diseases. General construction as well as specific forms of basic reproductive ratios for vector-borne diseases are discusses here.

  5. Modeling the spread of vector-borne diseases on bipartite networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donal Bisanzio

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vector-borne diseases for which transmission occurs exclusively between vectors and hosts can be modeled as spreading on a bipartite network. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In such models the spreading of the disease strongly depends on the degree distribution of the two classes of nodes. It is sufficient for one of the classes to have a scale-free degree distribution with a slow enough decay for the network to have asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. Data on the distribution of Ixodes ricinus ticks on mice and lizards from two independent studies are well described by a scale-free distribution compatible with an asymptotically vanishing epidemic threshold. The commonly used negative binomial, instead, cannot describe the right tail of the empirical distribution. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The extreme aggregation of vectors on hosts, described by the power-law decay of the degree distribution, makes the epidemic threshold decrease with the size of the network and vanish asymptotically.

  6. Genetic shifting: a novel approach for controlling vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeffrey R; Tabachnick, Walter J

    2014-06-01

    Rendering populations of vectors of diseases incapable of transmitting pathogens through genetic methods has long been a goal of vector geneticists. We outline a method to achieve this goal that does not involve the introduction of any new genetic variants to the target population. Rather we propose that shifting the frequencies of naturally occurring alleles that confer refractoriness to transmission can reduce transmission below a sustainable level. The program employs methods successfully used in plant and animal breeding. Because no artificially constructed genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are introduced into the environment, the method is minimally controversial. We use Aedes aegypti and dengue virus (DENV) for illustrative purposes but point out that the proposed program is generally applicable to vector-borne disease control. PMID:24794113

  7. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    2011-01-01

    Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...... risk assessment of potential local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. R0 models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics...... a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. R0 models for many vector borne diseases are simple and the available estimates of model parameters like vector densities and survival rates may be uncertain. The quantitative value of R0 estimated from such models is therefore likely...

  8. R0-modeling as a tool for early warning and surveillance of exotic vector borne diseases in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene; Kristensen, Birgit; Græsbøll, Kaare; Kirkeby, Carsten; Stockmarr, Anders

    local spread of exotic insect borne diseases of veterinary and human importance. R0 models for various vector borne diseases are continuously updated with spatial temperature data to quantify the present risk of autochthonous cases (R0>0) and the present risk of epidemics (R0>1) in case an infected...... system for insect borne diseases. R0 models for many vector borne diseases are simple and the available estimates of model parameters like vector densities and survival rates may be uncertain. The quantitative value of R0 estimated from such models is therefore likely to deviate from the true R0. However......Modelling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...

  9. Modeling vector-borne disease risk in migratory animals under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Richard J; Brown, Leone M; Altizer, Sonia

    2016-08-01

    Recent theory suggests that animals that migrate to breed at higher latitudes may benefit from reduced pressure from natural enemies, including pathogens ("migratory escape"), and that migration itself weeds out infected individuals and lowers infection prevalence ("migratory culling"). The distribution and activity period of arthropod disease vectors in temperate regions is expected to respond rapidly to climate change, which could reduce the potential for migratory escape. However, climate change could have the opposite effect of reducing transmission if differential responses in the phenology and distribution of migrants and disease vectors reduce their overlap in space and time. Here we outline a simple modeling framework for exploring the influence of climate change on vector-borne disease dynamics in a migratory host. We investigate two scenarios under which pathogen transmission dynamics might be mediated by climate change: (1) vectors respond more rapidly than migrants to advancing phenology at temperate breeding sites, causing peak susceptible host density and vector emergence to diverge ("migratory mismatch") and (2) reduced migratory propensity allows increased nonbreeding survival of infected hosts and larger breeding-site epidemics (loss of migratory culling, here referred to as "sedentary amplification"). Our results highlight the need for continued surveillance of climate-induced changes to migratory behavior and vector activity to predict pathogen prevalence and its impacts on migratory animals. PMID:27252225

  10. Concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens associated with fatal hemolytic anemia in a cattle herd in Switzerland.

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann-Lehmann, R.; Meli, M. L.; Dreher, U M; Gönczi, E.; Deplazes, P.; Braun, U.; Engels, M; Schüpbach, J; Jörger, K; Thoma, R; Griot, C; Stärk, K.D.C.; Willi, B; Schmidt, J.; Kocan, K.M.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine anaplasmosis is a vector-borne disease that results in substantial economic losses in other parts of the world but so far not in northern Europe. In August 2002, a fatal disease outbreak was reported in a large dairy herd in the Swiss canton of Grisons. Diseased animals experienced fever, anorexia, agalactia, and depression. Anemia, ectoparasite infestation, and, occasionally, hemoglobinuria were observed. To determine the roles of vector-borne pathogens and to characterize the disease...

  11. Climate Change, Public Health, and Decision Support: The New Threat of Vector-borne Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, F.; Kumar, S.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change and vector-borne diseases constitute a massive threat to human development. It will not be enough to cut emissions of greenhouse gases-the tide of the future has already been established. Climate change and vector-borne diseases are already undermining the world's efforts to reduce extreme poverty. It is in the best interests of the world leaders to think in terms of concerted global actions, but adaptation and mitigation must be accomplished within the context of local community conditions, resources, and needs. Failure to act will continue to consign developed countries to completely avoidable health risks and significant expense. Failure to act will also reduce poorest of the world's population-some 2.6 billion people-to a future of diminished opportunity. Northrop Grumman has taken significant steps forward to develop the tools needed to assess climate change impacts on public health, collect relevant data for decision making, model projections at regional and local levels; and, deliver information and knowledge to local and regional stakeholders. Supporting these tools is an advanced enterprise architecture consisting of high performance computing, GIS visualization, and standards-based architecture. To address current deficiencies in local planning and decision making with respect to regional climate change and its effect on human health, our research is focused on performing a dynamical downscaling with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to develop decision aids that translate the regional climate data into actionable information for users. For the present climate WRF was forced with the Max Planck Institute European Center/Hamburg Model version 5 (ECHAM5) General Circulation Model 20th century simulation. For the 21th century climate, we used an ECHAM5 simulation with the Special Report on Emissions (SRES) A1B emissions scenario. WRF was run in nested mode at spatial resolution of 108 km, 36 km and 12 km and 28 vertical levels

  12. Vector-borne diseases on Fire Island, New York (Fire Island National Seashore Science Synthesis Paper)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginsberg, H.S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses eleven tick-borne and five mosquito-borne pathogens that are known to occur at FIlS, or could potentially occur. The potential for future occurrence, and ecological factors that influence occurrence, are assessed for each disease. Lyme disease is the most common vector-borne disease on Fire Island. The Lyme spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is endemic in local tick and wildlife populations. Public education, personal precautions against tick bite, and prompt treatment of early-stage infections can help manage the risk of Lyme disease on Fire Island. The pathogens that cause Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis and Tularemia have been isolated from ticks or wildlife on Fire Island, and conditions suggest that other tickborne diseases (including Babesiosis, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, and Human Granulocytic Ehrlichiosis) might also occur, but these are far less common than Lyme disease, if present. West Nile Virus (WNV) is the primary mosquito- borne human pathogen that is known to occur on Fire Island. Ecological conditions and recent epizootiological events suggest that WNV occurs in foci that can shift from year to year. Therefore, a surveillance program with appropriate responses to increasing epizootic activity can help manage the risk of WNV transmission on Fire Island.

  13. First surveys to investigate the presence of canine leishmaniasis and its phlebotomine vectors in Hungary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, Róbert; Tánczos, Balázs; Bongiorno, Gioia; Maroli, Michele; Dereure, Jacques; Ready, Paul D

    2011-07-01

    Hungary is regarded as free of leishmaniasis because only a few imported cases have been reported. However, southern Hungary has a sub-Mediterranean climate, and so it was included in the EU FP6 EDEN project, which aimed to map the northern limits of canine leishmaniasis (CanL) in Europe. The numbers of traveling and imported dogs have increased in the last decade, raising concerns about the introduction of CanL caused by Leishmania infantum. Serum samples were collected from 725 dogs (22 localities, 6 counties) that had never traveled to endemic countries, as well as from other potential reservoir hosts (185 red foxes and 13 golden jackals). All sera were tested by the indirect fluorescent antibody test, but they were sero-negative using the OIE cut-off of 1:80 serum dilution except for those of two dogs resident since birth in southern Hungary. These had not received a blood transfusion, but the mode of transmission is unclear because no sandfly vectors were caught locally. From 2006 to 2009, phlebotomine sandflies were sampled in the summer months at 47 localities of 8 counties. They were trapped with castor-oil-impregnated sticky-paper, light, and CO(2)-baited traps. Small numbers of two vectors of Leishmania infantum were found. Phlebotomus neglectus occurred in three villages near to Croatia and one in north Hungary at latitude 47 °N, and Phlebotomus perfiliewi perfiliewi was trapped at two sites in a southeastern county close to the sites where it was first found in 1931-1932. Our report provides baseline data for future investigations into the northward spread of CanL into Hungary, which we conclude has yet to occur. PMID:21254904

  14. Growth of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, in vector and non-vector ixodid tick cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrolho, Joana; Simpson, Jennifer; Hawes, Philippa; Zweygarth, Erich; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2016-06-01

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is caused by Ehrlichia canis, a small gram-negative coccoid bacterium that infects circulating monocytes. The disease is transmitted by the brown dog tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus s.l. and is acknowledged as an important infectious disease of dogs and other members of the family Canidae worldwide. E. canis is routinely cultured in vitro in the canine monocyte-macrophage cell line DH82 and in non-vector Ixodes scapularis tick cell lines, but not in cells derived from its natural vector. Here we report infection and limited propagation of E. canis in the tick cell line RSE8 derived from the vector R. sanguineus s.l., and successful propagation through six passages in a cell line derived from the experimental vector Dermacentor variabilis. In addition, using bacteria semi-purified from I. scapularis cells we attempted to infect a panel of cell lines derived from non-vector species of the tick genera Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus with E. canis and, for comparison, the closely-related Ehrlichia ruminantium, causative agent of heartwater in ruminants. Amblyomma and non-vector Dermacentor spp. cell lines appeared refractory to infection with E. canis but supported growth of E. ruminantium, while some, but not all, cell lines derived from Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus spp. ticks supported growth of both pathogens. We also illustrated and compared the ultrastructural morphology of E. canis in DH82, RSE8 and I. scapularis IDE8 cells. This study confirms that E. canis, like E. ruminantium, is able to grow not only in cell lines derived from natural and experimental tick vectors but also in a wide range of other cell lines derived from tick species not known to transmit this pathogen. PMID:26837859

  15. Stability Analysis of a Vector-Borne Disease with Variable Human Population

    OpenAIRE

    Ozair, Muhammad; Lashari, Abid Ali; Jung, Il Hyo; Seo, Young Il; Kim, Byul Nim

    2013-01-01

    A mathematical model of a vector-borne disease involving variable human population is analyzed. The varying population size includes a term for disease-related deaths. Equilibria and stability are determined for the system of ordinary differential equations. If R0≤1, the disease-“free” equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the disease always dies out. If R0>1, a unique “endemic” equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable in the interior of feasible region and the disease persis...

  16. Schools as Potential Risk Sites for Vector-Borne Disease Transmission: Mosquito Vectors in Rural Schools in Two Municipalities in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olano, Víctor Alberto; Matiz, María Inés; Lenhart, Audrey; Cabezas, Laura; Vargas, Sandra Lucía; Jaramillo, Juan Felipe; Sarmiento, Diana; Alexander, Neal; Stenström, Thor Axel; Overgaard, Hans J

    2015-09-01

    Dengue and other vector-borne diseases are of great public health importance in Colombia. Vector surveillance and control activities are often focused at the household level. Little is known about the importance of nonhousehold sites, including schools, in maintaining vector-borne disease transmission. The objectives of this paper were to determine the mosquito species composition in rural schools in 2 municipalities in Colombia and to assess the potential risk of vector-borne disease transmission in school settings. Entomological surveys were carried out in rural schools during the dry and rainy seasons of 2011. A total of 12 mosquito species were found: Aedes aegypti, Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Culex coronator, Cx. quinquefasciatus, and Limatus durhamii in both immature and adult forms; Ae. fluviatilis, Cx. nigripalpus, Cx. corniger, and Psorophora ferox in immature forms only; and Ae. angustivittatus, Haemagogus equinus, and Trichoprosopon lampropus in adult forms only. The most common mosquito species was Cx. quinquefasciatus. Classrooms contained the greatest abundance of adult female Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The most common Ae. aegypti breeding sites were containers classified as "others" (e.g., cans), followed by containers used for water storage. A high level of Ae. aegypti infestation was found during the wet season. Our results suggest that rural schools are potentially important foci for the transmission of dengue and other mosquito-borne diseases. We propose that public health programs should be implemented in rural schools to prevent vector-borne diseases. PMID:26375902

  17. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  18. An epidemic model of a vector-borne disease with direct transmission and time delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Hui-Ming; Li, Xue-Zhi; Martcheva, Maia

    2008-06-01

    This paper considers an epidemic model of a vector-borne disease which has direct mode of transmission in addition to the vector-mediated transmission. The incidence term is assumed to be of the bilinear mass-action form. We include both a baseline ODE version of the model, and, a differential-delay model with a discrete time delay. The ODE model shows that the dynamics is completely determined by the basic reproduction number R0. If R0[less-than-or-equals, slant]1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally stable and the disease dies out. If R0>1, a unique endemic equilibrium exists and is locally asymptotically stable in the interior of the feasible region. The delay in the differential-delay model accounts for the incubation time the vectors need to become infectious. We study the effect of that delay on the stability of the equilibria. We show that the introduction of a time delay in the host-to-vector transmission term can destabilize the system and periodic solutions can arise through Hopf bifurcation.

  19. Vector-borne parasitic diseases--an overview of recent changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molyneux, D H

    1998-06-01

    This paper summarises the impact of different changes (environmental, ecological, developmental) on the one hand, with the impact of control measures on the other. The former group of changes have tended to exacerbate the incidence and prevalence of vector-borne parasitic diseases while the reduced public funds available for the health sector have reduced disease surveillance systems. However, some vector control/eradication programmes have been successful. Vector control in onchocerciasis and Chagas' disease and immediate host control in Guinea worm have reduced the public health importance of these disease. This contrasts, with malaria, where the complexity of different ecological situations and the variable vector ecology have made control difficult and epidemics frequent and unpredictable. Advances in our knowledge of how to implement and sustain insecticide-impregnated bednets which reduce morbidity and mortality in under 5-year olds will be a key issue for the coming years. In African trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis, where control is dependent on effective diagnosis and surveillance followed by high-cost drug treatment, the health services are faced with major challenges--lack of drug availability and diagnostics no vector control--the diseases in some areas assuming epidemic status yet health services are unable to respond. Human African trypanosomiasis and visceral leishmaniasis are fatal if untreated, and require an emergency response approach. Changing vector distribution of Glossina is related to the ability of riverine flies of Glossina palpalis group to adapt to new vegetation patterns. In leishmaniasis changes have occurred in the distribution of the disease associated with development impact, urbanisation, civil unrest and changed agroforestry practice. PMID:9673871

  20. Construction of eukaryotic expression vector carrying canine β-defensin-1 gene and its expression in HEK293T cells

    OpenAIRE

    JIN Hui-Jun; Zhong, Fei; Wu, Ling-Juan; Xie, Min; Wang, Wei; Han, Dong-Mei

    2008-01-01

    Mammalian β-defensins are small cationic peptides that possess broad antimicrobial and physiological activities. To obtain the gene construct of canine β-defensin-1 (cBD-1), we cloned cBD-1gene and established a method to express cBD-1 in HEK293T cells. The cDNA encoding cBD-1 was amplified from canine testicular tissues by RT-PCR, and the cBD-1 gene was inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1A. Then, the recombinant pcDNA3.1A-cBD-1 plasmids were transfected into HEK293T cells usi...

  1. Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of Chagas' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrine Pelosse

    Full Text Available Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control.

  2. Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of Chagas' disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Gourbière, Sébastien; Menu, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time) and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control. PMID:23951018

  3. An environmental data set for vector-borne disease modeling and epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabot-Couture, Guillaume; Nigmatulina, Karima; Eckhoff, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling. PMID:24755954

  4. An environmental data set for vector-borne disease modeling and epidemiology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Chabot-Couture

    Full Text Available Understanding the environmental conditions of disease transmission is important in the study of vector-borne diseases. Low- and middle-income countries bear a significant portion of the disease burden; but data about weather conditions in those countries can be sparse and difficult to reconstruct. Here, we describe methods to assemble high-resolution gridded time series data sets of air temperature, relative humidity, land temperature, and rainfall for such areas; and we test these methods on the island of Madagascar. Air temperature and relative humidity were constructed using statistical interpolation of weather station measurements; the resulting median 95th percentile absolute errors were 2.75°C and 16.6%. Missing pixels from the MODIS11 remote sensing land temperature product were estimated using Fourier decomposition and time-series analysis; thus providing an alternative to the 8-day and 30-day aggregated products. The RFE 2.0 remote sensing rainfall estimator was characterized by comparing it with multiple interpolated rainfall products, and we observed significant differences in temporal and spatial heterogeneity relevant to vector-borne disease modeling.

  5. Prevalence of selected zoonotic and vector-borne agents in dogs and cats in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scorza, Andrea V; Duncan, Colleen; Miles, Laura; Lappin, Michael R

    2011-12-29

    To estimate the prevalence of enteric parasites and selected vector-borne agents of dogs and cats in San Isidro de El General, Costa Rica, fecal and serum samples were collected from animals voluntarily undergoing sterilization. Each fecal sample was examined for parasites by microscopic examination after fecal flotation and for Giardia and Cryptosporidium using an immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Giardia and Cryptosporidium IFA positive samples were genotyped after PCR amplification of specific DNA if possible. The seroprevalence rates for the vector-borne agents (Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis, and Anaplasma phagocytophilum) were estimated based on results from a commercially available ELISA. Enteric parasites were detected in samples from 75% of the dogs; Ancylostoma caninum, Trichuris vulpis, Giardia, and Toxocara canis were detected. Of the cats, 67.5% harbored Giardia spp., Cryptosporidium spp., Ancylostoma tubaeforme, or Toxocara cati. Both Cryptosporidium spp. isolates that could be sequenced were Cryptosporidium parvum (one dog isolate and one cat isolate). Of the Giardia spp. isolates that were successfully sequenced, the 2 cat isolates were assemblage A and the 2 dog isolates were assemblage D. D. immitis antigen and E. canis antibodies were identified in 2.3% and 3.5% of the serum samples, respectively. The prevalence of enteric zoonotic parasites in San Isidro de El General in Costa Rica is high in companion animals and this information should be used to mitigate public health risks. PMID:21846585

  6. Retrograde optogenetic characterization of the pontospinal module of the locus coeruleus with a canine adenoviral vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Hickey, Louise; Perrins, Ray; Werlen, Emilie; Patel, Amisha A; Hirschberg, Stefan; Jones, Matt W; Salinas, Sara; Kremer, Eric J; Pickering, Anthony E

    2016-06-15

    Noradrenergic neurons of the brainstem extend projections throughout the neuraxis to modulate a wide range of processes including attention, arousal, autonomic control and sensory processing. A spinal projection from the locus coeruleus (LC) is thought to regulate nociceptive processing. To characterize and selectively manipulate the pontospinal noradrenergic neurons in rats, we implemented a retrograde targeting strategy using a canine adenoviral vector to express channelrhodopsin2 (CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry). LC microinjection of CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry produced selective, stable, transduction of noradrenergic neurons allowing reliable opto-activation in vitro. The ChR2-transduced LC neurons were opto-identifiable in vivo and functional control was demonstrated for >6 months by evoked sleep-wake transitions. Spinal injection of CAV2-PRS-ChR2-mCherry retrogradely transduced pontine noradrenergic neurons, predominantly in the LC but also in A5 and A7. A pontospinal LC (ps:LC) module was identifiable, with somata located more ventrally within the nucleus and with a discrete subset of projection targets. These ps:LC neurons had distinct electrophysiological properties with shorter action potentials and smaller afterhyperpolarizations compared to neurons located in the core of the LC. In vivo recordings of ps:LC neurons showed a lower spontaneous firing frequency than those in the core and they were all excited by noxious stimuli. Using this CAV2-based approach we have demonstrated the ability to retrogradely target, characterise and optogenetically manipulate a central noradrenergic circuit and show that the ps:LC module forms a discrete unit. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Noradrenergic System. PMID:26903420

  7. Socio-economic factors influencing control of vector-borne diseases in the pastoralist system of south western Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugisha, Anthony; McLeod, Anni; Percy, Rachel; Kyewalabye, Elizabeth

    2008-05-01

    Research in control of tick-borne diseases and trypanosomosis, and their vectors, namely, ticks and tsetse flies respectively, has been on going for decades. However, very little attention has been paid to the socio-economic factors that are likely to influence the outcome of the interventions in the control of these diseases. Thus, this study was designed to investigate these factors, mainly the intra-household factors influencing decision-making in the control of Vector-borne diseases in the pastoralist areas of Uganda. These factors included: indigenous technical knowledge, household economic factors, and gender. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were used in the collection and analysis of data. The tools used for data collection included among others, participatory learning and action (PLA), and Case studies. The findings included the following: In pastoralist households, a big proportion of the household budget was allocated to vector-borne diseases control. In the male-headed households, men dominated decision-making on vector-borne diseases control, although the goals and priorities of men and women in these households were not the same. Also, vector-borne disease control was predominantly by use of modern veterinary drugs, and pastoralists treated sick cattle by themselves even in situations where there were veterinary personnel. PMID:18557192

  8. Disease-modeling as a tool for surveillance, foresight and control of exotic vector borne diseases in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Rene

    partners to generate a truly risk based surveillance system for insect borne diseases. We have also used the R0 models to predict the potential impact of climate change on four selected vector borne disease: Bluetongue in cattle, African Horse Sickness in horses, Dirofilariasis in dogs and Vivax......Modeling the potential transmission intensity of insect borne diseases with climate driven R0 process models is frequently used to assess the potential for veterinary and human infections to become established in non endemic areas. Models are often based on mean temperatures of an arbitrary time...... and agriculture. The practical impact of climate change on human health and agriculture may therefore be greater than simple distribution maps suggest. This presentation will demonstrate the system for selected vector borne diseases, compare the predicted R0 with the actual spread of bluetongue in Scandinavia i...

  9. A GEOSPATIAL ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ENVIRONMENTAL DRIVERS AND VECTOR-BORNE DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA IOANA VLAD-ȘANDRU

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A Geospatial Analysis of the Relationship between Environmental Drivers and Vector-Borne Diseases. Human health is profoundly affected by weather and climate. Environmental health is becoming a major preoccupation on a world-wide scale; there is a close correlation between a population’s state of health and the quality of its environment, considering many infectious diseases are at least partly dependent on environmental factors. When we talk about the environment, we realize that it includes and affects fields of action from our daily life. Earth observation from space, with validation from in situ observations, provide a greater understanding of the environment and enable us to monitor and predict key environmental phenomena and events that can affect our livelihoods and health. Even thought, the use of Earth observation is growing in usefulness for a wide variety of uses, it is extremely unlikely that Earth Observation will be able to detect infectious diseases directly. Instead, Earth observation can be used to detect high NDVI index (and possibly attribute the high surface chlorophyll concentration to a particular disease, and help predict the movement of the agents carrying vector-borne disease. Many diseases need certain temperature and moisture conditions to breed. The primary objective of analyzing environmental health risk and vulnerabilities is to support the Development Regions to strengthen their capacity to assess, visualize and analyze health risks and incorporate the results of this analysis in a health risk map for disaster risk reduction, emergency preparedness and response plans. At the same time, such an analysis applied in health, allows starting the collection and homogenization of baseline data, information and maps to help health authorities and decision makers to take informed decisions in times of crises. Informational Health Platform would be used for the integration of data coming from different sources in order to

  10. Influence of vectors' risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity on the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases: the example of chagas' disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M.; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E; Gourbière, Sébastien; Menu, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease, juvenile development time varies between individu...

  11. Construction of eukaryotic expression vector carrying canine β-defensin-1 gene and its expression in HEK293T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Hui-Jun

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian β-defensins are small cationic peptides that possess broad antimicrobial and physiological activities. To obtain the gene construct of canine β-defensin-1 (cBD-1, we cloned cBD-1gene and established a method to express cBD-1 in HEK293T cells. The cDNA encoding cBD-1 was amplified from canine testicular tissues by RT-PCR, and the cBD-1 gene was inserted into eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3.1A. Then, the recombinant pcDNA3.1A-cBD-1 plasmids were transfected into HEK293T cells using calcium phosphate. The results showed that the sequence of cBD-1 gene amplified in this research was almost identical to the published sequence (GenBank accession number: NM_001024641 since the homology between them was 99.7%. The expressed cBD-1 protein isolated from cell culture medium was detected by Western-blot suggesting that cBD-1 gene could be secretively expressed in eukaryotic cells. These results also provide a basis for further investigation of canine β-defensin function [Acta Zoologica Sinica 54(5: 897- 902, 2008].

  12. Climate change and the distribution of vector borne diseases with special reference to African horse sickness virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the context of climate change, those components of climate that are likely to have major effects upon distribution, seasonal incidence and prevalence of vector borne diseases are described. On the basis of a predicted, mean temperature increase of the order of 1 to 3.5 deg. C., examples are given of the sort of changes that are to be expected by using a range of internationally important human and animal pathogens. Recent dramatic alterations in the epidemiology of the OIE List ''A'' disease, African horse sickness, are drawn upon to put forward the proposition that climate change may already be having a major effect upon some vector borne diseases. (author)

  13. Prevalence of select vector-borne disease agents in owned dogs of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorelei L. Clarke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, sera and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA blood were collected from dogs evaluated at the Amakom Veterinary Clinic in Kumasi, Ghana. Sera were evaluated for Dirofilaria immitis antigen and antibodies against Borrelia burgdorferi, Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Ehrlichia canis. Conventional polymerase chain reaction assays designed to amplify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA ofEhrlichia spp. or Anaplasma spp. or Neorickettsia spp. or Wolbachia spp., Babesia spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Bartonella spp. and the haemoplasmas were performed on DNA extracted from EDTA blood and all positive amplicons were sequenced. This small survey shows that the following vector-borne pathogens are present in urban Ghanian dogs: Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis,Dirofilaria immitis and Anaplasma platys. Bartonella henselae was isolated from ticks but not from the dogs.

  14. Global warming and the potential spread of vector-borne diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patz, J. [Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology

    1996-12-31

    Climatic factors influence many vector-borne infectious diseases, in addition to demographic, biological, and ecological determinants. The United Nation`s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates an unprecedented global rise of 2.0 C by the year 2100. Of major concern is that these changes can affect the spread of many serious infectious diseases, including malaria and dengue fever. Global warming would directly affect disease transmission by shifting the mosquito`s geographic range, increasing reproductive and biting rates, and shortening pathogen incubation period. Human migration and damage to health infrastructures from the projected increase in climate variability and sea level rise could indirectly contribute to disease transmission. A review of this literature, as well as preliminary data from ongoing studies will be presented.

  15. Molecular detection of vector-borne bacteria and protozoa in healthy hunting dogs from Central Italy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentina; Virginia; Ebani; Simona; Nardoni; Giulia; Fognani; Linda; Mugnaini; Fabrizio; Bertelloni; Guido; Rocchigiani; Roberto; Amerigo; Papini; Francesco; Stefani; Francesca; Mancianti

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To determine the pi’evalence of vector-bome bacteria and protozoa in hunting dogs living in Central Italy.Methods:Molecular testing was executed on DNA which was extracted from blood specimens collected from 117 asymptomatic dogs to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum,Babesia canis(B.canis),Bartonella spp..Coxiella burnetii(C.burnetii).Ehrlichia canis.Hepatozoon canis.and Leislnnania infantum.Results:A total of 48 dogs(41.0%) were infested by Ixodes ricinus and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks.Tick-borne infections were observed in 64(54.7%) animals.More in detail.38 dogs(32.5%) screened positive for Hepatozoon canis,24(20.5%) for Bartonella rinsonii subsp.berkhoffii.20(17.1%) for Leishmania infantum,6(5.1%) for C.burnetii,5(4.3%) for B.canis(3 B.canis vogeli and 2 B.canis canis),3(2.5%) for Anaplasma phagocytophilum,and 2(1.7%) for Ehrlichia canis.Mixed infection by 2 agents occurred in 17(14.5%) subjects,by 3 agents in 7(6.0%) dogs,and by 4 agents in 1(0.9%) animal.Conclusions:The results demonstrated that several vector-borne pathogens were circulating in this region and dogs infected by these agents were usually asymptomatic.A relevant finding was the presence of DNA of C.burnetii,a severe zoonotic agent,in the 5.1% of tested dogs,which can be source of infection for their owners not only through tick bites,but also directly with urine,feces and birth products.

  16. Recent Weather Extremes and Impacts on Agricultural Production and Vector-Borne Disease Outbreak Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Britch, Seth C.; Tucker, Compton J.; Pak, Edwin W.; Reynolds, Curt A.; Crutchfield, James; Linthicum, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    We document significant worldwide weather anomalies that affected agriculture and vector-borne disease outbreaks during the 2010-2012 period. We utilized 2000-2012 vegetation index and land surface temperature data from NASA's satellite-based Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to map the magnitude and extent of these anomalies for diverse regions including the continental United States, Russia, East Africa, Southern Africa, and Australia. We demonstrate that shifts in temperature and/or precipitation have significant impacts on vegetation patterns with attendant consequences for agriculture and public health. Weather extremes resulted in excessive rainfall and flooding as well as severe drought, which caused,10 to 80% variation in major agricultural commodity production (including wheat, corn, cotton, sorghum) and created exceptional conditions for extensive mosquito-borne disease outbreaks of dengue, Rift Valley fever, Murray Valley encephalitis, and West Nile virus disease. Analysis of MODIS data provided a standardized method for quantifying the extreme weather anomalies observed during this period. Assessments of land surface conditions from satellite-based systems such as MODIS can be a valuable tool in national, regional, and global weather impact determinations.

  17. Behind the scene, something else is pulling the strings : emphasizing parasitic manipulation in vector-borne diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Lefèvre, Thierry; F. Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Merging the field of epidemiology with those of evolutionary and behavioural ecology can generate considerable fundamental knowledge, as well as help to guide public health policies. An attempt is made here to integrate these disciplines by focusing on parasitic manipulation in vector-borne diseases. Parasitic manipulation is a fascinating strategy of transmission which occurs when a parasite alters phenotypic trait(s) of its host in a way that enhances its probability of transmission. Vector...

  18. Incidence of Vector-borne Disease and Climate Change: A Study in Semi-arid Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakey, T.; Bounoua, L.

    2012-12-01

    Leishmaniases are among the most important emerging and resurging vector-borne diseases, second only to malaria in terms of the number of affected people. Leishmaniases are endemic in 88 countries worldwide and threaten about 350 million people (WHO, 2007). Since the first reported case of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in Saida, Algeria in 1991, 1,275 cases have been recorded (Makhlouf & Houti, 2010) with the vast majority of study-area cases (99%) reported between the years of 2000 and 2009. An investigation of potential climatic indicators for the apparent shift in disease prevalence was conducted by comparing anomalies in the climate data specific to the local pathogen cycle. It was determined that long term climate trends have resulted in conditions that promote the prevalence of ZCL. Increased precipitation have resulted in greater vegetation and promoted host and vector population growth through a trophic cascade. Increased minimum temperatures have lengthened the annual duration of sandfly activity. Short term variations in maximum temperatures, however show a correlation with disease suppression in the subsequent years. These findings indicate a potential to forecast the risk of ZCL infection through models of the trophic cascade and sandfly population growth.

  19. Prototype early warning systems for vector-borne diseases in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenza, Jan C

    2015-06-01

    Globalization and environmental change, social and demographic determinants and health system capacity are significant drivers of infectious diseases which can also act as epidemic precursors. Thus, monitoring changes in these drivers can help anticipate, or even forecast, an upsurge of infectious diseases. The European Environment and Epidemiology (E3) Network has been built for this purpose and applied to three early warning case studies: (1) The environmental suitability of malaria transmission in Greece was mapped in order to target epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control activities. Malaria transmission in these areas was interrupted in 2013 through such integrated preparedness and response activities. (2) Since 2010, recurrent West Nile fever outbreaks have ensued in South/eastern Europe. Temperature deviations from a thirty year average proved to be associated with the 2010 outbreak. Drivers of subsequent outbreaks were computed through multivariate logistic regression models and included monthly temperature anomalies for July and a normalized water index. (3) Dengue is a tropical disease but sustained transmission has recently emerged in Madeira. Autochthonous transmission has also occurred repeatedly in France and in Croatia mainly due to travel importation. The risk of dengue importation into Europe in 2010 was computed with the volume of international travelers from dengue affected areas worldwide.These prototype early warning systems indicate that monitoring drivers of infectious diseases can help predict vector-borne disease threats. PMID:26042370

  20. Prototype Early Warning Systems for Vector-Borne Diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan C. Semenza

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Globalization and environmental change, social and demographic determinants and health system capacity are significant drivers of infectious diseases which can also act as epidemic precursors. Thus, monitoring changes in these drivers can help anticipate, or even forecast, an upsurge of infectious diseases. The European Environment and Epidemiology (E3 Network has been built for this purpose and applied to three early warning case studies: (1 The environmental suitability of malaria transmission in Greece was mapped in order to target epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control activities. Malaria transmission in these areas was interrupted in 2013 through such integrated preparedness and response activities. (2 Since 2010, recurrent West Nile fever outbreaks have ensued in South/eastern Europe. Temperature deviations from a thirty year average proved to be associated with the 2010 outbreak. Drivers of subsequent outbreaks were computed through multivariate logistic regression models and included monthly temperature anomalies for July and a normalized water index. (3 Dengue is a tropical disease but sustained transmission has recently emerged in Madeira. Autochthonous transmission has also occurred repeatedly in France and in Croatia mainly due to travel importation. The risk of dengue importation into Europe in 2010 was computed with the volume of international travelers from dengue affected areas worldwide.These prototype early warning systems indicate that monitoring drivers of infectious diseases can help predict vector-borne disease threats.

  1. Operational vector-borne disease surveillance and control: closing the capabilities gap through research at overseas military laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Brian P; Clark, Jeffrey W; Barbara, Kathryn A; Mundal, Kirk D; Furman, Barry D; McAvin, James C; Richardson, Jason H

    2009-01-01

    Malaria, dengue fever, chikungunya virus, leishmaniasis, and a myriad of other vector-borne diseases pose significant threats to the warfighter and to the overall combat effectiveness of units. Military preventive medicine (PM) assets must accurately evaluate the vector-borne disease threat and then implement and/or advise the commander on countermeasures to reduce a particular threat. The success of these measures is contingent upon the biology of the disease vector and on the tools or methods used to conduct vector/pathogen surveillance and vector control. There is a significant gap between the tools available and those required for operational PM assets to provide real-time, effective surveillance and control. A network of US Army and US Navy overseas laboratories is focused on closing the current capabilities gap. Their mission is to develop and field test tools and methods to enhance the combatant commander's ability to identify and mitigate the threat posed by these vector-borne diseases. PMID:20084734

  2. WNV infection - an emergent vector borne viral infection in Serbia: Current situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Tamaš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a neurovirulent mosquito-borne Flavivirus with zoonotic potential. Virus is maintained in nature in an enzootic transmission cycle between avian hosts and mosquito vectors, but occasionally infects other vertebrates. The infection in horses and humans can be asymptomatic or it can have different clinical manifestations ranging from light febrile diseases to fatal meningoencephalitis. Recently, the number, frequency and severity of outbreaks with neurological consequences for birds, humans and horses have increased dramatically throughout central and south Europe, including Serbia, posing a serious veterinary and public health problem. The emergency of WNV infections in Serbia is described through the current epidemiology situation based on recent data on the incidence of WNV infection among virus natural hosts and vectors; sentinel (horses and other animal species, and in human population. The results of the WNV serology studies conducted on horse blood samples collected in different occasions during the last six years, and the results of the serology studies conducted among other animal species like pigs, wild boars, roe deer and dogs in Serbia are presented and discussed. Also, the results of the first studies on WNV presence in mosquito vectors and in wild birds as virus natural hosts in Serbia are presented and analyzed. In addition, the data on the WNV serology studies conducted in human population in Serbia in the last few years, and the existing data of WNV outbreaks in 2012 and 2013 are included. Regarding the existing knowledge on WNV epidemiology situation, the crucial role of veterinary service in early detection of WNV presence and ongoing national program of WNV surveillance in sentinel animals, mosquitoes and wild birds are discussed.

  3. Improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication contains the results presented by the participants of the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) on improving the diagnosis and control of trypanosomiasis and other vector-borne diseases of African livestock using immunoassay methods. The CRP lasted from 1987 until 1992. The individual contributions have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Remote Sensing the Patterns of Vector-borne Disease in El Nino and non-El Nino Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, B. L.; Chang, J.; Lobitz, B.; Beck, L.; DAntoni, Hector (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between El Nino and non-El Nino and the patterns of vector-borne disease can be viewed at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. At one extreme are long term predictions of changing precipitation and temperature patterns at continental and global scales. At the opposite extreme are the local or site specific ecological changes associated with the long term events. In order to understand and address the human health consequences of El Nino events, especially the patterns of vector-borne diseases, it is necessary to combine both scales of observation. At a local or regional scale the patterns of vector-borne diseases are determined by temperature, precipitation, and habitat availability. These factors, as well as disease incidence can be altered by El Nino events. Remote sensing data such as that acquired by the NOAA AVHRR and Landsat TM sensors can be used to characterize and monitor changing ecological conditions and therefore predict vector-borne disease patterns. The authors present the results of preliminary work on the analysis of historical AVHRR and TM data acquired during El Nino and nonfatal Nino years to characterize ecological conditions in Peru on a monthly basis. This information will then be combined with disease data to determine the relationship between changes in ecological conditions and disease incidence. Our goal is to produce a sequence of remotely sensed images which can be used to show the ecological and disease patterns associated with long term El Nino events and predictions.

  5. International network for capacity building for the control of emerging viral vector-borne zoonotic diseases: ARBO-ZOONET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, J; Bouloy, M; Ergonul, O; Fooks, Ar; Paweska, J; Chevalier, V; Drosten, C; Moormann, R; Tordo, N; Vatansever, Z; Calistri, P; Estrada-Pena, A; Mirazimi, A; Unger, H; Yin, H; Seitzer, U

    2009-03-26

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different domestic and wild animals and in humans, posing a threat to public health because of their epidemic and zoonotic potential. In recent decades, the geographical distribution of these diseases has expanded. Outbreaks of WNF have already occurred in Europe, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Moreover, CCHF is endemic in many European countries and serious outbreaks have occurred, particularly in the Balkans, Turkey and Southern Federal Districts of Russia. In 2000, RVF was reported for the first time outside the African continent, with cases being confirmed in Saudi Arabia and Yemen. This spread was probably caused by ruminant trade and highlights that there is a threat of expansion of the virus into other parts of Asia and Europe. In the light of global warming and globalisation of trade and travel, public interest in emerging zoonotic diseases has increased. This is especially evident regarding the geographical spread of vector-borne diseases. A multi-disciplinary approach is now imperative, and groups need to collaborate in an integrated manner that includes vector control, vaccination programmes, improved therapy strategies, diagnostic tools and surveillance, public awareness, capacity building and improvement of infrastructure in endemic regions. PMID:19341603

  6. Immune responses to rAAV6: The influence of canine parvovirus vaccination and neonatal administration of viral vector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AndreaL HArnett

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Recombinant adeno-associated viral (rAAV vectors promote long-term gene transfer in many animal species. Significant effort has focused on the evaluation of rAAV delivery and the immune response in both murine and canine models of neuromuscular disease. However, canines provided for research purposes are routinely vaccinated against canine parvovirus (CPV. rAAV and CPV possess significant homology and are both parvoviruses. Thus, any immune response generated to CPV vaccination has the potential to cross-react with rAAV vectors. In this study, we investigated the immune response to rAAV6 delivery in a cohort of CPV-vaccinated canines and evaluated multiple vaccination regimens in a mouse model of CPV-vaccination. We show that CPV-vaccination stimulates production of neutralizing antibodies with minimal cross-reactivity to rAAV6. In addition, no significant differences were observed in the magnitude of the rAAV6-directed immune response between CPV-vaccinated animals and controls. Moreover, CPV-vaccination did not inhibit rAAV6-mediated transduction. We also evaluated the immune response to early rAAV6-vaccination in neonatal mice. The influence of maternal hormones and cytokines leads to a relatively permissive state in the neonate. We hypothesized that immaturity of the immune system would permit induction of tolerance to rAAV6 when delivered during the neonatal period. Mice were vaccinated with rAAV6 at 1 or 5 days of age, and subsequently challenged with rAAV6 exposure during adulthood via two sequential IM injections, one month apart. All vaccinated animals generated a significant neutralizing antibody response to rAAV6-vaccination that was enhanced following IM injection in adulthood. Taken together, these data demonstrate that the immune response raised against rAAV6 is distinct from that which is elicited by the standard parvoviral vaccines and is sufficient to prevent stable tolerization in neonatal mice.

  7. 9 CFR 113.202 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus...; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.202 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine, Killed...

  8. Identification of vector-borne pathogens in dogs and cats from Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiros, J; Costa, M M; do Amaral, R B; de Sousa, K C M; André, M R; Machado, R Z; Vieira, M I B

    2016-07-01

    Dogs and cats are often infected with vector-borne pathogens and play a crucial role as reservoirs and hosts in their life cycles. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens among dogs and cats in the northwestern region of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) State, Brazil. One hundred and ten blood samples were collected from dogs (n=80) and cats (n=30). Laboratory analysis were carried out through stained blood smears, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for Babesia vogeli and Ehrlichia canis (only for dogs) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) aiming the detection of pathogens. The following pathogens were screened by PCR among dogs and cats: Babesia spp. and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA gene), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA gene), and Ehrlichia spp. (dsb gene for dogs and 16S rRNA gene for cats) and Bartonella spp. (nuoG gene only for cats). Using blood smears structures morphologically compatible with piroplasms were found in 5.45% (6/110) of the samples. Anti-B. vogeli and anti-E. canis antibodies were detected in 91% (73/80) and 9% (7/80) of the dogs, respectively. All the seropositive dogs to E. canis were also to B. vogeli. Nineteen (17.3%) animals were positive to hemoparasites by PCR. After sequencing Rangelia vitalii 6/80 (7.5%), B. vogeli 3/80 (4%), Hepatozoon spp. 1/80 (1%), and Anaplasma spp. 1/80 (1%) were found in the dogs, and B. vogeli 2/30 (7%) and Bartonella spp. 6/30 (20%) were detected in the screened cats. No sample was positive for genes dsb and 16S rRNA of Ehrlichia spp. Only those animals which were positive for R. vitalii showed findings compatible with rangeliosis, such as anemia (100%), thrombocytopenia (67%), jaundice (50%), external bleeding (50%), and anorexia (50%). This is the first time that B. vogeli detected among cats in Southern Brazil. PMID:27266811

  9. Environmental change and water-related, vector borne diseases in eastern Africa: the HEALTHY FUTURES project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, David; Kienberger, Stefan; Tompkins, Adrian

    2015-04-01

    Pathogens that spend time outside the human body, and any organisms involved in their transmission, have particular ecological requirements; as environment, including climate, conditions change, then the transmission characteristics of associated pathogens - and the diseases caused - are also likely to vary. Relationships between environment and health in many parts of the world remain poorly studied and are often overlooked, however. This is particularly the case in developing countries, because of budgetary and available expertise constraints. Moreover the relationship is often confounded by other factors. These other factors contribute to human vulnerability, and thus to the overall disease risk due to environmental change. This presentation will highlight the importance of environmental, including climate, change information to a better understanding of the risks to health of projected future environmental changes, and to the more efficient and effective use of scarce health resources in the developing world. The paper will focus on eastern Africa, and in particular the health effects of future projected environmental change impacts on water-related, vector borne diseases in the East African Community region. Moreover the paper will highlight how the EU FP7-funded project HEALTHY FUTURES is, through a broadly-based, integrative approach that distinguishes environmental change-induced health hazard from health risk aims to support the health decisions making process, thereby attempting to help mitigate negative health impacts.

  10. Recombinant Newcastle disease viral vector expressing hemagglutinin or fusion of canine distemper virus is safe and immunogenic in minks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Jinying; Wang, Xijun; Tian, Meijie; Gao, Yuwei; Wen, Zhiyuan; Yu, Guimei; Zhou, Weiwei; Zu, Shulong; Bu, Zhigao

    2015-05-15

    Canine Distemper Virus (CDV) infects many carnivores and cause several high-mortality disease outbreaks. The current CDV live vaccine cannot be safely used in some exotic species, such as mink and ferret. Here, we generated recombinant lentogenic Newcastle disease virus (NDV) LaSota expressing either envelope glycoproyein, heamagglutinine (H) or fusion protein (F), named as rLa-CDVH and rLa-CDVF, respectively. The feasibility of these recombinant NDVs to serve as live virus-vectored CD vaccine was evaluated in minks. rLa-CDVH induced significant neutralization antibodies (NA) to CDV and provided solid protection against virulent CDV challenge. On the contrast, rLa-CDVF induced much lower NA to CDV and fail to protected mink from virulent CDV challenge. Results suggest that recombinant NDV expressing CDV H is safe and efficient candidate vaccine against CDV in mink, and maybe other host species. PMID:25865465

  11. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Soo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to WHO member states and completed either by the director of the vector-borne disease control programme or by the national manager for vector control. In all, 113 countries responded to the questionnaire (80% response rate, representing 94% of the total population of the countries targeted. Results Major gaps were evident in countries in pesticide procurement practices, training on vector control decision making, certification and quality control of pesticide application, monitoring of worker safety, public awareness programmes, and safe disposal of pesticide-related waste. Nevertheless, basic conditions of policy and coordination have been established in many countries through which the management of vector control pesticides could potentially be improved. Most countries responded that they have adopted relevant recommendations by the WHO. Conclusions Given the deficiencies identified in this first global survey on public health pesticide management and the recent rise in pesticide use for malaria control, the effectiveness and safety of pesticide use are being compromised. This highlights the urgent need for countries to strengthen their capacity on pesticide management and evidence-based decision making within the context of an integrated vector management approach.

  12. Spatial cognition: a geospatial analysis of vector borne disease transmission and the environment, using remote sensing and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Palaniyandi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of geographical distribution of vector borne diseases has been increasingly public health important and challenging problems in more than 100 tropical countries and it has been affecting more than 50% of the population in the world, especially, it is very big problem in India. The change of vector borne disease epidemic transmission in to the endemic situation in the country has been caused by the land use / land cover changes, regional climate changes, increase of sea change population, urban agglomeration, industrial development and the past development of towns, consequently, the disease epidemics have been steadily increased too, and, besides, it has been found ubiquitous, such diseases known as, malaria, filariasis, JE, dengue and chikungunya, as a result, the increase of both mosquito nuisances and disease transmissions has become public health importance and very big challenging problems in India.

  13. The ecological foundations of transmission potential and vector-borne disease in urban landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Shannon L LaDeau; Allan, Brian F.; Leisnham, Paul T.; Michael Z Levy

    2015-01-01

    Urban transmission of arthropod-vectored disease has increased in recent decades. Understanding and managing transmission potential in urban landscapes requires integration of sociological and ecological processes that regulate vector population dynamics, feeding behavior, and vector-pathogen interactions in these unique ecosystems. Vectorial capacity is a key metric for generating predictive understanding about transmission potential in systems with obligate vector transmission. This review ...

  14. Climate change and spatiotemporal distributions of vector-borne diseases in Nepal : a systematic synthesis of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Ahrens, Bodo; Kuch, Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this Himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, Nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (VBDs), namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. There is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on VBDs especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. Our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of VBDs i...

  15. Epidemic dynamics of a vector-borne disease on a village-and-city star network with commuters

    OpenAIRE

    Mpolya, E.A.; Yashima, K; Ohtsuki, H; Sasaki, A.

    2013-01-01

    We develop a star-network of connections between a central city and peripheral villages and analyze the epidemic dynamics of a vector-borne disease as influenced by daily commuters. We obtain an analytical solution for the global basic reproductive number R0 and investigate its dependence on key parameters for disease control. We find that in a star-network topology the central hub is not always the best place to focus disease intervention strategies. Disease control decisions are sensitive t...

  16. Climate change could threaten blood supply by altering the distribution of vector-borne disease: an Australian case-study

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary J. Bambrick; Woodruff, Rosalie E.; Hanigan, Ivan C

    2009-01-01

    Background: Climate change is expected to promote more intense and prolonged outbreaks of vector-borne disease, and alter the geographic boundaries of transmission. This has implications for the safety and supply of fresh blood products around the world. In Australia, a recent outbreak of dengue fever caused a prolonged regional shortage in the supply of fresh blood products. Objective: To highlight the potential for climate change to affect the safety and supply of blood globally through its...

  17. Assessing the Effects of Climate and Socioeconomic Factors on Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases in Latin America

    OpenAIRE

    García Ayala, Rodrigo; Estrugo, Andrés

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is imposing a large burden on the most vulnerable populations, particularly in the developing world. Establishing consistent causal relationships, however, is difficult because a multiplicity of climatic, economic and sociodemographic elements are combined to create the conditions for an outbreak of vector-borne disease. Based on a two-step procedure, this paper presents and tests an approach to estimating the effects of epidemic outbreaks on health vulnerability. The model pro...

  18. Advanced megaesophagus (Group III) secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant

    OpenAIRE

    Anis Rassi; Joffre Marcondes de Rezende; Anis Rassi Junior

    2012-01-01

    The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III) megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique). The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infection was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her ...

  19. Climate change could threaten blood supply by altering the distribution of vector-borne disease: an Australian case-study

    OpenAIRE

    Hilary J. Bambrick; Woodruff, Rosalie E.; Hanigan, Ivan C

    2009-01-01

    Background Climate change is expected to promote more intense and prolonged outbreaks of vector-borne disease, and alter the geographic boundaries of transmission. This has implications for the safety and supply of fresh blood products around the world. In Australia, a recent outbreak of dengue fever caused a prolonged regional shortage in the supply of fresh blood products. Objective To highlight the potential for climate change to affect the safety and supply of blood globally through its i...

  20. Understanding uncertainty in temperature effects on vector-borne disease: a Bayesian approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Leah R.; Ben-Horin, Tal; Lafferty, Kevin D.; McNally, Amy; Mordecai, Erin A.; Paaijmans, Krijn P.; Pawar, Samraat; Ryan, Sadie J.

    2015-01-01

    Extrinsic environmental factors influence the distribution and population dynamics of many organisms, including insects that are of concern for human health and agriculture. This is particularly true for vector-borne infectious diseases like malaria, which is a major source of morbidity and mortality in humans. Understanding the mechanistic links between environment and population processes for these diseases is key to predicting the consequences of climate change on transmission and for developing effective interventions. An important measure of the intensity of disease transmission is the reproductive number R0. However, understanding the mechanisms linking R0 and temperature, an environmental factor driving disease risk, can be challenging because the data available for parameterization are often poor. To address this, we show how a Bayesian approach can help identify critical uncertainties in components of R0 and how this uncertainty is propagated into the estimate of R0. Most notably, we find that different parameters dominate the uncertainty at different temperature regimes: bite rate from 15°C to 25°C; fecundity across all temperatures, but especially ~25–32°C; mortality from 20°C to 30°C; parasite development rate at ~15–16°C and again at ~33–35°C. Focusing empirical studies on these parameters and corresponding temperature ranges would be the most efficient way to improve estimates of R0. While we focus on malaria, our methods apply to improving process-based models more generally, including epidemiological, physiological niche, and species distribution models.

  1. Insecticide control of vector-borne diseases : when is insecticide resistance a problem ?

    OpenAIRE

    Rivero, Ana; Vézilier, Julien; Weill, Mylène; Read, Andrew F.; Gandon, Sylvain

    2010-01-01

    Many of the most dangerous human diseases are transmitted by insect vectors. After decades of repeated insecticide use, all of these vector species have demonstrated the capacity to evolve resistance to insecticides. Insecticide resistance is generally considered to undermine control of vector-transmitted diseases because it increases the number of vectors that survive the insecticide treatment. Disease control failure, however, need not follow from vector control failure. Here, we review evi...

  2. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorini, Manuela; Cassini, Rudi; Drigo, Michele; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Pietrobelli, Mario; Montarsi, Fabrizio; Stensgaard, Anna-Sofie

    2014-11-01

    With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environmental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribution of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM) and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30) and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt prediction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level) characterised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveillance strategies. PMID:25545936

  3. Ecological niche model of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Signorini

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With respect to the epidemiology of leishmaniasis, it is crucial to take into account the ecoclimatic and environ- mental characteristics that influence the distribution patterns of the vector sand fly species. It is also important to consider the possible impact of on-going climate changes on the emergence of this disease. In order to map the potential distribu- tion of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector species of canine leishmaniasis in north-eastern Italy, geographical information systems tools, ecological niche models (ENM and remotely sensed environmental data were applied for a retrospective analysis of an entomological survey conducted in north-eastern Italy over 12 years. Sand fly trapping was conducted from 2001 to 2012 in 175 sites in the provinces of Veneto, Friuli-Venezia Giulia and Trentino-Alto Adige. We developed a predictive model of potential distribution of P. perniciosus using the maximum entropy algorithm software, based on seasonal normalized difference vegetation index, day and night land surface temperature, the Corine land cover 2006, a digital elevation model (GTOPO30 and climate layers obtained from the WorldClim database. The MaxEnt pre- diction found the more suitable habitat for P. perniciosus to be hilly areas (100-300 m above the mean sea level charac- terised by temperate climate during the winter and summer seasons, high winter vegetation cover and moderate rainfall during the activity season of vector sand fly. ENM provided a greater understanding of the geographical distribution and ecological requirements of P. perniciosus in the study area, which can be applied for the development of future surveil- lance strategies.

  4. Membrane-bound SIV envelope trimers are immunogenic in ferrets after intranasal vaccination with a replication-competent canine distemper virus vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinsheng; Wallace, Olivia; Wright, Kevin J; Backer, Martin; Coleman, John W; Koehnke, Rebecca; Frenk, Esther; Domi, Arban; Chiuchiolo, Maria J; DeStefano, Joanne; Narpala, Sandeep; Powell, Rebecca; Morrow, Gavin; Boggiano, Cesar; Zamb, Timothy J; Richter King, C; Parks, Christopher L

    2013-11-01

    We are investigating canine distemper virus (CDV) as a vaccine vector for the delivery of HIV envelope (Env) that closely resembles the native trimeric spike. We selected CDV because it will promote vaccine delivery to lymphoid tissues, and because human exposure is infrequent, reducing potential effects of pre-existing immunity. Using SIV Env as a model, we tested a number of vector and gene insert designs. Vectors containing a gene inserted between the CDV H and L genes, which encoded Env lacking most of its cytoplasmic tail, propagated efficiently in Vero cells, expressed the immunogen on the cell surface, and incorporated the SIV glycoprotein into progeny virus particles. When ferrets were vaccinated intranasally, there were no signs of distress, vector replication was observed in the gut-associated lymphoid tissues, and the animals produced anti-SIV Env antibodies. These data show that live CDV-SIV Env vectors can safely induce anti-Env immune responses following intranasal vaccination. PMID:24074564

  5. Predictiveness of Disease Risk in a Global Outreach Tourist Setting in Thailand Using Meteorological Data and Vector-Borne Disease Incidences

    OpenAIRE

    Suwannapa Ninphanomchai; Chitti Chansang; Yien Ling Hii; Joacim Rocklöv; Pattamaporn Kittayapong

    2014-01-01

    Dengue and malaria are vector-borne diseases and major public health problems worldwide. Changes in climatic factors influence incidences of these diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between vector-borne disease incidences and meteorological data, and hence to predict disease risk in a global outreach tourist setting. The retrospective data of dengue and malaria incidences together with local meteorological factors (temperature, rainfall, humidity) regist...

  6. Vector-borne pathogens in dogs from Costa Rica: first molecular description of Babesia vogeli and Hepatozoon canis infections with a high prevalence of monocytic ehrlichiosis and the manifestations of co-infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Alicia; Rojas, Diana; Montenegro, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Yasur-Landau, Daniel; Baneth, Gad

    2014-01-31

    Infection with canine vector-borne pathogens was evaluated in dogs from four different regions of Costa Rica by PCR. Demographic data, clinical signs, packed cell volume values, and the presence of tick infestation were recorded for each dog. Forty seven percent (69/146) of the dogs were infected with at least one pathogen and 12% were co-infected with two pathogens. Ehrlichia canis was detected in 34%, Anaplasma platys in 10%, Babesia vogeli in 8%, and Hepatozoon canis in 7.5% of the blood samples. No infection was detected with Leishmania spp. in blood, skin scrapings or conjunctival swabs. Thirty percent of the dogs presented at least one clinical sign compatible with vector-borne disease, and of those, 66% were infected with a pathogen. Subclinical infections were determined in 58% of the infected dogs including 82% (9/11), 58% (29/50), 42% (5/12) and 36% (5/14) of the dogs with H. canis, E. canis, B. vogeli and A. platys infections, respectively. A distinct relationship was found between infection and anemia. The mean PCV values were 34.4% in dogs with no infection, 31.5% in those who had a single infection and 23% in those with co-infection. Co-infected dogs had significantly lower PCV values compared to non-infected and single-infected dogs (pticks, 82% of them were infested with Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato and 18% with Amblyomma ovale. Dogs infected with A. platys, B. vogeli, or E. canis were significantly associated with R. sanguineus s.l. infestation (pdescription of infections with B. vogeli and H. canis in Costa Rica as well as in Central America. The results of this study indicate that multiple vector-borne pathogens responsible for severe diseases infect dogs in Costa Rica and therefore, increased owner and veterinarian awareness are needed. Moreover, prevention of tick infestation is recommended to decrease the threat of these diseases to the canine population. PMID:24315693

  7. Apical Gene Transfer into Quiescent Human and Canine Polarized Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Lentivirus Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Seppen, Jurgen; Barry, Simon C.; Klinkspoor, J. Henriette; Katen, Louis J.; Lee, Sum P; Garcia, J. Victor; Osborne, William R. A.

    2000-01-01

    Intestinal epithelial cells secrete a protective luminal mucus barrier inhibiting viral gene transfer. Quiescent, polarized monolayers of primary epithelial cells from dog gallbladder and human colon are efficiently transduced through the apical mucus side by lentivirus vectors, suggesting their application to intestinal gene therapy.

  8. Ectoparasitism and vector-borne diseases in 930 homeless people from Marseilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouqui, Philippe; Stein, Andreas; Dupont, Hervé Tissot; Gallian, Pierre; Badiaga, Sekene; Rolain, Jean Marc; Mege, Jean Louis; La Scola, Bernard; Berbis, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2005-01-01

    Homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasites, but their exposure to arthropod-borne diseases has not been evaluated systematically. A medical team of 27 persons (7 nurses, 6 infectious disease residents or fellows, 2 dermatologists, and 12 infectious disease specialists) visited the 2 shelters in Marseilles, France, for 4 consecutive years. Homeless volunteers were interviewed, examined, and received care; and blood was sampled for cell counts and detection of bacteremia, antibodies to louse-borne (Rickettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana, and Borrelia recurrentis), flea-borne (R. typhi, R. felis), mite-borne (R. akari), and tick-borne (R. conorii) bacterial agents. We selected sex- and age-adjusted controls among healthy blood donors. Over 4 years, 930 homeless people were enrolled. Lice were found in 22% and were associated with hypereosinophilia (odds ratio, 5.7; 95% confidence intervals, 1.46-22.15). Twenty-seven patients (3%) with scabies were treated with ivermectin. Bartonella quintana was isolated from blood culture in 50 patients (5.3%), 36 of whom were treated effectively. The number of bacteremic patient increased from 3.4% to 8.4% (p = 0.02) over the 4 years of the study. We detected a higher seroprevalence to Borrelia recurrentis, R. conorii, and R. prowazekii antibodies in the homeless. Our study shows a high prevalence of louse-borne infections in the homeless and a high degree of exposure to tick-borne diseases and scabies. Despite effective treatment for Bartonella quintana bacteremia and the efforts made to delouse this population, Bartonella quintana remains endemic, and we found hallmarks of epidemic typhus and relapsing fever. The uncontrolled louse infestation of this population should alert the community to the possibility of severe re-emerging louse-borne infections. PMID:15643300

  9. Efficacy and safety of a live canine adenovirus-vectored rabies virus vaccine in swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Zhang, Shoufeng; Ma, Guangpeng; Zhang, Fei; Hu, Rongliang

    2008-10-01

    Rabies infections in swine have been reported occasionally in recent years in certain geographic locations. Although a protective vaccine consisting of inactivated rabies virus is available for use in swine, searching for a more economically viable formulation for use in developing countries is always a priority. This work describes the testing of a canine adenovirus that expresses a rabies viral epitope (CAV-2-E3Delta-RGP) in a porcine rabies model. The data presented here show that the recombinant viral vaccine was effective in protecting swine against rabies if administered intramuscularly, but not orally or intranasally, and that protection was probably related to the development of a humoral response that lasted at least 28 weeks. Following vaccination, no behavioral abnormalities were observed in vaccinated swine and virus particles were not detected in either tissues or body fluids, indicating that this formulation was safe. The recombinant virus stimulated an effective level of antibody response in the immunized swine after a single intramuscular inoculation. PMID:18721839

  10. Impact of climate change upon vector born diseases in Europe and Africa using ENSEMBLES Regional Climate Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, Cyril; Morse, Andy

    2010-05-01

    Climate variability is an important component in determining the incidence of a number of diseases with significant human/animal health and socioeconomic impacts. The most important diseases affecting health are vector-borne, such as malaria, Rift Valley Fever and including those that are tick borne, with over 3 billion of the world population at risk. Malaria alone is responsible for at least one million deaths annually, with 80% of malaria deaths occurring in sub-Saharan Africa. The climate has a large impact upon the incidence of vector-borne diseases; directly via the development rates and survival of both the pathogen and the vector, and indirectly through changes in the environmental conditions. A large ensemble of regional climate model simulations has been produced within the ENSEMBLES project framework for both the European and African continent. This work will present recent progress in human and animal disease modelling, based on high resolution climate observations and regional climate simulations. Preliminary results will be given as an illustration, including the impact of climate change upon bluetongue (disease affecting the cattle) over Europe and upon malaria and Rift Valley Fever over Africa. Malaria scenarios based on RCM ensemble simulations have been produced for West Africa. These simulations have been carried out using the Liverpool Malaria Model. Future projections highlight that the malaria incidence decreases at the northern edge of the Sahel and that the epidemic belt is shifted southward in autumn. This could lead to significant public health problems in the future as the demography is expected to dramatically rise over Africa for the 21st century.

  11. Advanced megaesophagus (Group III secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease in a 20-month-old infant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anis Rassi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The authors report the case of a female infant with Group III (or Grade III megaesophagus secondary to vector-borne Chagas disease, resulting in severe malnutrition that reversed after surgery (Heller technique. The infant was then treated with the antiparasitic drug benznidazole, and the infection was cured, as demonstrated serologically and parasitologically. After follow-up of several years without evidence of disease, with satisfactory weight and height development, the patient had her first child at age 23, in whom serological tests for Chagas disease yielded negative results. Thirty years after the initial examination, the patient's electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, and chest radiography remained normal.

  12. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen Jamie; Harrison Stanley; Birney Ian; Wilkerson Richard C; Foley Desmond H; Rueda Leopoldo M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Result...

  13. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: a critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dórea, Fernanda C.; Elbers, Armin R.W.; Hendrikx, Pascal;

    2016-01-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden...... and United Kingdom, part of the CoVetLab network). A qualitative assessment was then performed focusing on surveillance directed particularly to BTV-8. Information regarding surveillance activities were reviewed for the years 2008 and 2012. The results were then complemented with a critical scoping review...... of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection...

  14. Climate Change and Spatiotemporal Distributions of Vector-Borne Diseases in Nepal--A Systematic Synthesis of Literature.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    Full Text Available Despite its largely mountainous terrain for which this Himalayan country is a popular tourist destination, Nepal is now endemic for five major vector-borne diseases (VBDs, namely malaria, lymphatic filariasis, Japanese encephalitis, visceral leishmaniasis and dengue fever. There is increasing evidence about the impacts of climate change on VBDs especially in tropical highlands and temperate regions. Our aim is to explore whether the observed spatiotemporal distributions of VBDs in Nepal can be related to climate change.A systematic literature search was performed and summarized information on climate change and the spatiotemporal distribution of VBDs in Nepal from the published literature until December 2014 following providing items for systematic review and meta-analysis (PRISMA guidelines.We found 12 studies that analysed the trend of climatic data and are relevant for the study of VBDs, 38 studies that dealt with the spatial and temporal distribution of disease vectors and disease transmission. Among 38 studies, only eight studies assessed the association of VBDs with climatic variables. Our review highlights a pronounced warming in the mountains and an expansion of autochthonous cases of VBDs to non-endemic areas including mountain regions (i.e., at least 2,000 m above sea level. Furthermore, significant relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors are found in short-term studies.Taking into account the weak health care systems and difficult geographic terrain of Nepal, increasing trade and movements of people, a lack of vector control interventions, observed relationships between climatic variables and VBDs and their vectors and the establishment of relevant disease vectors already at least 2,000 m above sea level, we conclude that climate change can intensify the risk of VBD epidemics in the mountain regions of Nepal if other non-climatic drivers of VBDs remain constant.

  15. Pre-travel advice concerning vector-borne diseases received by travelers prior to visiting Cuzco, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia, Christian R; Centeno, Emperatriz; Cruz, Briggitte; Cvetkovic-Vega, Aleksandar; Delgado, Edison; Rodriguez-Morales, Alfonso J

    2016-01-01

    Peru is an increasingly popular tourist destination that poses a risk to travelers due to endemic vector-borne diseases (VBDs). The objective of our study was to determine which factors are associated with receiving pre-travel advice (PTA) for VBDs among travelers visiting Cuzco, Peru. A cross-sectional secondary analysis based on data from a survey among travelers departing Cuzco at Alejandro Velazco Astete International Airport during the period January-March 2012 was conducted. From the 1819 travelers included in the original study, 1717 were included in secondary data analysis. Of these participants, 42.2% received PTA and 2.9% were informed about vector-borne diseases, including yellow fever (1.8%), malaria (1.6%) and dengue fever (0.1%). Receiving information on VBDs was associated with visiting areas endemic to yellow fever and dengue fever in Peru. The only disease travelers received specific recommendations for before visiting an endemic area for was yellow fever. Only 1 in 30 tourists received information on VBD prevention; few of those who traveled to an endemic area were warned about specific risks for infectious diseases prior to their trip. These important findings show that most tourists who travel to Peru do not receive PTA for the prevention of infectious and VBD, which can affect not only the travelers but their countries of origin as well. PMID:26751818

  16. Influence of Vectors’ Risk-Spreading Strategies and Environmental Stochasticity on the Epidemiology and Evolution of Vector-Borne Diseases: The Example of Chagas’ Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosse, Perrine; Kribs-Zaleta, Christopher M.; Ginoux, Marine; Rabinovich, Jorge E.; Gourbière, Sébastien; Menu, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Insects are known to display strategies that spread the risk of encountering unfavorable conditions, thereby decreasing the extinction probability of genetic lineages in unpredictable environments. To what extent these strategies influence the epidemiology and evolution of vector-borne diseases in stochastic environments is largely unknown. In triatomines, the vectors of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, juvenile development time varies between individuals and such variation most likely decreases the extinction risk of vector populations in stochastic environments. We developed a simplified multi-stage vector-borne SI epidemiological model to investigate how vector risk-spreading strategies and environmental stochasticity influence the prevalence and evolution of a parasite. This model is based on available knowledge on triatomine biodemography, but its conceptual outcomes apply, to a certain extent, to other vector-borne diseases. Model comparisons between deterministic and stochastic settings led to the conclusion that environmental stochasticity, vector risk-spreading strategies (in particular an increase in the length and variability of development time) and their interaction have drastic consequences on vector population dynamics, disease prevalence, and the relative short-term evolution of parasite virulence. Our work shows that stochastic environments and associated risk-spreading strategies can increase the prevalence of vector-borne diseases and favor the invasion of more virulent parasite strains on relatively short evolutionary timescales. This study raises new questions and challenges in a context of increasingly unpredictable environmental variations as a result of global climate change and human interventions such as habitat destruction or vector control. PMID:23951018

  17. Some vector borne parasites in Swedish reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claes Rehbinder

    1990-08-01

    Full Text Available A review presented at the Fifth European Regional Meeting of the Society for Vector Ecology, September 2.-6. 1990, Uppsala, Sweden. The clinical and pathological manifestations as well as some meat hygienic aspects of Megatrypanum trypanosomes, Babesia divergens, Setaria tundrae, Onchocerca tarsicola and Lappnema auris infections in reindeer are reported on.Vektorburna parasiter hos svensk ren.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfatting: En oversikt presenterad vid «the Fifth European Regional Meeting of the Society for Vector Ecology», September 2.-6. 1990, Uppsala, Sverige. Kliniska och patologiska manifestationer liksom i viss utsträckning livsmedelshygieniska aspekter diskuteras med avseende på infektioner med Vektorburna parasiter hos svensk ren. trypanosomer, Babesia divergens, Setaria tundrae, Onchocerca tarsicola och Lappnema auris.

  18. Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Kovats, R. S.; Campbell-Lendrum, D H; McMichael, A. J.; Woodward, A; Cox, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The world's climate appears now to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Shifts in the distribution and behaviour of insect and bird species indicate that biological systems are already responding to this change. It is well established that climate is an important determinant of the spatial and temporal distribution of vectors and pathogens. In theory, a change in climate would be expected to cause changes in the geographical range, seasonality (intra-annual variability), and in the incidence...

  19. Complex ecological dynamics and eradicability of the vector borne macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj Gambhir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The current global efforts to control the morbidity and mortality caused by infectious diseases affecting developing countries--such as HIV/AIDS, polio, tuberculosis, malaria and the Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs-have led to an increasing focus on the biological controllability or eradicability of disease transmission by management action. Here, we use an age-structured dynamical model of lymphatic filariasis transmission to show how a quantitative understanding of the dynamic processes underlying infection persistence and extinction is key to evaluating the eradicability of this macroparasitic disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the persistence and extinction dynamics of lymphatic filariasis by undertaking a numerical equilibrium analysis of a deterministic model of parasite transmission, based on varying values of the initial L3 larval density in the system. The results highlighted the likely occurrence of complex dynamics in parasite transmission with three major outcomes for the eradicability of filariasis. First, both vector biting and worm breakpoint thresholds are shown to be complex dynamic entities with values dependent on the nature and magnitude of vector-and host specific density-dependent processes and the degree of host infection aggregation prevailing in endemic communities. Second, these thresholds as well as the potential size of the attractor domains and hence system resilience are strongly dependent on peculiarities of infection dynamics in different vector species. Finally, the existence of multiple stable states indicates the presence of hysteresis nonlinearity in the filariasis system dynamics in which infection thresholds for infection invasion are lower but occur at higher biting rates than do the corresponding thresholds for parasite elimination. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The variable dynamic nature of thresholds and parasite system resilience reflecting both initial conditions and

  20. Kissing Bugs in the United States: Risk for Vector-Borne Disease in Humans

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen A. Klotz; Dorn, Patricia L.; Mark Mosbacher; Schmidt, Justin O.

    2014-01-01

    Eleven species of kissing bugs are found in the United States. Their home ranges may be expanding northward, perhaps as a consequence of climate change. At least eight of the species, perhaps all, are reported to harbor Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite that causes Chagas disease. Because humans are encroaching on kissing bug habitat, there is concern for vector-transmitted Chagas disease in the United States. To date, documented autochthonous cases of Chagas in humans in the United States are ...

  1. Seven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: Vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseases

    OpenAIRE

    T. Déirdre Hollingsworth; Pulliam, Juliet R. C.; Sebastian Funk; Truscott, James E; Valerie Isham; Lloyd, Alun L.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the challenges which face modellers of directly transmitted pathogens also arise when modelling the epidemiology of pathogens with indirect transmission - whether through environmental stages, vectors, intermediate hosts or multiple hosts. In particular, understanding the roles of different hosts, how to measure contact and infection patterns, heterogeneities in contact rates, and the dynamics close to elimination are all relevant challenges, regardless of the mode of transmission. Ho...

  2. Implementing Cargo Movement into Climate Based Risk Assessment of Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Margarete Thomas; Nils Benjamin Tjaden; Sanne van den Bos; Carl Beierkuhnlein

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. The further development and potential spread to other regions depends largely on their climatic suitability. Here, we have developed a...

  3. Implementing Cargo Movement into Climate Based Risk Assessment of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Margarete Thomas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades the disease vector Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito has rapidly spread around the globe. Global shipment of goods contributes to its permanent introduction. Invaded regions are facing novel and serious public health concerns, especially regarding the transmission of formerly non-endemic arboviruses such as dengue and chikungunya. The further development and potential spread to other regions depends largely on their climatic suitability. Here, we have developed a tool for identifying and prioritizing European areas at risk for the establishment of Aedes albopictus by taking into account, for the first time, the freight imports from this mosquito’s endemic countries and the climate suitability at harbors and their surrounding regions. In a second step we consider the further transport of containers by train and inland waterways because these types of transport can be well controlled. We identify European regions at risk, where a huge amount of transported goods meet climatically suitable conditions for the disease vector. The current and future suitability of the climate for Aedes albopictus was modeled by a correlative niche model approach and the Regional Climate Model COSMO-CLM. This risk assessment combines impacts of globalization and global warming to improve effective and proactive interventions in disease vector surveillance and control actions.

  4. International Network for Capacity Building for the Control of Emerging Viral Vector-Borne Zoonotic Diseases: Arbo-Zoonet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahmed, J.; Bouloy, M.; Ergonul, O.; Fooks, A.R.; Paweska, J.; Chevalier, V.; Drosten, C.; Moormann, R.J.M.; Tordo, N.; Vatansever, Z.; Calistri, P.; Estrada-Pena, A.; Mirazimi, A.; Unger, H.; Yin, H.; Seitzer, U.

    2009-01-01

    Arboviruses are arthropod-borne viruses, which include West Nile fever virus (WNFV), a mosquito-borne virus, Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), a mosquito-borne virus, and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), a tick-borne virus. These arthropod-borne viruses can cause disease in different do

  5. Development and Validation of Remote Sensing-Based Surface Inundation Products for Vector-Borne Disease Risk in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, K.; McDonald, K. C.; Ceccato, P.; Schroeder, R.; Podest, E.

    2014-12-01

    The potential impact of climate variability and change on the spread of infectious disease is of increasingly critical concern to public health. Newly-available remote sensing datasets may be combined with predictive modeling to develop new capabilities to mitigate risks of vector-borne diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis, and rift valley fever. We have developed improved remote sensing-based products for monitoring water bodies and inundation dynamics that have potential utility for improving risk forecasts of vector-borne disease epidemics. These products include daily and seasonal surface inundation based on the global mappings of inundated area fraction derived at the 25-km scale from active and passive microwave instruments ERS, QuikSCAT, ASCAT, and SSM/I data - the Satellite Water Microwave Product Series (SWAMPS). Focusing on the East African region, we present validation of this product using multi-temporal classification of inundated areas in this region derived from high resolution PALSAR (100m) and Landsat (30m) observations. We assess historical occurrence of malaria in the east African country of Eritrea with respect to the time series SWAMPS datasets, and we aim to construct a framework for use of these new datasets to improve prediction of future malaria risk in this region. This work is supported through funding from the NASA Applied Sciences Program, the NASA Terrestrial Ecology Program, and the NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Program. This study is also supported and monitored by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under Grant - CREST Grant # NA11SEC4810004. The statements contained within the manuscript/research article are not the opinions of the funding agency or the U.S. government, but reflect the authors' opinions. This work was conducted in part under the framework of the ALOS Kyoto and Carbon Initiative. ALOS PALSAR data were provided by JAXA EORC.

  6. Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Heidi E.

    Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better understand mosquito-borne disease epidemiology for improvement of public health responses. In addition to reviewing the progress of spatial infectious disease modeling, I present four research projects. I begin by evaluating the biases in surveillance data and build up to predictive modeling of mosquito species presence. In the first study I explore how mosquito surveillance trap types influence estimations of mosquito populations. Then. I use county-based human surveillance data and landscape variables to identify risk factors for West Nile virus disease. The third study uses satellite-based vegetation indices to identify spatial variation among West Nile virus vectors in an urban area and relates the variability to virus transmission dynamics. Finally, I explore how information from three satellite sensors of differing spatial and spectral resolution can be used to identify and distinguish mosquito habitat across central Connecticut wetlands. Analyses presented here constitute improvements to the prediction of mosquito distribution and therefore identification of disease risk factors. Current methods for mosquito surveillance data collection are labor intensive and provide an extremely limited, incomplete picture of the species composition and abundance. Human surveillance data offers additional challenges with respect to reporting bias and resolution, but is nonetheless informative in identifying environmental risk factors and disease transmission dynamics. Remotely sensed imagery supports

  7. Climate, environmental and socio-economic change: weighing up the balance in vector-borne disease transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Paul E; Waldock, Joanna; Christophides, George K; Hemming, Deborah; Agusto, Folashade; Evans, Katherine J; Fefferman, Nina; Gaff, Holly; Gumel, Abba; LaDeau, Shannon; Lenhart, Suzanne; Mickens, Ronald E; Naumova, Elena N; Ostfeld, Richard S; Ready, Paul D; Thomas, Matthew B; Velasco-Hernandez, Jorge; Michael, Edwin

    2015-04-01

    Arguably one of the most important effects of climate change is the potential impact on human health. While this is likely to take many forms, the implications for future transmission of vector-borne diseases (VBDs), given their ongoing contribution to global disease burden, are both extremely important and highly uncertain. In part, this is owing not only to data limitations and methodological challenges when integrating climate-driven VBD models and climate change projections, but also, perhaps most crucially, to the multitude of epidemiological, ecological and socio-economic factors that drive VBD transmission, and this complexity has generated considerable debate over the past 10-15 years. In this review, we seek to elucidate current knowledge around this topic, identify key themes and uncertainties, evaluate ongoing challenges and open research questions and, crucially, offer some solutions for the field. Although many of these challenges are ubiquitous across multiple VBDs, more specific issues also arise in different vector-pathogen systems. PMID:25688012

  8. Impacts of Climate Change on Vector Borne Diseases in the Mediterranean Basin — Implications for Preparedness and Adaptation Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Negev

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean region is vulnerable to climatic changes. A warming trend exists in the basin with changes in rainfall patterns. It is expected that vector-borne diseases (VBD in the region will be influenced by climate change since weather conditions influence their emergence. For some diseases (i.e., West Nile virus the linkage between emergence andclimate change was recently proved; for others (such as dengue the risk for local transmission is real. Consequently, adaptation and preparation for changing patterns of VBD distribution is crucial in the Mediterranean basin. We analyzed six representative Mediterranean countries and found that they have started to prepare for this threat, but the preparation levels among them differ, and policy mechanisms are limited and basic. Furthermore, cross-border cooperation is not stable and depends on international frameworks. The Mediterranean countries should improve their adaptation plans, and develop more cross-sectoral, multidisciplinary and participatory approaches. In addition, based on experience from existing local networks in advancing national legislation and trans-border cooperation, we outline recommendations for a regional cooperation framework. We suggest that a stable and neutral framework is required, and that it should address the characteristics and needs of African, Asian and European countries around the Mediterranean in order to ensure participation. Such a regional framework is essential to reduce the risk of VBD transmission, since the vectors of infectious diseases know no political borders.

  9. Host population persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases: Hawaii amakihi and avian malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodworth, B.L.; Atkinson, C.T.; Lapointe, D.A.; Hart, P.J.; Spiegel, C.S.; Tweed, E.J.; Henneman, C.; LeBrun, J.; Denette, T.; DeMots, R.; Kozar, K.L.; Triglia, D.; Lease, D.; Gregor, A.; Smith, T.; Duffy, D.

    2005-01-01

    The past quarter century has seen an unprecedented increase in the number of new and emerging infectious diseases throughout the world, with serious implications for human and wildlife populations. We examined host persistence in the face of introduced vector-borne diseases in Hawaii, where introduced avian malaria and introduced vectors have had a negative impact on most populations of Hawaiian forest birds for nearly a century. We studied birds, parasites, and vectors in nine study areas from 0 to 1,800 m on Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii from January to October, 2002. Contrary to predictions of prior work, we found that Hawaii amakihi (Hemignathus virens), a native species susceptible to malaria, comprised from 24.5% to 51.9% of the avian community at three low-elevation forests (55-270 m). Amakihi were more abundant at low elevations than at disease-free high elevations, and were resident and breeding there. Infection rates were 24-40% by microscopy and 55-83% by serology, with most infected individuals experiencing low-intensity, chronic infections. Mosquito trapping and diagnostics provided strong evidence for year-round local transmission. Moreover, we present evidence that Hawaii amakihi have increased in low elevation habitats on south-eastern Hawaii Island over the past decade. The recent emergent phenomenon of recovering amakihi populations at low elevations, despite extremely high prevalence of avian malaria, suggests that ecological or evolutionary processes acting on hosts or parasites have allowed this species to recolonize low-elevation habitats. A better understanding of the mechanisms allowing coexistence of hosts and parasites may ultimately lead to tools for mitigating disease impacts on wildlife and human populations.

  10. A Comparison of Dynamics in Two Models for the Spread of a Vector-Borne Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesbøll, K; Sumner, T; Enøe, C; Christiansen, L E; Gubbins, S

    2016-04-01

    In 2007, bluetongue virus (BTV) was introduced to both Denmark (DK) and the United Kingdom (UK). For this reason, simulation models were built to predict scenarios for future incursions. The DK and UK models have a common description of within-herd dynamics, but differ greatly in their descriptions of between-herd spread, one using an explicit representation of vector dispersal, the other a transmission kernel. Here, we compare model predictions for the dynamics of bluetongue in the UK, based on the 2007 incursion and vaccination rollout in 2008. We demonstrate how an agent-based model shows greater sensitivity to the level of vaccine uptake and has lower variability compared with a kernel-based model. However, a model using a transmission kernel requires less detailed data and is often faster. PMID:25056842

  11. A Comparison of Dynamics in Two Models for the Spread of a Vector-Borne Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Sumner, T.; Enøe, Claes;

    2016-01-01

    of between-herd spread, one using an explicit representation of vector dispersal, the other a transmission kernel. Here, we compare model predictions for the dynamics of bluetongue in the UK, based on the 2007 incursion and vaccination rollout in 2008. We demonstrate how an agent-based model shows greater......In 2007, bluetongue virus (BTV) was introduced to both Denmark (DK) and the United Kingdom (UK). For this reason, simulation models were built to predict scenarios for future incursions. The DK and UK models have a common description of within-herd dynamics, but differ greatly in their descriptions...... sensitivity to the level of vaccine uptake and has lower variability compared with a kernel-based model. However, a model using a transmission kernel requires less detailed data and is often faster....

  12. Host group formation decreases exposure to vector-borne disease: a field experiment in a 'hotspot' of West Nile virus transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, Bethany L; Anderson, Tavis K; Goldberg, Tony L; Hamer, Gabriel L; Kitron, Uriel D; Newman, Christina M; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Walker, Edward D; Brawn, Jeffrey D

    2014-12-01

    Animals can decrease their individual risk of predation by forming groups. The encounter-dilution hypothesis extends the potential benefits of gregariousness to biting insects and vector-borne disease by predicting that the per capita number of insect bites should decrease within larger host groups. Although vector-borne diseases are common and can exert strong selective pressures on hosts, there have been few tests of the encounter-dilution effect in natural systems. We conducted an experimental test of the encounter-dilution hypothesis using the American robin (Turdus migratorius), a common host species for the West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne pathogen. By using sentinel hosts (house sparrows, Passer domesticus) caged in naturally occurring communal roosts in the suburbs of Chicago, we assessed sentinel host risk of WNV exposure inside and outside of roosts. We also estimated per capita host exposure to infected vectors inside roosts and outside of roosts. Sentinel birds caged inside roosts seroconverted to WNV more slowly than those outside of roosts, suggesting that social groups decrease per capita exposure to infected mosquitoes. These results therefore support the encounter-dilution hypothesis in a vector-borne disease system. Our results suggest that disease-related selective pressures on sociality may depend on the mode of disease transmission. PMID:25339722

  13. Benefit of insecticide-treated nets, curtains and screening on vector borne diseases, excluding malaria: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilson, A.L.; Dhiman, R.C.; Kitron, U.; Scott, T.W.; Berg, van den H.; Lindsay, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) are one of the main interventions used for malaria control. However, these nets may also be effective against other vector borne diseases (VBDs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the efficacy of ITNs, insecticide-treated curt

  14. Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Jørgen; Willesen, Jakob Lundgren

    2009-01-01

    Canine pulmonary angiostrongylosis is an emerging snail-borne disease causing verminous pnemonia and coagulopathy in dogs. The parasite is fund in Europe, North and South America and Africa, covering tropical, subtropical and temperate regions. Its distribution has been characterised by isolated...... larvae may not reflect what happens under field conditions. There is insufficient understanding of the spread of infection and the dynamic consequences of this parasite in the canine population. This review discusses the biology, epidemiology, clinical aspects and management of canine pulmonary...

  15. Emerging vector-borne zoonoses: eco-epidemiology and public health implications in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, Ramesh C

    2014-01-01

    The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, and extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non-endemic areas of Japanese encephalitis (JE) like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; and reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted, which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors, etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs, and human beings (like BSL4, which has been established in NIV, Pune), awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (climatic, ecological, and socioeconomic) and mapping of disease-specific vulnerable areas, and mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario is needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in Southeast Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions. PMID:25325052

  16. Emerging Vector borne zoonoses: eco-­epidemiology and public health implications in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh C Dhiman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The diseases originating from animals or associated with man and animals are remerging and have resulted in considerable morbidity and mortality. The present review highlights the re-emergence of emerging mainly zoonotic diseases like chikungunya, scrub typhus, extension of spatial distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis from Western Rajasthan to Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and Haryana states; West Nile virus to Assam, and non- endemic areas of JE like Maharashtra and JE to Delhi; Crimean Congo Hemorrhagic Fever making inroads in Ahmedabad; reporting fifth parasite of human malaria with possibility of zoonosis have been highlighted which necessitates further studies for prevention and control. Emphasis has been given on understanding the ecology of reservoir hosts of pathogen, micro niche of vector species, climatic, socioeconomic risk factors etc. Development of facilities for diagnosis of virus from insects, reservoirs and human beings (like BSL4 which has been established in NIV, Pune, awareness about symptoms of new emerging viral and other zoonotic diseases, differential diagnosis, risk factors (Climatic, ecological and socioeconomic and mapping of disease specific vulnerable areas, mathematical modeling for projecting epidemiological scenario, are needed for preparedness of public health institutes. It is high time to understand the ecological link of zoonotic or anthroponotic diseases for updated risk maps and epidemiological knowledge for effective preventive and control measures. The public health stakeholders in India as well as in south East Asia should emphasize on understanding the eco-epidemiology of the discussed zoonotic diseases for taking preventive actions.

  17. Temporal and spatial scaling of the genetic structure of a vector-borne plant pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletta-Filho, Helvécio D; Francisco, Carolina S; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2014-02-01

    The ecology of plant pathogens of perennial crops is affected by the long-lived nature of their immobile hosts. In addition, changes to the genetic structure of pathogen populations may affect disease epidemiology and management practices; examples include local adaptation of more fit genotypes or introduction of novel genotypes from geographically distant areas via human movement of infected plant material or insect vectors. We studied the genetic structure of Xylella fastidiosa populations causing disease in sweet orange plants in Brazil at multiple scales using fast-evolving molecular markers (simple-sequence DNA repeats). Results show that populations of X. fastidiosa were regionally isolated, and that isolation was maintained for populations analyzed a decade apart from each other. However, despite such geographic isolation, local populations present in year 2000 were largely replaced by novel genotypes in 2009 but not as a result of migration. At a smaller spatial scale (individual trees), results suggest that isolates within plants originated from a shared common ancestor. In summary, new insights on the ecology of this economically important plant pathogen were obtained by sampling populations at different spatial scales and two different time points. PMID:24397266

  18. How human practices have affected vector-borne diseases in the past: a study of malaria transmission in Alpine valleys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemperière Guy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria was endemic in the Rhône-Alpes area of eastern France in the 19th century and life expectancy was particularly shortened in Alpine valleys. This study was designed to determine how the disease affected people in the area and to identify the factors influencing malaria transmission. Methods Demographic data of the 19th century were collected from death registers of eight villages of the flood-plain of the river Isère. Correlations were performed between these demographic data and reconstructed meteorological data. Archive documents from medical practitioners gave information on symptoms of ill people. Engineer reports provided information on the hydraulic project developments in the Isère valley. Results Description of fevers was highly suggestive of endemic malaria transmission in the parishes neighbouring the river Isère. The current status of anopheline mosquitoes in the area supports this hypothesis. Mean temperature and precipitation were poorly correlated with demographic data, whereas the chronology of hydrological events correlated with fluctuations in death rates in the parishes. Conclusion Nowadays, most of the river development projects involve the creation of wet areas, enabling controlled flooding events. Flood-flow risk and the re-emergence of vector-borne diseases would probably be influenced by the climate change. The message is not to forget that human disturbance of any functioning hydrosystem has often been linked to malaria transmission in the past.

  19. Climate and Health Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.

    2015-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases ( malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities; ministries of health; the WMO Global Framework for Climate and Services; and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above with examples in South Africa, Zimbabwe, Tanzania and Malawi.

  20. Climate and Population Health Vulnerabilities to Vector-Borne Diseases: Increasing Resilience Under Climate Change Conditions in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceccato, P.; McDonald, K. C.; Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; Kruczkiewicz, A.; Lessel, J.; Jensen, K.; Thomson, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The International Research Institute for Climate and Society (IRI), the City University of New York (CUNY) and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in collaboration with NASA SERVIR are developing tools to monitor climate variables (precipitation, temperature, vegetation, water bodies, inundation) that help projects in Africa to increase resilience to climate change for vector-borne diseases (i.e. malaria, trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and schistosomiasis). Through the development of new products to monitor precipitation, water bodies and inundation, IRI, CUNY and JPL provide tools and capacity building to research communities, ministries of health and World Health Organization in Africa to: 1) Develop research teams' ability to appropriately use climate data as part of their research 2) Enable research teams and ministries to integrate climate information into social and economic drivers of vulnerability and opportunities for adaptation to climate change 3) Inform better policies and programs for climate change adaptation. This oral presentation will demonstrate how IRI, CUNY, and JPL developed new products, tools and capacity building to achieve the three objectives mentioned above.

  1. MosquitoMap and the Mal-area calculator: new web tools to relate mosquito species distribution with vector borne disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christensen Jamie

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mosquitoes are important vectors of diseases but, in spite of various mosquito faunistic surveys globally, there is a need for a spatial online database of mosquito collection data and distribution summaries. Such a resource could provide entomologists with the results of previous mosquito surveys, and vector disease control workers, preventative medicine practitioners, and health planners with information relating mosquito distribution to vector-borne disease risk. Results A web application called MosquitoMap was constructed comprising mosquito collection point data stored in an ArcGIS 9.3 Server/SQL geodatabase that includes administrative area and vector species x country lookup tables. In addition to the layer containing mosquito collection points, other map layers were made available including environmental, and vector and pathogen/disease distribution layers. An application within MosquitoMap called the Mal-area calculator (MAC was constructed to quantify the area of overlap, for any area of interest, of vector, human, and disease distribution models. Data standards for mosquito records were developed for MosquitoMap. Conclusion MosquitoMap is a public domain web resource that maps and compares georeferenced mosquito collection points to other spatial information, in a geographical information system setting. The MAC quantifies the Mal-area, i.e. the area where it is theoretically possible for vector-borne disease transmission to occur, thus providing a useful decision tool where other disease information is limited. The Mal-area approach emphasizes the independent but cumulative contribution to disease risk of the vector species predicted present. MosquitoMap adds value to, and makes accessible, the results of past collecting efforts, as well as providing a template for other arthropod spatial databases.

  2. Spatial Risk Assessments Based on Vector-Borne Disease Epidemiologic Data: Importance of Scale for West Nile Virus Disease in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Winters, Anna M.; EISEN, REBECCA J.; Delorey, Mark J.; Fischer, Marc; Roger S. Nasci; Zielinski-Gutierrez, Emily; Moore, Chester G.; Pape, W. John; Eisen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    We used epidemiologic data for human West Nile virus (WNV) disease in Colorado from 2003 and 2007 to determine 1) the degree to which estimates of vector-borne disease occurrence is influenced by spatial scale of data aggregation (county versus census tract), and 2) the extent of concordance between spatial risk patterns based on case counts versus incidence. Statistical analyses showed that county, compared with census tract, accounted for approximately 50% of the overall variance in WNV dis...

  3. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Abd-Ella, Aly; Stankiewicz, Maria; Mikulska, Karolina; Nowak, Wieslaw; Pennetier, Cédric; Goulu, Mathilde; Fruchart-Gaillard, Carole; Licznar, Patricia; Apaire-Marchais, Véronique; List, Olivier; Corbel, Vincent; Servent, Denis; Lapied, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide) with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant ...

  4. Climate change and vector-borne diseases: what are the implications for public health research and policy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Lendrum, Diarmid; Manga, Lucien; Bagayoko, Magaran; Sommerfeld, Johannes

    2015-04-01

    Vector-borne diseases continue to contribute significantly to the global burden of disease, and cause epidemics that disrupt health security and cause wider socioeconomic impacts around the world. All are sensitive in different ways to weather and climate conditions, so that the ongoing trends of increasing temperature and more variable weather threaten to undermine recent global progress against these diseases. Here, we review the current state of the global public health effort to address this challenge, and outline related initiatives by the World Health Organization (WHO) and its partners. Much of the debate to date has centred on attribution of past changes in disease rates to climate change, and the use of scenario-based models to project future changes in risk for specific diseases. While these can give useful indications, the unavoidable uncertainty in such analyses, and contingency on other socioeconomic and public health determinants in the past or future, limit their utility as decision-support tools. For operational health agencies, the most pressing need is the strengthening of current disease control efforts to bring down current disease rates and manage short-term climate risks, which will, in turn, increase resilience to long-term climate change. The WHO and partner agencies are working through a range of programmes to (i) ensure political support and financial investment in preventive and curative interventions to bring down current disease burdens; (ii) promote a comprehensive approach to climate risk management; (iii) support applied research, through definition of global and regional research agendas, and targeted research initiatives on priority diseases and population groups. PMID:25688013

  5. Outdoor Workers and Tick-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Scorpions Poisonous Plants Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Vector-Borne Diseases Mosquito-Borne Diseases Tick-Borne Diseases Lyme Disease ... and Scorpions Poisonous Plants Venomous Spiders Venomous Snakes Vector-Borne Diseases Mosquito-Borne Diseases Tick-Borne Diseases Lyme Disease ...

  6. Transmission of La Crosse Virus in Southwest Virginia: Role of Accessory Vectors, Microfilarial Coinfection and Canine Seroprevalence

    OpenAIRE

    Troyano, Nancy Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Southwest Virginia has recently become an emerging focus of activity for La Crosse (LAC) virus, a mosquito-transmitted arbovirus in the California serogroup of Bunyaviruses. In 2005 and 2006, ovitrap surveys were conducted to access the spatiotemporal oviposition activity of LAC virus vectors Aedes triseriatus, Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus across a wide region of southwest Virginia. Egg abundance and oviposition patterns of these vectors were significantly different across the three stu...

  7. Vector-borne diseases of small companion animals in Namibia: Literature review, knowledge gaps and opportunity for a One Health approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H. Noden

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Namibia has a rich history in veterinary health but little is known about the vector-borne diseases that affect companion dogs and cats. The aim of this review is to summarise the existing published and available unpublished literature, put it into a wider geographical context, and explore some significant knowledge gaps. To date, only two filarial pathogens (Dirofilaria repens and Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides and three tick-borne pathogens (Babesia canis vogeli, Hepatozoon canis and Ehrlichia canis have been reported. Most studies have focused solely on dogs and cats in the urban Windhoek and surrounding areas, with almost nothing reported in rural farming areas, in either the populous northern regions or the low-income urban areas where animal owners have limited access to veterinary services. With the development of several biomedical training programmes in the country, there is now an excellent opportunity to address zoonotic vector-borne diseases through a One Health approach so as to assess the risks to small companion animals as well as diseases of public health importance.

  8. Status of pesticide management in the practice of vector control: a global survey in countries at risk of malaria or other major vector-borne diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Hii, J.; Soares, A.; Mnzava, A.; Ameneshewa, B.; Dash, A.P.; Ejov, M.; Tan, S.H.; Matthews, G.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is critical that vector control pesticides are used for their acceptable purpose without causing adverse effects on health and the environment. This paper provides a global overview of the current status of pesticides management in the practice of vector control. Methods: A questionna

  9. An application of remotely derived climatological fields for risk assessment of vector-borne diseases : a spatial study of filariasis prevalence in the Nile Delta, Egypt.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crombie, M. K.; Gillies, R. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Brookmeyer, P.; Weil, G. J.; Sultan, M.; Harb, M.; Environmental Research; Washington Univ.; Utah State Univ.; Egyptian Ministry of Health

    1999-12-01

    This paper applies a relatively straightforward remote sensing method that is commonly used to derive climatological variables. Measurements of surface reflectance and surface radiant temperature derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper data were used to create maps of fractional vegetation and surface soil moisture availability for the southern Nile delta in Egypt. These climatological variables were subsequently used to investigate the spatial distribution of the vector borne disease Bancroftian filariasis in the Nile delta where it is focally endemic and a growing problem. Averaged surface soil moisture values, computed for a 5-km border area around affected villages, were compared to filariasis prevalence rates. Prevalence rates were found to be negligible below a critical soil moisture value of 0.2, presumably because of a lack of appropriate breeding sites for the Culex Pipiens mosquito species. With appropriate modifications to account for local conditions and vector species, this approach should be useful as a means to map, predict, and control insect vector-borne diseases that critically depend on wet areas for propagation. This type of analysis may help governments and health agencies that are involved in filariasis control to better focus limited resources to identifiable high-risk areas.

  10. Canine Distemper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although this brochure provides basic information about canine distemper, your veterinarian is always your best source of ... Consult your veterinarian for more information about canine distemper and its prevention. And Now A Note On ...

  11. Arthropod-borne infections in travelled dogs in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamel Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pet animal movement is ever increasing within the European Union and in that context canine vectorborne infections gained a considerable importance. Information on these infections in travelled dogs is nevertheless limited. A first prospective study on vector-borne infections was conducted in 106 dogs travelling from Germany to countries in South and South-East Europe. The dogs were screened prior to and consecutively up to three times after travel by haematological (Giemsa-stained buffy coat smears, Knott’s-Test, molecular biological (PCR as well as serological (IFAT, DiroChek®-ELISA methods for arthropod-borne infections. Seven animals were seropositive for antibodies against Babesia canis sspp., Leishmania spp. and/or Ehrlichia canis prior to travel to Italy, Spain, France, Croatia, Greece, or Hungary. In the consecutive screening after return there was no increase in the number of seropositive dogs. None was positive in direct methods. The mean duration of the stay was 17 days and 51% of the dogs were prophylactically treated with ectoparasiticidal formulations. Preliminary data from this study on canine vector-borne infections indicate a low risk for infection during a limited single stay in endemic countries.

  12. Climate variability and change in the United States: potential impacts on vector- and rodent-borne diseases.

    OpenAIRE

    Gubler, D J; Reiter, P.; Ebi, K L; Yap, W; Nasci, R; Patz, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Diseases such as plague, typhus, malaria, yellow fever, and dengue fever, transmitted between humans by blood-feeding arthropods, were once common in the United States. Many of these diseases are no longer present, mainly because of changes in land use, agricultural methods, residential patterns, human behavior, and vector control. However, diseases that may be transmitted to humans from wild birds or mammals (zoonoses) continue to circulate in nature in many parts of the country. Most vector...

  13. 气候变暖对虫媒传染病影响的研究进展%Research progress on effect of climate warming on vector-borne infectious diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔维琪; 曾强

    2012-01-01

    The effect of global warming on insect vector mainly includes changing the regional distribution of insect vectors, increasing the reproductive speed and invasiveness of insect vectors, and shortening the external incubation period of pathogens. Many studies show that the distribution of many tropical insects is expanding continually under the effect of global wanning, and the vector-borne infectious diseases which had only occurred in the tropical area in the past have frequently happened in the subtropical area. The incidence rate of vector-borne diseases increases in the global, outbreaks of some old vector-borne infectious diseases occurred again, and the epidemic range of new vector-borne infectious diseases is continuously expanding. The vector-borne infectious diseases that are influenced by climate change include malaria, schistosomiasis, plague, dengue fever and other new vector-borne infectious diseases. In face of global warming, it is important to slow down and control temperature rise, protect natural environment , improve the study of relationship between climate and vector-borne infectious diseases, and implement the prevention and control of vector-borne infectious diseases.%全球气候变暖对虫媒的影响主要表现在改变虫媒的地区分布,增加虫媒繁殖速度与侵袭力和缩短病原体的外潜伏期.大量资料显示,全球气候变暖的趋势使得许多热带生物不断扩大分布范围,过去仅在热带地区出现的虫媒传染病,也频频出现在亚热带地区.媒介生物性疾病近年在全球呈上升趋势,一些原有的虫媒传染病再度暴发,新的虫媒传染病流行范围不断扩大.受气候变化影响较大的虫媒传染病包括疟疾、血吸虫病、鼠疫、登革热和其他及新发虫媒传染病.提示要面对气候变暖的趋势,努力减缓和控制地球气温的上升,保护好自然环境,加强气候与虫媒传染病传播关系的研究,做好虫媒传染疾病的预防控制工作.

  14. A serological survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs in North America and the Caribbean as assessed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, A. platys, Ehrlichia canis, E. chaffeensis, E. ewingii, and Borrelia burgdorferi species-specific peptides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A. Qurollo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tick-borne pathogens cause a spectrum of disease manifestations in both dogs and humans. Recognizing regional and temporal shifts in exposure are important as tick distributions change. To better delineate regional exposure to canine tick-borne pathogens, an expanded set of species-specific peptides were used to detect Anaplasma phagocytophilum (Aph, Anaplasma platys (Apl, Ehrlichia canis (Ec, Ehrlichia chaffeensis (Ech, Ehrlichia ewingii (Eew, and Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb antibodies in canine serum. Methods: Archived canine serum samples (n=6,582 collected during 2008–2010 and in 2012 from the US, Canada, and the Caribbean were retrospectively screened for antibodies against Ehrlichia and Anaplasma species-specific peptides. Overall, regional and temporal seroprevalence rates were determined. Results: Overall Bb and Eew were the most seroprevalent pathogens. During 2008–2010, seroprevalence rates increased overall for Aph and Ech, and regionally, Bb and Aph seroprevalence rates increased in the South. Canada had unexpectedly high seroprevalence rates for Ec and Apl. The most common co-exposures were Eew+Ech, followed by Aph+Bb and Eew+Bb. Conclusions: This study demonstrated significant shifts in canine vector-borne disease seroprevalence rates. The use of specific peptides facilitated improved geographic delineation of tick-borne pathogen distributions among dogs, which may enhance epidemiological surveillance of vector-borne pathogens shared by dogs and humans.

  15. Vector-borne disease surveillance in livestock populations: A critical review of literature recommendations and implemented surveillance (BTV-8) in five European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dórea, Fernanda C; Elbers, Armin R W; Hendrikx, Pascal; Enoe, Claes; Kirkeby, Carsten; Hoinville, Linda; Lindberg, Ann

    2016-03-01

    Preparedness against vector-borne threats depends on the existence of a long-term, sustainable surveillance of vector-borne disease and their relevant vectors. This work reviewed the availability of such surveillance systems in five European countries (Denmark, France, The Netherlands, Sweden and United Kingdom, part of the CoVetLab network). A qualitative assessment was then performed focusing on surveillance directed particularly to BTV-8. Information regarding surveillance activities were reviewed for the years 2008 and 2012. The results were then complemented with a critical scoping review of the literature aimed at identifying disease surveillance strategies and methods that are currently suggested as best suited to target vector-borne diseases in order to guide future development of surveillance in the countries in question. Passive surveillance was found to be efficient for early detection of diseases during the early phase of introduction into a free country. However, its value diminished once the disease has been established in a territory. Detection of emerging diseases was found to be very context and area specific, and thus active surveillance designs need to take the available epidemiological, ecological and entomological information into account. This was demonstrated by the effectiveness of the bulk milk surveillance in detecting the first case in Sweden, highlighting the need for output based standards to allow the most effective, context dependent, surveillance strategies to be used. Preparedness was of fundamental importance in determining the timeliness of detection and control in each country and that this in turn was heavily influenced by knowledge of emerging diseases in neighboring countries. Therefore it is crucial to share information on outbreaks between researchers and decision-makers and across borders continuously in order to react timely in case of an outbreak. Furthermore, timely reaction to an outbreak was heavily influenced by

  16. Two step male release strategy using transgenic mosquito lines to control transmission of vector-borne diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Danilo Oliveira; Costa-da-Silva, André Luis; Lees, Rosemary Susan; Capurro, Margareth Lara

    2014-04-01

    Mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of pathogens that cause devastating human diseases such as malaria and dengue. The current increase in mean global temperature and changing sea level interfere with precipitation frequency and some other climatic conditions which, in general, influence the rate of development of insects and etiologic agents causing acceleration as the temperature rises. The most common strategy employed to combat target mosquito species is the Integrated Vector Management (IVM), which comprises the use of multiple activities and various approaches to preventing the spread of a vector in infested areas. IVM programmes are becoming ineffective; and the global scenario is threatening, requiring new interventions for vector control and surveillance. Not surprisingly, there is a growing need to find alternative methods to combat the mosquito vectors. The possibility of using transgenic mosquitoes to fight against those diseases has been discussed over the last two decades and this use of transgenic lines to suppress populations or to replace them is still under investigation through field and laboratory trials. As an alternative, the available transgenic strategies could be improved by coupling suppression and substitution strategies. The idea is to first release a suppression line to significantly reduce the wild population, and once the first objective is reached a second release using a substitution line could be then performed. Examples of targeting this approach against vectors of malaria and dengue are discussed. PMID:24513036

  17. First finding of Trypanosoma cruzi II in vampire bats from a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission in Northeastern Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argibay, Hernán D; Orozco, M Marcela; Cardinal, M Victoria; Rinas, Miguel A; Arnaiz, María; Mena Segura, Carlos; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2016-09-01

    Establishing the putative links between sylvatic and domestic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is of public health relevance. We conducted three surveys to assess T. cruzi infection in wild mammals from a rural and a preserved area in Misiones Province, Northeastern Argentina, which had recently been declared free of vector- and blood-borne transmission of human T. cruzi infection. A total of 200 wild mammals were examined by xenodiagnosis (XD) and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the hyper-variable region of kinetoplast DNA minicircles of T. cruzi (kDNA-PCR). The overall prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 8%. Nine (16%) of 57 Didelphis albiventris opossums and two (7%) of 29 Desmodus rotundus vampire bats were positive by both XD and kDNA-PCR. Additionally, one D. rotundus positive for T. cruzi by kDNA-PCR tested positive by satellite-DNA-PCR (SAT-DNA-PCR). The T. cruzi-infected bats were captured indoors and in the yard of a vacant dwelling. All D. albiventris were infected with TcI and both XD-positive D. rotundus by TcII. Fifty-five opossum cubs within the marsupium were negative by XD. The mean infectiousness to the vector was 62% in D. albiventris and 50% in D. rotundus. Mice experimentally infected with a parasite isolate from a vampire bat displayed lesions typically caused by T. cruzi. Our study documents the presence of the genotype TcII in a sylvatic host for the first time in Argentina, and the occurrence of two transmission cycles of T. cruzi in a district free of domestic vector-borne transmission. PMID:27220254

  18. Population response to the risk of vector-borne diseases: lessons learned from socio-behavioural research during large-scale outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Setbon

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Vector-borne infectious diseases, such as malaria, dengue, chikungunya, and West Nile fevers are increasingly identified as major global human health threats in developing and developed countries. The success or failure of vector control rests mainly on the nature and scale of the behavioural response of exposed populations. Large-scale adoption of recommended protective behaviour represents a critical challenge that cannot be addressed without a better understanding of how individuals perceive and react to the risk of infection. Recently, French overseas territories faced large-scale outbreaks: an epidemic of chikungunya fever in La R|[eacute]|union and Mayotte (2005|[ndash]|2006 and four successive outbreaks of dengue fever in one Caribbean island, Martinique (1995|[ndash]|2007. To assess how these populations perceived and responded to the risk, and how the nature and scale of protection affected their clinical status, socio-epidemiological surveys were conducted on each island during the outbreaks. These surveys address three crucial and interconnected questions relevant to the period after persons infected by the virus were identified: which factors shape the risk of acquiring disease? Which socio-demographic characteristics and living conditions induce a higher likelihood of infection? What is the impact of risk perception on protective behaviours adopted against mosquito bites? Grounded on the results of these surveys, a general framework is proposed to help draw out the knowledge needed to reveal the factors associated with higher probability of infection as an outbreak emerges. The lessons learnt can inform health authorities|[rsquo]| efforts to improve risk communication programmes, both in terms of the target and content of messages, so as to explore new strategies for ensuring sustainable protective behaviour. The authors compare three epidemics of vector-borne diseases to elucidate psychosocial factors that determine how

  19. The effects of host diversity on vector-borne disease: the conditions under which diversity will amplify or dilute the disease risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezer Miller

    Full Text Available Multihost vector-borne infectious diseases form a significant fraction of the global infectious disease burden. In this study we explore the relationship between host diversity, vector behavior, and disease risk. To this end, we have developed a new dynamic model which includes two distinct host species and one vector species with variable preferences. With the aid of the model we were able to compute the basic reproductive rate, R 0, a well-established measure of disease risk that serves as a threshold parameter for disease outbreak. The model analysis reveals that the system has two different qualitative behaviors: (i the well-known dilution effect, where the maximal R0 is obtained in a community which consists a single host (ii a new amplification effect, denoted by us as diversity amplification, where the maximal R0 is attained in a community which consists both hosts. The model analysis extends on previous results by underlining the mechanism of both, diversity amplification and the dilution, and specifies the exact conditions for their occurrence. We have found that diversity amplification occurs where the vector prefers the host with the highest transmission ability, and dilution is obtained when the vector does not show any preference, or it prefers to bite the host with the lower transmission ability. The mechanisms of dilution and diversity amplification are able to account for the different and contradictory patterns often observed in nature (i.e., in some cases disease risk is increased while in other is decreased when the diversity is increased. Implication of the diversity amplification mechanism also challenges current premises about the interaction between biodiversity, climate change, and disease risk and calls for retrospective thinking in planning intervention policies aimed at protecting the preferred host species.

  20. Mosquito Vector Diversity across Habitats in Central Thailand Endemic for Dengue and Other Arthropod-Borne Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Thongsripong, Panpim; Green, Amy; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Kapan, Durrell; Wilcox, Bruce; Bennett, Shannon

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen the greatest ecological disturbances of our times, with global human expansion, species and habitat loss, climate change, and the emergence of new and previously-known infectious diseases. Biodiversity loss affects infectious disease risk by disrupting normal relationships between hosts and pathogens. Mosquito-borne pathogens respond to changing dynamics on multiple transmission levels and appear to increase in disturbed systems, yet current knowledge of mosquito divers...

  1. A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: insights from a stochastic, spatial model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi W Okamoto

    Full Text Available Two basic strategies have been proposed for using transgenic Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to decrease dengue virus transmission: population reduction and population replacement. Here we model releases of a strain of Ae. aegypti carrying both a gene causing conditional adult female mortality and a gene blocking virus transmission into a wild population to assess whether such releases could reduce the number of competent vectors. We find this "reduce and replace" strategy can decrease the frequency of competent vectors below 50% two years after releases end. Therefore, this combined approach appears preferable to releasing a strain carrying only a female-killing gene, which is likely to merely result in temporary population suppression. However, the fixation of anti-pathogen genes in the population is unlikely. Genetic drift at small population sizes and the spatially heterogeneous nature of the population recovery after releases end prevent complete replacement of the competent vector population. Furthermore, releasing more individuals can be counter-productive in the face of immigration by wild-type mosquitoes, as greater population reduction amplifies the impact wild-type migrants have on the long-term frequency of the anti-pathogen gene. We expect the results presented here to give pause to expectations for driving an anti-pathogen construct to fixation by relying on releasing individuals carrying this two-gene construct. Nevertheless, in some dengue-endemic environments, a spatially heterogeneous decrease in competent vectors may still facilitate decreasing disease incidence.

  2. The Repellent DEET Potentiates Carbamate Effects via Insect Muscarinic Receptor Interactions: An Alternative Strategy to Control Insect Vector-Borne Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aly Abd-Ella

    Full Text Available Insect vector-borne diseases remain one of the principal causes of human mortality. In addition to conventional measures of insect control, repellents continue to be the mainstay for personal protection. Because of the increasing pyrethroid-resistant mosquito populations, alternative strategies to reconstitute pyrethroid repellency and knock-down effects have been proposed by mixing the repellent DEET (N,N-Diethyl-3-methylbenzamide with non-pyrethroid insecticide to better control resistant insect vector-borne diseases. By using electrophysiological, biochemichal, in vivo toxicological techniques together with calcium imaging, binding studies and in silico docking, we have shown that DEET, at low concentrations, interacts with high affinity with insect M1/M3 mAChR allosteric site potentiating agonist effects on mAChRs coupled to phospholipase C second messenger pathway. This increases the anticholinesterase activity of the carbamate propoxur through calcium-dependent regulation of acetylcholinesterase. At high concentrations, DEET interacts with low affinity on distinct M1/M3 mAChR site, counteracting the potentiation. Similar dose-dependent dual effects of DEET have also been observed at synaptic mAChR level. Additionally, binding and in silico docking studies performed on human M1 and M3 mAChR subtypes indicate that DEET only displays a low affinity antagonist profile on these M1/M3 mAChRs. These results reveal a selective high affinity positive allosteric site for DEET in insect mAChRs. Finally, bioassays conducted on Aedes aegypti confirm the synergistic interaction between DEET and propoxur observed in vitro, resulting in a higher mortality of mosquitoes. Our findings reveal an unusual allosterically potentiating action of the repellent DEET, which involves a selective site in insect. These results open exciting research areas in public health particularly in the control of the pyrethroid-resistant insect-vector borne diseases. Mixing low

  3. Progress in research on tick-borne diseases and vector ticks%蜱传疾病及其媒介蜱类研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于志军; 刘敬泽

    2015-01-01

    As obligate blood-sucking ecto-parasites, ticks transmit a great variety of pathogens that have a significant adverse effect on the health of humans, livestock and wild animals. Many ticks and tick-borne diseases are widely distributed in China’s ecologically diverse range of habitats. Human contact with ticks, and the incidence of tick-borne diseases, are increasing with economic development and the increased exploitation of forestry and livestock production. Some new tick-borne diseases are emerging, and the threat posed by ticks to public health is becoming increasingly recognized. This paper describes the occurrence and distribution of the vectors of important tick-borne diseases found in China, which will provide a basis for subsequent systematic research and the integrated control of ticks and tick-borne diseases.%蜱为专性吸血的外寄生动物,传播多种病原体而导致疾病,给人类健康、畜牧业生产及野生动物带来极大危害。我国生态环境多样,蜱及蜱媒疾病种类繁多、自然疫源地分布广泛。随着社会经济发展及林牧业资源的综合开发,人群与媒介蜱的接触机会逐渐增多,蜱传疾病的发病率上升,且不断有新发的蜱传疾病出现,其公共卫生学意义也日益受到重视。本文对我国重要的蜱传疾病、媒介蜱类、分布与特性等进行系统介绍,以期为我国蜱及蜱传疾病的系统研究和综合防控提供理论基础。

  4. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Christopher Nieto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirocheteosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK, formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP, and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural

  5. 9 CFR 113.201 - Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Killed Virus Vaccines § 113.201 Canine Distemper Vaccine, Killed Virus. Canine Distemper...

  6. Assessing the sustainability of individual behavior change against mosquitoes after the outbreak of a vector-borne disease in Mauritius: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smita Goorah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The island of Mauritius had not experienced any mosquito-borne diseases since the last malaria outbreak in the early 1980s. When the chikungunya fever epidemic affected the island in 2005-2006, the local population was unprepared against this mosquito-borne infection and officially 11, 000 people were affected. Authorities promptly set up public health campaigns and actively encouraged the public to take preventive actions against the mosquito vector. This study has been carried out to investigate whether the individual preventive interventions adopted to combat mosquitoes during the outbreak have been sustained two years following the outbreak in a specific rural locality. Ethical clearance was obtained from the Research Ethics Committee of the University of Mauritius. Data was collected using a door-to-door household survey in a small rural locality of Mauritius in December 2008 and January 2009. One person per household was interviewed and the sample size was 172. Sustainability of individual preventive interventions was determined by assessing the preventive measures adopted by people against mosquitoes prior to, during, and two years following the outbreak. Elimination of mosquito breeding places was the most practiced preventive measure adopted by people in all outbreak periods as compared to preventive measures against mosquito bites within and outside the house. An increase in all individual preventive measures was observed during the outbreak followed by a slow decline two years following the outbreak. An important finding was that all post-outbreak preventive measures were sustained above the pre-outbreak levels, especially so in the case of source reduction interventions. Individual efforts in the inter-epidemic period are important to mitigate the spread of a mosquito-borne infection and it is encouraging to observe in this case study that although individual preventive measures decline with time after an outbreak they are still

  7. The emergence and maintenance of vector-borne diseases in the khyber pakhtunkhwa province, and the federally administered tribal areas of pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Nathan C; Khan, Khalid; Uhllah, Ghufran; Teglas, Mike B

    2012-01-01

    Human populations throughout much of the world are experiencing unprecedented changes in their relationship to the environment and their interactions with the animals with which so many humans are intimately dependent upon. These changes result not only from human induced changes in the climate, but also from population demographic changes due to wars, social unrest, behavioral changes resulting from cultural mixing, and large changes in land-use practices. Each of these social shifts can affect the maintenance and emergence of arthropod vectors disease or the pathogenic organisms themselves. A good example is the country of Pakistan, with a large rural population and developing urban economy, it also maintains a wide diversity of entomological disease vectors, including biting flies, mosquitoes, and ticks. Pathogens endemic to the region include the agents of piroplasmosis, rickettsiosis, spirochetosis, and viral hemorrhagic fevers and encephalitis. The northwestern region of the country, including the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (KPK), formerly the North-West Frontier Provence (NWFP), and the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA) are mountainous regions with a high degree of habitat diversity that has recently undergone a massive increase in human population density due to an immigrating refugee population from neighboring war-torn Afghanistan. Vector-borne diseases in people and livestock are common in KPK and FATA regions due to the limited use of vector control measures and access to livestock vaccines. The vast majority of people in this region live in abject poverty with >70% of the population living directly from production gained in animal husbandry. In many instances whole families live directly alongside their animal counterparts. In addition, there is little to no awareness of the threat posed by ticks and transmission of either zoonotic or veterinary pathogens. Recent emergence of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in rural populations

  8. Diversity and ecology survey of mosquitoes potential vectors in Belgian equestrian farms: A threat prevention of mosquito-borne equine arboviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukraa, Slimane; de La Grandiere, Maria A; Bawin, Thomas; Raharimalala, Fara N; Zimmer, Jean-Yves; Haubruge, Eric; Thiry, Etienne; Francis, Frédéric

    2016-02-01

    Emergence of West Nile Virus was recently recorded in several European countries, which can lead to severe health problems in horse populations. Europe is also at risk of introduction of mosquito-borne equine alphavirus from Americas. Prevention of these arboviruses requires a clear understanding of transmission cycles, especially their vectors. To characterize mosquito fauna, their ecology and identify potential vectors of equine arboviruses in Belgium, entomological surveys of six equestrian farms located in the Wolloon Region were conducted during 2011-2012. The harvest of mosquitoes was based on larval sampling (272 samples from 111 breeding sites) and monthly adults trapping (CO2-baited traps, Mosquito Magnet Liberty Plus). Among 51,493 larvae and 319 adult mosquitoes collected, morphological identification showed the presence of 11 species: Anopheles claviger (Meigen), An. maculipennis s.l. (Meigen), An. plumbeus (Stephens), Culex hortensis (Ficalbi), Cx. territans (Walker), Cx. pipiens s.l. L., Cx. torrentium (Martini), Coquillettidia richiardii (Ficalbi), Culiseta annulata (Schrank), Aedes cantans (Meigen), Ae. geniculatus (Olivier). Molecular identification of Cx. pipiens species complex allowed the detection of three molecular forms, Pipiens (92.3%), Molestus (4.6%) and Hybrid (3.1%). Larvae of Cx. pipiens sl and Cx. torrentium were omnipresent and the most abundant species. Water troughs, ponds and slurry (liquid manure) were the most favorable breeding sites of mosquito larvae. Based upon behavior and ecology of the identified mosquito species, Studied Belgian equestrian farms seem to provide a suitable environment and breeding sites for the proliferation of potential vectors of arboviruses and those being a real nuisance problem for horses and neighboring inhabitants. PMID:26775817

  9. Geographic and ecologic heterogeneity in elimination thresholds for the major vector-borne helminthic disease, lymphatic filariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remais Justin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale intervention programmes to control or eliminate several infectious diseases are currently underway worldwide. However, a major unresolved question remains: what are reasonable stopping points for these programmes? Recent theoretical work has highlighted how the ecological complexity and heterogeneity inherent in the transmission dynamics of macroparasites can result in elimination thresholds that vary between local communities. Here, we examine the empirical evidence for this hypothesis and its implications for the global elimination of the major macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis, by applying a novel Bayesian computer simulation procedure to fit a dynamic model of the transmission of this parasitic disease to field data from nine villages with different ecological and geographical characteristics. Baseline lymphatic filariasis microfilarial age-prevalence data from three geographically distinct endemic regions, across which the major vector populations implicated in parasite transmission also differed, were used to fit and calibrate the relevant vector-specific filariasis transmission models. Ensembles of parasite elimination thresholds, generated using the Bayesian fitting procedure, were then examined in order to evaluate site-specific heterogeneity in the values of these thresholds and investigate the ecological factors that may underlie such variability Results We show that parameters of density-dependent functions relating to immunity, parasite establishment, as well as parasite aggregation, varied significantly between the nine different settings, contributing to locally varying filarial elimination thresholds. Parasite elimination thresholds predicted for the settings in which the mosquito vector is anopheline were, however, found to be higher than those in which the mosquito is culicine, substantiating our previous theoretical findings. The results also indicate that the probability that the

  10. Use of Remote Sensing Surveillance to Monitor Environmental Parameters Associated with Mosquito Abundance and Vector-borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis persists as a major cause of clinical morbidity and a significant impediment to socioeconomic development in various parts of the world including Egypt. In Egypt, filariasis has been endemic since time immemorial. Early epidemiologic studies identified Culex pipiens L. as the main vector of the disease and also showed that the geographic distribution of the disease is highly focal and concentrated in lower Egypt. Between 1950 and 1965, a large scale filariasis control program was carried out by the Egyptian Ministry of Health (EMOH) in the endemic areas. Control efforts led to a steady decrease of the disease in areas of the country previously identified as endemic. However, spot surveys conducted in various parts of the Nile Delta during the 1970's and 1980's revealed that the downward trend of the disease had stopped and that the prevalence and intensity of microfilaraemia had increased.

  11. Tick-borne protozoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tick-borne protozoa impose a significant health burden on humans and animals throughout the world. The virulence of tick-borne protozoa, and the geographic distribution of their tick vectors and vertebrate hosts remain in flux as they adapt to changing environmental and climatic conditions. Babesios...

  12. Virtual globes and geospatial health: the potential of new tools in the management and control of vector-borne diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Sofie Stensgaard

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The rapidly growing field of three-dimensional software modeling of the Earth holds promise for applications in the geospatial health sciences. Easy-to-use, intuitive virtual globe technologies such as Google Earth™ enable scientists around the world to share their data and research results in a visually attractive and readily understandable fashion without the need for highly sophisticated geographical information systems (GIS or much technical assistance. This paper discusses the utility of the rapid and simultaneous visualization of how the agents of parasitic diseases are distributed, as well as that of their vectors and/or intermediate hosts together with other spatially-explicit information. The resulting better understanding of the epidemiology of infectious diseases, and the multidimensional environment in which they occur, are highlighted. In particular, the value of Google Earth™, and its web-based pendant Google Maps™, are reviewed from a public health view point, combining results from literature searches and experiences gained thus far from a multidisciplinary project aimed at optimizing schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the basic analytical capabilities of virtual globe applications are limited, we conclude that they have considerable potential in the support and promotion of the geospatial health sciences as a userfriendly, straightforward GIS tool for the improvement of data collation, visualization and exploration. The potential of these systems for data sharing and broad dissemination of scientific research and results is emphasized.

  13. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  14. A confusing case of canine vector-borne disease: clinical signs and progression in a dog co-infected with Ehrlichia canis and Bartonella vinsonii ssp. berkhoffii

    OpenAIRE

    Maggi Ricardo G; Breitschwerdt Edward B

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Bartonella spp. are important pathogens in human and veterinary medicine, and bartonellosis is considered as an emerging zoonosis that is being reported with increasing frequency. Of 22 known species and subspecies of Bartonella, seven have been isolated from dogs, causing disease manifestations similar to those seen in human beings. The wide variety of clinical signs and the possible chronic progression of disease manifestations are illustrated in the case of an infected Labrador re...

  15. Emerging and re-emerging vector-borne diseases: present status and strategies%新发和重现虫媒病:流行现状及应对策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈海婴; 马红梅; 刘明斌; 蒋洪

    2011-01-01

    Following the warming of climate, globalization, urbanization, insect drug-resistant as well as other social and environmental changing factors, malaria, dengue fever, West Nile fever and other vectorborne diseases emerge and re-emerge continuously. The threats of vectors and vector-borne diseases are increasing. However, owing to the environmental protection policies, more and more pesticides are forbidden, control of vectors and vector-borne diseases are facing with severe challenges. The research development and epidemic status of several important vector-borne diseases were reviewed in this paper. The framework of vector management stratogy,intervention of governments and sustainable vector control technologies were also introduced in the paper.%气候变暖、全球化和城市化推进、媒介昆虫抗药性等因素导致疟疾、登革热、莱姆病、西尼罗热、基孔肯雅热、巴尔通体感染等新出现和再次肆虐的虫媒病流行,全球媒介生物和虫媒病的威胁持续上升.由于环保的要求,可以选择的卫生杀虫剂品种逐渐减少,媒介生物和虫媒病的控制面临严重的挑战.该文综述了近年来全球新发和重现的重要虫媒病的研究进展和流行现状,并阐述了媒介生物综合治理全球策略框架、政府干预措施及媒介生物可持续控制技术等应对策略.

  16. Characterizing Open Water Bodies and Their Color Properties Through Optical Remote Sensing to Identify Areas of Vector-Borne Disease Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podest, E.; De La Torre Juarez, M.; McDonald, K. C.; Jensen, K.; Ceccato, P.

    2014-12-01

    Predicting the risk of vector-borne disease outbreaks is a required step towards their control and eradication. Satellite observations can provide needed data to support agency decisions with respect to deployment of preventative measures and control resources. The coverage and persistence of open water is one of the primary indicators of conditions suitable for mosquito breeding habitats. This is currently a poorly measured variable due to its spatial and temporal variability across landscapes, especially in remote areas. Here we develop a methodology for monitoring these conditions through optical remote sensing images from Landsat. We pansharpen the images and apply a decision tree classification approach using Random Forests to generate 15 meter resolution maps of open water. In addition, since some mosquitos breed in clear water while others in turbid water, we classify water bodies according to their water color properties and we validate the results using field knowledge. We focus in East Africa where we assses the usefulness of these products to improve prediction of malaria outbreaks. Portions of this work were carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  17. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    Berlin: Umweltbundesamt, 2007, s. 23-27. [Vector-borne diseases: impact of climate change on vectors and rodent reservoirs. Berlin (DE), 27.09.2007-28.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : Vector-borne diseases * Europe Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.umweltbundesamt.de/gesundheit-e/veranstaltungen/vector-borne-diseases/06_%20Hubalek.pdf

  18. The potential of canine sentinels for reemerging Trypanosoma cruzi transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Chu, Lily Chou; Quispe-Machaca, Victor; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Malaga Chavez, Fernando S.; Mazuelos, Milagros Bastos; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Gilman, Robert H.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, a vector-borne disease transmitted by triatomine bugs and caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people in the Americas. In Arequipa, Peru, indoor residual insecticide spraying campaigns are routinely conducted to eliminate Triatoma infestans, the only vector in this area. Following insecticide spraying, there is risk of vector return and reinitiation of parasite transmission. Dogs are important reservoirs of T. cruzi and may play a role in reinitiating transmission in previously sprayed areas. Dogs may also serve as indicators of reemerging transmission. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional serological screening to detect T. cruzi antibodies in dogs, in conjunction with an entomological vector collection survey at the household level, in a disease endemic area that had been treated with insecticide 13 years prior. Spatial clustering of infected animals and vectors was assessed using Ripley’s K statistic, and the odds of being seropositive for dogs proximate to infected colonies was estimated with multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 106 triatomine-infested houses (41.1%), and 45 houses infested with T. cruzi-infected triatomine insects (17.4%). Canine seroprevalence in the area was 12.3% (n=154); all seropositive dogs were 9 months old or older. We observed clustering of vectors carrying the parasite, but no clustering of seropositive dogs. The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio between seropositivity to T. cruzi and proximity to an infected triatomine (≤50m) was 5.67 (95% CI: 1.12 – 28.74; p=0.036). Conclusions Targeted control of reemerging transmission can be achieved by improved understanding of T. cruzi in canine populations. Our results suggest that dogs may be useful sentinels to detect re-initiation of transmission following insecticide treatment. Integration of canine T. cruzi blood sampling into existing interventions for zoonotic disease control (e.g. rabies vaccination programs

  19. Importance of vector-borne infections in different production systems: bovine trypanosomosis and the innovation dynamics of livestock producers in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, F; Bouyer, J; Seck, M T; Sall, B; Dicko, A H; Lancelot, R; Chia, E

    2015-04-01

    In Senegal, a project has been undertaken to eradicate a population of tsetse flies (Glossina palpalis gambiensis) from a prime area for intensifying livestock production--the coastal region of Niayes. The project is intended to remove the constraint of trypanosomosis and allow the ecological intensification of cattle production. A cross-sectional analysis of ten case studies was the inductive phase of an assessment to gauge the impact of removing trypanosomosis on livestock production strategies. The methodology used was comprehensive analysis, with participatory epidemiology tools to understand farmers' rationales. The authors analysed the strategies of three main types of livestock producer (agro-pastoralists, mixed crop/livestock farmers and intensive dairy farmers). The strategies were in line with the farmers' goals and their ability to mobilise the socio-technical network. The risk management of trypanosomosis has been incorporated into livestock management practices through the use of trypanotolerant breeds, medical prophylaxis or placing livestock in low-risk areas. Removing the risk of disease would therefore have a major impact on decisions about the composition and strategic direction of herds. This change in the animal health environment would steer livestock production along different routes of intensification in a highly competitive environment. The indicators of innovation capacity revealed by this study will be used to quantitatively monitor various change scenarios, taking livestock producers' reasoning into account, in order to assess the socio-economic impact of eradicating the tsetse fly population in this area. The methodology presented in the study can be used to understand the impact of controlling other vector-borne infections on the innovation dynamics of livestock producers. PMID:26470458

  20. Molecular detection of vector-borne pathogens in wild and domestic carnivores and their ticks at the human-wildlife interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millán, Javier; Proboste, Tatiana; Fernández de Mera, Isabel G; Chirife, Andrea D; de la Fuente, José; Altet, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Urbanization of natural areas is considered one of the causes of the current apparent emergence of infectious diseases. Carnivores are among the species that adapt well to urban and periurban environments, facilitating cross-species disease transmission with domestic dogs and cats, and potentially with their owners. The prevalence of vector-borne pathogens (VBP) of zoonotic and veterinary interest was studied in sympatric wild and domestic carnivores into Barcelona Metropolitan Area (NE Spain). Blood or spleen samples from 130 animals, including 34 common genets (Genetta genetta), 12 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 10 stone martens (Martes foina), three Eurasian badgers (Meles meles), 34 free-roaming domestic cats and 37 dogs with outdoor access, were collected either in protected or adjacent residential areas. A total of 309 ticks (chiefly Rhipicephalus turanicus) were collected on these animals. The samples were analyzed with a battery of PCR assays targeting the DNA of Rickettsia spp., Anaplasmataceae, Coxiella burnetii, Bartonella spp., and Piroplasmida, and the amplicons were sequenced. The fox showed the highest prevalence (58%) and diversity of VBP (four pathogens), whereas none of the dogs were infected. Bartonella spp. (including B. clarridgeiae, B. henselae, and B. rochalimae) was the most prevalent pathogen. Infection of wild carnivores with Ehrlichia canis, C. burnetii, Theileria annae and Babesia vogeli was also confirmed, with some cases of coinfection observed. The presence of DNA of T. annae and B. vogeli was also confirmed in tick pools from four species of wild carnivores, supporting their role in piroplasmid life-cycle. By the sequencing of several target genes, DNA of Rickettsia massiliae was confirmed in 17 pools of Rh. turanicus, Rh. sanguineous, and Rh. pusillus from five different species, and Rickettsia conorii in one pool of Rh. sanguineous from a dog. None of the hosts from which these ticks were collected was infected by Rickettsia. Although

  1. Differential cell line susceptibility to the emerging Zika virus: implications for disease pathogenesis, non-vector-borne human transmission and animal reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Jasper Fuk-Woo; Yip, Cyril Chik-Yan; Tsang, Jessica Oi-Ling; Tee, Kah-Meng; Cai, Jian-Piao; Chik, Kenn Ka-Heng; Zhu, Zheng; Chan, Chris Chung-Sing; Choi, Garnet Kwan-Yue; Sridhar, Siddharth; Zhang, Anna Jinxia; Lu, Gang; Chiu, Kin; Lo, Amy Cheuk-Yin; Tsao, Sai-Wah; Kok, Kin-Hang; Jin, Dong-Yan; Chan, Kwok-Hung; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is unique among human-pathogenic flaviviruses by its association with congenital anomalies and trans-placental and sexual human-to-human transmission. Although the pathogenesis of ZIKV-associated neurological complications has been reported in recent studies, key questions on the pathogenesis of the other clinical manifestations, non-vector-borne transmission and potential animal reservoirs of ZIKV remain unanswered. We systematically characterized the differential cell line susceptibility of 18 human and 15 nonhuman cell lines to two ZIKV isolates (human and primate) and dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). Productive ZIKV replication (⩾2 log increase in viral load, ZIKV nonstructural protein-1 (NS1) protein expression and cytopathic effects (CPE)) was found in the placental (JEG-3), neuronal (SF268), muscle (RD), retinal (ARPE19), pulmonary (Hep-2 and HFL), colonic (Caco-2),and hepatic (Huh-7) cell lines. These findings helped to explain the trans-placental transmission and other clinical manifestations of ZIKV. Notably, the prostatic (LNCaP), testicular (833KE) and renal (HEK) cell lines showed increased ZIKV load and/or NS1 protein expression without inducing CPE, suggesting their potential roles in sexual transmission with persistent viral replication at these anatomical sites. Comparatively, none of the placental and genital tract cell lines allowed efficient DENV-2 replication. Among the nonhuman cell lines, nonhuman primate (Vero and LLC-MK2), pig (PK-15), rabbit (RK-13), hamster (BHK21) and chicken (DF-1) cell lines supported productive ZIKV replication. These animal species may be important reservoirs and/or potential animal models for ZIKV. The findings in our study help to explain the viral shedding pattern, transmission and pathogenesis of the rapidly disseminating ZIKV, and are useful for optimizing laboratory diagnostics and studies on the pathogenesis and counter-measures of ZIKV. PMID:27553173

  2. Trends in Malaria in Odisha, India—An Analysis of the 2003–2013 Time-Series Data from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Madan Mohan; AK, Kavitha; Kar, Priyanka; Sahoo, Krushna Chandra; Panigrahi, Pinaki; Dutta, Ambarish

    2016-01-01

    Background Although Odisha is the largest contributor to the malaria burden in India, no systematic study has examined its malaria trends. Hence, the spatio-temporal trends in malaria in Odisha were assessed against the backdrop of the various anti-malaria strategies implemented in the state. Methods Using the district-wise malaria incidence and blood examination data (2003–2013) from the National Vector Borne Disease Control Program, blood examination-adjusted time-trends in malaria incidence were estimated and predicted for 2003–2013 and 2014–2016, respectively. An interrupted time series analysis using segmented regression was conducted to compare the disease trends between the pre (2003–2007) and post-intensification (2009–2013) periods. Key-informant interviews of state stakeholders were used to collect the information on the various anti-malaria strategies adopted in the state. Results The state annual malaria incidence declined from 10.82/1000 to 5.28/1000 during 2003–2013 (adjusted annual decline: -0.54/1000, 95% CI: -0.78 to -0.30). However, the annual blood examination rate remained almost unchanged from 11.25% to 11.77%. The keyinformants revealed that intensification of anti-malaria activities in 2008 led to a more rapid decline in malaria incidence during 2009–2013 as compared to that in 2003–2007 [adjusted decline: -0.83 (-1.30 to -0.37) and -0.27 (-0.41 to -0.13), respectively]. There was a significant difference in the two temporal slopes, i.e., -0.054 (-0.10 to -0.002, p = 0.04) per 1000 population per month, between these two periods, indicating almost a 200% greater decline in the post-intensification period. Although, the seven southern high-burden districts registered the highest decline, they continued to remain in that zone, thereby, making the achievement of malaria elimination (incidence <1/1000) unlikely by 2017. Conclusion The anti-malaria strategies in Odisha, especially their intensification since 2008, have helped

  3. Safety and efficacy of factor IX gene transfer to skeletal muscle in murine and canine hemophilia B models by adeno-associated viral vector serotype 1

    OpenAIRE

    Arruda, Valder R.; Schuettrumpf, Joerg; Herzog, Roland W; Nichols, Timothy C.; Robinson, Nancy; Lotfi, Yasmin; Mingozzi, Federico; Xiao, Weidong; Couto, Linda B.; High, Katherine A.

    2003-01-01

    Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors (serotype 2) efficiently transduce skeletal muscle, and have been used as gene delivery vehicles for hemophilia B and for muscular dystrophies in experimental animals and humans. Recent reports suggest that AAV vectors based on serotypes 1, 5, and 7 transduce murine skeletal muscle much more efficiently than AAV-2, with reported increases in expression ranging from 2-fold to 1000-fold. We sought to determine whether this increased efficacy could be observe...

  4. Canine mastocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, D.; Mendonça, A; Vala, Helena

    2013-01-01

    Mastocytosis is a mast cell disorder in which its exaggerated proliferation can occur in two forms: systemic and cutaneous (Davis et al., 1992). Because canine mastocytosis is a rare situation of controversial and difficult diagnosis, the goal of this study consists in a current revision of this subject, in order to sensitize the veterinary staff to its severity, with particular focus on the information the veterinary nurse must hold to better apply a specialized nursing care with the hig...

  5. Canine adenovirus based rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tordo, N; Foumier, A; Jallet, C; Szelechowski, M; Klonjkowski, B; Eloit, M

    2008-01-01

    Adenovirus based vectors are very attractive candidates for vaccination purposes as they induce in mammalian hosts potent humoral, mucosal and cellular immune responses to antigens encoded by the inserted genes. We have generated E1-deleted and replication-competent recombinant canine type-2 adenoviruses expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (G). The effectiveness of both vectors to express a native G protein has been characterized in vitro in permissive cell lines. We compared the humoral and cellular immune responses induced in mice by intramuscular injection of the recombinant canine adenovirus vectors with those induced by a human (Ad5) E1-deleted virus expressing the same rabies G protein. Humoral responses specific to the adenoviruses or the rabies glycoprotein antigens were studied. The influence of the mouse strain was observed using replication-competent canine adenovirus. A high level of rabies neutralizing antibody was observed upon i.m. inoculation, and 100% of mice survived lethal challenge. These results are very promising in the perspective of oral vaccine for dog rabies control. PMID:18634509

  6. Spatial analysis of visceral leishmaniasis in the municipality of Rondonópolis, in the Brazilian State of Mato Grosso, from 2003 to 2012: human, canine and vector distribution in areas of disease transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Gonçalves Ferreira Guimarães

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL is a zoonosis of great importance to public health and is considered a neglected disease by the World Health Organization. The disease has expanded and become more prevalent in urban areas in Brazil. METHODS: Geospatial analyses were performed and thematic maps of the triad of the disease were produced for the study period (2003-2012 in the urban area of the municipality of Rondonópolis in the midwestern State of Mato Grosso (MT, Brazil, TerraView 4.2.2 software was used for the analyses. RESULTS: A total of 87.9% of the 186 confirmed human cases of VL were cured. Children between the ages of 1 and 4 were the most affected. Registered deaths were predominant among adults aged 60 years or older. The urban area of the municipality consists of eight strata and 12 census districts include 237 neighborhoods. All sectors had confirmed cases of VL. During the study period, human cases of the disease were recorded in 90 neighborhoods. The 23 deaths from the disease were distributed in 21 neighborhoods. Sandflies carrying the parasite were captured in 192 out of 200 neighborhoods evaluated for the presence of the VL vector. The presence of dogs carrying the parasite was confirmed in, 140 out of 154 surveyed neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS: The data demonstrated the endemic nature of VL, with a high percentage of infected children, a high distribution of canine infection, and a wide adaptation and dispersal of the vectors in the urban environment. These results, illustrate the process of urbanization of VL in the municipality of Rondonópolis, MT, Brazil.

  7. Spatiotemporal colonization of Xyllela fastidiosa in its vector supports two types of egestion in the inoculation mechanism of foregut-borne plant pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    The bacterial agent that causes Pierce’s disease of grapevine, Xylella fastidiosa, is the only known arthropod-transmitted prokaryotic plant pathogen that does not circulate in the vector’s hemolymph. Instead, bacteria are foregut-borne and semi-persistent, i.e. bacteria colonize cuticular surface...

  8. 云南省蚊媒传播性疾病的控制问题%VECTOR OF MOSQUITO BORNE DISEASE CONTROL PROBLEMS IN YUNNAN PROVINCE OF CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红宁; 董学书; Chris Curtis

    2005-01-01

    @@ Mosquito-borne diseases in Yunnan, mainly consist of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falcipurium) [1,2] and Japanese encephalitis (JE).No clinic dengue fever and filariasis patients were reported in Yunnan.But in neighboring region Guangxi, these two diseases occur [3,4].In Yunnan, some Aedes mosquitoes such as Aedes albopitus have been detected carrying dengue virus[5].

  9. Survey of Borreliae in ticks, canines, and white-tailed deer from Arkansas, U.S.A.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fryxell Rebecca T

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the Eastern and Upper Midwestern regions of North America, Ixodes scapularis (L. is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans and the primary vector of B. burgdorferi, whereas in the southeastern region Amblyomma americanum (Say is the most abundant tick species encountered by humans but cannot transmit B. burgdorferi. Surveys of Borreliae in ticks have been conducted in the southeastern United States and often these surveys identify B. lonestari as the primary Borrelia species, surveys have not included Arkansas ticks, canines, or white-tailed deer and B. lonestari is not considered pathogenic. The objective of this study was to identify Borrelia species within Arkansas by screening ticks (n = 2123, canines (n = 173, and white-tailed deer (n = 228 to determine the identity and locations of Borreliae endemic to Arkansas using PCR amplification of the flagellin (flaB gene. Methods Field collected ticks from canines and from hunter-killed white-tailed were identified to species and life stage. After which, ticks and their hosts were screened for the presence of Borrelia using PCR to amplify the flaB gene. A subset of the positive samples was confirmed with bidirectional sequencing. Results In total 53 (21.2% white-tailed deer, ten (6% canines, and 583 (27.5% Ixodid ticks (252 Ixodes scapularis, 161 A. americanum, 88 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 50 Amblyomma maculatum, 19 Dermacentor variabilis, and 13 unidentified Amblyomma species produced a Borrelia flaB amplicon. Of the positive ticks, 324 (22.7% were collected from canines (151 A. americanum, 78 R. sanguineus, 43 I. scapularis, 26 A. maculatum, 18 D. variabilis, and 8 Amblyomma species and 259 (37.2% were collected from white-tailed deer (209 I. scapularis, 24 A. maculatum, 10 A. americanum, 10 R. sanguineus, 1 D. variabilis, and 5 Amblyomma species. None of the larvae were PCR positive. A majority of the flaB amplicons were homologous with B

  10. Strengthening public health pesticide management in countries endemic with malaria or other major vector-borne diseases: an evaluation of three strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, van den H.; Yadav, R.S.; Zaim, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health pesticides has been the mainstay control of vectors of malaria and other diseases, and public health pests, but there is increasing concern over how these pesticides are being managed. Poor pesticide management could lead to risks to human health and the environment, or dimi

  11. Surveillance of zoonotic and infectious diseases in Ecuador: implications for special operations forces medical operations, personnel, and canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCown, Michael; Monterroso, Victor H; Grzeszak, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases (VBD) make up a large number of emerging infectious and zoonotic diseases. Ticks, fleas, and mosquitoes are effective vectors parasitizing canines, making dogs adequate reservoirs for zoonoses. The U.S. military deploys personnel and government-owned animals around the world with possible risk of exposure to VBD. Canine VBD have veterinary and public health significance for the host nations as well as for the U.S. troops and its working animals deployed in the theater of operations. These factors make disease surveillance a great importance. The objective of this work was to survey canines from the cities of Manta and Guayaquil in Ecuador to determine prevalence of heartworm disease (D. immitis), ehrlichi os is (E. canis), Lyme disease (B. burgdorf eri), and anapl asmosis (A. phagocytophilum). Canine blood samples (1-3ml) collected from the cities of Manta (n=50) and Guayaquil (n=50) were tested on site using a SNAPR 4DxR Test Kit. Prevalence for single or multiple disease status was calculated for each city. In the city of Manta the overall prevalence of diseases was 78%; 52% for E. canis alone, and 26% for co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum. The overall prevalence for the city of Guayaquil was 88%; 40% for E. canis alone, 22% for A. phagocytophilum alone, and 26% for co-infection with E. canis and A. phagocytophilum. Neither heartworm disease nor Lyme disease was detected in any samp le. In conclusion, this study showed the extensive presence of E. canis and A. phagocytophilum in both cities in Ecuador, emphasizing the value of surveillance for zoonotic diseases to determine disease prevalence and risk assessments, as well as to implement control measures. PMID:22173599

  12. Scientific Opinion on Geographic Distribution of Tick-borne Infections and their Vectors in Europe and the other Regions of the Mediterranean Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This report is the second of a series of two technical assessments of the role of ticks in transmission of animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. A previous published scientific opinion (EFSA Journal 2010; (88, 1703 focused on two diseases- Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever and African swine fever in Eurasia. The aim of this report is to provide an overview of the geographic distribution of tick species which have proven involvement in the transmission of pathogens causing animal diseases and zoonoses in Eurasia. The report provides maps of the region that display the occurrences of ticks and tick-borne pathogens. Systematic literature review of available publications for the last 10 years and other available literature from the experts were used in the retrieval of the geographical reported cases for the presence of ticks and tick borne pathogens. The report includes a description of the factors that influence the dynamics of the relevant tick species and identify possible high-risk areas in the EU for introduction, considering the biological and ecological characteristics of the ticks and their ability to adapt to new areas. Findings from this review have provided evidence of the extent of ticks and tick-borne diseases (TBDs in geographical ranges and the existing risk areas that should be considered as baseline information to assess potential risk of these diseases. The report indicates the validity of using available literature to support the presence of ticks and TBDs without further predication using weather and other environmental factors associated with the ticks‟ survival. The report concluded that animal and human movement play more impact on the spread of the ticks and TBDs. Climate changes and flight pattern of migratory birds can influence the presence and spread of the ticks and TBDs, but have not been determined to be responsible for the widespread distribution of ticks.

  13. Canine Leishmaniasis, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Ferroglio, Ezio; Maroli, Michele; Gastaldo, Silvia; Mignone, Walter; Rossi, Luca

    2005-01-01

    We report the results of a survey to determine the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis and the presence of sand flies in northwestern Italy, where autochthonous foci of canine leishmaniasis have not been reported. Active foci of canine leishmaniasis were identified, which suggests that the disease is now also endemic in continental climate areas.

  14. Malaria and other vector-borne infection surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance program: review of 2009 accomplishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Mark M; Klein, Terry A; Kochel, Tadeusz; Quandelacy, Talia M; Smith, Bryan L; Villinski, Jeff; Bethell, Delia; Tyner, Stuart; Se, Youry; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David; Johnson, Jacob; Wagar, Eric; Walsh, Douglas; Kasper, Matthew; Sanchez, Jose L; Witt, Clara J; Cheng, Qin; Waters, Norman; Shrestha, Sanjaya K; Pavlin, Julie A; Lescano, Andres G; Graf, Paul C F; Richardson, Jason H; Durand, Salomon; Rogers, William O; Blazes, David L; Russell, Kevin L; Akala, Hoseah; Gaydos, Joel C; DeFraites, Robert F; Gosi, Panita; Timmermans, Ans; Yasuda, Chad; Brice, Gary; Eyase, Fred; Kronmann, Karl; Sebeny, Peter; Gibbons, Robert; Jarman, Richard; Waitumbi, John; Schnabel, David; Richards, Allen; Shanks, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Vector-borne infections (VBI) are defined as infectious diseases transmitted by the bite or mechanical transfer of arthropod vectors. They constitute a significant proportion of the global infectious disease burden. United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) personnel are especially vulnerable to VBIs due to occupational contact with arthropod vectors, immunological naiveté to previously unencountered pathogens, and limited diagnostic and treatment options available in the austere and unstable environments sometimes associated with military operations. In addition to the risk uniquely encountered by military populations, other factors have driven the worldwide emergence of VBIs. Unprecedented levels of global travel, tourism and trade, and blurred lines of demarcation between zoonotic VBI reservoirs and human populations increase vector exposure. Urban growth in previously undeveloped regions and perturbations in global weather patterns also contribute to the rise of VBIs. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) and its partners at DoD overseas laboratories form a network to better characterize the nature, emergence and growth of VBIs globally. In 2009 the network tested 19,730 specimens from 25 sites for Plasmodium species and malaria drug resistance phenotypes and nearly another 10,000 samples to determine the etiologies of non-Plasmodium species VBIs from regions spanning from Oceania to Africa, South America, and northeast, south and Southeast Asia. This review describes recent VBI-related epidemiological studies conducted by AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories within the OCONUS DoD laboratory network emphasizing their impact on human populations. PMID:21388569

  15. Strengthening public health pesticide management in countries endemic with malaria or other major vector-borne diseases: an evaluation of three strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, van den, W.; Yadav, R. S.; M.Zaim

    2014-01-01

    Background Public health pesticides has been the mainstay control of vectors of malaria and other diseases, and public health pests, but there is increasing concern over how these pesticides are being managed. Poor pesticide management could lead to risks to human health and the environment, or diminish the effectiveness of interventions. Strategies for strengthening the management of public health pesticides, from manufacture to disposal, should be evaluated to propose future directions. Met...

  16. Spatial Analysis of West Nile Virus: Predictive Risk Modeling of a Vector-borne Infectious Disease in Illinois by Means of NASA Earth Observation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renneboog, Nathan; Gathings, David; Hemmings, Sarah; Makasa, Emmanuel; Omer, Wigdan; Tipre, Meghan; Wright, Catherine; McAllister, Marilyn; Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    2009-01-01

    West Nile Virus is a mosquito-borne virus of the family Flaviviridae. It infects birds and various mammals, including humans, and can cause encephalitis that may prove fatal, notably among vulnerable populations. Since its identification in New York City in 1999, WNV has become established in a broad range of ecological settings throughout North America, infecting more than 25,300 people and killing 1133 as of 2008 (CDC,2009). WNV is transmitted by mosquitoes that feed on infected birds. As a result, the degree of human infection depends on local ecology and human exposure. This study hypothesizes that remote sensing and GIS can be used to analyze environmental determinants of WNV transmission, such as climate, elevation, land cover, and vegetation densities, to map areas of WNV risk for surveillance and intervention.

  17. Dynamic properties of the Sulfolobus CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems when challenged with vector-borne viral and plasmid genes and protospacers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðbergsdóttir, Sóley Ruth; Deng, Ling; Chen, Zhengjun;

    2011-01-01

    The adaptive immune CRISPR/Cas and CRISPR/Cmr systems of the crenarchaeal thermoacidophile Sulfolobus were challenged by a variety of viral and plasmid genes, and protospacers preceded by different dinucleotide motifs. The genes and protospacers were constructed to carry sequences matching...... individual spacers of CRISPR loci, and a range of mismatches were introduced. Constructs were cloned into vectors carrying pyrE/pyrF genes and transformed into uracil auxotrophic hosts derived from Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 or Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Most constructs, including those carrying different...... protospacer mismatches, yielded few viable transformants. These were shown to carry either partial deletions of CRISPR loci, covering a broad spectrum of sizes and including the matching spacer, or deletions of whole CRISPR/Cas modules. The deletions occurred independently of whether genes or protospacers...

  18. Optimization of canine interleukin-12 production using a baculovirus insect cell expression system

    OpenAIRE

    de Pinheiro, Cristiane Garboggini Melo; Pedrosa, Mayara de Oliveira; Teixeira, Naiara Carvalho; Ano Bom, Ana Paula Dinis; van Oers, Monique M.; Oliveira, Geraldo Gileno de Sá

    2016-01-01

    Background Interleukin-12 is an important cytokine in mediating cellular immune responses. Results Recombinant single-chain canine IL-12 was produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system with the aim of conducting further studies on modulation of immune responses in dogs. To optimize the production of recombinant canine IL-12, a classical baculovirus and a modified vector (chitinase A and v-cathepsin knockout) were used containing a native or an optimized insert of canine IL-12. The optimized ...

  19. LINTRAN v2.0: A linearised vector radiative transfer model for efficient simulation of satellite-born nadir-viewing reflection measurements of cloudy atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiance measurements of solar radiation that is backscattered by the Earth's atmosphere or surface contain information about the atmospheric composition and the state of the Earth's surface. Retrieving such information from satellite-based observations in nadir geometry employs a radiative transfer forward model. The forward model simulates the observed quantity, aiming to reproduce the observation. LINTRAN v2.0 is a linearised vector radiative transfer forward model, employing forward-adjoint theory, that is capable of modelling cloud contaminated satellite observations and their derivatives with respect to the state of the atmosphere and the Earth's surface in a numerically efficient manner. A significant gain in efficiency with respect to its predecessor (LINTRAN v1.0) is achieved through a mathematical framework that combines an approximate iterative solving method using the forward-adjoint perturbation theory with separation of the first N orders of scattering from the diffuse intensity vector field. Contributions to the observable up to order of scattering N are recursively solved in an analytical manner. Contributions from higher orders of scattering are subsequently solved in a numerical manner, assuming that the intensity field varies linearly with the vertical coordinate within an optically homogeneous model layer. This method is implemented in LINTRAN v2.0, choosing N=2, within the general framework of forward-adjoint perturbation theory. This new approach allows us to decrease the number of model layers and the degree of angular quadrature within the numerical solver by a factor of 10 and 1.4 respectively, compared to the previous model version, assuming a homogeneous atmosphere loaded with scattering Mie particles (size parameter χ≈35). In this homogeneous atmosphere, the reduced discretisation sampling in turn reduces the numerical effort associated with the numerical matrix solver by a factor of 42 relative to the previous model

  20. Dermacentor reticulatus: a vector on the rise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Földvári, Gábor; Široký, Pavel; Szekeres, Sándor; Majoros, Gábor; Sprong, Hein

    2016-01-01

    Dermacentor reticulatus is a hard tick species with extraordinary biological features. It has a high reproduction rate, a rapid developmental cycle, and is also able to overcome years of unfavourable conditions. Dermacentor reticulatus can survive under water for several months and is cold-hardy even compared to other tick species. It has a wide host range: over 60 different wild and domesticated hosts are known for the three active developmental stages. Its high adaptiveness gives an edge to this tick species as shown by new data on the emergence and establishment of D. reticulatus populations throughout Europe. The tick has been the research focus of a growing number of scientists, physicians and veterinarians. Within the Web of Science database, more than a fifth of the over 700 items published on this species between 1897 and 2015 appeared in the last three years (2013-2015). Here we attempt to synthesize current knowledge on the systematics, ecology, geographical distribution and recent spread of the species and to highlight the great spectrum of possible veterinary and public health threats it poses. Canine babesiosis caused by Babesia canis is a severe leading canine vector-borne disease in many endemic areas. Although less frequently than Ixodes ricinus, D. reticulatus adults bite humans and transmit several Rickettsia spp., Omsk haemorrhagic fever virus or Tick-borne encephalitis virus. We have not solely collected and reviewed the latest and fundamental scientific papers available in primary databases but also widened our scope to books, theses, conference papers and specialists colleagues' experience where needed. Besides the dominant literature available in English, we also tried to access scientific literature in German, Russian and eastern European languages as well. We hope to inspire future research projects that are necessary to understand the basic life-cycle and ecology of this vector in order to understand and prevent disease threats. We

  1. Preliminary investigation on vectors of mosquito-borne diseases in Yiwu, Zhejiang%义乌地区蚊媒传染病主要传播媒介分布区初步调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明; 吴因平; 朱桂仁; 冯霞燕; 杨天赐

    2011-01-01

    目的 掌握义乌地区在登革热暴发流行后存在哪些蚊媒传染病主要传播媒介及其地理分布,为科学防控蚊媒传染病主要病媒生物提供理论依据.方法 随机抽样调查,蚊幼主要采用勺捕法( Dipper),成蚊使用诱蚊灯法.结果 本次蚊虫孳生地调查与成蚊监测,共发现2亚科4属8种.根据光诱捕器监测结果,淡色库蚊是该地区主要优势种,覆盖13个镇(街)234个村.而蚊幼孳生地调查结果显示,白纹伊蚊是该地区唯一的登革热主要传播媒介,主要分布于10个镇(街)18个村,是本次义乌地区登革热大面积暴发流行的助燃剂,占蚊幼采集量的51.7%;其次是三带喙库蚊,而新发现的小拟态库蚊等捕获量有限.结论 一些蚊媒传染病主要传播媒介在义乌地区广为分布,部分区域种群密度较高,今后应加强该地区蚊虫孳生地清理工作,从源头上有效切断蚊媒传染病主要传播途径,从而为当地蚊媒传染病传播媒介预防控制工作奠定坚实的理论基础.%Objective To identify the major vectors of mosquito-borne diseases and their geographic distribution after the outbreak of dengue fever (DF) in Yiwu, providing basis for further prevention and control. Methods Light traps and dippers were used to collect mosquito adults and larvae, respectively, based on random sampling. Results At least 8 species in 4 genera belonging to 2 subfamilies were found in the region. Culex pipiens pollens coquillett was the dominant species found in 234 villages and 13 towns. Although there were few Aedes albopictus (Skuse) and other species collected from the traps, it was the only vector of DF in Yiwu that distributed in 10 towns and 18 villages, a result of the breeding place survey on mosquito larvae. Ae. Albopictus larvae accounted for the highest proportion (51.7%) of the mosquito population, followed by Cx. Tritaeniorhynchus, while other species including Cx. Mimulus were limited. Conclusion In

  2. Tick borne encephalitis without cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stupica, Daša; Strle, Franc; Avšič-Županc, Tatjana; Logar, Mateja; Pečavar, Blaž; Bajrović, Fajko F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Tick borne encephalitis is the most frequent vector-transmitted infectious disease of the central nervous system in Europe and Asia. The disease caused by European subtype of tick borne encephalitis virus has typically a biphasic clinical course with the second phase presenting as meningitis, meningoencephalitis, or meningoencephalomyelitis. Cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis is considered a condition sine qua non for the diagnosis of neurologic involvement in tick borne encephalitis,...

  3. The Canine Oral Microbiome

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhirst, Floyd E.; Klein, Erin A.; Thompson, Emily C.; Blanton, Jessica M.; Chen, Tsute; Milella, Lisa; Buckley, Catherine M. F.; Davis, Ian J.; Bennett, Marie-Lousie; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V.

    2012-01-01

    Determining the bacterial composition of the canine oral microbiome is of interest for two primary reasons. First, while the human oral microbiome has been well studied using molecular techniques, the oral microbiomes of other mammals have not been studied in equal depth using culture independent methods. This study allows a comparison of the number of bacterial taxa, based on 16S rRNA-gene sequence comparison, shared between humans and dogs, two divergent mammalian species. Second, canine or...

  4. Canine babesiosis in Slovenia: Molecular evidence of Babesia canis canis and Babesia canis vogeli

    OpenAIRE

    Duh, Darja; Tozon, Nataša; Petrovec, Miroslav; StraŠek, Katja; AvŠic-Županc, Tatjana

    2004-01-01

    Canine babesiosis, caused by intraerythrocytic Babesia spp., is a tick-borne disease of worldwide importance. No information on canine babesiosis has been documented in Slovenia. Therefore, 238 dogs admitted to the Small animal clinic in Ljubljana from the years 2000 to 2002 were tested for the presence of babesial parasites in the blood. Based on clinical, microscopic and molecular investigations, 14 dogs (5.9%) were determined as being infected with babesiae. Clinical signs relating to acut...

  5. Distribution of tick-borne diseases in China

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xian-Bo; Na, Ren-Hua; Wei, Shan-Shan; Zhu, Jin-Song; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As an important contributor to vector-borne diseases in China, in recent years, tick-borne diseases have attracted much attention because of their increasing incidence and consequent significant harm to livestock and human health. The most commonly observed human tick-borne diseases in China include Lyme borreliosis (known as Lyme disease in China), tick-borne encephalitis (known as Forest encephalitis in China), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (known as Xinjiang hemorrhagic fever in...

  6. STUDY ON RISK ANALYSIS AND MANAGEMENT FOR IMPORTED VECTOR-BORNE INFECTIOUS DISEASES AND VECTORS ON BORDER PORTS:RISK ANALYSIS%国境口岸输入性虫媒传染病及媒介生物风险分析和风险管理系统研究: 风险分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹鑫; 方志强; 张晓龙; 马立新; 赵彤言

    2012-01-01

    为在口岸传染病防控方面探索新的思路和方法,建立科学的风险评估机制,采用澳大利亚和新西兰联合开发的风险管理标准,对境外的虫媒传染病及其媒介生物传入我国口岸的风险建立评估方法和体系.结果显示,通过对国际国内传染病疫情进行有效评估,分析传染病传播模式和趋势,确定输入输出风险等级和主要防控环节,及时发出预警信息,然后有针对性地在重点地区口岸和重点环节采取措施,能够有效控制媒介生物以及携带病原体的传播.引入风险分析理论,建立风险评估机制,对有效减少传染病疫情所带来的危害,保障我国口岸公共卫生安全十分必要.%To explore the new ideas and methods and establish the scientific risk assessment mechanism using in prevention and control of infectious diseases at the ports, the methods and systems basing on the risk management standards jointly developed by Australia and New Zealand and its application assessing the risk of imported vector-borne infectious diseases and vectors were used. The results showed that according to the effective evaluation of the international and domestic epidemic situation and the analysis of infectious diseases spreading tendency, we determine the input and output risk grade and prevention and control of main parts, publish warning information and take measures in the targeted areas, ports and parts in order to effectively control the vectors and pathogens spreading. It is necessary to introduce the risk analysis theory and build the risk assessment mechanism, which are beneficial in reducing the harm caused by infectious diseases and protecting port safety.

  7. Environmental statistical modelling of mosquito vectors at different geographical scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cianci, D.

    2015-01-01

    Vector-borne diseases are infections transmitted by the bite of infected arthropod vectors, such as mosquitoes, ticks, fleas, midges and flies. Vector-borne diseases pose an increasingly wider threat to global public health, both in terms of people affected and their geographical spread. Mosquitoes

  8. Vaccines for Canine Leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeze Foroughi-Parvar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leishmania infantum is the obligatory intracellular parasite of mammalian macrophages and causes zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL. The presence of infected dogs as the main reservoir host of ZVL is regarded as the most important potential risk for human infection. Thus the prevention of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL is essential to stop the current increase of the Mediterranean visceral leishmaniasis. Recently considerable advances in achieving protective immunization of dogs and several important attempts for achieving an effective vaccine against CVL lead to attracting the scientists trust in its important role for eradication of ZVL. This paper highlights the recent advances in vaccination against canine visceral leishmaniasis from 2007 until now.

  9. Integrating vector control across diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Golding, N.; Wilson, AL; Moyes, CL; Cano, J.; Pigott, DM; Velayudhan, R; Brooker, SJ; Smith, DL; Hay, SI; Lindsay, SW

    2015-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases cause a significant proportion of the overall burden of disease across the globe, accounting for over 10 % of the burden of infectious diseases. Despite the availability of effective interventions for many of these diseases, a lack of resources prevents their effective control. Many existing vector control interventions are known to be effective against multiple diseases, so combining vector control programmes to simultaneously tackle several diseases could of...

  10. Symbiotic control of mosquito borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Irene; Valzano, Matteo; Ulissi, Ulisse; Epis, Sara; Cappelli, Alessia; Favia, Guido

    2012-11-01

    It is well accepted that the symbiotic relationships insects have established with several microorganisms have had a key role in their evolutionary success. Bacterial symbiosis is also prevalent in insects that are efficient disease vectors, and numerous studies have sought to decrypt the basic mechanisms of the host-symbiont relationships and develop ways to control vector borne diseases. 'Symbiotic control', a new multifaceted approach that uses symbiotic microorganisms to control insect pests or reduce vector competence, seems particularly promising. Three such approaches currently at the cutting edge are: (1) the disruption of microbial symbionts required by insect pests; (2) the manipulation of symbionts that can express anti-pathogen molecules within the host; and (3) the introduction of endogenous microbes that affect life-span and vector capacity of the new hosts in insect populations. This work reviews current knowledge on microbial symbiosis in mosquitoes that holds promise for development of symbiotic control for mosquito borne diseases. PMID:23265608

  11. Symbiotic control of mosquito borne disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ricci, Irene; Valzano, Matteo; Ulissi, Ulisse; Epis, Sara; Cappelli, Alessia; Favia, Guido

    2012-01-01

    It is well accepted that the symbiotic relationships insects have established with several microorganisms have had a key role in their evolutionary success. Bacterial symbiosis is also prevalent in insects that are efficient disease vectors, and numerous studies have sought to decrypt the basic mechanisms of the host–symbiont relationships and develop ways to control vector borne diseases. ‘Symbiotic control’, a new multifaceted approach that uses symbiotic microorganisms to control insect pe...

  12. Mosquito-borne viruses in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 103, Suppl. 1 (2008), S29-S43. ISSN 0932-0113. [Vector-borne diseases: impact of climate change on vectors and rodent reservoirs. Berlin, 27.09.2007-28.09.2007] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600930611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : moboviruses * epidemiology Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.473, year: 2008

  13. Dirac-Born-Infeld-Einstein theory with Weyl invariance

    CERN Document Server

    Maki, Takuya; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Weyl invariant gravity has been investigated as the fundamental theory of the vector inflation. Accordingly, we consider a Weyl invariant extension of Dirac-Born-Infeld type gravity. We find that an appropriate choice of the metric removes the scalar degree of freedom which is at the first sight required by the local scale invariance of the action, and then a vector field acquires mass. Then nonminimal couplings of the vector field and curvatures are induced. We find that the Dirac-Born-Infeld type gravity is a suitable theory to the vector inflation scenario.

  14. Mosquito Frequency and Feeding Habits in an Enzootic Canine Dirofilariasis Area in Niterói, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labarthe Norma

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Heartworm, a chronic fatal mosquito-borne canine disease, is frequently diagnosed in dogs from the State of Rio de Janeiro, where its prevalence is 29.7% in the city of Niterói. Nevertheless it is rarely detected in cats (0.8% from the same state. Dogs are the primary source of infection to mosquitoes, because cats either do not demonstrate microfilaremia or it is too low and transient for transmission. A mosquito survey was conducted in Itacoatiara, Niterói, from March 1995 to February 1996, using canine, feline and human baits. A total of 21 mosquito species (3,888 females was collected and biting frequency was highest at dusk. The four species collected most frequently (88.9% were: Aedes taeniorhynchus (30% of the total catch; with the peak in May/June; Culex quinquefasciatus (22.5%; August/October; Aedes scapularis (19.4%; August, October/November and January and Culex declarator (17%; November/January. Human baits were attractive to these species and dogs were significantly more attractive to them than cats. Ae. taeniorhynchus, Cx. quinquefasciatus, Ae. scapularis, Cx. declarator and Cx. nigripalpus are the most likely mosquito species to transmit Dirofilaria immitis parasites to dogs and may transmit the parasite to humans. It is also suggested that the vector to cats belongs to the genus Culex

  15. The canine vomeronasal organ.

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, D. R.; Wiekamp, M D

    1984-01-01

    The vomeronasal organ was studied in mature dogs with the optical, transmission electron, and scanning electron microscopes. The canine vomeronasal complex is structurally well developed. Large blood vessels are present deep to both the lateral, 'non-receptor' and medial, 'receptor' epithelia. In addition to the unmyelinated vomeronasal nerves in the lamina propria deep to the 'receptor' epithelium, numerous nerves containing both myelinated and unmyelinated fibres are present deep to the 'no...

  16. Olfaction in vector-host interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Takken, W; Knols, B.G.J.

    2010-01-01

    This book addresses the topic how blood-feeding arthropods interact with their vertebrate hosts. As the transmission of infectious vector-borne pathogens is much dependent on the contact between vector and host, the efficacy of host location is of profound importance. Interruption of vector-host contact is considered on of the most effective means of vector-borne disease control, as is currently witnessed by the successful use of insecticide-treated bed nets for malaria control in sub-Saharan...

  17. CONTRIBUTIONS OF INVERTEBRATE PATHOLOGY TO VECTOR CONTROL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Control of the invertebrate host is an integral part of any integrated program to prevent the spread of vector borne diseases of man and animals. This includes important mosquito borne arboviruses such as yellow fever, dengue and the various types of encephalitis including West Nile Virus, St. Loui...

  18. Canine mast cell tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, D W

    1985-07-01

    Despite the fact that the mast cell tumor is a common neoplasm of the dog, we still have only a meager understanding of its etiology and biologic behavior. Many of the published recommendations for treatment are based on opinion rather than facts derived from careful studies and should be viewed with some skepticism. Because of the infrequent occurrence of this tumor in man, only a limited amount of help can be expected from human oncologists; therefore, burden of responsibility for progress in predicting behavior and developing treatment effective for canine mast cell tumors must fall on the shoulders of the veterinary profession. PMID:3929444

  19. Brazilian canine hepatozoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2011-01-01

    The genus Hepatozoon includes hundreds of species that infect birds, reptiles, amphibians and mammals, in all continents with tropical and subtropical climates. Two species have been described in domestic dogs: H. canis, reported in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and the United States; and H. americanum, which so far has only been diagnosed in the United States. In Brazil, the only species found infecting dogs is H. canis. The objective of this review was to detail some aspects of canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, and the main points of its biology, transmission, pathogenicity, symptoms, epidemiology and diagnostic methods, with emphasis on research developed in Brazil. PMID:21961746

  20. Weyl invariant Dirac-Born-Infeld-Einstein theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kan, Nahomi; Shiraishi, Kiyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We consider a Weyl invariant extension of Dirac-Born-Infeld type gravity. An appropriate choice of the metric hides the scalar degree of freedom which is required by the local scale invariance of the action at the first sight, and then a vector field acquires mass. Moreover, nonminimal couplings of the vector field and curvatures are induced, which may be suitable to the vector inflation scenario.

  1. Canine visceral leishmaniasis in Sicily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndorff, G R; Cooper, B A; Smith, W; Ryan, J R

    2000-01-01

    The Sicilian province of Catania is an active foci for human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean area. Approximately 10 to 15 cases of VL are diagnosed via hospital admissions each year in this community. Recently, an increase in VL case reporting by Sicilian physicians was noted, with 38 and 37 VL cases in 1996 and 1997, respectively. Before 1995, there were no reported VL cases among U.S. military personnel or their family members living in Sicily. However, since 1996, there have been four cases referred to Walter Reed Army Medical Center for diagnosis and treatment, all involving the children of personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. Exposure histories for all infected individuals excluded exposure to Leishmania parasites outside of Sicily. All patients lived in areas where vectoring sandflies are present. All had dogs as family pets. To evaluate the level of infection among dogs owned by Navy personnel and their families, U.S. Navy Environmental and Preventive Medicine Unit 7, in a collaborative study with the U.S. Army Veterinary Clinic, Naval Air Station Sigonella, and the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, performed clinical evaluation and serological testing of 50 dogs residing with U.S. personnel assigned to Naval Air Station Sigonella. The data indicate a high exposure rate to Leishmania (60% of the animals tested had elevated immunoglobulin M antibody levels) in the study population, suggesting that they were infected with Leishmania infantum. Distribution of seropositive dogs by sex was equal. Most of the dogs studied appeared to be in good health. However, inapparent infection of dogs, seen by Italian veterinarians, has been observed throughout all areas of Catania. Sandflies responsible for vectoring L. infantum were trapped in the same locations as the dogs sampled in this study. The level of subclinical infection was 75% among seropositive dogs. The overall level of canine infection observed was higher than expected

  2. Canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus bites negatively correlates with the risk of Leishmania infantum transmission.

    OpenAIRE

    Michaela Vlkova; Iva Rohousova; Jan Drahota; Dorothee Stanneck; Eva Maria Kruedewagen; Norbert Mencke; Domenico Otranto; Petr Volf

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, an...

  3. Nanoparticles in the fight against mosquito-borne diseases: bioactivity of Bruguiera cylindrica-synthesized nanoparticles against dengue virus DEN-2 (in vitro) and its mosquito vector Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, Kadarkarai; Dinesh, Devakumar; Paulpandi, Manickam; Althbyani, Abdulaziz Dakhellah Meqbel; Subramaniam, Jayapal; Madhiyazhagan, Pari; Wang, Lan; Suresh, Udaiyan; Kumar, Palanisamy Mahesh; Mohan, Jagathish; Rajaganesh, Rajapandian; Wei, Hui; Kalimuthu, Kandasamy; Parajulee, Megha N; Mehlhorn, Heinz; Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    Mosquitoes are blood-feeding insects serving as the most important vectors for spreading human pathogens and parasites. Dengue is a viral disease mainly vectored through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Its transmission has recently increased in urban and semi-urban areas of tropical and subtropical regions worldwide, becoming a major international public health concern. There is no specific treatment for dengue. Its prevention and control solely depend on effective vector control measures. Mangrove plants have been used in Indian traditional medicine for a wide array of purposes. In this research, we proposed a method for biosynthesis of antiviral and mosquitocidal silver nanoparticles (AgNP) using the aqueous extract of Bruguiera cylindrica leaves. AgNP were characterized using a variety of biophysical analyses, including UV-visible spectrophotometry, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Bruguiera cilyndrica aqueous extract and green-synthesized AgNP were tested against the primary dengue vector Aedes aegypti. AgNP were the most effective. LC50 values ranged from 8.93 ppm (larva I) to 30.69 ppm (pupa). In vitro experiments showed that 30 μg/ml of AgNP significantly inhibited the production of dengue viral envelope (E) protein in vero cells and downregulated the expression of dengue viral E gene. Concerning nontarget effects, we observed that the predation efficiency of Carassius auratus against A. aegypti was not affected by exposure at sublethal doses of AgNP. Predation in the control was 71.81 % (larva II) and 50.43 % (larva III), while in an AgNP-treated environment, predation was boosted to 90.25 and 76.81 %, respectively. Overall, this study highlights the concrete potential of green-synthesized AgNP in the fight against dengue virus. Furthermore, B. cylindrica-synthesized AgNP can be employed at low doses to reduce larval and pupal population of A. aegypti, without detrimental

  4. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Newell, Homer E

    2006-01-01

    When employed with skill and understanding, vector analysis can be a practical and powerful tool. This text develops the algebra and calculus of vectors in a manner useful to physicists and engineers. Numerous exercises (with answers) not only provide practice in manipulation but also help establish students' physical and geometric intuition in regard to vectors and vector concepts.Part I, the basic portion of the text, consists of a thorough treatment of vector algebra and the vector calculus. Part II presents the illustrative matter, demonstrating applications to kinematics, mechanics, and e

  5. About vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Banesh

    1975-01-01

    From his unusual beginning in ""Defining a vector"" to his final comments on ""What then is a vector?"" author Banesh Hoffmann has written a book that is provocative and unconventional. In his emphasis on the unresolved issue of defining a vector, Hoffmann mixes pure and applied mathematics without using calculus. The result is a treatment that can serve as a supplement and corrective to textbooks, as well as collateral reading in all courses that deal with vectors. Major topics include vectors and the parallelogram law; algebraic notation and basic ideas; vector algebra; scalars and scalar p

  6. Transgenesis and paratransgenesis to control insect-borne diseases: Current status and future challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Coutinho-Abreu, Iliano V.; Zhu, Kun Yan; Ramalho-Ortigao, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    Insect-borne diseases cause significant human morbidity and mortality. Current control and preventive methods against vector-borne diseases rely mainly on insecticides. The emergence of insecticide resistance in many disease vectors highlights the necessity to develop new strategies to control these insects. Vector transgenesis and paratransgenesis are novel strategies that aim at reducing insect vectorial capacity, or seek to eliminate transmission of pathogens such as Plasmodium sp., Trypan...

  7. Food-borne Zoonoses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: The awareness of food borne illness has shifted over the years as international agribusiness and transportation have steadily increased. At least 30 food borne agents have been identified, with one-third emerging in the last 3 decades. Despite an increased emphasis on control measures, t...

  8. Exploiting the potential of vector control for disease prevention.

    OpenAIRE

    H Townson; MB Nathan; Zaim, M.; Guillet, P.; Manga, L.; Bos, R.; M Kindhauser

    2005-01-01

    Although vector control has proven highly effective in preventing disease transmission, it is not being used to its full potential, thereby depriving disadvantaged populations of the benefits of well tried and tested methods. Following the discovery of synthetic residual insecticides in the 1940s, large-scale programmes succeeded in bringing many of the important vector-borne diseases under control. By the late 1960s, most vector-borne diseases - with the exception of malaria in Africa - were...

  9. 9 CFR 113.305 - Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... STANDARD REQUIREMENTS Live Virus Vaccines § 113.305 Canine Hepatitis and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine. Canine Hepatitis Vaccine and Canine Adenovirus Type 2 Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell... hepatitis, the test is inconclusive and may be repeated. (B) If at least 19 of the 20 vaccinates do...

  10. Integration profile and safety of an adenovirus hybrid-vector utilizing hyperactive Sleeping Beauty transposase for somatic integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W; Muck-Hausl, M.; Wang, J.; C. Sun; Gebbing, M.; Miskey, C.; Ivics, Z.; Izsvak, Z; Ehrhardt, A.

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We foun...

  11. Integration Profile and Safety of an Adenovirus Hybrid-Vector Utilizing Hyperactive Sleeping Beauty Transposase for Somatic Integration

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Wenli; Muck-Hausl, Martin; Wang, Jichang; Sun, Chuanbo; Gebbing, Maren; Miskey, Csaba; Ivics, Zoltan; Izsvak, Zsuzsanna; Ehrhardt, Anja

    2013-01-01

    We recently developed adenovirus/transposase hybrid-vectors utilizing the previously described hyperactive Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase HSB5 for somatic integration and we could show stabilized transgene expression in mice and a canine model for hemophilia B. However, the safety profile of these hybrid-vectors with respect to vector dose and genotoxicity remains to be investigated. Herein, we evaluated this hybrid-vector system in C57Bl/6 mice with escalating vector dose settings. We foun...

  12. Elementary vectors

    CERN Document Server

    Wolstenholme, E Œ

    1978-01-01

    Elementary Vectors, Third Edition serves as an introductory course in vector analysis and is intended to present the theoretical and application aspects of vectors. The book covers topics that rigorously explain and provide definitions, principles, equations, and methods in vector analysis. Applications of vector methods to simple kinematical and dynamical problems; central forces and orbits; and solutions to geometrical problems are discussed as well. This edition of the text also provides an appendix, intended for students, which the author hopes to bridge the gap between theory and appl

  13. Impact of canine control on the epidemiology of canine and human visceral leishmaniasis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palatnik-de-Sousa, C B; dos Santos, W R; França-Silva, J C; da Costa, R T; Reis, A B; Palatnik, M; Mayrink, W; Genaro, O

    2001-11-01

    Brazil is the only country endemic for zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) that regularly conducts epidemiologic and prophylactic control programs that involve the treatment of human cases, insect vector control, and the removal of seropositive infected dogs. This report reviews 60 studies reporting data on the efficacy of these recommended control tools and concludes that in Brazil 1) eradication of the disease in Minas Gerais was achieved by the concomitant use of the three control methods, 2) although seropositivity by an immunofluorescent assay is not completely related to infectiousness, the removal of seropositive dogs leads to a significant reduction of canine and human incidence, 3) improvement of the sensitivity of the diagnostic tool used for canine control should optimize the efficacy of control, and 4) although difficult and expensive, the public health dog control campaigns performed in Brazil reduced the incidence of ZVL and should be maintained since treatment of dogs is an unrealistic intervention, both because of its prohibitive cost and relatively poor effectiveness. PMID:11716106

  14. Transmission mechanisms of an emerging insect-borne rickettsial pathogen

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Lisa D.; Kaikhushroo H Banajee; Lane D Foil; Macaluso, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Vector-borne pathogens must overcome arthropod infection and escape barriers (e.g. midgut and salivary glands) during the extrinsic incubation period (EIP) before subsequent transmission to another host. This particular timespan is undetermined for the etiological agent of flea-borne spotted fever (Rickettsia felis). Artificial acquisition of R. felis by blood-feeding cat fleas revealed dissemination to the salivary glands after seven days; however, this length of time is inconsist...

  15. Tick-borne encephalitis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Růžek, Daniel; Bilski, B.; Günther, G.

    Florida : CRC Press, 2013, s. 211-237. ISBN 9781466567207 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : tick-borne encephalitis * neuroviral Infections * viruses Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine

  16. Vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Brand, Louis

    2006-01-01

    The use of vectors not only simplifies treatments of differential geometry, mechanics, hydrodynamics, and electrodynamics, but also makes mathematical and physical concepts more tangible and easy to grasp. This text for undergraduates was designed as a short introductory course to give students the tools of vector algebra and calculus, as well as a brief glimpse into these subjects' manifold applications. The applications are developed to the extent that the uses of the potential function, both scalar and vector, are fully illustrated. Moreover, the basic postulates of vector analysis are brou

  17. Uncoordinated phylogeography of Borrelia burgdorferi and its tick vector, Ixodes scapularis

    OpenAIRE

    Humphrey, Parris T; Caporale, Diane A.; Brisson, Dustin

    2010-01-01

    Vector-borne microbes necessarily co-occur with their hosts and vectors, but the degree to which they share common evolutionary or biogeographic histories remains unexplored. We examine the congruity of the evolutionary and biogeographic histories of the Lyme disease system, the most prevalent vector-borne disease in North America. In the Eastern and Midwestern US, Ixodes scapularis ticks are the primary vectors of Borrelia burgdorferi, the bacterium that causes Lyme disease. Our phylogeograp...

  18. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated n

  19. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    M.C. Sant'Anna; L.G.P. Giordano; K.K.M.C. Flaiban; E.E. Muller; M.I.M. Martins

    2014-01-01

    The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra tre...

  20. How effective is integrated vector management against malaria and lymphatic filariasis where the diseases are transmitted by the same vector?

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher M Stone; Lindsay, Steve W; Nakul Chitnis

    2014-01-01

    Background: The opportunity to integrate vector management across multiple vector-borne diseases is particularly plausible for malaria and lymphatic filariasis (LF) control where both diseases are transmitted by the same vector. To date most examples of integrated control targeting these diseases have been unanticipated consequences of malaria vector control, rather than planned strategies that aim to maximize the efficacy and take the complex ecological and biological interactions between th...

  1. Chikungunya Virus–Vector Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lark L. Coffey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chikungunya virus (CHIKV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus that causes chikungunya fever, a severe, debilitating disease that often produces chronic arthralgia. Since 2004, CHIKV has emerged in Africa, Indian Ocean islands, Asia, Europe, and the Americas, causing millions of human infections. Central to understanding CHIKV emergence is knowledge of the natural ecology of transmission and vector infection dynamics. This review presents current understanding of CHIKV infection dynamics in mosquito vectors and its relationship to human disease emergence. The following topics are reviewed: CHIKV infection and vector life history traits including transmission cycles, genetic origins, distribution, emergence and spread, dispersal, vector competence, vector immunity and microbial interactions, and co-infection by CHIKV and other arboviruses. The genetics of vector susceptibility and host range changes, population heterogeneity and selection for the fittest viral genomes, dual host cycling and its impact on CHIKV adaptation, viral bottlenecks and intrahost diversity, and adaptive constraints on CHIKV evolution are also discussed. The potential for CHIKV re-emergence and expansion into new areas and prospects for prevention via vector control are also briefly reviewed.

  2. Cloning vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Smith, Lloyd M.

    1994-01-01

    A vector comprising a filamentous phage sequence containing a first copy of filamentous phage gene X and other sequences necessary for the phage to propagate is disclosed. The vector also contains a second copy of filamentous phage gene X downstream from a promoter capable of promoting transcription in a bacterial host. In a preferred form of the present invention, the filamentous phage is M13 and the vector additionally includes a restriction endonuclease site located in such a manner as to substantially inactivate the second gene X when a DNA sequence is inserted into the restriction site.

  3. Duchenne muscular dystrophy gene therapy in the canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Dongsheng

    2015-03-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked lethal muscle disease caused by dystrophin deficiency. Gene therapy has significantly improved the outcome of dystrophin-deficient mice. Yet, clinical translation has not resulted in the expected benefits in human patients. This translational gap is largely because of the insufficient modeling of DMD in mice. Specifically, mice lacking dystrophin show minimum dystrophic symptoms, and they do not respond to the gene therapy vector in the same way as human patients do. Further, the size of a mouse is hundredfolds smaller than a boy, making it impossible to scale-up gene therapy in a mouse model. None of these limitations exist in the canine DMD (cDMD) model. For this reason, cDMD dogs have been considered a highly valuable platform to test experimental DMD gene therapy. Over the last three decades, a variety of gene therapy approaches have been evaluated in cDMD dogs using a number of nonviral and viral vectors. These studies have provided critical insight for the development of an effective gene therapy protocol in human patients. This review discusses the history, current status, and future directions of the DMD gene therapy in the canine model. PMID:25710459

  4. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, E.; Kahl, O.; A. Estrada-Peña; Dautel, H.; Gray, J. S.

    2009-01-01

    Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity o...

  5. Use of a doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole combination with/without diminazene diaceturate to treat naturally occurring canine babesiosis caused by Babesia gibsoni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Hui-Pi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is an important worldwide, tick-borne disease caused by hemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Babesia gibsoni is the predominant species that causes canine babesiosis in Taipei, Taiwan. It is a small pleomorphic intraerythrocytic parasite that can cause erythrocyte destruction and hemolytic anemia. Efficacy of oral administration of a doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole combination with and without injections of diminazene diaceturate in the management of naturally occurring canine babesiosis caused by B. gibsoni was evaluated retrospectively. The overall efficacy of this combination of doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole in conjunction with and without administration of diminazene diaceturate was 85.7% and 83.3%, respectively; with a mean recovery time of 24.2 and 23.5 days, respectively. Concomitant use of intramuscular diminazene diaceturate may not improve the efficacy of a doxycycline-enrofloxacin-metronidazole combination in management of canine babesiosis caused by B. gibsoni.

  6. Masculinization of the eruption pattern of permanent mandibular canines in opposite sex twin girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heikkinen, Tuomo; Harila, Virpi; Tapanainen, Juha S; Alvesalo, Lassi

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of prenatal androgenization on the clinical eruption of permanent teeth expressing dimorphism and bimaturism. The eruption curves of permanent teeth (except third molars), including those that make up the canine complex (permanent canines, lower first premolars), are compared among opposite sex twins (OS twins) relative to single-born boys and girls. The comparisons are made with regard to three phases of eruption (pierced mucosa, half- erupted, and completely erupted) from a cross-sectional sample of dental casts, using Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox regression analyzes. The casts were collected from 2159 school children from the US Collaborative Perinatal Project, including 39 pairs of OS-twins, of which 12 pairs (30.8%) were Euro-Americans and 27 pairs (69.2%) were of African-American ancestry. The eruption patterns of the incisors, upper first molars, and lower canines were found to be significantly masculinized (delayed) among OS twin girls. The differences in most other teeth were either not significant, or the number of observations of active eruption phases were too few, such as in the upper first molars and incisors, to yield strong evidence and meaningful results. The masculinization of the tooth eruption pattern in OS twin girls is intriguing because of the lower canine responses during puberty, as well as canine primordial formation during early fetal androgenization of their co-twin during the 8th to 14th gestational weeks. The present results offer a challenge for future research exploring tooth eruption mechanisms, and may also highlight some cases of delayed or ectopic canines, which are biased toward females. PMID:23754587

  7. Equivalent Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The cross-product is a mathematical operation that is performed between two 3-dimensional vectors. The result is a vector that is orthogonal or perpendicular to both of them. Learning about this for the first time while taking Calculus-III, the class was taught that if AxB = AxC, it does not necessarily follow that B = C. This seemed baffling. The…

  8. Maxillary canine with two root canals

    OpenAIRE

    Nagesh Bolla; Sarath Raj Kavuri

    2011-01-01

    To report a rare case of maxillary canine with two root canals. The case describes the treatment of a maxillary canine with two root canals which was referred from department of prosthodontia for intentional root canal treatment for prosthetic rehabilitation. Clinical examination revealed a maxillary canine with carious lesion and responded within normal limits to electric pulp test. Radiographic examination revealed a distal carious lesion (close proximity to pulp) and also appeared to be an...

  9. Canine specific ELISA for coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tom; Kjelgaard-Hansen, Mads; Tranholm, Mikael; Wiinberg, Bo; Clausen, Jes T.; Hansen, Jens Jacob; Nichols, Timothy C.; Kjalke, Marianne; Jensen, Asger Lundorff; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    Canine coagulation factor VII (FVII) deficiency can be hereditary or acquired and may cause life threatening bleeding episodes if untreated. FVII procoagulant activity can be measured by FVII activity (FVII:C), but assays for measurement of canine specific FVII antigen (FVII:Ag) have not been...... available to date. In this study, a canine specific ELISA for measurement of FVII:Ag in plasma was developed and validated. The FVII:Ag ELISA correctly diagnosed homozygous and heterozygous hereditary FVII deficiency. Together with activity based assays, such as FVII:C, the FVII:Ag ELISA should be valuable...... in the diagnosis of hereditary canine FVII deficiency....

  10. CAV-2--why a canine virus is a neurobiologist's best friend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junyent, Felix; Kremer, Eric J

    2015-10-01

    Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2) vectors are powerful tools for fundamental and applied neurobiology due to their negligible immunogenicity, preferential transduction of neurons, widespread distribution via axonal transport, and duration of expression in the mammalian brain. CAV-2 vectors are internalized in neurons by the selective use of coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (CAR), which is located at the presynapse in neurons. Neuronal internalization and axonal transport is mediated by CAR, which potentiates vector biodistribution. The above characteristics, together with the ∼30kb cloning capacity of helper-dependent (HD) CAV-2 vectors, optimized CAV-2 vector creation, production and purification, is expanding the therapeutic and fundamental options for CNS gene transfer. PMID:26298516

  11. A Nod to disease vectors: mitigation of pathogen sensing by arthropod saliva

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sakhon, O. S.; Severo, M. S.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis; Pedra, J. H. F.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 4, OCT 2013 (2013), a308. ISSN 1664-302X Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : nod-like receptors * inflammasome * vector-borne pathogens * vector-borne diseases * arthropod saliva * salivary proteins Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.941, year: 2013

  12. Tick-Borne Encephalitis (TBE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Tick-borne Encephalitis (TBE) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Tick-borne encephalitis, or TBE, is a human viral ...

  13. Sewage surveillance reveals the presence of canine GVII norovirus and canine astrovirus in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizasoain, A; Tort, L F L; García, M; Gómez, M M; Leite, J P G; Miagostovich, M P; Cristina, J; Berois, M; Colina, R; Victoria, Matías

    2015-11-01

    Canine norovirus (NoV) and astrovirus (AstV) were studied in 20 domestic sewage samples collected in two cities in Uruguay. Four samples were characterized as canine AstV after phylogenetic analysis clustering with strains detected in Italy and Brazil in 2008 and 2012, respectively. One sample was characterized as canine NoV and clustered with a strain detected in Hong Kong and recently classified as GVII. This study shows the occurrence of a canine NoV GVII strain for the first time in the American continent and also warns about possible zoonotic infection, since canine strains were detected in domestic sewage. PMID:26280526

  14. The Born Rule Dies

    CERN Document Server

    Page, Don N

    2009-01-01

    The Born rule may be stated mathematically as the rule that probabilities in quantum theory are expectation values of a complete orthogonal set of projection operators. This rule works for single laboratory settings in which the observer can distinguish all the different possible outcomes corresponding to the projection operators. However, theories of inflation suggest that the universe may be so large that any laboratory, no matter how precisely it is defined by its internal state, may exist in a large number of very distantly separated copies throughout the vast universe. In this case, no observer within the universe can distinguish all possible outcomes for all copies of the laboratory. Then normalized probabilities for the local outcomes that can be locally distinguished cannot be given by the expectation values of any projection operators. Thus the Born rule dies and must be replaced by another rule for observational probabilities in cosmology. The freedom of what this new rule is to be is the measure pr...

  15. Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov; Ksenija Ilievska; Plamen Trojacanec; Irena Celeska; Goran Nikolovski; Ivica Gjurovski; Toni Dovenski

    2014-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the...

  16. Surgical innovations in canine gonadectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Van Goethem, Bart

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis some recent technological developments in human surgery are evaluated for their potential use in veterinary medicine by introducing them as surgical innovations for canine gonadectomy. Barbed sutures achieve wound apposition without surgical knot tying and thus avoid knot-associated negative consequences (lengthy placement, impaired wound healing around bulky knots, and the effect of unsightly knots on cosmetics). A study in 9 dogs found that celiotomy closure was easily achiev...

  17. Canine mammary tumours, an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeckx, N; de Rooster, H; Veldhuis Kroeze, E J B; Van Ginneken, C; Van Brantegem, L

    2011-12-01

    Canine mammary tumours (CMTs) are the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. Although the prevalence of these tumours decreases in regions where preventive ovari(ohyster)ectomy is performed, it remains an important disease entity in veterinary medicine. Moreover, treatment options are limited in comparison with human breast cancer. Nevertheless, recent human treatment protocols might have potential in bitches suffering from CMTs. PMID:21645126

  18. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    OpenAIRE

    Luís Fábio da Silva Batista; Vânia Lúcia Ribeiro da Matta; Thaise Yumie Tomokane; Acácio Duarte Pacheco; Fernando Tobias Silveira; Claudio Nazaretian Rossi; Mary Marcondes; Márcia Dalastra Laurenti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. METHODS Immunoglobulin G (IgG) anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis ...

  19. Plasma biomarkers of SIRS and MODS associated with canine babesiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleš, J; de Torre-Minguela, C; Barić Rafaj, R; Gotić, J; Nižić, P; Ceron, J J; Mrljak, V

    2016-04-01

    Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the haemoprotozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. Early detection of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) is of major importance in clinical practice for providing information about severity and outcomes of the disease and therapy. Plasma samples were taken at admission from five dogs with uncomplicated babesiosis caused by B. canis canis, five dogs with babesiosis and SIRS, five dogs with babesiosis and MODS, and five healthy dogs. After two-dimensional electrophoresis and capillary reversed - phase liquid chromatography coupled online with tandem mass spectrometry, 68 differentially expressed spots with level of significance P<0.05 were detected between groups. SIRS in babesiosis was characterised by increases in paraoxonase 1 and apoA-I, whereas MODS with decrease of complement inhibitors leading to prolonged complement activation and decrease of vitamin D binding protein due to haemolysis and activation of the coagulation cascade. PMID:27033937

  20. Where was Joseph Babinski born?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H A G Teive

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is controversy in the neurological literature about where Joseph Babinski was born, including a myth propounded by various important authors that he was born in Lima, Peru. However, according to the most consistent biographical data, he was in fact born in Paris, France, and became a medical celebrity there and in Poland as well as around the world.

  1. Infection Prevalences of Common Tick-borne Pathogens in Adult Lone Star Ticks (Amblyomma americanum) and American Dog Ticks (Dermacentor variabilis) in Kentucky

    OpenAIRE

    Fritzen, Charissa M.; Huang, Junjun; Westby, Kathleen; Freye, James D.; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J.; Schardein, Mike; Dunn, John R.; Jones, Timothy F.; Moncayo, Abelardo C.

    2011-01-01

    Rocky Mountain spotted fever, Lyme disease, and ehrlichiosis are tick-borne diseases that are reported annually in Kentucky. We conducted a survey to describe infection prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in Amblyomma americanum and Dermacentor variabilis ticks collected in Kentucky. During 2007–2008, we collected 287 ticks (179 D. variabilis and 108 A. americanum) from canine, feral hog, horse, raccoon, white-tailed deer, and human hosts in six counties in Kentucky. Ticks were screened for Ri...

  2. Taking the Bite Out of Vector-Borne Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more than a million species, including insects, shrimp, spiders, mite and tiny worms. It lives and reproduces ... dengue virus. Releasing more Wolbachia into the mosquito population or finding and introducing the Wolbachia genes that ...

  3. Optimal vaccination strategies against vector-borne diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Enøe, Claes; Bødker, Rene;

    2014-01-01

    Using a process oriented semi-agent based model, we simulated the spread of Bluetongue virus by Culicoides, biting midges, between cattle in Denmark. We evaluated the minimum vaccination cover and minimum cost for eight different preventive vaccination strategies in Denmark. The simulation model...... replicates both a passive and active flight of midges between cattle distributed on pastures and cattle farms in Denmark. A seasonal abundance of midges and temperature dependence of biological processes were included in the model. The eight vaccination strategies were investigated under four different...

  4. Large Animal Models for Foamy Virus Vector Gene Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter A. Horn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Foamy virus (FV vectors have shown great promise for hematopoietic stem cell (HSC gene therapy. Their ability to efficiently deliver transgenes to multi-lineage long-term repopulating cells in large animal models suggests they will be effective for several human hematopoietic diseases. Here, we review FV vector studies in large animal models, including the use of FV vectors with the mutant O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, MGMTP140K to increase the number of genetically modified cells after transplantation. In these studies, FV vectors have mediated efficient gene transfer to polyclonal repopulating cells using short ex vivo transduction protocols designed to minimize the negative effects of ex vivo culture on stem cell engraftment. In this regard, FV vectors appear superior to gammaretroviral vectors, which require longer ex vivo culture to effect efficient transduction. FV vectors have also compared favorably with lentiviral vectors when directly compared in the dog model. FV vectors have corrected leukocyte adhesion deficiency and pyruvate kinase deficiency in the dog large animal model. FV vectors also appear safer than gammaretroviral vectors based on a reduced frequency of integrants near promoters and also near proto-oncogenes in canine repopulating cells. Together, these studies suggest that FV vectors should be highly effective for several human hematopoietic diseases, including those that will require relatively high percentages of gene-modified cells to achieve clinical benefit.

  5. Antibody study in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein gene-immunized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B; Li, X Y; Zhu, T; Yuan, L; Hu, J P; Chen, J; Gao, W; Ren, W Z

    2015-01-01

    The gene for the nucleocapsid (N) protein of canine distemper virus was cloned into the pMD-18T vector, and positive recombinant plasmids were obtained by enzyme digestion and sequencing. After digestion by both EcoRI and KpnI, the plasmid was directionally cloned into the eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA; the positive clone pcDNA-N was screened by electrophoresis and then transfected into COS-7 cells. Immunofluorescence analysis results showed that the canine distemper virus N protein was expressed in the cytoplasm of transfected COS-7 cells. After emulsification in Freund's adjuvant, the recombinant plasmid pcDNA-N was injected into the abdominal cavity of 8-week-old BABL/c mice, with the pcDNA original vector used as a negative control. Mice were immunized 3 times every 2 weeks. The blood of immunized mice was drawn 2 weeks after completing the immunizations to measure titer levels. The antibody titer in the pcDNA-N test was 10(1.62 ± 0.164), while in the control group this value was 10(0.52 ± 0.56), indicating that specific humoral immunity was induced in canine distemper virus nucleocapsid protein-immunized mice. PMID:25966074

  6. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  7. 9 CFR 113.306 - Canine Distemper Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Canine Distemper Vaccine. 113.306... Virus Vaccines § 113.306 Canine Distemper Vaccine. Canine Distemper Vaccine shall be prepared from virus... distemper virus, each of five canine distemper susceptible ferrets shall be injected with a sample of...

  8. Born-Infeld Cosmologies

    CERN Document Server

    García-Salcedo, R; Garcia-Salcedo, Ricardo; Breton, Nora

    2000-01-01

    We present a model for an inhomogeneous and anisotropic early universe filled with a nonlinear electromagnetic field of Born-Infeld (BI) type. The effects of the BI field are compared with the linear case (Maxwell). Since the curvature invaria nts are well behaved then we conjecture that our model does not present an initial big bang singularity. The existence of the BI field modifies the curvature invariants at t=0 as well as sets bounds on the amplitude of the conformal metric function

  9. Early eruption of permanent canines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic and local factors can modify the eruption time of teeth. Generalized eruption time changes could be due to some systemic diseases like hyperthyroidism, hypophosphatasia, precocious puberty, Proteus syndrome, etc. Localized early eruption of permanent teeth could be due to early extraction of deciduous teeth. Presented here is an extremely rare case of early eruption of permanent canines in a 7-year old female child. Though the number of such cases is very limited, the clinician should poses adequate knowledge and keeps an open eye to identify such cases.

  10. Alpha-1-antitrypsin studies: canine serum and canine surfactant protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canine serum alpha-1-antitrypsin was isolated by gel filtration and affinity chromatography and characterized by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoelectrophoresis. Measurement of the trypsin inhibitory capacity of the separated protein indicated a ninefold concentration of functional trypsin inhibitor during the isolation procedure. Electrophoresis demonstrated the presence of a single protein with alpha-globulin mobility and a molecular weight near that of human alpha-1-antitrypsin. The trypsin inhibitory capacity of pulmonary surfactant protein from five Beagle dogs was measured, related to total surfactant protein concentration, and compared with similar measurements on whole serum from the same animals. Results indicated a variable concentration of trypsin inhibitor in the canine pulmonary surfactant protein. However, the concentration in the surfactant protein was always significantly higher than that in the corresponding serum sample. Preliminary experiments designed to separate the trypsin inhibitory fraction(s) from the other surfactant proteins by gel filtration chromatography indicated that the trypsin inhibitor was probably a single protein with a molecular weight near that of alpha-1-antitrypsin. (U.S.)

  11. Transmission dynamics and prospects for the elimination of canine rabies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Hampson

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Rabies has been eliminated from domestic dog populations in Western Europe and North America, but continues to kill many thousands of people throughout Africa and Asia every year. A quantitative understanding of transmission dynamics in domestic dog populations provides critical information to assess whether global elimination of canine rabies is possible. We report extensive observations of individual rabid animals in Tanzania and generate a uniquely detailed analysis of transmission biology, which explains important epidemiological features, including the level of variation in epidemic trajectories. We found that the basic reproductive number for rabies, R0, is very low in our study area in rural Africa (approximately 1.2 and throughout its historic global range (<2. This finding provides strong support for the feasibility of controlling endemic canine rabies by vaccination, even near wildlife areas with large wild carnivore populations. However, we show that rapid turnover of domestic dog populations has been a major obstacle to successful control in developing countries, thus regular pulse vaccinations will be required to maintain population-level immunity between campaigns. Nonetheless our analyses suggest that with sustained, international commitment, global elimination of rabies from domestic dog populations, the most dangerous vector to humans, is a realistic goal.

  12. Vector velocimeter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    generation of a reference beam, a detector system comprising a first detector arrangement arranged in such a way that the signal beam and the reference beam are incident upon the first detector arrangement with the reference beam propagating at an angle relative to a signal beam, and wherein the first......The present invention relates to a compact, reliable and low-cost vector velocimeter for example for determining velocities of particles suspended in a gas or fluid flow, or for determining velocity, displacement, rotation, or vibration of a solid surface, the vector velocimeter comprising a laser...... assembly for emission of a measurement beam for illumination of an object in a measurement volume with coherent light whereby a signal beam emanating from the object in the measurement volume is formed in response to illumination of the object by the measurement beam, a reference beam generator for...

  13. Clinical and serological response of wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) to vaccination against canine distemper, canine parvovirus infection and rabies

    OpenAIRE

    J. Van Heerden; J. Bingham; M. Van Vuuren; R.E.J. Burroughs; E. Stylianides

    2002-01-01

    Wild dogs Lycaon pictus (n = 8) were vaccinated 4 times against canine distemper (n = 8) (initially with inactivated and subsequently with live attenuated strains of canine distemper) and canine parvovirus infection (n = 8) over a period of 360 days. Four of the wild dogs were also vaccinated 3 times against rabies using a live oral vaccine and 4 with an inactivated parenteral vaccine. Commercially-available canine distemper, canine parvovirus and parenteral rabies vaccines, intended for use ...

  14. Culling Dogs in Scenarios of Imperfect Control: Realistic Impact on the Prevalence of Canine Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Danielle N. C. C.; Codeço, Cláudia T.; Silva, Moacyr A.; Werneck, Guilherme L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Visceral leishmaniasis belongs to the list of neglected tropical diseases and is considered a public health problem worldwide. Spatial correlation between the occurrence of the disease in humans and high rates of canine infection suggests that in the presence of the vector, canine visceral leishmaniasis is the key factor for triggering transmission to humans. Despite the control strategies implemented, such as the sacrifice of infected dogs being put down, the incidence of American visceral leishmaniasis remains high in many Latin American countries. Methodology/Principal Findings Mathematical models were developed to describe the transmission dynamics of canine leishmaniasis and its control by culling. Using these models, imperfect control scenarios were implemented to verify the possible factors which alter the effectiveness of controlling this disease in practice. Conclusions/Significance A long-term continuous program targeting both asymptomatic and symptomatic dogs should be effective in controlling canine leishmaniasis in areas of low to moderate transmission (R0 up to 1.4). However, the indiscriminate sacrifice of asymptomatic dogs with positive diagnosis may jeopardize the effectiveness of the control program, if tests with low specificity are used, increasing the chance of generating outrage in the population, and leading to lower adherence to the program. Therefore, culling must be planned accurately and implemented responsibly and never as a mechanical measure in large scale. In areas with higher transmission, culling alone is not an effective control strategy. PMID:23951375

  15. Born In Bradford Mobile Application

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Stella; Walda, Martin; Vasiliki, Delimpasi

    2015-01-01

    The Born In Bradford mobile application is an Android mobile application and a working prototype that enables interaction with a sample cohort of the Born in Bradford study. It provides an interface and visualization for several surveys participated in by mothers and their children. This data is stored in the Born In Bradford database. A subset of this data is provided for mothers and children. The mobile application provides a way to engage the mothers and promote their consistency in partic...

  16. Prognostic markers of canine pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Sant'Anna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The pyometra is a disease that affects middle age and elderly female dogs during diestrus. Hormonal, microbiological, biochemical and hematological aspects are well described. However, few studies have evaluated the role of each in the prognosis of canine pyometra. The aim of this study was to identify markers associated with clinical worsening of dogs with pyometra. We prospectively evaluated 80 dogs with pyometra treated surgically. Group 1 consisted of dogs that were discharged within 48 hours after surgery and Group 2 consisted of those who required prolonged hospitalization or died. The findings of hematological, biochemical and blood lactate levels were compared between groups and variables such as bacterial multidrug resistance, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS, hyperlactatemia and increased creatinine were analyzed through the dispersion of frequencies between groups. Among the variables studied, the presence of SIRS and elevated serum creatinine >2.5mg/mL were effective in predicting the worsening of the disease and can be used as prognostic markers of canine pyometra.

  17. Estimating canine tooth crown height in early Australopithecus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plavcan, J Michael; Ward, Carol V; Paulus, Faydre L

    2009-07-01

    Canine tooth size reduction and the associated reduction in canine dimorphism is a basal hominin character that also provides important evidence for models of behavioral evolution. Two specimens of Australopithecus anamensis (KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283) that do not preserve the canine crown, but do preserve the root or alveolus, appear to suggest that canine size variation and canine dimorphism in this species may have been greater than in other hominins. We evaluate canine root and crown dimensions in a series of extant hominoids, and estimate canine crown height in Australopithecus afarensis and A. anamensis. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to generate estimates of canine crown height from basal canine crown and root dimensions with a moderate degree of accuracy. Estimates of maxillary canine crown size for A. anamensis are slightly larger than those of A. afarensis, and are approximately the same size as canines of modern female chimpanzees. Estimated mandibular canine crown height is very similar in the two species. Variation within the A. anamensis sample of estimated canine crown heights is similar to that of modern humans, suggesting a low degree of sexual dimorphism. Inclusion of estimates for KNM-KP 29287 and KNM-KP 29283 does not substantially increase either the estimate of overall canine size or variation for A. anamensis. PMID:19482334

  18. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and

  19. Triple bone labeling of canine mandibles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinholt, E M; Kwon, P H

    1990-01-01

    Fluorescence microscopy was used for evaluation of new bone formation in 16 canine mandibles augmented with hydroxylapatite (HA) granules. Three fluorochromes were injected at different time intervals during therapeutic radiation treatment. Oxytetracycline, DCAF, and alizarin-complexone were give...

  20. Epidemiology of tick-borne borreliosis in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Diatta, Georges; Souidi, Yassine; Granjon, Laurent; Arnathau, Céline; Durand, Patrick; Chauvancy, Gilles; Mané, Youssouph; Sarih, M'Hammed; BELGHYTI, Driss; Renaud, François; Trape, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Background: The presence in Morocco of Argasid ticks of the Ornithodoros erraticus complex, the vector of tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) in North Africa, has been known since 1919, but the disease is rarely diagnosed and few epidemiological data are available. Methodology/Principal Findings: Between 2006 and 2011, we investigated the presence of Ornithodoros ticks in rodent burrows in 34 sites distributed across Morocco. We also collected small mammals in 10 sites and we investigated TBRF ...

  1. Approaches towards tick and tick-borne diseases control

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Domingos; Sandra Antunes; Lara Borges; Virgilio Estolio do Rosario

    2013-01-01

    Ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases. Tick-borne diseases are responsible worldwide for great economic losses in terms of mortality and morbidity of livestock animals. This review concerns to the different tick and tick-parasites control methods having a major focus on vaccines. Control of tick infestations has been mainly based on the use of acaricides, a co...

  2. Two-host, two-vector basic reproduction ratio (R(0 for bluetongue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Turner

    Full Text Available Mathematical formulations for the basic reproduction ratio (R(0 exist for several vector-borne diseases. Generally, these are based on models of one-host, one-vector systems or two-host, one-vector systems. For many vector borne diseases, however, two or more vector species often co-occur and, therefore, there is a need for more complex formulations. Here we derive a two-host, two-vector formulation for the R(0 of bluetongue, a vector-borne infection of ruminants that can have serious economic consequences; since 1998 for example, it has led to the deaths of well over 1 million sheep in Europe alone. We illustrate our results by considering the situation in South Africa, where there are two major hosts (sheep, cattle and two vector species with differing ecologies and competencies as vectors, for which good data exist. We investigate the effects on R(0 of differences in vector abundance, vector competence and vector host preference between vector species. Our results indicate that R(0 can be underestimated if we assume that there is only one vector transmitting the infection (when there are in fact two or more and/or vector host preferences are overlooked (unless the preferred host is less beneficial or more abundant. The two-host, one-vector formula provides a good approximation when the level of cross-infection between vector species is very small. As this approaches the level of intraspecies infection, a combination of the two-host, one-vector R(0 for each vector species becomes a better estimate. Otherwise, particularly when the level of cross-infection is high, the two-host, two-vector formula is required for accurate estimation of R(0. Our results are equally relevant to Europe, where at least two vector species, which co-occur in parts of the south, have been implicated in the recent epizootic of bluetongue.

  3. Canine adenovirus type 1 in a fennec fox (Vulpes zerda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Hyun-Kyoung; Kim, Seong-Hee; Kim, Yeon-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Oem, Jae-Ku

    2014-12-01

    A 10-mo-old female fennec fox (Vulpes zerda) with drooling suddenly died and was examined postmortem. Histologic examination of different tissue samples was performed. Vacuolar degeneration and diffuse fatty change were observed in the liver. Several diagnostic methods were used to screen for canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus, canine influenza virus, canine coronavirus, canine parainfluenza virus, and canine adenovirus (CAdV). Only CAdV type 1 (CAdV-1) was detected in several organs (liver, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, and heart), and other viruses were not found. CAdV-1 was confirmed by virus isolation and nucleotide sequencing. PMID:25632689

  4. [Nonsurgical endodontic treatment of an invaginated canine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Guerrero, F; Miñana Laliga, R; Bullon Fernandez, P

    1989-01-01

    We present a case of a maxillary canine with a dens invaginatus treated successfully. The patient had pain, swelling and a sinus tract coming from the inmature apex of the canine. The canals were enlarged and cleaned and the main canal was filled with Calcium Hydroxide to allow the root development. Seven months later, the patient was asymptomatic and the tooth was obturated with guttapercha. One year later it was confirm the success in the treatment. PMID:2638021

  5. Overexpression of vimentin in canine prostatic carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, M M P; Rema, A; Gärtner, F;

    2011-01-01

    associated with the invasive phenotype of human prostate cancer cells. The aim of the present study was to characterize immunohistochemically the expression of vimentin by canine prostatic carcinomas. Primary carcinomas and metastatic tumour foci both showed vimentin expression. This finding suggests that...... the acquisition of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype in canine prostatic carcinoma may be characterized by the presence of mesenchymal intermediate filament (vimentin) that could lead to a higher likelihood of metastasis....

  6. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane;

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The aim...... of the study was to retrospectively investigate the proportion and possible breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma using the Norwegian Canine Cancer Register for calculations of proportional morbidity ratios (PMRs) for the period 1998-2009....

  7. Systemic inflammarory response in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Fransson, Boel

    2003-01-01

    Research efforts have focused mainly on the hormonal aspects of canine pyometra for more than 6 decades. However, this disease is often manifested as systemic illness in response to the bacterial uterine infection. Studies I-II were undertaken to clarify bacteriological aspects of canine pyometra; i.e. the origin of the infecting bacteria, the infecting bacteria’s impact on severity of the systemic illness and the presence of bacterial endotoxin in the systemic circulation. Study I, a bacteri...

  8. Clinical and Statistical Study on Canine Impaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina-Simona Coșarcă

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to perform a clinical and statistical research on permanent impacted canine patients among those with dental impaction referred to and treated at the Oral and Maxillo-Facial Surgery Clinic of Tîrgu Mureș, over a four years period (2009-2012. Materials and methods: The study included 858 patients having dental impaction, and upon clinical records, different parameters, like frequency, gender, age, quadrant involvement, patient residence, associated complications, referring specialist and type of treatment, related to canine impaction, were assessed. Results: The study revealed: about 10% frequency of canine impaction among dental impactions; more frequent in women, in the first quadrant (tooth 13; most cases diagnosed between the age of 10-19 years; patients under 20 were referred by an orthodontist, those over 20 by a dentist; surgical exposure was more often performed than odontectomy. Conclusions: Canine impaction is the second-most frequent dental impaction in dental arch after third molars; it occurs especially in women. Due to its important role, canine recovery within dental arch is a goal to be achieved, whenever possible. Therefore, diagnose and treatment of canine impaction requires an interdisciplinary approach (surgical and orthodontic

  9. Early Recollections of First-Borns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakouri, M. Ebrahim; Hafner, James L.

    1984-01-01

    Compared the early recollections of 50 first-borns and 98 later-borns. The first-borns mentioned significantly more nonfamily members, illness/injury, hospital/doctor's office. Later-borns mentioned significantly more siblings than did first-borns. Findings were discussed in the context of Adler's personality theory. (JAC)

  10. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  11. CANINE: a robotic mine dog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancil, Brian A.; Hyams, Jeffrey; Shelley, Jordan; Babu, Kartik; Badino, Hernán.; Bansal, Aayush; Huber, Daniel; Batavia, Parag

    2013-01-01

    Neya Systems, LLC competed in the CANINE program sponsored by the U.S. Army Tank Automotive Research Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) which culminated in a competition held at Fort Benning as part of the 2012 Robotics Rodeo. As part of this program, we developed a robot with the capability to learn and recognize the appearance of target objects, conduct an area search amid distractor objects and obstacles, and relocate the target object in the same way that Mine dogs and Sentry dogs are used within military contexts for exploration and threat detection. Neya teamed with the Robotics Institute at Carnegie Mellon University to develop vision-based solutions for probabilistic target learning and recognition. In addition, we used a Mission Planning and Management System (MPMS) to orchestrate complex search and retrieval tasks using a general set of modular autonomous services relating to robot mobility, perception and grasping.

  12. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traversa, Donato; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Di Cesare, Angela; La Torre, Francesco; Drake, Jason; Pietrobelli, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Intestinal nematodes affecting dogs, i.e. roundworms, hookworms and whipworms, have a relevant health-risk impact for animals and, for most of them, for human beings. Both dogs and humans are typically infected by ingesting infective stages, (i.e. larvated eggs or larvae) present in the environment. The existence of a high rate of soil and grass contamination with infective parasitic elements has been demonstrated worldwide in leisure, recreational, public and urban areas, i.e. parks, green areas, bicycle paths, city squares, playgrounds, sandpits, beaches. This review discusses the epidemiological and sanitary importance of faecal pollution with canine intestinal parasites in urban environments and the integrated approaches useful to minimize the risk of infection in different settings. PMID:24524656

  13. [Visceral leishmaniasis in Argentina. Cases notification and distribution of vectors (2006-2012)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Ignacio T; Perner, Mónica S; Santini, María S; Saavedra, Silvina B; Bezzi, Gisella; Maglianese, Mariana I; Antman, Julián G; Gutiérrez, Jorge A; Salomón, Oscar D

    2013-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a notifiable disease in Argentina. Every new case diagnosed must be reported to the National Health Surveillance System. In the period 2006-2012, a total of 103 cases have been notified in four provinces: Entre Rios, Santa Fe, Misiones and Santiago del Estero. Misiones has the largest amount of cases: a total of 80, detected in 15 towns from May 2006 to July 2012. The highest incidence is observed in children (less than 15 years of age). In 2004 the vector Lutzomyia longipalpis was detected for the first time in Formosa Province. Cases of human and canine VL, as well as the presence of the canine vector were reported in 2006 in the province of Misiones, and in 2008-2009 in the province of Corrientes. In Santiago del Estero cases of human and canine VL (2008) were possibly associated with secondary vectors. In 2010 Lu longipalpis was found in Entre Rios, showing its dispersal to the south. Between January and April 2011 a systematic search of the VL vector was carried out in 13 towns, in Entre Ríos, Santa Fe and Santiago del Estero Provinces (275 traps/night). The colonization of the vector Lu longipalpis was proved in Chajarí town (Entre Rios), but not in Santiago del Estero Province, where Migonemyia migonei appears as a putative LV vector. PMID:23570757

  14. Immunoglobulin G concentration in canine colostrum: Evaluation and variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mila, Hanna; Feugier, Alexandre; Grellet, Aurélien; Anne, Jennifer; Gonnier, Milène; Martin, Maelys; Rossig, Lisa; Chastant-Maillard, Sylvie

    2015-11-01

    Canine neonates are born hypogammaglobulinemic, and colostrum is their main source of immunoglobulins. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the immune quality of canine colostrum and its variability both among bitches and among mammary glands. The immune quality was estimated from immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration (ELISA test). The correlation of IgG concentration with refractometry was evaluated. From a total of 44 bitches from 13 different breeds from a single breeding kennel, samples of colostrum and blood were collected one day after the parturition onset. Colostrum was collected separately from each pair of mammary glands (180 pairs). The mean colostrum IgG concentration in our population was 20.8 ± 8.1g/L (ranging from 8.0 to 41.7 g/L) with no influence of breed size, litter size, age of dam or serum IgG concentration. Colostrum IgG concentration varied widely among pairs of mammary glands within one bitch (variation coefficient: 42 ± 32.1%). Nevertheless, no single pair of mammary glands was found to produce regularly a secretion of higher quality. No difference in IgG concentration was recorded between anterior and posterior pairs either. The BRIX index and the refractive index were significantly, but moderately correlated with colostrum IgG concentration (r=0.53 and 0.42, respectively). This study demonstrates a great variability in immune quality of colostrum among bitches and among mammary glands within one bitch. Further studies on the suckling behavior of puppies and on determination of the minimal immune quality of colostrum are required to evaluate their impact of this high variability on neonatal mortality in dogs. PMID:26186389

  15. Born-Infeld cosmology with scalar Born-Infeld matter

    CERN Document Server

    Jana, Soumya

    2016-01-01

    Cosmology in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity is investigated using a scalar Born-Infeld field (eg. tachyon condensate) as matter. In this way, both in the gravity and matter sectors we have Born-Infeld-like structures characterised by their actions and via two separate constants, $\\kappa$ and $\\alpha_T^2$ respectively. With a particular choice of the form of $\\dot{\\phi}$ (time derivative of the Born-Infeld scalar), analytical cosmological solutions are found. Thereafter, we explore some of the unique features of the corresponding cosmological spacetimes. For $\\kappa>0$, our solution has a de Sitter-like expansion both at early and late times, with an intermediate deceleration sandwiched between the accelerating phases. On the other hand, when $\\kappa0$ solution, are as good as in $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology. However, the $\\kappa<0$ solution has to be discarded due to the occurrence of a bounce at an unacceptably low redshift.

  16. Born : vastutustundlikud tulevikus edukad / Kerstin Born ; interv. Kristo Kiviorg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Born, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Vastutustundliku ettevõtluse Euroopa organisatsiooni CSR Europe'i juht Kerstin Born vastab küsimustele ettevõtete vastutustundlikkuse kohta ühiskonnas. Vt. samas: Käivitus vastutustundliku ettevõtluse indeks

  17. The Development of a Recombinant scFv Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Canine CD20 for Use in Comparative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Aresu, Luca; Comazzi, Stefano; Shi, Jianguo; Worrall, Erin; Clayton, John; Humphries, William; Hemmington, Sandra; Davis, Paul; Murray, Euan; Limeneh, Asmare A; Ball, Kathryn; Ruckova, Eva; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borek; Fahraeus, Robin; Argyle, David; Hupp, Ted R

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are leading agents for therapeutic treatment of human diseases, but are limited in use by the paucity of clinically relevant models for validation. Sporadic canine tumours mimic the features of some human equivalents. Developing canine immunotherapeutics can be an approach for modeling human disease responses. Rituximab is a pioneering agent used to treat human hematological malignancies. Biologic mimics that target canine CD20 are just being developed by the biotechnology industry. Towards a comparative canine-human model system, we have developed a novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (NCD1.2) that binds both human and canine CD20. NCD1.2 has a sub-nanomolar Kd as defined by an octet red binding assay. Using FACS, NCD1.2 binds to clinically derived canine cells including B-cells in peripheral blood and in different histotypes of B-cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining of canine tissues indicates that the NCD1.2 binds to membrane localized cells in Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma, Marginal Zone Lymphoma, and other canine B-cell lymphomas. We cloned the heavy and light chains of NCD1.2 from hybridomas to determine whether active scaffolds can be acquired as future biologics tools. The VH and VL genes from the hybridomas were cloned using degenerate primers and packaged as single chains (scFv) into a phage-display library. Surprisingly, we identified two scFv (scFv-3 and scFv-7) isolated from the hybridoma with bioactivity towards CD20. The two scFv had identical VH genes but different VL genes and identical CDR3s, indicating that at least two light chain mRNAs are encoded by NCD1.2 hybridoma cells. Both scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into mammalian vectors for secretion in CHO cells and the antibodies were bioactive towards recombinant CD20 protein or peptide. The scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into an ADEPT-CPG2 bioconjugate vector where bioactivity was retained when expressed in bacterial systems. These data identify a recombinant anti-CD20

  18. The Development of a Recombinant scFv Monoclonal Antibody Targeting Canine CD20 for Use in Comparative Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Saurabh; Aresu, Luca; Comazzi, Stefano; Shi, Jianguo; Worrall, Erin; Clayton, John; Humphries, William; Hemmington, Sandra; Davis, Paul; Murray, Euan; Limeneh, Asmare A.; Ball, Kathryn; Ruckova, Eva; Muller, Petr; Vojtesek, Borek; Fahraeus, Robin; Argyle, David; Hupp, Ted R.

    2016-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies are leading agents for therapeutic treatment of human diseases, but are limited in use by the paucity of clinically relevant models for validation. Sporadic canine tumours mimic the features of some human equivalents. Developing canine immunotherapeutics can be an approach for modeling human disease responses. Rituximab is a pioneering agent used to treat human hematological malignancies. Biologic mimics that target canine CD20 are just being developed by the biotechnology industry. Towards a comparative canine-human model system, we have developed a novel anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (NCD1.2) that binds both human and canine CD20. NCD1.2 has a sub-nanomolar Kd as defined by an octet red binding assay. Using FACS, NCD1.2 binds to clinically derived canine cells including B-cells in peripheral blood and in different histotypes of B-cell lymphoma. Immunohistochemical staining of canine tissues indicates that the NCD1.2 binds to membrane localized cells in Diffuse Large B-cell lymphoma, Marginal Zone Lymphoma, and other canine B-cell lymphomas. We cloned the heavy and light chains of NCD1.2 from hybridomas to determine whether active scaffolds can be acquired as future biologics tools. The VH and VL genes from the hybridomas were cloned using degenerate primers and packaged as single chains (scFv) into a phage-display library. Surprisingly, we identified two scFv (scFv-3 and scFv-7) isolated from the hybridoma with bioactivity towards CD20. The two scFv had identical VH genes but different VL genes and identical CDR3s, indicating that at least two light chain mRNAs are encoded by NCD1.2 hybridoma cells. Both scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into mammalian vectors for secretion in CHO cells and the antibodies were bioactive towards recombinant CD20 protein or peptide. The scFv-3 and scFv-7 were cloned into an ADEPT-CPG2 bioconjugate vector where bioactivity was retained when expressed in bacterial systems. These data identify a recombinant anti-CD20

  19. Canine distemper virus detection in asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Del Puerto, Helen L; Vasconcelos, Anilton C.; Luciana Moro; Fabiana Alves; Braz, Gissandra F; Almir S. Martins

    2010-01-01

    A quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed canine distemper virus presence in peripheral blood samples from asymptomatic and non vaccinated dogs. Samples from eleven domestic dogs with no signs of canine distemper and not vaccinated at the month of collection were used. Canine distemper virus vaccine samples in VERO cells were used as positive controls. RNA was isolated with Trizol®, and treated with a TURBO DNA-free kit. Primers were designed for canine distemper virus...

  20. Serological detection of infection with canine distemper virus, canine parvovirus and canine adenovirus in communal dogs from Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna McRee

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Domestic dogs are common amongst communities in sub-Saharan Africa and may serve as important reservoirs for infectious agents that may cause diseases in wildlife. Two agents of concern are canine parvovirus (CPV and canine distemper virus (CDV, which may infect and cause disease in large carnivore species such as African wild dogs and African lions, respectively. The impact of domestic dogs and their diseases on wildlife conservation is increasing in Zimbabwe, necessitating thorough assessment and implementation of control measures. In this study, domestic dogs in north-western Zimbabwe were evaluated for antibodies to CDV, CPV, and canine adenovirus (CAV. These dogs were communal and had no vaccination history. Two hundred and twenty-five blood samples were collected and tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to CPV, CDV, and CAV. Of these dogs, 75 (34% had detectable antibodies to CDV, whilst 191 (84% had antibodies to CPV. Antibodies to canine adenovirus were present in 28 (13% dogs. Canine parvovirus had high prevalence in all six geographic areas tested. These results indicate that CPV is circulating widely amongst domestic dogs in the region. In addition, CDV is present at high levels. Both pathogens can infect wildlife species. Efforts for conservation of large carnivores in Zimbabwe must address the role of domestic dogs in disease transmission.

  1. Born Rule and Noncontextual Probability

    CERN Document Server

    Logiurato, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The probabilistic rule that links the formalism of Quantum Mechanics (QM) to the real world was stated by Born in 1926. Since then, there were many attempts to derive the Born postulate as a theorem, Gleason's one being the most prominent. The Gleason derivation, however, is generally considered as rather intricate and its physical meaning, in particular in relation with the noncontextuality of probability (NP), is not quite evident. More recently, we are witnessing a revival of interest on possible demonstrations of the Born rule, like Zurek's and Deutsch's based on the decoherence and on the theory of decisions, respectively. Despite an ongoing debate about the presence of hidden assumptions and circular reasonings, these have the merit of prompting more physically oriented approaches to the problem. Here we suggest a new proof of the Born rule based on the noncontextuality of probability. Within the theorem we also demonstrate the continuity of probability with respect to the amplitudes, which has been sug...

  2. Development of the canine tooth in the beagle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of the crown and root in the canine tooth of beagle dogs were observed macroscopically and radiographically, and changes of occlusion with age were investigated. Completion of growth in the crown of the canine tooth was observed in both mandible and maxilla, and its eruption was accompanied by development of the dental root. The permanent canine erupted on the lingual side of deciduous canine in the mandible, and on the mesial side of the deciduous canine in the maxilla. Movement of the permanent canine to normal occlusal position(buccal direction in mandibular canine, and distal direction in maxillary canine)was followed by the loss of the deciduous canine. Coexistence of the permanent and deciduous canines occurred for about 2.4 weeks in the maxilla and about 1.4 weeks in the mandible, on average. Macroscopically, the growth of the permanent canine was completed by 33 weeks of age in the mandible and about 34 weeks of age in the maxilla. The mature root of the permanent canine was recognized radiographically at about 43 weeks of age in the mandible and 47 weeks of age in the maxilla

  3. Canine hypothyroidism. A diagnostic challenge?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hypothyroidism is one of the most common endocrinopathies in dogs. Clinical symptoms and hematological and biochemical parameters lead to a first suspicion. To confirm diagnosis can be challenging, however. Determination of total serum T4 concentration is accepted as the primary screening test for the disease, and low serum T4 concentrations are intuitively suggestive of hypothyroidism. However it is well known that low T4 concentrations are frequently encountered in euthyroid dogs with various nonthyroidal diseases and in dogs receiving certain pharmacologic agents. Since assessment of endogenous TSH (canine TSH) using current canine TSH assays shows normal values in a high percentage of hypothyroid dogs (up to 40%), its diagnostic value is only limited. The TSH-stimulation test can still be recognized as the gold standard for the diagnosis of hypothyroidism in dogs. Determination of circulating T4 concentration before and 6 hours after the administration of exogenous TSH (recombinant human TSH, Thyrogen registered) provides an assessment of the functional reserve capacity of the thyroid gland with minimal change in post-TSH T4 concentration, compared with the basal concentration, expected in dogs with hypothyroidism. Also this test can be influenced by nonthyroidal illness and by medications known to affect thyroid function. This suppressing influence seems to be less pronounced using a higher dose of TSH. Therefore, to improve the discriminatory power of the TSH stimulation test to differentiate between euthyroid-sick and primary hypothyroidism, the higher dose should be used in cases in which testing cannot be delayed. More recently, ultrasonography and scintigraphy have been used for the diagnosis of primary hypothyroidism. Using ultrasonography, a sensitivity of 98% was reported if size and echogenicity of the gland were combined. However, specificity was as low as 77%. and care must be taken when measuring the gland because of a relatively high interobserver

  4. Transmigration of mandibular canine – case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transmigration is a phenomenon of movement of an unerupted tooth in the bone across the midline. This anomaly is not often found. Transmigration is more prevalent in females than in males, and more often encountered in the mandible than maxilla, it affects mostly canines. The aim of this study was to present a case report of a mandibular canine transmigration in a patient aged 12. Intraoral examination determined hypodontia of right second premolar and delayed eruption of left second premolar in maxilla, as well as persistent deciduous teeth: right second molar, left canine and second molar. The patient was referred for a Cone-Beam CT examination, which allowed precise visualization of the transmigrating canine as well as ruled out resorption of roots of mandibular incisors. The treatment with a maxillary fixed orthodontic appliance was finished after obtaining a satisfactory result. Proper alignment of the incisors in the anterior-posterior plane and correct midline position were accepted by the patient. Transmigrating canine after consultation with the surgeon was designed to further radiological observation

  5. Canine kobuvirus infections in Korean dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oem, Jae-Ku; Choi, Jeong-Won; Lee, Myoung-Heon; Lee, Kyoung-Ki; Choi, Kyoung-Seong

    2014-10-01

    To investigate canine kobuvirus (CaKoV) infection, fecal samples (n = 59) were collected from dogs with or without diarrhea (n = 21 and 38, respectively) in the Republic of Korea (ROK) in 2012. CaKoV infection was detected in four diarrheic samples (19.0 %) and five non-diarrheic samples (13.2 %). All CaKoV-positive dogs with diarrhea were found to be infected in mixed infections with canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus or canine adenovirus. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of CaKoV in dogs with and without diarrhea. By phylogenetic analysis based on partial 3D genes and complete genome sequences, the Korean isolates were found to be closely related to each other regardless of whether they were associated with diarrhea, and to the canine kobuviruses identified in the USA and UK. This study supports the conclusion that CaKoVs from different countries are not restricted geographically and belong to a single lineage. PMID:24906525

  6. Construction of an infectious clone of canine herpesvirus genome as a bacterial artificial chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arii, Jun; Hushur, Orkash; Kato, Kentaro; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Tohya, Yukinobu; Akashi, Hiroomi

    2006-04-01

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is an attractive candidate not only for use as a recombinant vaccine to protect dogs from a variety of canine pathogens but also as a viral vector for gene therapy in domestic animals. However, developments in this area have been impeded by the complicated techniques used for eukaryotic homologous recombination. To overcome these problems, we used bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) to generate infectious BACs. Our findings may be summarized as follows: (i) the CHV genome (pCHV/BAC), in which a BAC flanked by loxP sites was inserted into the thymidine kinase gene, was maintained in Escherichia coli; (ii) transfection of pCHV/BAC into A-72 cells resulted in the production of infectious virus; (iii) the BAC vector sequence was almost perfectly excisable from the genome of the reconstituted virus CHV/BAC by co-infection with CHV/BAC and a recombinant adenovirus that expressed the Cre recombinase; and (iv) a recombinant virus in which the glycoprotein C gene was deleted was generated by lambda recombination followed by Flp recombination, which resulted in a reduction in viral titer compared with that of the wild-type virus. The infectious clone pCHV/BAC is useful for the modification of the CHV genome using bacterial genetics, and CHV/BAC should have multiple applications in the rapid generation of genetically engineered CHV recombinants and the development of CHV vectors for vaccination and gene therapy in domestic animals. PMID:16515874

  7. Canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus bites negatively correlates with the risk of Leishmania infantum transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Vlkova

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Phlebotomine sand flies are blood-sucking insects that can transmit Leishmania parasites. Hosts bitten by sand flies develop an immune response against sand fly salivary antigens. Specific anti-saliva IgG indicate the exposure to the vector and may also help to estimate the risk of Leishmania spp. transmission. In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, and characterized salivary antigens of this sand fly species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Sera of dogs bitten by P. perniciosus under experimental conditions and dogs naturally exposed to sand flies in a L. infantum focus were tested by ELISA for the presence of anti-P. perniciosus antibodies. Antibody levels positively correlated with the number of blood-fed P. perniciosus females. In naturally exposed dogs the increase of specific IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 was observed during sand fly season. Importantly, Leishmania-positive dogs revealed significantly lower anti-P. perniciosus IgG2 compared to Leishmania-negative ones. Major P. perniciosus antigens were identified by western blot and mass spectrometry as yellow proteins, apyrases and antigen 5-related proteins. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that monitoring canine antibody response to sand fly saliva in endemic foci could estimate the risk of L. infantum transmission. It may also help to control canine leishmaniasis by evaluating the effectiveness of anti-vector campaigns. Data from the field study where dogs from the Italian focus of L. infantum were naturally exposed to P. perniciosus bites indicates that the levels of anti-P. perniciosus saliva IgG2 negatively correlate with the risk of Leishmania transmission. Thus, specific IgG2 response is suggested as a risk marker of L. infantum transmission for dogs.

  8. Canine mammary tumors - clinical survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Atanaskova Petrov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of Veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples. Aged female patients (12 – 13 years are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumourshave never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumoursis elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

  9. Composite mandibular allografts in canines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of transplanting composite mandibular allografts to repair large mandibular defects. Methods: Three composite mandibular transplantation models were established. The first model consisted of hemimandible with the attached teeth, muscle and skin, and oral mucosa. The second model was transplanted in the same way with the first one excluding oral mucosa and some teeth, and third one excluding the oral mucosa and all dental crowns. Fourteen transplanting operations were performed in canines. Cyclosporine A and methylprednisone were given for immunosuppression. Results: The composite mandibular organs had an effective and closed return circuit. Transplantation of vascularized allograft of mandibular compound organs was feasible. Two longest time survivors of 67 d and 76 d were in the third model group. Cyclosporine A was successful in suppressing rejection of transplanted composite allograft and prolonging survival time of transplantation models. Conclusions: The composite mandibular allografts were available with large block of living composite tissue,and helpful in restoration of appearance and function for severe mandibular defects.

  10. Oncolytic Virotherapy of Canine and Feline Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivaylo Gentschev

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is the leading cause of disease-related death in companion animals such as dogs and cats. Despite recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of advanced canine and feline cancer, overall patient treatment outcome has not been substantially improved. Virotherapy using oncolytic viruses is one promising new strategy for cancer therapy. Oncolytic viruses (OVs preferentially infect and lyse cancer cells, without causing excessive damage to surrounding healthy tissue, and initiate tumor-specific immunity. The current review describes the use of different oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy and their application to canine and feline cancer.

  11. Tooth fractures in canine clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tooth fractures constitute a considerable fraction of all tooth diseases. Out of the 5,370 dogs treated during four years, 492 were presented with dental problems and 28.3 % of the latter were treated for tooth fractures. Canines were the most frequently affected teeth (38.8 %), followed by premolars (33.1 %), incisors (25.9 %), and molars (2.2 %), 55.4 % of the patients with canine and incisor fractures being large breed dogs. Fractures of premolars (mostly of 108, 208) were divided evenly irrespective of breed or body size. Nonsurgical endodontic treatment yielded good therapeutic results in most cases, but repeated treatment was necessary in some patients

  12. Why is Southern African canine babesiosis so virulent? An evolutionary perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penzhorn Barend L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Canine babesiosis is a common, highly virulent disease in Southern Africa with even pups and juveniles being severely affected. This contrasts with bovine babesiosis, for example, where host, parasite and vector co-evolved and young animals develop immunity after infection without showing clinical signs. Babesia rossi, the main causative organism of canine babesiosis in sub-Saharan Africa, was first described from a side-striped jackal (Canis adustus in Kenya. Although data are meagre, there is evidence that indigenous African canids, such as jackals and wild dogs (Lycaon pictus, can harbour the parasite without showing untoward effects. Dogs are not indigenous to Africa. The vast majority of dogs presented at veterinary facilities in South Africa represent recently introduced European, Asian or American breeds. The contention is that B. rossi is a new challenge to which these dogs have not adapted. With intensive treatment of clinical cases, natural selection is effectively negated and the status quo will probably be maintained indefinitely. It is postulated that Babesia vogeli, which frequently results in unapparent infections or mild manifestations in dogs, represents or is closely related to the ancestral form of the canine parasite, possibly originating from wolves (Canis lupus.

  13. Molecular entomology: analyzing tiny molecules to answer big questions about disease vectors and their biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The entomologists at the Arthropod-Borne Animal Diseases Research Unit at USDA-Agricultural Research Service are tasked with protecting the nation’s livestock from domestic, foreign and emerging vector-borne diseases. To accomplish this task, a vast array of molecular techniques are being used in pr...

  14. Some Models for Epidemics of Vector-Transmitted Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brauer, Fred; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Mubayi, Anuj; Towers, Sherry

    2016-01-01

    Vector-transmitted diseases such as dengue fever and chikungunya have been spreading rapidly in many parts of the world. The Zika virus has been known since 1947 and invaded South America in 2013. It can be transmitted not only by (mosquito) vectors but also directly through sexual contact. Zika has developed into a serious global health problem because, while most cases are asymptomatic or very light, babies born to Zika - infected mothers may develop microcephaly and other very serious birt...

  15. Tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Brites-Neto

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous developed during long co-evolving processes. Ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. They are obligatory hematophagous ectoparasites and responsible as vectors or reservoirs at the transmission of pathogenic fungi, protozoa, viruses, rickettsia and others bacteria during their feeding process on the hosts. Ticks constitute the second vector group that transmit the major number of pathogens to humans and play a role primary for animals in the process of diseases transmission. Many studies on bioecology of ticks, considering the information related to their population dynamics, to the host and the environment, comes possible the application and efficiency of tick control measures in the prevention programs of vector-borne diseases. In this review were considered some taxonomic, morphological, epidemiological and clinical fundamental aspects related to the tick-borne infections that affect human and animal populations.

  16. Tick vaccines and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, J; Kocan, K M; Blouin, E F

    2007-08-01

    Ticks transmit pathogens that cause diseases which greatly impact both human and animal health. Vaccines developed against Boophilus spp. using Bm86 and Bm95 tick gut antigens demonstrated the feasibility of using vaccines for control of tick infestations. These vaccines also reduced transmission of tick-borne pathogens by decreasing exposure of susceptible hosts to ticks. The recently discovered tick antigens, 64P putative cement protein and subolesin involved in the regulation of tick feeding and reproduction, were also shown to reduce tick infestations. These antigens, together with the TROSPA receptor for Burrelia burgdorferi OspA were effective against tick-borne pathogens by reducing the infection levels in ticks and/or the transmission of the pathogen. Development of a vaccine targeted at both the tick vector and pathogen would contribute greatly to the control of tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne diseases. These results have demonstrated that tick vaccines can be developed for control tick infestations and show promise for the prevention of the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. PMID:17682852

  17. Rotations with Rodrigues' Vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, E.

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears…

  18. Progress on Canine Distemper Vaccines%犬瘟热疫苗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛向红; 胡博; 赵建军; 刘昊; 徐淑娟; 闫喜军

    2015-01-01

    Canine distemper caused by an agent of canine distemper virus in dogs and other carnivorous spe-cies,is a highly mortal and contagious disease.In recent years,many cases of naturally infection with canine distemper virus outbroke in wild animals.Currently,there is no effective drugs against canine distemper, whose prevention mainly rely on vaccination.The modified live vaccine has been widely used,but it also re-mains some problems.In order to provide a reference for the development of a safe and effective CD vac-cine,this paper mainly reviewed the recent progresses on the promising vaccine candidates including tradi-tional modified live vaccines,DNA vaccines,viral vector vaccines.%犬瘟热(CD)是由犬瘟热病毒(CDV)感染犬和其他食肉动物引起的一种病死率高的接触性传染病。近年来暴发了多起犬和野生动物自然感染犬瘟热病毒的案例。目前尚无治疗犬瘟热的有效药物或生物制剂。犬瘟热的预防主要依靠接种疫苗,应用最为广泛的是弱毒活疫苗,但也存在一些问题。论文主要概述了犬瘟热弱毒活疫苗、基因疫苗、病毒载体疫苗的研究进展,以期为研制安全、高效的犬瘟热新疫苗提供参考。

  19. Production of monoclonal antibodies against canine leukocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Palis; Borges dos Santos, Roberto Robson; Lima, Carla Andrade; Rios de Sousa Gomes, Hilton; Larangeira, Daniela Farias; Santos, Patrícia Meira; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Conrado dos-Santos, Washington Luis; Pontes-de-Carvalho, Lain

    2004-04-01

    A panel of anti-canine leukocyte monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) was produced by immunizing BALB/c mice with canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), either resting or stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA). Three out of 28 clones-IH1, AB6, and HG6-screened by ELISA and producing antibody with the highest specificity for canine cell immunostaining, were subjected to three subsequent subcloning steps by limiting dilution, and selected for further characterization. These MAbs belonged to IgG1 (HG6 and IH1) and IgG2a (AB6) isotypes. The distribution of cell populations expressing the antigen recognized by the antibodies was identified by indirect immunoflorescence on canine PBMC and on tissue sections of lymph node, spleen, liver and skin. The possible crossreactivity with human PBMC was also examined in immunocytochemistry. One of the antibodies specifically recognized macrophages. The MAbs presented here can be foreseen as possible valuable diagnostic and research tools to study immune functions in dogs. PMID:15165486

  20. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  1. Seroprevalence of Canine Distemper Virus in Cats

    OpenAIRE

    Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Kazuya; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Chen, Ming-Chu; Kuo, Tzong-Fu; Lin, James A; Mikami, Takeshi; Kai, Chieko; TAKAHASHI, Eiji

    2001-01-01

    A seroepidemiological survey of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in Asian felids revealed that the prevalence of antibodies varied depending on region and, in some cases, exposure to dogs. The serologic pattern in cats with antibodies indicated that they had likely been exposed to field strains rather than typical CDV vaccine strains.

  2. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  3. Experimental Forelimb Allotransplantation in Canine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sa-Hyeok; Eun, Seok-Chan

    2016-01-01

    As reconstructive transplantation is gaining popularity as a viable alternative for upper limb amputees, it is becoming increasingly important for plastic surgeons to renew surgical skills and knowledge of this area. Forelimb allotransplantation research has been performed previously in rodent and swine models. However, preclinical canine forelimb allotransplantation studies are lacking in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the surgical skills necessary to successfully perform forelimb transplantation in canines as a means to prepare for clinical application. A total of 18 transplantation operations on canines were performed. The recipient limb was shortened at the one-third proximal forearm level. The operation was performed in the following order: bones (two reconstructive plates), muscles and tendons (separately sutured), nerves (median, ulnar, and radial nerve), arteries (two), and veins (two). The total mean time of transplantation was 5 hours ± 30 minutes. All of the animals that received transplantation were treated with FK-506 (tacrolimus, 2 mg/kg) for 7 days after surgery. Most allografts survived with perfect viability without vascular problems during the early postoperative period. The canine forelimb allotransplantation model is well qualified to be a suitable training model for standard transplantation and future research work. PMID:27597952

  4. Case study in canine intestinal lymphangiectasia

    OpenAIRE

    Brooks, Thomas A.

    2005-01-01

    A 9.52 kg, 9-year-old, spayed female beagle was presented with the chief complaint of abdominal distention of 1 week’s duration. A presumptive diagnosis of canine intestinal lymphangectasia was arrived at by exclusion of other causes for the patient’s ascites. The patient was successfully treated with dietary modification and immunosuppressive therapy.

  5. DELINEATING TOXIC AREAS BY CANINE OLFACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A research project was undertaken to learn how the highly acute olfactory sensitivity of the canine could be applied with advantage to environmental problems. The objectives were to determine how dogs could be trained to detect hazardous and toxic pollutants in the environment an...

  6. Effects of Climate Change on Ticks and Tick-Borne Diseases in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Lindgren

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Zoonotic tick-borne diseases are an increasing health burden in Europe and there is speculation that this is partly due to climate change affecting vector biology and disease transmission. Data on the vector tick Ixodes ricinus suggest that an extension of its northern and altitude range has been accompanied by an increased prevalence of tick-borne encephalitis. Climate change may also be partly responsible for the change in distribution of Dermacentor reticulatus. Increased winter activity of  I. ricinus is probably due to warmer winters and a retrospective study suggests that hotter summers will change the dynamics and pattern of seasonal activity, resulting in the bulk of the tick population becoming active in the latter part of the year. Climate suitability models predict that eight important tick species are likely to establish more northern permanent populations in a climate-warming scenario. However, the complex ecology and epidemiology of such tick-borne diseases as Lyme borreliosis and tick-borne encephalitis make it difficult to implicate climate change as the main cause of their increasing prevalence. Climate change models are required that take account of the dynamic biological processes involved in vector abundance and pathogen transmission in order to predict future tick-borne disease scenarios.

  7. Kochen-Specker vectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give a constructive and exhaustive definition of Kochen-Specker (KS) vectors in a Hilbert space of any dimension as well as of all the remaining vectors of the space. KS vectors are elements of any set of orthonormal states, i.e., vectors in an n-dimensional Hilbert space, Hn, n≥3, to which it is impossible to assign 1s and 0s in such a way that no two mutually orthogonal vectors from the set are both assigned 1 and that not all mutually orthogonal vectors are assigned 0. Our constructive definition of such KS vectors is based on algorithms that generate MMP diagrams corresponding to blocks of orthogonal vectors in Rn, on algorithms that single out those diagrams on which algebraic (0)-(1) states cannot be defined, and on algorithms that solve nonlinear equations describing the orthogonalities of the vectors by means of statistically polynomially complex interval analysis and self-teaching programs. The algorithms are limited neither by the number of dimensions nor by the number of vectors. To demonstrate the power of the algorithms, all four-dimensional KS vector systems containing up to 24 vectors were generated and described, all three-dimensional vector systems containing up to 30 vectors were scanned, and several general properties of KS vectors were found

  8. Born-Infeld Phantom Gravastars

    OpenAIRE

    Bilic, Neven; Tupper, Gary B.; Viollier, Raoul D.

    2005-01-01

    We construct new gravitational vacuum star solutions with a Born-Infeld phantom replacing the de Sitter interior. The model allows for a wide range of masses and radii required by phenomenology, and can be motivated from low energy string theory.

  9. Canine antibody response to Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Fábio da Silva Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: INTRODUCTION: Canine exposure to Lutzomyia longipalpis bites and the potential of Leishmania infantum transmissibility for the vector were evaluated. METHODS Immunoglobulin G (IgG anti-Lu longipalpis saliva and -L. infantum, and blood parasite load were determined in dogs from endemic areas of visceral leishmaniasis. RESULTS Blood parasitism was similar between symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs. IgG anti-L. infantum was higher in symptomatic dogs, but IgG anti-Lu. longipalpis saliva was mostly observed in higher titers in asymptomatic dogs, indicating vector preference for feeding on asymptomatic dogs. CONCLUSIONS Our data suggest a pivotal role of asymptomatic dogs in L. infantum transmission in endemic areas.

  10. Variations in seroprevalences of canine leishmaniasis: Could it be a consequence of the population structure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniesa, Ana; Peris, Ana; Castillo, Juan Antonio; de Blas, Ignacio

    2016-08-15

    Canine leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease caused by Leishmania infantum and is transmitted by Phlebotominae vectors. Despite numerous publications on the subject, some essential aspects of the epidemiology are not yet sufficiently clear. We proposed a stochastic model with the aim of identifying some important gaps in the current knowledge of leishmaniasis, such as the frequency of vector infection or a dog's life expectancy depending on their purpose and their health status. We only found that the purpose was a significant factor. Furthermore, we detected relationships among age, gender and habitat with the dogs' purposes that can affect the calculation of the overall seroprevalence of the analysed sample. The development of this model will allow us to discard potential confounding factors as gender, age, purpose or habitat. PMID:27514874

  11. Spatial model for transmission of mosquito-borne diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Cynthia Mui Lian; Labadin, Jane

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, a generic model which takes into account spatial heterogeneity for the dynamics of mosquito-borne diseases is proposed. The dissemination of the disease is described by a system of reaction-diffusion partial differential equations. Host human and vector mosquito populations are divided into susceptible and infectious classes. Diffusion is considered to occur in all classes of both populations. Susceptible humans are infected when bitten by infectious mosquitoes. Susceptible mosquitoes bite infectious humans and become infected. The biting rate of mosquitoes is considered to be density dependent on the total human population in different locations. The system is solved numerically and results are shown.

  12. Disease vectors in the era of next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinker, David C; Pitts, R Jason; Zwiebel, Laurence J

    2016-01-01

    Almost 20 % of all infectious human diseases are vector borne and, together, are responsible for over one million deaths per annum. Over the past decade, the decreasing costs of massively parallel sequencing technologies have facilitated the agnostic interrogation of insect vector genomes, giving medical entomologists access to an ever-expanding volume of high-quality genomic and transcriptomic data. In this review, we highlight how genomics resources have provided new insights into the physiology, behavior, and evolution of human disease vectors within the context of the global health landscape. PMID:27154554

  13. Effects of canine serum collected from dogs at different estrous cycle stages on in vitro nuclear maturation of canine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun Ju; Fibrianto, Yuda Heru; Kim, Min Kyu; Jang, Goo; Hossein, M Shamim; Kim, Hye Jin; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2005-08-01

    Canine oocytes are ovulated at prophase of the first meiotic division and undergo maturation in the distal part of the oviduct for at least 48-72 h. Because of these differences from other domestic mammals, the efficiency of in vitro maturation (IVM) of canine oocyte is very low. The present study was conducted to evaluate the effects of canine serum on IVM of canine oocytes recovered from ovaries in various reproductive states (follicular, luteal or anestrous stages). Oocytes were recovered by mincing ovaries from bitches presented for ovariohysterectomy at various stages of the estrous cycle. Heat-inactivated canine serum was prepared with blood taken from dogs at the anestrous, estrous or diestrous stage of the estrous cycle as determined by progesterone concentration and vaginal cytology. Oocytes were cultured for 72 h in tissue culture medium (TCM)-199 supplemented with 10% canine anestrous, estrous or diestrous serum or fetal bovine serum (FBS) (experiment 1), or supplemented with 0 (control), 5%, 10% or 20% canine estrous serum (experiment 2). In experiment 1, IVM of oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle to metaphase II (MII) stage was higher (p < 0.05) with canine estrous serum (14.2%) than with canine anestrous (5.2%) or diestrous serum (6.3%), FBS (2.2%) or in the control (2.2%). In experiment 2, oocytes collected at the follicular stage of the estrous cycle cultured in TCM-199 with 10% canine estrous serum showed a higher maturation rate to MII stage (13.5%, p < 0.05) compared with those cultured with 5% (1.3% MII) or 20% canine estrous serum (5.1% MII) or the control (2.7% MII). In conclusion, our results demonstrate that supplementing culture medium with 10% canine estrous serum improves IVM of canine follicular stage oocytes. PMID:16261767

  14. Simulating spread of Bluetongue Virus by flying vectors between hosts on pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Bødker, Rene; Enøe, Claes; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2012-01-01

    Bluetongue is a disease of ruminants which reached Denmark in 2007. We present a process-based stochastic simulation model of vector-borne diseases, where host animals are not confined to a central geographic farm coordinate, but can be distributed onto pasture areas. Furthermore vectors fly free...

  15. Combined orthodontic-surgical management of a transmigrated mandibular canine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavuoti, Serena; Matarese, Giovanni; Isola, Gaetano; Abdolreza, Jamilian; Femiano, Felice; Perillo, Letizia

    2016-07-01

    The presence of an impacted mandibular canine is one of the most difficult challenges that an orthodontist will meet. Orthodontic treatment is planned on an individual basis after thoroughly considering the patient's overall facial and dentoskeletal characteristics; the duration, risks, and costs of treatment; patient preferences; and the orthodontist's experience. This article reports an orthodontic treatment of a boy, age 12.9 years, with an impacted mandibular canine in the permanent dentition that was successfully managed. Radiographic analysis indicated a transmigration of the mandibular right canine. The orthodontic treatment plan included extraction of the deciduous right canine followed by surgical exposure and ligation of the permanent canine. Eruption was properly guided, and the correct position of the tooth was achieved. This challenging treatment approach is described in detail, including the mechanics used to align the impacted canine. PMID:26502299

  16. Concise vector analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Eliezer, C J; Maxwell, E A; Sneddon, I N

    1963-01-01

    Concise Vector Analysis is a five-chapter introductory account of the methods and techniques of vector analysis. These methods are indispensable tools in mathematics, physics, and engineering. The book is based on lectures given by the author in the University of Ceylon.The first two chapters deal with vector algebra. These chapters particularly present the addition, representation, and resolution of vectors. The next two chapters examine the various aspects and specificities of vector calculus. The last chapter looks into some standard applications of vector algebra and calculus.This book wil

  17. Tick-borne encephalitis virus infection in humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrnjaković-Cvjetković Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Tick-borne meningoencephalitis virus is a flavivirus that causes the most important vector-borne central nervous system infection in many countries of Europe and Asia. There are three subtypes of tick-borne encephalitis virus: European, Siberian and the Far-Eastern subtype. Transmission. In endemic areas, the virus remains in transmissive cycles between Ixodes ticks and small rodents. Clinical picture. In most cases (70−98% infection goes asymptomatically. In about one-third of meningitis cases, meningoencephalitis or meningomyelitis is developed. Postencephalytic syndrome may be the complication of the infection, presenting with neurological symptoms. Diagnosis. Etiologic diagnosis of tick-borne meningoencephalitis is only made on basis of laboratory analyses. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction is used for determining the presence of virus in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Antibodies in blood and cerebrospinal fluid can be detected by serological tests. Prevention. The most efficient way to control this potentially severe disease with possible serious long-term consequences is vaccination. It should be recommended to persons who live or travel to endemic areas. Conclusion. In Serbia, tick-borne encephalitis virus infection belongs to the list of reportable diseases; however, there are no reported cases because the diagnostics is not performed routinely. We believe that the significance of this zoonosis must be examined in our country and some of its parts because of preliminary positive serological findings found out in Vojvodina as well as because of reported cases in neighboring countries such as Hungary and Croatia and its worldwide distribution.

  18. Bi-rooted Primary Maxillary Canines: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a rare case of bi-rooted primary maxillary canines. A 6-year-old girl presented at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Iran, with the chief complaint of pain in the lower right quadrant of her dentition. Radiographic examination revealed bifurcation of primary maxillary canine roots. This report discusses the possible etiology of bi-rooted canines, implications for the developing dentition, and treatment opt...

  19. Portrait of a Canine Probiotic – from Gut to Gut

    OpenAIRE

    O'Mahony, D.; Murphy, K. Barry; MacSharry, J.; Boileau, T.; Sunvold, G.; Reinhart, G.; Kiely, B.; Shanahan, F; O'Mahony, L.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The gastrointestinal environment is a complex interactive system involving the host, ingested dietary components, and numerous microbial species. We hypothesised that isolation and screening of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria adherent to healthy canine gastrointestinal tissue would yield strains with commensal activity in canines. The aims of this study were 1) to isolate a bank of commensal organisms from the canine gastrointestinal tract; 2) to screen these novel microbi...

  20. Canine oral biofilms: Cultural, molecular, and in vitro studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, D. R.

    2006-01-01

    The canine oral microbiota is poorly understood compared to that of humans. The aim of this work was to improve understanding of the canine oral microbiota. This was achieved by surveying the canine oral microbiota, determining coaggregation interactions between its members, and developing a laboratory microcosm. Bacteria were isolated from the dental plaque and saliva of dogs, and isolates were identified by comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing. From 339 isolates, 84 phylotypes belonging to ...

  1. Risk and Control of Mosquito-Borne Diseases in Southeast Asian Rubber Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangena, Julie-Anne A; Thammavong, Phoutmany; Wilson, Anne L; Brey, Paul T; Lindsay, Steve W

    2016-05-01

    Unprecedented economic growth in Southeast Asia (SEA) has encouraged the expansion of rubber plantations. This land-use transformation is changing the risk of mosquito-borne diseases. Mature plantations provide ideal habitats for the mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue, and chikungunya. Migrant workers may introduce pathogens into plantation areas, most worryingly artemisinin-resistant malaria parasites. The close proximity of rubber plantations to natural forest also increases the threat from zoonoses, where new vector-borne pathogens spill over from wild animals into humans. There is therefore an urgent need to scale up vector control and access to health care for rubber workers. This requires an intersectoral approach with strong collaboration between the health sector, rubber industry, and local communities. PMID:26907494

  2. Opportunities for Improved Chagas Disease Vector Control Based on Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices of Communities in the Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn Rosecrans; Gabriela Cruz-Martin; Ashley King; Eric Dumonteil

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chagas disease is a vector-borne parasitic disease of major public health importance. Current prevention efforts are based on triatomine vector control to reduce transmission to humans. Success of vector control interventions depends on their acceptability and value to affected communities. We aimed to identify opportunities for and barriers to improved vector control strategies in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed a sequence of qualitative...

  3. Born-Infeld gravity in three dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we explore different aspects of three dimensional Born-Infeld as well as Born-Infeld-Chern-Simons gravity. We show that the models have anti-de Sitter and anti-de Sitter wave vacuum solutions. Moreover, we observe that although Born-Infeld-Chern-Simons gravity admits a logarithmic solution, Born-Infeld gravity does not, though it has a limiting logarithmic solution as we approach the critical point.

  4. Brand Building of Born Globals

    OpenAIRE

    Cederäng, Jesper; Norberg, Markus

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this thesis was to increase the understanding of two early internationalizing firms (Born Globals) brand building efforts. By performing case studies on these companies we wished to discover similarities and differences in their marketing efforts. The companies that we studied were CTEK Sweden AB, a battery charger manufacturer and POC Sweden AB, who designs advanced protective gear for the alpine ski market. The theoretical framework was divided according to the four ...

  5. VectorBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — VectorBase is a Bioinformatics Resource Center for invertebrate vectors. It is one of four Bioinformatics Resource Centers funded by NIAID to provide web-based...

  6. Intersectoral approaches to dengue vector control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, B H

    1994-12-01

    Medical entomology in the context of urban vector control, especially for dengue, can be likened to the tail of a dog. Vertically structured Aedes aegypti campaigns such as run by Gorgas and Soper earlier this century relied on sufficient legislative backing for vector control to ensure that the tail was capable of wagging the dog. Under these conditions, especially where individual rights do not intrude, vertical programs will be successful. The global expansion of dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever and its vectors, plus growing trends towards urban/periurban living indicate a more serious scenario than at present. In 1987, the Brundtland Report: "Our Common Future" decried sectoralism in problem solving. Following the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992, the resulting Commission on Sustainable Development has promoted the intersectoral message of health, environment and development. The WHO/FAO/UNEP/UNCHS Panel of Experts on Environmental Management for Vector Control has promoted this for some time and is attempting to build multidisciplinary projects against urban vector borne disease. Adequate solid waste management and recycling will reduce numbers of water bearing containers infested with Aedes aegypti and provision of reliable piped water supplies will impact heavily on infested water storage containers. Both should be encouraged as viable control options. For much of the world, vertical programs have been reported as prohibitively expensive, and unacceptable intrusion on human rights and thus unsustainable in the modern economic context. However there are successful modern examples.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7844851

  7. Evaluation of an attenuated strain of Ehrlichia canis as a vaccine for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudoler, Nir; Baneth, Gad; Eyal, Osnat; van Straten, Michael; Harrus, Shimon

    2012-12-17

    Canine monocytic ehrlichiosis is an important tick-borne disease worldwide. No commercial vaccine for the disease is currently available and tick control is the main preventive measure against the disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of a multi-passaged attenuated strain of Ehrlichia canis to serve as a vaccine for canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, and to assess the use of azithromycin in the treatment of acute ehrlichiosis. Twelve beagle dogs were divided into 3 groups of 4 dogs. Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated (vaccinated) with an attenuated strain of E. canis (#611A) twice or once, respectively. The third group consisted of naïve dogs which served as controls. All 3 groups were challenged with a wild virulent strain of E. canis by administering infected dog-blood intravenously. Transient thrombocytopenia was the only hematological abnormality observed following inoculation of dogs with the attenuated strain. Challenge with the virulent strain resulted in severe disease in all 4 control dogs while only 3 of 8 vaccinated dogs presented mild transient fever. Furthermore, the mean blood rickettsial load was significantly higher in the control group (27-92-folds higher during days 14-19 post challenge with the wild the strain) as compared to the vaccinated dogs. The use of azithromycin was assessed as a therapeutic agent for the acute disease. Four days treatment resulted in further deterioration of the clinical condition of the dogs. Molecular comparison of 4 genes known to express immunoreactive proteins and virulence factors (p30, gp19, VirB4 and VirB9) between the attenuated strain and the challenge wild strain revealed no genetic differences between the strains. The results of this study indicate that the attenuated E. canis strain may serve as an effective and secure future vaccine for canine ehrlichiosis. PMID:23072894

  8. Coryneform bacteria associated with canine otitis externa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aalbæk, Bent; Bemis, David A.; Schjærff, Mette;

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the occurrence of coryneform bacteria in canine otitis externa. A combined case series and case-control study was carried out to improve the current knowledge on frequency and clinical significance of coryneform bacteria in samples from canine otitis externa. A total...... of 16 cases of otitis externa with involvement of coryneform bacteria were recorded at two referral veterinary hospitals in Denmark and the US, respectively. Coryneform bacteria were identified by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Corynebacterium auriscanis was the most common coryneform species (10...... cases). Small colony variants of this species were also observed. Other coryneform isolates were identified as Corynebacterium amycolatum (3 cases), Corynebacterium freneyi (2 cases) and an Arcanobacterium-like species (1 case). The coryneform bacteria were in all cases isolated together with other...

  9. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs

  10. Myoepithelial cells in canine mammary tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Céspedes, Raquel; Millán, Yolanda; Guil-Luna, Silvia; Reymundo, Carlos; Espinosa de Los Monteros, Antonio; Martín de Las Mulas, Juana

    2016-01-01

    Mammary tumours are the most common neoplasms of female dogs. Compared to mammary tumours of humans and cats, myoepithelial (ME) cell involvement is common in canine mammary tumours (CMT) of any subtype. Since ME cell involvement in CMT influences both histogenetic tumour classification and prognosis, correct identification of ME cells is important. This review describes immunohistochemical methods for identification of canine mammary ME cells used in vivo. In addition, phenotypic and genotypic methods to isolate ME cells for in vitro studies to analyse tumour-suppressor protein production and gene expression are discussed. The contribution of ME cells to both histogenetic classifications and the prognosis of CMT is compared with other species and the potential use of ME cells as a method to identify carcinoma in situ is discussed. PMID:26639832

  11. Characterization of pantropic canine coronavirus from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Luciane D; Barros, Iracema N; Budaszewski, Renata F; Weber, Matheus N; Mata, Helena; Antunes, Jéssica R; Boabaid, Fabiana M; Wouters, Angélica T B; Driemeier, David; Brandão, Paulo E; Canal, Cláudio W

    2014-12-01

    Characterization of canine coronavirus (CCoV) strains currently in circulation is essential for understanding viral evolution. The aim of this study was to determine the presence of pantropic CCoV type IIa in tissue samples from five puppies that died in Southern Brazil as a result of severe gastroenteritis. Reverse-transcriptase PCR was used to generate amplicons for sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of the CCoV-IIa strains indicated that they were similar to those found in other countries, suggesting a common ancestor of these Brazilian isolates. This is the first report of pantropic CCoV-II in puppies from Latin America and our findings highlight that CCoV should be included as a differential diagnosis when dogs present with clinical signs and lesions typically seen with canine parvovirus infection. PMID:25294661

  12. Antigenic typing Polish isolates of canine parvovirus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizak, B. [National Veterinary Research Institute, Pulawy (Poland); Plucienniczak, A. [Polish Academy ofd Sciences. Microbiology and Virology Center, Lodz (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    Polish strains of canine parvovirus isolated between 1982 and 1993 were examined to determine the extent to which the virus has evolved antigenically and genetically over eleven years. Two CPV isolates obtained in Warsaw in 1982 and Pulawy in 1993, were examined using monoclonal antibody typing, restriction analysis and sequencing VP-2 protein gene. Five other isolates from Warsaw and Pulawy were tested with the panel of monoclonal antibodies specific to CPV-2, CPV-2a and common for canine parvovirus, feline panleukopenia virus and milk enteritis virus. Results of the studies demonstrated that all isolates tested represented CPV-2a antigenic type. Rapid antigenic strain replacement recorded by Parrish and Senda in the U.S.A and Japan was not confirmed in Poland. (author). 30 refs, 2 tabs.

  13. Insulated Foamy Viral Vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Diana L; Collins, Casey P; Hocum, Jonah D; Leap, David J; Rae, Dustin T; Trobridge, Grant D

    2016-03-01

    Retroviral vector-mediated gene therapy is promising, but genotoxicity has limited its use in the clinic. Genotoxicity is highly dependent on the retroviral vector used, and foamy viral (FV) vectors appear relatively safe. However, internal promoters may still potentially activate nearby genes. We developed insulated FV vectors, using four previously described insulators: a version of the well-studied chicken hypersensitivity site 4 insulator (650cHS4), two synthetic CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-based insulators, and an insulator based on the CCAAT box-binding transcription factor/nuclear factor I (7xCTF/NF1). We directly compared these insulators for enhancer-blocking activity, effect on FV vector titer, and fidelity of transfer to both proviral long terminal repeats. The synthetic CTCF-based insulators had the strongest insulating activity, but reduced titers significantly. The 7xCTF/NF1 insulator did not reduce titers but had weak insulating activity. The 650cHS4-insulated FV vector was identified as the overall most promising vector. Uninsulated and 650cHS4-insulated FV vectors were both significantly less genotoxic than gammaretroviral vectors. Integration sites were evaluated in cord blood CD34(+) cells and the 650cHS4-insulated FV vector had fewer hotspots compared with an uninsulated FV vector. These data suggest that insulated FV vectors are promising for hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy. PMID:26715244

  14. Custodial vector model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Becciolini, Diego; Franzosi, Diogo Buarque; Foadi, Roshan;

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) phenomenology of heavy vector resonances with a $SU(2)_L\\times SU(2)_R$ spectral global symmetry. This symmetry partially protects the electroweak S-parameter from large contributions of the vector resonances. The resulting custodial vector model spectrum...

  15. Rhotrix Vector Spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminu, Abdulhadi

    2010-01-01

    By rhotrix we understand an object that lies in some way between (n x n)-dimensional matrices and (2n - 1) x (2n - 1)-dimensional matrices. Representation of vectors in rhotrices is different from the representation of vectors in matrices. A number of vector spaces in matrices and their properties are known. On the other hand, little seems to be…

  16. Of ticks, mice and men - shaping the ecology of tick-borne pathogens in Baden-Württemberg

    OpenAIRE

    Littwin, Nina-Vanessa

    2016-01-01

    Ticks cause more vector-borne diseases than any other blood-feeding arthropod in Europe; and their abundance is increasing. Influential US studies show that small mammals are key hosts regulating ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBP), serving as blood meal hosts and TBP reservoirs. The relevance of these studies to Europe is, however, unknown. Therefore, my aim was the determination of the relative influence of small mammal hosts and environmental factors on the dynamics of ticks and TBPs in BW.

  17. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying. Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the nutritional and physical quality of the product. Effects of extrusion on the feed quality for other animals than pets have been well recognized. Our studies investigated to what extent extrusion and/or drying of a c...

  18. Remote detection of explosives using trained canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Use of dogs is a search method which combines high probability of detection, speed of search, and low cost. It was concluded that the canine could be used for explosive screening of personnel, but that it was imperative that the dog be in a position remote from employees and employee traffic. A study was made of the design of booths and air flow for this purpose. Results of tests and conclusions are given and discussed

  19. Ultrasonographic characteristics of canine renal lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Angela J; Lara-Garcia, Ana; Benigni, Livia

    2014-01-01

    There is little published information on the ultrasonographic appearance of canine renal lymphoma. The purpose of this retrospective study was to provide additional information regarding the ultrasonographic characteristics of canine renal lymphoma, suggest ultrasonographic description criteria, and evaluate the role of fine-needle aspirate cytology in the diagnosis of this disease. The ultrasonographic features of confirmed renal lymphoma were reviewed in ten dogs. Pyelectasia was found in all dogs. Other ultrasonographic findings were loss of corticomedullary distinction (9/10 dogs), renomegaly (8/10 dogs), renal deformity (6/10 dogs), hypoechoic lesion(s) (6/10 dogs), and hyperechoic lesion(s) (2/10 dogs). Hypoechoic lesions were described as masses, nodules, and indistinct areas. In 30% of the cases (3/10 dogs) ultrasound revealed only minor abnormalities, including grade 1 pyelectasia, mild renomegaly, and focal loss of corticomedullary definition. Bilateral lesions were seen in nine dogs (90%). Renal fine-needle aspirates were performed in 9/10 dogs, yielding a diagnosis in seven on first attempt (78%). Two dogs had been given a provisional cytological diagnosis of round cell neoplasia; in one dog lymphoma was confirmed by second aspirate and by tissue core biopsy in the other. In 1/10 dogs, lymphoma was found at necropsy. Findings indicated that ultrasonographic signs of canine renal lymphoma may be subtle, canine renal lymphoma should be included in the differential diagnosis when the above ultrasonographic features are observed, and fine-needle aspirate cytology is a useful method for diagnosing this disease. PMID:24629062

  20. Cardiac troponin I levels in canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Hagman Ragnvi; Lagerstedt Anne-Sofie; Fransson Boel A; Bergström Annika; Häggström Jens

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Myocardial injury may contribute to unexpected deaths due to pyometra. To detect myocardial damage, measurement of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) is currently the most sensitive and specific method. The aims of the present study were to evaluate presence of myocardial damage in canine pyometra by analysis of cTnI, to explore whether myocardial injury was associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and to evaluate whether other clinical or laboratory parameter...

  1. Microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra

    OpenAIRE

    Coggan, Jennifer Anne; Melville, Priscilla Anne; de Oliveira, Clair Motos; Faustino, Marcelo; Moreno, Andréa Micke; Benites, Nilson Roberti

    2008-01-01

    As pyometra is recognized as one of the main causes of disease and death in the bitch the purposes of this study were to evaluate microbiological and histopathological aspects of canine pyometra and to research the virulence factors of the E. coli isolates identifying possible risks to human health. The microbiological isolation from the intrauterine contents of 100 dogs with pyometra was carried out and the virulence factors in the E. coli strains were identified using PCR method. This study...

  2. Recent developments in Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Seisdedos Benzal, Alejandro; Galán Rodríguez, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome (CCD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting aging dogs. CCD is an underdiagnosed disease that involves at least 14% of geriatric dogs, but apparently less than 2% of diseased dogs are diagnosed. There are several physiopathological similarities between Alzheimer disease (AD) and CCD, developing amyloid-β deposits in brain parenchyma and blood vessels, brain atrophy and neuronal loss. The clinical signs lead to behavioural changes. They are ...

  3. Successful Regional Delivery and Long-term Expression of a Dystrophin Gene in Canine Muscular Dystrophy: A Preclinical Model for Human Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zejing; Storb, Rainer; Halbert, Christine L.; Banks, Glen B.; Butts, Tiffany M.; Finn, Eric E.; Allen, James M.; Miller, A. Dusty; Jeffrey S. Chamberlain; Tapscott, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal, X-linked muscle disease caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector-mediated gene replacement strategies hold promise as a treatment. Studies in animal models and human trials suggested that immune responses to AAV capsid proteins and transgene products prevented efficient gene therapy. In this study, we used widespread intramuscular (i.m.) injection to deliver AAV6-canine micro-dystrophin (c-µdys) throughout a ...

  4. Canine epilepsy as a translational model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potschka, Heidrun; Fischer, Andrea; von Rüden, Eva-Lotta; Hülsmeyer, Velia; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang

    2013-04-01

    Dogs with spontaneous diseases can exhibit a striking similarity in etiology, clinical manifestation, and disease course when compared to human patients. Therefore, dogs are intensely discussed as a translational model of human disease. In particular, genetic studies in selected dog breeds serve as an excellent tool to identify epilepsy disease genes. In addition, canine epilepsy is discussed as a translational platform for drug testing. On one hand, epileptic dogs might serve as an interesting model by allowing the evaluation of drug efficacy and potency under clinical conditions with a focus on chronic seizures resistant to standard medication, preventive strategies, or status epilepticus. On the other hand, several limitations need to be considered including owner-based seizure monitoring, species differences in pharmacokinetics and drug interactions, as well as cost-intensiveness. The review gives an overview on the current state of knowledge regarding the etiology, clinical manifestation, pathology, and drug response of canine epilepsy, also pointing out the urgent need for further research on specific aspects. Moreover, the putative advantages, the disadvantages, and limitations of antiepileptic drug testing in canine epilepsy are critically discussed. PMID:23506100

  5. Canine kobuviruses in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Martino, Barbara; Di Felice, Elisabetta; Ceci, Chiara; Di Profio, Federica; Marsilio, Fulvio

    2013-09-27

    Canine kobuviruses (CaKVs) are newly recognized picornaviruses recently detected in dogs in the US. By molecular analysis of the whole genome, CaKV that appeared genetically closest to the murine kobuvirus (MuKV) and to the human Aichi virus (AiV), may be classified in the Kobuvirus genus as new genotype (CaKV type 1) within the species Aichivirus A. To date, there are no information on the epidemiology of these novel viruses in other continents. In this study, by screening a collection of 256 dog fecal samples either from diarrhoeic or asymptomatic animals, CaKV was identified in six specimens with an overall prevalence of 2.34% (6/256). All the positive dogs presented diarrhea and were found to be infected by CaKV alone or in mixed infections with canine coronavirus (CCoV) and/or canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2). By molecular analysis of the partial 3D gene, all the strains detected displayed a close relatedness with the CaKVs recently identified in the US. This study provides evidence that CaKVs circulate in diarrhoeic dogs in Italy and are not geographically restricted to the North American continent, where they were first signaled. PMID:23806200

  6. Increasing incidence of canine leptospirosis in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-07-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  7. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Major

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73 and rainfall (r2 0.39, >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25 or rainy days (r2 0.38. Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%, pulmonary (76.7%, hepatic (26.0%, and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%, leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%. Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3. Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species.

  8. Cytodiagnostics of canine lymphomas - possibilities and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapierzyński, R; Kliczkowska-Klarowicz, K; Jankowska, U; Jagielski, D

    2016-01-01

    Malignant lymphomas are one of the most common malignant tumours occurring in dogs. The basic method of lymphoma diagnosis in human, as well as in canine oncology is histopathology supported by immunohistochemistry. It was suggested that in veterinary medicine excisional biopsy of lymph node and histopathology should be considered only where the cytologic diagnosis is equivocal or needs to be confirmed. There are at least three basic reasons for which cytological examination ought to be accepted as a sufficient and reliable diagnostic method for lymphoma in dogs. Firstly, most dog owners consider the fine-needle biopsy as an acceptable non-harmful method of sample collection. Secondly, an increasing number of studies recommend cytology as an accurate test for diagnosing and subtyping canine lymphoma. Finally, the vast majority of canine lymphoma subtypes belong to 4-5 categories characterized by a typical cytological picture. Immunocytochemical staining of cytological smears gives new diagnostic possibilities, such as detection of markers better characterizing given growth or a potential goal for target therapy in individual cases (for example inhibitors of platelet-derived growth factor). PMID:27487521

  9. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Andrea; Schweighauser, Ariane; Francey, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes 90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of summer (r2 0.25) or rainy days (r2 0.38). Serovars Australis and Bratislava showed the highest seropositivity rates with 70.5% and 69.1%, respectively. Main clinical manifestations included renal (99.6%), pulmonary (76.7%), hepatic (26.0%), and hemorrhagic syndromes (18.2%), leading to a high mortality rate (43.3%). Similar to the human disease, liver involvement had the strongest association with negative outcome (OR 16.3). Based on these data, canine leptospirosis presents similar features and severity as the human infection for which it therefore can be considered a model. Its re-emergence in a temperate country with very high incidence rates in canines should thus be viewed as a warning and emphasize the need for increased awareness in other species. PMID:25032740

  10. Integrated vector management and sterile insect/genetic methods of vector control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Malaria and other vector-borne diseases are major contributors to the total global burden of disease and a significant impediment to socioeconomic development in resource poor countries. Although vector control has a proven record of saving lives by preventing, reducing or eliminating transmission, its benefits are far from being fully realised. To be effective, vector control requires collaboration between the health sector and various other sectors, particularly agriculture and development programmes, together with other public and private agencies and institutions. An Integrated Vector Management (IVM) approach emphasizes the considered and systematic application of a range of interventions, often in combination and synergistically. For insect vectors of human disease, the successful operational deployment of the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) and other genetic methods of control will almost certainly depend on their integration within an IVM framework. Indeed, it is likely that for many vectors, such methods can only be employed if vector population sizes are first reduced using other more conventional approaches, for example insecticides and/or environmental measures. The World Health Organization has recently commenced to roll out its global strategy for IVM. It is clear that IVM can only succeed if there is an interagency approach to vector control. This is therefore an opportune moment to consider how the IAEA initiative for area-wide control and the integration of SIT and related genetic methods fits with such an approach. The talk will identify key elements of an IVM strategy and consider how these help to maximise the benefits from implementation of SIT and related control technologies for vectors. The role of insectoral approaches, as exemplified by the systems-wide initiative on malaria in agriculture (SIMA) and the work of the International Water Management Institute (IWMI), will be considered in relation to the possible methods arising out

  11. Covariantised Vector Galileons

    CERN Document Server

    Hull, Matthew; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2015-01-01

    Vector galileons are ghost-free systems containing higher derivative interactions of vector fields. They break the vector gauge symmetry, and the dynamics of the longitudinal vector polarizations acquire a Galileon symmetry in an appropriate decoupling limit in Minkowski space. Using an ADM approach, we carefully reconsider the coupling with gravity of vector galileons, with the aim of studying the necessary conditions to avoid the propagation of ghosts. We develop arguments that put on a more solid footing the results previously obtained in the literature. Moreover, working in analogy with the scalar counterpart, we find indications for the existence of a `beyond Horndeski' theory involving vector degrees of freedom, that avoids the propagation of ghosts thanks to secondary constraints. In addition, we analyse a Higgs mechanism for generating vector galileons through spontaneous symmetry breaking, and we present its consistent covariantisation.

  12. Detection of Water Borne Protozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Enemark, Heidi L.; Kurtzhals, J.A.L.

    Protozoa of several species play a key role in water borne outbreaks of diarrhea worldwide. Identification of such protozoa depends mainly on parasite detection. However, water contains several hundreds of thousands of microorganisms belonging to different taxa. The exact identification of...... pathogenic protozoa relies on selective isolation and detection that is conducted by experienced technicians. Advanced techniques such as immuno-fluorescent dyes, polymerase chain reaction, and many other techniques, may be used for species-specific identification of pathogenic protozoa. Each diagnostic...... parasitic protozoa from other organisms in the aquatic environment....

  13. Born Under a Lucky Star?

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuyuki Hanaki; Alan Kirman; Matteo Marsili

    2009-01-01

    This paper suggests that people can learn to behave in a way which makes them unlucky or lucky. Learning from experience will lead them to make choices which may lead to "luckier" outcomes than others. By so doing they may reinforce the choices of those who find themselves with unlucky outcomes. In this situation, people have reasonably learned to behave as they do and their behaviour is consistent with their experience. The lucky ones were not "born under a lucky star" they learned to be lucky.

  14. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randau, Marcela; Carbone, Chris; Turvey, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae), representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition. PMID:23951334

  15. Canine evolution in sabretoothed carnivores: natural selection or sexual selection?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Randau

    Full Text Available The remarkable elongated upper canines of extinct sabretoothed carnivorous mammals have been the subject of considerable speculation on their adaptive function, but the absence of living analogues prevents any direct inference about their evolution. We analysed scaling relationships of the upper canines of 20 sabretoothed feliform carnivores (Nimravidae, Barbourofelidae, Machairodontinae, representing both dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, and 33 non-sabretoothed felids in relation to body size in order to characterize and identify the evolutionary processes driving their development, using the scaling relationships of carnassial teeth in both groups as a control. Carnassials display isometric allometry in both sabretooths and non-sabretooths, supporting their close relationship with meat-slicing, whereas the upper canines of both groups display positive allometry with body size. Whereas there is no statistical difference in allometry of upper canine height between dirk-toothed and scimitar-toothed sabretooth ecomorphs, the significantly stronger positive allometry of upper canine height shown by sabretooths as a whole compared to non-sabretooths reveals that different processes drove canine evolution in these groups. Although sabretoothed canines must still have been effective for prey capture and processing by hypercarnivorous predators, canine morphology in these extinct carnivores was likely to have been driven to a greater extent by sexual selection than in non-sabretooths. Scaling relationships therefore indicate the probable importance of sexual selection in the evolution of the hypertrophied sabretooth anterior dentition.

  16. Stroma and extracellular matrix proteins in canine tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukaratirwa, Sydney

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis, studies on temporal and spatial changes in stromal cells and extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules in canine gastrointestinal (GIT) tumours and canine transmissible venereal (CTVT) tumours are described. The mechanisms involved in the phenotypic transformation of fibroblasts to myofib

  17. First report of canine visceral leishmaniasis in Bulgaria

    OpenAIRE

    TSATCHEV, Illia; KYRIAZIS, Ioannis D.; BOUTSINI, Sofia; Karagouni, Evdokia; Dotsika, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    Seroepidemiological studies on canine leishmaniasis in Bulgaria, even in areas where human leishmaniasis has been detected, are controversial. This report describes 2 clinical cases of canine visceral leishmaniasis. The disease was confirmed by microscopical, serological, and molecular methods. It is, therefore, suggested that infected dogs could constitute the reservoir for human leishmaniasis in the country.

  18. Management of an Unusual Maxillary Canine: A Rare Entity

    OpenAIRE

    Jaya Nagendra Krishna Muppalla; Krishnamurthy Kavuda; Rajani Punna; Amulya Vanapatla

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians need to have intimate knowledge and thorough understanding of both pulp chamber and root canal anatomy. They should be aware of possibility of anatomical variations in the root canal system during endodontic treatment. Maxillary canines usually have single root and root canal but rarely may have single root with two root canals. This case describes a lengthier maxillary canine with two root canals.

  19. 9 CFR 113.317 - Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). 113.317... Virus Vaccines § 113.317 Parvovirus Vaccine (Canine). Parvovirus Vaccine recommended for use in dogs... for immunogenicity. The selected virus dose shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  20. p-wave Holographic Superconductors from Born-Infeld Black Holes

    CERN Document Server

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj

    2015-01-01

    We obtain (2+1) dimensional p-wave holographic superconductors from charged Born-Infeld black holes in the presence of massive charged vector fields in a bulk $AdS_4$ Einstein-Born-Infeld theory through the $AdS_4$-$CFT_3$ correspondence. Below a certain critical transition temperature the charged black hole develops vector hair that corresponds to charged vector condensate in the strongly coupled (2+1) dimensional boundary field theory that breaks both the $U(1)$ symmetry as well as the rotational invariance. The holographic free energy is computed for the boundary field theory which shows that the vector order parameter exhibits a rich phase structure involving zeroth order, first order, second order and retrograde phase transitions for different values of the backreaction and the Born-Infeld parameters. We numerically compute the ac conductivity for the p-wave superconducting phase of the strongly coupled (2+1) dimensional boundary field theory which also depends on the relative values of the parameters in...

  1. Index Sets and Vectorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  2. Apicotomy: surgical management of maxillary dilacerated or ankylosed canines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Eustáquio A; Araújo, Cristiana V; Tanaka, Orlando M

    2013-12-01

    This clinical article reports a technique, apicotomy, for managing dilacerated or ankylosed canines. The records of 3 patients successfully treated with apicotomy are presented. Orthodontists observe clinically significant incidences of impacted maxillary canines in their daily practices. Several procedures have been described to bring an ankylosed, impacted tooth into occlusion. Luxation is the most widely used solution, but there are risks involved with that approach, and the success rate is low. Surgical repositioning has also been used, but morbidity is high, and the aggressiveness of the procedure might also contraindicate it. Ankylosis might be related to the anatomic position of the canine's root apex and its adjacent anatomic structures. Apicotomy is a guided fracture of a canine root apex, followed by its orthodontic traction. It is a conservative surgical alternative for treating impacted canines with dilacerations or apical root ankylosis. PMID:24286914

  3. Use of hydrophilic extra-viral domain of canine distemper virus H protein for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay development

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Jeongmi; Yoo, Hyun-ah; Kim, Dae-Hee; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Choi, In-Soo; Lee, Joong-Bok

    2014-01-01

    Simple methods for measuring the levels of serum antibody against canine distemper virus (CDV) would assist in the effective vaccination of dogs. To develop an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) specific for CDV, we expressed hydrophilic extra-viral domain (HEVD) protein of the A75/17-CDV H gene in a pET 28a plasmid-based Escherichia (E.) coli vector system. Expression was confirmed by dot and Western blotting. We proposed that detection of E. coli-expressed H protein might be conforma...

  4. On harmonic vector fields

    OpenAIRE

    Konderak, Jerzy J.

    1992-01-01

    A tangent bundle to a Riemannian manifold carries various metrics induced by a Riemannian tensor. We consider harmonic vector fields with respect to some of these metrics . We give a simple proof that a vector field on a compact manifold is harmonic with respect to the Sasaki metric on TM if and only if it is parallel. We also consider the metrics II and I + II on a tangent bundle (cf. [YI]) and harmonic vector fields generated by them.

  5. Implicit Real Vector Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-François Degbomont

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the symbolic representation of non-convex real polyhedra, i.e., sets of real vectors satisfying arbitrary Boolean combinations of linear constraints. We develop an original data structure for representing such sets, based on an implicit and concise encoding of a known structure, the Real Vector Automaton. The resulting formalism provides a canonical representation of polyhedra, is closed under Boolean operators, and admits an efficient decision procedure for testing the membership of a vector.

  6. Selectively Balancing Unit Vectors

    OpenAIRE

    Blokhuis, Aart; Chen, Hao

    2016-01-01

    A set $U$ of unit vectors is selectively balancing if one can find two disjoint subsets $U^+$ and $U^-$, not both empty, such that the Euclidean distance between the sum of $U^+$ and the sum of $U^-$ is smaller than $1$. We prove that, to guarantee a selectively balancing set, $n \\log n$ unit vectors suffice for sufficiently large $n$, but $\\tfrac{1}{23} n \\log n$ unit vectors won't be enough for infinitely many $n$.

  7. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent Assay for detecting of antibody to canine distemper virus

    OpenAIRE

    Sudarisman

    2006-01-01

    Serum neutralisation test (SNT) has been established for evaluating canine distemper vaccination, but until now SNT was rarely used due to the need for continuous tissue culture facilities and requires 3 days to perform. For detecting antibody to canine distemper virus, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) is relatively simple and rapid seroassay. ELISA for canine immunoglobulin (Ig) G antibodies to canine distemper virus (CDV) was developed by using Onderstepoort strain of canine dis...

  8. The Serological and Virological Investigation of Canine Adenovirus Infection on the Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Oya Bulut; Orhan Yapici; Oguzhan Avci; Atilla Simsek; Kamil Atli; Irmak Dik; Sibel Yavru; Sibel Hasircioglu; Mehmet Kale; Nuri Mamak

    2013-01-01

    Two types of Canine Adenovirus (CAVs), Canine Adenovirus type 1 (CAV-1), the virus which causes infectious canine hepatitis, and Canine Adenovirus type 2 (CAV-2), which causes canine infectious laryngotracheitis, have been found in dogs. In this study, blood samples taken from 111 dogs, which were admitted to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Selcuk University, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, with clinical symptoms. Seventy-seven dogs were sampled from Isparta and Burdur dog shelters by random ...

  9. Mechanisms of cell death in canine parvovirus-infected cells provide intuitive insights to developing nanotools for medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna Nykky

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Jonna Nykky, Jenni E Tuusa, Sanna Kirjavainen, Matti Vuento, Leona GilbertNanoscience Center and Department of Biological and Environmental Science, University of Jyväskylä, FinlandAbstract: Viruses have great potential as nanotools in medicine for gene transfer, targeted gene delivery, and oncolytic cancer virotherapy. Here we have studied cell death mechanisms of canine parvovirus (CPV to increase the knowledge on the CPV life cycle in order to facilitate the development of better parvovirus vectors. Morphological studies of CPV-infected Norden laboratory feline kidney (NLFK cells and canine fibroma cells (A72 displayed characteristic apoptotic events. Apoptosis was further confirmed by activation of caspases and cellular DNA damage. However, results from annexin V-propidium iodide (PI labeling and membrane polarization assays indicated disruption of the plasma membrane uncommon to apoptosis. These results provide evidence that secondary necrosis followed apoptosis. In addition, two human cancer cell lines were found to be infected by CPV. This necrotic event over apoptotic cell death and infection in human cells provide insightful information when developing CPV as a nanotool for cancer treatments.Keywords: canine parvovirus, apoptosis, necrosis, nanoparticle, virotherapy

  10. Symbolic computer vector analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoutemyer, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    A MACSYMA program is described which performs symbolic vector algebra and vector calculus. The program can combine and simplify symbolic expressions including dot products and cross products, together with the gradient, divergence, curl, and Laplacian operators. The distribution of these operators over sums or products is under user control, as are various other expansions, including expansion into components in any specific orthogonal coordinate system. There is also a capability for deriving the scalar or vector potential of a vector field. Examples include derivation of the partial differential equations describing fluid flow and magnetohydrodynamics, for 12 different classic orthogonal curvilinear coordinate systems.

  11. Monopole vector spherical harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eigenfunctions of total angular momentum for a charged vector field interacting with a magnetic monopole are constructed and their properties studied. In general, these eigenfunctions can be obtained by applying vector operators to the monopole spherical harmonics in a manner similar to that often used for the construction of the ordinary vector spherical harmonics. This construction fails for the harmonics with the minimum allowed angular momentum. These latter form a set of vector fields with vanishing covariant curl and covariant divergence, whose number can be determined by an index theorem

  12. Monopole vector spherical harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Erick J

    1994-01-01

    Eigenfunctions of total angular momentum for a charged vector field interacting with a magnetic monopole are constructed and their properties studied. In general, these eigenfunctions can be obtained by applying vector operators to the monopole spherical harmonics in a manner similar to that often used for the construction of the ordinary vector spherical harmonics. This construction fails for the harmonics with the minimum allowed angular momentum. These latter form a set of vector fields with vanishing covariant curl and covariant divergence, whose number can be determined by an index theorem.

  13. Vectors and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pettofrezzo, Anthony J

    2005-01-01

    Geared toward undergraduate students, this text illustrates the use of vectors as a mathematical tool in plane synthetic geometry, plane and spherical trigonometry, and analytic geometry of two- and three-dimensional space. Its rigorous development includes a complete treatment of the algebra of vectors in the first two chapters.Among the text's outstanding features are numbered definitions and theorems in the development of vector algebra, which appear in italics for easy reference. Most of the theorems include proofs, and coordinate position vectors receive an in-depth treatment. Key concept

  14. Fine-scale distribution modeling of avian malaria vectors in north-central Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganser, Claudia; Gregory, Andrew J; McNew, Lance B; Hunt, Lyla A; Sandercock, Brett K; Wisely, Samantha M

    2016-06-01

    Infectious diseases increasingly play a role in the decline of wildlife populations. Vector-borne diseases, in particular, have been implicated in mass mortality events and localized population declines are threatening some species with extinction. Transmission patterns for vector-borne diseases are influenced by the spatial distribution of vectors and are therefore not uniform across the landscape. Avian malaria is a globally distributed vector-borne disease that has been shown to affect endemic bird populations of North America. We evaluated shared habitat use between avian malaria vectors, mosquitoes in the genus Culex and a native grassland bird, the Greater Prairie-Chicken (Tympanuchus cupido), by (1) modeling the distribution of Culex spp. occurrence across the Smoky Hills of north-central Kansas using detection data and habitat variables, (2) assessing the occurrence of these vectors at nests of female Greater Prairie-Chickens, and (3) evaluating if shared habitat use between vectors and hosts is correlated with malarial infection status of the Greater Prairie-Chicken. Our results indicate that Culex occurrence increased at nest locations compared to other available but unoccupied grassland habitats; however the shared habitat use between vectors and hosts did not result in an increased prevalence of malarial parasites in Greater Prairie-Chickens that occupied habitats with high vector occurrence. We developed a predictive map to illustrate the associations between Culex occurrence and infection status with malarial parasites in an obligate grassland bird that may be used to guide management decisions to limit the spread of vector-borne diseases. PMID:27232133

  15. Extraglandular and intraglandular vascularization of canine prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanov, Miroslav

    2004-03-01

    The literature on the vascularization of the canine prostate is reviewed and the clinical significance of prostate morphology is described. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), combined with improved corrosion casting methods, reveal new morphological details that promise better diagnostics and treatment but also require expansion of clinical nomenclature. A proposal is made for including two previously unnamed veins in Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria (NAV). The canine prostate has two lobes with independent vascularization. Each lobe is supplied through the left and right a. prostatica, respectively. The a. prostatica sprouts three small vessels (cranial, middle, and caudal) towards the prostate gland. A. prostatica is a small-size artery whose wall structure is similar to the arteries of the muscular type. V. prostatica is a small-size valved vein. The canine prostate has capsular, parenchymal, and urethral vascular zones. The surface vessels of the capsule are predominantly veins and the diameter of arterial vessels is larger than that of the veins. The trabecular vessels are of two types: direct and branched. The prostate parenchyma is supplied by branches of the trabecular vessels. The periacinary capillaries are fenestrated and form a net in a circular pattern. The processes of the myoepithelial cells embrace both the acins and the periacinar capillaries. In the prostate ductal system. there are spermatozoa. The prostatic part of the urethra is supplied by an independent branch of a. prostatica. The prostatic urethral part is drained by v. prostatica, the vein of the urethral bulb and the ventral prostate veins. M. urethralis begins as early as the urethral prostatic part. The greater part of the white muscle fibers in m. urethralis suggest an enhanced anaerobic metabolism. PMID:14988915

  16. Diagnosis and management of canine claw diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S

    1999-11-01

    The diagnostic workup for canine claw disease consists of a good history and complete clinical examination which may provide clues for a possible underlying disorder. In dogs with claw disease but no other clinical or historical signs, further recommended diagnostic procedures include cytological evaluation of impression smears or discharge from the claw fold, bacterial culture and sensitivity testing, biopsy of the claw matrix, and an elimination diet for 6 to 8 weeks. If no underlying disease can be identified, trial treatment with essential fatty acid supplementation, vitamin E, or a combination of doxycycline hydrochloride and niacinamide may be useful. In some patients, onychectomy of all claws may be considered. PMID:10563005

  17. Definition, Classification, and Pathophysiology of Canine Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Glaucoma is a common ocular condition in humans and dogs leading to optic nerve degeneration and irreversible blindness. Primary glaucoma is a group of spontaneous heterogeneous diseases. Multiple factors are involved in its pathogenesis and these factors vary across human ethnic groups and canine breeds, so the clinical phenotypes are numerous and their classification can be challenging and remain superficial. Aging and oxidative stress are major triggers for the manifestation of disease. Multiple, intertwined inflammatory and biochemical cascades eventually alter cellular and extracellular physiology in the optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and lead to vision loss. PMID:26456751

  18. Creation of distal canine limb lymphedema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.C.; Pribaz, J.J.; O' Brien, B.M.; Knight, K.R.; Morrison, W.A.

    1989-06-01

    A canine model of distal limb lymphedema was established in order to study the treatment of this condition by lymph node transfer. This model was more difficult to establish than whole-limb lymphedema. Significant edema was achieved by a combination of preoperative irradiation and circumferential removal of skin from the irradiated areas followed by removal of the contents of the popliteal fossa. Despite these measures, it was not possible to produce lymphedema in every case, possibly because of the presence of lymphaticovenous shunts and panvascular compensation mechanisms.

  19. Increasing Incidence of Canine Leptospirosis in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Major; Ariane Schweighauser; Thierry Francey

    2014-01-01

    A marked increase in canine leptospirosis was observed in Switzerland over 10 years with a peak incidence of 28.1 diagnosed cases/100,000 dogs/year in the most affected canton. With 95% affected dogs living at altitudes <800 m, the disease presented a seasonal pattern associated with temperature (r2 0.73) and rainfall (r2 0.39), >90% cases being diagnosed between May and October. The increasing yearly incidence however was only weakly correlated with climatic data including number of ...

  20. Functional characterization of canine interferon-lambda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wenhui; Xu, Lei; Ren, Liqian; Qu, Hongren; Li, Jing; Liang, Jingjing; Liu, Wenjun; Yang, Limin; Luo, Tingrong

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we provide the first comprehensive annotation of canine interferon-λ (CaIFN-λ, type III IFN). Phylogenetic analysis based on genomic sequences indicated that CaIFN-λ is located in the same branch with Swine IFN-λ1 (SwIFN-λ), Bat IFN-λ1 (BaIFN-λ), and human IFN-λ1 (HuIFN-λ1). CaIFN-λ was cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified to further investigate the biological activity in vitro. The recombinant CaIFN-λ (rCaIFN-λ) displayed potent antiviral activity on both homologous and heterologous animal cells in terms of inhibiting the replication of the New Jersey serotype of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), canine parvovirus, and influenza virus A/WSN/33 (H1N1), respectively. In addition, we also found that rCaIFN-λ exhibits a significant antiproliferative response against A72 canine tumor cells and MDCK cells in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CaIFN-λ activated the JAK-STAT signaling pathway. To evaluate the expression of CaIFN-λ induced by virus and the expression of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) induced by rCaIFN-λ in the MDCK cells, we measured the relative mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and ISGs (ISG15, Mx1, and 2'5'-OAS) by quantitative real-time PCR and found that the mRNA level of CaIFN-λ and the ISGs significantly increased after treating the MDCK cells with viruses and rCaIFN-λ protein, respectively. Finally, to evaluate the binding activity of rCaIFN-λ to its receptor, we expressed the extracellular domain of the canine IFN-λ receptor 1 (CaIFN-λR1-EC) and determined the binding activity via ELISA. Our results demonstrated that rCaIFN-λ bound tightly to recombinant CaIFN-λR1-EC (rCaIFN-λR1-EC). PMID:24950142

  1. Conceptualizing Innovation in Born Global Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zijdemans, Erik; Tanev, Stoyan

    2014-01-01

    This research provides insights from recent literature on innovativeness in the environment of born globals. This article will be relevant to researchers interested in born globals and their business environments and, more specifically, the role that innovation plays in their foundation and...... development. After discussing the internationalization of born globals as an innovation itself and the positive effect that innovation and internationalization have on each other, this article elaborates on the effect of innovativeness on the development of the company and, more in depth, the role of...... knowledge acquisition, networking capabilities and the lean startup approach in born global innovation. Finally, the article addresses the issue of quantifying and measuring innovativeness....

  2. Host stress hormones alter vector feeding preferences, success, and productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Stephanie S; Burkett-Cadena, Nathan; Burgan, Sarah C; Schrey, Aaron W; Hassan, Hassan K; Unnasch, Thomas R; Martin, Lynn B

    2016-08-17

    Stress hormones might represent a key link between individual-level infection outcome, population-level parasite transmission, and zoonotic disease risk. Although the effects of stress on immunity are well known, stress hormones could also affect host-vector interactions via modification of host behaviours or vector-feeding patterns and subsequent reproductive success. Here, we experimentally manipulated songbird stress hormones and examined subsequent feeding preferences, feeding success, and productivity of mosquito vectors in addition to defensive behaviours of hosts. Despite being more defensive, birds with elevated stress hormone concentrations were approximately twice as likely to be fed on by mosquitoes compared to control birds. Moreover, stress hormones altered the relationship between the timing of laying and clutch size in blood-fed mosquitoes. Our results suggest that host stress could affect the transmission dynamics of vector-borne parasites via multiple pathways. PMID:27512147

  3. Pulsars are Born as Magnetars

    CERN Document Server

    Heras, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    This paper suggests the idea that all neutron stars experienced at birth an ultrafast decay of their magnetic fields from their initial values to their current surface values. If the electromagnetic energy radiated during this field decay is converted into kinetic energy of the neutron star via the radiation reaction mechanism then the decay time is of the order of 10^(-4)s provided that the initial magnetic fields lie in the range of 10^(14)-10^(16)G. This means that all neutron stars are born with magnetic fields typical of magnetars. According to this model the neutron stars acquire their observed high space velocities during the birth ultrafast decay of their magnetic fields. The origin of this field decay points to magnetic instabilities occurring at the end of the birth process.

  4. Blood Borne Hepatitis at Hajj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harunor Rashid

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available An pilgrims estimated 2.5 million Muslims from all over the world are expected to converge in Mecca, Saudi Arabia by the end of this December for Hajj pilgrimage. Overcrowding during the largest annual mass gathering of such enormous proportions inevitably increases exposure to and risk of a variety of infections, some with pandemic potential (1. Adopting simple measures and offering appropriate immunisations to the pilgrims can prevent many of these infections. Knowledge of the nature and extent of infections however is important to implement the effective protective measures.As part of the rites of Hajj, men shave their heads although trimming the hair is also acceptable; women cut a lock of their hair. Communal use of razors or blades carries the risk of blood borne infections such as Hepatitis B, hepatitis C or HIV(2. To minimise this risk the Saudi authorities require all barbers looking after the pilgrims to be licensed but many pilgrims use the services of opportunistic makeshift barbers or help by shaving each other, often reusing their razors at the risk of transmitting blood borne virus infections. Unlike the respiratory infections that have a short incubation, infection with blood borne viruses takes much longer to manifest or indeed may remain undetected for many years while it may progress to chronic liver disease.Studies on barbers have shown a high prevalence of carriage and disease among barbers. Extrapolating from various studies Memish et al. (2003 estimated that about 10% of the barbers are carriers of hepatitis C and 4% carry hepatitis B, over a tenth of whom are in active carrier stage (3. Many pilgrims will come from areas of the world with a high endemicity of blood borne infections such as hepatitis B and/or C. To our knowledge there have not been any studies to establish the exact incidence of viral hepatitis among the pilgrims. There is an urgent need to understand the true epidemiology and to measure the burden of

  5. A recombinant canine distemper virus expressing a modified rabies virus glycoprotein induces immune responses in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhili; Wang, Jigui; Yuan, Daoli; Wang, Shuang; Sun, Jiazeng; Yi, Bao; Hou, Qiang; Mao, Yaping; Liu, Weiquan

    2015-06-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) and rabies virus (RV) are two important pathogens of the dog. CDV, a member of the morbillivirus genus, has shown promise as an expression vector. The glycoprotein from RV is a main contributor to protective immunity and capable of eliciting the production of virus-neutralizing antibodies. In this study, we recovered an attenuated strain of canine distemper virus and constructed a recombinant virus, rCDV-RV-G, expressing a modified (R333Q) rabies virus glycoprotein (RV-G) of RV Flury strain LEP. RV-G expression by the recombinant viruses was confirmed. Furthermore, G was proved to be incorporated into the surface of CDV particles. While replication of the recombinant virus was slightly reduced compared with the parental CDV, it stably expressed the RV-G over ten serial passages. Inoculation of mice induced specific neutralizing antibodies against both RV-G and CDV. Therefore, the rCDV-RV-G has the potential as a vaccine that may be used to control rabies virus infection in dogs and other animals. PMID:25764477

  6. Cryptic vector divergence masks vector-specific patterns of infection: an example from the marine cycle of Lyme borreliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Díaz, Elena; Doherty, Paul F; Duneau, David; McCoy, Karen D

    2010-07-01

    Vector organisms are implicated in the transmission of close to a third of all infectious diseases. In many cases, multiple vectors (species or populations) can participate in transmission but may contribute differently to disease ecology and evolution. The presence of cryptic vector populations can be particularly problematic as differences in infection can be difficult to evaluate and may lead to erroneous evolutionary and epidemiological inferences. Here, we combine site-occupancy modeling and molecular assays to evaluate patterns of infection in the marine cycle of Lyme borreliosis, involving colonial seabirds, the tick Ixodes uriae, and bacteria of the Borrelia burgdorferi s.l. complex. In this cycle, the tick vector consists of multiple, cryptic (phenotypically undistinguishable but genetically distinct) host races that are frequently found in sympatry. Our results show that bacterial detection varies strongly among tick races leading to vector-specific biases if raw counts are used to calculate Borrelia prevalence. These differences are largely explained by differences in infection intensity among tick races. After accounting for detection probabilities, we found that overall prevalence in this system is higher than previously suspected and that certain vector-host combinations likely contribute more than others to the local dynamics and large-scale dispersal of Borrelia spirochetes. These results highlight the importance of evaluating vector population structure and accounting for detection probability when trying to understand the evolutionary ecology of vector-borne diseases. PMID:25567933

  7. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  8. Cone beam computed tomography findings of impacted upper canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva Santos, Ludmilla Mota [Dept. of Endodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Paulista State University, Aracatuba(Brazil); Bastos, Luana Costa; Da Silva, Silvio Jose Albergaria; Campos, Paulo Sergio Flores [School of Dentistry, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador (Brazil); Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Oral Public Health, and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Neves, Frederico Sampaio [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, State University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil)

    2014-12-15

    To describe the features of impacted upper canines and their relationship with adjacent structures through three-dimensional cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Using the CBCT scans of 79 upper impacted canines, we evaluated the following parameters: gender, unilateral/bilateral occurrence, location, presence and degree of root resorption of adjacent teeth (mild, moderate, or severe), root dilaceration, dental follicle width, and presence of other associated local conditions. Most of the impacted canines were observed in females (56 cases), unilaterally (51 cases), and at a palatine location (53 cases). Root resorption in adjacent teeth and root dilaceration were observed in 55 and 47 impacted canines, respectively. In most of the cases, the width of the dental follicle of the canine was normal; it was abnormally wide in 20 cases. A statistically significant association was observed for all variables, except for root dilaceration (p=0.115) and the side of impaction (p=0.260). Root resorption of adjacent teeth was present in most cases of canine impaction, mostly affecting adjacent lateral incisors to a mild degree. A wide dental follicle of impacted canines was not associated with a higher incidence of external root resorption of adjacent teeth.

  9. [Arthropod-borne parasites of dogs, especially Leishmania, in the Kosovo and Albania].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazri, Tune; Duscher, Georg; Edelhofer, Renate; Bytyci, Burim; Gjino, Paskal; Joachim, Anja

    2008-01-01

    Currently no information is available regarding canine arthropod-borne parasites in Albania and the Kosovo, especially the zoonotic protozoan Leishmania infantum. Presumably autochtonous cases of human leishmaniosis have been described for some areas (Kosovo: Ferizaj, Gjakovo, Pec, Malisevo; Albania: Tirana, Durres, Elbasan, Shkodra, Vlore). In order to investigate the infection status of dogs of different origin sera from 272 animals (151 from Albania - Tirana, Kamza and Durres; 121 from the Kosovo - Gjakovo, Ferizaj and Prishtina) were obtained. Corresponding blood samples were available from 36 Albanian stray dogs. Antibody titres were determined by Indirect Immunofluorescence Test against L. infantum and Babesia canis. Antigens of Dirofilaria immitis were determined using the DiroCheck-Test. Blood samples were tested for L. infantum, B. canis, Hepatozoon canis, D. immitis and Dirofilaria repens by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Specific antibodies against Babesia were found in 7.3% of the animals, against Leishmania in 3.3% and 7.0% were positive for D. immitis antigen. DNA of Babesia, Leishmania or D. repens was detected in 11.1%, respectively. H. canis was found in 52.8% of the blood samples. D. immitis DNA was not detected. Since the Babesia- and Leishmania-PCR-positive animals were all serologically negative it can be assumed that infections were acquired only recently. All Leishmania-positive animals were stray dogs. These animals contribute to the maintenance of Leishmania transmission in endemic areas, and a control of the canine stray population should be considered. PMID:19066774

  10. Establishment of a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Sen; XIA Sui-sheng; TANG Li-gong; CHENG Jun; CHEN Zhi-shui; ZHENG Shan-gen

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To establish a sensitized canine model for kidney transplantation. Methods:12 male dogs were averagely grouped as donors and recipients. A small number of donor canine lymphocytes was infused into different anatomic locations of a paired canine recipient for each time and which was repeated weekly. Specific immune sensitization was monitored by means of Complement Dependent Cytotoxicity (CDC) and Mixed Lymphocyte Culture (MLC) test. When CDC test conversed to be positive and MLC test showed a significant proliferation of reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients, the right kidneys of the paired dogs were excised and transplanted to each other concurrently. Injury of renal allograft function was scheduled determined by ECT dynamic kidney photography and pathologic investigation. Results :CDC test usually conversed to be positive and reactive lymphocytes of canine recipients were also observed to be proliferated significantly in MLC test after 3 to 4 times of canine donor lymphocyte infusions. Renal allograft function deterioration occurred 4 d post-operatively in 4 of 6 canine recipients, in contrast to none in control dogs. Pathologic changes suggested antibody-mediated rejection (delayed) or acute rejection in 3 excised renal allograft of sensitized dogs. Seven days after operation, all sensitized dogs had lost graft function, pathologic changes of which showed that the renal allografts were seriously rejected. 2 of 3 dogs in control group were also acutely rejected. Conclusion:A convenient method by means of repeated stimulation of canine lymphocyte may induce specific immune sensitization in canine recipients. Renal allografts in sensitized dogs will be earlier rejected and result in a more deteriorated graft function.

  11. Cosmology with vector distortion

    CERN Document Server

    Jimenez, Jose Beltran

    2016-01-01

    We consider an extension of Weyl geometry with the most general connection linearly determined by a vector field. We discuss some of the geometrical properties within this framework and then we construct gravitational theories leading to an interesting class of vector-tensor theories with cosmological applications.

  12. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or...... meromorphic (allowing poles as singularities) functions. There already exists a well-developed theory for iterative holomorphic dynamical systems, and successful relations found between iteration theory and flows of vector fields have been one of the main motivations for the recent interest in holomorphic...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...

  13. Complex Polynomial Vector Fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Kealey

    The two branches of dynamical systems, continuous and discrete, correspond to the study of differential equations (vector fields) and iteration of mappings respectively. In holomorphic dynamics, the systems studied are restricted to those described by holomorphic (complex analytic) functions or...... vector fields. Since the class of complex polynomial vector fields in the plane is natural to consider, it is remarkable that its study has only begun very recently. There are numerous fundamental questions that are still open, both in the general classification of these vector fields, the decomposition...... of parameter spaces into structurally stable domains, and a description of the bifurcations. For this reason, the talk will focus on these questions for complex polynomial vector fields....

  14. Canine babesiosis treatment with three different medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torbica G.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine babesiosis is a relatively frequent disease in Croatia. Elevated body temperature, anemia and haemoglobinuria are the most common signs. Diagnosis is rapidly obtained by employing blood smears, as B. canis is present in the red blood cells of affected dogs. Treatment is favourable and without consequences. Blood work was performed initialy, prior to treatment, and on the 1st and the 7th day following treatment. Following history and examination of the dogs blood and urine samples were taken. After confirmation of B. canis in the red blood cells, alltogether 226 dogs were tretated. Out of them 80 were tretaed with Berenil® (diminazen aceturate, Hoechst, 72 were tretated with Imizol® (imidocarb dipropionate, Schering-Plough-Animal-Health and 74 with Oxopirvedin® (fenamidine dizetionate, Merial. Clinical findings, haematological analysis and urine analysis are given and statistically assesed. After tretment with Berenil®, symptoms of babesiosis regressed within 24 hours. Health improved more slowly in the group treated with Oxopirvedin® in comparioson with the group treated with Berenil®. Contrary to the above, Imizol® displayed the slowest regression of the disease and reinfestation with B. canis within 30 days was not noted. That is not the case if treatment was provided by Berenil® and Oxopirvedin®. In all 226 cases of canine babesiosis side effects were not noted, except topically inflammed tissue at the site of subcutaneous application.

  15. Seroepidemiology of Canine parvovirus infection in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrawati Sendow

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Canine parvovirus is an acute and fatal viral disease in dogs. A total of 209 local, cross breed and breed dogs sera from Kodya Bogor, Kabupaten Bogor, Sukabumi, and Jakarta, had been tested using Haemagglutination Inhibition Test (HI with pig red blood cells. A total of 64 breed and cross breed dogs from Sukabumi and Kodya Bogor, were used as a sentinel dogs to study the epidemiology of Canine parvovirus (CPV infection and its immunological responses caused by vaccination. The results indicated that 78% (95 breed and cross bred dogs and 59% (51 local dogs had antibody to CPV. Sentinel dogs results indicated that dogs had been vaccinated showed antibody response with the varied titre dependant upon prevaccination titre. Low prevaccinated titre gave better response than protective level titre. From 19 puppies observed, Maternal antibodi were still detected until 5 weeks old puppies. First vaccination given at less than 3 months old, should be boosted after 3 months old puppied. Antibodi titre produced by natural infection will keep untill 2 years. These data concluded that the dog condition and time of vaccination will affect the optimum antibody response.

  16. Canine neosporosis: perspectives on pathogenesis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva RC

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Rodrigo C Silva,1 Gustavo P Machado2 1Department of Pathobiology and Population Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Starkville, MS, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine and Surgery of Small Animals, Dr Munhoz Veterinary Hospital, Itápolis, Brazil Abstract: Canine neosporosis is a worldwide disease caused by the obligate intracellular parasite protozoan Neospora caninum, manifesting mainly neurological symptoms. N. caninum has a heteroxenous life cycle and affects a wide range of warm-blooded animals. The domestic and wild canids are the definitive host of the parasite. They shed oocysts after ingestion of tissue cysts from infected intermediate hosts (ovine, equine, bovine, canine, and many other species, containing bradyzoites, or oocyst-contaminated water and food. The presence of dogs in farms is considered a risk factor for production animals. A wide range of diagnostic methods are currently available, but the most used is serology, ie, indirect fluorescent antibody test specific to the antibody detection in blood serum samples. No vaccine is available, but control strategies should be focused on the vertical and horizontal transmission of the parasite, ie, avoid feeding dogs with raw or undercooked meat, and taking care with water for human and animal consumption. No medicines to control the transplacental transmission are available yet. Keywords: neosporosis, Neospora caninum, pathogenesis, management, dogs

  17. Alpha basic crystallin expression in canine mammary tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Guvenc, Tolga; Gulbahar, Mustafa Yavuz; YARIM, Murat; Kabak, Yonca Betil; Karayigit, Onder; Sozmen, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate prognostic and/or diagnostic factors of canine mammary tumors by immunohistochemically analyzing the expression of alpha basic crystallin (αB-c). For this, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks of 51 naturally-occurring canine mammary tumors (11 benign and 40 malignant) were used. Tissue from eight normal canine mammary glands were served as a control. Immunohistochemically, in the control mammary tissues, a few luminal epithelial cells were αB-c posit...

  18. Canine pluripotent stem cells: Are they ready for clinical applications?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean Harvey Betts

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The derivation of canine embryonic stem cells and generation of canine induced pluripotent stem cells are significant achievements that have unlocked the potential for developing novel cell-based disease models, drug discovery platforms and transplantation therapies in the dog. A progression from concept to cure in this clinically relevant companion animal will not only help our canine patients but also help advance human regenerative medicine. Nevertheless, many issues remain to be resolved before pluripotent cells can be used clinically in a safe and reproducible manner.

  19. Canine and feline cardiopulmonary parasitic nematodes in Europe: emerging and underestimated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conboy Gary

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs and cats cause parasitic diseases of central relevance in current veterinary practice. In the recent past the distribution of canine and feline heartworms and lungworms has increased in various geographical areas, including Europe. This is true especially for the metastrongyloids Aelurostrongylus abstrusus, Angiostrongylus vasorum and Crenosoma vulpis, the filarioid Dirofilaria immitis and the trichuroid Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila. The reasons of this emergence are little known but many drivers such as global warming, changes in vector epidemiology and movements in animal populations, may be taken into account. The purpose of this article is to review the knowledge of the most important heartworm and lungworm infections of dogs and cats in Europe. In particular recent advances in epidemiology, clinical and control are described and discussed.

  20. Herpesvirus-Mediated Delivery of a Genetically Encoded Fluorescent Ca2+ Sensor to Canine Cardiomyocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    János Prorok

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report the development and application of a pseudorabies virus-based system for delivery of troponeon, a fluorescent Ca2+ sensor to adult canine cardiomyocytes. The efficacy of transduction was assessed by calculating the ratio of fluorescently labelled and nonlabelled cells in cell culture. Interaction of the virus vector with electrophysiological properties of cardiomyocytes was evaluated by the analysis of transient outward current (Ito, kinetics of the intracellular Ca2+ transients, and cell shortening. Functionality of transferred troponeon was verified by FRET analysis. We demonstrated that the transfer efficiency of troponeon to cultured adult cardiac myocytes was virtually 100%. We showed that even after four days neither the amplitude nor the kinetics of the Ito current was significantly changed and no major shifts occurred in parameters of [Ca2+]i transients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that infection of cardiomyocytes with the virus did not affect the morphology, viability, and physiological attributes of cells.